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GRIFFIN COMMENTS—GEN 3 (Gen 3:1) Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden? Though it was a serpent that began this conversation, it was the devil that was talking before it was over. The serpent from that time forward has been a symbol of the devil. The question was to put a doubt in her mind about the truthfulness of God. Can He be trusted? Has He deprived you of anything? THE DEVIL ATTACKED FOUR PEOPLE DEVIL'S ROLE against Eve was as DECEIVER PERSON: Eve (See Gen_3:4) TARGET: The mind WEAPON: Lies PURPOSE: Ignorance of the will of God DEFENSE: Word of God DEVIL'S ROLE against Job was as DESTROYER PERSON: Job (See Job_2:7) TARGET: His body WEAPON: Suffering PURPOSE: Impatience with the will of God DEFENSE: Grace of God DEVIL'S ROLE against David was as RULER PERSON: David (See 1Ch_21:1) TARGET: His will WEAPON: Pride PURPOSE: Independence of the will of God DEFENSE: Spirit of God DEVIL'S ROLE against Joshua was as ACCUSER PERSON: Joshua (See Zec_3:1) TARGET: The heart and conscience WEAPON: Accusation PURPOSE: Indictment by the will of God


DEFENSE: Intercession of Christ Nature forms us Sin deforms us School informs us Religion reforms us Christ transforms us Sin started the clock. Man did not worry about time until he worried about how much time he had left DESTROYING IS EASY (Gen_3:1) It took 35,000 years [by Bro Norris calculations] to set up this thing for man. It took only one day to destroy it. And all it took was one lie. It took a thousand years to create a beauty in Yellowstone National Park that was ruined by the scrawling of one hippy's hand as he wrote graffiti on it. Buildings that take nearly a century to build may be burned in one day. Look how much it takes to restore one soul that has been marred by sin. It takes a whole lifetime of bearing the fruit of the Spirit. CHRIST - IN ADAM 1. The temptation of Adam and Christ. Adam was tempted by satan. Satan used the serpent and Eve to tempt Adam (Gen_3:1, Gen_3:6). Christ was tempted by satan. Satan personally tempted Christ (Mat_4:1-4). We are also tempted by satan. Satan personally tempts us (Act_5:3), and tempts through people and circumstances (Heb_11:37; 1Ti_6:9). 2. The object of the temptation: To cause disobedience.


Adam was tempted to disobey God. Gen_2:17 "Shall not eat," Gen_3:6 "gave unto her husband." Christ was tempted to disobey God. Luk_4:3 "command.. .bread;" that is, take that which God had not provided. God had led him to that barren desert. Luk_4:56 "I [satan] give;" that is, grasp before God's appointed time what God Himself has promised (Psa_2:7-8). Luk_4:9 "Cast Thyself down;" that is, do that which was not in God's will. (Satan omitted "in all thy ways" Psa_91:11; 2Co_11:3; 1Ti_5:15; Eph_2:2-3). 3. The method of the temptation: (1) To question God's Word. Adam and Eve were tempted to Doubt God's Word. Gen_2:16-17 "Thou shalt not." Gen_3:1 "Hath God said?" Gen_2:17 "Shalt surely die." Gen_3:4 "Not surely die." Christ was tempted to doubt God's Word Luk_3:22) "Thou art my.. Son." Luk_4:3 "If Thou be..." We also are tempted to doubt God's Word (Luk_22:31-32). Jam_1:1-2 "Temptations.. trial of.. faith" (1Th_3:5). 4. The method of temptation: (2) Appeal to man's desire. Adam and Eve were tempted in a threefold way (Gen_3:6). Body: "Fruit.. .good for food." Soul: "Pleasant to the eyes." Spirit: "make one wise," (Gen_3:5 as gods). • Christ was tempted in a threefold way. Body: Soul: Spirit:

"Hungered.. command.. bread." "Shewed.. kingdoms of the world... give." "Cast Thyself down."

• We are also tempted in a threefold way (1Jo_2:16). Body: "Lust of the flesh." Soul: "Lust of the eyes." Spirit: "Pride of life." 5. The results of the temptations: (1)

Adam yielded to satan (Gen_3:6 "And he did eat.") The first Adam failed.


(2) (3)

Christ defeated satan Luk_4:13) "devil.. departed." The last Adam triumphed. We can triumph over satan (Jam_4:7; 1Jo_5:4-5; Eph_6:16).

6. Ruination in one; redemption in the other. Rom_5:12 "By one man sin entered.. .and death by sin." Rom_5:19 "By one man's disobedience many were made sinners. Rom_5:15 "If through.. .one.. dead.. the gift is by one man." Rom_5:17 "If by by one, Jesus Christ." Rom_5:19 "By the obedience of one shall many be made righteous." 7. Many are lost through Adam; many are saved through Christ. Rom_5:12 "By one man sin entered the world.. upon all men." Rom_5:15 "Through the offence of one many be dead." Rom_5:19 "By one man's disobedience many were made sinners." Rom_5:15 "Much more.. .the gift.. .hath abounded unto many." Rom_5:18 "The free gift came upon all men." God's salvation is big; it meets the needs of all men. 8. Disobedience was the sinful act of Adam; Obedience the righteous act of Christ. Rom_5:19 "By one man's disobedience many were made sinners." Gen_2:17 "Thou shalt not eat." (3:6) "And he did eat." Rom_5:19 "So by the obedience of one.. many righteous." Heb_10:7, Heb_10:10 "Lo, I come.. to do thy will, 0 God." Phi_2:8 "He.. became obedient unto death.. .of the cross." 9. Sin came into the world through Adam; Righteousness came into the world through Christ. Rom_5:12 "By one man sin entered.. all have sinned." Rom_5:19 "Many were made sinners." Rom_5:21 "Sin.. .reigned." Rom_5:17 "receive.. .gift of righteousness. (Note that this righteousness is a gift and must be received).


Rom_5:19 "Shall many be made righteous" (Rom_3:22). 10.Death followed the sin of Adam; Life follows the righteousness of Christ. Rom_5:12 "Death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned. Rom_5:15 "Through the offence of one many be dead." 1Co_15:22 "In Adam all die." Rom_5:17 "The gift of righteousness shall reign in life." Rom_5:21 "So.. unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord." 1Co_15:22 "In Christ.. alive." (Gen 3:2) And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: Eve answered the devil as though it were common to be able to speak to animals. That was not heard of again until Balaam and his donkey talked to each other. Actually she was not talking only to the serpent, but to the devil, the power behind the serpent. She spoke very innocently of what she knew. God had told them that these trees would be their food. (Gen 3:3) But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. There was a time when I condemned Eve for saying this because it adds to what God said in Gen_2:17. However, I have had to change my opinion. In the first place if she sinned here it would mean she is no better off than the devil and it is the sin she should be accused of. Yet the Bible never accuses her of this. Her condemnation was for eating the fruit after being deceived by the serpent. Another thing I noticed is that the same usage of Scripture is used by others including Jesus. Several times the quotation was not exactly what was originally said. Why did she add this, if she did add it? The only reason I can think of is that it was a safety net that was probably put there by Adam to let her know they were not to eat of the tree under the penalty of death, and in order to play it safe, Adam said, “And don’t even touch it.” There was a time when I condemned Eve for

saying this because it adds to what God said in Gen_2:17. However, I have had to change my opinion. In the first place if she sinned here it would mean she is no better off than the devil and it is the sin she GRIFFIN COMMENTS GEN 3—PAGE 5

should be accused of. Yet the Bible never accuses her of this. Her condemnation was for eating the fruit after being deceived by the serpent. Another thing I noticed is that the same usage of Scripture is used by others including Jesus. Several times the quotation was not exactly what was originally said. Why did she add this, if she did add it? The only reason I can think of is that it was a safety net that was probably put there by Adam to let her know they were not to eat of the tree under the penalty of death, and in order to play it safe, Adam said, “And don’t even touch it.” The logical problem is that we are arguing from silence. Who knows what all God said to Adam and Eve before the fall? There are many cases in Scripture where we find out something was said earlier that was not recorded at the time, but was revealed later. (Gen 3:4) And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: The devil was double-talking now. He apparently knew that the death God was speaking of was in two parts, a physical death which would come later, and a spiritual death which would come right away. He knew she would not die physically for a long time so he lied to her and said it will not kill you. ONE: DECEIVER (See Job_2:7 1Ch_21:1 Zec_3:1 for other three, See Gen_3:1 for list) Joh_8:44 Rev_12:9 2Jo_1:7 2Co_11:3 Gen_3:1-7 1. The devil's target—your mind 2Co_11:3 Here God communicates with you Col_3:9-10 Eph_4:17-24 Rom_12:2 Joh_17:17 Phi_4:8 Pro_23:7 Isa_26:3 Rom_8:6 2. The devil's weapon--lies Rom_1:25 Mat_4:8-10 2Co_11:13-14 Mat_13:38 Gal_1:8 Rev_2:9 1Ti_4:7 2Th_2:8-10 3. The devil's purpose—to make you ignorant of the will of God. He knows God's Word reveals that will.Psa_119:11; Psa_119:105; Psa_40:8; Psa_33:11 Act_22:14 Eph_5:17 Col_1:9; Col_4:12 4. Your defense—Word of God Mat_4:1-11 Eph_6:17 Psa_119:11; Psa_37:31; Psa_40:8 Jos_1:8 Psa_1:2-3 Joh_14:26 (He can only remind you of what you have learned)


(Gen 3:5) For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. Yes you will, but in an experimental way, and not in a way that will help you. Here his double talk makes her believe that she will fall upward into a godhood. However the fall is downward into condemnation. Her eyes would be opened all right but that would bring guilt and shame. DEVIL'S INTERPRETATION OF GOD'S WORD (Gen_3:1) 1. Gen_3:1 God is not fair. If God were honest He would tell you how you will be gods if you eat of this tree. 2. Mat_4:6 You should obligate God. Let Him serve you. 3. Job_1:11; Job_2:4 Man only serves God for reward and out of fear. 4.

Ecc_11:9 Enjoy youth, you have plenty of time.


Jud_1:9; Rev_12:10 He accuses the brethren.


Jer_18:12 You have no hope.


2Co_4:4 He blinds.

• Takes the sting out of the Scriptures. • Mat_7:21; Act_2:38; Luk_16:19; 1Co_13:8 8.

Rom_6:1 Sin will make grace abound.

(Gen 3:6) And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat. Because of the deception she was convinced and partook of the tree. Then she gave some to her husband. He was not deceived (1Ti_2:14). He deliberately ate of the tree. Many reasons have been given as to GRIFFIN COMMENTS GEN 3—PAGE 7

why he would do it, but there are two that are reasonable to me. One is that he is typical of the Second Adam and will do those things that fulfill the typical role of the antitype to come. Second, he probably saw that she had not died and the daring of man convinced him to try it, and perhaps he did not want to lose this new companion. THE ALLUREMENTS WHICH LEAD TO YIELDING TO TEMPTATION (Gen_3:6) A.









THE LURE OF WOMAN (1Ki_11:1-4)



(Gen 3:7) And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons. The Bible does not say where they got the needle and thread for sewing the fig leaves together. If there were no thorns in those days it would be interesting to know where they came from. This fig leaf religion did all right until they came into the presence of God, then they felt ashamed. OLD TESTAMENT SURVEY 2Co_3:14 *(1) SIN BROKE COMMUNION WITH GOD Gen_3:7 a) He discovered something was wrong with himself. b) He made an effort to hide his shame by a self-provided covering. c) His fear of God made him attempt to hide from His presence d) He would not confess his sin—he sought to excuse it.


(1) The will of God was resisted. (2) The Word of God was rejected. (3) The Way of God was deserted. What was manâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s reaction to God when he broke communion with Him and what should it have been? They sewed fig leaves together. Jesus cursed the fig tree. It was the only thing that He did curse while on the earth. That which man employs to hide his spiritual shame is directly under the curse of God. It bears no fruit and is doomed to quickly wither away. (Useless things) Then God clothed them Himself with skins (Gen_3:21). Death had to come in, blood must be shed, the innocent was slain for the guilty. Only thus could man's shame be covered. Only thus can a sinner be fitted to stand before a Holy God. THEY WERE CURSED *(2) Curse placed upon the serpent Isa_14:12-16; Eze_28:12-19 Gen_3:14-15 This sentence has a literal application to the serpent. The curse (<Gen_9:25>, see the note) of the serpent lies in a more groveling nature than that of the other land animals. This appears in its going on its belly and eating the dust. Other animals have at least feet to elevate them above the dust; the serpent tribe does not have even feet. Other animals elevate the head in their natural position above the soil: the serpent lays its head naturally on the sod, and therefore may be said to eat the dust, as the wounded warrior bites the dust in death. The earthworm is probably included in the description here given of the serpent group. It goes upon its belly, and actually does eat the dust. Eating the dust, like feeding upon ashes, is an expression for signal defeat in every aim. The enmity, the mode of its display, and the issue are also singularly characteristic of the literal serpent.


(Barnes' Notes) What curse did the Lord put on the devil? Isa_14:12-14 Eze_28:13-15 *(3) The curse upon Eve (a) She would bring forth children in sorrow. (b) She will DESIRE her husband: 1. She will desire him physically. 2. Her desire will be subject to him 3. She will desire to control him. (c) He will rule over you • By woman had come sin; by woman would come a Savior. • By woman came the curse; by woman would come He who would remove the curse. • By woman paradise was lost; by woman was one born to regain paradise. Redemption was accomplished by "her seed”—the woman's seed, not the man's. Jesus was "made of a woman" (Gal_4:4). A virgin "compassed a man [bypassed]" (Jer_31:22) What is the curse placed on Eve? *(3) Curse placed upon Adam (a) He would eat his bread by the sweat of his face. (b) The ground was cursed for his sake. (c) Death was to return him to the dust from which he came. NOTE: Jesus changed this curse.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The ground was cursed: Made a curse for us (Gal_3:13). He ate in sorrow: Jesus was a man of sorrows (Isa_53:3). Thorns came forth: Jesus wore a crown of thorns (Joh_19:2-5). In his sweat he must eat bread: Jesus sweat blood (Luk_22:44). He returned to the dust: Jesus was brought to the dust of death (Psa_22:15). 6. The sword then barred the way: Jesus became the victim of the flaming sword (Zec_13:7). 7. The threat was executed (he died): Jesus was forsaken in death (Mat_27:26). How did Jesus change the curse of the first Adam? SEE ABEL: TYPE OF CHRIST CAIN TYPE OF ISRAEL Gen_4:2 FIG LEAF RELIGION (Gen_3:7) Something to cover with Easy way—hiding—bare get-by The Lord came and their fig leaf was not enough Rich Young Ruler: Thought the Lord would let him in anyway Thought he had it made But he met the Lord and found out he had a lack LOT: Looked to carnal and felt it all right to go People today are hiding behind religion Having a form of godliness but denying the power thereof Isa_30:1 I'm surprised to know what some people think God expects of their lives. (V. A. Guidroz)


If the righteous scarcely be saved Isa_6:1 Job_42:5 (Gen 3:8) And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden. The term “cool of the day,” could also be in the atmosphere of the day. The term “cool” is translated spirit elsewhere. FELLOWSHIP (Gen_3:8-9) "And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God amongst the trees of the garden. And the Lord God called unto Adam, and said, unto him, "Where art thou?" This is the record ofthe first fear the first blush the first self-concealment Man had enjoyed unclouded communion with his creation God walked with man Adam delighted in the voice of God BUT-disobedience unclothed the conscience AND-fig leaf aprons were their first vain effort to regain innocence. THREE FUNDAMENTAL TRUTHS HERE A. Man is made for fellowship with God: "They heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the cool of the day." B. SIN breaks the fellowship: "The man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God amongst the trees of the garden."


C. God seeks to restore it: "And the Lord God called unto the man, and said unto him, "Where art thou?" I.


Spirit within us seeks communication with our Heavenly Father "As the hart panteth after the waterbrooks, so panteth my soul after Thee, Oh God." (Psa_42:1) "Oh, that I knew where I might find Him." (Job_23:3) George Matheson, Moments on the Mount: "It is only in the cool of the day that I can hear Your footsteps, O my God. You are ever walking in the garden. Your presence is abroad everywhere and always; but it is not everywhere or always that I can hear you passing by. The burden and heat of the day are too strong for me. The struggles of life excite me; the ambitions of life perturb me, the glitter of life dazzles me. It is all thunder and earthquake and fire. But when I myself am still, I catch Your still small voice, and then I know that You are God. Your peace can only speak to my peacefulness. Your rest can only be audible to my calm. The harmony of Your tread cannot be heard by the discord of my soul. Therefore, at times I would be alone with You, away from the heat and the battle. I would feel the cool breath of Your Spirit, that I may be refreshed once more for the strife. I would be fanned by the breezes of Heaven, that I may resume the dusty road and the sorrowful way. Not to avoid them do I come to You; but that I may be able more perfectly to bear them. Let me hear Your voice in the garden in the cool of the day" WORSHIPPING IN A GROUP AT CHURCHYou find where Heaven dips down to earth. The meeting place of two orders, temporal and eternal You come boldly before the rent veil (throne of grace) It is "where two or three are gathered together in My Name I will be in the midst of them."




The first sin is a type of all sins. They grow out a common root. It is revolt against pressure of rules and regulations. SHORTEST DEFINITION OF SIN: "I will" Sin alters the relationship between the soul and God. an estranging cloud comes between this means bitter shame this means haunting fear this means the shame of degradation this means fear of death Adam and Eve were no bigger sinners than we are-they were just first. A.

How does the loss of God's fellowship show itself?

First in a sense of shame in a desire to hide themselves from each other in a desire to hide themselves from the world in a desire to hide themselves from God "Their eyes, both of them, were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons." Adopted son robbed his foster parents: "I can't go in there...I can't look them in the eye." Second is in a sense of fear The tragedy of Eden-those hiding figures! But yesterday the presence of God was their chief delight it made the flowers more beautiful it added fragrance to the blossoming trees it gave harmony to the singing birds


Yet today there is nothing they dread so much as the face or the voice of God! Shakespeare: "Conscience makes cowards of us all." Englishman: constantly in debt, often arrested. His coat caught on a nail of the fence, "I don't owe you anything sir." All because our sins appeared so appealing imagination painted the wicked thing until it looked happy, it looked brilliant it appeared free They thought it was a fall upward and not downward "Good you call evil and evil good." You should find your thing. Spider on Amazon spreads itself like a flower insects find destruction instead of honey. Our sins are sinful, evil, poisonous, fatal though they are transfigured into angels of light Loss is shown by hiding "The man and his wife hid themselves." That's what man has been doing ever since Man has been trying to escape God Man has been trying to lead separate, independent lives. Cain was a vagabond: "Flee when no man pursues." Burglar: Turned the picture of Christ to the wall We want to run away 1. By careless living "Let not God speak to us lest we die." This reluctance to hear that voice is deeply embedded in human nature. Our dearest wish is to be let alone!


Give us an enchanted garden! 2. 3.

By refusing to listen to conscience By flattering ourselves that we are seeking His face!

After all, we have our form of worship, ceremony. Yet it is as easy to hide from God among the pillars of the church as among the trees of the garden! Any kind of church work but no communion with God! III.


First step of reconciliation is made by the Creator! Man does not cry out, "My Father, where art thou?" Father inquires about his erring child. Jesus said, "Ye did not choose me, I chose you." We love Him because He first loved us Our love is a response! He did not make us and leave us: Clockmaker makes his clock and leaves it Shipbuilder builds his ship and launches it, another navigates it But God cries out, "Where art thou?" That suggests that man is lost. We do not inquire for something until it is lost. Shepherd inquiring about the sheep Woman searching for the coil All-seeing eye watches us It contains a promise of mercy If mercy was not intended He would have let man stay lost Men do not inquire for that which is without value! And what is the effect of God's question? 1. It rouses men to a sense of their sinfulness Sin dulls the conscience Sin drugs the mind Sinner is not capable of understanding his danger


It is a slow poison: men die like those who freeze, they go to sleep! It brings repentance and confession The question was meant to convince of sin The question was meant to lead to a confession A man must wake up (like the Prodigal Son) and find himself lost. A man must hate the sins he loved A man must flee from false refuges A man must seek salvation in the Blood of Christ! 3.

It calls forth a response to God's love

Adam must not be allowed to take his sin as a light matter! So the Father calls to him. "As I live, saith the Lord God, I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked." WHERE ART THOU? FELLOWSHIP 8. Fellowship: community of common interest. FELLOWSHIP Gen_3:8 Jos_1:8 Fellowship, Have, Share, Participate The following article deals with words which have to do with having, sharing and participation and fellowship. The two key words that are examined together with their associated ideas are echo4 (have), and koino4nia (communion, fellowship). e[cw G2400 (echo4), have; metevcw G3576 (metecho4), share, participate in; metochv G3580 (metoche4), sharing, participation; mevtoco" G3581 (metochos), partaking, sharing, participating, a partner, companion. CL echo4 means to have or hold in wide range of senses: possess, keep, have, hold; aor. acquire, take into possession; intrans. keep,


hold oneself. Thus the connection between the subject and object of echo4 can denote a similar wide range of personal, material and metaphorical meanings. Sometimes the subject and object can exchange places. In Gk. one may say ô he has a sicknessö or ô a sickness has him.ö Moreover, the word can denote entry into any one of these conditions: to attain to, get hold of, come by. This great breadth of meaning evidently made it possible for Aristotle to take echo4 into his teaching about categories. In view of its content it is clearly regarded as a genuine category (Cat., 15). Elsewhere, however, he felt free to omit it with keisthai (posture, attitude, Cat., 2) altogether or to group it with another category (cf. F. Ueberweg, History of Philosophy, I, 188, 154). In his later Metaphysics it is again counted among the 30 categories discussed there. It means to have or to hold in the following senses: (1) to treat a thing according to its own nature or impulse (e.g. a fever has a man; people have clothes); (2) to be present in (e.g. ô the body has a diseaseö means that a disease is present in the body); (3) to contain or hold (e.g. the vessel holds the liquid); (4) hindering a thing from acting according to its natural impulse (e.g. a pillar holds that which it supports). metecho4 means to share or participate. Its object is always in the gen. The noun metoche4 means sharing, participation, and the adj. metochos likewise means sharing. Two aspects of these words are theologically significant. There is the rational and material sense of having (as in Aristotle), and there is the enthusiastic sense of having, as being possessed, or mystical sharing. The latter sense found expression in Homer, Plato, Plotinus and other writers who spoke of the daimonion echein (having a demon or a demon having one) which acted in people and which a man could have. Later the idea broadened out into the pantheistic and mystical having of the divine One in Plotinus. In later philosophy the nous (mind) became the world-soul which no longer had personal characteristics. It was no longer said that man had nous or logos (reason). Instead he was said to participate (metecho4) in them. Plato used metoche4 (participation) to express the relationship of particular things to the Idea or Form. The lower and relative participates in the higher and absolute. Out of this there arose in the


course of philosophical development a cosmic hierarchy of all existents which leads in an unbroken line of participation to a higher world (on Plotinus see TDNT II 830). The theological aspect of this idea of cosmic participation found classical expression in OrigenÆ s Platonic restatement of the doctrine of creation (cf. J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines, 19684, 128 ff.). OT Heb. has no special word for echo4. What is expressed by echo4 in Gk. is expressed in Heb. by the dat., a pronoun, a preposition or a circumlocution, such as saying that someone or something is in the hand or hands of someone ('al yad{ or biyd{e= etc.). echo4 is found 12 times in the LXX for these expressions. In all, it is used to translate over 50 different Heb. expressions. echo4 occurs more than 500 times in the LXX. But a large number of these instances come in passages which have no Heb. original. It is the same with the compounds metecho4, metoche4, and metochos as with koinwnevw etc. The words appear only in the later writings of the OT. metecho4 is used to translate expressions which in Heb. use only prepositions. metoche4 and metochos mostly translate words connected with the root h[a4b{ar (tie, unite). The words are used in these passages in basically the same sense as in earlier Gk. literature. Their theological significance is not, however, to be derived from the Gk. but from Heb. usage against its OT background. At the heart of the OT message stands the confession that God has chosen his people. It is his possession. The reverse is also true. He is his peopleÆ s God (Psa_33:12; Psa_144:15; cf. Hos_2:21-25; Covenant). Therefore, there shall be no other gods beside him (Exo_20:2 f.). Because Yahweh is the God of his people, he is strength, rock, fortress and saviour of the individual (e.g. Psa_18:3; Psa_27:1). God is the inheritance of the Levites (Deu_10:9; Eze_44:28; and often). Hence, IsraelÆ s confession: ô Our God is a God of salvationö (Psa_68:20; cf. Psa_73:25). Esther prayed: ô I have no helper beside youö (Est_4:17t LXX). For similar expressions in Maccabean and post-Christian literature see TDNT II 817, 822 f.


The word echo4 does not in fact appear in any of these OT passages apart from the late reference in Est. On the other hand, the relationship described there which God guarantees to his people through the covenant provides the basis for what the NT describes in its theological use of the idea of having. Paul, for example, clearly refers to this when he wrote that Israel had the law and boasted of it (Rom_2:20, Rom_2:23). Israel had a zeal for God (Rom_10:2) and much more. Israel had ô the sonship, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the worship, and the promises . . . the patriarchs, and of their race, according to the flesh . . . the Christö (Rom_9:4 f.). But Israel did not have the fulfilment of all this in Christ. The NT is the first to testify to this. NT The distribution of echo4 in the NT varies considerably in different writings. But it has the same broad range of meaning as in secular Gk. and the LXX. The following aspects are theologically significant. 1 echo4 is used as an expression for possession and relationship. The phrase daimonion echein (to have a demon) which occurs in secular Gk. also occurs in the Synoptics (Mat_11:18; Luk_5:33). But the demon is only mentioned in the context of JesusÆ lordship over it. For that reason the reproach that he had Beelzebul (Satan), i.e. that he was possessed by him, is absurd and blasphemous (Mar_3:22, Mar_3:30; cf. Joh_7:20; Joh_8:48; Joh_10:20 f.). It may be compared with the expression akatharton pneuma echein, to have an unclean spirit (Mar_7:25; Luk_4:33; and often; cf. Luk_1:1). The NT has also such statements as to have children, sons, brothers, a wife etc. echo4 is used absolutely for sexual intercourse (Mat_14:4). The prayer of Esther mentioned above corresponds to the words of the lame man at the pool of Bethesda: ô I have no man to put me into the poolö (Joh_5:7). Similarly Paul: ô I have no one like himö (Phi_2:20; cf. Phi_1:7). Having is used in a theologically significant way in those passages in which relationship with God is involved. The Jews claimed to have God as their father (Joh_8:41). ô Masters, treat your slaves justly and fairly, knowing that you also have a Master in heavenö (Col_4:1). This relationship between God and man is further defined by Christ.


Believers have him as their advocate with the Father (1Jo_2:1) and as high priest (Heb_4:14; Heb_8:1; Heb_1:1). He who despises him already has a judge (Joh_12:48). 2 As in the OT, this having fellowship with God is characterized, not by manÆ s striving, but by GodÆ s promises and gift. This was also the ground of salvation in the OT. To have salvation is to have it through Jesus Christ. ô He who hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal lifeö (Joh_5:24). This thought is stressed by Heb., Paul and especially Jn. Jn. does this in his own special way. ô He who has the Son has life; he who has not the Son has not lifeö (1Jo_5:12). ô Anyone who goes ahead and does not abide in the doctrine of Christ does not have God; he who abides in the doctrine of Christ has both the Father and the Sonö (2Jo_1:9). A man can know of God, talk about him, and even claim to have him, like the false teachers, and still not have him. Here echo4 is the expression for genuine fellowship with God and true faith in its fullest and deepest sense. To ô have fellowshipö with one another and with Christ (1Jo_1:6 f.) is to ô knowö him (1Jo_2:3) and to ô abideö in him (1Jo_2:6). These polemically intended words all refer to the same thing which is most tersely expressed by echo4. The same applies to those passages which speak of having eternal life (Joh_3:15 f., Joh_3:36), peace (Joh_16:33), and the light (Joh_8:12; Joh_12:35 f.). JohnÆ s opponents see this fellowship with God as a mystical mastering of God. For John it is possible only through the Son of God who has become flesh. It comes though the witness of the Holy Spirit whom Christians have (1Jo_2:20, 1Jo_2:27; 1Jo_5:10). Those who do not have the witness of the Father and his word living in them do not know God and have no life (Joh_5:38 ff.). But those who stand in a personal relationship to the historical Jesus through the Spirit have the Father and life (1Jo_1:1-3; 1Jo_4:13 ff.). To this also belong confession (1Jo_4:2, 1Jo_4:15; 2Jo_1:7), abiding in the doctrine of Christ (2Jo_1:9), and keeping his word and commandments (1Jo_2:3 ff.). In this way John takes up the prophetic, eschatological message of John the Baptist which saw the promised time of salvation break in


with Christ. This is a theme which links Joh with the Synoptics and Paul. Behind it is the thought of late Jewish apocalyptic that the present is void of salvation. For salvation is revealed only to a few gifted visionaries; it is to be expected in its fullness only in the future. However, Jn. and the other NT writers reject this idea. For here and now in the present believers have peace with God (Rom_5:1), redemption through his blood (Eph_4:7; Col_1:14), and access to GodÆ s gracious purpose in salvation (Eph_3:12). Now is the day of salvation (2Co_6:2). Life as full salvation in Christ (Joh_3:16, Joh_3:36) is entered into now. 3 This is strongly emphasized by Paul in a different way. To participate in salvation is to be in Jesus Christ through his Spirit. It is a spiritual having. ô Anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to himö (Rom_8:9). The Spirit of Christ, his nous (mind, 1Co_2:16), gives Paul the authority to summon the church to obedience and imitation of Christ (Might, art. ejxousiva). To have the Spirit means to be led by the Spirit (Rom_8:14). The believer is no longer his own (1Co_6:19; cf. 1Co_3:16). He is ChristÆ s slave (Rom_1:1; 1Co_7:22). This also means that to have the Spirit and to be bound to this Lord is to have this treasure in earthen vessels (2Co_4:7) and to bear continually in our bodies the dying of Jesus (2Co_4:10 ff.). Although the Spirit is the pledge and first fruits (Gift, art. ajrrabwvn; Rom_8:23; 2Co_1:22; 2Co_5:5), the believer remains on this side of the barrier of death which Christ has already broken through. But as the pledge of future resurrection glory he gives us the certainty (Rom_8:11) that one day our earthly house will be destroyed (2Co_5:1) and we shall participate in this glory. To have in this age is to have in hope (Rom_5:2; Phi_3:8 ff.; cf. TDNT II 824). Here lies the point of contrast between Paul and the gnostics. The enthusiasts in Corinth claimed that they had already the resurrection glory (1Co_4:8, 1Co_4:10; 1Co_1:1). Paul opposed this with the gospel of the cross (1Co_1:17, 1Co_1:23). In opposition to the selfseeking grandeur of ô knowledgeö which destroys, Paul stressed love which builds up (1Co_8:1). Love is also opposed to libertinism (1Co_10:23 f.; 1Co_1:1). For the sake of the gospel Paul had to bear much suffering and strife. It even meant bearing the dying of Christ in his own body (2Co_4:10). But in this suffering he also received great strengthening and comfort (2Co_1:5).


4 This having is to be understood neither as a permanent possession nor as absolution from obedience. This is underlined by the use of metecho4 in Paul and Heb. To share in dikaiosyne4 (righteousness, justification) puts the whole of a manÆ s life under obligation, and excludes anomia (lawlessness, 2Co_6:14). To be in Christ leaves no room for sin. Participation in the LordÆ s Supper rules out participation in pagan sacrifices and vice versa (1Co_10:17, 1Co_10:21). metecho4 is used virtually as a synonym for koinwnevw. In Heb. the concern is above all with sharing in the sufferings and patience of Christ. The metochoi Christou (those who ô share in Christö , Heb_3:14; cf. Heb_6:4) are thus called to patient endurance in persecution and holding fast to the true faith, so that they may not lose their share in future glory. To be metochoi paideias (participants in chastisement, Heb_12:8) is in fact a sign of being a true child, for the Lord disciplines those whom he loves (Heb_12:6; cf. Pro_3:12). 5 Just as all spiritual having comes under the lordship of the present and coming Lord, so is also the possession of all material goods. ô What do you have that you did not receive?ö (1Co_4:7). For all earthly goods God has to be asked in the right attitude (Jam_4:2). Their use has to be seen in the light of eschatology. Paul is one who has nothing and yet possesses all things (2Co_6:10). Therefore, he urged the Corinthians to have as if they did not have (1Co_7:29 ff.). It is not only for the Corinthians to have as if they did not have (1Co_7:29 ff.). It is not simply that for the sake of future glory they are to break loose from all possessions. They are need (Eph_4:28). Everything that the NT has to say about having and participating is a testimony to the act of God in Jesus Christ with a view to future glory. But participation is now already a fact through the Holy Spirit who establishes us in sonship, obedience, love and hope. koinwniva G3126 koinov" G3123 (koinos), common, communal; koinovw G3124 (koinoo4), make common or impure, defile, profane; koinwnevw G3125 (koino4neo4), share, have a share in, participate in; koinwniva G3126 (koino4nia), association, communion, fellowship, participation; koinwnikov" G3127 (koino4nikos), giving, sharing, liberal; koinwnov" G3128 (koino4nos), companion, partner, sharer; sugkoinwnov" G5171 (synkoino4nos), participant, partner;


sugkoinwnevw G5170 (synkoino4neo4), participate in with someone, be connected with, share. CL 1 koinos is found from Mycenean Gk. onwards. When applied to things, it means common, mutual, public. Hence, to koinon means the community, common property, in the plur. public affairs, the state. When applied to people, koinos means related, a partner, impartial. The corresponding vb. koinoo4 means to have a share in, unite, communicate, and also to profane. koino4neo4 means to possess together, have a share, join oneself to; koino4nia communion, participation, intercourse. As an adj., koino4nos means common; as a noun, companion, partner. In the Gk. and Hel. world koino4nia was a term which meant the evident, unbroken fellowship between the gods and men. Even Philo spoke of ô the sublime fellowship [of Moses] with the father and creator of the universeö (Vit. Mos., 1, 158). But the word was not used in the LXX to denote the relationship between God and man. koino4nia also denoted the close union and brotherly bond between men. It was taken up by the philosophers to denote the ideal to be sought. The life-tie which united the Pythagoreans was called he4 tou biou koino4nia (lit. the fellowship of life). koino4nia has thus virtually the sense of brotherhood, and is a standing expression for the way social life is constituted. The Stoic doctrine of the state opposed the ethical atomism which was breaking up Hel. society. It went back ultimately to the zo4on koino4nikon (Aristot., Eth.Eud., 7, 10, which denoted belonging to a society; cf. TDNT II 809). The philosopher was regarded as the educator of the nations and his teaching was to provide the basis for political life. A remarkable example of this development is the inscription on the tomb of Antiochus Philopappus of Commagene, a highly important piece of evidence for Hellenism in the first century B.C. The word koinos occurs seven times. The term is not only a witness of a religious syncretism which depicted gods from four different cultures reigning together. It also testifies to an ever increasing cosmopolitanism. 2 PlatoÆ s Republic and Laws sketched the ideal of a communistic utopia. His attempt with Dionysius in Syracuse to translate his vision into reality suffered shipwreck. So too did the social revolution of


Aristonicus at Pergamum (133-132 B.C.). Impulse to revolutionary ideas came from the fervently religious poetry of Hesiod (c. 700 B.C.). To the people groaning under the oppression of the aristocracy his Works and Days proclaimed the myth of a golden age, in which dreams of happiness, equality, justice and brotherliness were transposed into a shining primeval period. The doctrine of common property had a primeval aspect. Early Athens was seen as a model. Plato took up the same theme. ô Neither had any of them anything of their own, but they regarded all that they had as common property; nor did they claim to receive of the other citizens anything more than their necessary foodö (Critias, 110). But whereas this looked back to a golden age, the sharing in the early church at Jerusalem is to be understood in the light of its eschatological experience. The Stoics declared that friends must share and possessions are the common property of friends. But they too based their demands on an ideal picture of a golden age, which was now lost for ever in its original pure form. The NT, on the other hand, does not look backwards but forwards. The new age must break into the present, lost world. OT 1 In the primeval history of Gen. the rupture of fellowship with God was followed by the loss of unity among men. But GodÆ s activity in forgiving, saving and preserving did not cease. Instead, it found new ways (Gen_8:21 f.; Gen_1:1). Abraham and after him the people of Israel stood in a saving relationship to Yahweh, the goal of which was to bridge the gulf between God and man. God dealt with Israel as a community and fulfilled his promises to it. He gave Israel the land as an inheritance which in the last analysis belonged to himself (Lev_25:23). The tribes, families and especially the individuals were only tenants of the portions allocated to them. They had therefore no right to dispose of them. The judicial murder of Naboth (1Ki_21:1) should be judged in this light. Its background is the clash between the ancient Israelite right to land described above and the Canaanite royal right which Ahab wished to exercise. From here a line can be drawn to the attitude of the prophets in general. Just as Elijah denounced the breach of the ancient right, the prophets were opposed to all land speculation (cf. Isa_5:8), and stood up for the interests of the community.


This obvious solidarity of God, the nation and the land continued into the NT period. Israel could not envisage faith in God without entering the community and receiving the covenant sign. (On the significance of qa4ha4l for Israel Church; and on the covenant sign Circumcision.) 2 The theological motif of broken fellowship with God (as in primeval history), the problem of preserving the community in the order which is according to GodÆ s will (cf. Isa_5:8), and the role of the community in the ultimate, universal picture of salvation (cf. Gen_12:3; Isa_49:6), play a large part in the OT. It is therefore all the more striking that the koino4nia word group occurs almost exclusively in the later writings (Eccl., Prov., Wis., 1-4 Macc.), usually to translate words connected with the Heb. root h[a4b{ar (unite, join together). It is doubtful whether the absence of this term in the earlier OT writings is due to dislike of abstractions. In the OT stress was laid on the covenant and the individualÆ s membership of the people. These were communal ideas. But in contrast to the quasi-egalitarian idea of koino4nia, these ideas stressed the unilateral role of Yahweh as the founder and guarantor of the community and its members. Where koino4nia etc. occur in the LXX, they are used in a general sense: ô It is better to live in a corner of a housetop than in a house shared with a contentious womanö (Pro_21:9; Pro_25:24); ô he who is joined with all the living has hopeö (Ecc_9:4); ô who goes in company with evildoersö (Job_34:8). 1 Macc. 1:47 has koinos in the sense of profane, ceremonially defiled. This was the sense it often had later (cf. Act_21:28; Rev_21:27). 3 According to Josephus (War, 2, 119-161) and Philo (Omn.Prob.Lib., 12 f.), the communal life of the Essenes was based on the idea of the equality of all the members. This is emphatically supported by the evidence of the Dead Sea Scrolls for the Qumran community. Each member was required to renounce his possessions (1QS 1:11 f.; cf. 3:2; 6:19 f.; cf. H. Ringgren, The Faith of Qumran, 1963, 142 f., 210, 236; Millar Burrows, More Light on the Dead Sea Scrolls, 1958, 81, 116, 383). He had to hand over his entire possessions to the estate of the community. The principal motive for this was not as in ancient Greece the ideal of brotherly communal possession, but the idea that possession of money was tainted with sin. Money was the possession of ungodliness, stained with


uncleanness. It was for this reason that the Essene parted with his private property. According to Philo (Vit. Cont., 25), there was a band of Jewish men and women that lived in a communal life of monastic seclusion, possessing no private property, which was devoted to the study of scripture. The word monaste4rion (monastery) occurs here for the first time. The Christian communities of the 4th cent. A.D. continued the tradition of ascetic, monastic life, sharing common property. In the tractate Pesahim 7, 3a, 13a h[ab{ûrâh (fellowship) means the Passover fellowship: ô One day the Holy[God] . . . will prepare a feast for the devout.ö At the heavenly table David will distribute the chalice with wine. This eschatological meal recalls Luk_22:19 and Did. 9:2. NT koino4nia is absent from the synoptics and Jn. But it occurs 13 times in Paul and is a typical Pauline term. The same is true of the vb. koino4neo4. The use of koinos and koino4nia in Acts 2 and in general in Lk.Æ s picture of the primitive church requires special attention. Elsewhere, koinos (Mat_15:11, Mat_15:18; Mar_7:15; Act_10:14) and the vb. koinoo4 (Mar_7:18; Act_10:15; Act_21:28) mean respectively unclean and to defile. koino4nos (Luk_5:10; 2Co_8:23; Phm_1:17) means partner, companion, sharer. In most cases, however, it is to be translated as an adj., sharing, participating in, or by a verbal phrase. koino4nikos occurs only in 1Ti_6:18, where it means liberal. synkoino4nos (participant, partner) and synkoino4neo4 (participate in with someone, be connected with, share) occur only in Paul and Rev_1:9; Rev_18:4. 1 Act_4:32 ff. gives a picture of the communal sharing of goods which was practised for a time in the early church. This ô religious communism of loveö (Troeltsch) in the primitive church was the expression of an enthusiastic love. But it presupposed the continuance of private earning and the voluntary character of sacrifice and giving to the needy. There is no hint of either communal production or communal consumption. It was not organized, and is not to be seen in economic categories. It rose out of the untramelled freedom from care that Jesus preached and from his lofty scorn of goods (Mat_6:25-34). It is to be seen as the continuance of the


common life that Jesus led with his disciples (Luk_8:1-3; Joh_12:4 ff.; Joh_13:29). The idea of equality is completely lacking. The extraordinary action of Barnabas (Act_4:36) and that of Ananias and Sapphira (Act_5:1-11) were singled out for mention. But this does not mean that the community of possessions was general. This would not have been possible for the great majority of church members. Mention of the house of Mary (Act_12:12) indicates that private ownership continued. Lk.Æ s general account of the Jerusalem church reflects the attitude of love which was intensified by an acute expectation of the end. The koino4nia in Act_2:42 can be taken in an absolute sense as an essential part of the life of worship: ô And they devoted themselves to the apostlesÆ teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayersö (Act_2:42). There were thus four main aspects of this way of life (cf. B. Reicke, Glauben und Leben der Urgemeinde, 1957, 56). In this case, koino4nia could be translated ô communionö or ô liturgical fellowship in worship.ö But koino4nia expresses something new and independent. It denotes the unanimity and unity brought about by the Spirit. The individual was completely upheld by the community. The Hellenist Luke clearly had in mind the Pythagoreans and the Essenes. The educated reader would have got the impression that here the Greek ideal of society had been realized. The early church doubtless had financial cares. The fishermen and peasants that had migrated from Galilee would find earning a living difficult in the capital city. Moreover, the economic state of Palestine deteriorated through famine and continued unrest. The impoverishment of the early church was not a consequence of the sharing of possessions. The collections that Paul brought to Jerusalem were a tangible expression of fellowship in the churches. The collection has a religious overtone in 2Co_9:13: ô by the generosity of the fellowship (koino4nias, RSV ö contributionô ) for them and for all others.ö For it arises out of the one gospel that unites Jew and Gentile, and belongs to the same spiritual and material giving and taking of which Paul speaks in Rom_15:26. There was real need in Jerusalem. The poor among the saints at Jerusalem were in the majority. The stream of ô spiritual giftsö which flowed from Jerusalem was answered by a counter-stream of ô earthly gifts.ö


The example of the early church remained isolated. Copying its example was neither demanded nor acted upon. The integrity of private property was regarded as a matter of course in all the churches. Christianity brought a new outlook, not a new order of society. At the Evangelical Social Conference in 1895 Friedrich Naumann said: ô It is not possible to come to a system of economics from the standpoint of religion.ö On the other hand, Ernst Troeltsch pointed out that there is an independent revolutionary element in Christianity but no will to instigate revolution (The Social Teaching of the Christian Churches, I, 1931, 39-69). 2 In Paul koino4nia and the associated words have a central significance. Close analysis of the term shows that Paul never used koino4nia in a secular sense but always in a religious one (H. Seesemann, Der Begriff koino4nia im Neuen Testament, 1933, 99). It is never equated with societas, companionship or community. It is not a parallel to ekkle4sia and has nothing to do with the local congregation. Nor does it correspond with the Jewish h[ab{ûrâh (fellowship, union). It is not, as in the Stoa, a group of individuals united by a common idea. Hence koino4nia is to be sharply distinguished from both Gk. ideas and Judaism. (a) The idea of an earthly society grounded in human nature is foreign to Paul. For him koino4nia refers strictly to the relation of faith to Christ: ô the fellowship of his Sonö (1Co_1:9), ô the fellowship of the Holy Spiritö (2Co_13:13), ô fellowship in the gospelö (Phi_1:5), ô fellowship of faithö (Phm_1:6). In each case the object is in the gen. The ô right hand of fellowshipö (Gal_2:9) given to Paul and Barnabas by James, Peter and John was not just a handshake over a deal but mutual recognition of being in Christ. Similarly, koino4nia in 1Co_10:16 means ô participationö in the body and blood of Christ and thus union with the exalted Christ. This fellowship with Christ comes about through the creative intervention of God. It happens through the transformation of man to the very roots of his being. It is birth into a new existence, and can be expressed by the contrast of life and death. This new existence is not a divinization in the sense of mysticism and the mystery religions, but incorporation in JesusÆ death, burial, resurrection and glory. It is not the elimination or fusion of personality but a new relationship based on the forgiveness of sins. Paul expressed this in paradoxes,


new expressions that he coined and mixed metaphors which he used to present koino4nia and guard against mystical misunderstanding. These include: syze4n, to live with (Rom_6:8; 2Co_7:3); sympaschein, to suffer with (Rom_8:17); systaurousthai, to be crucified with (Rom_6:6); synegeiresthai, to be raised with (Col_2:12; Col_3:1; Eph_2:6); syzoo4poiein, to make alive with (Col_2:13; Eph_2:5); syndoxazein, to glorify with (Rom_8:17); synkle4ronomein, to inherit with (Rom_8:17); symbasileuein, reign with (2Ti_2:12). The suffering of the apostle which is a part of the total suffering of Christ (Phi_3:10; Col_1:24) gives him the prospect of glory (cf. Phi_3:10 with with Rom_8:17; 1Th_4:17). (b) Apart from in Mat_23:30, where the Pharisees reject the charge that they had a share in the blood of the prophets, and those passages where it means fellow worker or companion, koino4nos belongs to this area of Pauline usage. To eat meat that has been sacrificed to idols means to be a sharer in pagan sacrifice and fellowship with demons which excludes one from fellowship in the LordÆ s Supper and fellowship with Christ (1Co_10:18). 2Co_1:7 and 1Pe_5:1 refer to the sharing by the apostle and the church in the suffering and glory of the risen Lord. Anyone who suffers oppression and persecution through following Christ may rest assured that he will like his Lord attain life through temptation and death. In the same connection, Heb_10:33 speaks of being partners with those who are ill- treated and exhorts its readers to patience. According to 2Pe_1:4, believers are made ô partakers of the divine natureö , ô through the knowledge of him who called us to his own gloryö (2Pe_1:3) and patient endurance. Thus he has already a share in the divine nature which is superior to all mundane existence. The same applies to passages where synkoino4neo4 and synkoino4nos occur. Participation in evil is rejected (Eph_5:11; Rev_18:4). But one can participate in suffering (Phi_4:14) and the gospel and its hope (1Co_9:23; Phi_1:7). According to Rom_11:17, the Gentiles who are like branches grafted in to the olive tree of Israel now share in its election and promises. 3 koino4nia in 1Jo_1:3, 1Jo_1:6-7 does not refer to a mystical fusion with Christ and God, but to fellowship in faith. Its basis is in the apostolic preaching of the historical Jesus, walking in the light, and the blood of Jesus which cleanses from all sin. It thus excludes the


sectarian pride which denies the incarnation and misrepresents the character of sin. J. Schattenmann FELLOWSHIP: (1) The condition of friendly relationship existing among persons {Bond} (2) A community of interest or feeling (3) A group with similar interests. Someone called it “Several fellows in the same ship.” Association between individuals especially on pleasant or intimate terms. (2842) koinwni>a, — koy-nohn-ee-ah; from (2844) (koinwno>V); partnership, i.e. (literal) participation, or (social) intercourse, or (pecuniary) benefaction: — (to) communicate (-ation), communion, (contri-) distribution, fellowship. (2844) koinwno>v, — koy-no-nos’; from (2839) (koino>v); a sharer, i.e. associate: — companion, x fellowship, partaker, partner. (2839) koino>v, — koy-nos’; probably from (4862) (su>n); common, i.e. (Latin) shared by all or several, or (ceremonial) profane: —common, defiled, unclean, unholy. (4862) su>n, — soon; a primary preposition denoting union; with or together (but much closer than (3326) (meta>) or (3844) (para>)), i.e. by association, companionship, process, resemblance, possession, instrumentality, addition, etc.: —beside, with. In comparative it has similar applications, including completeness. •FELLOWSHIP (1)With God, consisting in— the knowledge of his will (Job_22:21; Joh_17:3); agreement with his designs (Amo_3:2); mutual affection (Rom_8:38-39); enjoyment of his presence (Psa_4:6); conformity to his image (1Jo_2:6; 1Jo_1:6; 2Co_1:1; Gal_2:20; Rom_8:28-29; Col_3:10); and participation of his happiness or joy (1Jo_1:3, (2.) Of saints with one another— in duties (Rom_12:5; 1Co_12:1; 1Th_5:17-18); GRIFFIN COMMENTS GEN 3—PAGE 31

in ordinances (Heb_10:25; Act_2:46); in grace, love, joy, etc. (Mal_3:16; 2Co_8:4); mutual interest, spiritual and temporal (Rom_12:4, Rom_12:13; Heb_13:16); in sufferings (Rom_15:1-2; Gal_6:1-2; Rom_12:15; and in glory (Rev_7:9). Exemplified in the disciples getting into the boat with Jesus. They took Him “even as He was in the ship.” (Mar_4:36) “and there were also with him other little ships.” We do not know if those other ships made it, but His did. Because His was a WORSHIP, FELLOWSHIP, FRIENDSHIP, COMPANIONSHIP, LEADERSHIP, APOSTLESHIP, GUARDIANSHIP, RELATIONSHIP. The other ships must have been warships {instead of worship} or battleship, courtship, pirateship, membership, hardship, censorship, dictatorship, ownership, showmanship. FELLOWSHIP (Community, Friendship, Warmth) Why is fellowship with God and others important? BIBLE READING: Gen_3:1-24 KEY BIBLE VERSE: That evening they heard the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden; and they hid themselves among the trees. (Gen_3:8, TLB) God desires to have fellowship with us. The thought of two humans covered with fig leaves trying to hide from the all-seeing, all-knowing God is humorous. How could they be so silly as to think they could actually hide? Yet we do the same, acting as though God doesn’t know what we’re doing. Have the courage to share all you do and think with him. And don’t try to hide—it can’t be done. Honesty will strengthen your relationship with God. These verses show God’s desire to have fellowship with us. They also show why we are afraid to have fellowship with him. Adam and Eve hid from God when they heard him


approaching. God wanted to be with them, but because of their sin, they were afraid to show themselves. Sin had broken their close relationship with God, just as it has broken ours. But Jesus Christ, God’s Son, opens the way for us to renew our fellowship with him. God longs to be with us. He actively offers us his unconditional love. Our natural response is fear, because we feel we can’t live up to his standards. But understanding that he loves us, regardless of our faults, can help remove that dread. BIBLE READING: Act_20:13-38 KEY BIBLE VERSE: What grieved them most was his statement that they would never see his face again. Then they accompanied him to the ship. (Act_20:38, NIV) Fellowship builds strong personal relationships. Paul’s relationship with these believers is a beautiful example of Christian fellowship. He had cared for them and loved them, even cried over their needs. They responded with love and care for him and sorrow over his leaving. They had prayed together and comforted one another. Like Paul, you can build strong relationships with other Christians by sharing, caring, sorrowing, rejoicing, and praying with them. You will gather others around you only by giving yourself away to them. BIBLE READING: Phi_1:1-11 KEY BIBLE VERSE: It is right for me to feel this way about all of you, since I have you in my heart; for whether I am in chains or defending and confirming the gospel, all of you share in God’s grace with me. (Phi_1:7, NIV) Genuine fellowship fosters the love of Christ. Have you ever longed to see a friend with whom you share fond memories? Paul had such a longing to see the Christians at Philippi. His love and affection for them was based not merely on past experiences, but also upon the unity that comes when believers draw upon Christ’s love. All Christians are part of God’s family and thus share equally in the transforming power of his love. Do you feel a deep love for fellow Christians, friends and strangers alike? Let Christ’s love motivate you to love other Christians, and to express that love in your actions toward them. GRIFFIN COMMENTS GEN 3—PAGE 33

BIBLE READING: Heb_10:1-39 KEY BIBLE VERSE: Let us not neglect our church meetings, as some people do, but encourage and warn each other, especially now that the day of his coming back again is drawing near. (Heb_10:25, TLB) Fellowship is a gift from Christ. We have significant privileges with our new life in Christ: (1) we have personal access to God through Christ and can draw near to him without an elaborate system (Heb_10:22); (2) we may grow in faith, overcome doubts and questions, and deepen our relationship with God (Heb_10:23); (3) we may enjoy encouragement from one another (Heb_10:24); (4) we may worship together (Heb_1:1). Others benefit from fellowship with us. To neglect Christian meetings is to give up the encouragement and help of other Christians. We gather together to share our faith and to strengthen one another in the Lord. As we get closer to the day when Christ will return, we will face many spiritual struggles and even persecution. Anti-Christian forces will grow in strength. Difficulties should never be excuses for missing church services. Rather, as difficulties arise, we should make an even greater effort to be faithful in attendance. Related topics: BELIEVERS, CHURCH, WORSHIP (Gen 3:9) And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou? What should have happened here is, Adam should have gone up and down in the Garden crying out, “God, where are you? My wife and I have eaten of that forbidden tree and we need your help.” But man felt guilt for the first time and it made him run and hide. Today when a man sins he should run to the church and begin calling on God for help. Instead he runs away to hide from God. God knew where Adam was and was not asking so He could find out, He was asking so Adam could think about where he was. The devil is very clever and he knows the way of our conscience, so he will give you all kinds of reasons why you should sin. He will make you think you deserve it, and that it won’t hurt you, and that there is GRIFFIN COMMENTS GEN 3—PAGE 34

nothing wrong. Then as soon as you do what you should not, he accuses you. How could you do that? And you call yourself a Christian! What will people think? How can you ever go to church again and face them? GOD'S QUESTIONS 1.

Adam, where art thou? (Gen_3:9)


Cain, where is thy brother? (Gen_4:9)


Elijah, what doest thou here? (1Ki_19:9)


How long will you love simplicity?


Is anything too hard for God?


What more could be done? (Isa_5:4)


Why will you die? (Eze_18:31)


What hast thou done? (Gen_4:10)


Whence camest thou?


Whither wilt thou go?


Why persecutest thou me?


What think ye of Christ? (Mat_22:42) INFLUENCE OF A QUESTION

(Gen_3:1) The Bible's first question was asked by satan. Harmless in appearance, but it brought the first doubt to the world. By asking a question you may ruffle a mind, poison a life. Be suspicious of all inquiries that are "absolutely harmless."


What was Adam's sin? THE TWO ADAMS (Gen_3:9) Every person is either in the first or second Adam. The first was lord over creation The second is Father of all (Isa_9:6) Then it was "eat and die" and now it is "eat and live." The first yielded to sin; the second became sin for us. The first was disobedient unto death; the 2nd obedient unto death. The first was tempted by his bride; the 2nd tempted for His bride. The first left a curse; the 2nd lifted the curse. If God sent Adam out of the Garden of Eden for one sin; do you think He will let you into heaven without getting rid of those 10,000 on you? (Gen 3:10) And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself. Without realizing what he is doing, a man will usually tell off on himself. He had been in the presence of God many times before and was not ashamed of his nakedness. This was his creator and if the one who made him was not ashamed, why should he be? But guilt has now entered the picture and he tells off on himself. All he confessed here was fear. He did not confess his sins. (Gen 3:11) And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat? Nobody has to tell you when you are wrong. There is an officer of the law inside your heart that will call you into question. Then when you speak, you tell off on yourself. Before he was a man without sin and in that state there is no consciousness of nakedness or shame because there is no guilt. The nakedness is mentioned, but not the disobedience from which the sense of it arose. (Barnes Notes)


(Gen 3:12) And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. The man began by blaming others for his problems. It is interesting that physically, no one has ever seen his own face. It is only revealed to us through some reflection. We see ourselves in the mirror, or water, or a picture; otherwise we would never know what our appearance is like. The same is true spiritually. We have no idea what our spiritual image is like until it is revealed to us. That is one purpose of the Bible. James said it is like a mirror (Jam_1:18-22). Another mirror is hearing the preaching of the Word of God. Sometimes we are told by others what our problem. (Gen 3:13) And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. Everybody passes it off on others except the serpent and he did not because there was nobody left to blame. Here again, God was not asking because He was ignorant of what they had done; He was asking to get the woman to recognize the seriousness of her action and confess her wrong. She now realized that the devil had beguiled her, something she apparently did not recognize earlier. (Gen 3:14) And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: If the serpent had always crawled on his belly and eaten the dust, then this is no curse. Something had to be different with the serpent when he left the garden. Apparently the serpent had legs before, but whatever the difference was, he now faced a curse from this time on above all other animals. In the millennial reign of Christ the animals nature will be changed and yet the serpent will still eat dust (Isa_65:25).


(Gen 3:15) And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. Part of the devil’s curse included the great hope of the Gospel. The day would come when his seed [the antichrist] would crush the heel of the seed of the woman [Jesus Christ] and then the woman’s seed would crush or destroy the powers of the serpent. Some make this all happen at Calvary, but Paul mentions the crushing of the serpent under our feet as still future (Rom_16:20) [SEE FIRST OUTLINE OF HISTORY Eph_1:10]

JESUS IS THE: 1. Seed of the woman (Gen_3:15 with Mat_1:18-25 Gal_4:4) From Him we receive a new birth 2. Seed of Abraham (Gen_12:1-2 with Gal_3:29) Through Him we enter into a new family 3. Shiloh, our peace (Gen_49:10 with Joh_16:33; Rom_5:1). By Him we have a new relationship 4. Shepherd and stone of Israel (Gen_49:24 with Joh_10:11) With Him we have a new leader. 5. Head of the new creation as Adam was the head of the race (Rom_5:12-14 1Co_15:21-22, 1Co_15:45 Gal_3:22, Gal_3:26 Eph_1:22-23) 6. Adam and Eve show Christ and His Church (Gen_2:23-24 with Eph_5:31-32). 7. Coats of skin (Gen_3:21 with 1Co_1:30 1Jo_2:2 Rev_19:8) 8. Tree of life (Gen_2:9 with Joh_1:4 Rev_2:7) 9. Abel's more excellent sacrifice (Gen_4:4 with Heb_11:4; Heb_10:12) 10. Firstling of the flock (Gen_4:4 with Joh_1:29) 11. Noah (Gen_6:8-9 with Mat_3:17 Joh_8:29) a. Pleased God (Gen_6:8-9 with Mat_3:17 Joh_8:29) b. God's will revealed to him (Gen_6:13-22 with Joh_17:4-8) c. Prepared the way of salvation (Gen_6:14 with Heb_11:7; Heb_1:1-20 Rom_5:6-8 Joh_14:6) d. Finished God's work (Gen_6:22 with Joh_17:4; Joh 19:30) 12. Ark (Gen_7:1, Gen_7:7, Gen_7:16 with 1Pe_3:20-21)


13. Rainbow: God's promise and assurance(Gen_9:11-17 with 2Co_1:20) 14. Melchizedek: Both priest and king combined (Gen_14:18-20 with Heb_6:20; Heb_7:1-17, Heb_7:24-25) 15. Abraham: Left home to begin a new people. He was to be the head of the nations (Gen_12:1-3 with Eph_5:25 Phi_2:5-8) 16. Bread and wine Gen_14:17-20 with Joh_8:56) 17. Isaac (Gen_17:16 with Isa_7:14 Mat_1:23) a. Predicted birth (Gen_17:16 with Isa_7:14 Mat_1:23) b. Supernatural birth (Gen_17:17 with Mat_1:18-25) c. Son of promise (Gen_17:19; Gen_22:2 with Joh_3:16) d. Offered by his father (Gen_22:1-14 with Heb_11:17-19) e. Willingly submitted (Gen_22:6-8 with Phi_2:5-8 Heb_10:5-17) f. Bride (Gen_24:1) 18. Ram caught by the horns (Gen_22:13 with Heb_10:5) 19. Jacob's ladder (Gen_28:12 with Joh_1:51; Joh_14:6) 20. Drink offering (Gen_35:14 with Psa_22:14 Isa_53:12) 21. Joseph (Gen 37-50) (Gen 3:16) Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee. Three things are involved in her curse. First she will have a lot of problems in her child bearing. Secondly her desire will be to her husband. This does not sound like a curse until you realize what it all entails. She will desire to be with him and he will not spend the time with her that he spent before. Her desire will be subject to him. She will desire to manipulate him. The last part of her curse is that her husband will rule her. Some commentaries say that man was commanded to rule his wife, but that is not what it said. It said this would be part of her curse. It is not a blessing to a man. A man will have the tendency to rule his wife and a lot of conflicts will come out of that. That is why I refuse to live under a curse. I would not allow any of these things to be part of my married life. I did not rule my wife, I led her. I guided her and gave her direction. I developed her skills and helped her become a better woman. Heb_11:1 FOUNDATIONS OF FAITH Mal_2:15 UNITED FAMILY Gen_3:16 DEFEAT THE CURSE

Learn the lesson of Fosdickâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s strawberries I tried to outdo her


Genesis 3:15-18 God placed a curse upon the devil, the man and the woman. Men and women do not get along because of the curse. First God cursed the serpent (Gen 3:15) Then He cursed the woman —multiply sorrow and conception (make child bearing miserable). —desire will be to her husband. (1) She will desire to be with him. (2) Her desire will be subject to him. (3) She will desire to control him. —He will rule you. Finally God cursed the man (1) The ground will be unproductive. (2) Eat in sorrow (miserable) (3) Thorns and thistles will take over (4) In sweat you will work. The secret of a happy life and successful marriage is learning how to get around that curse. —Man giving loving direction instead of being a tyrant. —Woman focusing her attention on developing her husband’s life and ministry (Bro. and Sis. Urshan) • Jesus loved the church sacrificially He did not just give gadgets—He gave Himself Wife wants her husband, not just things. (Gen 3:17) And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life; The curse upon the man was that the land would be unproductive even when it was planted with the best of seed, cultivated and enjoyed GRIFFIN COMMENTS GEN 3—PAGE 40

the best of weather. Men desire success and before this it was easy to achieve, but from this time forward it would be difficult. This curse evidently went beyond the man for even the animal kingdom appear affected by the curse. Paul speaks of the whole creation groaning (Rom_8:20-22). (Gen 3:18) Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field; It appears from this statement that thorns and thistles are a new plant, but what is more likely is that before they did not grow so profusely and now they would. By mentioning the herb here, it appears man did not need the herb before. Herbs are not usually a part of the regular diet, but are used for keeping the body healthy. Before they would not need the herb, but from now on they would. (Gen 3:19) In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. There will be no retirement plan that works. If you stop working too soon, your body will quickly dissipate and you will find an earlier grave. At the end you will return to dust. Success is the great desire of a man, and the end result will be the opposite. Regardless of how successful the man was in life he was reduced to dust when it was over. (Gen 3:20) And Adam called his wife's name Eve; because she was the mother of all living. Two names were given to her: (1) Woman because she was related to the manâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;part of him and a complement to him (2) and Eve because she was the life giver of all living human beings from this time forward. Both of these names were given by the man. He had given all the names to the animals while looking for a companion, and thus it


is fitting that he should name the one who did become his companion. H2332 khav-vaw' Causative from H2331; lifegiver; Chavvah (or Eve), the first woman: Eve. H802 'ishshah nashiym ish-shaw', naw-sheem' The first form is the feminine of H376 or H582; the second form is an irregular plural; a woman (used in the same wide sense as H582).: [adulter]ess, each, every, female, X many, + none, one, + together, wife, woman. Often unexpressed in English. (Gen 3:21) Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them. God was not satisfied with their fig-leaf religion because it was bloodless. There is no redemption without the shedding of blood and the first blood shed was of an animal, probably two lambs to make a coat for the man and his wife. This was looking forward to another Lamb of God which would make the covering for His bride. "Unto Adam also and to his wife did the Lord God make coats of skins, and clothed them" (Gen_3:21). This verse gives us a typical picture of a sinner’s salvation. It was the first Gospel sermon, preached by God Himself, not in words but in symbol and action. It was a setting forth of the way by which a sinful creature could return unto and approach his holy Creator. It was the initial declaration of the fundamental fact that "without shedding of blood is no remission (Heb_9:22)." It was a blessed illustration of substitution — the innocent dying in the stead of the guilty. Before the Fall, God had defined the wages of sin: "In the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die." God is righteous, and as Judge of all the earth He must do right. His law had been broken and justice cried aloud for the enforcing of its penalty. But is justice to override mercy! Is there no way by which grace can reign through righteousness? Blessed be God there is, there was. Mercy desired to spare the offender and because justice demands death, another shall be slain in his place. The Lord God clothed Adam and Eve with skins,


and in order to procure these skins animals must have been slain, life must have been taken, blood must have been shed! And in this way was a covering provided for the fallen and ruined sinner. The application of the type is obvious. The Death of the Son of God was shadowed forth. Because the Lord Jesus laid down His life for the sheep (Joh_10:11-15) God can now be just and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus (Rom_3:26). How beautiful and perfect is the type! It was the Lord God who furnished the skins, made them into coats and clothed our first parents. They did nothing. God did it all. They were entirely passive. The same blessed truth is illustrated in the parable of the prodigal son. When the wanderer had taken the place of a lost and undone creature and had owned his sin, the grace of the fatherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s heart was displayed. "But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him" (Luk_15:22). The prodigal did not have to furnish the robe, nor did he have put it on himself, all was done for him. And so it is with every sinner. "For by grace are ye saved through faith, and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God" (Eph_2:8). Well may we sing, "I will greatly rejoice in the Lord, my soul shall be joyful in my God; for He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of righteousness" (Isa_61:10). (Pink) (Gen 3:22) And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever: Man has become as Elohim, the plural name of God. The Psalmist said man was created a little lower than Elohim, which is translated angels (Psa_8:5). In the fall into sin, man became as God, that is, he took on the role of being like God, or we call it, playing the god game. He had never been told he could not eat of the tree of life yet he never seems to have had an interest. Now he was prohibited from eating it until the victim of the flaming sword broke back through the guardian cherubim and made a way to partake again of its fruit (Rev_2:7). (Gen 3:23) Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.


Tilling the ground was not mentioned before, so we do not know whether or not it had been practiced. If it was, he would find a tremendous difference. Before you would hardly have to touch the earth and it produced. Now you would have to eat your bread by the sweat of your face. He would be constantly reminded as he worked in the dust that one day he would be part of the same again. (Gen 3:24) So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life. The cherubim later always represented the church in its glorified state. Here they do not seem to have that same connotation. They must have remained there until the flood in Noah’s day. Some have tried to say they were the sons of God who went in to the daughters of men in Genesis 6, but that seems to be very unlikely due to the very nature of the case. In heaven angels do not marry and are not given in marriage. If such were the case however, they would have all been destroyed in the flood, so none of their descendents would remain today. This resembles the Most Holy Place in the Tabernacle with its cherubim guarding the way to the Word of God—tree (word) of life. When the word was made flesh He became the victim of His flaming sword. All the blood shed by the parents and priests was never adequate to make the way back to the tree of life. So Jesus came "that you might have life, and life more abundant." THE BARRED GATE AND THE OPEN DOOR (Gen_3:24; Rev_21:25) The Bible opens with the closed gate and ends with the city of the ever-open door. It opens with the expulsion of a man from a happy garden. The angel stands with a flaming sword to prevent his return. It ends with an ever-open door in which the angels choir stands waiting for a grand entrance.


The rest of the Bible tells how to go from the barred door to the open gate; through death, burial and resurrection of Christ. Jesus has the key to "open the seals thereof." He will get us into that city. When our first parents left the Garden of Eden, it was not without hope, nor into outer darkness. They carried with them the promise of a Redeemer, the assurance of the final defeat of the great enemy, as well as the Divine institution of a Sabbath on which to worship, and of the marriage-bond by which to be joined together into families. VICTIM OF THE FLAMING SWORD If a man eats of the tree of life he will live forever. Man sinned and was thus barred from the tree of life. Angel with a flaming sword guarded the entrance Only way to the Tree of Life was to break through the flaming sword. Whosoever did would lose his life Death required before life could be had "Without shedding of blood there is no remission of sins (Heb_9:22)." Who could break through that flaming sword? Isa_9:6-7; Isa_53:3-8 Jesus died and took the keys of hell and death (Rev_1:18). He broke through the flaming sword "It is expedient that I go away (Joh_16:7)" "Gift of God is eternal life (Rom_6:23)" "I am come that you may have life and have it more abundantly (Joh_10:10)." He made access to the Tree of Life (Rev_1:5-8, Rev_1:18; Rev_2:7) "To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the Tree of Life which is in the midst of the paradise of God." Someday you will see the scars of the victim (Zec_13:6; Isa_49:16)


You must be born again to partake because only a new man may (Joh_3:3-5)!



DEVIL'S ROLEagainst Joshua was as ACCUSER PERSON:Joshua (SeeZec_3:1) TARGET:The heart and conscience WEAPON:Accusation GRIFFIN COMMENTS—GEN...

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