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FEBRUARY 2012 • VOL 25, NO 2 •



Large Electric Motor Reliability: What Did The Studies Really Say? According to this analysis, a change in your motor mindset may be in order. ©TEREX — FOTOLIA.COM

Howard W Penrose, Ph.D., CMRP, Dreisilker Electric Motors, Inc.


■ Big Money Talks William C. Livoti


■ Energy Waste You Didn’t Know About

(Do You Care?)

What you haven’t been able to see before now, probably has been biting you in a big way. Frank Healy, Fluke Corporation


Compressed Air Challenge



Lubrication Checkup

■ Prevent Sludge From Building Up Your Costs Sludge buildup can greatly affect the performance of your heavy-duty hydraulic systems, but how does it affect your costs?


Electrical-Safety Sense


Technology Showcase

■ Producing Major Savings For A Major Power Producer Water-conditioner systems in generator air-cooling units of a massive power-gen complex are paying off in a number of ways.




Information Highway




The Efficient Vibration Analyst


Supplier Index

So many machines. So little time. What’s the best approach?



Resistance To Change Is A Good Thing Dave Berube, Life Cycle Engineering



My Take Stuff Happens

Pushback forces you to do a better job of selling and implementing new ideas.


6 8 10 14



Mike Fitch, LUDECA, Inc.


Uptime For On The Floor


Reliability: Own It

February 2012 Volume 25, No. 2 Your Source For CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS



This MARCH... Save The Date For

Executive Vice President/Publisher




Executive Editor



The Capacity Assurance Conference!

MARCH 12-15, 2012 • A four-day educational experience created exclusively for reliability professionals • 27 hour-long Conferences over two days – Tuesday, March 13 and Wednesday, March 14 – kicked off by Keynote speaker David Boulay, president of the Illinois Manufacturing Extension Center, and followed by reliability experts in a variety of disciplines

• 5 full-day Workshops on Monday, March 12 • 5 full-day Workshops on Thursday, March 15 • Two professional certification opportunities Now entering its ninth year, MARTS is an exciting learning event in a great location that helps reliability professionals at all levels improve their skills and excel on the job. Pricing and attendance options for every budget make it easy for individuals or groups to share the MARTS experience.


Hyatt Regency O’Hare O’Hare, Rosemont (Chicago), IL


Director of Creative Services


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Direct Mail 800-223-3423, ext. 110


Reprint Manager 866-879-9144, ext. 168

Editorial Office: 1300 South Grove Ave., Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 / FAX 847-304-8603 WWW.MT-ONLINE.COM

Subscriptions: FOR INQUIRIES OR CHANGES CONTACT JEFFREY HEINE, 630-739-0900 EXT. 204 / FAX 630-739-7967

Maintenance Technology® (ISSN 0899-5729) is published monthly by Applied Technology Publications, Inc., 1300 S. Grove Avenue, Barrington, IL 60010. Periodicals postage paid at Barrington, Illinois and additional offices. Arthur L. Rice, III, President. Circulation records are maintained at Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Maintenance Technology® copyright 2012 by Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Annual subscription rates for nonqualified people: North America, $140; all others, $280 (air). No subscription agency is authorized by us to solicit or take orders for subscriptions. Postmaster: Please send address changes to Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Please indicate position, title, company name, company address. For other circulation information call (630) 739-0900. Canadian Publications agreement No. 40886011. Canada Post returns: IMEX, Station A, P.O. Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5, or email: cpcreturns@ Submissions Policy: Maintenance Technology® gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc. permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. “Maintenance Technology®” is a registered trademark of Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Printed in U.S.A.

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Jane Alexander, Editor-In-Chief

Appears To Me: Looking At The Data


t’s probably dangerous for me to wade into an interpretation of some trending, since many of you do just that for a living—albeit from an equipment-health perspective. But this is an opinion piece (which is one of the things I get to do for a living). So here goes. I awoke to the announcement Friday morning, February 3 that U.S. unemployment had dropped to 8.3%. What a nice start to the day. (Of course, Chicagoland had already been celebrating the news that Chrysler’s Belvidere Assembly Plant near Rockford intended to hire 1800 direct workers for two existing shifts and a soon-to-start third. That’s new hires, too, just at this facility. It doesn’t count non-direct jobs that will help support these operations.) Then the old “yeah, but” machine kicked in. By the time I got to the office, the nay-saying was in full swing—all over TV, talk radio, the Web and in those ugly emails that our most casual of acquaintances forward to everybody they know and then some. Enough! Yes, America’s jobs deficit remains gruesome. Even former U.S. Labor Secretary Robert Reich blogged, “Given how many people have lost their jobs and how much larger the total working-age population is now, we’ve got a long road ahead.” That’s something most of us, regardless of political persuasion, can agree on. The point is, are things looking up? As I’ve often said, I’m not a numbers person, nor can I intelligently discuss issues like pent-up demand (or lack thereof), etc. Doesn’t matter. To my simple, sunny-side way of thinking, it would seem that those 1800 new workers at the Chrysler Belvidere site, for example, might soon be spending money on things that they couldn’t when they didn’t have good paychecks. So, too, I assume, might the 243,000 new and/ or returning workers reflected in the latest employment statistics. Buying new clothes at the mall on the way home from work, buying a new car or truck, buying a new home and lots of new stuff to go in it… Imagine the economic steam that could build up—and the additional jobs that could result. Thus, at least in my opinion, the trend appears to be headed in the right direction. Do you have a different analysis? Let me hear it. Or, help MT gather some anecdotal “data” by answering our “Question of the Month” for February: “Is your company or site hiring, and for what positions?” (Please go to and tell us what you know.) Speaking of trending, I again encourage you to join us next month at MARTS 2012. Our keynoter on Tuesday, March 13, is David Boulay, Ph.D., President of the Illinois Manufacturing Extension Center. His topic? “Managing the Trends.” In light of the recent good (O.K., “gooder”) news from the jobs front, it promises to be quite an interesting session. Register now at I’m looking forward to meeting and talking with you in Rosemont!

PS: Don’t forget: We’re always looking for MT Reader Panelists to join our team. While I’ve just asked this month for your opinion on industry job trends, Executive Editor Rick Carter features Reader Panelists’ insight based on their own operations and experiences in his “For On The Floor” column that runs six times per year. Check out this opportunity at: 6|

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Spectro, Inc., the provider of instrumentation and software for machine condition monitoring and preventive maintenance that was acquired by SFW Captial Partners last year, has announce the appointment of Brian Mitchell as President and CEO. Mitchell is a 30-year veteran of the optical instrumentation industry. Bill Livoti, author of the quarterly “Big Money Talks” columns and other power-industry-related articles in MT, has joined the GIW/KSB organization as Power Engineering – Energy Efficiency Service Center Engineering/Manager of the GIW/KSB Florida Service Center in Mulberry, FL. Not to worry: Livoti will continue speaking out and writing for us on energy-related business and technical issues. In fact, you can read his latest column in this month’s “Utilities Manager” section, on page 26. You can also meet and hear from him in person when he presents at MARTS 2012, Tuesday, March 13, at 4:00 p.m. CST.


Presented By

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The Judges Have Spoken Go To innovatorwinners To Learn Who The Grand Prize And 4 Category Winners Are Prizes From Sponsors Inpro/Seal, Royal Purple And Scalewatcher Will Be Presented At MARTS 2012.


CEUs offered here: ALL-TEST Pro, LLC has received Continuing Education Accreditation for high-quality and focused predictive maintenance learning from the International Association for Continuing Education and Training (IACET). ALL-TEST Pro annually trains hundreds of reliability and maintenance professionals in the field of Motor Diagnostics Testing, as it relates to predictive maintenance, energy efficiency and precision maintenance.

QUESTION OF THE MONTH SOUND-OFF: Tell us what you think. . . Really. . .

Is your company or site hiring and for what positions? Go to with your answer. 8|




MT wants to know who you got ‘em from, what you like about ‘em and why. Please log on and take our brief “Motor Preference Survey” at



ABB has announced that it will be acquiring the venerable Thomas & Betts Corporation (T&B), for approximately $3.9 billion. The combination of T&B’s electrical components and ABB’s low-voltage protection, control and measurement products is expected to create a broader low-voltage portfolio that can be distributed through the T&B network of more than 6000 distributor locations and wholesalers in North America, and through ABB’s distribution channels in Europe and Asia. Headquartered in Memphis, TN, Thomas & Betts has facilities in 20 countries and approximately 9400 employees. Ivara Corporation has announced a partnership with Asset Performance Technologies, Inc. (APT) that allows Ivara to offer its customers the APT Asset Strategy Library through Ivara’s cloud content community, EXP Cloud. Ivara customers can purchase APT’s library and immediately have it available for use in Ivara EXP Enterprise via EXP Cloud. APT can maintain its library content and provide instant updates to customers using EXP Enterprise.

ARC Advisory Group, which specializes in news, analysis, best practices, custom research reports and market studies for manufacturing, industry and infrastructure, has announced that its Website, delivering news and market intelligence, is now optimized for iPhone, iPad and other smart mobile devices. Register for this app at


Humantech, Inc., the Ann Arbor, MI-based ergonomic consulting group, has released its “HT NIOSH Lift Calculator” (htLiftCalc) for iPad and iPhone. Developed by the company’s Certified Professional Ergonomists, it lets users quickly and accurately calculate the risk associated with manual-material-handling tasks, whenever and wherever needed. The app is available through iTunes.


’ N ’ I T N I H T G FIIGH F S DS R D O R O W W Inspiration For Those Battling The Enemies Of Reliability & Productivity Thanks to W.C. “Pete” Peterson, a contract Reliability Engineer at WR Grace’s Curtis Bay Works in Baltimore, for providing these inspiring thoughts (one high-brow, the other a little lower-browed):

“If we always do what we’ve always done, we’ll always get what we’ve always got.” . . . W. Edwards Deming

“You can’t fix stupid.” . . . Ron ‘Tater Salad’ White We also thank Contributing Editor Bob Williamson for this timely quote from the literary arena:

“Broken machines make me sad... because they can’t do what they were meant to do.” . . . Hugo, the main character in The Invention of Hugo Cabret,

a book by Brian Selznick that director Martin Scorsese has made into one of the most intriguing and mostOscar-nominated movies of the year (showing in theaters now)


Have you read, heard, seen, thought or written down something that falls into the realm of “fightin’ words” for the maintenance and reliability community?

Send your favorites to We’ll be selecting one or two (maybe even three) to feature each month. Be sure to give full credit to the individual (dead, alive, real or fictional) that uttered or wrote the words, and why those words inspire you. Don’t forget to include your complete contact info.



Bob Williamson, Contributing Editor

Thinking About ‘Reliability’ And Business Success As maintenance and reliability professionals, we know that unreliable equipment and facilities can impact the bottom line of the business. Unfortunately, equipment reliability all too often ends up as a low priority in many American businesses. What many executives don’t realize is that equipment and facility reliability is as important as health, safety, environmental and quality (HSE&Q) systems to the bottom line (emphasis on “AS IMPORTANT”). It takes all these “systems” working together to achieve productive, low-cost, customer-focused results. The challenge is to stop believing that ONE system of the business is MORE IMPORTANT than another. They MUST work together as seamlessly as possible. Business priorities There are, in fact, certain necessities of a business— or “business imperatives”—that aren’t linear or sequential in their importance. They shouldn’t be prioritized one over another (as is often the case with HSE&Q systems). All too often, this type of prioritization is in response to regulatory compliance issues or customer complaints. By prioritizing HSE&Q when addressing problems or opportunities for improvement, leaders often send a conflicting message. Responding to a spate of customer complaints, a plant manager might proclaim that “Quality is job one, and the customers are always first.” What a conflicting linear statement! Employees could take the plant manager’s proclamation to mean that they’re less important than they had thought. Maybe they had become number two in level of importance (or lower). Moreover, quality would seem to have replaced safety as the plant’s top priority. Is it any wonder that employees give up when another improvement program or priority is announced? “This, too, will change. We just have to wait it out…” Systemic business imperatives Businesses basically run as big interconnected “systems” producing goods or services in ways that make a profit. Health, safety, environmental, quality and equipment/ facilities reliability are, in truth, sub-systems of the bigger operating system. That’s why we have them. 10 |


Business success is much more than “compliance” with regulations or implementing training and improvement programs. Success comes from consistent deployment of HSE&Q along with reliability methods, in ways that address regulatory issues, as well as significantly improve and/or sustain desired levels of performance (HSE&Q+R). Speaking of “deployment,” one of the most connected senior executives I’ve ever been blessed to work with put it this way when it came to improvement goals: “On time, lead time and cost!” To him, these were the most important goals for the business to improve and sustain. He would never say that “safety is our top priority” or that “quality is job one.” He communicated the big picture in a big way. Let me explain. What would happen if this executive’s plant were unsafe, had people working in unhealthy situations, demonstrated poor environmental performance, produced inconsistent quality and tried to operate with unreliable equipment? You guessed it: It would take longer to make products, they would be shipped late and costs would be high. That’s why the “on time, lead time and cost” mantra spread through every improvement initiatives at the plant. These three goals were the connection, or the line of sight, from the annual corporate strategic plan to workers on the plant floor. Accordingly, when the executive asked managers, supervisors, engineers and hourly workers what the goal from all this was, they would respond in unison, “On time, lead time and cost!” This is an excellent example of “winning with teamwork focused on common goals” if I ever saw one. By the way, the results that this very traditional aforementioned manufacturing operation realized were significant, rapid and sustained over many years— which helped save jobs when they were on the verge of being outsourced. The plant achieved major business success by doing the right things the right way, the first time, every time, and did so without compromising HSE&Q+R. These “business imperatives” were just that: fundamental requirements. Performance-oriented work cultures Businesses and workplaces that achieve high levels of competitiveness tend to be performance oriented. FEBRUARY 2012


Equipment and facility reliability is as important to a business as health, safety, environmental and quality imperatives. n When we dissect the systems and methods of the Toyota Production System or those espoused by “Lean Manufacturing,” we see a relentless focus on driving out waste in ways that quickly and sustainably achieve strategic business goals. n When we analyze the principles of ReliabilityCentered Maintenance (RCM) and pillars of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), we see root-cause analysis used to identify, quantify, and address the most penalizing losses. n Likewise, looking into the ways that top NASCAR race teams aggressively pursue 100% reliability in their racecars, we also see a focus-on-results approach to their business: Peak performance, right the first time, every time, on-time, within budget.

a bolt uses all fingers and the thumb at a minimum. Picking up a golf ball requires only the thumb and index finger for success. Pitching a fastball calls for the thumb, index and middle fingers to grip the ball, while the ring and little fingers stabilize it. This “business imperatives of a performanceoriented work culture” model works in much the same way as the human hand. The five sub-systems— safety, health, environmental, quality and reliability— can, and often do, work independently of the others. But how efficient and effective is a single sub-system without the an interconnection with the others? The undeniable benefit comes when these sub-systems operate interdependently, relying on one-another for optimum efficiency and effectiveness. Business Imperatives: A Systemic Approach To Success

In any one of these performance-oriented workculture examples, we see a strategic approach to improving performance, improving competitiveness and improving bottom-line results. In all of them, you would be hard-pressed to see safety, health, environmental, quality or reliability as a single top priority, independent of the others. They are embedded as business imperatives. Their HSE&Q+R priorities are interconnected. Better yet, they are interdependent— each relies on the other. Talk to the hand I recently used the following example to explain a model of the business imperatives of a performance-oriented work culture. I held up my hand and explained how this one seemingly simple system of the human body works: Each finger and thumb can work independently. Each finger and thumb is a sub-system of the hand. Jointed parts can be flexed and moved, but the work that can be accomplished by a single finger or a thumb is minimal. A “thumbs-up” means “great job,” while the index finger is used to push a button or point to something for emphasis. The real power of the human hand begins when we use the fingers and thumb as a single system of movement—interdependent actions of each—working together. For instance, grasping a wrench to remove FEBRUARY 2012

The human hand can’t function by itself. It takes muscles, tendons, nerves, bone and intelligence provided by the brain to make the fingers and thumb work together to accomplish any task that comes along. As with our hand, the five business imperatives of a performance-oriented work culture require a final “super-system” to make the interdependent parts work together in a disciplined manner—let’s call it the “sixth discipline.” | 11


The sixth discipline The “super-system” in this model includes both “leadership” and “work culture” working together in ways that keep the five HSE&Q+R sub-systems operating in unison. n Leadership starts at the very top level of the business and cascades throughout the organization, leading with a common tempo in a common direction. n Work culture (i.e, collective behaviors of people on the job) can evolve or be nurtured and developed. Undisciplined work cultures can ebb and flow and become radical or apathetic. Leadership provides the words and actions that create or determine a work culture (by design or default).

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The sixth discipline begins with senior executives who embrace a purposeful, focused, engaging leadership style. It ends with successful strategic policy deployment that increases the business’ competitiveness and profitability. The business imperatives of a performance-oriented work culture demand that top leadership understands and communicates the strategic importance of equipment and facilities performance to the business. A sixth-discipline leader emphasizes the importance of improving equipment performance this way: “The boiler is critically important. It produces steam that is used to operate our equipment, heat our products and warm the building.” But his/her message wouldn’t stop there. “Safety and environmental incidents in the boiler room this year,” he/she continues, “have penalized our business. Boiler breakdowns and inconsistent steam pressure and temperatures have affected our plant operations, damaged work in process, and delayed shipments to our customers.” The leader’s expectation becomes abundantly clear when he/she concludes, “Our goal is to produce our products on time, with less lead time than our competition, at the lowest possible cost. Boiler performance MUST improve. But we cannot compromise health, safety, environmental, quality and reliability excellence in our boiler room.” Now, remember the hand I believe that reliability is as important as health, safety, environmental and quality in a business that relies on equipment to make products to produce revenue through sales or occupancy. The “business imperatives of a performance-oriented work culture” and the “sixth discipline” (which incorporates leadership and work culture) demonstrate a sound model for improving business performance and equipment reliability. As maintenance professionals, we must continue to educate and engage top-level business leaders in equipment and facility reliability improvement. MT FEBRUARY 2012


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FOR ON THE FLOOR An outlet for the views of today’s capacity assurance professionals Rick Carter, Executive Editor

Sustainability On The Rise When we last asked Reader Panelists about their sustainable (or “green”) efforts in 2009, responses were tepid and uncertain. While their reported actions at the time were actually more significant than some of them realized, their overall sustainable activity seemed to be limited. As seen in the following Q&A (edited for space), respondents now report that their operations are on board with the value and meaning of sustainability, and that the concept has become an important part of their organzations’ cultures. Q: On a scale of 1 (poor) to 10 (exemplary), how do you rate your operation’s overall sustainability? “A 9… This company is committed to protecting the environment, controlling our consumption of energy and raw materials, and it embraces diversity in the workplace.” … Reliability/maintenance engineer, South “A 7… Our company has taken a strong look at sustainability and even appointed a corporate director to head up the effort and improve our perception as a ‘green’ company. Websites have been developed, newsletters and blogs initiated and training on various aspects of sustainability have been developed. All aspects of the business are being looked at for improvements.” … Plant engineer, South “An 8… Our company has made great strides in reducing energy consumption in the last five years. Once energy became the focus, groups were formed to find ways to reduce and sustain energy consumption.” …Production support manager, Midwest “An 8… Because we’re doing a lot to recycle, buy locally, use alternative fuels and minimize landfill wastes.” … Utility maintenance engineer, West “An 8… We even have a sustainability expert on retainer to get us there.” … Corporate engineer, New England

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Q: How would you say this rating has changed in the past five years? “Our sustainability effort in the past two years has allowed sharing and implementation of best practices between sites and also allowed some leveraging on costs of recycling with national vendors. Our awareness and implementation is now monitored and, in some cases, rewarded.” … Plant engineer, South “Our company has made a conscious effort to put energy consumption at the forefront of everyone’s daily work life along with safety. Our Intranet always has articles or ideas on ways to reduce energy consumption. It also asks for ideas from all employees.” … Production support manager, Midwest “Our sustainability initiative began about five years ago, so in that time it’s gone from not being a consideration to being a very big consideration.” … Utility maintenance engineer, West Q: What are some key sustainable actions your company uses right now and how successful are they? “We have a world-class recycling program and routinely exceed our targets. We’re an Energy Star Partner with our power provider. And our company is committed to localizing our supply chain to reduce costs associated with moving materials long distances.” … Reliability/maintenance engineer, South “1) Multi-site metrics on various sustainability action items toward recycling of cardboard, light bulbs, computer equipment, etc.; use of high-efficiency motors and freon conversions have created a visible and measurable comparison for the initiative. 2) Assignment of a sustainability director at the corporate level to oversee and provide feedback assistance on programs. 3) Newsletters and blogs on sustainability successes. 4) Better support for expenditures associated with sustainability efforts.” … Plant engineer, South



“Our company has created plant-level energy teams that consist of cross-functional members who are tasked with creating projects to save energy. When a project is verified through data of the saving, it’s implemented through all plants to get the best energy reductions.” … Production support manager, Midwest “Over 90% of our very large fleet of mobile equipment uses alternative fuels such as biodiesel or CNG, or are gasoline/electric hybrids, and most used oils are recycled and reused. Our Fleet Services division is nationally recognized for this accomplishment. Also, all of our construction contracts require some consideration for sustainability by the contractor, such as recycling of waste products. Our specifications have been updated to make any new buildings or pumping processes as energy-efficient as possible.” … Utility maintenance engineer, West Q: What sustainable initiatives have you personally participated in at your company? “I’m serving as one of my facility’s ISO14001 environmental coordinators. I have also participated in several energy-consumption reduction surveys and focus groups.” … Reliability/maintenance engineer, South “I am directly involved in all recycling and purchasing decisions on the efforts around recycling. Tracking cost savings or expenditures around initiatives are also communicated by me.” … Plant engineer, South “I monitor pump performance in near-real time and make rebuild decisions that weigh the cost of rebuild against the cost of energy lost to inefficiency. I also review all new designs for maintainability, reliability and efficiency.” … Utility maintenance engineer, West “All of them.” … Corporate engineer, New England Q: Describe the role of the maintenance department in your company’s overall sustainability efforts. How does it compare with that of other company sectors? “Maintenance at my facility plays a vital role in sustainability. Many of the power-consumption reduction ideas come from within the maintenance


group. Maintenance can have a huge impact on environmental issues [here] because it often deals with large quantities of petroleum products during the course of routine maintenance activities.” … Reliability/maintenance engineer, South “At our site, the maintenance/engineering department will initiate and implement all new efforts toward the sustainability initiative. As plant engineer, I’m the main contact for all corporate initiatives and, with the responsibility for the maintenance department, it makes implementation easier. If maintenance/engineering can lead by example and communicate initiatives, other areas will usually follow our lead to support the effort.” … Plant engineer, South “Our maintenance department is the key to overseeing and implementing any sustainability efforts within our company. We are the department that has our hands in every part of the operation.” … Corporate production support manager, Midwest “Maintenance is stronger [than other sectors]. They’re part of all the efforts.” … Corporate engineer, New England Challenges to sustainability Despite clear progress in sustainbility, some Panelists say gains could be in jeopardy. As a New England maintenance manager notes, “Our department’s role in sustainability efforts has always been strong. But we have a workforce with a median service experience of 25 years, and the company doesn’t recognize that we need to bring in younger people and train them so we can achieve our [sustainability] goals.” He worries about the impending departure of at least four senior people who have 30+ years of service and trying to replace them with experienced personnel given a departmental wage structure that hasn’t kept pace with other trades in the area. “Our leaders need to enlighten themselves,” he warns, “to the fact that skilled tradespeople are difficult to find and require a decent wage to stay in the business.” MT The MT Reader Panel welcomes new members. To apply, visit, click on “Reader Panel” under the “MT Resources” header and follow the instructions. If accepted, you will automatically be entered into a drawing for a cash prize after one year of active participation.


Overcoming Your Challenges

‘Tanks’ For The Savings By Ron Marshall, for the Compressed Air Challenge


he first thing you’ll notice about your compressed air “tank” (or air receiver) is that unlike your compressor, it doesn’t have large power cables running to it. While an air receiver doesn’t consume power, odds are, if properly sized and applied, it can be like money in the bank with regard to compressed air system efficiency. Compressed air receivers are sometimes referred to as “air storage.” They act like a bank account, storing compressed air for later use— similar to saving money for a rainy day or a large future purchase. Storing away money, little by little, takes a smaller bite out of your normal cash flow and allows you to live more or less normally. And, the bigger the bank account you build, the less it hurts when you have unanticipated or unusual expenditures. Having significant compressed air storage in place means the compressor is able to put away some compressed air when it can, and that production pressure is less affected should the demands require more compressed air than the production system can produce. The alternative is to run more air compressors to feed peak demands, or to run the existing compressors at higher pressure—something that costs at least 1% of the compressor power for each 2 psi increase in compressed air pressure. Here are some types/uses of compressed air storage: Located close to air compressors, Control Storage helps units run efficiently by slowing down pressure changes like load/unload cycles. This allows time to start and stop the compressors in a coordinated manner and permits lower operating pressures. Control Storage can be used in conjunction with a pressure/flow controller that isolates supply from demand, allowing lower plant pressure. It should be sized significantly larger than the typical ruleof-thumb of 1 gal. per cfm compressor output that was used in days of old.

Secondary Storage is used to provide general stored air at localized downstream locations with marginally sized supply lines. It supports air pressure for general end uses that may consume short-duration high flows that can’t be serviced appropriately with existing pipe capacity. Secondary Dedicated Storage (such as check-valve protected storage) can be used to support low-flow pressure-critical applications against transient high-flow events that may reduce local pressure. Significant amounts of compressed air can slowly charge a properly sized storage tank over a long period of time to supply a highflow, short-duration demand. Secondary Dedicated Storage with Metered Recovery has a restricted inlet that limits fill rate and reduces peak compressed air demand. A lower peak may result in less-used compressors. To learn more about compressed air storage, check out the book Best Practices for Compressed Air Systems, available on the Compressed Air Challenge (CAC) Website ( While you’re there, consider registering for CAC training, including a February 20 Web-based Fundamentals seminar and/or one of the many in-person programs we offer around the country. MT The Compressed Air Challenge® is a partner of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Industrial Technology programs. To learn more about its many offerings, log on to, or email:

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Large Electric Motor Reliability: What Did The Studies Really Say?

According to this analysis, a change in your motor mindset may be in order.

Howard W Penrose, Ph.D., CMRP Dreisilker Electric Motors, Inc.


t’s been a hot topic in industry for decades. One of the most frequently quoted studies related to electric motor reliability is a 1983 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) project performed by General Electric (GE) [1] that's been used to support a variety of programs, equipment and other motor strategies. While searching for a copy of the original study, this author has often cited other papers that reference its findings. Such a paper was recently made available by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE). A review of it indicates some statements that have discussed or tried to interpret EPRI's findings over the years have been incomplete and/or incorrect. The good news is that the EPRI project wasn't the only major study to target electrical and electric-machine reliability. Studies conducted by others from 1962 through 1995, including those of an IEEE Power Engineering Society group, were supported by various industry groups as late as 2010.

18 |




What’s particularly interesting about the non-EPRI research efforts is that despite their focus on different industries (such as utilities, petrochemical, general-industry and commercial-building sectors), they report similar results. Here, we review what these studies really mean in regard to their primary emphasis—larger machines. This includes identified reliability issues and recommended improvement strategies. While the full breadth of the related studies is more than we can cover in this article, the information presented in these pages will significantly impact how you look at your motor systems. Regarding the EPRI study The percentages shown in Fig. 1 are often cited as the conclusion of the EPRI study—which is correct. However, the details behind those percentages are intriguing. This includes the number of motors that failed more than once (and the apparent causes of those failures), as well as the general reliability of electric motors in utilities.

12 10


Bearings Windings Rotor Other


(As noted, though, causes weren’t specified for more than half [50.2%] of the failures.) The failure modes were correctly identified, with repeated incidents being the same as the original failures. Table 1 identifies the failures and the percent of each failure mode. Of these failures, design was determined to be 39.1% and workmanship was 26.8%. In effect, the survey determined that 65.9% of the motor failures were related to the manufacturer and rebuilder. The failure rate by manufacturer was found to range from 0.84% to 5.27% for the top seven OEMs: 16.44% for one manufacturer, and a combined total of 6.50% for all the others. The manufacturers were not identified. One issue brought to light by statistics in the 1983 EPRI study is that insulation-to-ground faults are the majority of winding faults. Quotes related to this study and other industry statements identify turn faults as the initiation of failure— but such a statement is not found in the EPRI research or followup studies. Table I. 1983 EPRI Study Motor-Failure Modes [1]

Fig. 1. 1983 EPRI Study motor-failure rates [1]

First it was noted that more than 90% of the failures occurred in 54% of the facilities evaluated, and half of the failures occurred in 17% of the facilities. This means that a majority of the failures occurred in less than half of the evaluated sites. The average failure rate of motors across all the facilities was 3.4% per unit annually, with some operations having a higher rate, and 46% of them having very low failure rates. In all, the study found that those plants at the extremes had a failure rate of 9.3% per year (17% of facilities) and 13% of the sites had about a 0.8% failure rate. There were 4797 motors evaluated in the study, with a total of 1227 failures on 872 units. This means 335 of the 1227 failures were repeat failures. The best sites saw some of their motors fail two to three times versus results from the median group, which saw failures of four or more times, and the worst group, which saw an even higher repeat-failure rate. The apparent causes of failure were also surprising: Only 34.1% were blamed on misapplication and misoperation. FEBRUARY 2012

Failure Mode Other – Unspecified Insulation to Ground Sleeve Bearing Ball Bearing Thrust Bearing Vertical Oil Leakage Turn Insulation (Short) Rotor Bar Failure Roller Bearing Bearing Seal Loose Blocking Rotor Shaft Oil System Stator Slot Wedges Loose Iron Stator Frame Line Cable Coil Connection Balance Weights Accessories Thrust Bearing Horizontal

Number of Motors 313 161 85 43 41 36 32 31 20 20 16 13 12 11 9 7 6 5 5 4 2

Percent of Total (%) 35.9 18.5 9.7 4.9 4.7 4.1 3.7 3.5 2.3 2.3 1.8 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.2 MT-ONLINE.COM | 19


Review and comparison of studies In the motor-failure studies of the 1980s, it was determined that a given population of motors had an average failure rate of 0.0708 failures per unit, per year (FPU) for general industry [2] and 0.035 FPU for maintenance-intensive industries such as utilities [1]. In 1995, new research would support the original assumptions. These industry studies found that in machines with required minimum protection, such as fuses or breakers, the failure rate was 0.0707 FPU, while those with embedded thermal protection had a failure rate of 0.0202 FPU, or less than 1/3rd of the failures. [3] Maintenance was also found to have a significant impact through all of the studies. When maintenance frequency was involved, the post-EPRI studies all found that frequencies under a year had the best impact. The 1985 IEEE study identified that maintenance performed with a frequency under 12 months resulted in 0.0124 FPU, from 13 to 24 months 0.0506 FPU, and greater than 25 months 0.0881 FPU. Machines that were maintained within the 12-month period were also found, within the survey, to have excellent practices resulting in the failure rate of 0.0124 FPU while all others had failure rates in excess of 0.0681 FPU. A key difference between the EPRI and IEEE studies is that the 1985 IEEE research didn’t just look at general failures, but also broke out service factor, speed and maintenance. The 1995 IEEE survey further modified the findings by identifying size and voltage to determine factors that relate to each. A 2010 paper on root cause failure analysis supported the findings of the 1995 study [4]. One consideration for these studies is their ages. From the first study published in 1974 (relating to electrical reliability of electrical equipment in industrial plants) through the 1995 IEEE study, fundamental facts had not changed: Machine reliability based upon application, enclosure, service factor, speed, protection and level and type of maintenance was explored, and the combined studies covered virtually all industries—from petrochemical, chemical and utilities to general-industrial and commercial applications. Application of the studies to large machines As the studies provided similar data based upon failure rates, (and it can be assumed that variations in failure rates and reliability of machines by facility in the EPRI study relate to the level of maintenance), we will focus on information in the IEEE studies. This is broken down by size, enclosure and speed, providing the ability to demonstrate the importance of maintenance on large machines. The primary difference is identified in Fig. 2 where various faults found in the machines were substantially different. It is noted that the EPRI study focused on utility motors that were 100 hp and larger, while the IEEE study related to machines of 10kW (~15 hp) and larger at 50 Hz and 60 Hz. 20 |


As shown in Fig. 3, actual failure modes for each industry group were also quite different. A majority of faults were a result of bearings, with windings second, followed by the rotor, then all other faults combined. The 1985 IEEE survey covered industrial and commercial facilities, while the 1983 EPRI study only covered utilities. The 1995 IEEE survey covered petrochemical and similar industries. Other differences with the 1985 survey include a focus on machines ranging from 200 to 10,000 hp, voltages to 13.8kV and induction, synchronous, wound-rotor and DC motors. 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Windings




1995 IEEE

1983 EPRI

Fig. 2. Comparison of 1983 EPRI Study to 1995 IEEE Survey [1], [3]

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Bearings


1983 EPRI


1985 IEEE

Other 1995 IEEE

Fig. 3. Comparison of 1983 EPRI to 1985 and 1995 IEEE Surveys [1], [2], [3] FEBRUARY 2012


Based upon the breadth of industries covered, we will review the following data as it relates to the 1985 IEEE survey and machines over 1000V. From an overall industry standpoint, 2300 and 4160 Vac machines have a median failure rate of 0.0714 FPU for induction motors; 0.0762 FPU for synchronous motors; and 0.0319 FPU for wound-rotor motors. By further breaking down the survey information, it can be seen that motors from 500 to 5000 hp had a median failure rate of 0.0730 FPU, and those from 5001 to 10,000 hp had a median failure rate of 0.2169 FPU. In relation to motor speed and failure rate: 0-720 RPM is 0.1004 FPU; from 721-1800 RPM is 0.0721 FPU; and 1801-3600 RPM is 0.0519 FPU. In effect, larger, slowerspeed motors had a higher failure rate (most in the survey being induction and synchronous). The wound-rotor machines that were covered tended to be a smaller horsepower. Based on the IEEE research, use of continuous monitoring— such as temperature and vibration—can reduce the failure rate by about two-thirds. None of the studies has identified the effect of the use of partial discharge testing on machines over 6000V. It can, however, be assumed that, in most cases, such practices and technologies are used for fault detection rather than for winding protection. The question is, “Does this have an impact?”

The IEEE studies identified the number of faults detected by a variety of technologies and maintenance practices—with the median downtime hours per failure based on the fault being detected as part of a maintenance practice or during operation. As reported by the 1985 IEEE survey, Fig. 4 shows at what point the failures were detected.


1.7 During Operation


Maintenance/ Testing


Other Not Specified

Fig. 4. Time failures were discovered, as reported by the 1985 IEEE survey [2]

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Table II. Maintenance vs. Failure Rate, According to 1985 IEEE Survey [2]

Level of Maintenance and Frequency

Past studies have been incorrectly quoted for years. Actual opportunities for motor improvements throughout industry are far greater than what had been discussed previously.

Failure Rate (FPU)

Median Hours Downtime/Failure (Impact on Production)

Excellent, <12 Months



Excellent, 12-24 Months



Excellent, >24 Months



Excellent, Average



Fair, <12 Months



Fair, 12-24 Months



Fair, >24 Months



Fair, Average



Poor, 12-24 Months (All)



The level of a maintenance program and the frequency of maintenance practices also had a marked impact on not just the failure rate, but also the median hours of downtime per failure (Table II). The maintenance practices that encompassed "excellent" maintenance included: ■ Visual inspections; ■ Insulation resistance; ■ Cleaning; ■ Lubrication and/or filters; ■ Vibration analysis; ■ Bearing check/inspection; ■ Ampere and temperature tracking; ■ Air gap checks; ■ Alignment;

and ■ Check/change brushes, as applicable.

One explanation for the higher failure rate and lower average associated production disruption was that potential faults were detected as part of the maintenance practice. Conclusion Past electric motor studies have been incorrectly quoted for many years. A review of the associated studies has identified that actual opportunities are far greater than what previously had been discussed. The purpose of this article was to demonstrate some of the information in relation to large, medium-voltage machines. Primary opportunities include the use of continuous-monitoring systems (i.e., temperature and vibration) and the application of technologies and maintenance practices that will avoid or detect electrical and mechanical faults. The result is about a two-thirds reduction in failure rate and a significant decrease in production downtime. 22 |




While the research referenced in this article may have been conducted and published from 1973 through 1995, the information on failure rates was similar. Furthermore, papers published as late as 2010 continued to support the original findings. The primary differences in the research were the targeted industries and distribution of the failure modes listed by each study. That, in short, is what the studies really “say.” MT References 1. Albrecht,, “Assessment of the Reliability of Motors in Utility Applications,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. EC-2, No. 3, September 1987

3. Thorsen and Dalva, “A Survey of Faults on Induction Motors in Offshore Oil Industry, Petrochemical Industry, Gas Terminals, and Oil Refineries,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 31, No. 5, September/October 1995 4. Bonnett, Austin H., “Root Cause Failure Analysis for AC Induction Motors in the Petroleum and Chemical Industry,” Proceedings, 57th Annual Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 2010

Electrical Safety, Evolved.

Howard Penrose is the Vice President of Engineering and Reliability Services for Dreisilker, the Webmaster of the IEEE Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Society, Albrecht,, and the Director “Assessment of of Outreach for the Reliability the Society for of Motors Maintenance in Utility and Reliability Applications – Professionals Updated,” IEEE (SMRP). He has Transactions on won five consecuEnergy Convertive UAW and sion, Vol. EC-1, General Motors ENGINEERED PRODUCTS,INC No. 1, March People Make 1986 Quality Happen Awards (2005To learn more visit: 2. “Report of 2009) for energy, Large Motor conservation, Reliability production and For more info, enter 71 at Survey of motor manageIndustrial and Commercial Installations, Part I,” IEEE ment programs developed for GM facilities globally. An Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. IA-21, No. 4, SMRP Certified Maintenance and Reliability Professional July/August 1985 (CMRP), Dr. Penrose is the author of the Axiom Business Book Award-winning (2008 Bronze and 2009 Bronze) book “Report of Large Motor Reliability Survey of Industrial and Physical Asset Management for the Executive (Caution: Commercial Installations, Part II,” IEEE Transactions on Do Not Read This If You Are on an Airplane), and the Industry Applications, Vol. IA-21, No. 4, July/August 1985 2008 Foreword Book of the Year Finalist textbook, Electrical Motor Diagnostics: 2nd Edition. “Report of Large Motor Reliability Survey of IndusEmail: trial and Commercial Installations, Part III,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. IA-23, No. 1, For more info, enter 01 at January/February 1987




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Gearbox Failures? By Dr. Lube, aka Ken Bannister


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Diagnosis: A six-month failure rate on a worm gearbox would definitely fall under the premature-failure category. There are numerous ambient-condition factors such as heat, moisture, dirt contamination, wood chips, etc., present in a lumber-mill environment. Any combination of these coupled with overloading, poor lubricant choice or poor lube practices could contribute to the early demise of equipment. The following regimen is designed to eliminate common root-failure causes of your problem. S:9.5”

All of which adds up to greater productivity.

“Dr. Lube, for many years we have successfully run 85-140 gear oil in our lumbermill gearboxes, with the exception of our worm gearboxes that fail twice a year. I believe this rate of failure is unacceptable.” [Edited for space.]

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Prescription: 1. Determine if the gearbox is operating within its design load limits (this is the first cardinal rule of reliability). If it’s constantly overloaded, change to a higher-rated one or accept premature failure. 2. Make sure the gear oil has no EP (Extreme Pressure) additives. These additives are harmful to yellow metals like brass, and can literally “eat” away the worm wheel. (This is major root cause of failure.) 3. Verify that the gearbox reservoir is sludge-free. Sludge buildup can harbor fine cutting materials that rapidly wear the worm’s soft brass. 4. If the gearbox is designed with a breather, see that it’s in place to check moisture and dirt contamination. 5. Check to see if the the reservoir cap is installed correctly. 6. Confirm that the reservoir has oil in it. An old sight gauge could have old lubricant etched on its surface, indicating a false level when no oil is present. 7. Make sure the gearbox is clean and that no dirt is near the fill port. This will also ensure that oil in the reservoir oil doesn’t heat up and “cook.” 8. Ensure that the lubricant transfer process and equipment are contaminationfree (yellow metals are NOT dirt-tolerant). 9. Have a lab perform a failure analysis based on cuttings found in the oil to This mechanical prepared should not be modified in any way determine theby natureThisofmechanical metallurgical failure. without prior written direction from MRM Worldwide. MRM Worldwide 10. Employ the assistance of your lube supplier(s), who should know the suitability Client: Exxon Mobil Job Number: EXOD0079 Safety: 2.125" x 9.5" of their products for your operations. (There should be no charge for this). Trim: None Mech Due Date: NA Job Name: SHC Gears Ad After theseRich10 if your worm gearboxes are no healthier, Bleed: None going through Project Manager: Velososteps, 1-646-865-6212 bring independent lubrication specialist to assess the problem Space: 4C 1/3in pg a third-party, Production Contact: Linda Herskovic 1-646-865-6371 and make recommendations. MT Publications: Various Pubs - 2011 Lube questions? Ask Dr. Lube, aka Ken Bannister, author of the book Lubrication for Industry and the Lubrication section of the 28th edition Machinery’s Handbook. He’s also a contributing editor for Maintenance Technology and Lubrication Management & Technology. E-mail: For more info, enter 02 at FEBRUARY 2012


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William C. Livoti, GIW/KSB

What’s New (Or Not): Changes In Power


ith another year under our belts, what has changed and what has remained the same with regard to the power-gen industry? Let’s start with what hasn’t changed: We’re still waiting for a national energy policy. Thanks, D.C., for dragging your feet on critical legislation that could potentially pull our country out of the economic doldrums and put millions of people back to work. We still have a number of states (15) that have yet to implement an energy policy. State governments really seem to struggle with energy. Consider Governor Chris Christie blocking a major overhaul of New Jersey’s energy industry because of concerns over how much solar power the proposal expected utilities to produce. But that’s enough about inertia. . . Plenty of things have changed (or could be). Ironically, it’s again due to failure on the part of our government. For example, several clean-energy tax credits will expire at year’s end if Congress doesn’t renew them for at least one more year.

With high unemployment and global competition in the energy sector, failure to extend renewable energy incentives will delay (or kill) investment in critical energy projects like wind, leaving many project developers and suppliers with no choice but to lay off workers.

We still await a national energy policy that could pull our country out of the economic doldrums and put millions of people back to work. Thanks, D.C., for dragging your feet.

■ If a solar electric project is at least 5% complete

So what can we do to deal with the lack of response and/or concern on the part of our government? Many years ago, as a recon Marine, I was taught to improvise, adapt and overcome. I suggest that this would be a good approach for the industrial sector in 2012. Those of you who work in this arena will need all your creativity and survival skills to make it through this year. If you’re real creative, you may prosper in 2012. Doing so will require change. Speaking of change, you may have noticed from my byline and contact information that I’ve switched companies and roles. In my new position, I’m confident that I will be getting to practice what I preach: “Improvise, adapt and overcome.” Semper Fi. MT

by December 31 of this year, it is eligible for the Federal Section 1603 “Grant In Lieu of Tax Credit,” a cash grant that covers 30% of the installed cost. In 2012, this grant goes away, leaving only a 30% tax credit. And the current 100% First Year Bonus Depreciation will revert to 50%.

Bill Livoti is Power Engineering - Energy Efficiency Service Center Engineering/Manager for the GIW/KSB Florida Service Center in Mulberry, FL. Email:

■ A Treasury Department grant program for renew-

able energy such as solar power is set to expire, as are tax credits for the ethanol industry. ■ A key production tax credit for renewable energy

(especially wind power) bites the dust next year unless Congress renews it. ■ For commercial solar installations, federal incen-

tives can reduce the first year cost by up to 55%. At the end of 2011, these incentives will become less attractive.

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Energy Waste You Didn’t Know About (Do You Care?) What you haven’t been able to see before now, probably has been biting you in a big way. Frank Healy Fluke Corporation


ow things have changed. Seven years ago, most facilities still viewed their monthly electrical utility bill as a standard cost of doing business. When oil topped $100/barrel, however, attitudes changed practically overnight, generating a surge of interest in energyconscious retrofits that previously would not have been cost-efficient. Yet, when the energy costs came down, attitudes and practices did not entirely revert. The United States was still trying hard to shake a recession. Global competition for providing products and services had grown even more intense. American facilities had found a potential new source of margin and profitability in the form of their monthly energy bill—and they weren’t giving it up. At the same time, utilities in the U.S. began customerservice campaigns aimed at helping facilities make better use of the power they were consuming. Why would a utility want to assist customers in lowering their bills? Answer: Capacity is limited. Given the regulatory framework, length of project time and sheer cost to build new power-generation facilities, utilities have a vested interest in extending the reach of their existing generation capacity. If new customers are to continually be added to the grid, existing customer usage has to be optimized. Oil-platform and nuclear-meltdown disasters have only served to underscore how limited the options are. In the last four years, most mid-range facilities have been educated by their electrical utilities on how to Volume 7 / no. 1

fully understand their monthly power bills—and have possibly conducted a basic energy audit to determine which operational functions consume the most energy per month. Many sites have already identified “low-hanging fruit” available for harvest (i.e., means by which to cut energy consumption without substantial investment). Common examples of such “fruit” include shutting off certain equipment and systems overnight; upgrading lighting and large loads like chillers with high-efficiency equipment; taking advantage of government energy-efficiency subsidies; fixing leaks in compressed air lines; and adding controls to match mechanical equipment output to performance requirements. utilities manager | 27


For those with specific interests in electrical systems, though, the true costs of inefficiency had become an urgent matter much earlier. For example, the IEEE power-quality standards body began an assessment of the academic work necessary to more accurately segment and quantify energy consumption in threephase electrical systems more than 10 years ago. Researchers had long recognized gaps in the mathematical model underlying classical three-phase power-measurement calculations. In particular, the effects of reactive power, harmonics and load unbalance were not considered in the classical methods used in most power-quality and consumption monitoring. Back then, harmonic distortion and load unbalance were simply viewed as imperfections in the purity of power that caused equipment performance issues and, in the case of power factor, diminished the usability of the distributed power. Quantifying the amount of power made unusable had never been considered. Harmonics and unbalance were troubleshooting concerns, not an energyconsumption issue—until energy became a premium.

Energy Audits While ASHRAE identifies four levels of energy audits, Level 0 and Level 1 audits are the most popular as they simply require the comparing of benchmarked consumption rates from similar facilities or conducting a facility walk-through to visually identify energy-savings opportunities. Common tactics include, for example, identifying and optimizing the largest loads in a facility (the most obvious being lighting). Since many utilities offer rebates for lighting upgrades, the cost is often low and payback time short. Why care about the amount of power affected by harmonics and load unbalance? Because we’ve generated and paid for it, but can’t use it. If 100 kilowatts come into a facility and a portion of them are made unusable by poor power quality, the facility is paying for 100 kW, but can only use 100 kW minus the wasted portion. If one could quantify the waste and multiply it by the utility rate schedule, it would be clear whether the amount of waste were expensive enough to merit fixing the power-quality issues. The outcome of the IEEE efforts was a new standard— IEEE 1459-2000­—that went some way toward enabling the calculation of waste due to power quality, albeit through a very academic framework. Still missing was a clear definition of the physical quantity of power waste. Shortly after the new standard was issued, Professors Vincente Leon and Joaquín Montañana, of Spain’s University of Valencia, set out to develop the math necessary to quantify power waste due to harmonics and unbalance issues. They first devised mathematical methods based on the recommendations of the IEEE1459-2000 standard that defined the sources of specific wastes. Then, they created a measurement 28 | utilities manager

instrument with a computing system that calculated what they described as Unified Power. Their breakthrough Unified Power measurement method took the best aspects of the IEEE1459 recommendations and calculated the energy-wasting effects of reactive power, harmonics and unbalance in an electrical system.

You pay for power affected by harmonics and load unbalance, but can’t use it. Upon learning of Leon and Montañana’s work, Fluke approached them about a partnership. Together, Fluke engineers and the professors transitioned the science from an academic instrument into a Unified Power measurement feature and an Energy Loss Calculator, now available in a portable, handheld power-quality analyzer. Both parties hold patents for different aspects of the new capability. How harmonics waste power One of the most recognized effects of harmonics in electrical systems is the excess heat they create in the conductors carrying them. Many studies have shown the need to increase the size of neutral conductors in power systems to compensate for high current carried in the neutral of 3rd harmonics and their multiples. There are also documented cases of transformers overheating due to the presence of harmonics. That heat is a form of unintentional power consumption. With this new method of calculation, it is possible to quantify the amount of waste in watts, rather than heat. Why load unbalance wastes power In the case of three-phase motors, unbalance degrades unit performance and shortens service life. Voltage unbalance at the motor stator terminals causes a disproportionate (large) phase current unbalance. Unbalanced currents, in turn, can lead to torque pulsations, increased vibration and mechanical stresses, increased losses and motor overheating. Each of these effects consumes energy, now quantifiable in watts. How Unified Power technology works The Unified Power measurement system uses a combination of classical methods, IEEE 1458-2010 and the University of Valencia’s mathematical calculations to express power and energy measurements that directly quantify the waste energy in electrical systems. The technology measures harmonics and unbalance waste in terms of kilowatts. As shown in the accompanying Energy Loss Calculator (Fig. 1), factoring in the cost of each kilowatt-hour makes it possible to calculate the cost of waste energy over a week, month or year. Volume 7 / no. 1


Useful kilowatts (power) available Reactive (unusable) power Power made unusable by unbalance Unusable distortion volt amperes Neutral current Total cost of wasted kilowatt hours per year Fig. 1. The Unified Power system measures harmonics and unbalance waste in kilowatts. Factoring in the cost of each kilowatt-hour makes it possible to calculate the cost of waste energy over time.

Field-testing How much energy waste is out there? Plenty. Professors Leon and Montañana carried out multiple field studies to confirm their hypotheses about the link between power-quality issues and the effect on energy waste. When Fluke joined the partnership, the team conducted more studies to test if the new capability would be appropriate for a range of users (i.e., other than those working in the highest-level electrical-engineering roles). The studies included one at an industrial park and another at an automotive manufacturing plant. . . ■ The industrial park is supplied by a local electrical cooperative. Tenants in this mixed site had a variety of electrical needs. Some had significant inductive loads and the utility had already chosen to install power-factor correction to reduce the effects of poor power factor. When the professors’ Unified Power device was connected, however, it showed significant reactive power losses in the secondary of the park’s power transformer. The losses occurred primarily at night, when the inductive loads were not operating, but the power-factor correction capacitors were. The energy losses were measured at 353.6 kWh/day (on average). Multiplied by the utility’s rate schedule, these losses amounted to $14,000 per year. With this information in hand, the utility and the park manager devised a solution involving time-controlled relays that disconnected the capacitor bank at night. Payback time was less than one year. ■ At the automobile plant, six separate areas were surveyed. Numerous causes of energy waste were identified across the facility, including reactive power from discharge lamps and lightly loaded, inefficient transformers. The total waste amounted to $50,000 per year. By installing power-factor correction on the discharge lamps, rationalizing the transformer arrangement and using one high-efficiency transformer instead of five lightly loaded, inefficient units, the plant achieved significant energy savings. Volume 7 / no. 1

For more info, enter 74 at

utilities manager | 29


Study Findings: Industrial Park Substation $14,000 in annual energy savings from power quality adjustments ◆ Measurements at the substation transformer feeding the industrial park identified energy losses of 353.6 kWh/day (average value) due to reactive power. ◆ Solution: Install time-control relays to disconnect capacitor bank at night.

Study Findings: Automotive Manufacturing Plant $50,000 in annual energy savings ◆ Surveys of six key areas including the engine plant and the car assembly plant showed significant energy waste due to power quality. ◆ Solution: Install capacitors and regulation controls and upgrade transformers.

Dealing effectively with the waste factor Addressing harmonics and unbalance typically requires the support of an electrical engineer and staff or contract electricians. Resolving harmonics involves some kind of mitigation equipment or changing the type of electronic equipment in operation. Resolving unbalance requires redistributing loads, installing unbalance compensation equipment or, sometimes, increasing overall electrical distribution system capacity. With the new Unified Power capability, costing out the labor and equipment necessary to abate the harmonics and unbalance, compared with the amount of energy wasted, is now a relatively straightforward ROI equation. Keep in mind that installing a harmonic filter will also improve overall power quality (which will increase equipment reliability, efficiency and service life and reduce downtime). Yes, things really have changed in the way we approach energy efficiency: It used to be that you couldn’t fix what you couldn’t see—or that you couldn’t fix what you couldn’t justify. Now, seeing is believing, and the fixing is easy. UM Frank Healy is Power Quality Manager with Fluke. He has advised and consulted on many aspects of instrumentation for electrical engineering for more than 21 years. E-mail: For more info, enter 261 at

Upgraded Online Pump Selection Tool


ell & Gossett, a unit of Xylem*, has announced a comprehensive update to its ESP-PLUS® online pump selection tool. Based on extensive user feedback, upgrades were made to improve visuals and streamline performance, yet ensure that the site remains familiar and user-friendly. Features include:

■ Accurate three-curve algorithms ■ New icons with tool-tips to help users

navigate the program ■ Flow, Head, Pump Speed, Pump Type ■ Metric (SI) and English units of measure ■ Option for viscous fluid correction



■ Multiple motor selection methods ■ Series pump selection and graphing ■ Links to 2D and 3D CAD drawings

including Revit format ■ Variable speed operation ■ Pump accessory sizing

The program also help users select Triple Duty Valves® and suction diffusers, assists in system modeling with life-cycle costing and supplies a downloadable/emailable product schedule. Bell & Gossett Morton Grove, IL

*Xylem was launched in 2011 from the spinoff of the water-related businesses of ITT Corporation For more info, enter 03 at

30 | utilities manager

Volume 7 / no. 1


Resistance To Change Is A Good Thing


Pushback forces you to do a better job of selling and implementing new ideas. Dave Berube Life Cycle Engineering


hen embarking on major change transformation within organizations, experienced change managers perform a key activity: coaching senior leaders on how to recognize and manage employee resistance. We preach that resistance is an expected outcome of change. We discuss the theory related to human behavior, the physiology of change and the difficulty encountered when we attempt to move people out of their comfort zones. We conduct training and countless hours of one-on-one coaching for managers to improve their competencies in dealing with this expected resistance. In the process, we often see and hear evidence of previous change transformations that failed because of employee resistance. That’s unfortunate. Resistance to change can be leveraged for the good. Here’s how. . .




Utopia is for dreamers Some might wish for a utopian change transformation where no resistance exists: All change would be fully and universally embraced and people would freely move into a new way of being simply in response to a leader’s request. In this wonderful world, flowers bloom, birds chirp and change is a natural way of life. What could possibly be the downside? While great ideas would be smoothly assimilated into the non-resistant organization, so would bad ideas. Oops! Employee resistance to change can actually help prevent bad ideas from being implemented. This expected resistance causes us to deploy a strategy for obtaining the type of buy-in that will get our good ideas implemented. Thus, we should appreciate when employees push back against our initiatives, as this forces us to:

individual employee can tell you the pros and cons of how a change will affect them. Resistance forces leaders to find out how the change will impact people. This can only be accomplished by communicating directly with employees early and often. Slow down, prioritize, strategize and create supporting plans… Resistance to change forces us to slow down a bit and take the time needed to create comprehensive plans. Project mangers know that their project’s success and failure are separated by risk. A detailed risk plan must be created to mitigate project risks. This plan includes items like resources, funding, timelines and coordination. Project risks associated with the people side of change must also be considered. Risks must be analyzed and change-management plans created— including a communication plan, plans to help our sponsors and managers and a reinforcement plan.

n Justify why change is necessary n Risk analysis n Slow down, prioritize, strategize and

create supporting plans n Involve employees, listen and gather feedback

Justify why change is necessary… Many people resist change because they don’t know why they are being asked to change. Thus, we must answer the question, “Why is the change necessary?” Resistance to change forces us to justify to the workforce why we are changing. Leaders must ensure that their ideas creating the change will actually enhance the organization. Assuming the organization has a vision of where they are going, does this change align with and help achieve the vision of the organization? A good reason “why” should be supported by establishing a business case for change. Otherwise, why should we embark on it? Does the change make financial sense? Does the change make sense in the short-term or is this a longterm plan? Once this financial justification is clearly established and understood, we must be ready to answer the next question. How will this benefit the individual employee? When changes occur, there is fear of the unknown. Employees will immediately wonder if their needs will still be met. Some of the typical fears include job loss, loss of power or influence, loss of prestige, reduced overtime, increased hours or more productivity. When we implement major change the justification must be translated to employees in the context of "what’s in it for me" (WIIFM). We must make this translation because this is what they will be listening for. But, while leaders think that they can define the pros and cons at a personal level, they cannot. Only the 32 |


The people side of change can be seen as a risk to our project objectives. When evaluating the risk to our project we must look at the size and scope of the change as well as the specific characteristics of the organization related to change. How big is the change? Does it change one group or everyone? Is everyone affected the same way or is the change different for each individual group? Is the organization saturated with many changes all happening at the same time? Are resources even available to make this change happen? Does the organization have a history of failed changes often referred to as “flavor of the month” syndrome? n Communication plans

Justifying the what, why, and WIIFM is usually accomplished through the communications plan. The plan should be crafted to address the needs of all affected groups throughout all aspects of the project. Communication is constantly referred to as one of the things we can do better. This gap and its associated negative effect are magnified during events causing major change. When resistance to change forces us to create plans and communicate with our employees, it reinforces the benefits of good communication. These lessons learned can be carried over and applied to how we communicate daily with our people. n Coaching plans for sponsors and managers

One of the worst assumptions that change managers can make is to assume that sponsors and managers know exactly what is expected of them during a transformation. Coaching plans should be developed to assist these key roles in executing the activities necessary to be successful. FEBRUARY 2012


Shaft Alignment

& Geometric Measurement

We ask sponsors to lead from the front, build coalitions of people to guide the initiative and communicate key messages. We ask managers to work directly with the people who are changing and provide two-way communication, manage resistance, lead by example, connect the project to the people, and coach people through change, as well as make the change themselves. n Reinforcement plans

As we encounter resistance and take people out of their comfort zone, how do we keep them there? We must have a plan in place to reinforce those new behaviors or they will revert to the old behaviors. From the "Plan-Do-CheckAct” model, this is a “check.” We must check that the new behaviors are in plans and coordinate this “check” function with incentives and rewards. These can range from a simple pat on the back to celebratory dinners, to bonuses, to promotions. Creating reinforcement plans for major change often forces organizations to evaluate the effectiveness of their current reward and recognition programs to ensure that the correct behaviors are being reinforced. Involve employees, listen and gather feedback… While many leaders may have some great ideas, they may not always be the best solution. When we get different points of view we come up with a better solution. Getting employees involved early in the process fosters better solutions. The ideas become “ours” or “the team's”—not “management’s.” This generates ownership and ownership minimizes resistance. One of the greatest benefits to involving our employees in designing solutions is that it further enhances their skills and abilities in continuous improvement. This makes them more valuable employees. We all need to listen more. When we attempt to jointly develop solutions, our employees will tell us what is working and what isn’t. Listening provides us with feedback on whether the implemented changes are generating the results and associated return we expected. Resistance generates communication content. Listening for symptoms of resistance will allow us to check if we are trying to implement a good idea or a bad idea. Embrace the pushback Resistance to change is a normal human response. Employees immediately seek to translate the change into a personal context—which can be magnified by fear of the unknown. When organizations have to address the WIIFM question with the workforce, it forces leaders to justify the reason for change. Addressing the reasons for change and involving the workforce in crafting solutions creates the best ideas and helps prevent bad ideas from being implemented. So go ahead and prepare for your next change transformation. Anticipate the expected resistance it will bring. And when you see evidence of employee resistance actually appear, just smile. Because now you know that resistance to change is a good thing. And it’s something that should not be feared. It should be embraced. MT Dave Berube, a Senior Consultant with Life Cycle Engineering (LCE), has more than 20 years of experience in leadership, management and organizational transformation. He is a Prosci-certified change-management professional and a certified trainer for Prosci’s change management programs. Email: For more info, enter 04 at FEBRUARY 2012

Rotalign® ULTRA

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Don’t Get Boxed in by LOTO

Confusing Fusing Issue Phil Allen, President, Grace Engineered Products


using a panel-mount voltage indicator ensures an electrically secure installation as per NEC, but it simultaneously decreases electrical safety as per NFPA 70E. The reason for this is the propensity of false negative readings from the voltage detector as a result of the over-current protection.

What’s an electrical-safety-conscious company using a voltage indicator to do when it’s confronted with the “to-fuse-or-not-to-fuse” question? Even Shakespeare’s Hamlet would rightly conclude that the only safe course of action would be “not to fuse.” A permanent electrical-safety device like a voltage indicator has one full-time job: to indicate voltage. A blown fuse on its input creates a false negative indication of voltage which, if trusted, is a hazard.

T h i n k Outside the Panel GRACE


Reduce the risk of arc flash while increasing employee productivity by

A fuse also adds four connection points of failure for each phase. In electrical safety, once you touch a live conduction, there’s always an electric incident— because electrical energy is, after all, instantaneous. Thus, it’s crucial to avoid any chance of potentially precarious false negative readings. NFPA 70E—as well as the logic of safety—recognized that there are varying degrees between “a risk” and a “greater risk,” so it astutely included a “Hazard Risk Procedure” in Annex F. The same principle, as stated below, allows for energized work, which is a risk if de-energizing the system is a greater risk. “Greater Hazard. Energized work shall be permitted where the employer can demonstrate that de-energizing introduces additional or increased hazards.” …NFPA 70E 130.1(A)(1) Similar statements exist in the NEC, which allows for un-fused conductors if a blown fuse creates a greater hazard: “…for example, the control circuit of a fire-pump motor and the like.” …NEC 430.72

incorporating PESDs from Grace


Products into your LOTO procedures. To learn more at please visit us at: For more info, enter 75 at

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Including over-current protection for a voltage indicator installation increases the opportunity for a false negative reading, thereby creating a greater hazard than the risk posed by an un-fused conductor. MT To learn more about specific recommendations and practices, visit:; or email the author: For more info, enter 05 at

Sponsored Information


Volume 2 Number 2




Sponsored Section





Prevent Sludge From Building Up Your Costs Problem The heavy-duty hydraulic systems in today’s industrial plants endure some of the toughest operating conditions. They run under extreme pressures, at increasing speeds and are working harder than ever before. Now, in light of the trend toward smaller reservoirs, even more stress is being put on this equipment. These factors can present many challenges—one of the most important of which is sludge buildup. With the smaller systems now in operation, air and heat are not able to escape as easily as they are with larger reservoirs. Water may not separate as effectively. Contaminants may accumulate faster. As the rate of oxidation rises, so does the risk of harmful sludge buildup. Even with a good filtering system, excessive sludge can plug filters, which increases equipment wear and can seriously damage the hydraulic pump. Sludge buildup can greatly affect the performance of your systems. How does it affect your costs? As equipment runs harder, fluid can break down faster, risking total system failure and costly downtime. Failure to evaluate the hydraulic fluid that protects your hydraulic systems can result in the use of low-quality fluids with short service lives that can require frequent top-ups or change-outs (and may not properly benefit the machines in the area of sludge protection or further performance demands.) The resulting downtime and repairs can increase maintenance costs, slow production and ultimately reduce your profit margins. Not to mention, the cost of an unplanned line stoppage or machine failure can easily absorb profit and damage productivity—costing you much more in the long run.

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Results from oxidation Test ASTM D943M

The bottom line? When your company’s productivity and operations rest on the performance of their hydraulic systems, you can’t afford to ignore quality. Using the right high-performance hydraulic fluid will help to ensure optimal productivity while saving you money. Solution Specifically designed for heavy-duty hydraulic systems that operate in industrial plants, Petro-Canada’s HYDREX hydraulic fluid is formulated using crystal-clear 99.9%-pure base oils—some of the purest in the world. By removing the impurities

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that can hinder the performance of conventional hydraulic oils, HYDREX lasts longer. Petro-Canada then blends in specially selected additives to produce the finished product. For optimal sludge protection, Petro-Canada’s HYDREX AW 46 has been shown to produce significantly less sludge than several competitor products, even at longer test hours. In a standard industry test (ASTM D943M), a high temperature (203 F/95 C), a 99.5% oxygen flow, 20% water and copper and steel catalysts were used to accelerate oxidation to determine the rate of acidity buildup in various hydraulic fluids. When the test fluids were filtered, the sludge was examined, and the competitor samples indicated accelerated oxidation and degradation (see the accompanying chart). HYDREX also delivers advanced anti-wear protection and improved rust and corrosion prevention for extended equipment life. Its excellent thermal stability enables extended drain intervals and reduced change-outs. Return On Investment Sludge can be incredibly damaging to hydraulic components. By resisting oxidation and sludge buildup, a highperformance hydraulic fluid such as HYDREX saves you both time and money. HYDREX’s advanced breakthrough formulation also lasts up to three times longer and provides up to two times better wear protection than the leading global hydraulics brand. For you, that means fewer change-outs and lower maintenance costs. MT Petro-Canada Mississauga, ON, Canada

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Count on the worry-free performance of HYDREX hydraulic fluids to keep your equipment running smoothly. HYDREX lasts up to three times longer and offers up to twice the wear protection of the leading hydraulic oil brand.† For you, that means greater equipment uptime, increased productivity and better energy efficiencies.†† And less to worry about with minimal sludge build-up, long change-out intervals and protection against equipment wear. Improve your bottom-line — get HYDREX working in your operation today.

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Producing Major Savings For A Major Power Producer National Power Corporation (NPC)* is the largest provider and generator of electricity in the Philippines. Built in 1979, NPC’s Agus 6/7 Hydroelectric Plant Complex is located along the Maria Cristina Falls on the Agus River in Mindanao. The Complex is made up of two hydroelectric power plants: Agus 6 encompasses Units 3, 4 and 5 and produces 150MW of electricity, while the smaller Agus 7 consists of Units 1 and 2 and has a rated capacity of 54MW. Between 2008 and the end of 2011, nine Scalewatcher water-conditioner systems were installed in the generator air-cooling equipment at the Complex. They have markedly improved both cooling efficiency and rated capacity. Problem Prior to the installation of the Scalewatcher systems, one set of generator air coolers was removed from the water-cooling system during every planned maintenance shutdown so that sludge could be manually removed from the copper tubing. According to A. F. Suezo, Jr., Plant Manager of the Complex, “Scientific studies showed that scale build-up reduces the efficiency of the cooling system and just ¼ inch of scale formation can increase heating costs by 40%.” Solution Scalewatcher’s environmentally friendly technology provides a permanent solution to hard water problems without the need of chemicals, salt or maintenance. These systems work by producing a varying electronically applied force field, induced by a coil wrapped around the outside of the pipework, which keeps minerals in suspension and, thus, prevents lime scale from forming. The water’s increased solubility lets it dissolve existing scale, which is then gradually flushed away. Return On Investment Once the Scalewatcher systems were installed, it was observed that the scale, sludge and slime formation in the generator air coolers had been reduced to a point whereby during subsequent planned maintenance shutdowns, the plant’s maintenance team was able to discontinue the dismantling of all other air coolers for cleaning. Although it’s difficult to quantify the apparent increase in capacity and other benefits, Mr. Suezo points to conservative estimates indicating that even with a minimal increase of 1%, the plant will save 204MW of electricity per year—which equates to annual savings of P15,202,800.00 (or around US$350,000).

In November 2011, Scalewatcher North America was advised that although Unit 4 was rated at 50MW, because of its age, the capacity had deteriorated to 30MW. Since installation of a Scalewatcher system, the unit’s capacity has increased by 5MW. Although their report was conservative, Mr. Suezo and Mr. Pates, the site’s Maintenance Manager, noted that the additional capacity was sufficient to light as many as 5000 homes and provide savings of $232,558 a month. Therefore, in the 39 months following the first Scalewatcher installation, Unit 4 generated additional revenue amounting to $9,069,762. Scalewatcher, North America Oxford, PA

Scalewatcher North America, manufacturers of the original, patented and award-winning computerized electronic waterconditioner, offer a range of systems to suit domestic, commercial and industrial applications. Scalewatcher’s technology is based on continuous research and over 20 years experience and expertise as market leaders in electronic scale control with countless units sold worldwide. Each Scalewatcher system has a 5-year manufacturer’s warranty and comes with a full-year performance guarantee. Costs include free shipping within the USA.

*Founded in 1936, in Quezon City, National Power Corporation (NPC) produces power using geothermal, natural gas, hydroelectric, oil and coal, and primarily serves distribution utilities, co-operatives and industrial customers across the Philippines. For more info, enter 271 at

38 |


Sponsored Information


Developed and patented in the Netherlands by Mr. Jan P. de Baat Doelman, Scalewatcher technology was introduced to the European market in the 1980s. With immediate market success, Mr. Doelman brought the technology to the United States and applied for and received a patent in 1991. From that moment, Scalewatcher North America has been on the forefront of environmentally sensitive water treatment. Located in Oxford, Pennsylvania, Scalewatcher North America continues to lead the industry in descaling products that do no harm to the environment. Scalewatcher North America focuses on the elimination of scale and the problems associated with scale build-up. Industries know the costs involved in keeping their capital investments running smoothly. Scalewatcher is there to help. Scaled cooling towers, chillers and associated equipment can negatively impact a company’s bottom line, and not just in cash. The caustic chemicals used to remove scale only create more problems with the environment. Your company can “GO GREEN” and stay within your budget.

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The Efficient Vibration Analyst

So many machines. So little time. What’s the best approach? Mike Fitch LUDECA, Inc.


ibration analysts are often faced with scores—perhaps hundreds—of machines, many of which exhibit vibration frequencies that are very hard (if not impossible) to identify. Some machines can absorb countless hours of an analyst’s time before he/she can confidently identify all the discernible peaks in their FFT signatures. The danger is that an analyst could waste precious analyzing time trying to identify the source of a vibration that will never cause a problem, and possibly miss the rise of another, more lethal vibration. What does an efficient analyst do?

40 |




Approach your machines with a plan An efficient analyst will first identify the frequencies that are most likely to originate from defects that have already been identified as typical failure modes for the machine of interest.

IMPORTANT HINT: Gearmesh and its sidebands won’t be an indication of a failure mode for most electric motors.

Although optional, next rank the failure modes according to speed of degradation (i.e., the ones that will cause most rapid failure). This will not only help prioritize the work, but should be the basis for most data-collection schedules. If you’re not monitoring often enough to catch the most likely failure modes in time for a scheduled repair, you’re playing analyst roulette—and sooner or later you will encounter the chamber with the bullet in it.

ANOTHER IMPORTANT HINT: Only when the fault frequencies that should be monitored are identified can an analyst determine the proper monitoring setups to use. Adequate resolution and range must be provided to capture the frequencies of interest!

After identifying the frequencies that are expected to be involved in machine degradation and failure, the analyst should set alarm bands around them. Historical data should be mined to determine comfortable alarm amplitude levels that will alert the analyst to a “potential” failure in time to prevent it from becoming an “actual" failure. As new data comes in, the efficient analyst uses it to “tweak” the alarm levels. The goal is for alarm levels to be as relaxed as possible (no false positives), while still protecting the machine users from unplanned failure. But what if there’s no historical data to begin with? In this case, alarm-band amplitudes—and in some cases, the band ranges themselves—should be sought from more mature programs. Many analysts in the U.S. begin their programs using alarm bands and amplitudes suggested by Technical Associates of Charlotte and its “Proven Method.” Another possible starting point could be the standards that many large corporations have developed for their equipment. An online search may yield these types of standards FEBRUARY 2012

A simple alarm status report

for both acceptance and operations. Whatever the source of a program's “starting point,” historical vibration data is the best way to optimize alarms. This process of optimization may never be completely finished, but comfortable levels can be reached relatively early in a program’s life. As an efficient analyst, you want to begin by building enough “cushion” into your alarm levels to protect your users. With data coming in, you can tighten levels as the accumulated historical data warrants. When you feel protected by your alarms, run a simple alarm status report (like that in the figure above) on the entire route. If no alarm levels are exceeded, there’s no need to spend analysis time on machines in the route. If alarm levels are exceeded, however, you need only to analyze the machines in alarm condition. Efficiency pointers Keep these points in mind: The efficient vibration analyst DOES NOT monitor equipment more often than necessary, nor waste precious time analyzing good machines or harmless peaks in FFT signatures or time waveforms. The efficient vibration analyst DOES approach his/her machines in a well thought-out, planned manner that considers the specific failure modes of whatever equipment is to be evaluated. MT Mike Fitch is a Vibration Application Engineer for LUDECA. Telephone: (305) 591-8935; email: For more info, enter 06 at MT-ONLINE.COM | 41


So Much To Learn From MARTS 2012 ◆ AVO Training ( helps operations create safe, reliable electrical environments through training, safety solutions and power studies. ◆ Des-Case ( specializes in contamination-control products for industrial lubricants, including desiccant breathers, fluid-handling products, lubricant sampling systems and related services. ◆ Dreisilker Electric Motors ( provides electric-motor solutions to commercial, industrial and municipal customers. ◆ Graybar ( specializes in supply-chain management services and distribution of electrical and telecommunications components for customers in industry, facility maintenance and data centers. ◆ Infraspection Institute (, the world’s oldest independent IR training and certification firm, has trained and certified nearly 10,000 thermographers worldwide. ◆ Inpro/Seal ( is the leading designer and manufacturer of bearing-protection products for rotating equipment across many industries. ◆ IRISS ( helps maintenance professionals conduct safer, more efficient inspections with their industrial-grade infrared inspection windows. ◆ LAI Reliability Systems ( provides asset-management and reliability solutions for customers in diversified industries worldwide. ◆ Ludeca ( offers laser precision alignment systems and factory-authorized service and training for PRÜFTECHNIK alignment and condition-monitoring products. ◆ Mainnovation ( is a maintenance consultancy that uses its Value-Driven Maintenance methodology to assist industrial, port-management and public-transportation customers worldwide. ◆ MAPCON ( provides state-of-the-art CMMS software and products for use on personal computers, including a new SaaS (Software as a Service) version. ◆ Meggitt Sensing Systems ( specializes in sensing and monitoring systems that measure physical parameters in extreme environments. ◆ Mtelligence ( offers predictive analytics and integration software to improve efficiency and reduce operating costs by helping users maintain the right equipment at the right time. ◆ PdMA Corporation ( is a leader in electric-motor testing through the manufacture of online and offline portable motor testers, analytical software and training. ◆ Reporting House ( is a full-service consulting firm that provides enterprise-reporting, business intelligence and analytic solutions. ◆ Royal Purple ( produces a wide range of high-performance lubricants for most consumer and industrial applications, with an emphasis on stateof-the-art synthetics and mineral-based products. ◆ Scalewatcher ( offers computerized electronic water conditioners that remove lime scale from pipework, water systems and water-fed equipment, and prevent new scales from forming. MT For more info, enter 07 at

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POWERFUL STATIC ELIMINATORS EXAIR’S Super Ion Air Knife removes static electricity from webs, sheet stock and plastic surfaces where dust, tearing, jamming or hazardous shocks are a problem. The balanced laminar airflow of the Super Ion Air Knife effectively eliminates static at distances up to 20 feet away. Production speeds, product quality and surface cleanliness can improve dramatically. Other styles include Ion Air Cannon, Ion Air Gun, Ion Air Jet, Ionizing Bars and Ionizing Point. Applications include web cleaning, pre-paint blowoff, bag opening and neutralizing plastic parts.

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his year’s Maintenance and Reliability Technology Summit (MARTS) exhibitors will be showcasing a wide range of products and services vital to capacity assurance professionals across industry. They’ll be on hand in the MARTS exhibition area at the Hyatt Regency O’Hare, Rosemont, IL, on Tuesday, March 13, and Wednesday, March 14. Be sure you’re there to see what these leading suppliers have for you by registering at

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                                                                         

 m m





California - Illinois - Connecticut - Canada e-mail: m


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Field-Service Software For Smartphones


ieldAware’s cloudbased field-service management solution uses native apps on Apple and Android smartphones and tablets to eliminate the need for servers, proprietary software and special hand-held devices. By digitizing service workflow, it also eliminates the need for paper work orders and streamlines scheduling. Customer, product, task and work order data is shared over the Internet via Web-browsers or smartphones on a 24/7 basis. For a monthly per-user fee, FieldAware handles the entire service delivery process. FieldAware Frisco, TX

Rugged Video Inspection System


he SEEKER 280 Ruggedized Video Inspection System (DCS280) from General Tools is designed for heavy industrial use. The unit comes standard with a 9mm-diameter, 1m-long, flexible-obedient probe that is water-, oil- and dust-proof to IP67 standards. The console with 2.4” color monitor meets IP54 standards for dust- and water-resistance. Applications include detecting leaks and cracks in ducts and piping and inspecting for corrosion and deposit buildup.

General Tools & Instruments New York, NY

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Ideal opportunity to own a growing company The company has been in business for over 30 years, and has a very strong foothold in the Western United States with several national accounts. Specializing in non-destructive testing, accounts include manufacturing facilities, petrochemical plants, office buildings, office parks, shopping malls, financial companies and medical centers.

PIP IS SIMPLE. Let PIP’s harmonized engineering Practices simplify your next project. For more info, enter 81 at


Upwards of 60% of the company’s business on an annual basis is from repeat customers, with an even higher percentage over a 24-month period. There are three offices and a total of 19 full-time employees, most of whom have been with the company for more than six years. Should you have genuine interest, please forward your name, company name, phone number and email address to: For more info, enter 82 at FEBRUARY 2012


Flow & Temperature Sensor


urck’s Digital Read Out (DRO) flow sensor is a self-contained, fully programmable sensor that allows for both flow and temperature monitoring, and features a three-digit display that can alternate between the two. The unit can be used in different media, such as water, glycol and Galden HT110, allows for application-specific set points and can track changes in flow from 0.2 to 12 gpm.

High-Res Thermal Imaging


esto’s 890 Thermal Imager achieves high levels of image quality by combining 640 x 480 pixel detection, high-quality optics and the company’s SuperResolution technology. The unit records high-resolution thermal images in 1280 x 960 pixel quality, allowing small or distant objects to be inspected with precision. Other features include touch-screen navigation, a thermal sensitivity of <40 mK and temperature recognition up to 2192 F.

Turck, Inc. Minneapolis, MN

Testo USA, Inc. Sparta, NJ For more info, enter 33 at

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ENGINEERED TO SERVE INDUSTRY MAINTENANCE At Revere, we engineer controls for an incredible range of industrial applications. From mining conveyor controls to 15 kV switchgear and plant wide PLC systems for municipal, industrial and energy applications. System upgrades, expansions, and maintenance. Control your systems. Control your business.

CONTROL SYSTEMS T 1.205.824.0004

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INFORMATION HIGHWAY For rate information on advertising in the Information Highway Section Contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 / E-mail: Web Spotlight: Ludeca

PIP is a consortium of process plant owners and engineering construction contractors harmonizing member’s internal standards for design, procurement, construction and maintenance into industry-wide Practices. PIP has published over 450 Practices. A current listing of published Practices is available on the PIP website at: For more info, enter 86 at

LUDECA, INC. - Preventive, Predictive and Corrective Maintenance Solutions including laser shaft alignment, pulley alignment, bore alignment, straightness and flatness measurement, monitoring of thermal growth, online condition monitoring, vibration analysis and balancing equipment as well as software, services and training. For more info, enter 85 at

The ability to identify, verify and locate every voltage source from the outside of electrical panels greatly reduces electrical risks. That’s why we’ve incorporated two of our most popular products - ChekVolt® and VoltageVision® - into one unique, exclusive product called The Combo Unit.. For more info, enter 87 at


ATP List Services Specializing In

Machinery Health Personnel PM & PdM Field Service • Mgt • Sales • Hrly Nationwide • Confidential • All Fees Company Paid

TOLL FREE 877-386-1091 Contact: Ellen Sandkam 847-382-8100 x110 800-223-3423 x110 1300 S. Grove Ave., Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010

For rate information on advertising in the Classified Section Contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 e-mail:





2012 M A I N T E N A N CFebruary E

Volume 25, No. 2 TECHNOLOGY ®

FEBRUARY 2012 Volume 25, No. 2



RS #


Baldor Electric .....................................89 .......................................BC

1300 S. Grove Ave., Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010 1300 South847-382-8100 Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 FAX 847-304-8603 PH 847-382-8100

FX 847-304-8603

CIM ...........................................1 Des-Case ...........................................2 Dreisilker Electric Motors .........................................29 Exair Corporation ..................76 .........................................42 ........66 ...........................................7 General Tools & Instruments .........................................13 Grace Engineered Products, ...........71 .........................................23 Grace Engineered Products, ......................75 .........................................34 Grace Engineered Products, ............................. ...............................................................................................................................................87 .........................................46 Grainger ..................................65 ...........................................5 Graybar Electric Company, 77 ..........................IFC, 43 Kluber Lubrication North America .................................. ...............................................................................................................................................67 .........................................12 Ludeca .....................................85, 91 .............................46, 33 Mainnovation .......................78 .........................................43 MARTS- Applied Technologies, 70, 88 ................4, 21, IBC Meltric Corporation ....................................79 .........................................43 Miller-Stephenson Chemical Co. ................80 .........................................43 Mobil Industrial, 73 .............................24, 25 Petro Canada - Suncor ....................270, 280.........................36, 37 Process Industry .............................................81, 86 .............................44, 46 Revere Control .........................84 .........................................45 Scalewatcher, 281.........................38, 39 Strategic Work Systems, .............................83 .........................................45 Sullair ......................................69 .........................................17

Access and enter the reader service number of the product in which you are interested, or you can search even deeper and link directly to the advertiser’s Website.

Submissions Policy: M T gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc., permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. Reproduction TECHNOLOGY/JANUARY of Materials: Materials produced MAINTENANCE 2007 by Maintenance Technology may not

be reproduced in any form for any purpose without permission. For Reprints: Contact the publisher, Bill Kiesel - (847) 382-8100 ext. 116.



135 N. Rocky River Road Berea, OH 44017 MADDING 440-463-0907; 440-891-1254 Vice Fax President JOHN DAVIS BILL KIESEL Vice President, Publisher

AL, DC, DE, FL, GA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, PA, SC, VA, WV 1750 Holmes Drive West Chester, PAStaff 19382 Business 610-793-3093; Fax 610-793-3094 JIM HANLEY TERRI WYMORE Director of Creative Services/Production

IA, MN, NE, ND, SD ELLEN SANDKAM 1300 South Grove Suite 105 DirectAvenue, Mail Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 x116; Fax 847-304-8603 BILL KIESEL Sales Staff

AL, AR, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, LA, CT, ME, MA, NH, NY, RI, VT, ON, QC MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, OK, SC, SD,P.O. TX,Box WI, 1059 Ontario Canada Osterville, 02655 1300 South GroveMA Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, 60010 508-428-3331; FaxIL 508-428-2545 847-382-8100; 847-304-8603 VINCENTFax LeGENDRE BILL KIESEL KY, IL, IN,OH, MI,TN WI 135 N. S. Rocky River Road 1173 Summit Street Berea, OHIL44017 Barrington, 60010 440-463-0907; Fax 440-891-1254 847-382-8100 x108;DAVIS Fax 847-304-8603 JOHN TOM MADDING AK, AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA,WY, British Columbia Canada AR,South KS, LA, MO, NM, OK, TX 1300 Grove Avenue, Suite 105 5930Barrington, Royal Lane,IL Suite E #201 60010 847-382-8100; 847-304-8603 Dallas, Fax TX 75230 TOM MADDING 972-816-6745; Fax 972-767-4442 GERRY MAYER CT, DC, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VA, VT, WV, Quebec Canada, Space 225 NV, Fuller Street AZ, CA, CO,Age, ID, MT, OR, UT, WA, Brookline, MA 02446 WY, AB, BC, MB, SK 617-232-2000; Fax 617-232-2951 3605 N. Tuscany VINCE CAVASENO Mesa, AZ 85207 480-396-9585 ClassifiedJERRY Advertising/Electronic Sales: PRESTON South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100; Fax 847-304-8603 TRACY RYLE CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 3605 N. Tuscany Mesa, AZ 85207 480-396-9585 JERRY PRESTON



VIEWPOINT Bob Baldwin, Founding Editor, Maintenance Technology

A Bit Of Advice This month’s “Viewpoint” first ran as the December 1989 installment of founding and long-time MT Editor (1988–2005) Bob Baldwin’s “Uptime” column. While it refers to an event that occurred 23 years ago and includes a quote from an industrialist who died in 1910 (another highly successful “founder”), the “advice” in it is timeless.

I recently had the opportunity to chair an all-day session at a maintenance seminar in Chicago where the speakers had a great deal to say about what can be done and what should be done to improve the lot of maintenance professionals, as well as what maintenance professionals can do to improve their operations. They addressed topics such as developing a maintenance strategy, maintenance planning and control, and applying reliability centered maintenance, predictive maintenance, and computerized maintenance management. All the speakers acknowledged that many top managers, department heads, and specialists often had a hard time accepting maintenance as a worthy partner. At the same time, however, the speakers were able to tell of some success stories where maintenance managers made significant improvements to the bottom line and turned things around in troubled operations. They also pointed to some promising maintenance improvement plans, ranging from vibration analysis to computerized scheduling and inventory control, that had failed because the participants dropped the ball. The champions for these projects had retired or were transferred and the projects died. Or the participants were unrealistic about what it would take to get the program rolling, or they overran the budget before it was up to speed.

The point is this: Individual managers can make a difference when they champion the right causes. Success is a product of intelligent hard work from managers and staff alike. And maintenance success improves the stature of the maintenance profession. With these points fresh in mind and the experience of the seminar hardly over, I was quite receptive to the message I saw when I visited The Timken Company’s repair facility for large tapered roller bearings. The message presented advice offered near the turn of the century by Henry Timken (1831-1910), the company founder.

“To be successful, you must be independent. If you want to lead in any line, you must bring to it independence of thought, unfailing industry, aggression, and indomitable purpose. If you have an idea, which you think is right, push it to the finish. Don’t let anyone else influence you against it. If we all thought the same way, there would be no progress. But above all, don’t set your name to anything you will ever have cause to be ashamed of.”

The opinions expressed in this Viewpoint section are those of the author, and don’t necessarily reflect those of the staff and management of MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY magazine.



Reliability: Own It This MARCH... Save The Date For Keynote Address Tues. March 13, 2012:


Managing the Trends

The Capacity Assurance Conference!

MARCH 12-15, 2012

David Boulay, president, Illinois Manufacturing Extension Center

Selection of Confirmed Conference Titles: Optimizing Pump-System Performance: The Link Between Energy Efficiency and Improved Reliability Roland McKinney, SKF Service Division

The Top 5 Best Maintenance Practices of World-Class Companies Enrique Mora, Mora International Consulting Services

Maintenance and Reliability Assessment: Is World Class Right For Your Facility? Dave Rosenthal, Jacobs Engineering

How a Community College Partnership Can Address the Skills Shortage Mark Combs, Parkland College

Leveraging PAS 55 to Optimize Asset Utilization and Increase Productivity

Now entering its ninth year, MARTS is an exciting learning event in a great location that helps reliability professionals at all levels improve their skills and excel on the job. Pricing and attendance options for every budget make it easy for individuals or groups to share the MARTS experience.

• A four-day educational experience created exclusively for reliability professionals • 27 hour-long Conferences over two days – Tuesday, March 13 and Wednesday, March 14 – kicked off by Keynote speaker David Boulay, president of the Illinois Manufacturing Extension Center, and followed by reliability experts in a variety of disciplines

• 5 full-day Workshops on Monday, March 12 • 5 full-day Workshops on Thursday, March 15 • Two professional certification opportunities

Kris Goly, Siemens Asset Performance Management Services

Confirmed Workshop Titles:

Energy and Sustainability Management

Eric Huston and members of SKF Service Division

From TPM to TPR: Move to the Next Level of Maintenance and Process Reliability

Enrique Mora, Mora International Consulting Services

Cause Mapping I: Effective Root Cause Analysis Mark Galley, ThinkReliability

Maintenance Planning and Scheduling: Increase Your Workforce Without Hiring R. D. (Doc) Palmer, Richard Palmer & Assoc.

Motor System Management

Howard W. Penrose, Dreisilker Electric Motors, Inc.

Other Workshop Presenters: Mike Gilley, Fox River Systems Dave Krings, Consultant Jim Seffrin, Infraspection Institute Ed Stanek, LAI Reliability Systems Bob Williamson, Strategic Work Systems

For complete schedule and registration information, please go to The Capacity Assurance Conference! MAINTENANCE and RELIABILITY TECHNOLOGY SUMMIT

Hyatt Regency O’Hare, Rosemont (Chicago), IL For more info, enter 88 at

Standby for Big Power Every Baldor generator set, standard or custom, is designed and engineered to meet the individual needs of your application. Whether itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a 2,000 kW genset to keep your industrial facility up and running, or a 30 kW generator for your remote agricultural needs, Baldor has the right products to meet your need. Engineered to the highest performance standards and built with unmatched quality, Baldor gensets give you the power you need, when you want it.


Š2011 Baldor Electric Company

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Maintenance Technology February 2012  


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