Australia in Space Magazine, Issue 3, 2022

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www.australiainspace.com.au ISSUE #3 | 2022

The centrality of resilience to Australia’s space capabilities

USA to Australia, End-toEnd Testing - An interview with Fugro's Space Systems Director, Dawn McIntosh

Space-Cyber trends and opportunities in Australia

Dr Space Junk presents 5 questions: Lloyd Jacob Lopez, CEO of Hex20

South Australia: Advancing frontiers for Earth Observation

The Australian Space Forum - A quantum leap for Australia’s space industry

AEO22 - Inaugural Advancing Earth Observation Forum

Growing the space economy with the cloud

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FROM DEEP SEA TO SPACE. MISSIONS DELIVERED... ANYWHERE.

AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

As a key partner of the Australian Space Agency (ASA), and

and remote operations industry. Fugro will design, build and

with the support of the Western Australian Government, Fugro

operate the Australian Space Automation, Artificial Intelligence

is proud to be part of the future of the Australian exploration

and Robotics Control Complex (SpAARC).

To find out more www.fugro.com/spaarc


WATCH NOW

Interview with

Dr Robin Cook Research Associate

In the only NASA-accredited Australian public program to celebrate the first images to come off Webb’s telescope, the International Space Agency - as a mission partner - spent an evening exploring exclusive imagery with Professor Simon Driver, Dr Elizabete Da Cunha and Dr Sabine Bellstadt. Professor Simon Driver has been involved with Webb since 1996, and obtained 110 of the very first coveted hours booked on Webb. Professor Driver’s team will be crunching the numbers for the 48 hours prior to our event following the initial release, to bring insight into the first - and farthest - looks back in time humans have ever been able to see. We speak with Dr Robin Cook, Research Associate who is speaking on behalf of the International Space Centre as a member of the Astronomy from Space Node.

Australia in Space Magazine | 3


AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

EPISODE 331 – Broadband via satellite – the technologies and trends Jane Lo, Singapore Correspondent speaks with Christian Patouraux, CEO, and Founder of Singapore-based Kacific Broadband Satellites Christian Patouraux has over two decades’ experience in the satellite industry.

Broadband via Satellites

He began his satellite career with SES, initially as a satellite engineer, procuring, launching, testing and operating 12 spacecraft, then as an independent business development consultant, playing key roles in launching broadband businesses, implementing large teleports, deploying airline and maritime broadband, and developing satellite multi-play and IPTV businesses.

00:00

Christian Patouraux CEO, and Founder of Singapore-based Kacific Broadband Satellites

00:00

He went on to develop satellite offerings for new markets in Asia Pacific as head of special projects for MEASAT. Christian Patouraux was also Executive Vice President and Chief Development Officer at O3b Networks, where his work was fundamental to launching the company’s maritime business.

LISTEN HERE

4 | Australia in Space Magazine

Australia Riskin Leaders Space Magazine | 4 w w w . s p a c e a n d d e f e n s eSPACE . i oMAGAZINE SPECIAL | Cyber


AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

www.onegiantleapaustralia.com www.onegiantleapfoundation.com.au mss KKeeyy PPrrooggrraam

wee ddoo W Whhaatt w For Australia to reach its full potential in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), we need to ensure we are developing a future workforce equipped with the diverse and dynamic set of skills that will meet the needs of employers in these developing and innovative industries. One Giant Leap Australia helps schools build and maintain student interest and aspiration in STEM. One Giant Leap Australia has forged strong working relationships and partnerships with a range of educational institutions and providers; local, state and national government agencies; STEMbased companies; aeronautical and astronomical researchers and scientists and other community-based organisations.

Seeds in Space Australian school students experiment with and cultivate seeds, such as wattle and basil, that have spend time in space on the international space station in this unique. scientific study.

Connecting Minds Project Students around the globe collaborate together to develop solutions to STEM challenges in space. Students not only develop STEM skills but also key communication and collaborative skills.

Gadget Girlz Run by girls, for girls, this programs opens the door to young girls who want to pursue a career in STEM. Free one day workshops are held across Australia.

Space Teams Former NASA Astronaut, Dr Gregory Chamitoff has developed an online platform for students to learn about and develop space missions and colonies in space. Participants also have access to key industry mentors.

Contact: jackie@onegiantleapaustralia.com Australia in Space Magazine | 5


Contents

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44

Contents The centrality of resilience to Australia’s space capabilities Director & Executive Editor Chris Cubbage Director David Matrai Art Director Stefan Babij

MARKETING AND ADVERTISING promoteme@mysecuritymedia.com Copyright © 2021 - My Security Media Pty Ltd GPO Box 930 SYDNEY N.S.W 2001, AUSTRALIA E: promoteme@mysecuritymedia.com All Material appearing in Australian in Space Magazine is copyright. Reproduction in whole or part is not permitted without permission in writing from the publisher. The views of contributors are not necessarily those of the publisher. Professional advice should be sought before applying the information to particular circumstances.

O U R C H A N N ELS

USA to Australia, End-to-End Testing - An interview with Fugro's Space Systems Director, Dawn McIntosh

16

Space-Cyber trends and opportunities in Australia

18

Innovators get a boost to create space jobs

22

The Australian Space Forum - A quantum leap for Australia’s emerging sustainable space industry

26

Bringing Australia’s earth observation communities together at the inaugural Advancing Earth Observation AEO22 Forum

30

South Australia: Advancing frontiers for Earth Observation

34

Paving pathways to NewSpace

38

Growing the space economy with the cloud

40

Australian & the UK Join forces to address space sector skills shortage

42

OzFuel - Pre-fire monitoring of vegetation

44

Creating a Sustainable Presence on the Moon and Mars: New Horizons Summit 2022 – Panel Session Takeaways

48

Australian 2020 Defence Strategic Update and it's Space Concepts

56

CORRES PONDE NTS * & CONTRI BUTORS Jessica Bainbridge*

Jordan Plotnek

Jane Lo*

Stuart Phinn

Andrew Curran*

Keira Chrystal

Dr Alice Gorman

Mani Thiru

Lloyd Jacob Lopez

Marta Yebra

The Andy Thomas Space Foundation,

AROSE

South Australian Space Industry Centre

Dawn McIntosh

Julia Dickinson

Dr Chris Flaherty

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Editor's Desk

AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

Chris Cubbage CPP, CISA, GAICD Director & Executive Editor

"We know the development of critical technologies present enormous potential opportunities, as well as risks for Australians. It is vital we understand and send a clear signal about what technologies we should be focusing on and where our strengths lie.” - The Hon. Ed Husic, Federal Minister for Industry and Science, 22 August 2022

T

here has been a lot to celebrate in the Australian space sector for 2022. Most notably is the three successful NASA mission launches conducted in late June and early July by Equatorial Launch Australia. Three successive launches, in 15 days, from the Arnhem Space Centre, a remote location in the Northern Territory, is a significant achievement. ATSpace and Southern Launch have also gained approvals to launch two suborbital “Kestrel I” rockets from the Whalers Way Orbital Launch Complex. The VS02 and VS03 missions will fly the experimental Kestrel I rockets along sub-orbital trajectories to incrementally test the rocket design under different operating conditions. Southern Launch’s Chief Executive Officer, Lloyd Damp, highlighted the complex work taking place to support the launches and the significance of the data to be collected. “We have seen significant progress across Australia’s space industry over recent months. For Southern Launch to be supporting Australia’s most complex commercial space launches from our site is a remarkable achievement.” Fleet will continue its work on the Centauri Program, having launched its fifth and sixth satellites in 2021, and the next batch of satellites this year. APC Technology recently conducted vibration testing in compliance with the NASA-GEVS standard for Fleet’s - Flight models Centauri 6, 7, and 8 plus a backup flight model. In addition, Fleet Space have started testing their A1 payload structure tests. Airbus announced it will form part of the Australian Space Park, based in Adelaide, to deliver Australian industry capabilities to produce large-scale satellites up to 300kg. The Australian Space Park will be the nation’s first dedicated space manufacturing hub and, once in operation, will boost space manufacturing capability and capacity within a purpose-built facility. The Geospatial Goods and Services Standing Offer Panel (GeoPanel) established by Defence will procure Geospatial goods, services and relevant emerging geospatial technologies. The GeoPanel provides the framework for Australian Defence Organisation and Defence Portfolio Agencies to collaborate with industry and identify innovative geospatial data in support of Australia’s defence and national interests. Though Australia in space is not just about rockets and satellites launching from Australian soil. Broader efforts are also being made to garner interest and attention of a much needed, future workforce. During National Science Week, STEM ambassador Jarli, a First Nations girl who dreams of reaching the stars, hitched a ride to the International

Space Station on the NASA SpaceX Falcon 9 CRS-24 mission. Beginning in the Aussie outback, the story ends with a ‘first-of-its-kind’ Australian neuromorphic sensor transmitting data from space. From an award winning animated short film, Jarli was developed by the University of Technology Sydney Animal Logic Academy for the Royal Australian Air Force. In a bid to get Jarli to space in reality, she was lasercut onto the space-based sensor casing for Project Falcon Neuro – a joint initiative between the Western Sydney University and US Air Force Academy. We have also seen continued, world leading academic research, including a new mathematical model developed by space medicine experts from the Australian National University (ANU) which can be used to predict whether an astronaut can safely travel to Mars and fulfil their mission duties upon stepping foot on the Red Planet. The ANU team simulated the impact of prolonged exposure to zero gravity on the cardiovascular system and whether the human body can tolerate Mars’ gravitational forces without fainting or suffering a medical emergency when stepping out of a spacecraft. Congratulations also to Sofia McLeod of the University of Adelaide, David Smith of the University of Tasmania and Julian Guinane of the University of Sydney, on being selected for their research proposals in the fields of space science and engineering. As part of the Jupiter Program, supported by Electro Optic Systems (EOS) and the Andy Thomas Space Foundation (ATSF), also known as the ATSF EOS Space Systems Research Awards each received a sponsorship of AU$10,000. In this edition, for Australia in Space TV amongst the special interviews, in the only NASA-accredited Australian public program to celebrate the first images to come off the James Webb space telescope, we speak with Dr Robin Cook, Research Associate with the University of WA. Robin spoke on behalf of the International Space Centre, as a mission partner and member of the Astronomy from Space Node. In this edition we again cover the full diversity of the Australian and international space industry and as Official Media Partners to the Australian Space Forum look forward to seeing you there in Adelaide in October. As always, there is so much more to touch on. Enjoy the reading, watching and listening. Chris Cubbage CISA, GAICD Executive Editor.

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AUSTRALIA IN SPACE COVER FEATURE

The centrality of resilience to Australia’s space capabilities By Julia Dickinson, Chief Engineer, Military Satellite Communications Lockheed Martin Australia

12 | Australia in Space Magazine

A

ustralia’s growing emphasis on sovereignty in space is capturing the public’s imagination and spurring our industry and research sectors to greater heights. Perhaps most importantly, it is built on a recognition of the unprecedented role that space plays in our day-to-day lives. In the past few years the increasing commercialisation of space, enabled in part by advances in technology and lower launch costs, has helped the local space industry to flourish. Since 2017 alone, we have seen the establishment of dozens of space start-ups, seven Australian designed and built satellites manoeuvred into orbit, as well as the first commercial launches from an Australian spaceport, and for NASA, no less. A welcome evolution in our public policy settings has also been key to this growth. From the earliest days of our burgeoning space industry, Australian engineers and

scientists struggled to obtain political support. Today, we have the Australian Space Agency and the Defence Space Command. Governments at all levels and persuasions are now key enablers, as they recognise the value of a sovereign space industry. We only need to look to Ukraine, for example, to see both the critical importance of a space-based communications capability and the vulnerabilities of these systems. With its terrestrial communications infrastructure badly degraded, Ukraine also found its existing satellite communications system had been hacked. In order to preserve its ability to fight and to maintain operations of critical infrastructure, transportable and mobile terminals from another satellite system were quickly flown in. As the 2020 Force Structure Plan notes, “the public and Defence are increasingly reliant on satellite-based


AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

Inovor drawing showing an artist impression of their Hyperion mission which will support the global Space Situational Awareness (SSA) effort using a constellation of 12U nanosatellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). These satellites will observe the Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and GEO orbital bands.

capability and services, particularly in an age where digital data and information are driving decision-making.” Australia must be able to defend our commercial and military space systems, both in orbit and on the ground, against a potent array of current and future threats, such as orbital debris, cyber, electronic warfare systems, directed energy systems, anti-satellite missiles and co-orbital threats, to name but a few. The most recent kinetic anti-satellite test by Russia in November 2021 caused outrage, not just due to the threat it represents to operational satellites in low orbits but to the extent of the debris field it created. Debris from this test and a similar Chinese test in 2007 has impacted International Space Station operations and continues to cause risk to it and other spacecraft in orbit. Thanks to such events, the vulnerability of space

systems, now and in the future, has been laid bare in trails of space debris thousands of kilometres wide. As ASPI’s Malcolm Davis highlighted, “space is now central to modern joint and integrated warfighting and, with growing counter-space challenges a warfighting domain in its own right.” With threats multiplying over recent years, new and different countervailing resilience measures have become imperative to any future Australian capabilities. In January this year it was reported that a Chinese satellite moved a defunct navigation satellite from geostationary to a higher orbit. While this capability for rendezvous and proximity operations has previously been demonstrated by commercial western companies, this event highlighted a potential co-orbital threat to space systems. Australia is taking any such current and future threats Cont next page >> Australia 13 Australia in in Space Space Magazine Magazine || 13


AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

Artist rendering of Lockheed Martin's on-orbit docking station for servicing satellites (Augmentation System Port Interface -ASPIN)

“We need to be able to protect our assets in space, otherwise it would change Australia’s way of life,”

14 | Australia in Space Magazine

to our national security seriously, with resilience a dominant theme in Defence’s major space solution acquisitions, whether in MILSATCOM (JP9102), Space Domain Awareness (SDA) (JP9360) or Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) (DEF799-2). At the establishment of an Australian Defence Space Command in March of this year, Air Vice-Marshal Catherine Roberts was just as emphatic. “We need to be able to protect our assets in space, otherwise it would change Australia’s way of life,” she said. While this endeavour presents critical challenges for our space industry to deal with, it also creates significant opportunities. Collaboration between primes, small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) and researchers to address the challenge of resilience will in turn further accelerate the growth and development of a sovereign space industry. The advent of in-orbit hardware augmentation of satellite systems has opened the door for local industry to contribute significantly to the resilience of a space-based capability. While some satellites can currently update their software to perform new functions, augmentation vehicles can now deliver new hardware to in-orbit satellites allowing, for example, the addition of cameras for neighbourhood watch, new sensors, or newly developed technologies. On the basis they don’t put the core mission at risk, the potential for such resilience-enhancing upgrades via satellite augmentation vehicles is almost limitless. To make such missions a reality for our customers, Lockheed Martin recently announced an open standard for our own Augmentation System Port Interface (ASPIN). The ASPIN adapter provides an electrical and data interface between a host spacecraft and a satellite augmentation vehicle. This means we’re able to upgrade operational spacecraft at the speed of technology and provide built-in servicing infrastructure for spacecraft in orbit. And that extensibility path can be used to either augment capability or assist with mitigating against future threats. With such interfaces, the space vehicles in geostationary orbit present an opportunity for a variety

of smaller missions that augment their core solution with additional capabilities. Just like the pioneering Australian engineers and scientists at the Weapons Research Establishment in 1967, who met the challenge of designing and building the Weapons Research Establishment Satellite for launch in just 11 months, our current space industry is up to the task. In fact, the industry is already generating value-add opportunities in response to the challenge of resilience. Adelaide-based satellite technology business, Inovor Technologies, is one such example of Australian SMEs conceiving and developing small satellite solutions for space domain awareness and turnkey space solutions that can become satellite augmentation vehicles to enhance the resilience of satellite systems or provide additional missions of value to Australians. With deep connections across Australia’s research, space and defence industries, Inovor is developing systems that can be specific to Australia’s future needs in space, while creating potential export opportunities. There has never been a more exciting or critical time for Australia to be building our national space capabilities. But there has also never been a more challenging set of circumstances in which it must be done. The global strategic environment is constantly evolving, threats are continuously emerging that demand extensibility and resilience to ensure our space systems survive a contested and/or denied environment, increasing debris and highly advanced military counter-space capabilities. As the prime contractor for the US Government’s most secure and resilient military satellite networks, including MILSTAR, MUOS, AEHF, SBIRS, NGG OPIR, and GPS III/IIIF, it is our core business at Lockheed Martin to understand and account for other nations’ counter-space options to degrade, deny, or destroy satellite systems. Australia must continue to prioritise resilience and ensure our space systems (and supporting infrastructure on the ground) are protected. Systems must be designed from the outset to withstand the intensity of the counterspace challenge we are seeing emerging across our region and the Australian space industry can play a key role in this.


AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

WATCH NOW

Interview with

Shane Keating Senior Lecturer in Mathematics and Statistics

Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) are a recent innovation in ocean modelling, adapted from meteorology, that use synthetic ocean observations to inform future observational strategies, e.g. an artificial temperature record from a ‘toy’ glider or sea-surface height observations from a future satellite. By assimilating these synthetic observations into a numerical model, this project will investigate how well the data stream improves the model estimates, thus guiding future observing strategies. In this project, performing OSSEs is to provide valuable support for the next generation of high-res ocean observing systems, both in Australia (through IMOS) and Internationally. An international example is NASA’s Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, a ground-breaking future satellite to be launched in 2021. SWOT will use pioneering wide-swath radar interferometry to measure ocean features as small as 2km — more than ten times the resolution of current technologies. By comparing simulated SWOT observations with the model “truth”, we will establish a valuable baseline for calibration and validation of real SWOT data once it is launched in 2022. This project will be co-supervised by Dr Shane Keating (UNSW), Moninya Roughan (UNSW), Dr Colette Kerry (UNSW) and Dr Patrice Klein (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory).

Australia 15 Australia in in Space Space Magazine Magazine || 15


AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

USA to Australia, End-to-End Testing An interview with Fugro's Space Systems Director, Dawn McIntosh By Andrew Curran MySecurity Media

16 | Australia in Space Magazine

NASA is taking another step in its ambitious Artemis program with the imminent launch of the Space Launch System moon rocket. Artemis 1 will spend 42 days in space, orbiting the moon, before returning to Earth for an ocean splashdown. Among the people keeping a keen eye on the mission is Fugro SpAARC’s Dawn McIntosh. Now based in Perth and Space Systems Director at Fugro’s state of the art Space Automation AI and Robotics Control Complex (SpAARC), McIntosh is heading off to NASA’s Cape Canaveral facility in Florida to watch the longawaited launch. It is something of a homecoming for McIntosh, who before taking up her role at SpAARC in late 2021, spent two decades working for NASA, including as project manager for the BioSentinel program. It’s her involvement with BioSentinel that sees McIntosh going across to Florida. The BioSentinel program has spent the last eight years developing a biosensor instrument to detect and measure the impact of space radiation on living organisms over long durations beyond low-Earth orbit. What they’ve come up with is a CubeSat that will be one of ten CubeSats hitching a ride on Artemis 1. McIntosh says the biology experiment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast will measure DNA damage caused by deep space radiation. The dry yeast cells are stored in microfluidic cards inside the six-unit CubeSat that weighs about 13 and a half kilograms. Each card has 16 wells.

Eight of the wells will contain a wild yeast type strain that acts as a control, and eight wells containing a radiationsensitized strain. The CubeSat will operate for between six to nine months. It's been a long wait for McIntosh and the people behind the other nine CubeSats. Getting Artemis 1 to the launchpad was a big project and beset with delays. Earlier this year, NASA was flagging an already delayed mid-year launch but the space agency said it had many minor wrinkles to iron out first. McIntosh takes that delay in her stride. There are all sorts of variables that can delay a space launch and she has been around long enough to experience most of them. ‘This is the first launch of a powerful rocket,” Fugro’s Space Systems Director says. “Delays are part of the process.” Back in Perth, the fit out at SpAARC is coming to a close. The formal opening is in early November but already the facility is conducting some subsea operational activities. SpAARC has been developed to capitalise on Australia’s expertise in remote operations robotics and to parlay that expertise into the space sector. SpAARC is hopeful that they will be involved in ASA’s Trailblazer Moon to Mars Initiative which revolves around the Australian space sector developing a rover that NASA will take to the Moon as early as 2026. With luck, SpAARC will also be involved in several of the ASA's upcoming Demonstrator low-Earth orbit missions.


AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

SpAARC has partnered with Houston’s Intuitive Machines who work with NASA on that space agency’s Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) initiative. SpAARC’s Space Systems Director says working with Intuitive Machines is a perfect example of Australian space expertise working with international partners, particularly Northern Hemisphere international partners. “Offering services when people are asleep can add value,” she says, noting that working with SpAARC gives US-based companies extended operations during their downtime, and also offers a backup facility in another hemisphere if something goes wrong. “Internationally, the Australian space sector is on the map,” McIntosh said, adding that was not only due to facilities like SpAARC, but a resurgent local space sector in general and renewed interest (and funding) from state and federal governments. When asked about what successes the Australian space sector has had this year, McIntosh agrees high-profile launches like Equatorial Launch Australia's partnership with NASA to send rockets into orbit from Arnhem Land were a big deal. But she argues the biggest success of the local space sector is its increased profile. “There is now an awareness that there is a space sector in Australia,” she says, suggesting that awareness is a highlight and a mark of the sector’s growing maturity. “The next generation can start to see space as a viable career option.”

McIntosh points out that space launches as just one component of the space industry. She agrees that they are exciting and give the sector a profile, but behind every launch are thousands of people working in AI, robotics, computing, and design. SpAARC’s Space Systems Director thinks Australia’s space sector is progressing well and believes the focus will tighten over the next half a decade. “The space sector has done several roadmaps at both government and private level,” McIntosh says. “In the next few years, it will tighten up and have some focus areas.” She cites the ASA’s four strategic space pillars as examples of where the future focus areas will lie. The ASA’s pillars are all about international partnerships, working in Australia’s national interest, building the national space capability, and improving the lives of everyday Australians. “We’ll see big strides in those focus areas playing out over the next five years,” McIntosh said. Meanwhile, she is packing her bags and about to head to Florida. McIntosh has seen more than one space launch, but she says they never get dull. It doesn’t matter who is behind the launch, it is the culmination of a lot of hard work and that makes for a lot of excited people. “(NASA) keeps everyone pretty far away onsite. There are several places where people gather. You show up early, stand around with lots of people there for the four-hour countdown.” Even standing well back, a space launch is a visceral sensory experience. After 20 years at NASA, SpAARC’s Space Systems Director is animated talking about them “You can feel it in your chest. It is so bright at night; the night becomes day and you can see the colour of the grass. Then there’s this low frequency noise – a big low, loud rumble.” McIntosh adds people living as far away as Orlando often stand on their doorstep and watch spacecraft launching from Cape Canaveral head into orbit. It’s a part of life in Florida but also kind of a big deal. Fugro’s Space Systems Director says that she hopes people living in Australian cities will one day be able to do the same.

“There is now an awareness that there is a space sector in Australia,”

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Space-Cyber trends and opportunities in Australia By Jordan Plotnek Co-Founder and Lead Partner for Critical Infrastructure at Anchoram Consulting

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n Australia we’re experiencing a massive boom in the space sector, as well as the manufacturing and technology sectors that feed the space supply chain. This is driving fast-paced business and technology development with the rapid deployment of advanced satellites and other space systems – each introducing new cybersecurity risks to an already congested and contested ecosystem. Recent global events have demonstrated the immense appetite of various state and non-state actors to conduct offensive cyberspace operations against space systems. Most famously, Viasat communications outages were felt across Europe and SpaceX’s wellpublicised battle against hackers and signal jammers during the Ukraine invasion. One of the most damaging aspects of a cyberattack is that its impacts can be felt globally. Take for example the WannaCry ransomware attack in 2017 that infected 200,000 devices across 150 countries. It forced hospital

evacuations, manufacturing shutdowns, and rail halts – none of which were even specifically targeted. This threat must be taken seriously, and Australia is in the unique position to be building an entire commercial space industry mostly from scratch, giving us the opportunity to produce modern secure space technologies from the get-go. Given the high risk of building and operating any technology in today’s threat environment, it is important to understand your risks and identify appropriate ways to mitigate them. There are four key trends that make space systems particularly vulnerable to cyberattack: 1. increasing technological complexity 2. increasing operational capability 3. increasingly hostile threat environment 4. increasing reliance on space infrastructure.


Most famously, Viasat communications outages were felt across Europe and SpaceX’s well-publicised battle against hackers and signal jammers during the Ukraine invasion. Operational Capability Of course, the upside of the risks introduced by technological complexity is operational capability. New space technologies are developed to improve the functionality of the system, whether it be robotic arms, edge processing, or high-powered precision lasers. Each of these novel functionalities can not only increase the potential impacts associated with a cyber compromised system, but also the attractiveness of that system being actively targeted by threat actors. Additionally, given the increased militarisation of space, more advanced space systems can be more practicably weaponised in the case of cyberwarfare or cyberterrorism.

Threat Environment New threats are consistently emerging due to global digitisation and increased accessibility to launch cyberattacks. Threats arising from cyberwarfare, cyberterrorism, and cybercrime are increasing and so are the capabilities of motivated threat actors. Both cyber and electronic weapons are becoming more effective and accessible by the day, with over 120 countries actively investing in their national cyber warfare capabilities. This means a significant increase in malicious cyber activity targeted towards critical systems such as satellites and launchpads. As has been experienced in the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war, commercially-owned systems are equally targeted and oftentimes more impacted (due to less preparation) than military or government systems during periods of cyber conflict. Technological Complexity

Critical Space Infrastructure

The second space race is shifting the focus from government to commercial interests, which is enabling a burst of innovation accompanied by sizeable funding opportunities. The next decade or so will see system-ona-chip avionics, self-optimizing autonomous systems, complex on-board satellite processing, autonomous satellite-to-satellite (S2S) communications, plus a number of other complex software and hardware enhancements. Each technological advancement introduces new vulnerabilities that could be exploited, producing yet unseen effects. For example, consider a piece of wormlike malware that corrupts a satellite connected via an autonomous S2S system – without proper safeguards the entire fleet could be compromised and potentially rendered unserviceable after a single infection.

Historical examples of previously deployed cyber weapons have painfully demonstrated the devastating impacts such an uncontrollable weapon can have on businesses and broader society. A hit to any critical infrastructure is felt throughout a society and can cause far reaching consequences to the economy, social stability, trust in public institutions, and psychological well-being of citizens. Satellite infrastructure in particular is the backbone of various terrestrial infrastructures, including power grids, banking systems, disaster response, and defence systems. Mass-scale environmental and political events may also increase humankind's reliance on space infrastructure. For example, hazardous asteroids heading for earth or the growing threat of climate change, both of which are tracked, assessed, and potentially mitigated using space Cont next page >> Australia 19 Australia in in Space Space Magazine Magazine || 19


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infrastructure – a reliance that may evolve and become more critical as time goes on. Another example might be the continued increase of global political hostilities, which will only increase the need for military equipment to deepen dependence on satellite technologies for activities such as communications, surveillance, and targeting.

Compounding Factors Compounding the trends above is the fact that space systems operate in very remote locations and are most often irretrievable for repairs or maintenance. These features exacerbate the impacts of a cyberattack and can result in total failure. Additionally, space systems’ supply chains are incredibly complex and usually span the globe. From an adversarial perspective this provides many points of opportunity to compromise the end system. For example, physically tampering with an electronic component at the manufacturer to install undetectable malware. There are many recent examples of cyber supply chain attacks like this, such as the Tyupkin malware that infected more than 50 ATMs in Europe in 2014.

Space-Cyber Opportunities Given that most of Australia’s commercial space industry is so-called ‘New Space’, the significant dilemma of space security could actually present an opportunity to domestic industry. Unshackled by the burdens of legacy systems and archaic infrastructure, Australia has the opportunity to build modern space technologies that are fit-for-purpose for the contemporary threat-drenched environment. Whether you explicitly assess and accept a risk or not,

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the risk still remains to your systems and therefore your business. Novel technologies bring novel vulnerabilities and require thorough security testing and secure code review to ensure that the system is adequately hardened. With the right governance and risk management in place, security can also be embedded into the design and the operations to monitor any known vulnerabilities and protect the system against evolving cyber threats. This ensures not only the system’s ongoing viability, but also protects the business from any unnecessary operational risk – space operations are risky enough. When it comes to guidelines for implementing good cybersecurity practices into systems and operations, there are few standards that apply directly to space systems. The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have recently released three standards that do apply to space systems: • NISTIR 8323: Foundational PNT Profile • NISTIR 8270: Introduction to Cybersecurity for Commercial Satellite • NISTIR 8401 Satellite Ground Segment. Each of these standards provide detailed steps for applying the NIST Cyber Security Framework (CSF) in each of the user, space, and ground segments, with a focus on Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) applications. There are currently no standards that are tailored for space systems security in the Australian context. With world-renowned Australian cybersecurity standards such as the Information Security Manual (ISM), Essential Eight, and the Australian Energy Sector Cyber Security Framework (AESCSF), perhaps this another opportunity for Australia to draw international attention to our burgeoning domestic space industry.


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Innovators get a boost to create space jobs Courtesy of AROSE

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nnovative Australian small-to-medium enterprises and ‘scale-ups’ are to be incubated into the global space industry as part of a national incubator program. The ‘Qua ntumTX Fast Forward’ Technology for Earth and Space program will help scale technology solutions aligned with Australia’s goal of tripling the size of its sector by 2030. The program is open to start-ups across the full spectrum of automated to autonomous capabilities, including robotic platforms, artificial intelligence, satellite communications, simulation, digital systems, interoperability, and services that support remote operations. “This is a significant opportunity for Australian SME’s and ‘scale-ups’ to leverage their expertise in robotics, technology and systems to solve major industry challenges with international collaboration and industry support,” said Quantum Technology Exchange Founder, Adjunct Professor

Peter Rossdeutscher. “Participation in the QuantumTX program is valued at $25,000 but due to industry and government sponsorship, will be offered free for up to 20 Australian businesses via a competitive application process.” Included in the QuantumTX program is a range of masterclasses, industry mentoring and direct access to experts with experience from NASA, Nova Systems, the European Space Agency, Rio Tinto, the Australian Space Agency, the Australian Remote Operations for Space and Earth (AROSE), Robotics Australia Group, Oz Minerals, Defence, Austrade, METS Ignited, Atomic Sky and other leading organisations. The QuantumTX program is aligned with the Australian Space Agency’s Robotics and Automation on Earth and in Space Roadmap. “Australia’s expertise in robotics and automation, in particular remote operations, will support the next frontier


"Our vision in this area is bold, built upon a strong backbone of demonstrated capability. We encourage programs like QuantumTX by Atomic Sky and AROSE to play a critical role in creating connections,capacity and opportunities across sectors whilst helping build home-grown space capabilities"

(L-R) AROSE CEO Leanne Cunnold, METS Ignited General Manager WA & SA Kylah Morrison, Quantum Technology Exchange Founder Adjunct Professor Peter Rossdeutscher and AROSE Program Director Michelle Keegan

on the lunar surface and beyond,” said Enrico Palermo, Head of the Australian Space Agency. “Our vision in this area is bold, built upon a strong backbone of demonstrated capability. We encourage programs like QuantumTX by Atomic Sky and AROSE to play a critical role in creating connections, capacity and opportunities across sectors whilst helping build homegrown space capabilities.” Supported by AROSE, participants will visit leading remote systems sites, including Fugro’s Australian Space Automation, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Control Complex (SpAARC) and Roy Hill’s remote command and control centre. “Australia is at the cutting-edge of robotics technology and systems for remote operations, which are going to be central to setting up a sustainable presence on the Moon, and eventually supporting human exploration of Mars,” AROSE CEO Leanne Cunnold said.

“While improved safety performance is the primary motivation for industry to increasingly use remote operations, the benefits are widespread including for technology innovation, efficiency and productivity, and sustainability. “The growth of analytics and robotics capabilities in the resources sector alone is estimated to add A$74 billion to the economy by 2030 and create 80,000 new jobs. “AROSE is proud to sponsor the QuantumTX program which will give SME’s and ‘scale-ups’ a tremendous opportunity to leverage and diversify their expertise into the space sector.” Adjunct Professor Rossdeutscher said the future skills required for a prosperous and sustainable Australia would be dependent on scaling small businesses and multi-sector collaboration. “The opportunities in digital technologies are immense, but it is also complex,” he said. The QuantumTX program takes a collaborative approach to unlock this potential by linking start-ups with large producers, and accessing test sites, specialist sector expertise, investment capital and mentors.” Applications open on 10 August 2022 and close on 16 September 2022. The QuantumTX program is funded is by the Australian Government Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources through the Incubator Support Initiative, AROSE and Atomic Sky. It has additional support from METS Ignited, Robotics Group Australia and Fugro. For further information about the QuantumTX program, go to www.quantumtx.com.au/quantumtx-fast-forwardspace-2022

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A dedicated channel for all things in Space, including Defence and Military Technology and related Aeronautics, Information Systems, Communication Systems and Space Exploration.

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WATCH NOW

Interview with

Nicola Sasanelli AM Chief Executive Officer

The Australian Space Forum is a bi-annual event held in Adelaide bringing together the best and brightest from Australia’s space industry and around the world. Each event features keynote addresses from space industry leaders and informative panel discussions on current space topics and industry trends. The Andy Thomas Space Foundation is looking forward to welcoming a global audience to the 14th Australian Space Forum, which will be held on Tuesday, 25 October 2022 at the Adelaide Convention Centre in South Australia. Supported by the Australian Space Agency, the South Australian Space Industry Centre and SmartSat CRC, the Forum provides the perfect opportunity to stimulate ideas, share information about emerging technologies and network with influential space sector leaders and the broader community. Participants can attend in-person, or virtually through the event’s global interactive platform.

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The Australian Space Forum - A quantum leap for Australia’s emerging sustainable space industry

Courtesy of The Andy Thomas Space Foundation

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he Australian Space Forum (ASF) is considered Australia’s premier space conference & exhibition, connecting private and public sectors, enabling new opportunities and advancing the space industry technologies and projects. In October 2022, the Andy Thomas Space Foundation will celebrate the 14th edition of this biannual event at the Adelaide Convention Centre, first started in April 2016 where the foundations of what has grown into the innovative and thriving current Australian space ecosystem were laid. The first few years of the ASF saw profound debates and reflections on how to best develop an optimal strategy and identify points of advantage/ improvement to facilitate strong and structured growth of the Australian space sector. These were the first steps for what later become a vibrant national space ecosystem, with the establishment of the Australian Space Agency in July 2018, accompanied by the release of the National Space Strategy in 2019, the SmartSat Cooperative Research Centre in July 2019, the Andy Thomas Space Foundation (July 2020) and in March 2022 the first considerable Federal budget of $1.3 billion dedicated to the growth of the Australian space sector and space

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manufacturing capabilities, includeing the establishment of a National Space Missions for Earth Observation. In the last seven years the Australian Space Forum has united space leaders from around the world to discuss, address and plan for the future of the industry. Attendees at the first ASF totalled barely 80 space enthusiasts. Since then, the Andy Thomas Space Foundation team has welcomed more than 2,000 people per year from across the globe, including distinguished speakers, delegates, exhibitors, volunteers, educators and students. The Forum consists of three interconnected segments, including: The symposium, exhibition area and outreach/education. Each Forum features an innovative symposium, launching the day with a political overview of the sector and international trends discussed by representatives of global space agencies. Three topical panels hosted by distinguished industry leaders will follow, focusing on discussing current challenges and areas highlighted as part of Australias next steps in growing our space ecosystem. The panels deep dive into the best practices discussed globally whilst contextualising the topics in relation

to Australia’s current and future projected capabilities/ priorities. The 14th ASF will boast the following panel topics: • Earth Observation – The National Space Mission for Earth Observation. • Optical Communications – A quantum leap in Australia’s secure and high bandwidth communications to connect the world and beyond. • Foundation Services Rover – Exploring remote operations and autonomous systems building on Australian expertise in the resources and mining sectors for the collection of lunar soil (regolith). To see the previous topics highlighted, visit the ATSFs website. The Exhibition area reaches over 2,900 sqm, configured to provide extraordinary access and exposure for each of the nearly 100 local, national and international exhibitors per Forum, featuring areas dedicated to primes/corporates, SMEs, start-ups, education and government organisations. The engaging exhibits highlight the latest in space innovation, technology, education, policy and much more. In recent years, a particular emphasis has


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The Andy Thomas Space Foundations Australian Space Forum team pictured during the 13th Forum in March 2022

been applied to engaging young students (primary and high schools) in the industry with the initiative called ‘Space Passport Program’. This educational outreach program enables around 120 students per Forum, the opportunity to learn about space career pathways through direct engagement with Australian and global space leaders. The ‘Space Passport Program’ sessions (three for each Forum are facilitated whilst the symposium panels are active) allow students to explore the exhibition hall to: • Talk directly to companies currently involved with the Australian Space sector • Ask companies about current and future careers within their industry • Find out about the school and tertiary pathways needed to enter the discussed careers The ASF is strongly supported by the Australian Space Agency, the South Australian Government and SmartSat CRC. This event provides an excellent opportunity for Australian stakeholders to meet and network with key national and international space players. ASF attendees consistently represent all sectors of the space ecosystem from multiple

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spacefaring nations: space agencies; commercial space businesses; military, national security and intelligence organisations; cyber security organizations; federal and state government agencies and organisations; universities and research and development organisations; think tanks; start-ups; space entrepreneurs; manufacturing or sale of space technologies for commercial use; and media that inspire and educate the general public about space. Participation in the Forum is recommended for anyone participating in the above fields as well as any other space or space-related field. The Foundation believes that space should be accessible to all, we also recommend the Forum to any individuals with a keen interest in the evolving space sector. Bringing these groups together at the ASF provides a unique opportunity to examine space issues from multiple perspectives, to promote dialogue and to focus attention to critical space issues. As the Forum matures and increases its impact on the global community, the ATSF intend to further achieve their aims, which include: 1. Encouraging the exchange of information and promoting the latest industry developments; 2. Showcasing Australian capabilities to national and international investors; 3. Assisting research organisations to identify industry needs and future areas of demand, particularly within STEM pathways; 4. Promoting commercial application of new research and technologies. Year after year, the Australian Space Forum keeps up its reputation as the “must attend” space industry event of the Southern Hemisphere, highlighting many of the space and space-related facets of both the national and international space sectors. Don’t miss your opportunity to leave your mark on Australia’s space history. Register your ticket for the Australian Space Forum here.

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COVER FEATURE

Bringing Australia’s earth observation communities together at the inaugural Advancing Earth Observation AEO22 Forum By Stuart Phinn Professor, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences Queensland.

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arth observation data and the many types of information derived from it underpins our industries and government sectors in Australia. Our earth observation communities now include groups who design, build, launch and operate satellites, as well as those who collect the data and transform it into products and services to be consumed in multiple sectors. Information derived from Earth Observation supports agriculture, grazing, mining and water and energy supplies, transportation planning and environmental management, as well as providing the basis for understanding and predicting weather and climate change. Yet Australia’s earth observation communities haven’t collectively met to connect and collaborate in almost a decade. That is all set to change this year, with the inaugural Advancing Earth Observations Forum being held in Brisbane this August. Registrations are now open for this exciting 5-day event, including two days of hands-on workshops that will

run from the 22nd to the 26th of August. At its core, the forum is focused on re-connecting all parts of Australia’s earth observation community. “The intent has always been to enable people to connect and to do it in a way that people in industry, government and education all get to talk,” explained Stuart Phinn, Forum Director and member of the organising committee. The workshops and sessions in the forum are based on five themes: 1. Connection and coordination 2. Securing Australia's role in the international earth observation community 3. Infrastructure and people 4. Access to earth observation data and services 5. Generating value But if attendees of the forum are expecting a traditional


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"We definitely don't want a sit-down and listen type meeting, where you've got 10 sessions of people talking for 20 minutes. We wanted to come up with different ways that people can actually interact and learn and build our community and enable the next generation of people that come into it " conference format, they’ll be in for a surprise. “It's not an academic conference, it’s not an industry conference or a government one, it’s some weird mix of everything in between…It's where we want the people who are using satellite, airborne and drone data working with the people who are designing, building and launching satellites, as that's a big focus of Australia’s emerging space industry” he said. From the designers of satellites and sensors to the ever-growing numbers of data- analysis groups and companies transforming data to products and services, to the communities of end-users of earth observation data, the conference sessions have been designed to facilitate as much conversation and connection as possible. “We definitely don't want a sit-down and listen type meeting, where you've got 10 sessions of people talking for 20 minutes. We wanted to come up with different ways that people can actually interact and learn and build our

community and enable the next generation of people that come into it.” Sessions in the forum include a “town hall” meeting, where forum attendees will be given the opportunity to have focused discussions around the future of industries, governments and how they use and want to use, earth observations in Australia. While there will still be some traditional-style presentations, the forum will be placing emphasis on poster presentations and a novel EO360 presentation style, where presenters are given six minutes to speak, followed by seven minutes for community feedback and discussion. “We're trying to be as open and inclusive as possible as well because this is a field where if you have more diverse approaches, and people, and backgrounds you get better solutions, whether it's industry, government or whatever. So trying to include all of that in here is a key focus,” Stuart said. With over a decade of significant technological Cont next page >> Australia 31 Australia in in Space Space Magazine Magazine || 31


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advancements since the community last gathered, there’s a lot to catch up on! “What's happened in that time is we've shifted from earth observation only being something that government space agencies and defense aerospace companies with multi-billion-dollar programs do, to being an activity that small start-up companies with two to 10 people can engage in on the satellite and sensor side, to the analysis and transformation of global; data sets,” Stuart said. “The rate of change, in relation to data storage, processing and distribution activities is very rapid, and keeps changing every couple of months… that's another reason to start talking again,” he said. As technology continues to advance, it’s becoming more and more important that there is communication and collaboration across the entire earth observation process, from satellite construction to end-user. “The upstream side of the space industry, which is the design, build, launch and operation of satellites, is driven by what the earth observation are actually used for,” Stuart said. In the past, earth observation satellites were often designed for multi-purpose earth observation, which while helpful, limited their ability to accurately collect specific data. But with space becoming increasingly accessible, Stuart thinks there is a lot of potential for the quality and applications of earth observation data to expand by marrying sensor and satellite design with end-user needs. He used crop yield as an example. “If you're able to design the sensor in the satellite so it's just for that specific type of crop, it means you know you can specify an optimal pixel size, spectral bands to measure and collection frequency. It means that the product

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that people will produce, in the crop yield estimates, they could move to being from 50-60% accurate to being 8090% accurate,” he said. “For a lot of industry and government that shifts these approaches from being research type/testing activities to operational and able to use those data to actually make decisions, where we're also willing to pay to get that information to support our decisions.” The forum will not just be discussing space-based earth observations. It will also incorporate the uncrewed aerial systems for remote sensing conference (UAS4RS), recognising the increasingly important role drones are playing in earth observation. Registrations for the forum are now open, and you can find out more about the program at: https://www.earthobsforum.org/


Dr Space Junk presents 5 questions.

with

Lloyd Jacob Lopez CEO of Hex20 By Kelly Yeoh

A

Dr Alice Gorman Space Archaeologist at Flinders University

lice Gorman is a space archaeologist at Flinders University, Adelaide, and a member of the Advisory Council of the Space Industry Association of Australia. Every issue she will showcase up-and-coming talent, thought leaders, and companies in the Australian space sector. In this issue, her guest is Lloyd Jacob Lopez. Lloyd is the CEO of Hex20, an innovative Australian SmallSat company providing cost-effective platforms, customized hardware, and advanced sensor technologies for the CubeSat and SmallSat markets. Hex20 is currently working on a proposal with the University of Adelaide for ASA’s Moon to Mars demonstrator mission.

1.

What do you consider to be your greatest achievement so far?

I think my greatest achievement so far is building a community around Hex20. My family supported me in all the adventures, starting with the first company with my classmate, from a small four-member team to 200 people strong. Without the support of my family and my friends, it would have been impossible to achieve something like this. With Hex20 the journey is exciting, with many things to learn and do. We have grabbed a few good projects and negotiating a few more.

2. What was the most useful subject you studied at school or university for your current career? Continuous Learning is crucial for staying updated in this fast-changing world. The “Leading Digital Transformation” course at the Indian Institute of Management in Bangalore (IIMB) helped immensely with what I am doing now with Hex20. This program enabled me to understand various business models and how technology is transforming changes, and the different possibilities this creates. Managing a start-up is not easy; you need a lot of planning and coordination for managing changes, defining roles/structure, spotting the right talents, managing cash flow, managing clients, etc., and you need to keep learning new tricks.

3. What are you currently reading and how does it relate to your space work? [This could be a book, article, audio book or podcast, website] I do most of my daily reading on Flipboard app, and it suggests articles based on my interest and reading habits. An influential book for me was Wings of Fire – the autobiography of the Missile Man and President of India, Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam. It’s one of the most inspiring books to read when you are a space tech

start-up. The most interesting part is where he explains how to recover from failures, battle hardships, and emerge successful. This is one of my favourite quotes from the book: “To succeed in life and achieve results, you must understand and master three mighty forces— desire, belief, and expectation.” 4. If you went on a one-way trip to Mars tomorrow, what is the one item you couldn’t leave without and why? This is a difficult question. I have never imagined a one-way trip to Mars. I will carry a device that will help me keep all the beautiful memories I have on Earth for when I age; it was awesome making them. Not sure what new memories Mars would hold for me!

5. What is your vision for the future of Australian space industry? The future of the Australian space industry looks exciting, and the last few years have seen enormous opportunities for the space sector to develop local capabilities and attract global space tech companies. With the kind of effort and resources the Government is putting in, Australia is setting a clear path to success by growing a competitive space industry to address growing global needs.

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South Australia: Advancing frontiers for Earth Observation SOUTH AUSTRALIAN SPACE INDUSTRY CENTRE Courtesy of South Australian Space Industry Centre

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arth Observation (EO) satellites and the data they provide have a meaningful impact on the lives of Australians, from enabling weather forecasting to helping farmers better manage their land and crops. Australia relies heavily on E0 data to support a broad range of industries, such as disaster management and bushfire detection, minerals exploration, climate change monitoring, ensuring food security, as well as Defence applications – and South Australia is playing a leading role in the development of this sovereign capability. From machine learning and data processing to Internet of Things (IoT) and developing the satellites and sensor packages, South Australia’s expertise spans the full spectrum of EO needs. Earth Observation from space is recognised by the Australian Space Agency as a priority for the Australian space sector because of its potential to lift the broader economy and improve the lives of all Australians. Australia’s leading national space industry and research consortium, the SmartSat Cooperative Research Centre (CRC), is focusing its efforts on advancing EO – one of the CRC’s three key research programs. Headquartered in Adelaide, the CRC is building on Australia’s expertise in transforming ever-increasing streams of satellite data into essential, decision-ready information for industry,

government and Defence. SmartSat CRC’s Craig Williams, who manages the consortium’s Next Generation Earth Observation Data Services program from their Adelaide office, said leveraging EO data will create efficiencies across a broad range of sectors and open up new activities in mining, agriculture, urban planning and disaster management in ways that have not previously been possible. “EO data is already extensively used in mining exploration. With better sensors using hyperspectral technology, detection and identification of surface minerals can lead to new mineral deposits being found and rehabilitation of mine sites can be better managed,” he said. “In agriculture, monitoring soil condition, moisture, crop types and disease can all help understand the yield from Australia’s farms and provide the information needed to maximise it. In grazing, it is also possible to manage feed more effectively and understand paddock degradation.” While the benefits of EO are well known, presently, the country’s supply of EO data is primarily derived from internationally owned satellite infrastructure. According to Craig, it is vital the country develops its own sovereign satellite and sensor capability. “Relying on sensors and satellites that are built and owned by international companies or governments means


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“EO data is already extensively used in mining exploration. With better sensors using hyperspectral technology, detection and identification of surface minerals can lead to new mineral deposits being found and rehabilitation of mine sites can be better managed,”

In 2023, the South Australian Government will embark on a mission to launch its own state satellite, Kanyini.

that we will never have control over the data collection or have sensors that are optimised for our conditions and vegetation,” he said. “By promoting a sovereign capability in Australia, we can develop systems that are built specifically to our environment and needs and be able to prioritise tasking for Australian opportunities to benefit industry and the government.” An early campaigner for the benefits of sovereign spacederived data, the South Australian Government has embarked on a mission to launch its own state satellite in 2023. The South Australian Space Services Mission satellite, Kanyini, is being led by the SmartSat CRC in partnership with two South Australian space companies – Inovor Technologies and Myriota. One of only a few Australian satellite manufacturers, Inovor Technologies is designing and building the satellite. Adelaide-based global space company Myriota is managing the Internet of Things payload, which will collect data from devices and sensors on the Earth’s surface. The HyperScout 2 hyperspectral imaging payload was developed by Dutch company Cosine as part of the European Space Agency’s InCubed Programme. The HyperScout 2 combines hyperspectral and thermal imaging with high-level data processing and Artificial Intelligence (AI) capabilities that enable smart processing

The launch of Kanyini will be a game changer for South Australia's space sector, with local companies Myriota, Inovor Technologies and the SmartSat CRC driving the mission.

of hyperspectral data directly on orbit. Once launched in 2023, the satellite will provide services to state government departments as well as educational opportunities for South Australian schools. Further recognising the importance of EO and sovereign capability, the Australian Space Agency has launched the National Space Mission for Earth Observation program in partnership with CSIRO, Geoscience Australia, the Bureau of Meteorology and Department of Defence. The almost $1.2 billion program will see Australia design, build and operate four new satellites, strengthening the nation’s sovereign satellite capability and creating hundreds of new jobs. South Australian Space Industry Centre Chief Executive Richard Price said this Australian-led mission will help propel the nation’s space industry and reinvigorate space manufacturing. “This mission is a unique opportunity to support Australia’s space sector to scale-up. It’s important, but challenging, to get the balance right between mission performance, establishing the foundations for a sustainable satellite manufacturing base, and delivering to a tight schedule,” he said. Through the Modern Manufacturing Initiative, the Australian Government is also investing in new infrastructure across the country, such as the Australian Space Park in South Australia. This will support the Cont next page >> Australia Australia in in Space Space Magazine Magazine || 35 35


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In 2021, the Australian Space Park was announced as the country’s first dedicated space manufacturing hub. Due to commence operations in 2024, it will have the capacity to assist EO observation capability and the development of intelligent satellite systems by bringing companies together to collaborate on projects.

CE Richard Price

Caption

Artists impression of inovor technologies satellite over Lake Eyre

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future manufacturing requirements of the space industry and secure the advancement of the nation’s sovereign space capabilities. In 2021, the Australian Space Park was announced as the country’s first dedicated space manufacturing hub. Due to commence operations in 2024, it will have the capacity to assist EO observation capability and the development of intelligent satellite systems by bringing companies together to collaborate on projects. Crucially, space manufacturers will have access to a Common User Facility (CUF), supporting the assembly and testing of small satellites and enabling companies to manufacture at scale. “The CUF is being designed in extensive consultation with the Australian space community, so it will meet the requirements of the broader space industry and not one particular business,” Richard said. South Australia has growing expertise in building and delivering satellite systems that can provide vital EO data to support a variety of applications. Momentum in South Australia’s thriving space ecosystem is picking up pace, with a number of local companies announcing major milestones in developing leading-edge EO solutions. Fleet Space Technologies’ newly launched satellite project, GeoSphere, is set to revolutionise the mining industry. It combines wireless geodes, edge computing and a constellation of low Earth orbit nanosatellites to search for resources such as copper, nickel, gold and lithium that are being used for zero-emission technologies. Founded in South Australia, Nova Systems has made the bold move to collaborate with emerging EO and data company Satellogic as their founding partner in Australia, giving Australian industry and government clients greater access to highresolution satellite imagery and geospatial intelligence. With its only overseas subsidiary based in Adelaide, UKfounded company Digital Content Analysis Technology (D-CAT), is supporting infrastructure and planning projects in regional Australia through satellite-enabled monitoring and analytics. The GRAVITY Challenge champion is working closely with South Australia’s Department for Infrastructure and Planning to improve road maintenance and planning, as well as increase awareness and responsiveness to environmental changes to the network such as flooding. With a rich space heritage, a thriving community of world-leading researchers and thought leaders and a growing ecosystem of more than 100 innovative space organisations, Richard said South Australian industry stands poised to support the Australian Space Agency’s National Space Mission for Earth Observation program. “This mission presents a great opportunity for South Australian industry to play a pivotal role in building our nation’s sovereign EO capability. We have established companies here that provide specialist technology and facilities, space-based solutions, and bespoke satellites for customer needs. This expertise will be integral to furthering our national endeavours to build space heritage, provide secure access to and advanced processing of data from space and expand our satellite design and manufacturing capability.” Discover more about the South Australian space sector at sasic.sa.gov.au


FUTURE WORLD ENDLESS POSSIBILITIES

15 & 16 February 2023

Global Technology and Space Convention

14 February 2023

Sheraton Towers

(Workshops)

∙ Singapore


Paving pathways to NewSpace By Keira Chrystal

I

continue to hear that the Australian space industry is poised to become an integral contributor to both the private space race and NASA's Artemis Missions. Our industry is relatively recent, ripe for technological innovation, yet there is a generational disconnect and insularity that has yet to be properly overcome. Born of defence and technology, the space industry in Australia comes across as conservative and 'oldschool' to young professionals and academics who are otherwise keen to be somehow involved. It seems a general consensus among young people that breaking into the industry is difficult and intimidating. I have only just begun to set foot into this inspiring and active arena, and can attest to the challenge of feeling confident in the face of a rapidly growing industry. Borrowing from our 'can-do', flexible, and adaptive attitude with technology, the Australian space industry is in prime position to shape its professional culture anew. However, identifying where the connection between Old and New Space attitudes is severed proves challenging and multifaceted – especially as Australians seem to be in agreeance over bridging the gap. To investigate where the problem may lie, I spoke to young professionals and academics in the Australian Space ecosystem, for their opinions on where Australian space is falling short. Notably, our institutions overwhelmingly lack meaningful and clear pathways into the Australian space industry, and students are often at a loss with how to approach the field. Rebecca Ryan-Brown is a Macquarie University

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student with ties to the space industry only through the university’s student space team, Macquarie Orbital. She is studying a Bachelor of Arts and Law, and takes special interest in the rapidly growing field of law in space. In the future, Rebecca hopes to pursue law on an international front, concerned with human rights and space development. She values the pathway provided to her through Macquarie Orbital, and recognises that ‘it can surprise young people that Australia has a spot in the global space ecosystem at all.’ Painting the space industry as a valid and accessible professional pathway is imperative to the involvement of younger generations, especially outside of STEM disciplines. ‘We need everybody if we want to take humanity to space,’ she says. This is a sentiment I often hear reflected and supported by our space community, but little of within institutions. Despite challenges, Rebecca notes that all her contributions to the space industry have been encouraged and accepted at every step, even as a fresh face. The positive reception she has received has encouraged her to pursue space law as a potential career path, rather than a casual interest once seemingly incompatible with her degree. Combating preconceptions of Australia in space is Kaylee Li of the well-known student team, USYD Rocketry. She is a passionate aerospace engineer in the making, recalling that she was ‘very inspired’ by several women in the field when she was still in school. Kaylee now aspires to take part in our Moon to Mars Mission.


AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

‘Fear is the most prevalent mindset in young people when approaching the space industry,’ she says, and I too have observed this in my peers. She notes that often students feel incapable, but believes this can be resolved with supportive learning, and involving passionate space professionals on social platforms that students are using today. Her enthusiasm has translated to her extensive school outreach in an effort to inspire the next generation. Outreach programmes for children and teenagers interested in aerospace are increasing, but still lacking – especially when we are holding ourselves to the expectation of soon occupying a pivotal place in the future of space exploration and industry. Master of Research student, Annabelle Jones, of University of Technology Sydney, is researching the impact of microgravity on oestrogen production. She is interested in how women’s physiology will adapt to space travel. Offering the perspective of an academic, Annabelle feels strongly on an issue with funding allocation, and the inaccessibility of funding for researchers like herself. She points to a rich history between higher education and the Old Space Race in the United States, which ultimately took us to the Moon. Currently, the extent of support for innovation like this is no longer in place. While her university was a founding member of the New South Wales Space Research Network, she has not been able to access or make use of this government support, nor does her university offer any space-based courses. ‘We cannot expect talent to be there when they have not been educated, trained, or even made aware of pathways into the space industry, especially when

severely lacking funding at the ground level.’ She believes institutions need to be pressured about their use of funding and kept accountable for it. Unfortunately, Annabelle feels discouraged from speaking on this issue despite her passion about it, due to the formative state of our industry. I asked Annabelle how current industry leaders could open up the industry to people like her, and improve accessibility. She hopes to see more international internships where Australians are given the opportunity to experience established and highly innovative space ecosystems. Airbus Defence and Space has made an incredible step toward mobilising Australian university students into the space industry here and internationally, with their United Kingdom space internship for graduates in 2023. A clear pathway such as this demonstrates the possibility, accessibility, and opportunity of our space industry that should be in place for all of our youth. Vice President of the National Space Society of Australia, Gregory Hunter, wonders if the disconnect could be located in academic institutions rather than industry. ‘Old Space members that we had to work with are now working with us (New Space members) – but maybe this turnaround hasn’t happened in academia in the same way.’ He suggests that universities may not be structured to effectively engage with the industry, especially not the way they used to. Across many STEM disciplines and industries, I have observed similar professional culture, and pressure on academics to research for the sake of corporate entities. There is question around how much this may be stifling innovation, as a number of scientists seem to be turning to the start-up scene in order to continue their research pursuits. The Australian space start-up scene is certainly taking off with monumental support from government, industry, and other investors. Identifying these attitudes in young professionals and New Space members facilitates greater understanding and allows the industry to become more cohesive. How do we ensure effective collaboration between New and Old Space in Australia? What do we want our industry to look like in the future? Imbuing our industry with a new working culture is to the benefit of all of us. While the template for Old Space has proven effective in many ways in the past, we are able to now build upon this and improve the professional framework. I have already seen the building blocks of a superior, welcoming professional environment; a recent panel evening introduced me to Jill Seubert, deep space navigator and founder of Australis Space Navigation. She remarked feeling respected in her role here, and was met with applause from Old Space and New Space members alike. This is the mentality we must persevere with as we continue to construct our ideal, multifaceted, functional framework to Australian space. With a united front, we can be more effective in establishing ourselves on the global stage in this New Space age.

‘We cannot expect talent to be there when they have not been educated, trained, or even made aware of pathways into the space industry, especially when severely lacking funding at the ground level.’

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Growing the space economy with the cloud

By Mani Thiru, Head of Aerospace and Satellite, Asia Pacific and Japan, Amazon Web Services (AWS)

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targazers worldwide have tracked the movements of stars and planets and found ways to incorporate the universe into their daily lives, both practically and symbolically. Over the ages, individuals have used space to tell the time, navigate, and predict the weather. They have also used the stars and planets to tell stories, build societies, and most remarkably, understand their relationship with the universe surrounding them. Today, space exploration continues to help us understand our place in the universe. Economic and geopolitical interests are driving the quest to better understand the cosmos. Falling costs, new technologies, and a new generation of space entrepreneurs, promise the beginning of a bold new era of space development. According to Morgan Stanley, the global space economy's value could generate $1 trillion in revenue by 2040, and in the Asia Pacific region, space innovation is being powered by governments, visionary pioneers in the private sector, and a new cohort of startups. Amazon Web Services (AWS) has signed statements of strategic intent with space organisations in Singapore, Brazil, and Greece to help foster growth in the regional space economy. These collaborations focus on supporting startups and organisations in space innovation, research, and development, while also providing training and resources to support the technical workforce.

Space Renaissance on Earth But the real story of the new space renaissance is not beyond the clouds – it’s here on Earth. Observing our planet using satellite images is helping solve some of the world’s biggest problems by monitoring important changes. For example, government agencies are using Earth observation data to get the complete picture when a natural disaster strikes, and applying that information to assist with accelerating recovery efforts. Environmental organisations can use satellite data to help with monitoring Earth’s surface changes, highlight impacts on wildlife, and inform efforts to protect endangered species. Earth observation from satellites also helps monitor illegal fishing, pollution, deforestation, and ocean health. Farmers can use satellite imagery to monitor their fields, spot problems early on, and optimise inputs and crop yield. For example, Australia’s Farmbot Monitoring Solutions, an agtech company, uses AWS to assist with developing an innovative range of monitoring devices to help farmers remotely check water levels, flow and pressure rates, diesel stocks, rainfall levels, and staff movements, helping to save resources and improving yields. With Farmbot, a South Australian farmer was able to reduce water wastage by 90%, and saved cattle stations in the Northern Territory more than $20,000 per year in labor costs.


AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

Space and Sustainability One of the world’s highest priorities is sustainability. Both government and private sector organisations are using satellites and spectroscopy to monitor emissions data, helping to detect carbon dioxide emissions and natural-gas leaks from a range of sources, including oil wells, landfills, industrial operations, and farms. Ozius, an Australian organisation, has built its remote sensing solutions on AWS, enabling them to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of monitoring and reporting activities for natural and built environments. Satellite data can also help optimise renewable energy infrastructure using predictive models of sunlight and cloud cover, to better locate solar panel installations and monitor patterns of energy usage to help balance the load between renewable and non-renewable generation sources.

Fast Data, Quick Decisions With continuous advancements in the space industry, a tremendous quantity of new data is collected in orbit. We’ve already reached a point where it is becoming more challenging to store, analyse, and make sense of such massive quantities of data without cloud computing. Space companies are starting to realise that when it comes to data management, the fastest and most effective way to gain insights, find answers, and deliver critical information to decision makers is with cloud technologies like artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning. Rapid, precise data and analysis from space is important, especially when it comes to work that could help save lives and communities. For example, Exci (previously known as Fireball International) is capturing sensor data in space and using AWS machine learning algorithms to help detect wildfires just minutes after they start. The incredible growth that we see in the space economy, especially in the satellite industry, is creating opportunities for AWS partners and customers in a number of mission areas. And with these opportunities, we see more innovative solutions and ways to apply cloud technology. Headquartered in Singapore, Kacific Broadband Satellites

Group, a next-generation broadband satellite operator, is using AWS to assist with providing high-quality, low-cost satellite broadband internet connectivity to help improve the lives of people living in remote areas in Southeast Asia and the Pacific region.

Diversity in Space It’s becoming clear that as we are finding ways to work more effectively in space, and that cloud computing is helping with projects that improve how we live and work here on Earth. And as the space industry grows, a diverse, inclusive space workforce is crucial. By making this rapidly growing sector accessible to all, we can ensure that everyone benefits from space innovation, including the smallest startups. To achieve a diverse space workforce, the industry must nurture talent from every part of the community. Programs like SheDares, a free, online learning program that aims to inspire professional women to consider a career in the technology industry, are challenging long-standing gender stereotypes and helping to move the industry in the right direction. What has been achieved in space just in the last half a century is remarkable, and what the industry will achieve in the next 50 years will be exponentially more exciting. As technology improves and the space economy becomes more accessible, it’s clear that the sky is no longer the limit and AWS will continue supporting space organisations including startups to leverage the cloud to drive innovation.

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AUSTRALIA AUSTRALIA IN IN SPACE SPACE

Australian & the UK Join forces to address space sector skills shortage

By Lisa Harvey, Editor at Mathworks

By Andrew Curran MySecurity Media

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ith the UK's first rocket launch on home soil only two months away, the UK space sector is suddenly attracting attention from beyond its own shores. It is a moment to shine. Ten thousand miles away, Australia's space sector is keenly watching their friendly rivals take the next step on their space journey. The two countries have space ties dating back 50 years. The 66-kilogram Prospero X-3 satellite built in Farnborough, UK, successfully hitched a ride into space on the back of a Black Arrow rocket at Woomera in October 1971. That longstanding space relationship has ebbed and flowed ever since. More recently, the relationship has been on the uptick, with the UK and Australia rejuvenating their space sectors. The space sectors of both countries enjoy similarities in size, scope, design, and ambition. It made perfect sense then when in February 2021, Australia and the UK signed off on the world's first space bridge, a pact to collaborate and cooperate on space research, innovation, investment, and opportunities.

Less than 18 months after the agreement was signed, the Australia-UK Space Bridge has already produced real-world results. The University of New South Wales is now working with Spire Global UK to monitor and classify Antarctic sea ice from space. Researchers at the University of Adelaide are collaborating with D-CAT and Intergrain to look at how hyperspectral processing can help plant breeders create more productive crops to feed more people. Perth-based LatConnect60 has teamed up with the University of Surrey's SSTL small satellite operation to co-own capacity on a high-resolution Earth observation satellite. Space Bridge funding is sponsoring these and other joint Australia-UK space efforts. "Each country is aware space is important for economic growth," says Joanne Hart, Director at the UK's Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC). "People are also increasingly aware of the dependence that we all have on space – all our positioning, all our timing, our satellite comms, our satellite TV - there is increasing awareness of how important space is to everyday life." In the UK, the space sector directly supports about 45,000 workers and generates annual revenues of around


AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

AU$29 billion. But the sector also underpins an additional $630 billion annually in economic activity in the UK. That will increase when the UK demonstrates its sovereign launch capability in September. But like Australia, the UK space sector is experiencing growing pains. The sector is growing faster than any other in the UK. Also, like Australia's space sector, the UK is characterised by an abundance of clever but often financially precarious start-ups, a small number of primes, financial uncertainty (capital is often provided on a perproject basis rather than on an ongoing basis), labour shortages, and the absence of a clear skills pipeline to cater for expected future growth. Joanna Hart can't solve every challenge facing the UK space sector, although, with a PhD based on a study of particle physics, she is probably better qualified than most to try. Part of Dr Hart's role is to develop appropriately skilled people for jobs in the space sector, with the STFC supporting research in astronomy, physics, and space science at top-flight research facilities in the UK. She says if the UK (and Australia) wants a world-class space sector, they need the right type of people. Skilled labour shortages aren't exclusively a space sector problem but a group of UK and Australian officials, including Dr Hart, met recently at Australia House in London to talk about the space skills challenge at a Space Bridge roundtable. "Rather than the UK analyse everything from a UK perspective, when there are exactly similar challenges and issues in Australia, why don't we do a bit of analysis, see what works, what doesn't, and knowledge share across the space bridge," she said. That funding uncertainty, the boom-bust nature of space start-ups, and the relative youth of the commercial space sector are some reasons why the space sector skills pipeline is so undeveloped. Broader economic conditions, the absence of clearly defined pathways and perceived barriers into the space sector are some external reasons for the space skills shortage in both countries. It is something Joanna Hart is keen to address. "We've got all these great facilities at the STFC," she says, namechecking a synchrotron, accelerators, neutron and muon sources, and a deep underground science facility. There's also STFC-managed access to CERN's particle physics lab outside Geneva. "We're already training people for our own needs, but we are short people across the whole space sector. How can we train more people to benefit the UK space sector? I'm leading the proposal to find out how." The UK wants to snag a 10% of the global space economy by 2030. Australia is also angling for a large slice of this pie estimated to be worth more than US$1.4 trillion by 2030. But without the right people working in the local space sectors, the risk is that the opportunities will pass. The recent Australia-UK Space Bridge roundtable discussed transferable skills from other sectors, developing global talent and the government's role in addressing the skills challenge. Dr Hart agrees the space sector cannot solve the skills

"We're already training people for our own needs, but we are short people across the whole space sector. How can we train more people to benefit the UK space sector? I'm leading the proposal to find out how." Deputy Premier of Western Australia Roger Cook leading roundtable discussions in London

challenge overnight, but neither can it cannot be left untackled. She notes it takes six years to get through an undergraduate and graduate education, and the sector needs to start funnelling young people into the right degrees now for future employment in the space sector. Dr Hart also says the sector needs to become more diverse. The space sector is no longer just the domain of boys with degrees from MIT. Space is for everyone, she says, regardless of race, colour, gender, or creed. And more than that, the space sector needs people who think differently, creative thinkers who'll think outside the box. "We've got to resolve this," she says. "I would hate it if we were still here in 10 years' time still talking about skills. We need a clear action plan, and we should be able to see people coming through." In the meantime, Virgin Orbit's modified Boeing 747-400, nicknamed Cosmic Girl, is due to take off from Cornwall's Newquay Airport in September. The big Boeing will give a 26,000-kilogram Launcher One rocket a ride before it deploys in UK airspace. It will be the UK's first rocket launch at home and will come 51 years after launching Prospero at Woomera. It might just be enough to spark interest in a career in space from an entirely new generation.

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AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

OzFuel Pre-fire monitoring of vegetation

By Dr Marta Yebra, Associate Professor Director, ANU-Optus Bushfire Research Centre of Excellence and Dr Nicolas Younes Cardenas, Fenner School of Environment & Society

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t any one time there are thousands of satellites orbiting the earth. They have a range of government, military, and civilian applications, including monitoring climatic conditions and environmental events. Bushfires are one of such events. When it comes to managing bushfires, there’s huge potential for satellites to play an important role. When bushfires occur, some satellites can capture the heat coming from the flames. However, when this happens it’s already too late; the fire is already burning and lives may be at risk. Other satellites can capture the areas already burnt and show the destruction caused by these events. Yet there are no satellites that show accurate predictive information to help Australian emergency management agencies make decisions on where a fire is most likely to burn. This is where OzFuel comes in. The Australian National University (ANU)'s Ozfuel mission (ANU) is the first satellite mission designed for pre-fire monitoring of vegetation. The Australian Space Agency listed national bushfire fuel load monitoring as a priority “mission purpose” for Earth observation; that is, how much vegetation can be burnt, and how easily it can catch fire. The Space Agency recognized the need for satellites built specifically to watch Australia’s fuel conditions from space. A few months ago, the Federal Government allocated

A$1.6 billion over the next 15 years to invest in a National Space Mission for Earth Observation, which will see Australia design, build, and operate four new satellites. With the development of OzFuel well underway, the ANU hopes to play a significant role in the National Space Mission, and hopes some funds will be allocated towards developing satellite capabilities to predict where bushfires are likely to start, and assess their likely severity. Developed by the ANU Institute for Space (InSpace) – which is made up of scientists and engineers working across a range of fields - the shoe box-sized satellite will enhance Australia-wide bushfire management and prevention, by measuring forest fuel load, vegetation moisture, and other fuel parameters that affect forest flammability. Since eucalypts make up 77% of the nation’s forests, and are highly flammable, OzFuel is specifically tuned to detect changes in the flammability of this group of trees. Right now, Australia relies on foreign satellites to gather information on forest flammability. These satellites are not designed to assess our unique bush landscape, or to be employed for bushfire management support; with this in mind, the ANU took upon the challenge to develop a bespoke Australian satellite implementation to better understand bushfires and help inform bushfire management. Two inquiries into the Black Summer fires of 2019/2020 – the national Royal Commission into Natural Disasters


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Two hyperspectral imaging spectrometers are mounted on an elevated work platform to measure the full range of the electromagnetic radiation of the top of the canopy and simulate a future OzFuel overpass. Photo by Peter O'Rourke

Arrangements and the New South Wales Parliamentary Inquiry – highlighted the need for a continent-wide map of vegetative fuel states. Information about fuel conditions is crucial for two main reasons. Before the bushfire season begins, this information helps fire authorities decide the best locations and times for prescribed burning to reduce the amount of flammable vegetation in the landscape. And when bushfires occur, information about fuel conditions helps authorities allocate personnel, equipment, and resources. The Ozfuel mission will measure forest fuel flammability at a continental scale, every six to eight days during the early hours of the afternoon, when vegetation is most stressed and ignites more easily. Images would be taken at a spatial resolution of about 50 metres, which is adequate for bushfire management operations. Much of the research for this unique satellite mission is being done in Canberra. At the National Arboretum, a research team is using specialized cameras to analyze hyperspectral data from the forest directly. These cameras capture the portions of light that humans can see, and the portions that humans cannot see; far beyond what most cameras are capable of. Researchers collect mammoth amounts of extremely detailed data every time they go to the field, advancing the design of the OzFuel satellite. The fieldwork needed for this research can’t be rushed.

Intensive field campaigns and lab analysis will inform design of the Ozfuel sensor and demonstrate its superiority in comparison with other existing international optical sensors. Photo by Peter O'Rourke

Australia in Space Magazine | 45


AUSTRALIA IN SPACE Different ground-based readings are needed over time to account for changing conditions such as the time of year, amount of rainfall, and atmospheric conditions. Even though the evergreen Eucalyptus trees might not change their leaves the way that deciduous trees do, they do experience chemical changes that can show various levels of moisture and oil content. A higher concentration of oils and more dry material can make bushfires hotter, more intense, and burn for longer. The data seen from the camera is recorded and crunched through various algorithms to build a map of where the fuel loads are, which can then be used to make fire management decisions. Apart from informing the design of the OzFuel satellite, the spectral data collected in the field has a range of other uses. Scientists can use the information to simulate how different forests will react to a changing climate, or to see how different eucalypt species respond to fire weather conditions. With eucalyptus grown in Europe and the Americas as a commercial timber, this research can also be used by growers to make decisions about their crops. The images collected for this research may also help advance other industries. For example, hyperspectral imaging can be used in forest management, agriculture, carbon sequestration monitoring, and more, to monitor plant health and growth cycles across crops and ecosystems. Hyperspectral imagery is being increasingly used to monitor a range of natural resources and for the identification of plant species. Our vision for the OzFuel mission begins with a demonstrator mission comprising of one pathfinder satellite launched into orbit and sending information back to earth. At a later stage, a group of satellites will provide near-realtime analysis of fuel conditions across Australia, informing bushfire management activities and supplying information to other industries and users. This is an ambitious program that requires significant contributions from industry and government, but it must be considered as an investment into protection against catastrophic bushfires. Research suggests bushfires will cost the Australian economy up to A$1.1 billion per year over the next 50 years, but OzFuel is being designed to help reduce this figure significantly. Australia needs more effective prediction, prevention and mitigation strategies to prevent a repeat of Black Summer – and a space mission designed to monitor Australia’s highly flammable landscape is a critical part of our national response. About the Author Dr Marta Yebra is a Senior Lecturer in Environment and Engineering at the Fenner School of Environment & Society and Research School of Engineering, Mission Specialist of the ANU Institute for Space and Director of the ANU-Optus Bushfire Research Centre of excellence. Her research focuses on using remote sensing data to monitor, quantify and forecast natural resources, natural hazards, and landscape function and health at local, regional and global scales.

46 | Australia in Space Magazine

Associate Professor Marta Yebra has spent years helping teams on the ground better manage bushfires with space and other remote sensing data. Photo credit: Jamie Kidston


AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

WATCH NOW

Interview with

Ryan Hartman President and CEO

World View, a leading stratospheric exploration and space tourism company, has hired three new industry experts to establish and lead a new safety program that includes the company’s testing and safety protocols ahead of human space flights starting in 2024. The new personnel will build on World View’s existing safety protocols and risk assessment procedures that have successfully guided more than 100 uncrewed flights and remote sensing missions for commercial and government customers. In turn, the committee’s work will provide the additional measures needed for World View to begin space tourism missions in two years. Experts leading World View’s safety expansion include Greg “Ray J'' Johnson, a former NASA astronaut and Blue Origin executive; Ron Failing from Virgin Galactic; and Charlie Precourt, former NASA astronaut.

Australia Australia in in Space Space Magazine Magazine || 47 47


AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

Creating a Sustainable Presence on the Moon and Mars: New Horizons Summit 2022 – Panel Session Takeaways

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he New Horizons Summit, held at Lendlease in Barangaroo, Sydney on Friday was an inspiring day, showcasing Australian and international presenters across the spectrum of space technology and industry activities. Speakers included Jennifer Edmunson, Project Manager of the Moon to Mars Planetary Autonomous Construction Technology (MMPACT) project with NASA and, a stellar 2:30am (CET) presentation from Austrian-based Niklas Hedman, Acting Director with the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. The volunteer organising team from the National Space Society of Australia set their purpose to expose attendees to a potentially new horizon; with this year’s being the painting of a supply chain that can create a sustainable presence on the Moon and Mars. The aim was to ensure that those who attend will leave with not only an awareness of the potential reality but with a knowledge of their position within the supply chain that would be needed to turn this into a reality. Kudos to the team for achieving this objective. The format of the day, which adhered to a strict and generally brutal time schedule, was broken down across four key session themes. These included transport infrastructure, construction and extraction, systems integration

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and sustainability, and replication. Hearing from each presenter for an allocated 12 minutes meant a sufficient overview was gleaned from each speaker, which then culminated in an informative collective panel session. Here is a captured takeaway from those sessions (and edited for readability).

SESSION 1 - TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE SUMMARY KEYWORDS KPIs, space, Australia, customers, supply chain, real, starting, risk, infrastructure, launch, moving, government, people, capital, cost, grants, investment, market, industry, shift PANELISTS (L-R)

• Ryan Nagle, CSCO Datum Source (MODERATOR)

• Troy McCann, Executive Director, Nebula • Christian Maender, Director, AXIOM • Rajat Kulshrestha, CEO, Space Machines Company

• James Bultitude, CTO Orbit Fab • James Gilmour, Director, Gilmour Space Technologies

Ryan Nagle Focused on space infrastructure. What types of metrics or a style of a key performance indicator do you think gives a good signal on the health of the space industry? Troy McCann I think the first one is real customers. Not just necessarily government contracts or especially not grants but actual customers. Christian Maender I go back to the model that says we need a robust infrastructure layer and LEO, to support this kind of exploration. And this robust infrastructure doesn’t exist unless there are reasons to be there. So, it’s really about diversification and economic reasons to be there. And to me, measuring the different use cases that are actually developing to go to space is a great indicator for growth. But there’s a difference between who wants to go and how we can afford to go and whether you can close the business case. And so, you’ve got to look at both the diversification of people who have real applications for microgravity or for space and separate, how many business casecloses is it? And as those numbers start to reach the same level on the curve, then you’ve been more and more successful.


INTERNATIONAL SPACE

SESSION 1

PANELISTS (L-R) - Ryan Nagle, CSCO Datum Source | Troy McCann, Executive Director, Nebula | Christian Maender, Director, AXIOM | Rajat Kulshrestha, CEO, Space Machines Company | James Bultitude, CTO Orbit Fab | James Gilmour, Director, Gilmour Space Technologies

James Bultitude I think it’s about the shift from supply-side market to the demand side. You know, there are a number of variables to it. It’s number of customers, things to orbit launch cadence, but I think at the moment, there’s a very over-heavy over–indexing on the supply side, which is great. Because that’s what happens with most markets. But I think an indication to start moving towards more demand side is where you start to see real growth because focusing on one variable or the other is not going to give you a good idea. Just because there’s a large number of launches, does not mean that it’s starting to grow. I think it’s about a value by a number of variables. Rajat Kulshrestha So, we think about this a bunch because it opens up we’d like to say that we have an economy that includes space but is on the ground, and we want an in-space economy. Which is different in that goods and services need to be exchanged in space and need to emerge in space for use in space. And we’re starting to see the first of those things. But it’s still very centered around every business model that generates revenue for people living on the ground. And so there’s a bit of work we think long term, and that’s how we would measure success. James Gilmour A good question. A couple of things. I think investment both from a venture capital side but also at a federal and state and even local level. I think when my brother and I started a long time ago, there was little or no venture capital in investment in Australia. It took, I’d say boldness, of Blackbird ventures to actually see that there was a shift in the space landscape, both domestically and abroad.

I think some other key indicators are the amount of small and medium enterprises that have started. I think when we started, there was a small handful. And now I think there’s, you’re in a sense of the 100, 200 small and medium enterprises operating domestically in the space domain. And for me, I would like to see a shift in the number of talented individuals studying space technology in Australia. That’s what I think would shift and move the needle. Ryan Nagle When I think about KPIs, they always make me cringe a little bit. Because then I’m going to be held accountable to those KPIs and increasingly, what are some of the most efficient sort of capital allocations that governments or any sort of capital allocator could put in place that would make you feel more comfortable being held accountable to the metrics that you just signed up? James Bultitude I think, moving away, at least locally, starting to move away from the grants to more contracts, because that allows us to directly address that demand side, so being part of the supply chain allows us to go build something and launch something. And so I think, from my perspective, from institutional governments moving towards more the capability that we’re starting to build. Rajat Kulshrestha I’ll say that the US is a good model here. You don’t have to invent how to allocate money in a new way. In particular the AFRL and the work that they do around the AFWERX, which is their application of what they call Small Business Innovation Research grants. This is structured so

the first phase is defining your market, figure out what you’re going to build and prove it can work. The second phase is really prove it works. And then the third phase is not here’s more money to scale it, it’s find a customer and that customer can be government but they need to bring money. And AFWERX becomes a contracting mechanism that makes it easier for you to get that customer’s money into a contract form that you can do work as a small business. So, taking those kinds of ideas from elsewhere and implementing them in Australia could be very powerful. James Gilmour Well, speaking from experience, it tends to be centered around headcount. Politicians tend to have the factors of jobs and growth. I don’t see that changing. That will continue to be a requirement with any grant or co-investment at a federal or state level. I’d like to see a shift in the government being a customer or buyer of services from small to medium-large enterprises. And then I would like to see more contractual arrangements for large bidding for Australian into industry content to be measured, rather than what I’ve seen of late. Christian Maender From the US we’re obviously spoiled from a capital perspective, both from as an infrastructure provider but what I really like to see is a greater diversification and investment in the companies that want to use space as opposed to the ones that want to get them to space or sustainable in space. And maybe that sounds weird for a guy that’s still trying to raise capital. But really, I don’t need capital as much as I want to see customers. And so that’s what we all really need.

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What I like to see and what I am seeing, at least an uptick in trending is risk tolerance growth, at least in the US markets on going after somebody space applications and it takes people like this on the stage to demonstrate that there’s access to space that hasn’t been there before. So it makes those investments realistic. I can’t speak intelligently within Australia, but I can echo from what the Gilmour team says, it’s just it seems that it would Australia could really benefit from government infusion of dollars that really foster a growth of the LEO commercial space marketplace here in Australia. There are other countries that are doing it. I think it’s a real race, I mean, to really say who’s going to leverage and take advantage of the opportunities that space is going to provide. And so, I would love to see more government funding go into these applications, whether it’s on the infrastructure side or on the use case side, but that said, I think there’s plenty of VC out there, whether it’s domestic or international. But the governments that really put an effort into developing the economies in Low Earth Orbit, and especially to start in ultimately lunar and beyond, are going to be the ones that really reap the benefit of the economic benefit terrestrially that supports all that infrastructure. Troy McCann It’s something I’ve spoken about for years, especially in Australia, where we’re trying to grow an entirely new set of space supply chains. And this is something that is happening all around the world as well, because the way that we’re doing space, as you’ve just heard of here, it’s entirely different today, than it was a few years ago. But a part of the challenge that we have, we have to work out how do we de-risk every single part of that supply chain before if you’re developing watch, for example, the end customers down the supply chain are going to be farmers that are looking for data that comes from the satellites that were launched, etcetera. So, we need to do more to how to be less riskaverse, especially in Australia. If you’re saying that in the USA, they have an issue with risk then I don’t even know where we fall on that scale. But we definitely need more. We do need more capital from government as well. It’s great, you know, the amounts of money that it’s increasing in Australia. I hope that we see less of them. If you know that you’ll get here. I don’t like the idea of grants at all. I like the idea of contracts and customers over the top of that. So, I hope we see less grants and more real contracts. And I hope that we see more risk-takers and I hope that we see what people are reaching out to people that care and have been systems and they’re really thinking about how we do de-risk the technology

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that we’re developing and not say, I’m going to solve it trying to solve this scientific problem, and I’ll talk to a potential customer in five years’ time. Start with talking to a customer today. Then develop your technology to suit the solution. That they want. And that must work all throughout the supply chain. And so, we need better use of infrastructure to help us do the testing and development and you’re getting onto the space station too if you’re doing microgravity research. These are things we need to work out how we deal with each of the steps of this supply chain, using a lot of the tools that we have available source but they’re just very fragmented now. If I can just quickly bring it back to the KPIs question, as we sort of went off track a bit. I think that we need to embrace KPIs a lot more, especially if you’re just looking for a customer not even necessarily just government contracts or government grants. If you’re developing a new capability, talk to your potential customers say well look, let’s do some sort of demonstration and here are the KPIs. What are your KPIs that you need from us? Because then it starts to de risk and for that, you know, if you don’t hit it, that’s fine. But if you do hit it, then you can say well, let’s lock you in for a bigger audit. That helps investors understand that okay, there’s real significant customers here, not just a one off your entire kicking kind of customer. And that’s how we can start to build out those supply chains. Ryan Nagle It seems as if the entire industry is on the heels of the NASA administrator speaking a couple of days ago, when he said that the cost-plus contracts were like a plague on NASA for the last few decades. What’s your reaction to that? Because when we were buying things at SpaceX, Elon nicely told me to go remind the suppliers that we’re not a cost-plus contract, we’re a firm fixed price launch company. And now that they’re going that way, what’s your reaction to that? Does it add a little bit more risk? Troy McCann Me personally, I love it. Of course, it increases risk. That’s what we should be doing it. We, you know, we don’t want to rent-seekers, you know, the disabled, I’m in this position and suddenly, I can just keep on charging more and more. We need to create a little bit more of the market to work or what is the value that that group is actually providing in the supply chain so that we don’t get any stagnation like what we saw before the last decade or so. Christian Maender I support it too. But I mean as a simply because nothing down cost plus waters down the

opportunity to deliver on KPIs and at the end of the day you You’re, you’re expected to deliver but the cost-plus world you can make excuses that ultimately lead you to ask for more. And from a resource’s perspective, if we’re ever going to put become multiple multi-planetary species with the amount of capital it’s going to take to go invest in that we can’t afford to. We can’t afford to waste some money as a precious resource. And so, from that regard, creating a common competitive environment, making sure that people play around with it deliver. That’s what I think. So. James Bultitude Going back to the KPI question, this is one of those variables where, you know if it’s if it becomes a demand-centric market, you’re going to get value-based pricing. So, moving from cost to fixed to value, and you see that in other industries where slowly the transition happens. At the end of the day, you want the customer go and telling you I’m willing to pay more for that because it’s high value to me. So, my view is that it’s a solid step toward moving that future. Rajat Kulshrestha Cost-plus doesn’t just give an avenue for increasing cost, it encourages it. Like it actively makes people underbid. Knowing that they can increase the cost. We all know this. We all know that everyone’s guilty on it, it has to go. And the only way for it to go is for companies to make the standard say we want to do firm fixed price and that’s been happening for long enough now that the internet so it’s great news. James Gilmour Great news. I think that that’s one of the reasons why there’s innovative companies today like SpaceX, you know, competing for business that was traditionally to these types of arrangements that didn’t lead to the best idea wins or efficiency or effectiveness. So that’s what we’re doing now with regards to the next phase of the contracting, is fixed price. So, both parties take risks. We’ve got to make sure that you know our requirements are clear and well defined, and they know exactly what they’re looking to do and you’re fully 100% support. Cool. Christian Maender But it really does put responsibility back on the government to know very clearly what they want. They define the opportunity because to change requirements on companies in a firm fixed price and it happens. Scope creep my basis. But the point is the scope creep really can’t be tolerated in a firm, fixed–price environment. So, from that perspective, if you’re going to go that way, you


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SESSION 2

PANELISTS (L-R) - Emi Clancy, Senior Manager, Communications and Marketing, Satellite and Space Systems, Optus | Michael Morris, Architect & Co-Founder, SEArch+ David Goodloe, Advanced Concepts Team, Branch Technology | Jeremy Aubert, Brand & Media Strategist, Fleet Space Technologies | Leanne Cunnold, Director & COO, AROSE James Trevorrow, Arup Space Task Force Leader, Arup | Jake Thompson, Head of Innovation, Rolls Royce

need to understand that any scope change results in a change in the cost of it to deliver the service. And so, in that regard, from an efficiency perspective, you know, to go to fixed price governance really got to know what they want. And they got to say this is what we bought and follow through. Rajat Kulshrestha But there are avenues if you get 90% of the way through a project and you’re over cost with firm fixed price to still closing the project out, right? You can go to the capital markets and say, look, how much work is done, this small investment from you and a good deal gets it over the line. And that really lets the market then solve the problems in the way we do with the rest of the economy.

SESSION 2 - TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE SUMMARY KEYWORDS space, working, power, satellites, hardware, ITAR, unlimited budget, regulation, moon, companies, materials, launch, panel, feedstock, exciting, ice, constraints, first few missions, involved, bio PANELISTS (L-R) • Emi Clancy, Senior Manager, Communications and Marketing, Satellite and Space Systems, Optus (MODERATOR) • Michael Morris, Architect & Co-Founder, SEArch+ • David Goodloe, Advanced Concepts Team, Branch Technology • Jeremy Aubert, Brand & Media Strategist, Fleet Space Technologies • Leanne Cunnold, Director & COO, AROSE • James Trevorrow, Arup Space Task Force Leader, Arup • Jake Thompson, Head of Innovation, Rolls Royce

Emi Clancy If budget was no limit, what do you think is the next critical piece of research to reach a sustainable Lunar and Mars environment? David Goodloe Well, I can speak from our experience. I’m not an expert in any of the other things that you’ve heard about today. So, I’ll limit myself to what I say here. But for us, it would be to begin prototyping hardware to produce the Next Generation materials that we expect to use as our feedstocks. That’s why it was such a unique and interesting outcome that we were able to print with that commercially available biopolymer, the bio-produced polymer and so exciting to see, because it is unexpected that variable materials work with a process that’s tailored for terrestrial construction right now. So, that is not going to always be the right material for every application on the lunar surface. So, I would say for us, at least, it’s the hardware that’s going to be needed to tailor and match the feedstock material that we’re expecting to use. Jake Thompson I’ll give a parochial answer for nuclear power. I’d like to see accelerated timescales to test a reactor and put it on the surface of the moon. So, the Artemis program does have sufficient surface power in the program. But it’s the end of this decade. After you know, humans have gotten there and spent the first few missions that are powered by solar power. We think you know, what, if project was no option, no risk constraint, we could accelerate that you could do it in parallel. And I go back to how I started my presentation, the more power we’ve got on service, and the more we can do so we can recharge a whole fleet of drones, we can do some more science. We could put a reactor on the Dark Side of the Moon and power a telescope for Deep

Space Observation. The more power we can do, the more we can do so. Jeremy Aubert I think one of the things that’s a struggle with colonizing the moon and having presence there is so much we still don’t know. So, if budget was no issue. There are so many great ideas out there. That engineers and researchers have so many untested techniques that they would love to be able to just throw some hardware out there and start getting into it. When you think about companies that innovate and move quickly. They’re not afraid to fail, but in space when you’re in space, failure isn’t really quite an option. You can’t waste all that money sending something up there for only knocked work. So, if you had unlimited budget, you could take a lot more risks, and you could learn a lot more quickly. So, I think that would be the thing that would be exciting about having more ability to undertake work and to test things. When right now we have to test it all from Earth, get it right from here, and then hope that it applies across. I think that would be something exciting. And I think that as launch costs do come down, we’re going to see a new way of working in space, which we already see with the small satellite industry, where you no longer have these multibillion-dollar satellites you can really be flexible and design and learn and launch and it’s not so prohibitive that you’re prevented from doing that. I think that speed of innovation and being not so afraid to fail. James Trevorrow When the panel was talking before about the thing that’s a big part of it, honestly, is about sort of, you know, the inspirational parts and getting more people involved in the whole market. Really, that really is quite important. Thank you now that reducing payloads so how do we do that?

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SESSION 3

PANELISTS (L-R) - Imelda Alexopoulos, Partner, PwC | Alex Snelson, Azure Mission Partnerships Lead, Microsoft | Van Wagner, Senior Mechanical Engineer, Lunar Outpost Matthias Seifert, Lead of ISS Columbas Program, Airbus | Mark Micire, Head of Robotics, Woodside | Rob Joyce, CTO Oceania, Nokia

Or we need more players. And we need to invest more money, but also, as per the first panel. We need that demand side. You look at VCs, they want returns, but the stakes are high up there, you know with hardware in space, right? So, it’s going to take longer to build those things that percentage is from Elon Musk about hardware manufacturing is hard. It’s not like a SaaS where you can get out there capture market and do a big exit. It’s not like that at all. Somehow where the sustainability angle is, get more VC involved in hardware in space, and sort of involve more people from different sectors in the sector itself. Michael Morris I think that the idea of collaborating across the globe on having a collective you know, space effort, again, would be a kind of go I think that the forums like this that bring us all together and kind of synergy of what’s happening in the earth to get to space is an important first step. So, I think that more collaboration more bringing together some of these brighter minds like this biopolymer that these guys are starting to work with. I think this is the key not only to bringing minds together for space, it’s also to bring them together for Earth. So, this is kind of materials that like eventually, we should be able to eat our buildings, you know, chicken to grow them and eat them. And we should be able to do the same thing in space. So, one could imagine that that whole plant-based bio human bio becomes one and then we don’t really destroy the resources that we have here. But in our Mars project, we drew part of the power from the Martian atmosphere, which is a by-product of trading the hydrogen fuel. So, I think that like that kind of particle level, elementary level particle

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physics is I think, you know, part of what we’re going to be looking at, that’s really interesting. So, any research that goes into that, I think, is where we should be spending the money.

Leanne Cunnold Yeah, I think really similar to what other people have said is that, you know, what are the basics that we need to do and then put the money into fueling that growth? So, you know, rovers can’t be that successful, if you had a swarm, without having power, but then if you had power there, then we could have a lot more that easily. So, what are those key interdependencies that you could fund fail fast and then push the boundary for everyone? This is just one recheck.

Emi Clancy In your experience, where have you found yourself pushing up against constraints due to space law and regulation, or lack thereof?

Michael Morris I don’t know. I mean, we’re getting an art group we’re getting more and more specifically involved with NASA and sort of direct design and so it was when we first entered it was kind of an open territory that, you know, we proposed Ice House as our first project. And then we won the competition, beating Foster and, and the European Space Agency, so we’re like little David beating these giant firms and established agencies. But the next competition they disallowed ice, it was to innovative, so that was our first experience of blowback, that you got zero points for ice and we knew that ice and water are the best radiation shields. It seemed to make sense because Mars great abundance of

ice. So that was our first little bit of like, okay, you can’t be that innovative. James Trevorrow I don’t want to plug Arup too hard but I suppose we haven’t had any thus far. One big one is we’re working on in the US is helping design those codes and standards for the Moon and Mars and that’s really exciting. I think this network, we’ve all got similar agendas and intents and a lot of people are quite collaborative. And even on the IP side, on the styles we’re working with, it’s been a very open discussion. So, to be honest, we haven’t really found any thus far but we want to be involved in creating them. Jeremy Aubert Fleet Space is a satellite communications company, and we are launching our own satellites and it’s more of a physics problem than US law and regulation problem. But the regulatory environment for spectrum allocation is incredibly complex and a difficult area to operate in. And there’s a lot of companies that have gobbled up quite a lot of the available spectrum and to gain access to the right, to use your equipment. You know, we could launch satellites with incredible capability but if we don’t have the right permissions, then we’re hamstrung. We can’t really use that. So, it can be a challenge for companies that are startups and are growing and expanding, that they need to play on that same field and can potentially be held back. So, I don’t think there’s a way around it because there is only so much spectrum. But it’s a challenge that every space company that is looking to communicate from the earth to Low Earth Orbit and back is going to face and it’s a big challenge.


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SESSION 4

PANELISTS (L-R) - Jason Carr. NSW Digital Market Lead, GHD | Anne Kovachevich, Foresight and Innovation Leader, Arup | Veronica La Regina, Director, Nanoracks Europe Samuel Faigen, Associate Director, HDR | Andreas Antoniades, Director, Saber Astronautics | Edwin Betar, Principal Systems Engineer / Lunar Surface Architecture Team, Boeing

Jake Thompson Yeah, that’s a very real example we’re working through right now, which is ITAR. Working with innovation is a lot of paperwork. And I get it. Control of space technology and nuclear technology and put those together. I really do understand the control aspect. But the ITAR regulations kind of fly in the face of the international cooperation that Artemis is set up for but will ultimately lead to its success. So, we still, I think, need to find the sweet spot, especially working with the US on ITAR regulations.

SESSION 3 - SYSTEMS INTEGRATION SUMMARY KEYWORDS answer, intellectual capital, NASA, skyscraper, challenges, systems, new technologies, robots, bits, question, systems integration, software, built, proven, real world examples, cosmic rays, problems, defense PANELISTS (L-R) • Imelda Alexopoulos, Partner, PwC (MODERATOR) • Alex Snelson, Azure Mission Partnerships Lead, Microsoft • Van Wagner, Senior Mechanical Engineer, Lunar Outpost • Matthias Seifert, Lead of ISS Columbas Program, Airbus • Mark Micire, Head of Robotics, Woodside • Rob Joyce, CTO Oceania, Nokia Imelda Alexopoulos As the experts in your field, what do you think

are the challenges others think are difficult, but you know, are easy and thinking from a systems integration perspective? So that’s the first part of the question. And on the flip side, what are the problems that are really challenging to solve? Rob Joyce Yeah, I think the first thing that we’ve realized is that the signal is pretty bad. And so normally we design systems to go through glass walls, between skyscrapers, etc. So, there’s no trees or anything like that was really a complication. So that’s great. That said, there’s not much reflection either. So, if the rover did go into a crater, we can’t guarantee, for example that a skyscraper across the road from the project that we bounce the signal off, so on the one hand, replications are easy but indirect propagation is proving hard. So that’s two answers. The other part was what we didn’t realize was the radiation and the cosmic rays and flip the bits in the EPC. So, all of a sudden, where software is pretty stable, and we don’t need to do much. Parity checking in software on Earth, on the moon is totally different. We need to be more robust and we need to be aware to be able to correct these bits if they occur, which is to us. Alex Snelson I do. Awesome. And your colleagues. I guess one of the challenges that Microsoft is working on as I talked about is the connectivity piece, and how you do that at the edge but also sometimes disconnected. You can’t always have an internet connection or a satellite connection. So, the key is not just being able to connect because we’ve proven that we do that for defense and intelligence scenarios today. But how you

do that, to enable AI processing at scale. So, the amount of compute power we need, at scale to do the volume of AI processing or the amount of data that’s been generated by all the space-based assets, so we have not practiced that. Yeah. But you know, who the likes of HPE and others we’re working on it. It’s definitely a challenge. Imelda Alexopoulos How do we design for successful integration now, but allow for enough flexibility for new technologies in the future? Van Wagner Quick stab at it, I think kind of from a mechanical engineering perspective is a really good way to go about that. And also, a good way to kind of keep costs down in the immediate is to make a concerted effort to use COTS components. We have a lot of interfaces that have been defined already. And so, if we can kind of design systems around those interfaces that have been established, that’ll make it easier in the future to implement kind of new technologies that are built on this architecture. Mark Micire And I’ll throw in kind of the site is recognized sideways. And that’s to say one of the things that I see a lot in NASA certainly guilty of this is building systems that are very bespoke and frankly not wanting to look outside of its own tribe, for solutions. One of the things I would offer up for everybody is only when you talk about you know, what are what is Australia’s unique capabilities. Leanne mentioned earlier about the mining companies and specifically

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Rio having a 14 to one ratio between the number of robots to human operators. NASA does not do that. Department of Defense does not do that. Australia not only knows how to do that, you already have that intellectual capital here. And so, my suggestion would be in terms of all that isn’t digital interoperability. When we talk about deploying 40 robots on the lunar surface. Capture the intellectual capital and the experience that your companies already have here. It is very unique. And it’s something that NASA would have to figure out how to do.

SESSION 4 - SUSTAINABILITY/ REPLICATION SUMMARY KEYWORDS evolving, design, question, social license, space, Boeing, talk, various different levels, sustainable, initial deployment, environmental conditions, companies, big, respect, constantly, NASA, suppose, higher, operate, economic PANELISTS (L-R) • Jason Carr. NSW Digital Market Lead, GHD (MODERATOR) • Anne Kovachevich, Foresight and Innovation Leader, Arup • Veronica La Regina, Director, Nanoracks Europe • Samuel Faigen, Associate Director, HDR • Andreas Antoniades, Director, Saber Astronautics • Edwin Betar, Principal Systems Engineer / Lunar Surface Architecture Team, Boeing Jason Carr Do you think that your company is set up in the future and that you will have a social license to operate in the future based on the design practices that you are following now, or do you believe that those will need to evolve? Edwin Betar Yes. To be honest, if this is something that we do talk about, because Boeing is pursuing the lunar terrain, people bid with Boeing, Australia as part of the Boeing us has been. So, this is something that has been brought up, because we’re the naïve people in Boeing where they were the early adopters, so we ask the stupid questions. So, we are forcing people to think about this. And thinking about design from that initial architecture, that initial deployment right through the sustainment. Because if you ever get bored, and want the shortest novel to read, read the LTV NASA requirements. It’s 10-need statements, not even requirements. And you have to create a system from that, that need a 10-year design lifecycle or 10-year life of type.

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So, it is absolutely stuff that we are talking about is stuff that we are considering is sustainability for us is an economic success. And you know the benefit is that we do get that social license to operate, but we don’t achieve a successful project and we don’t get awarded a NASA contract unless we can meet that economic and environmental condition as well. So, for us, you know, asking the stupid questions from our American colleagues, we do force some very interesting conversations. Andreas Antoniades Also yes. I think, from our perspective, we’re not really dealing with we’re dealing purely with the aftereffects of the evolving industry. So, with respect to what we’re trying to do is provide the information, especially what’s in orbit and how things are moving with respect to each other. So that everybody that’s engaging can start to make the decisions and evolve with the way that the scenarios are changing, you know, the number of different objects increasing each passing day the way that the different dynamics associated with the spacecraft command control and, and the different systems but yeah, so I agree, and we’re just trying to help what we can. Samuel Faigen Of course, you know, design is a constantly evolving thing, and our life is constantly evolving our understanding of each other and our relationships with each other with the built environment of the natural environment are constantly evolving. So if we have human and environmental-centered design in front of mind at all times, that I think we create our own licenses. Veronica La Regina Well, I would like to add the different perspective in a way that today we participate more in the activities of space, we are definitely more active accessing space. So, I would say that if you are more of the probability of a cause is higher, but actually there are more people taking care of the open asset. So actually, the self-protection, I don’t want the guys on my staff impacting on the other one. So, if we are just two, we have to take care of a factor two, or if you’re 100, or 1,000, we have a more tangible mode. So I would say that the self-security regulation is also one driver. Think about like on earth, if you go in a big public square, and tonight you are alone. You feel unsafe. If you go in a big public square with lots of people you feel safe, but actually the risk of collision is higher. Anne Kovachevich I suppose, you know, we’ve had our own sustainable development is very much at the

core of what we do as part of our strategy. But I think with all companies, there’s a massive evolution that just need to go from here. Onwards and we’re only starting to scratch the search the surface of what is sustainable design and whatenvironmental-centered design in front of mind at all times, that I think we create our own licenses. Veronica La Regina Well, I would like to add the different perspective in a way that today we participate more in the activities of space, we are definitely more active accessing space. So, I would say that if you are more of the probability of a cause is higher, but actually there are more people taking care of the open asset. So actually, the self-protection, I don't want the guys on my staff impacting on the other one. So, if we are just two, we have to take care of a factor two, or if you're 100, or 1,000, we have a more tangible mode. So I would say that the self-security regulation is also one driver. Think about like on earth, if you go in a big public square, and tonight you are alone. You feel unsafe. If you go in a big public square with lots of people you feel safe, but actually the risk of collision is higher. Anne Kovachevich I suppose, you know, we've had our own sustainable development is very much at the core of what we do as part of our strategy. But I think with all companies, there's a massive evolution that we're just need to go from here. Onwards and we're only starting to scratch the search the surface of what is sustainable design and what.


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EPISODE 333 – Links for Australia’s space industry We speak with Daniel O’Toole, Senior Adviser for Space within the Sector Team for Defence, Space and Infrastructure at the Australian Trade and Investment Commission (Austrade).

Links for Australia's Space Industry Daniel O’Toole Senior Adviser for Space within the Sector Team for Defence, Space and Infrastructure at the Australian Trade and Investment Commission (Austrade).

In addition to his role at Austrade, Daniel has also served as partial secondee at the Australian Space Agency since 2018. In this capacity he works on joint Austrade-Space Agency initiatives that help promote the growth of the Australian space industry through international market programs and opportunities. 00:00

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Australian 2020 Defence Strategic Update and its Space Concepts By Dr Chris Flaherty

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his review looks at Space concepts in the Australian ‘2020 Defence Strategic Update’. The paper reviews three key Space concepts: (1) The Military Response Threshold Question; (2) The Strategic Warning Time Question; and, (3) Sovereign Launch Capabilities.

Military response threshold question The Military Response Threshold question is raised in PARA 1.6: “thresholds for activities that could trigger a military response are unclear in Space … as they lack the more clearly defined boundaries of national borders and geography.” It could be suggested that PARA 1.6 could be reformulated to include the notion: ‘’A national satellite, its avoidance zone, ground links and communications lines constitute national sovereignty.’ Significantly, the problem raised by PARA 1.6 is partly answered later in the document’s PARA 3.22, that among future planned “Space capabilities … [are a] … network of satellites to provide an independent and sovereign communications network”. It can be argued, Space geography consists fundamentally of gravity wells, orbits and transfers. Within orbits a satellite, spaceship, or space station, and surrounding Collision Risk Zone constitute Protected National Space, which under International Space Laws, a country has a ‘right to non-interference.’

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Significantly in the Cold War Era, interference with a surveillance satellite (that was part of the Early Warning System) was seen as a potential act of war, warranting a rise in Nuclear Alert Status. The argument being such interference would be a prelude to a first strike being initiated. More recently, in the Russo-Ukrainian War, Russia has stated ‘any interference with its satellites constitutes an act of war.’ In 2021, NATO extended the Article 5 trigger to cover potential attacks on or originating from Space. Treating a satellite, its orbital slot, or collision space as national territory allows a country under an internationally recognized system of norms and conventions, to begin articulating national policy on what constitutes an act of aggression, and response regime.

The strategic warning time question The Australian ‘2020 Defence Strategic Update’ document, discusses the concept of Strategic Warning Time [BOX 2], in the following terms: “Strategic Warning Time for conventional conflict is the time a country estimates an adversary would need to launch a major attack against it, once the adversary’s intent to do so has been established. This period is determined by indications of preparation and mobilisation of resources and capabilities. New capabilities, including longerrange missiles, ballistic missiles and offensive cyber


AUSTRALIA IN SPACE

and Space capabilities, have reduced Strategic Warning Times.” A Fundamental in Space Warfare Concepts, is viewed from Space: ‘proximity between countries potentially shifts into an immediate relationship between any potential opponent.’ An Aggressor can take advantage of planetary rotation, and circumplanetary orbits of their satellites, to nullify any surface geographical distance seen as a source of protection from a potential attack. Space-based, or Space directed weapons, could effectively reduce, or void any notion of a Strategic Warning Time. It could be suggested that BOX 2 could be reformulated to include the notion: ‘Evolving Space capabilities allow potential aggressors the ability to overcome perceived strategic distances, making an instantaneous attack on another country with little or no Strategic Warning Time.’

Sovereign launch capabilities The notion of Sovereign Launch Capabilities is introduced in the Australian ‘2020 Defence Strategic Update’ document through its PARA 3.26, as an extension of Land Capabilities: “3.26 … Long-range lethality will be strengthened through additional long-range rocket systems, protected mobile artillery and enhanced missile development.” Rocketry, and Space Launching a rocket, share the same technology. Not all countries pursue a Sovereign Launch Strategy. Strategic drivers compelling a country to

develop a commercial Space Industry built around ground launch facilities in their sovereign territory, are primarily: (1) Geographical, a country has good locations to launch from; (2) Technological, have a research and industry base that can sustain Space launching; and, (3) Economic, the national economy can profit from Space launching. Since the 2020s, there has been a substantial and disruptive technological shift in Space launching economics towards cost effective options, and Space Launch technology proliferation (both trends are expected to accelerate in the near future). It could be suggested that PARA 3.26 could be reformulated to include the notion: ‘The development of a national rocket program, can be part of a larger drive to developing Sovereign Launch Capabilities.’

Conclusion This review has looked at Space concepts in the Australian ‘2020 Defence Strategic Update’. This document’s discussion of the Space Domain as a significant part of the national defence strategy, serves as a useful testbed for review of new concepts. The object of this short review has been to look at how key Space concepts, could be reformulated as Space technology accelerates and disrupts Military Response Threshold and Strategic Warning Time questions, and development of Sovereign Launch Capabilities.

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