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Š Ministry of Heritage and Culture, Oman 2013 All rights reserved. No part of this report may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the copyright holder. Printed in UK by Printquarter Ltd.


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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN


5 Research Team: PROF SOUMYEN BANDYOPADHYAY Principal Investigator Project leadership, fieldwork, contribution to text

acknowledgements

The Ministry would like to acknowledge the contribution of the Nottingham Trent University research team in carrying out the research and documentation leading to this management plan

DR GIAMILA QUATTRONE Research Fellow Project coordination, fieldwork, contribution to text, analyses DR MARTIN S. GOFFRILLER Research Fellow Fieldwork, contribution to text, GIS analyses DR MOHAMMAD HABIB REZA Research Fellow Fieldwork, CAD documentation HAITHAM AL-‘ABRI PhD Student Fieldwork, ethnographic analyses

Special thanks to the following NTU personnel:

• Ann Priest, Head of College Art, Design and the Built Environment, • Prof. Marjan Sarshar, Associate Dean for Research, Art and Design and Built Environment • Peter Westland, Dean of Architecture, Design and Built Environment, • Prof. Dino Bouchlaghem, Head of Architecture • Paul Collins, Head of Engineering

ElIZA GERANMAYEH CAD documentation


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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN


SUMMARY

summary

This Heritage Management Plan builds on the extensive fieldwork documentation carried out on site and on the experiences gained at other settlements, as well as on interim field report submitted on December 17th 2012. Alongside providing a comprehensive drawn documentation resulting from the survey documentation in October 2012, this report provides a strategic Master Plan, which addresses issues of heritage management, conservation and development, as well as approaches for its implementation. The Heritage Master Plan discusses areas and categories of development and conservation to be carried out, which builds on a statement of significance, and assessments of the state of conservation and the threats to heritage management at Дārat as-Sulayf, building on the experiences of researching and developing a Master Plan for Дārat as-Saybanī in 2011 and Дārat al-Yemen in 2012. The report also includes a comprehensive inventory of structural and non-structural defects present at the settlement.

The overall project is informed by a comprehensive documentation, analysis and interpretation of the settlement structure, morphology, building typology and social conditions of the present and the immediate past. On this basis, a culturally and technically informed Master Plan is proposed, which advocates a revitalization centred on a dual approach concentrating respectively on the economic and the touristic preparation of the site. The settlement, in conjunction with its still well-preserved souq, has the potential of becoming an important tourist and economic centre for the greater area of the ΚIbrī Oasis.

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents

1.

Introduction to the project

4.4.

1.1.

5.

Broad approaches to Heritage Management

2.

Reconnaissance and fieldwork 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Reconnaissance 2.3. Preparatory work 2.4. Fieldwork 2.5. Training

3.

Documentation and analysis

3.1. Introduction 3.2. Context and topography 3.3. History 3.4. Settlement structure and morphology 3.5. Settlement evolution

Objectives and approaches

4. Architectural values and threats to site’s significance 4.1. Urban and architectural values 4.2. Historical values 4.3. Social values

Threats to site’s significance

5.1. Philosophy of development and conservation: principles 5.2. Approaches to development and conservation 5.3. General policies for development and conservation 5.4. Guidelines for development and conservation

5.5.

Additional studies and analyses

6. Heritage Management & Development Master Plan

6.1. Introduction 6.2. Master Plan goals 6.3. ΚIbrī oasis development 6.4. Urban design and development 6.5. Agriculture and irrigation 6.6. Phasing and the priority heritage conservation tasks

7. Precedents

8.

Structural failures and states of preservation

8.1. Guiding principles to conservation and rehabilitation 8.2. Guiding principles to repair actions 8.3. Failure analysis and repair guidance

8.4.

Guidance notes

9.

Appendix a1, Tribal Mosaic

10.

Appendix a2, Bibliography

11.

Appendix a3, Photographic documentation

12.

Appendix a4, Fold-out Floor Plans

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN


11 available to the UK and international learned bodies, heritage institutions, industries and communities.

introduction

This Heritage Management and Development Plan, supported by extensive fieldwork and off-site drawn documentation, was undertaken to provide integrated conservation and development strategies and Master Plan for as-Sulayf in the oasis of ΚIbri. The project was undertaken with funding and logistical support from the Ministry of Heritage and Culture (MHC) of the Sultanate of Oman to develop such planned strategies for four oasis settlements in the ad-Dākhilīyah and ad-Dhāhirah Governorates of the Sultanate, including Дārat al-ΚAqr in BaΉlā, Дārat al-Yemen in Izkī, and Дārat al-Hujrah in Fanja. It aims to maximise tangible impact from sustained high-quality research in the field of Omani vernacular settlement study undertaken at Nottingham Trent University. This is part of the longer term aim to debate, collaborate, contribute and influence heritage, architecture and urban design policy in Oman at the levels of the government, public and private sectors, charitable organisations and the local stakeholder communities, with additional benefits becoming

The work has been undertaken at the Centre for the study of Architecture and Cultural Heritage in India, Arabia and the Maghreb (ArCHIAM), based at Nottingham Trent University, UK, which aims to provide an interdisciplinary research platform for historical and contemporary cultural developments across three interconnected global regions. The Centre consists of an international team of researchers from a variety of academic backgrounds in architecture, social history, architectural technology, archaeology, conservation and digital documentation, among others. In this sense one of the fundamental themes underlying the Centre’s research aims is the multidisciplinary study of how human culture and social practices are expressed spatially, and how in turn space affects the cultural practices of groups and communities. The Ministry of Heritage and Culture has recently established an inventory of over a thousand vernacular settlements of which 86 have been identified for immediate attention. Heritage Management Plans (HMPs) are the first step in the process. The ArCHIAM projects, beginning with a proposal for Дārat as-Saybanī in Barkat al-Mawz produced in 2011, provides detailed models and guidelines relevant to Oman and the Middle East, as well as developing appropriate, cost-effective and expedient methods for producing HMPs. While HMPs are fundamental to the shaping of historic settlements by suggesting methods of management and conservation of historic fabric, this research group strongly believes that the successes of such approaches are only limited if not fully integrated with addressing developmental needs and aspirations of future generations. By developing new models and methods, the projects aim to contribute extensively to sustainable modernisation in Oman and the


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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN Middle East. Findings are to be disseminated also to and via local institutions, stakeholder communities and international presence in Oman. The existing UNESCO HMP guidelines are focused on World Heritage Sites and are mainly Eurocentric, making their approach inadequate for sites of regional and national significance in the Middle East facing significant pressures of development. The project will reshape, refine and adapt UNESCO guidelines and methods for the key aspects of the HMP: a) detailed documentation, b) establishment of significance, c) integrating development and heritage management, and, d) sustainable built environment development guidelines. The contribution will underpin and inform future heritage management policy and budget allocation in the region. The project’s eventual success will be measurable from its impact on heritage policy, processes and methods, change in socio-cultural attitude and greater awareness of issues related to integration of heritage with development.

1.1 Objectives and approaches The objective is to prepare an HMP for an oasis settlement of importance, possessing significant characteristics, including a distinctive setting, to develop: 1. HMP and appropriate management guidelines 2. Sustainable guidelines;

built

environment

developmental

3. Expedient and cost effective documentation methods and related best practice guidelines. This has been undertaken by: 1. Conducting fieldwork documentation over two seasons; 2. Producing relevant drawn documentation (maps, plans and photographic documentation); 3. Analysing data for establishing significance; 4. Producing a strategic HMPs as model and guideline; 5. Considering wider issues of design, culture and society for developing sustainable building and developmental guidelines; 6. Fusing alternative, cost effective and expedient methods of documentation.


RECONNAISSANCE AND FIELDWORK

2 reconnaissance & fieldwork

2.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter documents the process and methods of undertaking fieldwork at Дārat as-Sulayf in ΚIbrī over a period beginning with reconnaissance work in April 2012 until the completion of fieldwork in October 2012

2.2 RECONNAISSANCE Following agreement with the HMC a first reconnaissance visit to as-Sulayf was carried out during the Spring 2012 fieldwork campaign. During this brief visit the NTU research team observed the general dimensions, location, state of preservation of the harat in order to more clearly asses the documentation effort that was to be carried out during the Autumn 2012 fieldwork season. The settlement of Дārat as-Sulayf was chosen for documentation primarily for the following reasons:

• the need for a clear vision of Sulayf’s future existence as construction and restoration works are already underway • the advanced state of decay of the harat, which is accelerating exponentially with the collapse of roofs and destruction of water evacuation systems • its commanding location at one of the main access points to the Oasis of ΚIbrī which determined the settlement’s importance as a centre for trade and business • the comparative sophistication of its water catchment and distribution system which is still salvageable and may become one of the prime features of interest in the settlement • the great touristic potential which arises from the appealing appearance of the site as well as the proximity to a major highway • the possibility of re-tracing phases of urban growth along the complex terrain at the edge of the wādi • the comparatively good condition of the souq, which may encourage local stakeholders to participate in specific aspects of the heritage management process, as well as provide an alternative source of income for the local community

Figure 2.1 Sultanate of Oman and study area

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

2.3 preparatory work Following reconnaissance fieldwork, extensive preparatory work was carried out at Nottingham Trent University to develop a cohesive fieldwork strategy and implementation procedures. With these aims in mind the following efforts were undertaken: • Preparation of detailed fieldwork documentation and drawing production guidelines for use on site; • Procurement and preparation of aerial photographs for on-site use (Fig 2.2); • Developing inventory data sheets appropriate for use on designated sites drawing on previous work on Omani hārat, focusing especially on states of preservation; Figure 2.2 Дārat as-Sulayf, stitched satellite image

• Creation of schematic components map including

main building types and zoning derived from a 2010 GPS survey undertaken by the MHC (Fig. 2.3); • Establishing a data handling and storage strategy, as outlined in the ‘Fieldwork Guidelines 2012’, which was subsequently distributed to our contributors from the MHC to standardize proceedings; • Preparation of detailed fieldwork plan and logistics making provision also for expected the training of ministry employees. A number of aerial photographs were acquired from the NSA (National Survey Authority) by the MHC, with the liaison being carried out by the doctoral student from NTU. Furthermore, a GPS survey of the site was obtained from the MHC.


RECONNAISSANCE AND FIELDWORK

2.4 fieldwork Due to the availability of the detailed GPS survey of Дārat as-Sulayf it was decided to use this as the template for the documentation effort. This was expected to shorten the duration of fieldwork as the general geometry of the site, dwellings, and open spaces were therefore already clearly available in relatively high accuracy. This acceleration of the drawing process meant that more time was available for the study of social factors on site, add a greater degree of detail to the actual sketching process and invest more resources into the training of MHC assistants. The wider context was recorded through a detailed reconnaissance survey, using sketches and photographic recording methods of relevant features to chart the settlement’s relationship with its historic and contemporary surroundings. Apart from the morphology and current state of preservation of as-Sulayf, additional attention was given to

the recent past of the settlement as well as the ownership of dwellings in relation their tribal association. In order to achieve this a semi-structured interview was carried out with an erstwhile inhabitant of the site. This clarified also a number of issues regarding water management, such as the original appearance of the falaj channel, bathing areas, and wells that are no-longer visible. The interview also brought to the fore a number of important points regarding the settlements history and morphological evolution. methods

Following reconnaissance involving the entire team, a strategy was worked out to establish how the work would be undertaken within the given time. While Дārat as-Sulayf formed the principal focus of the project, it was clear from the outset that special attention would have to be given to the immediate context of the settlement if successful reuse of the site was to be achievable. In particular the preservation of

D4 D5

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Figure 2.3 as-Sulayf, preliminary zoning plan

Figure 2.4 as-Sulayf as seen from north

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN the surrounding agricultural lands as well as the appearance of the wādi and associated modern settlement of Sulayf would have to be institutionally guided to avoid wholesale destruction of the landscape. Taking this eventuality into account this HMP for al-Sulayf aims to present a specialised vision for the settlement The following key documentation approaches were adopted during the fieldwork: • Sketching orthographic projections (plans and where necessary, sections) ; Figure 2.5 Partial sketch plan of Sulayf Souq

• Measuring, using tape and laser measurers; • Photographic documentation; • Recording state of preservation of buildings on specially devised context sheets; • Recording traces of use; • Semi-structured

Figure 2.6 Reconnaissance in as-Sulayf as seen from area J

interviews

with

erstwhile

inhabitants of the settlements using audio and video recorders and transcribed into notes (Fig. 2.10); As the GPS plan and survey provided by MHC already contained rough outlined of most structures within the settlement it was decided to correct and amend these along a previously determined alphanumerically marked sector, with letter corresponding to zones and numbers to individual units. In cooperation with the members of the MHC on-site trainees it was decided to split the team into groups of two to three people, to begin sketching individual dwellings and then aid each other in taking the measurements. The following approaches were undertaken to physically document the settlements: • Preparation of sketch plans and where necessary sections; both white-paper drawings, as well as drawings aided by graph paper were employed – the latter aiding the representation of proportion in the case of largely orthogonal structures (Fig 2.5);


RECONNAISSANCE AND FIELDWORK • Taking measurements using tape measures (5m, 7.5m, 30m, 50m, as required); this provided accurate measurements using methods of triangulation through measurements of sides and diagonals; • Taking measurements using laser measurer; especially at locations where long distances or state of preservation of the fabric made it infeasible to undertake measurement using tape measure – however, a degree of error has to be factored in; • Extensive photographic documentation; taken in sequence and ensuring comprehensiveness but also recording significant elements/ objects in detail (Fig 2.7); • Detailed completion of individualised context sheets; these afforded the recording of significant information regarding a building – including its context, ownership, historical and social information, state of preservation, etc.; • Production of section drawings of enclosure-wall and other defensive features, and dwellings, where applicable; this enabled a better documentation of the three-dimensional quality of buildings and structures; • Collection of datable material, such as pottery, lithic materials and organic remains, where possible; • Tracing and evaluation of water channels and storm drains, where applicable.

Figure 2.7 as-Sulayf, wall relief at the gate of A2

Figure 2.9 as-Sulayf, reconnaissance at gate B1

Figure 2.8 as-Sulayf, restoration of tower A2

Figure 2.10 as-Sulayf, interviews with erstwhile inhabitants

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

2.5 Training One fundamental aspect of ArCHIAM’s fieldwork effort in the documentation of Дārat as-Sulayf was the training of local stakeholders in the current surveying techniques. The aim of this capacity building engagement was to impart to MHC employees the necessary skills for them to be able to carry out basic survey and documentation in an independent fashion. Over the duration of the fieldwork campaign at asSulayf a total of five MHC employees were given around ten days of training in reading and drawing plans and basic sketching techniques for the accurate representation of the built environment. Great attention was given to the establishment of a homogeneous architectural drawing convention, for which a series of guidelines were developed for use on site to establish a standard of representation. This was followed by in-depth analysis of the site’s morphology by accurately measuring its geometry with measuring tapes and lasers. In this field the MHC workers were able to assist the ArCHIAM team and substantially accelerated the duration of fieldwork (Figs. 2.11-13). One final aspect of the capacity building exercise undertaken on site was the induction of MHC employees into the complexities of systematic photographic documentation. Particular emphasis was given here to the creation of a stitchable photographic record that would permit the panoramic visualisation of architectural spaces.

Figure 2.11-13 as-Sulayf, training of Ministry employees

It is expected that with the skills imparted by the ArCHIAM team the trainees will be able to assist in future fieldwork campaigns and, indeed, also have the ability to carry out simple and basic survey work independently and without supervision. While these past experiences can be considered to have been a success in terms of the aims initially set out by the research team, there is clearly great potential in expanding this practice to motivated individuals with a personal interest in the field of vernacular architecture and history. Capacity building exercises and outreach projects pose the opportunity to sensitise the local communities to the values of cultural heritage, aid in its preservation and promote a shared identity.


DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS

3 DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS

3.1 introduction This chapter outlines the fieldwork process and approach as well as providing a context and historical introduction to the oasis of ΚIbrī and the settlement of asSulayf.

3.2 context and topography Located at about 212km west of Muscat the settlement of as-Sulayf, at varying times called Дārat or, also, QalΚat asSulayf is a heavily fortified community located at the eastern access route to the oasis of ΚIbrī (Fig. 3.1). This oasis, one of the largest in the Ad-Dhahirah region of northern Oman, forms the main point of intersection on the route east from the Rub al-Khali desert to the west and the oasis of Buraymi to

Figure 3.1 ΚIbrī Oasis components

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

Figure 3.2 ΚIbrī Oasis, ASTER Digital Elevation Model,

the North west. As such the oasis of ΚIbrī has always enjoyed an important amount of commercial transit which has had an important impact on the oasis’ relevance. Geologically ΚIbrī is of great interest due to its unusual location within a large sickle shaped lime and sand-stone formation characteristic of the southern foothills of the al-Hajjar mountains, which envelopes the entire oasis on its northern and eastern sides (Fig. 3.2). Water, prevented from passing the impermeable barrier formed by the limestone ridge, entered the interior of the formation via two narrow gaps on the northern (Wadī Araqi) and eastern side (Wadī Sulayf) thereof. It is at these two locations, on the banks of the two wadīs, that the two main settlements of ΚIbrī Oasis are located, Дārat ar-Ramel on the northern pass, and Дārat as-Sulayf on the eastern one. The successful extraction of water from the wadī and it’s efficient management resulted in a large irrigated area within which lay ΚIbrī’s core settlement, Дārat al-Shanadid. A number of smaller settlement clusters are likely to have existed in the past, but they are currently difficult to

Figure 3.3 as-Sulayf topographical location

identify due to the extensive modern development of the oasis an the near complete disappearance of the once great palm groves. Дārat as-Sulayf itself lies on the southern edge of the eastern access to the oasis atop a prominent and steep cliff which provides it with a commanding view of the eastern approaches. Indeed, the site appears to have begun life functioning primarily as a fortification controlling access to ΚIbrī from the East. While a substantial section of the settlement is defended by the sheer cliff on it’s northern edge, a number of towers and fortified enclosures provide a strong defensive setup for as-Sulayf. The climatology of the ΚIbrī region is largely comparable to that of the ad-Dhahiriah region in general. Rainfall averages around 250mm per year with July and August being the wettest months, and temperatures ranging from around 31cº in mid-summer to about 15cº during the winter months.


DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS

3.3 History The settlement of Дārat as-Sulayf had strong seasonal fluctuations in its population as during the date harvest period most of the inhabitants would reside within their palm groves and agricultural lands. Only at the end of the season would they return permanently to the settlement with their harvest. There is only scant historical information available on as-Sulayf. Interviews with local informants suggest the popular belief in a 600-year old settlement (thus, possibly, early-sixteenth century AD). While this is impossible to ascertain without substantial archival and archaeological research, it is clear that a fort was constructed at the foot of the Shambouh Mountain overlooking as-Sulayf valley during the reign of the Ya’aribah imam, Sultan bin Sayf II (1123 – 1131 AH/ 1711 – 1718/9 AD). Due to the importance of this point as access to ΚIbrī Oasis it is plausible that a watch tower or a defensive outpost of some description preceded the fort, perched on the hill overlooking the wadī – both once known by the same name (Shambouh). Popular history suggests that the name, as-Sulayf, appeared later. However, the elaborate fortified installation now effectively controlled access to ΚIbrī from the central Dakhiliyah/Jawf region. Popular belief also refers to the irrigation system, Falaj Shambouh, as being considerably older than the settlement. It is popularly considered a Dawudi falaj, constructed during the reign of Sulayman bin Dawud (hypostasis of King Solomon, son of David) – presumably one of the 10,000 aflāj he reputedly commissioned. Once again, while this great antiquity of the falaj cannot be readily ascertained, an ancient water supply system could nevertheless be presumed, which will have been boosted by the significant aflāj building initiative at the height of the Ya’aribah period (1650-1725), to which the fortification of relevant water sources clearly belongs.

The fort (hisn) was in effect a fortified settlement, which expanded through successive extensions southwards with towers (burj) marking the corners (cf. settlement evolution). These towers were given distinctive names; extending well beyond the harah, Burj Al-Rih (N1) or the tower of winds was constructed to mark the easternmost corner uphill and was possibly one of the last to appear. The other towers are, Burj as-Sa’d (J1), Burj at-Tawī (D7), Burj al-Murab’ (J11), Burj as-Sarooj (D3) (Fig. 3.4) and Burj al-Abyad (E1). The structure here referred to as tower A2 is traditionally associated with the mosque does therefore not appear to have specific name. Sulayf was settled by the Manadhirahh tribe – an important yet spatially dispersed group from the ad-Dahirah/Sirr region of O-man, possibly during the Ya’aribah period, when their tribal territory (dār) expanded into the Dakhiliyah region (e.g., Дārat alYemen in Izkī, Дārat al-Bilad in Manah) and also beyond the shores of Oman to Zanzibar. Later the group was closely aligned with the Al Bu Sa’id rulers, and helped Qays, the son of imam,Ahmed bin Sa’id in his battles with some of the tribes of northern Oman. The successive expansions would suggest that the ancient mosque, Masjid as-Sulayf, once would have existed extra muros, but later incorporated and added with defensive features which even feature on its distinctively deep and accessible mihrab. The latter could be a typological variation introduced from central Arabia, brought in with the Wahhabi influence that extended over this region between the early and the mid-nineteenth century AD.

Figure 3.4 as-Sulayf, tower D3 known as Burj al-Sarooj

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

3.4 Settlement structure and Morphology Layout The settlement layout of as-Sulayf was studied in great detail in order to learn more of its evolution and how it acquired it’s current form. As is usual for heavily fortified settlements, as-Sulayf forms a cohesive and self contained unit located within a relatively well preserved enclosure of a roughly triangular shape with towers at the corners and along longer stretches of wall.

Figure 3.5 as-Sulayf, Дārat al-Wadī as seen from D3

The morphology and evolution of the site are were clearly determined by the steep terrain and its necessary location close to the water source of the Wadī Sulayf. In this sense it is to be expected that the original core of the settlement was located roughly in the areas comprised by the area designated here as ‘D’, originally forming a small fortified core atop the ridge. Gradual expansions of housing units occurred in an southward direction, and also moving up the slope, which was never fully built up (Figs. 3.6, 3.10, 3.23). A further, later phase, expansion occurred in a down-

Figure 3.6 as-Sulayf as seen from A2 (previous page)

hill direction by the construction of a further enclosure, forming a bailey type space at the foot of the hill known as Дārat al-Wadī and comprising the buildings ‘Q’ series (Fig. 3.5). This space included two separate enclosures which have been largely demolished during the course of restoration works. These gender-specific spaces (Q1, Q2 & Q3) provided access to water basins for the ritual ablutions and general usage fed by the integrated falaj to bathing areas (Fig. 3.9). Originally the walls surrounding the female bathing area (Q1, Q2) joined with the perimeter walls of the Дārat al-Wadī tying the souq into the fortified envelope of the settlement. Both bathing areas (Q1, Q3) had separate accesses to the interior enclosure of as-Sulayf, with the males using the long steps up towards tower A2, while the women proceeded though an arched doorway approaching A2 from the south close-by to the souq. The settlement was originally accessible from a single gate located adjacent to the souq (O12b) though this access was recently blocked in the course of restoration for unknown reasons. Instead, a new breach was created in the west wall of Дārat al-Wadī (Q7), providing access for large vehicles and


DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS easing the restoration. The settlement itself was originally also accessible only from a single point, at the base of A2, though according to local informants a small door was built into the enclosure walls in the area now occupied by B1. During restoration this door was enlarged to allow for the passage of motor vehicles. The interior morphology of asSulayf is largely a product of the complex terrain which the builders had to negotiate, as well as the water runoff system that had to be taken into account in order not to expose large sections of wall to the powerful downhill streams that could occur during rain storms. The settlement is therefore divided into distinct clusters which grew along radially disposed passage ways running uphill. These passageways allowed for the efficient evacuation of storm water which was channelled though the enclosure wall through drains at their base. In recent years these channels have been destroyed which has resulted in extensive damage being carried out on the built environment.

Figure 3.7 as-Sulayf, well tower D7

One of the most important features of most Omani oasis settlements are the strategies employed to ensure a constant supply of clean water for the inhabitants, livestock and agriculture. As at times the location of the water source did not coincide with the most desirable emplacement of the settlement itself the water would have to be transported over relatively large distances to serve, both, the settlement and associated planting areas.

Wadi Sulayf and the foot of the cliff upon which the settlement sits. This provided a degree of control over the falaj which could therefore be defended from above. The underground channel itself was approximately 1m wide and 1.3m deep, at times running up 2m below ground level. Following the edge of the settlement hill allowed for the construction of a tower (D7) built atop the channel and acting as a fortified well shaft which could be accessed safely from within the settlement providing water at night time and during possible sieges (Fig 3.7).

Дārat as-Sulayf was supplied with water from a single source which lay some 5km east of the settlement and was brought into the enclosure via a complex channelling system known as the Falaj Shambouh. The channel was built along the narrow strip of ground between the southern banks of the

The Falaj Shambouh curves around the mountain and was guided into Дārat al-Wadī (Fig. 3.8), described here as the bailey, at an unclear location, but probably somewhere at the foot of the D-shaped tower of D3. It ran underground through much of the upper part of Дārat al-Wadī until it re-

Water

Figure 3.8 as-Sulayf, Falaj Shambouh

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN surfaced at the basin Q5. From there on the channel continued underground supplying a further series of pools known as sharh al-khrous (Q3, Q5, Q2), used for soaking date-storage bags, ritual ablutions, washing and drinking. After passing through this space the channel continued under the souq and irrigated the palm groves which existed beyond the walls (Fig. 3.8 ).

Figure 3.9 as-Sulayf, sharh al-krhous Q2

Figure 3.10 as-Sulayf, storm water drain Figure 3.11 as-Sulayf as seen from west

Apart from the well located inside tower D7 local informants have indicated that there originally was a further well located adjacent to a small tower-like feature protruding from the perimeter wall of Дārat al-Wadī (Q6). This one is today covered with debris and not visible anymore thought it is originally likely to have tapped the subsurface aquifers which followed the course of the Wadi Sulayf. A further feature related to water were the five discharge channels which evacuated storm water from within the settlement (Fig. 3.32). Due to the pronounced slope of the hill rainwater could gather into powerful torrents which would have to be kept away from the building foundations in order to prevent the basal erosion of the dwellings. This was achieved in part by the creation of shallow, rock-cut ditches and channels running down the main avenues of as-

Sulayf. To prevent the accumulation of large amounts of water behind the west wall five holes pierced the bottom of the wall and western side of tower A2 (Fig 3.10).

Defences The defensive arrangement of Дārat as-Sulayf is that of a highly complex system functioning in several tiers depending on proximity to the settlement core. The first line of defence, the visual line, was covered by a system of towers located along the northern edge of the limestone ridge. A further tower (N1) was located at the site’s highest point, providing a visual radius of some 15km into the surrounding countryside and primarily guarding the eastern approaches. It is this visual function which allowed this particular tower to be less substantial than its other counterparts, as it was clearly too far removed from any potential threat as to require strong protective measures, though it may also have had the role of guarding the source of the settlements water supply. Tower N1 is physically linked with the defensive perimeter via the enclosure wall which is attached to it. Further down the northern edge of the settlement one finds two more towers (D7 and E1) (Fig. 3.12) which,


DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS unlike N1, covered a variety of functions. Tower E1 is a comparatively large shaft tower with an elevated access to discourage unwanted entry. Its location further down the hill and on the narrowest point along the wadī (about 300m wide at this point) gave it a strong offensive capability as an elevated gun platform. Tower D7, on the other hand, was built on top of the falaj channel which curves around the plateau along the edge of the wadi. This tower contained a well shaft connected to the falaj below, providing the inhabitants with a secure water supply and additional gun platform (Fig 3.7, 3.12). The main defensive perimeter of as-Sulayf was located on the western side of the settlement, guarding the bailey (Дārat al-Wadī), the souq and main access routes to the interior. On the northern corner dwelling D3 was integrated into this defensive disposition by containing a large D-shaped tower (Burj al-Sarooj) which protruded from the wall covering the northern part of the bailey. One interesting feature of this tower is the narrow and barely visible postern gate which may have provided an escape route from as-Sulayf in times of danger. On the western-most point of the bailey stood a large circular tower (Burj al-Wadī, Q8) of which now only

the ground level survives. Further south along the wall the main gate was protected by a large square tower of three stories (A2), which was attached on the interior to the mosque (A3) (Fig 3.11). Tower A2 is one of the most prominent and widely visible features of Дārat as-Sulayf. Though already heavily modified by current restoration is it still possible to discern some of the original features of the structure. In particular the interior defences such as the murder hole located above the inner side of the gate and the gun loops located on the middle floor are relevant features. Like most other structures in the settlement this one too is built from mud brick, though in a substantially more solid manner than of the other towers. The numerous gun-loops on the middle floor (26 in total) provide a useful hint as to the impressive fire power that could be displayed from this single location.

Figure 3.12 Towers E1 & D7

Further along the perimeter wall that stretched off toward the south is located a small round corner tower (part of J1) which clearly served as a flanking position from which to cover the walls which stretched off perpendicularly from this point (Fig. 3.13). The southern wall, the longest of the entire settlement, moves uphill toward N1 in a more or Figure 3.13 Enclosure and tower N1

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN less straight line, interrupted only by one square wall tower which covered the southern flank and reputedly served as a gallows at various points in its existence.

Figure 3.14 as-Sulayf, dwelling D13

Finally, the last, and most exposed, defensive feature of Дārat as-Sulayf was the enclosure that formed the large space termed here as the bailey, comprised primarily by area Q. This roughly triangular space starts at the base of tower D3, from which it covers the entire western section of the settlement. Its walls are substantially thinner and lower that those of the inner defences, but at the apex they meet at a round platform. Further south the wall encloses the souq, at the edge of which was located the original entrance gate.

Dwellings The dwellings of Дārat as-Sulayf are built exclusively from mud brick, though the fact that they were built on the bedrock means that they required substantial stone foundations in order not to be damaged by runoff during rainstorms. Most dwellings are characterised by their comparatively Figure 3.15 as-Sulayf, partial ceiling collapse Figure 3.16 as-Sulayf, restored courtyard of D3

Figure 3.17 as-Sulayf, souq as seen from east

large size and grand aspect. The majority appear to have had two stories or interior courtyards (Fig. 3.16) and were often richly decorated with wall reliefs and paintings, and also elaborately decorated roof supports with Quranic verses, dates, dedications, etc. Large arched lobbies were common (Fig. 3.18), hinting at an affluent past of the settlement’s inhabitants. The fact that there were a number of over-hangs connecting adjacent dwellings suggest either a gradual saturation of the urban space or the expansion of family groups in certain quarters of the settlement. The latter appears more likely in view of the large open spaces that were never built up as one climbs the slope. Indeed, the fact that there are few overlaps between buildings suggests that plot boundaries continued to be respected as buildings acquired subsequent floors. This stands in some contrast with other Omani hill-side settlements such as Дārat as-Saybani in Barkat al-Mawz, where the lack of space forced structures to gradually grow over one-another. With few exceptions the current state of preservation of Sulayf’s dwellings is largely ruinous, with preservation worsening quickly due to collapsed coverings and top floors (Fig. 3.16).


DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS

Souq One of the most interesting features of Дārat as-Sulayf is the still relatively well preserved souq, comprised here primarily by the area designated ‘O’ (Fig. 3.17). While the majority of stalls and businesses have been abandoned, the potential for revitalization of this space makes it a high priority location for immediate attention. Located at the south-western corner of the site the souq of Sulayf counts with a total of about 24 stalls and a number of storage facilities located around a central open space used for auctioneering of livestock and other goods. This space was originally shaded from the sun by a palm-frond covering supported on a series of masonry columns, most of which are still in good condition. The stalls which originally formed the market were on average about 3x2m in size and served a variety of trades from green grocers to tailors and smiths. Today the last shop still in use is that of a gunsmith, whose trade has been severely hampered by the blocking of the access gates to the settlement and souq. The souq could originally be accessed from 3 sides: from the outside of the settlement via a gate (O12b), now blocked, from the bailey and from the inner enclosure of Sulayf from tower A2.

Public structures and Spaces mosque

Among the most valuable and important building of Sulayf is the mosque, known variously as Masjid Husin or Masjid Harat as-Sulayf, located immediately adjacent to the gate tower A2. According to informants this mosque

has barely changed since its original construction some 600 years ago, and it was built to the honour of the Ulama and people of wisdom of Sulayf, the last of whom was Bader ibn Salim ibn Said ibn Musalam al-Mandhari. Structurally the building is of a relatively simple arrangement consisting of three shallow naves in two bays supported by three large arches which are currently being restored. Originally the interior was accessed from the passage below A2, but could also be accessed via three doorways located in the adjacent courtyard. Doorways and, arches and other features are currently under restoration and their original appearance is therefore a matter of conjecture (Fig. 3.19). The mihrab recedes unusually deep into the qibla wall and protrudes from the outside of the building by almost 2m (Fig 3.18). Its front face was covered in a thick layer of sarooj but was otherwise undecorated. A further unusual feature is the small mimbar-like niche complementing the mihrab which may be reflective of the strong Sunni influence prevalent at ΚIbrī in the past. This relatively small but elaborate structure is currently being restored without any clear antiquarian

Figure 3.18 as-Sulayf, Mihrab of Masjid Husin as-Sulayf Figure 3.19 as-Sulayf, Masjid Husin as-Sulayf

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Figure 3.20 Pestle- and grind stones

guidance or plan, which according to local informants has led to the destruction of centuries-old writings and dates that once covered the walls of the mosque.

receive people from outside the group. Belonging to this group of spaces are the sablah’s of D5 and J4, both of which are currently in a very advanced state of decay.

Outside the mosque the original courtyard enclosure that also houses the stairs to the roof of the mosque and tower A2 has been recently reconstructed. The two ablution cells now built over the discharge channel which passes by the mosque do not form part of the original arrangement. This channel carried water only sporadically and is therefore of no use as supplying a wudu with a regular flow.

Stables

Sablahs and meeting spaces

Throughout the settlement were a series of meeting halls, usually associated with a specific gate or entrance. The main gate which gives access to the souq from the outside held a small sablah supported by two arches above it. Of this unfortunately nothing remains.

Figure 3.21 Mortar hole

Another sablah is said to have existed in the intermediate floor of tower A2. This space has been restored recently and it’s original appearance cannot be ascertained due to the lack of prior documentation. It appears, however, to have been a small square room with a relatively low roof and a number of small niches with gun-loops in the walls acting as diminutive firing chambers. A further meeting space (majlis) was located in the open immediately outside the mosque overlooking the souq. Men would gather in this space called the barzza to receive greetings and during Eid. Inside the settlement one finds a large meeting space immediately adjacent to the entrance gate at ground level within A2. This assembly point, (burrad) was used by the men primarily on Fridays before and after prayer.

Figure 3.22 Mortar hole

Some dwellings incorporated private sbal in which to

A further point of relevance are a number of open spaces originally used for the stabling or temporary leaving of pack animals. These areas include the large open space in Дārat al-Wadī below D3, and the smaller enclosures within the settlement at C2 and I4. other features

A final point of interest are the numerous dimple and hole features dotted around bedrock formations throughout the entire site. They seem to be related to the equally common finds of elongated grind stones which likely functioned as pestles. According to informants these features and artefacts were used for the grinding of spices, grain and coffee (Figs. 3.20-3.22).

3.5 settlement evolution The often used designation of QalΚat (fortress) in reference to Sulayf indicates that at some point in the past the site was thought of primarily as a fortification rather than as a settlement. This notion lines up with certain aspects of the urban morphology which have been studied here in detail (Fig. 3.23). The most like developmental scenario is one that parts from a small fortified nucleus comprising area D, including towers D7 and E1. In particular D7 would have been of vital importance as it provided the inhabitants/garrison with water. The unusually large stretch of wall which connects


DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS E1 with the dwelling E2 appears to be a remnant of an older enclosure which formed the southern edge of the site during this early developmental phase. The growing importance of as-Sulayf, the added security and the influx of associated tribal groups saw a gradual expansion southward resulting in the already existing Masjid al-Husin being included into the perimeter defence. In what is likely to have been the latest phase of expansion the settlement grew in a westward direction encompassing the falaj as it passed along the bottom of the slope. Also included in this last expansion, denoted here as the bailey, was the souq which was brought firmly within the enclosure. While it has not been possible to accurately determine the antiquity of the Falaj Shambou and whether it in fact pre-dates the establishment of the QalΚat of Sulayf, the possibility of there having been a smaller urban nucleus in the area now comprised by the Дārat al-Wadī must be taken into account. Considering the likely antiquity of the ΚIbrī oasis it is likely that area was settled since before the Manadhirah arrival in the 14th century AD. In this scenario the Falaj forms the developmental skeleton along which the area of Sulayf is settled, with a small fortified cluster stop the ridge and scattered dwellings along the falaj and wadi. Population growth, an increase in wealth and periods of political instability may have contributed to a growing gravitational pull of as-Sulayf, leading the settlement to envelop Дārat al-Wadī and the souq.

Figure 3.23 as-Sulayf, putative morphological development of the Дārat

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN Figure 3.24 Дārat as-Sulayf, Base Plan


DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS Figure 3.25 Дārat as-Sulayf, Zoning Plan

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN Figure 3.26 Дārat as-Sulayf, Building Accesses


DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS Figure 3.27 Дārat as-Sulayf, Gates

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN Figure 3.28 Дārat as-Sulayf , Settlement Components


DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS Figure 3.29 Дārat as-Sulayf, Tribal Mosaic

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN Figure 3.30 Дārat as-Sulayf, Settlement Usage Plan


DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS Figure 3.31 Дārat as-Sulayf, Maintenance Status

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Figure 3.32 as-Sulayf, Water Related Elements


ARCHITECTURAL VALUES AND THREATS TO SITE’S SIGNIFICANCE

4 ARCHITECTURAL VALUES and THREATS TO SIGNIFICANCE

The following discussion addresses the key aspects of the settlement’s architectural values and some of the primary issues that threaten its significance.

4.1 urban and architectural values • Being located on a steep rocky spur perched above the wādi below the expansion of as-Sulayf required substantial foresight in order to successfully make the best use of the terrain available. In this sense the settlement is not unusual, as an important number of Omani traditional settlements exhibit an undogmatic approach to urban development. Under the lack of effective institutional guidance the growth of Oman’s traditional settlements is influenced by the availability of water and its location, the topography of the terrain, the size and relations of the composing tribal groups, and the

political relations between the various hārah which make up the oasis as a whole. In the case of Sulayf the majority of the dwellings are concentrated along the lower portion of the enclosure, closest to the water sources, the mosque and the souq. • The limited area available, and the desire to reside closest to the utilitarian spaces lead to a gradual saturation of the building space at the bottom of the hill, which accounts for the size of the buildings, the fact they almost all of several floors and at times even overhang the alleyways. • The settlement incorporates powerful defences, conditioned on the one part by the terrain itself, but also by the construction of strong towers and robust walls with sentry walks and crenellations. One feature of particular interest is the tower built upon the falaj which passes below the cliff linking Sulayf to its primary water source. These elements are clearly discernible as being the product of a gradual expansion of the settlement. • An important element of the settlement is the small mosque incorporated into Sulayf’s perimeter defences. Its inclusion into the walls, with a deep mihrab protruding from them, suggests that the Mosque pre-dates the construction of this wall, and that it was therefore part of an earlier iteration of the settlement. • Of interest is the relatively sophisticated water runoff system which ensured that buildings were not damaged by storm water. Surface flows were evacuated by a system of channels which lead the water away from the settlement, through the walls and into the Falaj Shambouh in Дārat al-Wadī (Fig.

Figure 4.1 Дārat as-Sulayf at dusk

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN 4.2). • One of its most unexpected features are the two ablution chambers located in the adjacent courtyard. These two structures are built on top of a storm water drain, with access to it, suggesting the unlikely possibility of a permanent flow of water along this channel (Fig. 4.3).

4.2 historical values Figure 4.2 as-Sulayf, storm-water drain • One of the primary characteristics the oasis of ΚIbrī is its proximity to the Rub al-Khali Desert and consequently non-Ibādi influence on the architecture of the area. This can be observed, for example, in the deep recess of the mihrab of the Masjid Husin al-Sulayf, a feature not usually observed on Ibādi mosques. • Due to its strong fortified position as-Sulayf acted as the west gate into the oasis of ΚIbrī, but in a larger context it also sat astride the main east-west route between the regions of ad-Dākhilīyah and adDhāhira providing with supra-regional importance.

Figure 4.3 as-Sulayf, reconstructed ablution chambers

• The comparative antiquity of the settlement makes it the likely setting for a number of important events in the history of the ΚIbrī Oasis, but also in the history of Oman at large. • The putative antiquity of the Falaj Shambouh makes Дārat as-Sulayf a prime exponent of Oman’s famed falaj irrigation system, and would be of great value to the future re-development of the settlement if restored.

4.3 social values • The settlement of as-Sulayf in interesting in so far as it was in many way the ‘home’ settlement of the Manadhirah tribe and its associated client groups and appear to have been located in a relatively homogeneous tribal regions. Unlike at, for example, Izkī the oasis of ΚIbrī appears not to have been marked by pronounced tribal rifts. • The broad range of the Manadhirah, stretching across central Oman and even as a far afield as Zanzibar provides the settlement with an important supraregional link which deserves to be highlighted. • Manadhirah association with the Al Bu Sa’id leaders and their repeated cooperation may be part of the reason for the settlement’s comparative wealth and rapid growth n past centuries,

4.4 threats to site’s significance Both, human and environmental action, are having a destructive impact on as-Sulayf’s architectural fabric. The following describes a list of primary threats that are likely to adversely affect the settlement’s significance: • Heritage should be regarded as a living entity and not as a mere object of preservation. There is strong reason to believe that the object of heritage management in Oman has been the latter. • The settlement currently remains entirely uninhabited. This is a result of demographic


ARCHITECTURAL VALUES AND THREATS TO SITE’S SIGNIFICANCE shift, both generally from the predominantly rural interior to larger urban centres in the region, as well as towards the capital, Muscat. There is also a general lack of interest in living within traditional environments resulting from significant social change and ‘modernisation’. Depopulation and abandonment rather than overcrowding is the problem of Omani vernacular settlements. This Management Plan proposal aims to address this problem broadening the usage focus of the site and by introducing a range of accommodation types of contemporary relevance. • The continued lack of day-to-day maintenance and conservation arising from the above situation is a significant threat. To address this, the Ministry of Heritage and Culture (MHC) has taken the first step by commissioning and supporting work on this documentation and management plan. • Tourism activity is hampered by the construction works at the site. Rather than integrating the restoration process into the visitor experience. Sulayf is locked to visitors and locals, completely eliminating the comunitary impact of the project and reducing potential interest among stakeholders and tourists alike. Tourism is as yet not professionally managed and does not follow any strategic guidelines and guides are often inadequately informed. • The wide range of constructional, structural and architectural issues arising from neglect poses an extremely important threat. Structural failure arises from unchecked weather and bacterial action on the built fabric, as well as altered levels of stress and strain on building materials and components

resulting from fluctuating levels of humidity and collapsed structures. Key architectural features of the settlement are being lost through erosion and collapse. In addition to the decay of structures due to the eroding action of the elements (Fig. 4.4), abandonment and resulting dilapidation, the inevitable loss of the richness and cultural/material value of the earthen architecture is caused by repair/ maintenance malpractices. This report provides a comprehensive understanding of the extent of constructional problems. • Figures 4.6 4.7 respectively describe and map the state of preservation of the settlement by broad categories, by: • indicating the degree of preservation of the building units; • showing it by means of sample photos; • suggesting actions to be implemented; • identifying and quantifying the building units falling into each preservation category. They show that the majority of the mud brick structures which have not been intervened upon for repair/restoration purposes are in a state of significant damage and would need immediate attention. • The late adoption of heritage management and development strategies for the settlement has intensified deterioration and continues to threaten the wider significance of the site. The present report aims to address this problem by establishing specific strategies and detailed approaches, which require integration with broad economic, social,

Figure 4.4 as-Sulayf, erosion and decay of fabric Figure 4.5 as-Sulayf, reconstructed section of wall

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN cultural and spatial development strategies. • The local residents and especially the younger generation do not feel the sense of ownership they once had. This is due to a socio-cultural shift resulting from a particular kind of ‘modernisation’ that has moved the new generation away from a deep and continued understanding of vernacular environments. New urban development has paid very little regard to the existing vernacular environments. This again the Master Plan aims to address through concrete propositions. • There is a lack of available contemporary alternatives for intervening within such historic fabric to bring it back to use within the modern context. It is important that such international approaches and precedents are studied with care with a view to adapting these to the Omani context. This appears in Chapter 7.

Figure 4.6 as-Sulayf, collapse of interior floors and façades

• The Royal Decree 6/80 establishes foundation and provides guidance regarding the importance of conserving built heritage. MHC is working towards overcoming the challenges in extending, developing and coordinating the institutional framework required for dealing with a complex phenomenon. It is important that other governmental bodies work closely with MHC to coordinate policies at national and local levels to address integration of heritage management with planning and development. A robust tourism policy is again critical to the sustainable management of the historic built fabric. • In the short term, pending the development of wider coordinated policy, the present pressures on land for developing new housing, and economic, social

and civic infrastructure is likely to lead to further deterioration of the settlement.


ARCHITECTURAL VALUES AND THREATS TO SITE’S SIGNIFICANCE

Figure 4.7 Дārat as-Sulayf, Types of Construction

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN Figure 4.8 Дārat as-Sulayf, Mapping of state of preservation


ARCHITECTURAL VALUES AND THREATS TO SITE’S SIGNIFICANCE

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ARCHITECTURAL VALUES AND THREATS TO SITE’S SIGNIFICANCE

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF: PRINCIPLES AN APPROACHES TO HERITAGE MANAGMENTPLAN

5 PRINCIPLES & APPROACHES TO HERITAGE Management

Principle number P1 P2

Description of Principle Minimum intervention Reversibility Retention of buildings, settlements

P3

and context: conserve vistas, views, spaces and enclosures and sensitively interpret as necessary Anthropological (i.e., people centred)

P4

approach to heritage management and reuse Integration of the younger generation

P5

In accordance with the European Charter on Conservation (1975) and the ICOMOS Conservation Charter (2004) this chapter sets out the ways in which the significant values of the settlement, its integrity, and the heritage and material culture are to be safeguarded within a context of sympathetic development. Following the establishment of a broad philosophy, a set of general policies for development and conservation are discussed. This is followed by a set of detailed guidelines for restoration, consolidation, rebuilding and redevelopment measures (cf. definitions below).

5.1 PHILOSOPHY OF DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION: PRINCIPLES The following are 10 key principles the Heritage Management Plan intends to embrace and develop further with special reference to the harah (Table 5.1):

through reuse and interpretation of the site Private and public sector engagement

P6 P7 P8 P9 P10

organisational

and

individual

stakeholder cooperation A combined bottom-up and top-down approach Introducing functional diversity – possible/ compatible uses for existing buildings through innovative thinking Sustainable management and conservation New buildings not copy, replica or pastiche but interpretation: buildings ‘of their time’

Table 5.1 source: Venice Charter on Conservation, 1975, and the ICOMOS Conservation Charter, 2004 

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5.2 APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION 5.2.1

That all significant aspects of the

settlement morphology, fortification,

and all interventions. An experienced multi-disciplinary team, which will draw from latest methodology and techniques, should be entrusted with addressing all aspects of development, conservation and heritage management.

townscape, structures (institutional and residential), irrigation and agriculture be

5.2.3 All new-build and extension should be

retained, safeguarded, consolidated, restored

clearly distinguishable from existing and

and wherever appropriate rebuilt, to preserve

‘authentic’ building and settlement fabric.

the identity, integrity and authenticity of the site.

The identity of the settlement depends on the retention of all significant material, socio-cultural and historic characteristics amidst development that is both necessary and inevitable. Development should not overwhelm the past; rather, development needs to be carefully managed and integrated with heritage to retain the identity of as-Sulayf. The significant aspects have been identified in earlier chapters (3 & 4). However, further issues are expected to emerge from the necessary additional studies/ analysis identified below to extend our knowledge of the infrastructural and sociocultural aspects (§5.5). 5.2.2

That all new development should be

All alterations and additions should reflect the culture of its time and therefore should employ materials and construction systems relevant to the present. Hybrid systems engaging traditional materials and methods may be introduced to allude to the complex culture of today. The materials and construction methods chosen In the case of new-builds and extensions one should explore the full range of opportunities presented by the juxtaposition of traditional and modern contexts, as long as it does not compromise with the essential integrity of the traditional settlement and its fabric.

5.2.4

The use and application of traditional

sympathetic to the cultural and material

methods and techniques of construction and use

heritage of the settlement.

of materials and building components are to be

All development should respect and remain subservient to the rich cultural and material heritage of as-Sulayf. Development should not in any way become overbearing – urbanistically, architecturally and otherwise visually. Further studies identified below (§5.5) are crucial to establish a comprehensive picture of the dynamic nature of this heritage. This will demand a knowledge-based yet creative approach to establishing policies, strategies, master plan

encouraged.

This should especially be the case where a ‘significant’ component or fragment is required to be rebuilt or where the character and integrity of the structure would be lost through the use of new materials and/ or construction systems. It would also be possible to employ new techniques of construction to traditional materials or in some cases, employing traditional construction methods to modern materials. Salvaged building materials and architectural components, wherever possible


ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF: PRINCIPLES AN APPROACHES TO HERITAGE MANAGMENTPLAN and relevant, should be reused. Such hybrid construction would still allow for making the clear distinction required under §5.2.4.

Cross programming should be considered to avoid zoned restrictions. 5.2.6 A holistic approach to development should be adopted to achieve a balanced and sustainable

5.2.5 A link needs to be established between modern-day aspirations and continuation of ageold methods of livelihood and culture.

New programmes would need to establish the fine balance between the continued and very welcome existence of traditional life and those demanded by the globalised environment and societal change. Continued sustenance of the traditional ways of life gives the settlement its character and identity and is clearly an important socio-cultural and economic resource. Requirements emerging from societal changes driven by shifts in the globalised culture and economy, on the other hand, demands careful attention from the developmental perspective. Economics, employment, education, cultural and social development should be considered. Wherever feasible, traditional industry and economic methods should be safeguarded (e.g., agriculture, crafts, infrastructure – irrigation systems and tertiary sectors dependent on traditional economics and modes of production). The nature and scale of new programmes to be introduced should be considered carefully – what size of production, its appropriateness, etc. A large scale ‘modern’ industrial production is certainly inappropriate for a small settlement such as as-Sulayf; however, a scaled down and modified or partial production might work, with a larger industrial component situated outside the vernacular environment. Decoupling of industrial production with careful consideration of impact of specific components of the processes might need to be carefully and creatively thought through.

future which is in sympathy with the past.

Such studies should take the entire oasis and its setting into account. Development needs, therefore, would have to be established for the entire oasis and not for a constituent settlement – such as as-Sulayf– in isolation. In the light of the research being currently conducted, the present report thus calls for a revision of existing regional planning strategies and policies to integrate heritage management as a crucial component of development. A regional approach should be adopted for the establishment of use patterns for settlements. An adDhahirah wide plan is needed to consider the range and hierarchy of settlements for reuse. The strategy should be drawn up keeping significance and aspirations in mind. A regional significance hierarchy should be established to ascertain the importance of settlements and should be aligned with national and regional development policy and growth plans. Regional development plans, therefore, should include a comprehensive understanding of the extant historical settlements and fabric. The region-wide strategy will help avoid duplication and repetition of provisions (e.g., too many museums). It will avoid stresses and strains on limited infrastructure and resources.

5.2.7 A full evaluation of all conventionally available and standardised strategies should be undertaken before embracing any of those as acceptable approaches.

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN An example of this would be the often uncritical adoption of tourism as a universal panacea for heritage settlements. While this sector is certainly to play an important role, on its own it will fail to ensure sustainable heritage management. Less direct tourism might be worth considering – resulting in more ecologically and socially appropriate tourism. Tourism need to be also considered in terms of its very local nature – not just as international or Arab regional tourism (GCC/ Arab world); this is often overlooked. Increasing sensitive and sustainable local tourism (even within the governorate of e.g., ad-Dhahirah) would introduce a rich palette of experiences across visitor groups.

to retain integrity. 5.3.2 Prioritise action on areas and structures according to historical and strategic importance to settlement.

Settlement analysis and the Statement of Significance have identified important phases of settlement development and structures that are historically important. Such highvalue structures and areas indicative of key phases of development need to be given action priority. Approaches to conservation and development (§5.2.6) have to be established in accordance with the priority list and the value assigned to structures.

5.3 GENERAL POLICIES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION

5.3.3 Establish a phasing plan for the

The following general policies are envisaged to form the basic framework for development planning and conservation initiatives in as-Sulayf.

physical state of structures, priorities,

5.3.1 Establishment of a Buffer Zone to safeguard the settlement, its integrity and its visual appearance.

This would ensure that the settlement retains its traditional context or limits/ prevents any further damage to it. Additionally, all significant visual corridors need to be conserved, retained and/ or opened up to optimise the significant character of the settlement. A detailed survey needs to be undertaken to identify all significant structures (mosques, sbal, dwellings, water and agricultural infrastructure, etc.) located within the Buffer Zone. Conservation and developmental policies and guidelines established for the settlement will apply to the Buffer Zone

development and conservation of structures. The phasing plan will take into account the approach and available resources.

The phasing plan needs to take into account the established priority areas and structures. However, a key issue in that is the physical state of individual structures, their ownership and approaches to conservation and development those would demand. Together, the phasing plan, required approaches and available resources would provide the premises of the Master Plan.

5.3.4 Establish specific guidelines for conservation and development within settlement giving consideration to ownership.

Detailed conservation and development guidelines will have to take into account the ownership and nature of occupation of all structures concerned. A few important


ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF: PRINCIPLES AN APPROACHES TO HERITAGE MANAGMENTPLAN issues of ownership and occupation may be highlighted here: • Mosques (s. masjid, pl. masajid): While the mosques are used for prayer and congregation by the neighbourhood and the community, its day-to-day running is entrusted with the Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs. However, physical upkeep of any mosque more than 100 years old falls within the purview of the Ministry of Heritage and Culture. All extant traditional mosques are in use and are in an acceptable state of preservation. • Meeting halls (s. sablah, pl. sbal) and communal facilities: Male meeting halls are normally owned by a particular tribes. However, in this harah there is also another distinctive type: those associated with dwellings as private reception lounges (s. majlis, pl. majalis) and under private ownership but also used by the tribe, of which there were comparatively few in as-Sulayf. While these lie in a state of disuse and dereliction, the socially and historically perceived and actual ownership issues are important considerations in the acquisition of these properties and in the preparation of guidelines and Master Plan. The ownership of other communal facilities, such as roasting pits (tannur), water access and bathing points along the falaj channels, etc., again, needs to be established. • Dwellings: All but two of the dwellings are occupied – one is owner-occupied and the other used as accommodation for farm labourers. The occupied dwelling are preserved; however, the maintenance problems arise from either under-or over-occupancy, as well as, from changed function of certain rooms/ spaces and the use of improper structural arrangements. Most dwellings are accessible (no locks on door/ no doors/ substantially derelict). In both cases relationships between ownership (perceived

and actual) and maintenance are complex. A small number of vacated dwellings are still maintained and others are neglected, expediting dereliction. • Market Stalls (souq) formed an important part of the economic life of the settlement and most of these are still in relatively good condition and at times continue in use. While the majority are abandoned and open, a few are locked by metal doors and pad locks. The ownership of these spaces must be assessed with certainty prior to any attempts at restoring the souq in order to avoid conflicts amongst local stakeholders and successfully implement a re-use policy

5.3.5 Ministry of Heritage and Culture to establish policy and strategy for the acquisition of all relevant land and properties currently under private ownership. Acquisition could work in tandem with a strategy to involve the private sector.

Acquisition of important properties is critical to the successful application of the Master Plan and phasing programme. All possible strategies and approaches related to acquisition, including a range of incentive measures, need to be given consideration. While acquisition is important for the early phase of the project, it should form part of a broader policy that incorporates the involvement of the private sector, the community and individual residents.

5.3.6 Conservation approach should be consistent with international approaches and guidelines and should be consistent with the philosophy of development and conservation

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN established for as-sulayf.

Consistent with international guidelines and definitions for conservation and development within historic contexts, the conservation and development proposal will adopt the following distinction in approaches: • Restoration: Those structures or components of structures that will need careful attention to return it to its original condition and appearance. In asSulayf this approach will need to be revised as a substantial part of the hārat has already undergone intervention prior to documentation. • Consolidation: Physical addition and the application of adhesive or supporting material to retain the architectonic, visual and structural stability of the ensemble. It will also involve the removal of all debris and organic and inorganic waste deposited on site. Usable and significant architectural and constructional components will be salvaged and treated for reuse. In as-Sulayf these measures have already been taken, yet as work progresses further consolidation will need to take place due to the rapid decay of the fabric. Indeed it is likely that already restored sections will require attention in the near future if the quality of the new sections proves to be less durable than older ones. • Rebuilding: Considerable reconstruction based on available documentation and conjecture to give the structure its earlier and more authentic appearance. In as-Sulayf this is currently being directed at the most visually impacting areas along the curtain wall, mosque tower A2 and area D. • Redevelopment: New build with an established

and restricted context of architectural operation. In as-Sulayf this should be directed towards either, i) sites presently lying empty and earmarked for development or, ii) properties in such a state of severe dereliction so as to demand immediate clearance and redevelopment.

5.4 GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION All guidelines for development and conservation have been developed consistent with the development and conservation philosophy and policies established above. The settlement has not been treated as a mere assemblage of built structures and artefacts, but specific attention has been given to the present state of life and future aspirations of the inhabitants, ownership status of structures and the opportunity for public-private partnership. The guideline takes a holistic view of development in as-Sulayf The guidelines are put forward with a view that the private sector, owner-occupiers and individuals with ownership of properties within as-Sulayf will take an active interest and part in the development and conservation initiative to move towards the holistic goal. A set of general guidelines for development and conservation in the harah is followed by a set of more specific developmental/ design guidelines applicable to specific sites, buildings and structures to be redeveloped or rebuilt. The dwelling is given special attention in the light of their numerical dominance, the opportunities these present, the concerning state of preservation, and the range of development and conservation possibilities that can be envisaged. It is envisaged that the guidelines will be held under regular review and refinement as the project progresses.


ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF: PRINCIPLES AN APPROACHES TO HERITAGE MANAGMENTPLAN 5.4.1 General Guidelines

The following general guidelines will be applicable to all development and conservation measures: • The morphology of the original phase of the features, or the phases deemed to be of most significance, will be safeguarded and/ or highlighted to preserve the identity, integrity and authenticity of the site. • All reasonable attempts will be made to ensure the appropriate, and if possible, authentic reuse for any redundant components and features. It will be ensured that the new or continued inauthentic use of features does not distort or distract from the identified significance of older features or the wider traditional assemblage.

preservation in situ of a traditionally constructed building is unwarranted; then it will be preserved by record. This documentation will be approached as though one was recording an archaeological monument. • All measures will be taken to remove debris, hazardous construction and organic and inorganic waste from site. Adequate measures will be taken to prevent any future disposal of such waste on site and to manage and safely dispose of all household and commercial waste in future. All reusable building material and architectural components will be salvaged, catalogued and stored for reuse. • Any development in the area shall be according to the approved Master Plan.

• Traditional materials will be used wherever and whenever practicable during construction works within the settlement, whether the aim is to consolidate and/or to rebuild existing traditionally constructed buildings or in the construction of new buildings for domestic or commercial purposes.

The following general Design Guidelines will be adopted for all redevelopment within Дārat as-Sulayf:

• Where rebuilding is required to preserve a building or structure of significance, all attempts should be made to clearly distinguish those reconstructed elements which are based on accurate archaeological and architectural documentation and those which are merely founded on conjecture.

• Any new development should respect and respond to the topographic conditions. Inappropriate cut and fill of the site shall not be allowed.

• Maximum understanding of the architectural features and social values will be achieved prior to any intervention – whether the aim is to consolidate, rebuild or redevelop – and that this intervention will always be reserved to the minimum required to achieve those aims. Where analysis dictates that

5.4.2 Design Guidelines for redevelopment

• All efforts will be undertaken to ensure that existing vistas are retained and not blocked with any new construction.

• All defensive features and traditional open spaces next to defensive features shall be retained. • All existing dead end alleys and internal courtyards shall be retained and no encroachments will be allowed. • The traditional sinuous building line shall be maintained wherever possible.

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN • No development shall be higher than the property it is attached to or 8 metres whichever is lower. • The height, scale and composition of any new construction should be in conformity with the compositional order and rhythm of the adjoining buildings, unless photographic and other forms of documentation suggest otherwise. • The traditional palette of materials and construction systems will be restricted to those found within asSulayf, such as the following: 1. Stone for foundations; 2. Mud brick for walls; 3. Mud plaster (clay/sarooj) for external and internal rendering; 4. Clay/stone flooring; 5. Timber or date palm beams, reed/date-palm matting, consolidated mud for composite flooring and roofing;

8. Traditional water proofing and protective materials. • Modern materials such as steel/aluminium/glass, etc., may be judiciously and appropriately used along with traditional materials in the development of proposed facility buildings. However, such design shall in no way distort the traditional setting, and the identity, integrity and authenticity of the area. buildings

chosen

for

• Any ventilation and/or air conditioning equipment should not in any way impinge upon the visual integrity of the dwellings. Air-conditioning and ventilation equipment should be suitably obscured. 5.4.3 Design Guidelines for communal facilities. The general approach to all extant communal buildings and structures or for which some exist, will be as follows:

7. Local timber for door and windows;

all

• Traditional arched recess or arched opening employing traditional decorative elements may be adopted in traditional dwellings. Timber doors and windows of appropriate traditional design and construction may be used.

physical evidence (e.g., foundation, ruins, etc.)

6. Terracotta or wooden water spouts;

• For

consolidation or rebuilding, care should be taken while positioning the doors and windows. In dwellings facing each other windows should be staggered so that no window opens facing another window. Similar principle may be adopted for the relative positioning of doors to ensure that no doors are directly facing each other and views in from one dwelling to another is restricted.

restoration,

• All extant significant components and elements which have suffered deterioration are to be restored and/ or consolidated. • All significant components and elements which have suffered significant damage or have disappeared but for which documentary evidence exists, are to be rebuilt. • All other components are to be rebuilt using either traditional materials or making clear their conjectural nature through the use of adapted


ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF: PRINCIPLES AN APPROACHES TO HERITAGE MANAGMENTPLAN traditional/modern materials/constructional systems, as deemed appropriate. • All communal structures for which some physical evidence exists, the remains will be retained and consolidated. • All communal buildings and structures are to be reused for communal or touristic purposes with appropriate programmatic strategy for adaptive reuse. • All communal facilities within as-Sulayf will be covered in Phase-1 of the HMP proposal and will have elaborate guidelines and constructional directives through the Tender Documents.

this, it is also important to undertake relevant studies on the entire oasis of ΚIbrī.

Study

Outline A detailed study of the Buffer Zone identified

S1

for as-Sulayf to retain its traditional context and integrity. A study of the existing infrastructural provisions

S2

(water, electricity, waste, waste water, sewage, etc.) and their capacity. A detailed study of traditional materials and their

S3

sourcing, as well as an analysis of constructional systems. A update study of the Falaj Shambouh and associated traditional water supply system. This

S4

has to be dovetailed into an analysis of agricultural land within the harah and its revitalisation and optimal utilisation.

5.4.4 Design Guidelines for dwellings

The following approach is to be adopted for the various categories of dwellings. Clear guidelines will be established for all dwelling types.

Detailed socio-cultural, anthropological and archaeological studies to arrive at a more in-depth S5

how changes in the economy and world view have

Traditional construction (vacant and/or derelict) MHC should establish policy and strategy for acquisition or ownership of all relevant properties under this category for consolidation and adaptive reuse. Phasing will be taken into account to establish whether the structures are to be demolished, receive façade treatment or have internal restoration and rebuilding.

5.5 ADDITIONAL STUDIES AND ANALYSES The following additional studies will be necessary to complete our understanding of As-Sulayf. This is crucial to a holistic approach to addressing development and conservation within the settlement suggested earlier. For

understanding of life within the settlement and affected age old practices. A continual study of and the creation of a database

S6

on the tourism factor and its impact on traditional life. Using such studies to update the development and conservation policies and the Master Plan. The creation and continual updating of a central

S7

database logging all relevant academic and professional studies of the settlement (as-Sulayf) and the oasis (ΚIbrī). Revision of Regional Development Plan to

S8

integrate heritage management as a crucial component of development in the light of this present research.

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

Case A: Guidelines for vacant sites The conservation measure to be adopted for such buildings shall be determined on the basis of the extent of dereliction. If the building is of low heritage value and of high dereliction, it may be demolished and the land subjected to redevelopment. Otherwise the building may be consolidated or rebuilt.

Case B: Buildings (vacant/derelict) identified to be rebuilt 1. Footprint: The footprint of the building shall follow the existing plot boundary and shall not exceed the area of the existing dwelling. 2. Façade: The façade of the dwelling shall follow the line of the line of the previous structure on the main street frontage. 3. Internal Spatial Configuration: The internal spatial configuration should be sympathetically retained wherever possible. For buildings subjected to adaptive re-use an indication of the original spatial configuration should be maintained with appropriate architectural treatment. 4. Material of Construction: Modern materials such as steel/aluminium/glass etc., may be judiciously and appropriately used along with traditional materials. However, such design shall in no way disturb the traditional setting and the identity, the integrity and the authenticity of the area. 5. Height: The height of the new building shall not be greater than the height of the original structure and if appropriate consistent with the height of the neighbouring dwellings.

6. Architectural Elements: All individual architectural elements, such as carved doors, surface decoration, decorative motifs – internal and external – need to be carefully noted and restored/retained.

Case C: Buildings (vacant/derelict) identified to be consolidated 1. Footprint: The footprint of the building shall follow the existing plot boundary and shall not exceed the area of the existing building. 2. Structural Members: Structural elements employed for the consolidation of the building should be judiciously used so as not to impinge upon the visual integrity and authenticity of the building and the area.

Traditional construction (owner-occupied) An incentive-based approach has to be adopted to deal with and encourage maintenance and appropriate extension and rebuilding of the small number of traditional properties under continued ownership (owner-occupied/ absentee landlord). However, extension or rebuilding should be of traditional construction and guided by the following set of criteria. Traditional construction (rented) An incentive-based approach has to be adopted to deal with and encourage maintenance and appropriate extension and rebuilding of traditional properties under ownership. This approach will have to take into account and offset the discouraging effect of the present poor level of rent.


ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF: PRINCIPLES AN APPROACHES TO HERITAGE MANAGMENTPLAN

Case D: Modification/Extension of traditional mud structure Proposals for the modification or improvement of traditional buildings through extension or enlargement shall be permitted if the plans do not detract from the character of the hara h and strictly adhere to the following design criteria: 1. General: The proposed extension should not lead to net loss of agricultural land nor should it lead to the demolition and/or damage of any adjoining traditional structure. 2. Location: The proposed extension shall be located at the rear or side of the dwelling 3. Height: the proposed extension should not be higher than any of the neighbouring buildings or 8 metres whichever is lower. 4. Floor Space: For single storey extensions, the additional floor space to be created shall not be more than 50% of the existing ground floor area. However, for two-storey extensions, the floor area shall represent not more than 50% of the net are of the upper and lower floors. 5. Façade Treatment: The position and form of external features and openings within the proposed extension including the façade, walls, doorways, windows, floors and roofs shall be of a similar design and finish to the existing structure to limit visual intrusion. Any ventilation and/or air conditioning equipment should not in any way impinge upon the visual integrity of the dwellings.

6. Building Permits: In considering building permits for extension to existing dwellings the policies under Case B shall apply.

Case E: Redevelopment Building activity will only be permitted within defined areas and under strict development guidance. Defined areas shall be identified through study of available/ cleared property (existing) and the ones thought to be beyond repair and of low heritage value. Any new building shall be constructed as per the following rules: 1. Footprint: The footprint of the dwelling shall follow the existing plot boundary. 2. Height: The new building shall not be higher than the property it is attached to or 8m, whichever is lower. 3. Material of Construction: Modern materials such as steel/aluminium/glass etc. may be judiciously and appropriately used along with traditional materials in the development of proposed facility buildings. However, such design shall in no way disturb the traditional setting and the identity, integrity and authenticity of the area.

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HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

6 Heritage management plan

settlements of central Oman is their reuse and reintegration into the country’s urban landscape as active participants in its economy. In the long term tourism, energy production, agriculture, as well as a host of associated creative industries, can ensure not just the survival of these ancient towns and villages, but also their sustained growth over future ages into a post-oil economy. Their varied nature in terms of morphology, location and size demands a high degree of adaptability in the measures proposed for their revitalisation, the foundation of which must lie in a clear understanding of their past usage and their individualised future potential. The future sustainable economic and social development of the ΚIbrī Oasis and as-Sulayf is expected to settle on three key pillars of activity:

6.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter summarises the rationale and principal approaches adopted in the Master Plan. The Master Plan takes a holistic approach to development and conservation in as-Sulayf keeping in mind an even broader context of the need to consider such issues for the entire oasis of ΚIbrī and current approaches being adopted within ad-Dākhilīyah region (e.g., in the Bahlā WHS, Nizwā, Manah, etc.) as a whole. However, considering the restoration work already underway at as-Sulayf and to optimise the use of resources, the Master Plan emphasises a phased approach prioritising certain aspects of the process as requiring immediate action. The phasing plan takes into account the established priority action areas and structures. Furthermore, a key issue is the physical state of individual structures, their ownership and the diverse approaches to conservation and development those would demand. The eventual expectation for the future of the millenary

Heritage tourism

This sector shows enormous growth potential, evidenced by the sharp rise in tourism interest, both international and domestic. While the Omani built heritage and natural assets are significant, the tourism infrastructural provision is at an early stage of evolution. Settlement quarters of significance, such as Дārat as-Sulayf, provide both heritage assets to a reasonably high level, as well as an armature for developing tourism infrastructure. The economic viability of locating major infrastructural nodes or provisions at strategic locations – and possibly somewhat removed from the key heritage locations – might ensure distributed access to such facilities, safeguarding heritage settlements of higher significance (e.g., Bahlā WHS) from over exploitation and irreversible damage. There is also the need for, and opportunity to, conserve craft traditions and create appropriate, innovate products for the contemporary market and use. Short-stay accommodation, craftsmanship and the gastronomic sector, as well as guided experiential and interpretive tours and associated businesses

Figure 6.1 Walls of as-Sulayf looking south from Masjid al-Husin

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN will ensure a seasonal influx of capital. Agriculture

This sector has been consistently emphasised by the general strategies for national development and underpinned at different times by various Royal Decrees. Oasis settlements are holistic environments for inhabitation, in which agriculture, animal husbandry and related activities have played a critical role in organising livelihood and existence in an environment of restricted land and water resources. A greater reliance on local produce through the exploration of alternative methods of agriculture could contribute to a greater degree of self-sufficiency, lower food costs and the continuation of ancient traditions in conjunction with modern techniques. Much work has been undertaken in other countries on alternative, small-scale methods of agricultural production, which could be emulated and adapted to the Omani context. Energy and clean technologies

Figure 6.2 Oman’s Photovoltaic (PV) power potential. Source: DESERTEC Initiative

The vernacular settlements offer excellent solar energy harnessing potential. Indeed, Northern Oman has one of the highest potential solar power generation capabilities on the planet, with around 2800 kWh/m² per year. In particular the potential of Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV) is enormous (Figs 6.3, 6.4) as the less sandy regions of ad-Dākhilīyah and ad-Dhāhirah Governorates provide a much more stable and less abrasive environment than that of UAE or large tracts of Saudi Arabia where recently large scale solar projects have gone online. Greater reliance on this infinite energy source, and associated research and technological developmental opportunities will encourage the creation of a new technological knowledge base and reduce unnecessarily heavy reliance on fossil fuel, freeing up significant quantities of reserves for export.


HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN All three approaches can, if implemented responsibly, afford a substantial source of revenue for the local communities and also act as a business primer for many associated industries. In particular tourism is expected to contribute greatly to as-Sulayf’s future due to the site’s picturesque location and ease of access, but its success will be measured by the Oasis’ ability to successfully combine modern technologies with traditional values of natural balance and measured exploitation. An example for a successful heritage management implementation in a traditional oasis context is that of Siwa Oasis in Egypt, where an ancient settlement has been revived to showcase traditional lifestyles, as well as embracing modern sustainable technologies of water management and energy production (Figs. 6.11, 6.17). Challenging environments such as desserts offer unique design and technological possibilities which can be addressed, or indeed embraced, with modern techniques, as has been achieved at the Amangiri Resort in the Utah Desert (Figs. 6.10, 6.16).

6.2 Management PLAN GOALS Any projects undertaken on the architectural and cultural heritage of the Sultanate of Oman will have to be approached with a view towards strict fiscal responsibility, aiming for a high degree of economic sustainability by relying extensively on public/private partnership. In this sense the aim is not the wholesale reconstruction of entire settlements in a pseudo-high fidelity manner simply to showcase their supposed original appearance. Such a practice is necessarily economically prohibitive in the long term and does not serve the desired outcome of reinstating authenticity or revitalizing uninhabited settlements. It will also be noted that ‘revitalization’ is by no means limited to the immediate urban confines of a given settlement; much rather it is proposed here that successful re-habitation is only possible

Figure 6.3 Oman’s Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) power potential. Source: DESERTEC Initiative

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN by addressing an oasis as a whole, including infrastructure, agricultural lands, palm groves, falaj networks, etc. The following aims are therefore proposed as defining the urban future of Oman’s interior: 1) Revitalization of Oman’s architectural heritage by:

• Providing the necessary infrastructural improvements to allow for the development of ancient sites: water, electricity, sanitation, communications, health and safety, etc.; • Doing so in a sustainable and cost effective manner through public/private partnerships and developing a business-friendly legal framework: private contractors competing for certain projects, opening the real estate and property market to foreign investors, etc.; • Inclusion of the local communities and stakeholders at all levels of development, giving them a say in the development of their own settlements;

Figure 6.4 as-Sulayf, ascending towards tower E1, Burj al-Abyat

• Instilling a sense of pride of ownership and belonging among the locals, encouraging entrepreneurship and self-reliance to develop and maintain their cultural heritage. 2) Job creation in the private sector by:

• Providing economic incentives in tourism, agricultural and energy production, and related industries, will add value to the region; • Create the necessary economic climate and legal framework for the revitalisation to effectively pay for itself;

• Diversifying local economies importing modern technologies and job opportunities as has been achieved, for example, at Ksar Aït Ben Haddou in Ouarzazate, Morocco, where the local community has been closely involved in the revitalisation of their ancient town (Fig. 6.14). 3) Development of Oman’s interior regions by:

• Significantly reducing long term costs in government subsidies for energy and food; • Providing communities with the possibility of contributing towards sustainable energy production and responsible consumption will not only add value to the communities but will eventually contribute towards optimisation of the domestic use of natural resources (oil and gas), with the potential to significantly increasing export volumes. 4) To protect, preserve and expand the cultural heritage of Oman by:

• Promoting a modern identity with strong traditional roots; • Cultivating music, arts and traditional crafts will provide touristic incentives, as well as aiding in the preservation of traditional ways of life; • Cooperation in research and study with national and international institutions to further global understanding and interest in Oman’s great heritage. The infrastructural improvements required for the development of Oman’s traditional settlements must go beyond the immediate urban confines of the settlement and encompass the oases as a whole. Key infrastructural points which require addressing are the following:


HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

Energy Of around 915.000 bpd of crude produced by Oman in 2012 about 20% were consumed domestically. Projections suggest that domestic oil consumption will continue rising over the following years significantly limiting the country’s export volume. Reduction of domestic consumption of fossil fuels must therefore be of paramount importance to ensure the current levels revenue, increased resilience against market fluctuations as well as laying the foundations of a solid post-oil economy. Further points of relevance are: • Decentralizing energy production and integrating it into urban and architectural designs providing a higher degree of self-sufficiency and lower government subsidies; • Reducing energy dependence: solar water heating, biomass usage, limited photovoltaic subsidies, etc.; • Increasing reliance on renewable energies to free up large amounts of oil for export contributing substantially to revenues; • Expanding solar and wind energy sector to open up new areas of technological expertise; • In conjunction with water production, solar energy has the potential of dramatically reducing the cost of desalination.

Water With an average consumption of 180 l/p/d Oman lies about 40 litres above the world average, consuming significantly more water than the average Japanese or Scandinavian person. The scarcest resource in Oman is also

the most energy intensive to produce and, in comparison with energy, the water problem will pose some substantial technological challenges to overcome. it is expected that by 2014 that the total domestic water production will rise from 88 million cubic metres in 2007 to a projected 236 million by 2014, an average annual increase of 15% per year (AlBarwani, 2012). Domestic consumption is estimated to account for just 5% of all water demand in Oman. Industrial demand for water is less than 5%. The greatest consumer of water in Oman is therefore agriculture. It consumes over 90% of renewable freshwater resources and contributes about 2% to GDP at current prices. Production is projected to rise to 197 million cubic metres during the first half of 2013 and demand of water is expected to double over the next 7 years, and without significant improvements in energy efficiency in desalination this will result in a significant increase in fossil fuel consumption otherwise available for export. While a number of issues regarding production and efficiency are currently being addressed, the potential of cost reduction is still enormous. Potential improvements in water catchment and management are the following: • Restoration and modernisation of falaj networks will reduce water loss and allow for greater irrigated areas amplifying habitable space and productive lands as well as attract a greater number of visitors; • With modern techniques up to 100% of urban waste water can be recycled and re-used, again reducing dependence on fossil water sources Figure 6.5 as-Sulayf, covered lane between G and I

6.3 cIBRĪ OASIS DEVELOPMENT As elsewhere in Oman the primary concern in ΚIbrī is the preservation of the palm groves and associated agricultural

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN lands and infrastructure. The piecemeal reduction of green zones by either lack of maintenance or excessive construction is detracting from the quality of life in the oasis as a whole and will impede touristic exploitation and agricultural selfsufficiency. This will eventually translate into a severe loss of economic value for the region as a whole. Measures to be taken in the protection of the oasis environment: • A moratorium on all construction within a set perimeter (buffer zone) containing land of agricultural value; Figure 6.6 as-Sulayf, 3D visualisation of the souq

• Provision of developed land for housing established outside the agricultural perimeter; • Restoration and gradual expansion of the falaj networks to re-irrigate previously abandoned areas; • Introduction of electronic water management technologies to reduce water loss and labour;

Figure 6.7 as-Sulayf, 3D visualisation of the souq

• Introduction of advanced soil-preparation techniques to improve water retention and plant growth; • Provide market access (restore Sulayf souq) for local produce to incentivise production and sale; • Creation of an Advanced Agriculture Information Centre in cooperation with ΚIbrī College of Technology, where stakeholders of the region could exchange experiences and acquire new skills from experts.

6.4 URBAN DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT As noted above, the settlement of as-Sulayf has already been the subject of a non-programmatic restoration process for several years. These works have seen the piecemeal reconstruction of a number of buildings along the western enclosure wall being concerned primarily with areas A,B & D, as well as the construction of a number of new concrete buildings to store building materials and provide basic facilities for the workers. These initiatives have been taken without any consideration towards the future use or role of the site either partial or as a whole, and are therefore necessarily consigned to become a somewhat costly exercise in futility. They provide a series of additional problems in that these works limit the options for a planned re-use of certain structures, and necessarily also entail the partial destruction and re-construction of already restored buildings to provide them with utilities and make them usable in a meaningful way. This HMP nevertheless endeavours to integrate the already rebuilt units into the future existence of Sulayf with a view to reducing costs and accelerating the project as a whole. The implementation of this HMP will follow along a strictly phased approach, prioritising the consolidation of the urban fabric to prevent further decay prior to engaging in tourism strategies, restoration, development and re-use of the settlement. Emphasis will be given to improving accessibility to the site for visitors from the outset of the project and the integration of local stakeholders in the decision making process in order to provide what is actually wanted. The aim is to raise awareness and integrate the collective experiences into a cohesive programmatic approach to further development and serve as an example of successful


HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN sustainable heritage management on a supra-regional level. Adaptive reuse of the structures on site will follow in accordance with international standards of conservation, while also integrating a distinctive design element in order to give as-Sulayf an individual identifying character. Well known examples of sites comparable to Дārat as-Sulayf, such as the Oasis of Siwa in Egypt and Ksar Aït-BenHaddou (Ouarzazate) in Morocco among other places, have been used here to serve as comparators to successful heritage reuse and conservation (Figs 6.10-6.16).

PHASE I The priority phase of the work carried out at Sulayf must necessarily concentrate on the consolidation of the built fabric, provision of utilities (water, electricity, sanitation, etc.), readying the site for visitor transit, and restoration the and fabric and functionality of the souq to provide an economic and touristic focus. Consolidation of the traditional built environment

Prior to any other work it is essential to consolidate the site in such a way as to prevent further damage and deterioration as much as possible. The principal danger to the built fabric of Oman’s traditional architecture is caused by water damage resulting from ill-conceived drainage systems, uncapped walls and collapsing roofs. In this sense it is of the utmost importance to restore the storm-water drainage and build a channelling system on the upper reaches of the slope to deflect the rushing water sideways towards the wādi. This should be done in a visually sensible manner using local materials. Two channels would have to run perpendicular to the slope to of the hill, evacuating water away from the built-up sections of the settlement. In the case of individual

structures of value (such as those in areas D, B, E, G, J) additional measures should be taken in order to prevent further deterioration by strengthening the foundations and lower courses of masonry. In certain sections where the water may gather force, such as along areas J and E channels have may to be rock-cut to allow for better evacuation without obstructing the street. The water which flows into the souq and bailey must be channelled either underground or into the old falaj bed to avoid flooding and further damage to the heritage. This requires the immediate cleaning and restoration of the Falaj Shambouh. Utilities

This point is essential as without the ready availability of water, electricity and sanitation facilities it will not be possible to proceed with the work proposed at Sulayf in any meaningful manner. Provision for these services must be made at several points within the site to avoid future disruption by renewed construction works during phases II, III. To preserve the visual characteristics of the urbanscape it is strongly recommended to place these underground. The souq, bailey, and upper enclosure must all be provided for

Figure 6.8 Blacksmith in the souq of as-Sulayf

Figure 6.9 as-Sulayf, souq as seen from A2

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN with future increases in capacity in mind. In this way cost can be kept low during expansion in subsequent phases of development. Securing site for visitors

The reconstruction process taking place at as-Sulayf relies on traditional techniques and methods which are becoming increasingly rare and are gradually being lost in modern Omani society. The cultural value of these ancient technologies (brick manufacture, straw cutting and soaking, daubing, etc.) is to be preserved and showcased at Sulayf for both foreign visitors and groups of locals alike. This does, however, require substantial changes in the way the restoration effort is currently being carried out: • setting out a precise route which visitors can follow throughout the settlement without damaging the fabric or running risk of injury to themselves; • securing areas under restoration in terms of health and safety requirements; • relocating the building-materials storage and workers toilets from their current location to the upper bailey, below D3, opening up space for development in area next to the souq, and improving the visual aspect of the lower bailey; • setting specific visiting hours;

• provide a bi-lingual guide who can explain the construction methods and the history of as-Sulayf ; • setting visitor tariffs; Souq

In the early phases of development the souq will be the core attraction of the settlement and the primary visitor magnet with local crafts, wares and produce available for purchase. For this to become achievable a number of points will need to be addressed: • Assessment of ownership status and interest of development amongst owners of shops; • Development of a comprehensive usage/rental scheme of stalls to encourage owners to open their shops or rent them out; • Restoration of the souq (structural, shading, ground cover, etc.) with stakeholder input and possibly investment ; • Opening of blocked gate to facilitate access and encourage local involvement; • Providing power and running water to the stalls; • Establishment of a coffee shop or restaurant adjacent to the souq to provide food and drink for shoppers and visitors alike;

• provision of sanitary facilities on site;

PHASE II Figure 6.10 Amangiri Resort (Utah desert, USA) Figure 6.11 Siwa Oasis Hotel (Egypt) Figure 6.12 Hotel Terra Atacama (Chile)

The second phase of development expects to see expansion of the touristic activities throughout the bailey area, with a gradual expansion of the souq, the restoration of the falaj system, the re-structuring of the parking area,


HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN development of a public area used for functions, gatherings and festivities below the walls of the settlement enclosure.

Expansion of Souq

While it is clear that this will have to be undertaken in relation to the demand placed by the stakeholders, there is substantial space available to cater for larger numbers of visitors and locals. This expansion should be carried out in traditional style and materials though with the possibility of introducing modern materials and building technologies wherever traditional techniques prove no cost-effective, e.g. for lack of materials of local availability or skilled labour. Development of bailey (Дārat al-WĀdi)

The large open space denoted here as ‘the bailey’ offers great opportunities for development as it is a largely unobstructed area currently used primarily for the storage of construction materials. With the addition of shading pavilions and of public facilities such as a tannur, and water fountains this space could become a new community focus. In addition to this public development certain spaces will be reserved for catering businesses along the perimeter walls. Falaj

As part of the intervention of the bailey it is desirable to restore the falaj channel with flows though it and associated structures such as baths and water reservoirs. If possible it should be attempted to restore the flow of water, contributing to the irrigation of the nearby palm groves. Rainwater collection systems or a barkat can at this point be integrated to provide water for the restoration effort and associated activities.

Parking

The current parking facility outside the settlement is probably the greatest impediment to the touristic development of the site as it is visually less than optimal. Indeed, it completely detracts from the overall aspect of asSulayf and as such should be hidden from view as much as possible. As facility, however, it is to be retained as especially during Friday prayer hundreds of cars use it. It is therefore proposed to use either palm trees, shading pavilions and/or PV panels to provide shade while simultaneously retaining the aesthetic qualities of the surroundings. The parking must also be regulated so that the space available can be used in an efficient manner while also making provision for buses.

PHASE III The third phase of development will be initiated once the previous phases are nearing completion and the exact proceedings will have to be determined in accordance with the situation on site. It is, however, the aim to address the main body of the settlement at this stage. With the lower section of Sulayf rehabilitated and drawing visitors, the ruinous core of the settlement proper will need to be addressed for restoration/consolidation. The issue of vehicle access, which is limited at best, will make wholesale re-habitation of the site an unlikely prospect. It is therefore proposed to take a systematic quarter-by-quarter approach in order not to

Figure 6.13 Dar Hi Eco-Lodge, Nefta, (Tunisia) Figure 6.14 Ksar Aït Ben Haddou, (Morocco) Figure 6.15 Sra Pou Vacation School, (Cambodia)

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN engage in full restoration or reconstruction of a unit without having a clear function for the structures after completion. As already pointed out, utilities must be provided to all reconstructed dwellings from the outset. Area ‘D’

As a first point of development, it is suggested that area D could be adapted to become luxury short-stay accommodation. The dwellings in this quarter are of generous proportions and they have an excellent location close to the main access and provide the best views across ΚIbrī Oasis. Furthermore, this section has already seen substantial reconstruction, and the units are ready for HMP implementation with regards to adapting them for use. Precedents for this kind of adaptive reuse of the heritage have been provided in Chapter 7, and have seen wide ranging application in particular in Morocco and Tunisia. Further development of Sulayf will be agreed upon as the work proceeds on the previous phases. In general, the planting of palms and acacias is to be much encouraged throughout the lower reaches of the settlement as this will substantially improve the visual aspect and well as providing shade. Figure 6.16 Roof terrace, Siwa Oasis Hotel, Egypt

Area ‘B’

The area denoted here as B form pat of the main defensive wall of the settlement and as such has a great visual impact. Its preservation is therefore of importance to retain the general aspect of the settlement. The recently created access B1, though not originally part of the settlement, is to be retained to facilitate access for workers and visitors, and aid in the adaptation of area D. Structures B2 and B4 are to be restored and provided with utilities to function as repositories for artefacts of

local and historical importance. These may be studied and displayed here for the purposes of cultural preservation as well as public outreach.


HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

Figure 6.17 Amangiri Resort, Utah Desert (USA) Figure 6.18 Nk’Mip Desert Interpretive Centre (Canada)

Figure 6.19a,b,c Compressed Earth Block Project, Auroville (India)

Figure 6.20 Heritage Master Plan for Дārat as-Sulayf (overleaf)

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PRECEDENTS

7 PRECEDENTS

The following pages contain examples of design precedents used here to illustrate various approaches for the Master Plan. The case studies highlight the importance given to a range of issues concerning conservation, restoration and rehabilitation. The following precedents are grouped into two primary approaches and settings. The first group comprises mostly Western examples which are drawn from a building-specific approach by illustrating architectural techniques such as adaptive reuse, extension, encapsulation, juxtaposition and incorporation. The second group of design precedents applies more specifically to case of Izk朝 as it exemplifies a much broader approach to conservation by addressing entire settlements and concentrating primarily on earthen construction. This second set of examples contains a number of World Heritage Sites and oasis settlements from a wide variety of locations comprising the Maghreb, Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East which visualise the great range of architectural possibilities inherent in this kind of setting.

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STRUCTURAL FAILURE AND STATES OF PRESERVATION

8 STRUCTURAL FAILURE AND STATES OF PRESERVATION

the best way to preserve it from future deterioration is to use it. Its continued utilization, even if for a new purpose, will pose a need for regular upkeep, which should in turn discourage neglect. The alteration and extension of a building structure for its adaptive reuse require a degree of spatial flexibility which earthen construction has, given its informal and plastic nature. If reuse builds upon these intrinsic characteristics, earthen structures are able to meet the requirements and standards of present-day uses without losing their essential qualities.

8.1 GUIDING PRINCIPLES TO CONSERVATION AND REHABILITATION The following complementary and interconnected precepts must guide any intervention to be carried out on the earthen built fabric of the settlement for conservation and rehabilitation purposes: • authenticity, in both material and form, which means that in the work of conservation of a structure which is part of a group, partially or fully, not only must the total authenticity not get diminished but the overall integrity of the group has to be enhanced too; • neutrality, which means that in the work of conservation of a structure its character must be neither enhanced nor degraded. Once a structure has been restored and, thus, rehabilitated

With reference to the degrees of preservation of the settlement, conservation strategies will have to meet the following: • structures in “adequate” state of preservation: refurbishment alterations will be carried out in a way that respects the scale, massing, form, materials and the social status of the structure as well as the architectural composition and skyline of the cluster it belongs to (no new construction, demolition or modification which would alter the relations of mass and colour must be allowed, art.6 The Venice Charter 1964); • structures in “adequate”, “acceptable” and “inadequate” state of preservation: the original fabric will be retained as much as possible to be consolidated, restored, renewed and refurbished; • structures in “acceptable” and “inadequate” state of preservation: missing elements - walls, floors, roofs, staircases - will be replaced with new elements clearly distinguishable by material, form, texture,

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN grain and construction from the original structure (replacements of missing parts must integrate harmoniously with the whole, but at the same time must be distinguishable from the original so that restoration does not falsify the artistic or historic evidence, art. 12 of The Venice Charter 1964; any extra work which is indispensable must be distinct from the architectural composition and must bear a contemporary stamp, art. 9 of The Venice Charter 1964); • structures in “inadequate” and “ruinous” state of preservation: consolidation will be carried out by employing the most suitable available technologies at the time of intervention (where traditional techniques prove inadequate, the consolidation of a monument can be achieved by the use of any modern technique for conservation and construction, the efficacy of which has been shown by scientific data and proved by experience, art. 10 of The Venice Charter 1964).

8.2 GUIDING PRINCIPLES TO REPAIR ACTIONS The following methodological criteria must be met in implementing the general repair measures: • repair must be necessary, reversible, the minimum required to achieve the proposed result and compatible with the original fabric; • repair must be preceded by investigation of the reason for failure, so that recurring failure can be prevented by appropriately dealing with the causes of damage and making good effectively;

• repair must be preceded by investigation into construction aspects - soil content, clay type, pH value, mud composition in bricks, mortar and plaster, strength of materials - climate aspects relative humidity and temperature both inside and outside the building units - environmental aspects thermal conductivity of mud walls and temperature of floors - use aspects - changes made to the structure which might have caused failure; • repair must take into account the results of recording and documentation in terms of historical background, social status, spatial organization and construction of the structures; • repair must take into account social, cultural and economic driving factors such as the need for local employment, maintenance of tradition and training; • repair must achieve a balance between the materials required for the intervention and the requirements of tradition; • repair must be fully documented and archived throughout works.

8.3 FAILURE ANALYSIS AND REPAIR GUIDANCE An analysis has been carried out of failure types affecting the 121 mud brick structures that still retain their original fabric. Out of a total of 146 building units that make up the settlement, those intervened upon for repair/ restoration purposes and those built out of concrete have been excluded from the analysis. Structural and non-structural pathologies affecting the


STRUCTURAL FAILURE AND STATES OF PRESERVATION mud brick envelope of the above mentioned units have been identified, listed and analysed under broad categories in order to accordingly devise conservation and rehabilitation strategies and understand why they occurred, how they developed and what kind of repair actions could be carried out. Pathologies identified are the result of the combined action of “anthropic” and “natural” degradation factors. The former consist in the physical transformation of the original built fabric, e.g. through addition, juxtaposition and superimposition of new build made of modern materials concrete blocks, cement plaster, aluminium sections - and substitution to the original built fabric made of mud bricks, mud mortar and palm tree wood beams and woven mats. This mainly occurs within the souq area. The latter include the action of rainwater, wind, water runoff, water stagnations and infiltrations around the buildings and on the roofs, which then lead to erosion of wall tops and bases, wall surfaces and roofs.

8.4 GUIDANCE NOTES 1. For the purpose of having a complete mapping of failure types, these have been identified wherever present, that is in all affected building units, irrespective of their state of preservation and the feasibility and/or expediency of repair.

types have been identified: a. SURFACE EROSION “A” (caused by water penetration from the head of a wall or through a roof): • the saw-toothed clefts which are typically produced by this type of failure are rarely present. However, they presumably developed at some point due to faulty wall capping, and when superficial erosion at wall heads got deeper they faded into the surrounding eroded wall surface; • wall heads that are still capped, that is those that were cemented over, show less and minor sawtooth serrations; • both external and partition walls are affected, irrespective of their height, and sometimes both faces of the same wall (Fig. 8.1). b. SURFACE EROSION “B” (caused by water runoff from the roof): • deep channels run down external and partition walls, presumably caused by water runoff. Lacking any evidence of gargoyles it is hard to tell whether the runoff occurred when the roof was still in place, due to faulty water spouts, or as a consequence of

2. Only building units where failure is clearly visible and unequivocally classifiable have been indicated. 3. Presumably all mud brick building units underwent a stage where each failure occurred, even though at present there is no clear evidence of it.

Figure 8.1 as-Sulayf, example of surface erosion “A”

4. Based on the above analysis, the following failure

Figure 8.3 as-Sulayf, example of surface erosion “C”

Figure 8.2 as-Sulayf, example of surface erosion “B”

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN the roof collapse; • deep channels also run down the walls, below niches and openings, which constitute weak construction points (Fig. 8.2). c. with reference to SURFACE EROSION “C” (caused by water capillary rise): • the vast majority of wall surfaces are affected; • undercuts are particularly visible at the base of partition walls, where in most cases stone foundations are lower or non existent, and at the bottom of doorways (Fig. 8.3). d. SURFACE EROSION “D” (caused by loss of surface coatings): • all units are, to a different extent, affected; • external wall surfaces are generally more deeply affected than partition walls due to prolonged exposure to wind and rain action; • the degree of erosion of mortar and mud bricks varies greatly, ranging from surfaces which look like amorphous earth masses to surfaces where

bricks are exposed and clearly legible (Fig. 8.4). e. DETACHMENT OF COATINGS “A” (caused by water penetration) • all units are, to a different extent, affected; • on walls that are still protected, though partially, by roofs the peeling off produced by this type of failure is more accentuated that on walls that are exposed to the weather; • both external and partition walls are affected, though the defect is more common amongst the latter (Fig. 8.5). f. DETACHMENT OF COATINGS “B” (caused by incompatibility betweeb the earth core and the applied surface): • walls rendered over in cement are affected as well as the majority of walls rendered in mud-straw mortar, which in most of the interiors is, in fact, missing at the base of walls (Fig. 8.6a); • this failure type is present in units where the mud brick wall capping has been replaced with cement rendered concrete block courses and where stairs and walls have been rendered in cement mortar (Fig. 8.6b). g. WALL CRACKS (caused by expansion and contraction): • wall cracks are generally marked at wall junctions and around openings and niches;

Figure 8.4 as-Sulayf, example of surface erosion “D” Figure 8.5 as-Sulayf, example of coating detachment “A” Figure 8.6a as-Sulayf, example of coating detachment “B”

• in addition to standard vertical cracks horizontal cracks can be found above door lintels, presumably due to low static and mechanical resistance, where they have taken on a stepped configuration (Fig.


STRUCTURAL FAILURE AND STATES OF PRESERVATION 8.7). h. BRICK LOSS (caused by fall due to differential movements within the masonry): • loss of mud bricks occurs particularly above and around door lintels (Fig. 8.8). i. COATING CRACKS (caused by unbalanced water-soil ratio in the mud mix or quick drying): • cracking of wall coatings occurs due to shrinkage following rapid moisture loss (Fig. 8.9).

Figure 8.6b as-Sulayf, example of coating detachment “B”

Figure 8.8 as-Sulayf, example of “Brick Loss”

Figure 8.7 as-Sulayf, example of “Wall Cracks”

Figure 8.9 as-Sulayf, example of “Coating Cracks”

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APPENDIX 1: TRIBAL MOSAIC

a1

A5

Interview in Дārat as-Sulayf, ΚIbrī Interview with: Saif b.Ali b.Salim Al-Mandhari & Abdullah b.Salim b.Said Al- ‘Alawi Date: 4th November 2012

Owner

Structure type

Dwelling

?

B2

Inheritance of Hilal b.Mohammed Al‘Azri

Dwelling

2

B3

Inheritance of Said b.Abdullah b.Said AlMandhari

Dwelling

1

Inheritance of Abdullah b.Bader b.Salim al-Mandhari

Dwelling

Inheritance of Abdullah b.Bader b.Salim al-Mandhari

Dwelling

C1

Salim b.Said b.Khalfan al-‘Alawi

Dwelling

1

C2

Mohammed b.Said b.Mohammed alMandhari

Dwelling

1

C3

Mohammed b.Said b.Mohammed alMandhari

Dwelling

1

Nr. of Floors

B5

Zone A

A2

Mohammed b.Sulaiman Al-Lamki Sabah Husin and harat as-Slaif

A3

Masjid Husin and harat as-Sulaif

A4

Rashid b.Khalfan b.Munsor alMandhari

Gate

Mosque

Dwelling

1

2

1

1

Dwelling

1

D1

Mohammed b.Said b.Mohammed alMandhari

Dwelling

?

D2

Mohammed b.Said b.Mohammed alMandhari

Dwelling

?

D3

Inheritance Shikhan b.Salim b.Said al‘Azri

Dwelling

?

D4

Inheritance Shikhan b.Salim b.Said al‘Azri

Dwelling

1

D5

Inheritance Shikhan b.Salim b.Said al‘Azri

Dwelling

1

D6

Rashid b.Khalfan b.Munsor al-Mandhari

Dwelling

1

D7

Siba (maqbadh) + burj al-Tawi

Well + Tower

1

D8

Unknown

Unknown

1

C4

2

2

Zone C Dwelling

Inheritance of Saif b.Bader b.Salim alMandhari

Zone D

B1

B4

A1

1

Inheritance of Hilal b.Mohammed Al‘Azri

Time period: 124:09 min.

Number

Dwelling

Zone B

appendix: tribal mosaic

Zone &

Rashid b.Khalfan b.Munsor alMandhari

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104

HĀRAT AS-SULAYF, IBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN D9

Unknown

D10

Inheritance of Salim b.Abdullah b.Salim al-‘Azri

D11

D12

D13

Inheritance of Saif b.Majid al-Saifi Salim b.Hmaid b.Muhana al-Mandhari Inheritance of Said b.Hamad al-‘Azri

Dwelling

Dwelling

Dwelling

Dwelling

Dwelling

1

1

2

2

2

Zone E E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

Unknown

Dwelling

2

E6

Rashid b.Khalfan b.Munsor al-Mandhari

Dwelling

?

E7

Rashid b.Khalfan b.Munsor al-Mandhari

Dwelling

1

E8

Rashid b.Khalfan b.Munsor al-Mandhari

E9

Rashid b.Khalfan b.Munsor al-Mandhari

E10 Burj al-Munawar

Tower

Dwelling

Inheritance of Mohammed b.Salim b.Sulaiman al-Mandhari

Dwelling

Dwelling

2

Dwelling

1

E16

Inheritance of Ali b.Sulaiman al-Lamki

Dwelling

2

F1

Unknown

Dwelling

1

F2

Unknown

Dwelling

1

F3

Mus’od b.Said b.Mus’od al-Hinai

Dwelling

1

F4

Mus’od b.Said b.Mus’od al-Hinai

Dwelling

1

Zone F

1

1

1

Dwelling

E12

Inheritance of Ali b.Sulaiman al-Lamki

Dwelling

1

G1

Public Space

Stabling

1

E13

Inheritance of Saleh b.Ali al-Shamakhi

Dwelling

1

G2

Public Space

Stabling

1

E14

Inheritance of Rashid b.Mohammed alMandhari

Dwelling

1

G3

Unknown

Dwelling

1

2

1

Dwelling

Dwelling

Rashid b.Khalfan b.Munsor al-Mandhari

E11

Inheritance of Mohammed b.Salim b.Sulaiman al-Mandhari

Unknown

3

Inheritance of Salim b.Sulaiman al-Mandhari

Dwelling

E15

Inheritance of Mohammed b.Salim b.Sulaiman al-Mandhari

1 Zone G


APPENDIX 1: TRIBAL MOSAIC G4

G5

G6

Nassir b.Slaim b.Sulaiman alMandhari

Dwelling

2

Inheritance of Hmoud b.Swailim alMandhari

Dwelling

I1

Inheritance of Salim b.Bader b.Salim alMandhari

Dwelling

I2

Mohammed b.Said b.Mohammed alMandhari

I3

Mohammed b.Said b.Mohammed alMandhari

Dwelling

2

I4

Mohammed b.Said b.Mohammed alMandhari

Dwelling

1

I5

Mohammed b.Said b.Mohammed alMandhari

Dwelling

I6

Khalfan b.Suwailim al-Mandhari, Shamis b.Suwailim al-Mandhari & Hamad b.Saif b.’Amir al-Mandhari

H7

Dwelling

Inheritance of Slaim b.Abdullah b.Slaim al-Mandhari

Dwelling

H2

Unknown

Unknown

2

2

Dwelling

Dwelling

1

1

H3

Unknown

Dwelling

1

H4

Unknown

Dwelling

?

H5

H6

Inheritance of Hmoud b.Swailim alMandhari

Inheritance of Hmoud b.Swailim alMandhari

Dwelling

1

I9

Khalfan b.Suwailim al-Mandhari, Shamis b.Suwailim al-Mandhari & Hamad b.Saif b.’Amir al-Mandhari

Dwelling

1

I10

Khalfan b.Suwailim al-Mandhari, Shamis b.Suwailim al-Mandhari & Hamad b.Saif b.’Amir al-Mandhari

Dwelling

1

I11

Khalfan b.Suwailim al-Mandhari, Shamis b.Suwailim al-Mandhari & Hamad b.Saif b.’Amir al-Mandhari

Dwelling

1

I12

Inheritance of Salim b.Saif b.’Amir alMandhari

Dwelling

1

I13

Inheritance of Salim b.Saif b.’Amir alMandhari

Dwelling

1

I14

Inheritance of Ali b.Salim b.Ali alMandhari

Dwelling

1

2

Zone I

Inheritance of Slaim b.Abdullah b.Slaim al-Mandhari

Zone H H1

I8

Khalfan b.Suwailim al-Mandhari, Shamis b.Suwailim al-Mandhari & Hamad b.Saif b.’Amir al-Mandhari

Dwelling

Dwelling

1

1

I7

Khalfan b.Suwailim al-Mandhari, Shamis b.Suwailim al-Mandhari & Hamad b.Saif b.’Amir al-Mandhari

Dwelling

Dwelling

Dwelling

2

2

1

2

2

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106

HÄ€RAT AS-SULAYF, IBRÄŞ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN I15

Inheritance of Ali b.Salim b.Ali alMandhari

I16

Hamad b.Salim b.Sulatan al-Hinai

117

Huwaishil b.Harib alSawafi

Dwelling

Dwelling

Dwelling

1

1

1

Zone J J1

J2

J3

Inheritance of Mohammed b.Saif Dwelling b.Muhsin al-Mandhari Rashid b.Khalfan b.Munsor alMandhari Rashid b.Khalfan b.Munsor alMandhari

Dwelling

Dwelling

J4

Inheritance of Ali b.Salim b.Ali alMandhari

J5

Bader b.Salim b.Said b.Musalam alMandhari

Dwelling

Ali b.Harib al-Sawafi

Dwelling

J6

Dwelling

2

J7

Nassir b.Slaim alMandhari

Dwelling

2

J8

Musoud al-Mandhari

Dwelling

1

J9

Inheritance of Hmoud b.Salim al-Mandhari

Dwelling

1

J10

Inheritance of Hmoud b.Salim al-Mandhari

Dwelling

1

Dwelling

1

M1

Abdullah b.Mundhir b.Salim al-Mandhari

Dwelling

1

M2

Abdullah b.Mundhir b.Salim al-Mandhari

Dwelling

1

M3

Abdullah b.Mundhir b.Salim al-Mandhari

Dwelling

1

M4

Abdullah b.Mundhir b.Salim al-Mandhari

Dwelling

1

M5

Abdullah b.Mundhir b.Salim al-Mandhari

Dwelling

1

M6

Abdullah b.Mundhir b.Salim al-Mandhari

Dwelling

2

Burj al-Rih

Tower

2

L2

Zone M

Zone K K1

2

Rashid b.Khalfan b.Munsor alMandhari

K2

Dwelling

1

2

Rashid b.Khalfan b.Munsor alMandhari

K3

Nassir b.Ali b.Mohammed alMandhari

Dwelling

1

K4

Inheritanceof Hamad b.Ali b.Said b.Musalam alMandhari

Dwelling

2

2

1

Dwelling

1

Zone L 2

Bader b.Salim b.Said b.Musalam alMandhari

L1

Zone N Said b.Mundhir b.Salim al-Mandhari

Dwelling

1

N1


APPENDIX 1: TRIBAL MOSAIC Zone O O1

O2

O3

O4

O5

Ghaya b.Said b.Hamad Al-‘Azri

Hamad b.Mhana b.Salim Al-Mandhari

Rashid b.Khalfan b.Mansour AlMandhari Rashid b.Khalfan b.Mansour AlMandhari Ali b.Saleh b.Ali AlShamakhi

Market Stall

Market Stall

Market Stall

Market Stall

Market Stall

O10

Unknown

Market Stall

1

O17

Inheritance of Nassir b.Bader b.Salim AlMandhari

O11

Market Stall

1

O18

Said b.Abdullah b.Salim Al-Mandhari

Market Stall

1

1

Nassir b.Ali b.Mohammed AlMandhari

O12a

Market Stall

1

O19

Inheritance of Hmaid b.Muhana b.Salim Al- Market Stall Mandhari

1

1

Mohammed b.Shikhan b.Salim Al-‘Azri

O12b

Thoroughfare

Gate

1

O20

Said b.Khamis b.Musalam Al-Mandhari

Market Stall

1

O13

Ali b.Said b.Hamad Al-‘Azri

Market Stall

1 O21

Mohammed b.Said b.Mohammed AlMandhari

Market Stall

1

O22

Inheritance of Hilal b.Mohammed Al‘Azri and Abdullah b.Salim b.Abdullah al-‘Azri

Market Stall

1

1

1

1 O14

O6

O7

Ali b.Saleh b.Ali AlShamakhi Saleh b.Ali AlShamakhi

Market Stall

Market Stall

Said b.Bader b.Salim al-Mandhari

Market Stall

Market Stall

1

1

1 O15 1

Inheritance of Mohammed b.Saif AlMandhari

O16a

Ali b.Said b.Musod Al-Hinai

Market Stall

1

O23

Inheritance of Salim b.Saif b.’Amir AlMandhari

Market Stall

1

O16b

Ali b.Said b.Musod Al-Hinai

Market Stall

1

O24

O24 Salim b.Zahran Market Stall b.Salim Al-‘Azri

1

O8

Salim b.Said b.Salim Al-‘Azri

Market Stall

1

O9

Unknown

Market Stall

1

Market Stall

1

107


108

HĀRAT AS-SULAYF, IBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN O25

Abdullah b.Mundhir b.Salim Al-Mandhari

Market Stall

1

Inheritance of Ma’yof b.Musod Al-Jasasi

Dwelling

2

Q1

Public Space

Water Access

1

Q2

Public Space

Water Access

1

P7 Zone Q

O26

Amir b.Ali Al-Lamki

Market Stall

1

O27

inheritance of Salim b.Said b.Khalfan Al‘Alawi

Market Stall

1

P1

Said b.Salim b.Shnin Al-Farsi

Dwelling

1

P2

Said b.Salim b.Shnin Al-Farsi

Dwelling

1

P3

Said b.Salim b.Shnin Al-Farsi

Dwelling

1

P4

Inheritance of Ma’yof b.Musod Al-Jasasi

Dwelling

1

P5

Inheritance of Ma’yof b.Musod Al-Jasasi

Dwelling

2

P6

Inheritance of Ma’yof b.Musod Al-Jasasi

Dwelling

2

Zone P


BIBLIOGRAPHY

a2 bibliography

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Al-Barwani, H, 2012. Seawater Desalination in Oman, Universität Karlsruhe, Germany

___. 2005. Diversity in Unity: an Analysis of Settlement Structure of Дārat al-ΚAqr, Nizwā (Oman). Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 35: 19-36.

Atkins, W.S. International. 2003. BaΉlā Fort and Oasis World Heritage Site Management Plan. Unpublished draft report (4 volumes). Muscat: Ministry of Heritage and Culture.

___. 2004. Дārat al-Bilād (ManaΉ): Tribal Pattern, Settlement Structure and Architecture. Journal of Oman Studies 13: 183-263.

Avrami, E., Hubert, G. & Hardy, M. eds., 2008. Terra Literature Review An Overview of Research in Earthen Architecture Conservation. Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute.

___. 2002a. The Roots of Omani Decorated MiΉrāb. PDO News April 2002: 22-28.

Bandyopadhyay, S. 2011. Spatial Implications of Omani Tribal Dynamics: Дārat al-Bilād in ManaΉ Oasis. Orient

___. 2002b. Problematic aspects of Synthesis and Interpretation in the Study of Traditional Omani Built Environment. Global Built Environment Review 2(2): 1628.

___. 2000. From the Twilight of Cultural Memory: The Būmah in the Mosques of Central Oman. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 30: 13-25. ___. 2000b. Deserted and Disregarded: The Architecture of Bilād ManaΉ in Central Oman. Archéologie Islamique 10: 131-168. ___. 1998. ManaΉ: The Architecture, Archaeology and Social History of a Deserted Omani Settlement. Unpublished PhD thesis. Liverpool. Bandyopadhyay, S. & Sibley, M. 2003. The Distinctive Typology of Central Omani Mosques: Its Nature and Antecedents. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 33: 99-116. Bonenfant, P. & Le Cour-Grandmaison, C. 1977. The IbrāΜ and MuΡayrib Area. Journal of Oman Studies 3(2): 91-94. Bonenfant, P. & G., & al-Дārthī, S. 1977. Architecture and Social History at MuΡayrib, Journal of Oman Studies 3(2): 107-136, plus plates. Cain, A., Afshar, F. & Norton, J. 1975. Indigenous Building and the Third World. Architectural Design 4: 207-224. ___. 1974. The Indigenous Built Environment of Oman: Its Problems and Potentials for Contemporary Planning and Design. Unpublished report. Muscat: Ministry of Social Affairs. CERKAS / UNESCO / CRATerre, 2005. Conservation Manual for Earth Architecture Heritage in the pre-Saharan Valleys of Morocco, Paris: UNESCO Consulting Engineering Services. 2004. Дarāt al-ΚAqr: Conservation and Development Project. Unpublished report: Survey Documentation and Master Plan (4 volumes). Muscat: Ministry of Regional Municipalities, Environment

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ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN and Water Resources. Cornerstones Community Partnerships, 2006. Adobe conservation. A preservation handbook. Santa Fe: Sunstone Press. Costa, P.M. 2001. Historic Mosques and Shrines of Oman. British Archaeological Reports International Series 938. Oxford: Archaeopress. ___. 1997. The Historic Mosques of Inner Oman. Rome: ISMEO. ___. 1983. Notes on the Settlement Patterns of Traditional Oman. Journal of Oman Studies 6(2): 247-268. Le Cour-Grandmaison, C. 1977. Spatial Organisation, Tribal Groupings and Kinship in IbrāΜ. Journal of Oman Studies 3(2): 95-106, plus plates. Cowiconsult. 1991. A’Dakhliya Regional Plan: Phase 3, Final Report. Unpublished government report. Muscat: Ministry of Housing. ___. 1989. Nizwā Town Structure Plan: Report of Survey 1. Unpublished government report. Muscat: Ministry of Housing. Damluji, S.S. 1998. The Architecture of Oman. Reading: Garnett. Eickelman, C. 1984. Women and Community in Oman. New York and London: New York University Press. ___. 1993. Fertility and Social Change in Oman: Women’s Perspectives. Middle East Journal 47(4): 652-666. Eickelman, D.F. 1987. Ibadism and the Sectarian Perspective. In Pridham, B.R. (ed.), Oman: Economic, Social and Strategic Developments: 31-50. London: Croom Helm.

___. 1985. From Theocracy to Monarchy: Authority and Legitimacy in Inner Oman, 1935-1957. International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 17: 3-24. ___. 1983. Religious Knowledge in Inner Oman. Journal of Oman Studies 6(1): 163-172. d’Errico, E. 1983. Introduction to the Omani Military Architecture of the Sixteenth, Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Journal of Oman Studies 6(2): 291-306, plus plates. Feilden, B. M., 2008. Conservation of historic buildings. Oxford: Elsevier. Galdieri, E. 1975. A Masterpiece of Omani 17th Century Architecture: The Palace of Imam Bilarab bin Sultan alYaΚaraba at Jabrin. Journal of Oman Studies 1: 167-179. Grandmaison, Le C., Spatial Organisation, Tribal Groupings and Kinship in IbrāΜ. Journal of Oman Studies 3(2): 95-106, plus plates. Ibn Ruzayq, Humayd b. Muhammad b. Ruzayq/ Raziq b. Bakhit al-Nakhli (Salîl-ibn Razîk in Badger; Badger, E.C. tr.). 1871. History of the Imâms and Seyyids of Omân (al-fath al-mubin fi sirat al-BusaΚidiyin). London: Hakluyt Society. ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites), 1980. Third International Symposium on Mudbrick (Adobe) Preservation. Ankara, Turkey 29 September-4 October 1980. ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites), 1987. Charter for the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas (Washington Charter 1987). Washington, DC October 1987. ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites), 1999. Charter on the Built Vernacular Heritage. Mexico, October 1999.

ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites), 2003. Principles for the Analysis, Conservation and Structural Restoration of Architectural Heritage. Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe. International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (The Venice Charter 1964). 2nd International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments, Venice 1964. Jokilehto, J., 2006. Considerations on authenticity and integrity in world heritage context. City & Time, 2 (1), 1-16. Izkawi, Sirhán b. SaΚid b. Sirhán b. Muhammad al- (attributed; Ross, E.C. tr.). 1874. Annals of Oman, from the Early Times to the Year 1728 A.D. (Kashf al-Ghumma: al-JāmiΚ li akhbār al-umma). Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 2(2): 111-196. KanaΚan R. 2008. The carved-stucco miΉrābs of Oman: form, style and influences. In Salimi, A. al-, Gaube, H. & Korn L. (eds), Islamic Art in Oman: 230–259. Muscat: Ministry of Heritage and Culture & Ministry of Endowment and Religious Affairs. Kervran, M. & Bernard, V. 1996. MiΉrāb/s Omanais du 16e Siècle: Un Curieux Exemple de Conservatisme de l’Art du Stuc Iranien des Époques Seldjouqide et Mongole. Archéologie Islamique 6: 109-56. Lorimer, J.G. 1908; 1915 (1970 reprint). Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, ΚOman and Central Arabia: I (Historical and Genealogical. 1915); II (Geographical. 1908). Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing. Mershen, B. 2004. Ibn Muqarrab and Naynūh: A Folk-tale from Кīwī. Journal of Oman Studies 13: 91-97. ___. 2001. Observations on the Archaeology and


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Potts, D.T. 1990a. Arabian Gulf in Antiquity I. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Warren, J., 1999. Conservation of Earth Structures. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

___. 1990b. Arabian Gulf in Antiquity II. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Wellsted, J.R. 1838. Travels in Arabia I: Oman and Nakab El Hajar. London: John Murray.

___. 1985. The Location of Iz-ki-e. Revue D’Assyriologie et D’Archéologie Oriental 79(1): 75-76.

Wilkinson, J.C. 1993. Frontier Relationships between Bahrain and Oman. (Khalifa, A. al- & Rice, M. (eds.). Bahrain through the Ages: The History. London & New York: Kegan Paul International. 548-566.

___. 1983. Barbar Miscellanies. Potts, D.T. (ed.). Dilmun: New Studies in the Archaeology and Early History of Bahrain. Berliner Beiträge zum Vorderen Orient (BBVO) 2: 127-139. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag. Sālimi, A. al-. 2002. Different Succession Chronologies of the Nabhānī Dynasty in Oman. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 32: 259-268. Scheer, H. 2006. The Solar Economy: Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Global Future, London: Routledge Scholz, F. 1978. Sultanate of Oman, Aerial Photographic Atlas: Natural Regions and Living Areas in Text and Photographs II. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett.

Peterson, J.E. 1987. Oman’s Odyssey: From Imamate to Sultanate. In Pridham, B.R. (ed.) Oman: Economic, Social and strategic Development: 1-16. London: Croom Helm.

Schreiber, J. 2007. “Transformation Processes in Oasis Settlements in Oman” 2005 Archaeological Survey at the Oasis of Nizwā: A Preliminary Report. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 37: 263-275.

___. 1978. Oman in the Twentieth Century: Political Foundations of an Emerging State. London: Croom Helm.

Skeet, I. 1974. Muscat and Oman: The End of an Era. London: Faber and Faber.

___. 1977. Tribes and Politics in Eastern Arabia. Middle East Journal 31 (Summer): 297-312.

Thompson, R – Mallowan, Q. 1933. The British Museum Excavations at Nineveh, 1931-32, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 20, 71–186

___. 1976. The Revival of the IbāΡī Imamate in Oman and the Threat to Muscat 1913-20. Arabian Studies 3: 165-188. Peyton W.D. 1983. Old Oman. London: Stacey International.

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113

a3 Photographic documentation

This section contains a complete and exhaustive photographic catalogue of each architectural unit in Đ”Ä rat as-Sulayf. Photographs were taken, where possible, in sequential order and stitched together to provide panoramic impressions of the interior and exterior spaces within each unit.


114

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: A1

unit: A2


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: A3

unit: A4

115


116

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: A5

unit: B1


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: B2

unit: B3

117


118

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: b4

unit: b5


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: c1

unit: c2

119


120

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: c3

unit: c4


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: D1

unit: D2

121


122

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: d3

unit: D4


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: D5

unit: D6

123


124

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: D7

unit: D8


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: D9

unit: D10

125


126

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: D11

unit: D12


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: D13

unit: E1

127


128

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: E2

unit: E3


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: E4

unit: E5

129


130

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: e6

unit: e7


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: e8

unit: e9

131


132

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: e10

unit: e11


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: e12

unit: e13

133


134

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: e14

unit: e15


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: e16

unit: f1

135


136

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: F2

unit: F3


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: F4

unit: G1

137


138

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: G2

unit: G3


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: G4

unit: G5

139


140

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: G6

unit: H1


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: H2

unit: H3

141


142

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: H4

unit: H5


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: H6

unit: H7

143


144

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: I1

unit: I2


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: I3

unit: I4

145


146

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: I5

unit: I6


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: I7

unit: I8

147


148

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: I9

unit: I10


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: I11 a

unit: I11 b

unit: I12

149


150

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: I13

unit: I14


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: I15

unit: I16

151


152

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: I17

unit: I18


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: J1

unit: J2

153


154

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: J3

unit: J4


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: J5

unit: J6

155


156

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: J7

unit: J8


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: J9

unit: J10

157


158

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: J11

unit: K1


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: K2

unit: K3

159


160

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: K4

unit: L1


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: L2

unit: M1

161


162

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: M2

unit: M3


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: M4

unit: M5

163


164

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: M6

unit: N1


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

Souq stalls & units

unit: O1

165


166

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: O2

unit: O3


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: O4

unit: O5

167


168

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: O6

unit: O7


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: O8

unit: O9

169


170

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: O10

unit: O11


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: O12 a, b

unit: O13

171


172

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: O14

unit: O15


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: O16 a, b

unit: O17

173


174

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: O18

unit: O19


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: O20

unit: O21

175


176

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: O22

unit: O23


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: O24

unit: O25

177


178

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: O26

unit: O27


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: P1

unit: P2

179


180

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: P3

unit: P4


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: P5

unit: P6

181


182

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN

unit: P7

unit: Q1, 2


PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION

unit: Q1

unit: Q2

183


184

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN


APPENDIX 4: SETTLEMENT FLOOR PLANS

a4 appendix 4: settlement floor plans

185


186

ДĀRAT AS-SULAYF, ΚIBRĪ: DOCUMENTATION AND HERITAGE MANAGEMENT PLAN


187


IBRI, HARAT AS-SULAYF. Documentation and Heritage Management Plan  
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