Plusoffice architects / Collectif WRKSHP - Atelier Brussels The Productive Metropolis

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AND / OR / EITHER / NOR WORKING MODELS FOR THE PRODUCTIVE METROPOLIS

plusofficearchitects + WRKSHP collectif ATELIER BRUSSELS - THE PRODUCTIVE METROPOLIS 1


This report is the result of research by design conducted by plusoffice architects in collaboration with WRKSHP collectif. The research is part of the Atelier Brussels: the productive metropolis curated by Architecture Workroom Brussels and was presented at several urban meetings in Brussels and at the International Architecture Biennal Rotterdam 2016. The research was closely guided by the team of the bMa (Brussels Bouwmeester) and the administration of the Brussels Capital Region.

Design Research Team: Eva De Bruyn, Alessandra Bruno, Rémi Van Durme, Ward Verbakel, Nathan Ooms (plusoffice architects) Model Research Team: Joffrey About, Clément Le Roux, Guillaume Munné, Paul Sosson (WRKSHP collectif) + Ignacio Plaza De Giles

plusofficearchitects + WRKSHP collectif

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INTRODUCTION

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IN SEARCH OF TYPES

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AND/OR/EITHER/NOR

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DESIGN RESEARCH

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1. Masui

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2. vergotedok

51

3. Biestebroeck

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4. Biestebroeck quay

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BOOLEAN TYPES FOR THE PRODUCTIVE METROPOLIS

109

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MORE SPACE FOR PRODUCTION

The atelier Brussels productive metropolis calls on design research in order to develop concrete models and typologies for the future of productive spaces within the city. Unlike other metropolitan areas the Brussels region is characterised by the close proximity of housing fabric with both abandoned and active productive enterprises. That mixity is also translated into the legislation of the ZEMU, e.g. the 90% footprint rule that should be destined for productive space in new development. This document is based on a typological approach that is spatial before anything else. The spatial challenges need to be presented up front and will serve as entry points towards larger societal or economic questions. What interests us in that focus on physical form, is the potential to develop solutions that are derived from spatial operations. They do not depend solely on the specificity of a program or a singular actor (entrepreneur). In order to solve questions of city AND/OR economy, this study looks at spatial combinations at multiple scales that address the main concern: how to allow for more and

better productive spaces within the city, where mixity, proximity and intersection are undeniable characteristics of the given urban fabric. We interpret the research assignments as a search for game changers. How can we provide new models of productive spaces that cater to our contemporary productive economy? How can we inspire developers and spatial planning officials to go beyond traditional stacking of condominiums replacing industrial halls? How do we communicate this challenge to a wide audience of city dwellers AND local entrepreneurs? How do we engage with the vast numbers of experts and partners involved in the Atelier? What can we contribute to cultural platforms such as the IABR or Bozar exhibitions and urban meetings? Spatial models have the power to convey large amount of ideas in singular objects. We are convinced that this is a strong key to propel the research into the physical

realm. Therefore we incorporate the technique of model making in the core of our research trajectory. Plusoffice combines its design research skills with spatial research by a collective of architects/makers, WRKSHP collectif. Together several physical models were developed throughout the various stages of our research. We label them as Boolean models. Based on a very specific algebra of spatial combinations (union, subtraction, intersection...) these models experiment with both design and analytical research of existing phenomena. Throughout the research this boolean language acts as a formal language of type, space and objects. We feel it is quite necessary to complement the rather broad scope of the atelier’s discussion and expertise, the numerous initiatives and planning contexts in the four sites, and the complex coalition of discussion partners and presentation formats. We combine our architectural research with very physical production of models around which we centre the discussions, research and workshops.

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BUSINESSES BY NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES

ondernemingen

TURNOVER BY BUSINESS SIZE

Bouw van gebouwen

Vrije beroepen

Bewerken van textiel

120.000

Onderhoud en reparatie van auto's

Bouw vansector gebouwen Building

ondernemingen

Detailhandel

Vrije professions beroepen Liberal

120.000

Bewerken van textiel TotalOnderhoud turnover per en economic sector Detailhandel reparatie van auto's met for enterprises with totale omzet ondernemingen - 9 employees 00tot 9 medewerkers 10 tot - 4949 employees 10 medewerkers 50 tot - 249 employees 50 249 medewerkers 250 of + employees 250 meer medewerkers

100.000 ondernemingen

100.000

120.000

Bouw van gebouwen

Vrije beroepen

Bewerken van textiel

80.000

80.000

Onderhoud en Maintenance of cars reparatie van auto's

100.000

60.000

60.000

80.000

40.000 60.000

40.000

20.000 40.000

20.000

Detailhandel Retail Horeca Horeca Vrije beroepen en wetenschappelijke en Vrije beroepen en wetenschappelijke en technische activiteiten totale ondernemingen met technische activiteiten omzetHoreca Informatie en communicatie 0 tot 9 medewerkers Vrije beroepen en wetenschappelijke en Informatie en communicatie 10 tot 49 medewerkers Administratieve enactiviteiten ondersteunende technische Administratieve en ondersteunende 50 tot 249 medewerkers diensten Informatie en communicatie 250 of meer medewerkers diensten Industrie Administratieve en ondersteunende Industrie Winning van delfstoffen diensten Winning van delfstoffen Productie en distributie van elektriciteit, Industrie Horeca Productie en distributiegas, vanstoom elektriciteit, en gekoelde lucht Vrije beroepen en wetenschappelijke en Winning van delfstoffen gas, stoom en gekoelde lucht Distributie van water; afvalen activiteiten Productie technische en distributie van elektriciteit, Distributie van water; afvalen afvalwaterbeheerInformatie en sanering en communicatie gas, stoom en gekoelde lucht afvalwaterbeheer en sanering Bouwnijverheid Administratieve en ondersteunende Distributie van water; afval- en Bouwnijverheid diensten Groothandel afvalwaterbeheer en sanering Groothandel Industrie Detailhandel Bouwnijverheid Detailhandel Winningvan vanauto’s delfstoffen HandelGroothandel in en reparatie en Handel in en reparatie motorfietsen van auto’s en Productie en distributie van elektriciteit, Detailhandel gas, stoom en gekoelde lucht motorfietsen Vervoer en opslag Handel in en reparatie van auto’s en Distributie van water; afval- en Vervoer en opslag Exploitatie van en handel in onroerend motorfietsen afvalwaterbeheer en sanering goed Exploitatie van en handel in onroerend Vervoer enBouwnijverheid opslag goed ExploitatieGroothandel van en handel in onroerend Detailhandel goed

0 20.000 10 tot 19

0 tot 9

0 tot 9

0

10 tot 19 0 tot 9

20 tot 49

20 tot 49

50 tot 249

10 tot 19

20 tot 49

50 tot 249

250 of meer

250 of meer

werknemers

Handel in en reparatie van auto’s en motorfietsen Vervoer en opslag Exploitatie van en handel in onroerend goed

werknemers

50 tot 249

250 of meer

werknemers

In Belgium large numbers of small businesses make up for 30-60% of the turnover in most economical sectors. (Graphics by plusoffice. Data source: FOD Economie,0 KMO, Middenstand en Energie, 2012) 0 tot 9

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10 tot 19

20 tot 49

50 tot 249

250 of meer

werknemers

totale

0 to 10 t 50 t 250


MORE ECONOMY

The discourse on economy (in the city) easily leads towards generalisations. The complex nature of a rather diverse multitude of actors happens to call for abstraction and the translation into economic models. Macro-economical challenges are often approached by consulting large corporations and representative professional unions. Based on our previous research we have noted that the field of economical players is equally populated by large players as it is by large groups of small players, in which networks, personal initiatives and local knowledge are key factors. We deliberately want to understand the role of various forms and scales of economic initiatives. The variety of sizes, both spatial and organisational, is crucial to the viability of resilient economic networks. The focus of our research will be guided by the size classifications and how well they are represented and provided for throughout the city. The urban economy does include smaller and sometimes even messy productive sectors. We have noted that on average the majority of the employment (up to 50%) is provided by the smallest

category of SME (small and medium enterprises) with up to 10 employees. Sectors that traditionally consist out of multiple smaller enterprises - such as contractors in the building sector – generate up to 40% of the yearly turnover in micro-enterprises. In repair and secondhand-car economy this runs up to 55%. Even in retail the micro-enterprises stand for an equal employment rate and turnover as the larger retail chains, which is counterintuitive.

that is little present in (future) Brussels: micro-sized spaces for ‘dirty’ work (not for desk work) on the one hand, larger spaces that still fit in urban blocks on the other hand.

In the design research, the size and qualities of available spaces plays an important role. We do not wish to propose specific activities or even companies that should be located in the designed spaces. That way, the success of the infrastructure would be too dependent on the collaboration of a certain actor. What we are more interested in is what kind of spaces should be added to the city: what size, qualities, location, constraints, etc. A scan of the existing infrastructure as well as the newly built productive spaces reveals the type of businesses 7


50.000 m 2 Available Abandoned Project Other

Vacant workshops and warehouses can mainly be found in inner blocks throughout the city, with a higher concentration in the canal districts. 50.000 m 2 (Map by plusoffice, based on data of UrbIS and Citydev, 2011) Available

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Abandoned Project Other


INDUSTRY WITHIN THE CITY OR CITY WITHIN INDUSTRY?

Throughout Belgium industrial estates are designated as the exclusive space for industrial and productive activities. One could say that more often than not these industrial estates are populated with enterprises that could easily fit elsewhere in the residential fabric. Prestigious infrastructure and top locations are eaten by businesses themselves. This is another threat we have identified next to the phenomenon of redevelopment of industrial locations into housing estates (cfr. ‘the city is eating itself’, Marc Brearley). On top of that, legislation is often structured in such a way that it pushes most micro-businesses out of residential areas into business parks, where infrastructure is oversized and distances to customers and supply networks are often increased. The situation in Brussels is slightly different and requires nuance. The Brussels context offers other opportunities. Most active industrial zones are closely knit into the urban fabric and many of them are part of the canal zone, that runs through the core of the metropolitan region. Brussels still holds a strong productive apparatus right

in the heart of it’s urban fabric. That mixity is a specific quality that we should use to our advantage. Repair economies and building contractors are traditionally dispersed throughout the Brussels metropolitan fabric, and often recruit from low skilled population groups. They operate in complex networks (e.g. the car repair and export businesses in Heyvaert district that operate on a world wide scale, and often mix close family based trust networks with international partnerships). The proximity of such jobs within the city has several advantages: availability of both a customer and recruit base, limited transport distances, educational value of the visibility of such economic sectors, chances for circular loops and energy efficiency, walk-to-work/ work-to-work/work-to-client potential,... Special attention should be given to the Brussels approach for the protection of productive activities within the city, which is clearly demonstrated in the ZEMU regulation.

The mixing of several function within the city is a noble goal, and in that sense the legislation is quite innovative. One could read it as an attempt to regulate productive industries within the city. In reality the ZEMU productive spaces risk to be no different from any other office space, or basic industrial halls that fail to either address specific needs or offer adequate environments to entrepreneurs in general. We need to move from an urban economy driven by service sector to a real knowledge economy. Instead of focussing on offices and the commuters that work in Brussels’ service economy (50% commutes from Flanders-Wallonia), we follow the mantra that innovation lies within the collaboration of hands and brains. Craftmanship needs new coalitions, new typologies and strong images that can populate our urban fabric and the zones destined to remain productive or at least mixed productive.

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Spatial implementation of a chain linked production facility serving as a model for vertical stacking. Potentially an example for linking smaller businesses in new typologies. (Milk factory Toni-Molkerei Zurich, diagram of system processes, 1974-76)

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WORKING ON TYPOLOGY

The way developers deal with the obligatory productive spaces is very similar to the 19th century model: housing around the perimeter of the block, with production or industry inside. This raises problems of low quality for both the dwelling (no gardens, outdoor spaces or green inner blocks) and the workplaces (no means of expanding, difficulties in access for deliveries, parking needs,...). We need to understand the logics of these developers, the financial models behind these decisions, but nevertheless provide alternatives that are radically different. This discussion is simultaneously concrete and practical as it is abstract and economical. One of the main challenges we see is the need to also address sustainability agendas, innovation, energy efficiency, circular economies and so on. Our research will need to find combinations of larger and smaller entities that can relate to each other in terms of closed loops, circular systems and systemic infrastructures. Given the density of the territory in which we operate

there is however a strong potential in understanding urban metabolisms. In that sense we believe that the new typologies that we are looking for can serve (in some cases) as pilot projects that explore the potential of systemic coalitions and therefore surmounts the local ambition. The efficiency is not only a matter of infrastructure, energy and technology. A large part of this discussion is related to social, educational and knowledge domains. We can imagine a renewed interest in combining research and knowledge institutions with productive entities and social initiatives. The wealth of opportunities is well described by Nina Rappaport when discussing the need for vertical urban factories as “Urban Industrial Symbiosis�. She describes how the importance of connecting existing manufacturing (for example the garment industry in New York) is making maximum use of available knowledge and goods, and that is why factories came to the city in the first place. (The vertical Urban factory, Nina Rappaport)

Local government and development agencies play an important role in this agenda. We could ask ourselves why we do invest in infrastructure that helps commuters get to our cities but fail in providing infrastructures for local businesses to remain operational within our cities, providing local jobs, goods and services. That discussion has recently became crucial when discussing about the vast renovation budgets needed for the renovation of the tunnels throughout Brussels. We might be able to come up with a few potential models in which the availability of work and production can be an evident part of our modus operandi when redeveloping cities.

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copyright Bas Bogaerts in opdracht van Architecture Workroom Brussels, in het kader van Atelier Brussels 12


EMBRACE ECONOMY, EMBRACE COMMUNITY

The challenge for an increasing mixity between housing and production, can be approached in two different directions. On the one hand we can discuss how residential uses can be merged within productive areas (the challenge in several of the development proposals presented by the local authorities to the research teams). How can one provide qualitative surroundings for either program, not jeopardising their future potential? But on the other hand we also see the need to secure the right to have productive spaces or access to employment (in a more general way) within the predominant urban residential zones.

We are interested in testing ideas that do not favour either housing or enterprises. This hybrid model includes a high degree of flexibility, not just starting from a naĂŻve trust in the beneficial qualities of mixing. We want to reflect explicitly on the necessity of mixing, both as a spatial operation, but just as well as a societal goal, in which fundamental relations are created between the partners involved, taking economic realities into account and adapted to contemporary challenges in the spatial context of Brussels.

If productiveness is to become an integral part of our residential districts, we need to further develop the identity of entrepreneurship within the city. The visibility and the close ties between different users, functions and so on. The goal is an interdependency model in which the social, economical and programmatic mixity evolves in a conditio sine qua non as the starting point for successful spatial development.

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WORKING MODELS

The research by design was conducted around the production of several models that vary in type, scale and goal. These models were a crucial part of the discussions that guided our research. The physical representation of ideas and the spatial tests form the entry point for conversations with varied groups of stakeholders, designers and administrators. A colour code served in identifying spatial combinations: white and light grey for productive activities, dark grey for housing and other urban program and green for specific elements that define the interrelation between other programs. There were 5 distinct types of working models used during the research. 1. Boolean observation models (1/200 - 1/1000) At the start the models were used to develop a boolean formal research language and understand existing phenomena of how productive spaces coexist within given urban fabrics. A set of small models of existing situations reveals the very precise relation between

different programs and typological elements highlighted by the green coding. For example, the simple addition of a transversal passage intersecting a building allows for the use of both front and back house by different entities. The superstructure with high ceilings and heavy load bearing floors forms a union of different functions, sharing the infrastructures that intersect the building. These seemingly simple operations are essential in making both city and economy operational.

3. Projective models (1/333) For the IABR exhibition, qualities and specific relations studied on site and by boolean models were tested on two of the design cases: the existing mixed fabric of Masui and the new mixed development in Biestebroeck. Using the same colour language, the models focus on the elements that are shared between programs. They introduce some ideas and new typologies that are later researched by design and by model.

2. Boolean combination models (1/200 - 1/500) Later on, the models were used to develop new combinations and question existing relationships by inverting them, juxtaposing unfamiliar elements or exclude specific elements in order to be able to share them at other scales. These models introduce a set of spatial elements on the themes of infrastructure, structure and boundaries. Only the green colour is used, as the models form a synthesis of observed interrelations.

4. Typological elements (1/200) In a later phase of the design research, variations of new typologies were tested in model, isolated from their specific context. 5. Final models (1/250) In the final models, new typological elements are combined and placed within the site context. The models cover a section of the design case that focuses on where city (black) and economy (white) meet.

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IN SEARCH OF TYPES

in search of typology through multitude: reference images by Bernd & Hilla Becher

Moving beyond the large players who are generally well heard and going beyond a merely spatial problemsolving exercise requires specificity. We are not making masterplans, we are researching by design for specific conditions. This is a rather important part of our approach, since we cannot engage in all of the studies that have been made for the given sites. It seems that most of the answers and researched options are on the 16

table, as far as the urban qualities and mobility solutions go. Our research chooses to use the different sites as laboratories that offer conditions, examples and specific stakeholders and plots that can be used as testing grounds to understand the potential of some of the exemplary types developed throughout the research. This is where we introduce the language of Boolean Models. It serves as a focal method and helps to bring

spatial conditions into the research discussion. The objective is to study spatial phenomena of specific locations in the study areas in a rigorous manner without presumptions. In this chapter we test the boolean language to structure site analysis and identify recurring phenomena.


UNION The merging of different programs into a whole is a recurrent strategy in productive occupancy. The union takes form in the sharing of envelope, territory or address, but just as well by fencing off the conglomerate or occupying spaces with unintended usage.

Conglomerate of port-related businesses, united by the fence.

Residential infrastructure used for business as well as private storage

Public space = productive space. Metal workshop, Phalt, Zurich

internal street giving access to several workshops and storage spaces in the building it intersects

car wash connecting one street to the next

Shared spaces (parking, garden, sports, cafeteria,...) as an intersection between offices and housing Christ & Gantenbein, Basel

INTERSECT When different programs interact by sharing spaces, passages or activities, the intersection is the strategy that allows the proximity to function. It generates specific typological solutions for linkage, recognizable in former carriageways, internal streets and access lanes.

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EXCLUDE Some programs negotiate their coexistence through an exclusion operation, in which zones are excluded as intermediate spaces - often “neutral� and leftover patches belonging to neither one nor the other.

Leftover patches as a result of logistic requirements

The canal as an intermediate space between recreational, residential and productive

The old Senne river as excluded zone at the backside of warehouses

business zone with leftover residential program

Residential streets containing traces of productive program

Project for apartments, containing ateliers and workspaces of which the use, rent,... is managed by the inhabitants. Bar architects, Berlin

CONTAIN Several buildings, public spaces and building blocks can contain seeds of other program, both intentional or by accident, and establish new confrontations between those programs. The containment can establish gradually over time, or be planned and controlled.

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JUXTAPOSE A juxtaposition of extreme varieties - in scale, program and use - often create exciting and meaningful identities for neighbourhoods and even grant them the right of belonging.

Juxtaposition of housing tower, school, youth centre and building materials business

Businesses and residents along the canal

Absence of connection between productive program and public space

Office space lifted over street

Industrial storage in multiple levels

The lifted road at TIR allows for identical logistic programs at several levels.

LIFT The act of lifting renders typical notions of access, distribution, zoning,... obsolete or at least challenges them, already hinting at potential innovative typologies.

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AND/OR/EITHER/NOR

Landscape of my personal Paul Caesar, Landscape of my personal belongings belongings, Paul Casaer

The boolean language also serves as a framework for structuring relevant reference projects. We created a matrix - or landscape - of models, fieldwork observations and references to shift the focus in these materials towards the precise relation between programs. Firstly, references that combine production and housing, or production and public space, were questioned and 20

analysed to determine how this combination is spatially realised. Secondly, recurring situations within the case study sites were analysed in models. A different colour marks the boolean element that acts between the other programs. Finally, a set of spatial elements that appeared to be crucial in the boolean operations was explored through

model making. The models were used to develop new combinations and question existing relationships by inverting them, juxtaposing unfamiliar elements or excluding specific elements. These projective models have informed the series of case studies.


PRODUCTION

UNION

INTERSECT

EXCLUDE

CONTAIN

JUXTAPOSE

PUBLIC PROGRAM

STREET

HOUSING

PRODUCTION

+

Collective building for local businesses Gewerbehof Munchen, Bogevischs architekten

Hub for building materials Vergotedok Brussels, Tetra

Infrastructure Fiat Lingotto, Turin

Subdivided warehouse Wolkammerij, Antwerp

Cluster of independent car companies Autoworld, Antwerp

living and working space are interchangeable Kรถln housing/workshops, brandlhuber & kniess

Shared spaces for offices and housing Basel, Christ & Gantenbein

green buffer between industry and housing Hoboken, Antwerp

Ateliers managed and by house owners group Berlin, BAR architects

Apartment building and warehouse juxtaposed Zurich, E2A

Workshop in public space Zurich metal workshop, Phalt

Interior street Tour & Taxis Brussels

Facade as buffer between production and street Factory on Vitra Campus, SANAA

Public space containing seeds of productivity Mobile entrepreneur, Antwerp

Public park adjacent to harbour activities Vergotedok Brussels

Coffee production and sale Blue bottle Tokyo

Vocational training center, Durisch nolli

Public trajectory through recycling Plant Abbalos Herrerros, Madrid

Tourism and harbour activities juxtaposed Zeebrugge Container Terminal

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1. BOOLEAN OBSERVATION MODELS

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THE PERIMETER BLOCK (1/1000)

THE SUPERSTRUCTURE (1/500)

The perimeter block represents a very common relationship between housing and productive activities. At an architectural scale, the different programs are merely juxtaposed, while at the urban scale the totality of the perimeter block represents a union of residential and economical program, whereby both have an equal right to be present in the area.

The superstructure is considered valuable both because of its architectural qualities and its potential to absorb different programs. The multi-storey warehouse represents the union of activities achieved by a single envelope and a shared infrastructures that intersect the building.


THE INTERSECTION (1/200)

THE CONGLOMERATE (1/1000)

LIFT(1/500)

The intersected house model studies the relationship between individual housing and smaller economic activities on the scale of the building. The shared entrance serves as a distribution piece. It is precisely this intersection between production and housing that makes both activities operational, house and backhouse.

The conglomerate represents a juxtaposition of individual entities with a repetition of similar elements: the storage, the sales hall, the parking, the fence, the logistic space.

The office beam lifted above the logistic circulation creates a logistic zone perpendicular to the street, that serves both halls of the business. This is an upscaled version of logistic courtyard.

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2. BOOLEAN PROJECTION MODELS

INFRASTRUCTURE (1/500)

STRUCTURE (1/200)

BOUNDARIES (1/500)

Simulation of how the required infrastructure for circulation, logistics, outdoor space,... can generate new types

Research on the relation between structure and programs/types.

Research on elements of “union”: the boundary wall, the facade, the roof, the shared platform.

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25


DESIGN RESEARCH

Vergote dock Masui

Biestebroek quay

Biestebroek

In the two areas that were assigned to us for the design research, we’ve chosen 4 sites that address the questions of • mixed fabric (existing mixed fabric in Masui and future mixed fabric in Biestebroeck) and • the integration of industrial infrastructure where city meets canal, north and south of the city center. 26


1. MASUI

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CONTEXT

Masui is exemplary for the Brussels condition of 19th century urbanism that traditionally incorporated large amounts of productive spaces, but is in dire need of a reinvention to counteract upon condominium redevelopment, luxury loft reconversions and fairly incompatible economies (from the standpoint of residential quality of life). Surrounded by large companies along the canal, an industrial area in the north and office towers in the south, the smaller scaled urban tissue of the Masui neighbourhood forms a stark contrast with its surroundings. Interestingly, this reflects a sort of micro-zoning we don’t often see so close to the city center. Unfortunately, the potential of this proximity is little used in Masui. Neighbouring Sibelga employs thousand people, yet has little effect on the Masui community, although there is the will to change this in the future. There is a potential in a smarter juxtaposition, based on interdependency and exchange, maybe in terms of education and workplace learning (internships) to start with.

A social transit district with an unemployed and low educated middle age generation

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Projecting the boolean operation of the intersection on the scale of the city, we recognise Masui as an intersection point or hub between productive activities. The area serves as informal hub for everything related to the activities on the nearby quays. Bricoleurs find their way to the streets of Masui, while the canal serves the larger actors in the building sector. Its plumbing shops, heating specialists, tile sellers and do-it-yourself businesses form the


logistic hub for repairing the city and a transit zone for materials. A secondary network revolves around food. With the nearby Mabru wholesale market, Masui functions as the second link in the chain. Local food businesses in Masui form networks on several scales. Wholesaler Oz food sells to local Masui snack shops, as well as other areas in Brussels and all over Belgium. It is through these businesses that Brussels and Masui share a common ground and the area creates a form of openness towards the city. The intersection between local benefits and citywide networks forms an opportunity for further development of Masui and its stronger embedding in the overall urban economy. And of course there is the Zenne trajectory that intersects the neighbourhood, and passes by most of the backsides of the major productive and often abandoned buildings, sheds and warehouses. Its redevelopment as an urban park is an opportunity to establish qualitative relationships with new housing AND productive reuse of some of the more valuable structures.

The Senne trajectory is now a collector of less desirable elements.

Exceptional businesses with regionwide customers

The Senne park in execution, directed towards recreation and green space.

Exceptional spaces in former warehouses and factories

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NEIGHBOURHOOD PROFILE

This area is characterised by a large population that is predominantly lowly educated and has much higher unemployment rates then the rest of the Brussels Capital Region. Only 4 out of 10 adults are employed. For women, this is only 3 out of 10. There is a need for jobs, but more precisely a need for jobs other than office work, since only 1 out of 3 unemployed has a profile that matches with white collar jobs. 93% of unemployed don’t have a degree higher education. There is a peak in the population in the age group 3545, predominantly men. In combination with the high unemployment rate, there seems to be a discrepancy with specific job guidance and training programs that target other age groups.

In order to define the identity of the neighbourhood we also looked at migration flows within the district. Data from the neighbourhood monitor points out that Masui serves as a social transit district. Most immigrants that come to Masui originate from abroad and move out to other parts of the Brussels Region as soon as they have the means. 75,91 % of the inhabitants moved between 2001-2006. Especially in the age group between 18 and 29, there are more arrivals than departures, while older inhabitants tend to move out.

the neighbourhood. If few residents have a long term engagement with the district, other actors could take up this role. The new permanent hub of Zinneke, local businesses and important educational institutions are developing strong physical and mental connections with the district and could be seen as important actors in the further strengthening of the quarter.

This is also reflected in the low rates of home owner occupancy of buildings which is 28% as compared to a regional average of 41%. The district holds very short term connections with its residents. This raises the question of who actually forms the more permanent connection with

data source: wijkmonitoring.brussels, for district Noordwijk, graphics: plusoffice

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Wallonia

employment employment Brussels BrusselsRegion, Region,2012 2012

employment employment Noordwijk, Noordwijk,2012 2012

2/3 2/3blue bluecollar? collar? entrepreneurs? entrepreneurs?

1/3 1/3white white collar collarproďŹ les proďŹ les

employed employed

unemployed unemployed

employed employed

active activepopulation population

unemployed unemployed

active activepopulation population

built builtfabric fabric

migration average building average average building averagebuilding building 2001 - 2006 block Noordwijk block block Noordwijk blockRegion Region

3232%% residential residential

abroad Brussels region

18 %

4%

5353%%built built

17 %

Flanders

2,5 %

Wallonia

1,5 %

Noordwijk

2626%%built built

23 % 6%

3%

31

employment

employment


HIGH DENSITY, STRONG MIXITY

Masui is known for its high density and extreme mixity. Groundfloors often serve as commercial or productive space, innerblock warehouses house all types of businesses and backyards are used for outdoor storage. This places a high pressure on the liveability and is a focus in many urban projects. The “duurzame wijkcontracten / contrats de quartiers durables� feature several proposals that deal with creating space within building blocks or repurposing industrial spaces. The ongoing project that converts the former Senne river trajectory in a park fits within the same logic. Although improving the liveability in Masui is urgent and very relevant, it goes hand in hand with the disappearance of specific sizes of productive spaces. The micro spaces (0-200m2) are abundantly available and mix easily with traditional 19th century fabric, since they fit within the typical plot sizes. Small spaces (200500m2) are less frequent but still fit within the typical building block condition in which deeper plots contain small warehouses that offer such floor sizes. The medium spaces (500-2000m2) are the most vulnerable category. Although they do exist they are rapidly disappearing to make room for traditional condominium redevelopment, lofts, parks and other relevant urban programs, yet not productive spaces. And finally we notice the policy to relocate larger businesses (2000-7000m2) to other more equipped locations within the urban region. Not all things should be mixed.

housing production

Housing and production in Masui (based on GIS and fieldwork) 32


DISPLACEMENT TENDENCY

micro 0 - 200 m2

small 200-500 m2

medium 500-2000 m2

large 2000-7000 m2

Planned projects on former productive sites in Masui (based on available information May 2016) 33


DESIGN CASE start-ups, creative offices, lofts

Bruxelles Propreté

Platinum Records

Zinneke

Former manufacturing hall. Now car wash, artist ateliers and gallery ‘le kabinet’

offices contrat de quartier durable vacant warehouses

garage boxes Lidl

Vizyon Drinks

Athénée Royal

vacant warehouse

Just like many of the building blocks in Masui, this particular block is characterized by a high density, little open space and a larger than average building block size. The presence of the Senne trajectory and future promenade allows to invert the urban block and create new facades in the interior of the block. The renewed access generates new alliances between residents, businesses, schools,...

34


Based on discussion with stakeholders and local administration, we have identified the plots that are being redeveloped or where a specific actor has shown interest in development. Citydev (regional development society) had expressed interest in developing housing projects in the interior of the block. They have acquired or are planning 1300 m2 production space to acquire 3 sites: The former Goffart - display window or entrance on park - logistic back entrance site is already vacant, the current Vizyon - connection to technical school drinks distributor is looking to relocate to a site more north, guided by Citydev. The building that currently houses Bruxelles Propreté (waste management) would become available in 2021.

Athenée Verwee

former Goffart

Vizyon drinks

The former TSAS fruit wholesaler is now property of the community of Schaarbeek. One of the ideas is to create a center for organisations around job creation. Athenée Verwee is a technical secondary school, a side branch from a school located more north in Schaarbeek. With currently only 100 students enrolled, there is an opportunity in enlarging the Masui branch.

former TSAS

Bruxelles Propreté

Lidl

The buildings of Vizyon, TSAS and Bruxelles Propreté have a particularly interesting structure.

20 m

35


PROJECTIVE MODEL External shafts generate a new typology that can be used as storage, warehouse, office,... Collective workshop Docking station: cluster of garage boxes for storage or do-it-yourself businesses, linked to collectiev workshop

Cluster: Lift supermarket, parking and sport center

36

Logistics : Large warehouse

Canteen : restaurant for workers, residents,...

Hybrid public space: square adjacent to cafeteria, with zones for occasional deliveries and access to small businesses at the backside of houses

Carpentry workshop : Warehouse for professionals, with shop for hobbyists and workshop shared with school

Productive school : Existing technical school of which the facilities can be shared with professional

Accessible roof: Sports ground used by school Garden and roof agriculture for housing Collective housing

Individual housing: Existing housing with new shared garden


projective model of Masui presented at IABR 37


HINTERHOF MASUI

1300 m2 production space - display window or entrance on park - logistic back entrance - connection to technical school

MA SU I M EN UIS E R IE

J OB

L

C O N STR

E RT U C T EX P

38

LI D

20 m

C E N T R E


PRINCIPLES

The Hinterhof Massui project is an attempt to rethink the traditional redevelopment strategy of a large 19th century perimeter building block. The project for the new Zenne park following the former river trajectory is a great opportunity to raise the ambition level. We propose to keep the more valuable warehouse structures that offer medium sized spaces and are well equipped in terms of logistics (or can be easily resolved in that sense). These inner block ‘manufactures’ serve as the back bone of a new kind of inner block condition. They open up to the park and even strengthen it by adding additional green space and public program. The sites are investigated on their potential to incorporate new housing development, but without the traditional constraints of normal urban context. Ground floor car parking reduces the cost of expensive underground infrastructure that might become obsolete in a decade or 5. Housing units are offered extreme large terraces and have access to communal green roofs and share the logistic yards after business hours for low key recreational uses. All productive spaces are described in terms of the infrastructure and features they can offer, and not in terms of the programs they can host. This inner flexibility is crucial and true to the way the market of entrepreneurial spaces operates. Some infrastructure however can be precise in its attempt to attract specific kinds of users. The Catering Hub is such an example, that offers the necessary infrastructure to allow small catering businesses to comply with regulations, use

high level cooling and hygiene infrastructure and have ample logistical space for moving goods and vehicles. Another example is the productive school that combines education with productive programs, focussing on crafts and maker skills and potential links with other businesses and professional education programs. The example of the technical school Sint-Jansberg in Maaseik shows how the connection of education and businesses can be beneficial for several parties: the atelier of the school was offered highly technological machines and serves as a showroom and training centre for the manufacturer in exchange. Rest materials from surrounding companies is used for exercises by the students.

pro-actively combining medium sized spaces with new housing in stead of rebuilding and re-attracting economic activities E2A, Escher Wyss, Zurich

39


1000 m2 production space 6x4 apartments 2 1000onmpark production space - display window or entrance - ground floor parking - logistic side entrance - display window - 1st or floorentrance individual storage units on park - complete free span - XL southwest oriented terraces logistic side entrance - suspended second floor

- complete free span - suspended second floor

1300 m2 production space - display window or entrance on park - logistic back entrance 2 m2 for food production 500 500 m for food production - connection to technical school - individual kitchens

- individual kitchens - (food) truck parking per kitchen - central cool storage - (food) truck parking per kitchen - large central kitchen - central storage - publiccool restaurant - large central kitchen - public restaurant 3x13 apartments - private garden - ground floor garage boxes - underground parking - orientation: park and garden

1300 m2 production space - display window or entrance on park - logistic back entrance - outdoor storage or parking space - 19m free span

1300 m2 production space 4x4 apartments - display or entrance on park - ground floor garage - logistic back entrance - 1st floor communal room - south oriented terraces - outdoor storage or parking - 19m free span 6x3 apartments

- bicycle garage - shared parking with supermarket - drop off point for deliveries and groceries - south oriented terraces

20 m 40

1300 m2 production space - display window or entrance on park - logistic back entrance - connection to technical school

1300 m2 production space - display or entrance on park - logistic back entrance - connection to technical school


tion space w or entrance on park trance span ond floor

HINTERHOF MASUI: INNERBLOCK MANUFACTURES

1300 m2 production space - display window or entrance on - logistic back entrance - connection to technical school

6x4 apartments - ground floor parking - 1st floor individual storage units - XL southwest oriented terraces

The catering hub: facility for foodtrucks and small food entrepreneurs, connected to public cafeteria

ELAN, Masui: cafetaria and catering service offering socio-professional training in the food industry to low skilled adults.

Les Amis d’Aladdin: Integrating the women of Masui by organising social activities, workshops on healthy cooking,...

1300 m2 production space - display window or entrance on park - logistic back entrance - connection to technical school

The productive school: technical school connected to professional technical training and businesses

Durisch Nolli, vocational training center, Gordola, Switzerland: technical school in a large warehouse offers a more professional learning environment

41


1000 m2 production space - display window or entrance on park - logistic side entrance - complete free span - suspended second floor

500 m2 for food production - individual kitchens - (food) truck parking per kitchen - central cool storage - large central kitchen - public restaurant

3x13 apartments - private garden

1300 m2 production space - display window or entrance on park - logistic back entrance - outdoor storage or parking space apartments - 19m free span

4x4 - ground floor garage apartments - 1st4x4 floor communal room - ground floor garage - south oriented terraces - 1st floor communal room - south oriented terraces

- bicycleapartments garage 6x3 park - shared parking with supermarket - bicycle garage - drop off point for deliveries and groceries - southparking oriented terraces - shared with supermarket - drop off point (deliveries, groceries) - south oriented terraces

20 m

42

6x4 back yard apartments - ground floor parking - 1st floor individual storage units - XL southwest oriented terraces

1300 m2 production space - display window or entrance on park - logistic back entrance - connection to technical school

3x13- ground garden floorapartments garage boxes - underground parking - private garden - orientation: park and garden - ground floor garage boxes - underground parking - orientation: park and garden

6x3 apartments

6x4 apartments - ground floor parking - 1st floor individual storage units - XL southwest oriented terraces

1300 m2 production space - display window or entrance on park - logistic back entrance - connection to technical school


HINTERHOF MASUI: ATYPICAL INNERBLOCK HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

Birminghamstraat, Brussels: industrial look, paved yard in stead of garden

Lacaton & Vassal, Mulhouse: social housing with XL terraces

Collectief Noord, Antwerp: innerblock houses and office with ground floor garages

ectv, Molenbeek: the ground floor garage as a porous boundary between garden and street

43


A SYSTEM OF YARDS

1300 m2 production space - display window or entrance on park - logistic back entrance - connection to technical school

access yards logistic access private garden access to parking public garden or park entrance businesses productive yard entrance housing

20 m

44

potential new entrances


45


46


47


48


49


50


2. VERGOTEDOK

51


CONTEXT

The Vergote dock is an exemplary battle field of the productive city and the residential/recreational city

52


At the Vergote dock the city clashes in different ways. The recent housing tower ‘Up-site’ that speculates on a future gentrification of the area stands in dire contrast with the hard core water bound industry of the concrete factory and the metal scrap yard. The frontier is contested and different parties fight for their existence, claiming as much land as allowed. With the high rise skyline of the central business district of the north area (originally developed in the late sixties under the name Plan Manhattan) in the background, we propose a symbolic gesture. A productive tower that takes its stand amongst the housing and office towers in the district and announces the existence of a larger productive area right along the canal. This is where blue collar and white collar meet. Right at the edge of the proposed green park and the canal that still remains a large productive inner city harbour area. The tower offers a vertically stacked factory model in which very specific technical equipment and several infrastructures come together. It is an opportunity to examine a more sustainable approach in terms of closing energy loops, waste resources, shared infrastructure, reversed logistics... in short the metabolism of a productive city. The tower is also a chance to allow some of the existing businesses to expand their scope of operations to innovative fields such as e-waste recycling without giving up valuable waterfront spaces. Here in the bend of the canal, where normal unloading with lories and

cranes along the quay is not possible, the tinker tower stands, making visible what is a crucial part of our inner city economy. It is a logistic machine that can incorporate a multitude of users, but always favours education and innovative productive players that can make links with the city and it neighbourhoods. As a building structure it is a pilot case in which large floor plates are combined with inhabited trusses based on a vierendeel principle, allowing for the combination of large surfaces with support program. The lower floors have vehicle access, higher up the freight elevators service each unit and eventually the tower holds a series of floors that can host more traditional small scale productive businesses that do not require heavy weight transport. As an example the tower is also shown to house a sports centre on the top floors. The building structure can be designed modular in a way that it can be dismantled and reused in other locations, which is part of the integrated approach to metabolism of the buildings site and lifecycle operations. The rooftop deploys an urban greenhouse to recuperate excess heath from the tower to help grow local produce. It also hosts a small cafe and rooftop terrace in relation to the future park.

53


THE TINKER TOWER

a tower representing the production in the city on a strategic site, where harbour and city meet and the skyline is dominated by housing and offices

54


A VERTICAL URBAN WAREHOUSE

Richard Rogers, Lloyd Insurance

Van Nelle, Rotterdam

Bruther, Research center Caen

55


TYPE RESEARCH: THE TINKER TOWER research by models on the relationship between structure, access and program in an efficient stacked typology

56

LOGISTIC MACHINE: all about storage

HARBOUR TOWER: dedicated to flows of materials

ͳͳHigh efficiency, can even be automated ͳͳEntirely free passageway underneath, possibility to build over a road ͳͳWhat flexibility does the tower offer when this specific program becomes obsolete?

ͳͳA tower strongly related to the canal would need to be placed along a straight quay. ͳͳIt has the potential of combining typical harbour activities (the handling of materials) with the harbour administration, an auditorium, a public trajectory or even a harbour museum.

VIERENDEEL TOWER: column-free production floors ͳͳCombination of at least 2 types of program: those requiring large open spans and those in smaller spaces ͳͳStructure could eventually be dismantled and reused to build industrial warehouses


57


public

58

harbour


Voirie / Place des armateurs

Openbare groene zone Openbare doorgang op privaat domein

Passage public sur sol privé à déterminer dans la zone (min 12m)

Openbare doorgang op privaat domein te bepalen in de betreffende zone (min 12m)

QUAI DES STEAMERS STOOMBOTENKAAI

B. IMPLANTATION ET GABARITS

B. INPLANTING

Alignement à maintenir

Te behouden rooilijn

Alignement à arrêter

54

55

18.52

56

B2

B1

Cote (m)

BASSIN

DOK

VERGOTE

Grens tussen bouwzones met verschillende bouwlagen of met verschillende geveltypes 16,00m

5/10

Nombre de niveaux sous corniche

2

+

Aantal verdiepingen onder kroonlijst

Nombre de niveaux (à toiture à versant) de constructions à caractère patrimonial

2

T

Aantal verdiepingen (met hellend dak) van gebouwen van erfgoed

M

Aantal verdiepingen (met mansardedak) van gebouwen van erfgoed

Nombre de niveaux (à toiture à la mansard) de constructions à caractère patrimonial

35.00m

Maatlijn (m)

Cote d'arasement (minimale/maximale)

Bouwhoogte (minimale-maximale)

100/140

50.00m

B3

Gebieden met bijzondere voorschriften

Limite entre zones de bâtisse à niveaux différents ou à différents types de façades

5

+

8

Af te schaffen rooilijn A

Zones à prescriptions particulières

limite parcellaire

17.75

Vast te stellen rooilijn

Alignement à supprimer

CONSTRAINTS AND POSSIBILITIES RESEARCH

17.56

8

+

2

Nombre de niveaux (à toiture plate) de constructions à caractère patrimonial

1a

2

Aantal verdiepingen (met plat dak) van gebouwen van erfgoed

16.39 35

36

18.33 37

38

39 18.28

18.15

A2

PLACE DES ARMATEURS REDERSPLEIN

Zones de nouvelles constructions

Zones voor nieuwe bebouwingen

Zones de bâtiments, d'ensembles et de constructions à caractère patrimonial

Zones van gebouwen, bouwgehelen en van historische gebouwen

15 10/50

17.10

5/10 5/10

A1

p/s=1

16.89

QUAI DES ARMATEURS

REDERSKAAI

16.88

80.00m

16.47

GROENDREEF

7

11

13 15

public area zone A: green space (min. 5000 m2) zone A1: area for building (3000 m2) building height max 50 m total floor surface: 7500 m2

18

30

31 32

33

34

35

36

37

39

40/41

15.85

15.84

43

12

20

44

45

46

47

26

RA AT

RU EM ASU I

16.88

15.82

42

program: harbour/logistics/industry/ manufacturing additional program: - commercial/horeca (max 1000 m2/building) - public facilities 16.01

13

15.97

BERT RUE GLI RAAT

GIER RUE RO

URS

29

15.97 16.11

AN

15.95

W EG TEEN PSES TW ER

15.94

50

51

29

28

32

27

e-waste recycling BRUSSELS HOOFDSTEDELIJK GEWEST STAD BRUSSEL Departement stedenbouw Plan en vergunningen

compartments max 2500 m 2 exits

BIJZONDER BESTEMMINGSPLAN

WILLEBROEK

< 4000 kg max 40 m height < 5000 kg max 23 m height

height 2,20 m 6,10 m 2,40 m 7,00 m

turning radius

PLAN PARTICULIER D'AFFECTATION DU SOL

WILLEBROECK

Huizenblokken begrepen tussen het Saincteletteplein, de Willebroekkaai, de groendreef, het becodok en het Vergotedok

Brussel, de Bruxelles, le

Ilots compris entre le square Sainctelette, le quai de Willebroeck, l'allée Verte, le bassin Béco et le bassin Vergote.

Gezien door Jean-Pierre Demeure de Ingenieur-directeur-generaal

Opgemaakt door de ontwerper Dressé par l'auteur de projet

Vu par Jean-Pierre Demeure l'Ingénieur-directeur général

Gezien en voorlopig aangenomen door de gemeenteraad in zitting van Vu et adopté provisoirement par le Conseil Communal en séance du

De Raad Le Conseil

Goedgekeurd door de Regering door ...... Approuvé par le Gouvernement par .....

LA SE

NNE

DE ZE

Het College van Burgemeester en Schepenen bevestigt dat onderhavig plan ter inzage van het publiek op het gemeentehuis werd neergelegd van/tot Le Collège des Bourgmestre et Echevins certifie que le présent plan a été déposé à l’examen du public dans les bureaux de l’administration communale du/au

NNE

Het College Le Collège

Vanwege het College De Stadssecretaris Par le Collège Le Secrétaire de la ville

sports program

Gezien en definitief aangenomen door de gemeenteraad in zitting van Vu et adopté définitivement par le Conseil Communal en séance du Het College Le Collège

Vanwege het College De Stadssecretaris Par le Collège Le Secrétaire de la ville

to cater to the need for4indoor football in Masui, the sports SCHEMA DES AFFECTATIONS BESTEMMINGSPLAN hall needs a minimum netto indoor surface of 44 m x 22m Echelle/Schaal: 1 / 1000

Date/Datum: 7 avril/april 2008 Dossier n° 64.0193/U

length 6,00 m 7,00 m

Département urbanisme Plan et autorisations

Delamination and separation plant Output: highly purified and valuable outputs such as copper and aluminum. 70-20 a Throughput (t/h) 1 – 10 Power (kW) 300 – 1600 Space requirements 200 – 1000 m2 Height 6 m - 10 m

GLIBERTST

freight elevator

2

REGION DE BRUXELLES CAPITALE VILLE DE BRUXELLES

Vanwege de Raad Par le Conseil De Stadssecretaris Le Secrétaire de la Ville

RT IPO EL L'H DE

STRAAT ROGIER

RUE WILLEM DE MOL STRAAT

16

EG

ELLES BRUX SEL BRUS ERBEEK SCHA BEEK AR SCHA

vehicle ramp van truck <7,5t

14

26

UE EN AV

fire regulations

12

16.34

2

AT L STRA M DE MO

TEENW

8

AN LA EN AV LIH HE

RPSES ANTWE

6

GROENDREEF 25

VERS D'AN SSEE CHAU

program: - offices max 5000 m2 - commercial max 500 m2 - facilities unlimited - housing unlimited S D'ANVER

22

MA SU IST

11

EE CHAUSS

20

harbour area buildings max 70 m high

16.66

AVENUE DE L'HELIPORT

4

27

2

30

9

25

7

28

5

26

PPAS

18

15.76

1

21 23

15.77

16.04

RUE DES RAME

16

24

ALLEE VERTE

13 14

19

12

ROEIERSSTRAAT

11

8

10

ARBE 10 ID 13 15 SSTR 17 AAT

9

TRAV AIL

8

RUE DU

7

LLE RUE WI

5

N

Wegen / Redersplein

Zone d'espace vert public Passage public sur sol privé

MATERIALENKAAI

sports basketball indoor football voleyball handball badminton hockey boxing squash

dimensions (m) 28 x 15 44 x 22 18 x 9 40 x 20 13,4 x 6 40 x 20 5,5 x 5,5 9,75 x 6,4

BOA Arch./urbaniste-stedebouwkundige

surfaces (m2) 420 968 162 800 82 800 30 62

height (m) 7 5,5 12,5 7 9 5,5 / 5,6

59


organic waste

FLOWS FLOWS

cooled air hot air CO2

STRUCTURE STRUCTURE

water storage

4 3,6 8,9 3,6 6 3,6 65

6 3,6 6 3,6 6 6

cold water

3,6

16

production waste

32 48

<4 t <1 t 60


SPACES SPACES SPACES

ACTIVITIES (EXAMPLE) ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES

public roof public with greenhouse roof with greenhouse 1500 m2 smaller 1500 (sports) m2 smaller rooms (sports) rooms 1500 m2 high 1500 (sports) m2 high floor, (sports) free span floor, free span reception,rooms,... changing rooms,... 1500 m2 reception, 1500 m2 changing 1500 m2 production 1500 m2 production space, free space, span free span 1500 m2 small 1500 production m2 small production or office or office 1500 m2 production 1500 m2 production space space with back office with back office 1500 m2 small 1500 production m2 small production or office or office 2500 m2 production 2500 m2 production space with space vehiclewith access vehicle + outdoor accessspace + outdoor space ducts and ducts machinery and machinery space with space vehiclewith access vehicle access 2500 m2 production 2500 m2 production 2500 m2 administration 2500 m2 administration / cafetaria / cafetaria office units / office units 4000 m2 ground 4000 floor m2 ground logistics floor logistics

61


level 0

level 2 62 ste ng recycling

GROUND FLOOR

FIRST FLOOR: ADMINISTRATION, CAFETARIA, DESK UNITS

level 1 level 1 administration administration offices for offices rent for rent cafetaria cafetaria storage storage

level 10 level 10 sports sports

e-was


PRODUCTION LEVEL (E-WASTE RECYCLING,...)

level 2 ng ste recycling

SPORTS LEVEL

level 10 sports

level 10 sports

20m

63


AN EXEMPLARY PROJECT

The tinker tower has the potential to serve as an exemplary project. The building structure can be designed modular in a way that it can be dismantled and reused in other locations, which is part of the integrated approach to metabolism of the buildings site and lifecycle operations. It is an opportunity to examine a more sustainable approach in terms of closing energy loops, waste resources, shared infrastructure, reversed logistics... in short the metabolism of a productive city. With the possibility to integrate other programs, such as sports, and the public roof, activities in the tower also become visible for passers-by. Similar strategies have been used in the recycling Plant in Madrid by Abalos & Herreros that unifies the typically separate components: processing facilities, offices, workshops and storage space. It incorporates a museum and a route for visitors to watch the recycling process. Intended to act as a recycling plant for 25 years, the building will either become a service building or dismantled with the parts recycled or re-used.

64


65


66


67


68


69


70


3. BIESTEBROECK

71


CONTEXT: FROM INDUSTRIAL TO MIXED AREA

2012

Planned projetcs in the Biestebroeck area (based on available preliminary masterplans in May 2016) 2014 72


In the Biestebroeck area a series of ZEMU (‘Zone d’Entreprise en Milieu Urbain’ or zone for enterprises in urban areas) offer the legislative base for a redevelopment of former brownfields into vibrant city district. Though the emphasis is somewhat heavy on the residential side, the legislation in place is a strong starting point to incorporate productive spaces. A closer study of the ZEMU legislation points out how a strategy of parcellation in plots that are smaller than 10000m2 has a large impact on the type of productive spaces that can be part of the project. Additionally we can raise some questions that ideally would be integrated in the regulation of ZEMU plans in the future. What about volume? The height of space is crucial for productive activities and not explicitly taken into account in ZEMU regulations. What about yard and vehicle space? A large number of businesses operate in out door spaces. What size of building blocks allows best for mixing productive programs with residential programs? The typical size of a parking grid that in a way is easily to be combined with housing on top, does not translate to ideal measurements of inner logistical and yard for vehicle manoeuvring.

Where do we find urbanity? Can a thematic coherence such as the “liseré productif” or productive high street operate within this ZEMU in order to make significant linkage with other parts of the neighbourhood, similar to the “liseré commercial” as deployed in other areas of the urban fabric? Developers have little impetus to focus on high spaces, out door yards, bigger building blocks or urban coherence. It seems difficult to integrate significantly sized productive spaces, with the necessary logistic space and infrastructure, and at the same time adhere to the current standard of housing development. Our research on these sites does not focus on developing entirely new forms of mixed projects, but rather chooses to work with what is on the table. How can we reach more and better productive spaces within the current masterplans and how can housing and workspace together contribute to better neighbourhoods?

Although the design has been improved significantly during the process, the productive spaces remain limited. The intention of the ZEMU - allowing some housing development in industrial zones - is slowly replaced by the difficult task of integrating some productive spaces in a typical residential development. Proposed productive spaces have no access to the canal and are rather small, with units around 200 m2. The majority of the required economic activities is translated into office space. Moreover, the need for parking space combined with the higher cost of underground parking in the often polluted sites, results in a ground floor that is eaten up by cars more than productive space. We believe this is not ambitious enough considering the potential and size of the site and propose small interventions that drastically increase the amount of space for programs other than housing.

The research focusses on a particular site in which a developer is in the process to design a new city district, in direct conversation with the regional administration and bMa team. 73


THE ZEMU-LEGISLATION

l

0% HOUSING PRODUCTION

pro

project > 10.000 m2

project < 10.000 m2

du

ctiv e unlimited housing

RETAIL

cen tra

max 2000 m2 production & B2B

l lo

s1

gis tic a

rea

min 90% footprint production, B2B or retail

MI

NIM

min 40% total oor area housing

loophole 1 - definition of economic activities: production can be replaced by office and retail 74

UM

max 2500 m2 wholesale max 3500 m2 special retail max 1000 m2 other retail

loophole 2 - less rigid rules for smaller projects: production can be avoided by parcelization


what about open space?

miek te creëren rond een aantrekkelijk stadsproject voor de productieve stad. De large numberlanen of businesses operate armatuuravan productieve dient zich ten slotte te verknopen met andere infrastructuurnetwerken, zoals met de fietssnelwegen en het GEN-spoorwegnet. in outdoor spaces Zo verankeren we het productieve weefsel in de metropolitane regio.

THE ZEMU-LEGISLATION : CRITICAL QUESTIONS

ZEMU - CRITICAL QUESTIONS 51

what about volume? height of space of crucial for productive activities

what about urbanity? less rigid rules for projects smaller than 10.00 m2 leads to parcelization, with the possibility of 0% productivity

3,5 m 8m

Haachtsesteenweg / Chaussée de Haecht, Schaarbeek / Schaerbeek

ZEMU - CRITICAL QUESTIONS

what about volume? height of space of crucial for productive activities

what about open space? a large number of businesses operate in outdoor spaces

dynamique positive autour d’un projet urbain attrayant pour la ville productive. Enfin, l’armature des chaussées productives doit se rattacher à d’autres réseaux what size building blockcyclables allows for d’infrastructures, telsof que les autoroutes et lemixity? réseau ferroviaire RER. Ainsi, nous ancrons solidement le tissu productif dans la région métropolitaine.

covered parking plus 2 residential blocks ≠ residential block with productive core.

AWB_Productive_BXL_Publicatie_170x230_141006.indd 51

6/10/14 11:34

3,5 m 8m

What about volume?

8m

what about open space? a large number of businesses operate What about vehicle space and yard space? in outdoor spaces

30 m

what about urbanity? less rigid rules for projects smaller than 10.00 m2 leads What sizetoofparcelization, building block allows for mixity? with the possibility of 0% productivity

height of space is crucial for productive

a large number of businesses operate in

covered parking plus 2 residential blocks

activities and not taken into account in ZEMU

outdoor spaces

≠ residential block with productive core.

Where do we find urbanity? the “liseré productif” or productive high street

regulations pictures 1, 2: Atelier Brussels, copyright: Bas Bogaerts en AWB pictures 3, 4: Atelier Brussels, copyright: Tim Van de Velde what about urbanity? less rigid rules for projects smaller than 10.00 m2 leads to parcelization, with the possibility of 0% productivity

what size of building block allows for mixity? covered parking plus 2 residential blocks ≠ residential block with productive core.

75


PROJECTIVE MODEL This model, presented at the IABR in Rotterdam, explores potential programs and relations in a mixed ‘superblock’ that complies with the ZEMU regulation.

Mixed tower Productive roof

Self-build plots

New high street Transversal typology with front and back access Interior street

Shared logistic machine

productive hybrid street

76

It combines several boolean elements that were defined in the first research phase. Centrally in the block is the interior street that intersects with both the large industrial spaces as well as smaller workspaces on the ground floors of typical residential development. The logistic machine is a union of businesses of different scales. It is based on the observation that several types of economic spaces contain a significant percentage of storage: the supermarket, the drinks distributor, the woodworker, the contractor,... The logistic machine combines all storage needs in a semi-automated efficient storage with great logistic access. This way, the remaining productive spaces shed part of the nuisance and are much more compatible with housing and urban street life. The model counts on several forms of sharing (collective spaces and time-sharing of space) and is therefore rather idealistic. It does show how larger block sizes can contain productive spaces that are more than a small atelier or neighbourhood shop.


projective model of Biestebroeck presented at IABR 77


THE CONFLICTS BETWEEN HOUSING AND PRODUCTION Several of the proposed projects in ZEMU areas have to deal with (partly) polluted land. As a result, parking space is provided in the plinth of the building, thus occupying the most relevant spaces for additional programs such as productive space and community spaces. In the studied masterplan, the productive space is a thin strip of 40m width in between ground floor parkings without natural daylight nor a good logistic area.

I'

P

P

H

I

In our proposal the parking facility is lifted to clear a 90% productive ground floor. It is designed in such a way that the structure can easily be redeveloped into housing and or offices. Given the current tendency to reinvent urban mobility, parking infrastructure could become rather obsolete in the nearby future.

O

40 m productive space and parking space in the studied project

O I'

I H P

productive space and parking space in the design research proposal 78


+8,00

roof garden level

roof garden level

58+8,00 pl /level

1500 m2

office space

potential transformation

parking (58 p/level)

potential transformation

+8,00

potential transformation potential transformation into offices into duplex apartments

potential transformation into duplex apartments

MUTABLE PARKING

duplex apartments

roubaix, roubaix, parking-silo parking-silo de ladeplaine la plaine images images

équipement équipement mutable mutable ElementsElements disponibles disponibles en HD en HD communication@dealzua.com communication@dealzua.com

+8,00

level +15,60

Les Les deux Lesdeux Les deux nefsdeux nefs de nefspart de nefs depart et part ded’autre et part etd’autre d’autre etded’autre lade de rue lalade centrale rue rue lacentrale centrale rue sont centrale sont en sontpartie en sont enpartie partie en démontables, partie démontables, démontables, démontables, prolongées prolongées prolongées prolongées transversalement transversalement transversalement transversalement vers vers l’extérieur versl’extérieur vers l’extérieur l’extérieur de sections de desections sections deégalement sections également également également démontables, démontables, démontables, démontables, alignées alignées alignées sur alignées la sur sur rue lala sur entre rue rue laentre entre rue entre les bâtiments les les bâtiments bâtiments les bâtiments prévus prévus prévus à l’est, prévus ààl’est, et l’est, sur à et l’est, etles sur sur porte-à-faux etles les sur porte-à-faux porte-à-faux les porte-à-faux de ceux de de ceux prévus ceux de prévus ceux prévus à l’ouest. prévus ààl’ouest. l’ouest. à l’ouest. structure structure démontable démontable structure structure adaptable adaptable

roof garden level

+8,00

Kinepolis, Brussels, cinema transformable in parking

potential transformation into duplex apartments

Les structures Les Lesstructures structures Lesdémontables structures démontables démontables démontables

La résultante La Larésultante résultante La résultante de lade de mutation, lalade mutation, mutation, la mutation, dansdans dans le cas dans leledu cas cas le démontage du du cas démontage démontage du démontage complet complet complet des complet structures des desstructures structures des structures métalliques, métalliques, métalliques, métalliques, est est est est un ensemble un unensemble ensemble un ensemble de quatre de dequatre quatre de boites quatre boites boites posées boites posées posées sur posées un sur sur socle, un un sur socle, socle, éventuellement un socle, éventuellement éventuellement éventuellement reliées reliées reliées parreliées des par parpasserelles. des des parpasserelles. passerelles. des passerelles. La face La Laface supérieure face La supérieure face supérieure supérieure du soubassement du dusoubassement soubassement du soubassement conservé conservé conservé conservé devient devient devient une devient une terrasse uneterrasse une terrasse permettant terrasse permettant permettant permettant la desserte laladesserte desserte la àdesserte àà à l’air libre l’air l’airlibre des libre l’airquatre des libre desquatre quatre des corps quatre corps corps de bâtiments corps de debâtiments bâtiments de bâtiments en étages. en enétages. étages. en étages. L’effet L’effet L’effet delaL’effet plots de deplots est de renforcé plots est estrenforcé renforcé est par renforcé les par parsurplombs les les parsurplombs surplombs les surplombs sur l’extérieur, sur surl’extérieur, l’extérieur, sur l’extérieur, ces quatre ces cesquatre quatre ces volumes quatre volumes volumes se volumes trouvant se setrouvant trouvant se trouvant résultat résultat de mutation de laplots mutation positionnées positionnées positionnées positionnées en léger en enléger léger porte-à-faux en léger porte-à-faux porte-à-faux porte-à-faux sur l’extérieur sur surl’extérieur l’extérieur sur l’extérieur du soubassement. du dusoubassement. soubassement. du soubassement. Ces Ces débords Cesdébords Ces débords de débords dalles de dedalles dalles de auxdalles aux aux aux étages étages étages sont étages sont disposés sontdisposés sont disposés selon disposés selon selon le plan selon leleplan des plan le plots. des plan desplots. plots. des Ils offrent plots. Ils Ilsoffrent offrent Ils un offrent espace un unespace espace un complémentaire espace complémentaire complémentaire complémentaire aux bureaux aux auxbureaux bureaux aux bureaux ou aux ou oulogements aux aux oulogements logements aux logements derrière derrière derrière laderrière façade. lalafaçade. façade. la façade. 79

De Alzua, parking transformable in offices, Roubaix: by removing parts of the structure, the parking building is transformable in offices with adequate light etc.

Structurellement, Structurellement, Structurellement, Structurellement, ces ces morceaux cesmorceaux ces morceaux morceaux amovibles, amovibles, amovibles, amovibles, constitués constitués constitués constitués de profilés de deprofilés profilés demétalliques profilés métalliques métalliques métalliques supportant supportant supportant supportant des des des des planchers planchers planchers planchers à bacs ààbacs collaborants, bacs à collaborants, bacs collaborants, collaborants, peuvent peuvent peuvent être peuvent être démontés êtredémontés être démontés démontés facilement facilement facilement facilement


A VARIETY OF BUSINESS SIZES ORGANISED AROUND A PRODUCTIVE COURTYARD

1000 m2 work palace - prominent location - architectural quality - loading docks in covered yard

1400 m2 offices

Boulev

ard In

dustrie

l

3500 m2 production space ͳͳloading docks in covered yard ͳͳfront facade on Blvd. Industriel ͳͳ7,5 m height

100 m2 ateliers ͳͳloading quay on streetside ͳͳ5 m height

80

productive high street

150-300 m2 with shopfront ͳͳ high street address ͳͳ loading docks in covered yard ͳͳ5 m height

logistic covered yard

240 m2 duplex ateliers with garage door


The project introduces a larger number of productive spaces that vary in size, from medium to small and micro. They are organised around a logistic covered hall that is in direct relation with a multifunctional space labeled 'work palace'. It is an explicit infrastructure that offers overlapping use between residents, workers and entrepreneurs. The heart of the site is a space that is linked to the existence of productive activity in the area, and does not shy away from the exciting mixity that is at the base of the ZEMU. The productive spaces all work together to create a streetlife that supports the businesses, it is a place people come to for very specific services, the productive high street. You can get things fixed there, drop off unused goods and see how rich the makers skills are.

The model visualises the central part of the block: the logistic area with its adjacent spaces. The roof of the logistic courtyard is covered for acoustic nuisances, but with visual connection to the roof terrace/garden: the productive activity forms part of the landscape.

81


82

ustriel

Boulev ard In d

Productive high street

park

logistic street


CHARACTERISTICS OF SPACE AND POTENTIAL PROGRAMS POTENTIAL 1: VARIETY OF SIZES

POTENTIAL 2: CLUSTERS offices ateliers

3.500 m2

warehouses

L strategic location for distribution businesses. - several loading bays - access from Blvd. Industriel

Tag import export (Imal) , Vizyon drinks (4.700 m2)

Chain cluster

furniture manufacturing close collaboration with architects, stockists,...

residential area

1000 m2

production

M new productive economies - visible from residential area and park - part of the image of the new neighbourhood

7

Neighbourhood cluster Brussels Beer Project

Travail et Vie: inclusive workspace for 400 persons with disabilities research

150300 m2

education

S horeca, small entrepreneurs, start-ups,... - housing above small business - visible and accessible to pedestrians

production

Knowledge cluster RDM Campus Rotterdam

83


THE WORK PALACE The project is related to four very different edge conditions: the Boulevard Industriel with its high traffic and mainly industrial sites, the perpendicular street where most logistic traffic is concentrated, the ‘liseré productif’ or mixed high street and lastly a planned park. Entrances to houses and offices are located along this park, but we believe it is important to give the productive side a facade on this park as well. The logistic covered hall ends here in a multifunctional space labeled 'work palace'. It is an explicit infrastructure that offers overlapping use between residents, workers and entrepreneurs. Its strong architecture celebrating industrial activity is open towards both sides, offering a view towards the logistic area from the park and vice versa. It offers a space for small productive activities with a high visibility and link to the neighbourhood, a brewery annex café for example. At the same time, it could be used as a co-working space or event space used by both inhabitants and entrepreneurs of the new district. The work palace also incorporates the main entrance to the apartments: a staircase leading towards the roof garden. Thus, the heart of the site is a space that is linked to the existence of productive activity in the area, and does not shy away from the exciting mixity that is at the base of the ZEMU.

Pier Luigi Nervi, Palais du travail, Turin

les ateliers esders, Auguste Perret, Paris, 1920

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4. BIESTEBROECK QUAY

91


CONTEXT

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The Biestebroeck Quay is currently occupied by a single user who ideally would use the quay for water transport. The building material reseller Gobert is in the process of restructuring its operations on the site, investing in some new buildings. Through careful negotiations with the regional administration and bMa team it is decided that in return, Gobert will be giving some of its space to the region for green space and public program. Simultaneously new projects, both by private developers and public, aim to upen up the built fabric with perpendicular connections towards the canal. We use this condition to help restructuring the neighbourhoods’ relation to the water, without giving up the vital water access for the business. The green space is positioned in such a way that it allows for a more qualitative streetscape. The logistical yard is time-shared as public space outside regular business hours, and the rest of the site is seen as a freehaven, in which the entrepreneur can develop its activities following its own logics and set of rules. The boundary of this freehaven is uploaded with more program for storing and stacking goods, within an architectural expressive structure. Additionally it offers small advantages for the surrounding programs, such as a canopy along the park side, a seating area...

public connections (cycle path,...) are interrupted due to exclusive canal access

The project is responding in terms of its implantation to other projects such as the passages to the north west that have been negotiated by the BMA team and other administrations dealing with urban redevelopment of the area. A continuous strip of housing (mainly backsides) and the large fenced area of Gobert limit relations with the water 93


RESULT FROM ONGOING NEGOTIATIONS AND STUDIES

passage to be integrated by project developer

passage to be integrated by project developer

Building

indoor activities to be concentrated in renewed building

10% of the business’ site (956 m2) to be offered as public green space

Key elements that will be integrated in future projects: open space, perpendicular connections, public developments and a new building for Gobert

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Zone to be transmitted to Brussels region for development


PROPOSAL: ALTERNATED APPROPRIATION AND SHARING

I LERO CHAR L VAN KANAA

direct water access for the canal business where needed

water access reinforces the foreseen passages

Using the key elements that are on the table, we propose shared usage of open space to reinforce the planned perpendicular connections as well as the canalside connection

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DURING WORK HOURS

LEROI CHAR L VAN KANAA

96


DURING WEEKENDS AND EVENINGS

LEROI CHAR L VAN KANAA

97


TYPE RESEARCH: THE FREEHAVEN - A MODEL FOR CANALSIDE BUSINESSES research by models on the built boundaries of logistic and outdoor manufacturing zones

THE SHARED VOID: reassembling open air industrial activities

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THE POROUS BOUNDARY: interactions between SME’s and their urban surroundings


THE CONSTRUCTED BOUNDARY: a facade and urban identity for large open air enterprises

99


“MAISON DE QUARTIER PRODUCTIF�: THE NEIGHBOURHOOD CENTER FOR PRODUCTIVE DISTRICTS The land that is handed over to the region is an ideal location for a neighbourhood house. Aside from spaces for meeting, small activities, training and information, we add something to that program. The new 'Maison du Quartier Productif' features a neighbourhood restaurant run as a social training program, co-working spaces, a multi purpose room for activities and parties, but it sits firmly on a base of start up garages. Starting from the observation that most start ups (even apple) find their origin in a simple garage space, many businesses in the make or repair industry operate from mobile locations (vans and cars) they often complement those with garage boxes that are used as small storage units and ateliers. Almost never the typology of a garage box is seen as an important part of an urban redevelopment project. We propose to develop an alternative typology of the garage box, being a well design micro atelier, called the start-up garage. They operate in a similar way as any business incubator, but focus on production and not creative laptop activity. Additional services can be part of it in terms of waste management and reuse, business support, communication, catering and meeting infrastructures. The most important part is that they are a visible part of the facade of the public space in front of it. They literally take over some of the open space during operation hours, as a show case of what the productive economy entails.

Bruther, Community Center, Paris

Biestebroek 100


3rd floor multi-purpose room

lti-purpose ce

o-working space

2nd floor co-working space and rentable units

entable cubicles

ground floor

meeting room

1st floor social restaurant

social restaurant

ground floor atelier boxes

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BOOLEAN TYPES FOR THE PRODUCTIVE METROPOLIS

109


HINTERHOF 2.0

THE TINKER TOWER

THE WORK PALACE

redevelopment of dense urban blocks with inner city manufactures

an efficient stacked typology to celebrate production in the city

a mediating space

NOT JUST A PARKING

THE FREEHAVEN

THE PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITY CENTRE

parking garages to mediate between housing and economy

the boundary as a challenge

maison de quartier productif

110


At the end of our research we take a moment to zoom out and reflect on the boolean typologies as developed throughout the research cases. They are clearly rooted in very specific conditions and answer to specific and often urgent questions. However the methodology also aims at generic types and the establishment of a boolean language for productive spaces. Our choice to label productive spaces in terms of characteristics and not programmatic specifications is part of that approach. The boolean transformations were instrumental in setting the agenda and formulating new solutions for the broad question of mixity. If productive spaces are to be encouraged and nurtured within the city fabric, we have to get specific on how we can combine, intersect, stack, exclude and overlap multiple programs and agenda’s without distancing ourselves from the real estate dynamics in entrepreneurial infrastructure. A first question that arises deals with the sizes of spaces that are appropriate for the productive city. Mixity and the integration of spaces for economy in the city are high on the agenda in Brussels. The question however is what kind of spaces for economy do we want and need to offer? Citydev plays an important role in developing key projects in the city, of which many include spaces for work. They are successful, but in many cases cater only to a limited amount in businesses, especially when categorized in terms of size of business: e.g. the small business between 100 and 500 m2. This is a size of business we have discovered all over our study cases, ranging from start-up companies to contractors, carpenters, small food businesses, designers,... In general, they don’t have much difficulties finding a place in the city: they are small enough to fit within typical

XS

S

M

L

XL

Startup garage

start-up hubs

Hinterhof 2.0

Tinker tower

ZEMU

25 m2

500 m2

1500 m2

2500 m2

3500 m2

plot sizes and existing buildings. As we discovered in the Masui cases, the medium size is the most vulnerable yet relevant - in existing mixed 19th century fabric. One could say that the smaller spaces are already well served and probably it makes sense to focus on everything that is larger than 500m2. There seems to be a policy within the various administration to relocate the larger and extra-large businesses (2500m2 and more) and concentrate them in well serviced zones in terms of traffic infrastructure, impact management, regulation and so on. Many businesses that are located in the city because of historical presence or the availability of spaces, are being actively relocated to peripheral sites along the canal since they don’t mix easily within the urban fabric. This however could be more nuanced. The Masui cases indicate that though large programs indeed can be located elsewhere in order to limit their impact on other programs, often the

larger size businesses of around 2500m2 could benefit from central locations and help solving employment challenges there where large numbers of employees are available, not to mention the transport benefits that come along with close knit relations with neighborhoods and consumers. Within a diversification of activities that many businesses develop in order to remain relevant/ successful we noticed that spinoff activities don’t always share the same location requirements. With the tinker tower we propose a typology that does integrate the larger spaces in an urban context and celebrates them. The largest spaces proposed in this study are part of the Biestebroeck project. Since the former industrial sites in the ZEMU area are of significant size and very well located, we believe the ambition could be to offer some XL spaces here, in combination with medium and smaller businesses. That combination of sizes can be crucial to develop strategies that cater to integrated 111


circular economies. If well thought through and carefully regulated, large productive spaces can easily remain in certain inner city locations, even serving as a neighborhood motor of identity builder, rather then being the problem. The work palace and Biestebroeck case is a good example for that. We would like to add a side note to the small business spaces. Although we notice an abundance of initiatives and instances that cater to small scale businesses, they often do so for a limited scope of entrepreneurs. The creative businesses, small offices and start-up companies are well served in various government supported business centers. However for small scale productive start-ups the infrastructure support is limited. Well known typology such as the garage box – though not always well designed – turns out to be a fruitful location for other kind of small businesses such as contractors, gardeners, repairmen, street vendors... We use the Gobert case as an example to introduce the start-up garage as an alternative typology for the business center model in which small productive entrepreneurs and start-up initiatives can find a place that combines services with simple small ateliers and efficient vehicle access that can serve a mobile fleet of entrepreneurs.

infrastructure can take up symbolic locations and with that claim their presence within the Brussels skyline, can also be recognized in the Productive Community Center (Maison de Quartier Productif) in which a known neighborhood facility is combined with a small additional program that serves the entrepreneurial members of the community in their social and economical quest to make significant contribution to a vibrant city life. Where the neighborhood program in the tinker tower is only a small part of the program (sports center in this case) the productive community center is a skill-based learning hub that combines some businesses with a wide range of initiatives that focus on youth education, employment programs, job training and of course strengthening social fabric. A similar strategy is found in the work palace that is part of the ZEMU Biestebroeck project. The symbolic role of a space that can only exist through the presence of the productive program but that is of great service to both the businesses and their neighbours, is the essence of this type. In order to celebrate the presence of productive entrepreneurs in the area the shared infrastructure is designed as a main feature of the building block that links several layers and users (park, productive yard, housing, collective rooftop...) and is the perfect location for a long term interaction between the multiple users of the site.

Some of the proposals play a symbolic role as much as they resolve specific needs and precise problems in the urban context. The Tinker Tower is the most clear example of how generic structures can be designed as an infrastructure that reliefs other areas from encroachment of business initiatives that don’t need the same kind of infrastructure as their mother-companies. The idea that productive companies and their shared logistics

Throughout the research by design, several typologies have been developed. They have been designed for specific conditions but nevertheless answer more generic challenges op the productive city and Brussels in particular. Moreover, the new typologies can serve (in some cases) as pilot projects that explore the potential of systemic coalitions and therefore surmount the local ambition.

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Colophon This research was conducted as part of the Atelier Brussels: the productive metropolis between March 2016 and August 2016. Client Architecture Workroom Brussels Partners Brussels Capital Region, bMa, AWB, IABR, Bozar Design research team plusofficearchitects: Eva De Bruyn, Alessandra Bruno, Rémi Van Durme, Ward Verbakel, Nathan Ooms Pieter Vandenhoudt (model photography) www.plusofficearchitects.eu office@plusofficearchitects.eu Model research team WRKSHP collectif: Joffrey About, Clément Le Roux, Guillaume Munné, Paul Sosson in collaboration with Ignacio Plaza De Giles www.wrkshp.be wrkshpcollectif@gmail.com plazagiles@gmail.com

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