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SUMMER 2000 • VOLUME 85 • NUMBER 2 7






THE LEGACY OF A L P H A P H I ALI A N D THE M O D E R N OLYMPIC G A H By Brother Harold Rudolph Sims


SPECIAL REPORT: EOOO E L E C T l J H O W H I G H A R E THE STAKES? By Brother Tyson King-Meadows




By Brother Paul King

COLORECTAL CANCER By Brother Dr. Cornelius Chinn

A L P H A P H I A L P H A BROTHERS A N D THEIR ROLE I N THE HARLI RENAISSANCE ( 1 3 2 0 - 1 3 3 5 ) By Brother Julius E. Thompson



By Brother Vic Carter


W H A T IF THE CORNELL BROTHI INCORPORATED I N 1 9 0 8 ? By Brother Norman E. W. Towels



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4 0 THE A L P H A EXPERIENCE F R O M THE " M I N O R I T Y " PERSPECTIVE By Brother Gregory Scott Parks

4 4 A R E WE HOLDING U P THE LIGHT? By Brother D.J. Patrick

4 6 THE D A M S WERE OPEN: REFLECTIONS By Brother Mark A. Wainwright






Statement of Ownership, Management, and Circulation THE

Zollie Stevenson, Jr. Administrative Director George N . Reaves General Treasurer

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General President Milton C. Davis Immediate Past General President




Beaton J . White. I l l 2313 S t . Paul S t r a a t i B a l t i m o r e , MD 2121B-5234 Saaton J . White, I I I 2313 S t . Paul S t r e e t ) B a l t i m o r e , MD 21218-523*

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POSTAL I N F O R M A T I O N The SPHINX* (USPS 510-440) is published quarterly for $40 a year by Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.* 2313 St. Paul Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-5234. Periodical postage paid at Baltimore, MD. Postmaster: send address changes to The SPHINX*, 2313 St. Paul Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-5234. The SPHINX* is the official magazine of the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.* Send all editorial mail and changes of address to Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.® The Fraternity assumes no responsibility for return of unsolicited manuscripts or art. Opinions expressed in columns and articles do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.* Use of any person's name in fiction, semi-fiction, articles or humorous features is to be regarded as a coincidence and not as the responsibility of The SPHINX®, and is never done knowingly. Copyright 2000 Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Reproduction, or use without permission, of the editorial or pictorial content of the magazine in any manner is prohibited. The SPHINX® has been published continuously since 1914. Organizing Editor: Brother Raymond W. Cannon. Organizing General President: Brother Henry Lake Dickason. THESPHINT





Greetings and Goodwill to the members of the illustrious House of Alpha. I trust the New Year and Millennium has brought prosperity, good health and peace of mind to you and your families. Shortly after the Dallas General Convention, as we exulted in what was by many accounts arguably one of the best conventions, perhaps ever; a reminder surfaced that helps us keep our proper perspective. I received a letter from a recent initiate who attended his first General Convention in Dallas. The essence of his well-written letter was his experience of disappointment in what he regarded a lack of Brotherly warmth. His references were not to lack of civility on floor debate, but rather the little things, i.e.: Brothers walking past each other in the hallways and on elevators failing to speak. Brothers often barely acknowledging each other even when spoken to. I know that many will hastily dismiss this Brother's rumination, but don't. I wrote this new Brother to assure him that his experience is not indicative of the essence of Alpha. Although there were many examples to the contrary, I could not help but wonder: 'Are we sometimes too busy being busy and thereby neglecting the "weightier" things. I directed his attention to the second verse of the House of Alpha... "I am the eminent expression of friendship. Character and temperament change under my dominant power. Lives once touched by me become tuned, and are thereafter amiable, kindly, fraternal." When each of us does the above, we will positively influence all Brothers and remind them by our example of the meaning of Brotherhood and the bond of Alpha. I don't know if the young Brother attended Atlanta's Millennium 2000 Convention. I had hoped to personally greet him. The essence of an Alpha man is what makes us uniquely who we are. THE ESSENCE OF AN ALPHA MAN When you can achieve and not make achievements your goal, When you can accept praise but remain mindful of your failings too, When you can strive to make the dream a reality by deeds and not hollow words, When you can give of yourself freely and cheerfully and not grudgingly nor of necessity, When Servants of All is a privilege and not a task, When 'Transcending All' means First of All, transcending self, and realizing that I first help my brother to transcend, if I am to transcend. When you can do not only a good thing but also the right thing. When you can extend a helping hand to friend or foe alike and expect nothing in return, and never remind them of the deed, When you can cherish and respect the past but neither live in it nor rest upon it. When you can dare to choose the road less traveled, and lead the pack and not run with the herd. When our vision sees things not as they are but as they will be. When our courage of character will not allow us to remain silent in the face of injustice to anyone. When the love of our mothers and the strength of our fathers holds us and guides us to our true calling. When you can light candles rather than curse the darkness. When you can view obstacles as challenges. When your only weapon against lies shall be an uncompromising truth, Your only defense against malicious assaults shall be an unshakeable faith. This is the essence of an Alpha man.


Raymond W. Cannon Organizing Editor

Henry Lake Dickason Organizing General President

READERS' LETTERS Official Organ of the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

John I. Harris, III Interim Editor-in-Chief T h o m a s D . Pawley, I I I Contributing Columnist R o b e r t L. Harris Contributing Columnist H a r r y B. D u n b a r Contributing Columnist J o s e p h T. D u r h a m Consulting Editor Brian A. Colella Design and Layout Deadlines for editorial submissions are as follows: Spring Issue - December Summer Issue - March Fall Issue - June Winter Issue - September

1 1 1 1

For advertisement display rates and other ad information contact: E d i t o r o f The SPHINX® A l p h a Phi A l p h a Fraternity, I n c . 2 3 1 3 St. Paul S t r e e t Baltimore, M D 2 1 2 1 8 - 5 2 3 4 Phone: (410) 554-0040 Fax: ( 4 1 0 ) 5 5 4 - 0 0 5 4 Alpha Phi Alpha Web Page Address

Summer 1999 Issue is a Keeper You have outdone yourself again. After receiving the Spring, 1999 edition of The Sphinx® magazine, I thought to myself "it does not get any better than this." However, the Summer 1999 edition celebrating the 85th anniversary of [The Sphinx®} was even more awesome. Your ability and the ability of your contributors to reflect on the past, while simultaneously helping the reader to take pride in the present while "teasing" with future anticipation is nothing short of remarkable. I have been a "student of the shield" since my first introduction to Alpha Phi Alpha. Every opportunity I get to learn more about our beloved Fraternity increases the love and pride I have for Alpha. The Sphinx® magazine continues to enhance my appreciation for this Brotherhood. I have been privileged to meet and know Brothers Charles H. Wesley, Raymond W. Cannon, Lionel H. Newsome and Ernest "Dutch" Mortal and others. They are Brothers who have encouraged and inspired me in my Alpha walk. We must continue to instill in new Brothers that they are heirs to a great legacy. The Sphinx® continues to remind us of who we are and how far we have come. "From falling hands they threw the torch, be it ours to hold it high." Fraternally, Brother Joseph K. Byrd Vice President, Student Services Xavier (LA) University

Brothers Enjoy The Sphinx® On Line I am Brother Victor L. Sanders, Theta Kappa Chapter, Henderson State University, Spring 85.' The Sphinx® on the web plays a vital part in keeping Brothers informed of what's going on in our organization. I have not been active in several years and it is good that we are striving in so many directions. Continue to strive Brethren.

Fraternally, Brother Victor L. Sanders



hen most current R&B artists are asked about their influences, we usually hear an esteemed group of musicians and singers form the past. Some of the most frequently named artists include Stevie Wonder, Aretha Franklin, Marvin Gaye, Chaka Khan, Roberta Flack and Donny Hathaway. Most young people these days have some knowledge of the aforementioned legendsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;they can probably name at least two songs by each artist, maybe more. However, the late Brother Donny Hathaway is probably the least known legendary recording artist of the 1970s by today's young people, most likely attributable to the fact that he left us so long ago in 1979- His influence however lives on; just turn on your television around the holiday season and you will surely hear his masterpiece, "This Christmas" performed by someone, at least once. Brother Donny Hathaway was born on October 1,1945, in Chicago, Illinois. He was introduced early on to the world of music; the grandmother who raised him in St. Louis, Missouri, Martha Pitts, was a well-known gospel singer. After singing gospel throughout his childhood and teens, Hathaway was able to obtain a scholarship to Howard University in 1964. There he met up with classmate Roberta Flack with whom he would go on to record classics such as the 1973 Grammy Award winning "Where is the Love?" and one of the all-time slow jams, "The Closer I get to You." It has been said that it was his years at Howard that Brother Hathaway enjoyed the most.


Between 1970 and 1979, Brother Hathaway was able to share his production skills with Aretha Franklin, Jerry Butler and The Staple Singers. The theme song for the CBS series "Maude" (1972-1978) was written and performed by him as well. He was featured on eight albums total (including two live albums) and, most listeners familiar with Hathaway recommend the recently


re-mastered "The Best Of Donny Hathaway" for those being introduced for the first time. However, two other must-haves of his catalogue are "Extension Of A Man" and "Donny Hathaway Live." Though Brother Hathaway may be among the most unrecognized of R&B legends, he has certainly been sampled by today's generation. Former Death Row Records artist Nate Dogg sampled "Where is the Love?" on his 1996 classic "Never Leave Me Alone" and Jive recording artist Too Short practically updated "The Ghetto" from 1970 to 1989, just to name a few. Hathaway's imprint has been felt; now it is time to look back and appreciate his contribution to soul music. Donny Hathaway did leave behind a family; his daughter Lalah, beginning in 1990, began sharing her vocal gifts as a jazz singer. After graduating from the esteemed Berklee School of Music in Boston, she released two albums and has worked with Graver Washington, Jr. and Brother Gerald Albright. Most recently, she worked with Joe Sample on 1999's "The Song Lives On" (Universal). Many jazz enthusiasts already consider Lalah Hathaway to be a living legend. On the night of January 13,1979, Brother Hathaway perished from a fall from a 15th story window at the Essex House Hotel in New York City. Although the death was officially ruled a suicide, close friends remain skeptical. Ironically, his last collaboration with Roberta Flack (with Luther Vandross lending backing vocals) is the up-tempo "Back Together Again," released posthumously in 1980. On the inner sleeve of the 1980 album Roberta Flack featuring Donny Hathaway (Atlantic), Flack wrote, "My life is beginning to reveal to me thatâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Donny Hathaway lives". Indeed, his legend lives on. This is a salute to our legendary Brother, Donny Hathaway.

QfeMH^ THE LEGACY OF ALPHA PHI ALPHA AND THE MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES By Brother Harold Rudolph Sims Note: The following is an updated, edited version of Brother Sims original story, written in 1996 entitled: Triumph at Atlanta: The Legacy ofAlpha Phi Alpha and the Modern Olympic Games.

s the Black American began his road back from the reverses suffered in the 19th century, the world of international sport became his first global proving ground. In this arena, professional boxing and Olympic track and field events became a rallying force for racial pride and inspiration, during its period of greatest challenges, Alphamen led the way in achieving competitive glory for the nation as well as racial pride for Black America. Between 1896 and 1936,10 Alphamen participated in over 19 contests in seven Olympic track and field events, winning a total 14 medals (10 gold and four silver). In that span Alpha athletes set or equaled seven Olympic records. At the 1932 Los Angeles Games, Brother Eddie Tolan set a record of 10.3 seconds in the 100-meter dash and 21.2 in the 200. With his triumphs, Brother Tolan was the first black Olympic athlete to win a gold medal. Brother Ralph Metcalfe took silver behind Brother Tolan in both events. Four years later in Berlin, Germany, Brother Jessie Owens came face to face with the fascism and German ruler Adolph Hitler, tying Brother Tolan's mark in the 100 and breaking it in the 200 in a time of 20.7. In the Berlin Games, Alphamen racked up a total of 10 medals, eight of which were gold and two silver. Brother Owens won four of those himself in the 100, 200, 400-meter relay and the long jump. Brother John Woodruff won a gold medal in the 800, Brother Archie Williams won the 400 and Brothers Owens, Williams and Metcalfe comprised three-fourths of the gold medal 400-meter relay team that set a record of 39-8 seconds. Brother Metcalfe took silver in the 100, and Brother David Albritton finished with a silver medal in the high jump.


After World War II interrupted the 1940 and 1944 Games, Alphamen continued to excel and pioneer as athletes in the Olympic tradition. Particularly noteworthy in this regard were: •

Brother Don Barksdale of the University of California at Los Angeles, a member of the 1948 Gold Medal basketball team in London. The Olympic track and field record of 20.7 (tying Brother Owens record) in the 200 set by Brother Andrew Stanfield of New Jersey at the 1952 Summer Games in Helsinki, Finland. Brother Walt Bellamy of Indiana University, a member of the I960 Gold Medal winning basketball team in Rome, Italy. Brother Otis Davis of the University of Southern California, a gold medalist and former world record holder in the 400 meter dash at the i960 Olympic Games in Rome, Italy. Brother Quinn Buckner of Indiana University, a member of the 1976 Gold Medal winning basketball team in Montreal, Canada. Brother Mike Powell of the University of California-Irvine, silver medal-winning long jumper at the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. Three years later, Brother Powell, also a member of the 1996 Olympic Team, set a world record in the long jump at the 1991 World Track and Field Championships in Tokyo, Japan. The selection and appointment of Brother Lenny Wilkens as the gold medal-winning coach of the 1996 Olympic Basketball squad. THE SPHINX* SUMMER 2000

• MCIAL fci/ORT • African-Americans and the 2000 Elections: How High Are The Stakes? By Brother Tyson King-Meadows

ong ago referred to as the "Negro problem,"1 the presence of African-Americans continues to force America to wrestle with the tension between a theory of democracy and the reality of institutional practices that reflect vestiges of legacies predicated upon racial segregation, overt racial hostility and racial discrimination. A political quandary is created when exclusionary practices are woven into a democratic ethos of equality, and thus calls into question the permanency of civil rights and liberties, and the ability of citizens to petition government for a redress of grievances. As a protective measure, therefore, the franchise, wielded by a sophisticated and politically astute minority electorate, has long stood as the fundamental key to unlocking the entanglement between the democracy and legacies of oppression that fan the flames of racial demagoguery, class and gender exploitation, and nativism. The first election and reapportionment/redistricting cycles of the new millennium -the true electoral contests of 2000- will set the stage for a reconfiguration of national, state and local responsiveness to public policy agenda items relevant to me socioeconomic character of African- American communities. How this reconfiguration occurs will depend on the politics - "who gets what, when, and how"2 - resulting from a November 2000 vote choice. Given this, the stakes are indeed high and center on seven key issues: the level of voter registration and mobilization, the selection of minority candidates, the leadership of congressional committees, the partisan composition of state legislatures, the ideological direction of the judiciary, the composition of federal bureaucracies and finally, the economic policy agenda of the president. These issues will affect African-Americans' ability to challenge and determine how, when, and who, receives the lion's share of economic, political and social resources—the what—in the upcoming years.


The first area of concern is the level of voter registration and mobilization, and the impact these two forces have on the effective utilization of the minority franchise. In the 1998 midterm elections, African-American and Hispanic communities illustrated how elevated minority participation, coupled with exposure to the impact of political change, could affect electoral success. At the state level, minority participation was credited with helping elect Democratic Governors Jim Hodges of South Carolina, Roy Barnes of Georgia, Don Siegelman of Alabama, and with helping return Republican George Bush, Jr. to gubernatorial power in Texas, while assisting Republicans Jeb Bush and Jane Hull capture the Florida and Arizona governorships, respectively. At the federal level, the 1998 elections represent a major repudiation by minorCELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM

ity and lower-income citizens of the legislative actions taken by congressional Republicans: inclusive of, but not limited to, welfare reform, impeachment and the systematic modifications of domestic spending priorities. For the first time in popular elections, the president's party actually gained seats during his/her second term in office. The Democrats won five seats in the House, just six Representatives short of recapturing their majority party status, and the victories of Democratic Senators Charles Schumer of New York, Barbara Boxer of California, John Edwards of North Carolina and Blanche Lincoln of Arkansas helped fight off Republican attempts to capture additional Senate seats. These small successes, however, should not placate minorities, nor should these successes be used as vindication for the historic racial gap in registration and turnout rates. Between 1980-1996, the registration gap between AfricanAmericans and whites ranged from a high of 8.4% (1980) to a low of 33% (1984). In 1992 and 1996, the registration gap was 6.2% and 4.2% respectively. The voting gap for the same period is astonishing, ranging from a high of 10.4% in 1980 to a low of 5.4% in 1996. In 1992, at the supposed height of African-American political awareness since the late 1960s, the racial voting gap was still 9.6%. A closer examination of the figures reveal how declined voter registration and turnout among African-Americans set the political stage for 12 years of the Reagan-Bush economic-domestic policy agenda. From 1988 to 1992, African-Americans experienced a voter mobilization of 2.5%, coupled with a registration demobilization of 0.6%. From 1992 to 1996, African-Americans experienced a registration demobilization of 0.4% and voter demobilization of 3.4%. In analyzing the 1998 elections, the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies reported no decline in the African-American share of the national vote, yet significant declines by all voters in five populous states - four of which have large African-American communities (California, Texas, New York and Florida).3 Two of the four states are Southern states, and out of the 11 Southern states (Texas, Florida, Tennessee, South Carolina, North Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Arkansas and Virginia), seven states have Republican governors, seven states have a Republican-led House delegation and four states have Republican U.S. Senate delegations.) Partisanship of the executive and federal officers aside, historically, these 11 Southern states have also been battlegrounds for the| protection and enforcement of civil rights policies. Relatedly, the selection of minority candidates and its impact on I the racial composition of the federal legislature are the second


and third political stakes, or concern for minority communities. Unfortunately, it is inherently tied to the persistcontinued ence of racial bloc voting and its impact on the ability of minority candidates to win elected office. If certain states have experienced significant growth in minority communities, we should expect significant gains in the demographic representation of minorities, unless whites continue to choose white candidates over equally qualified AfricanAmerican candidates. If racial bloc voting continues, then members of the Congressional Black Caucus, the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, and respective legislative caucuses in the states will continue to disproportionately come from majority-minority districts, resulting in less overall representation of minorities. For the 104th Congress, the average Black voting-age population (BVAP) for congressional districts in which African-Americans constituted a majority of the population was 60.8%. Excluding the district represented by Representative Thomas Foglietta (PA-2) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; who resigned from Congress to become U.S. Ambassador to Italy in 1997 - these majority Black districts were represented by CBC members. By the 106th Congress, of the 39 major party nominees for federal office, thirty-one (31) majority-minority districts were represented by African-Americans, only a few represented majority-white districts, and African-American Illinois Senator Carol Moseley-Braun had suffered a re-election defeat. The presence of African-American representatives affects the legislative process in dramatic ways, given the amount of resources legislators can wield - ranging from proposing and amending legislation, to appointments to the federal bureaucracy and judiciary. Moreover, the legislative process is dominated by the committee system, where public policy making power is channeled through a system that many times values seniority over apprenticeship, expertise over novelty, logrolling over personalities, state interests over national constituency interests, partisan loyalty over individualism, and courtesy over independence. In the 103rd Congress, CBC members held three full committee chairs (e.g., Armed Services, Government Operations, Post Office and Civil Service) and 17 subcommittee chairs including Judiciary and Education, Select Education and Civil Rights, and Veterans Affairs, HUD, and Independent Agencies.4 After the Republican takeover of both legislative chambers, the CBC held no formal committee or subcommittee chairs, drastically impacting the effective representation and protection of AfricanAmerican interests. A fourth concern centers on the representation and protection of African-American interests at the state level, and includes what types of districts elect African-American legislators and the overall partisan composition of state legislatures. There are several dimensions to these interrelated phenomena, including whether Democratic party interests are synonymous with AfricanAmerican interests. If through the redistricting process, AfricanAmerican or Hispanic constituents are taken out of competitive districts, the surrounding districts either become majority-white and Republican, or majority-white and Democratic. At any rate, this shifts the balance of the state legislatures and enhances the

number of Republican faces or white faces less amenable to minority interests. Table 1 depicts the racial composition of House and Senate legislative districts in thirty states with significant minority populations. Two important patterns in the racial composition of districts are evident. First, many African-American state legislators are elected from districts that fall between 60-79% minority and few are elected from majority white districts. Second, AfricanAmerican legislators come from districts that are perversely "packed" at 80% minority by the state redistricting process. The data in Table 1 illustrate how this strategically limits the representation of African-American interests within the state legislature; while 15 African-Americans represent districts from 20-39% minority, it makes up only a small proportion of the available 605 legislative House seats. On the other hand, 223 African-American legislators hold 302 of the available seats from districts carved between 60-79%, which makes for greater proportion of the seats held by African-Americans, but at the same time accounts for more than 55% of the total number of African-American legislators. The results are clear, in Mississippi, for example, where 26.2% of the House districts fall between 60-79% minority and 19.2% of the Senate districts fall in this category, despite racial population segregation indexes which report it being moderately segregated. In Mississippi the minority population of the state exceeds 37% but minorities only account for 28.7% of the legislature, suggesting under-representation at the state level. In all, Table 1 shows that over half of the 127 African-American senators are elected from districts ranging from 60-69%, and about threefourths represent the broader category.5 Of course the racial composition of legislative districts results from the redistricting process and the ideological direction of the judiciary, a fifth area of concern for minority communities, given recent rulings against the constitutionality of majorityminority districts. While gerrymandering for the advantage of one political group is not a new political phenomenon, the Supreme Court has become overtly hostile to carving up state maps to place or displace voters of certain racial and partisan characteristics for the protection of African-American voting rights per the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and its extensions. The most recent ruling in Reno v. Bossier Parish School Board 6 held that the Justice Department could not deny VRA Section 5 pre-clearance for redistricting changes (even those with a discriminatory purpose or affect) that did not leave minority voters in a retrogressive situation. In a controversial 5-4 decision upholding the 1992 redistricting plan of a Bossier Parish in Louisiana, the Court ruled that Section 5 of the 1965 VRA law only required no "retrogression effect" and invalidated a long standing policy in the Justice Department forcing jurisdictions to prove both a non-retrogression effect and the absence of discriminatory intent. The Bossier Parish ruling reconfirmed the Supreme Court's strict scrutiny of the Justice Department's implementation strategy for the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and further intensified debate over the question of community interests first believed clarified in Abrams vs. Johnson.7 In this case, the Court affirmed a district court plan that created only one majority-Black district in the state of Georgia by finding that Black racial geography or voting THE SPHINX6 SUMMER 2000

behavior did not require additional protection under Section 2 or Section 5 by creating a second majority-black district. In noting that elections in Georgia were marked by racial crossover voting, and that black voters were not a politically cohesive unit, the Court concluded that no retrogression in black voting strength would occur under the new plan as measured against the appropriate older benchmarked plan. In short, both rulings solidified the Court's power in deciding whether and how minority voting or civil rights would be defended, protected or advanced by bureaucratic and legal action.8 Table 2 positions this power in the context of the federal judiciary and illustrates the enormous power the judiciary can wield in codifying or dismantling discrimination, and in altering the power of demographic groups who use litigation as a primary mechanism for achieving political power. In 1997, President Bill Clinton reported on how powerful the partisan and ideological composition of the judiciary was to the longevity of programmatic initiatives by citing that over one hundred federal judgeships .were vacant, and that Republicans forced an average wait of over 100 days from nomination to confirmation. In the same year, Chief Justice Rehnquist noted the vacancy dilemma created by Republican-Democrat politics, citing for example, the 33% of seats empty in the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.' The next president will appoint a number of federal judgeships, including four possible Supreme Court justices who would alter the ideological balance on the Court.10 The data in Table 2 reinforces the role of bureaucratic action and presidential appointment power, the sixth area of concern for minority communities in the November 2000 election. Constitutionally, the executive officer is afforded a considerable amount of influence over the legislative process, and in this era of divided government, the executive's preferences can alter the distribution of preferences in legislative assemblies. Simply put, presidents express their disapproval of legislative priorities in hopes of changing which proposals are advanced at the committee level and chamber level. The combined priorities of the president and Congress are reflected in the hiring practices, federal bureaucracy nominations, budget allocations and implementation practices of federal and state agencies, respectively. Table 3 provides a brief overview of the number of federal political appointments available to the president for cabinet-level agencies. The programmatic jurisdictions of these agencies have tremendous impact on African-American communities. For example, although Housing and Urban Development develops and promotes improvement in city streets and parks, one of its subdivisions investigates discrimination cases - the Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity. The Food and Drug Administration enforces food and drug laws and is accountable to the Health and Human Services agency. The Justice Department enforces criminal laws and oversees voting rights protections according to the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and two important subdivisions have been recently critical in protecting AfricanAmerican interests - the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Bureau of Prisons. The recent $635 million ruling on behalf of African-American farmers who filed discrimination claims against the Department of Agriculture illustrate the importance of CELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM


executive-level programmatic direction. In fact, in a White House press release dated September 1998 entimtinuea tled "President Clinton and Vice President Al Gore Working On Behalf Of African-Americans," the Clinton-Gore administration was credited with increasing funding for programs amenable to African-Americans, noted that a total of 13% of Clinton administration appointees were AfricanAmerican (more than twice that of previous administrations), and filed more fair housing and fair lending cases than previous administrations." A seventh and final concern for African-Americans in the upcoming 2000 elections is centered on how the economic policy agendas of the president and state officers affect the quality of life. At the national level, the preferences of the executive are manifested in appointments to the Council of Economic Advisors and to the Departments of Commerce, Labor, and Treasury where all entities are charged with dealing with the intertwined issues of employment and average wage levels, providing training opportunities for unskilled and under-skilled workers, and are charged with anticipating the impact of the global economy on domestic policies. Also, the president appoints the chair of the Federal Reserve Board, an institution responsible for controlling the level of inflation in the American economy and its corresponding influence on average rates of consumption, investment and trade between nations. At both the federal and state level, legislators and others prepare domestic spending priorities factoring in average employment rate targets, welfare roll projections and wageearner income tax revenue. When employment and consumption levels drop below acceptable rates, the economy shifts to compensate. Unfortunately, minority communities are least equipped with adaptive financial resources to buffer the compensation effects of the economy, and therefore suffer disproportionately from commodity price inflation, downsizing or downturns in manufacturing employment trends. Recent reports have indicated declines in the overall unemployment rate, a decline in the unemployment rate gap between African-Americans and whites and a decline in the overall poverty rate for Americans. While traditionally rates shift during periods of high inflation, rates also correspond to periods of political contention over the appropriate course of domestic policies.12 Rising levels of average income in the African-American community and a decline in the racial gap in unemployment suggest that indeed some African-Americans are making gains in larger sections of the economy, like manufacturing.13 The existence of double-digit poverty rates for African-American families, however, must continue to plague the collective conscious of decision-makers. Whether such trends will continue rests squarely with the programmatic policy direction taken by the president and executive agencies, and the funding formulas used by Congress to distribute tax revenue. In conclusion, these seven interdependent areas of concern represent the political stakes up for grabs in the November 2000 electoral contests. African-American communities should remain ever-vigilant in gathering information about candidates, candi-


date and party issue positions, and of the relationship between political institutions and the public policy process. Unfortunately, for many minority communities, African- American politics is epitomized in the single-shot strategy of influencing who becomes the president. Though valiant, this action is premised on a false sense of security and on a grandiose belief that African-Americans can impose obligatory behavior on the president. Both electoral deficiencies are manifested in the "hurry up and register" mentality displayed by many interest groups and civic organization in the short months preceding the actual presidential contest. Moreover, it allows elected officials to engage in a form of "electoral call and response," where the African-American electorate is whipped into a religious-like frenzy when offered the possibility of political salvation. The price however is costly: unquestioned political commitment (i.e., partisanship and votes), and a willing to accept hypocrisy in the electoral pulpit (i.e., welfare reform, race-baiting in the 1998 elections, and political gamesmanship during the budgetary process). And like spiritual salvation, the stakes are certainly high, perhaps a lot higher than we realize. Minority citizens who fail to register or fail to vote are powerless in such a system; "hopeless" if you will, and must consequently remain dependent on the "kindness of strangers."

ENDNOTES 1 Alexis Tocqueville, Democracy in America. (New York: Doubleday, 1969) - originally published in 1835; Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma (New York: Harper and Row) - originally published in 1944. Similar treatments ofdemocracy arefound in W.E.B. DuBois, The Souls of Black Folk, (New York: Fawcett Publications, 1961) - originally published in 1903. 2 Harold Laswell, Politics: Who Gets What, When and How (New York: McGraw Hill, 1936). 3 David Bositis, The Black Vote in 1998 (Washington, D.C: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 1998). 4 David Bositis, The Congressional Black Caucus in the 103rd Congress (Washington, D.C: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 1994), pg. 91-101. 5 For Latino legislators the figures are slightly better: 14.7% and 19.1% are electedfrom House districts and Senate districts ranging from 50-59% minority, respectively, and only 19-6% are electedfrom districts between 70-79% minority. A total of 18.4% of Latino legislators come from districts above 80% minority and fare much better in majority-white and/or Republican districts. 6 No. 98-405, decidedJanuary 2000. On June of 2000, the Court agreed to review the 1997 North Carolina redisricting plan after a three-judge panel appointed by the chief judge of the 4th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the 1997 plan covering the 12th District (represented by Mel Watt) unconstitutional. 7117 S. Ct. 1925 (1997) 8 In other controversial 5-4 rulings, the Court has modified the federal government's power to enable victims to file civil suit against perpetrators for crimes "motivated by gender bias" (Violence Against Women Act case, United States v. Morrison, No. 99-5), ruled against the federal government's ability to make state's liablefor suit in response to claims about age discrimination (Kimel v. Florida Board of Regents, No. 98-791), and invalidated a New Jersey hate crime law where judges, and not juries, were empowered to determine whether race bias motivated criminal behavior (Apprendi v. New Jersey, No. 99-478). 9 His remarks were taken from his year-end Report on the Federal Judiciary, and reprinted in The New York Times, National Edition, January 1, 1998, p. Al5. 10 The following Supreme Court justices are rumored to retire following the November elections due to age or personal reasons: Rehnquist (appointed by Nixon), Stevens (appointed by Ford), 0 'Connor (appointed by Reagan), or Ginsburg (appointed by Clinton). 11 To secure the longevity of these actions, the press release noted that President Clinton had named 12 African-Americans as U.S. Attorneys, 12 African-Americans as U.S. Marshals and nominated over 54 to the federal bench (17% of total federal bench nominations). 12 Lucius Barker, Mack Jones, and Katherine Tate, African-Americans and the American Political System (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1999); William Keech, Economic Politics: The Costs of Democracy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995). 13 While reports from the Bureau ofLabor Statistics suggest that African-American unemployment did not reach double-digits in 1973 and 1998, the report on the methodology used to gather data for 1971,1972, and 1986 noted that the comparability of historical labor force data had been affected by methodological and conceptual changes. At any rate, the data could either understate or overstate unemployment felt by the Black community. I would argue for the former.


Table 1. Which Districts Elect African-American State Legislators? HOUSE SEATS NUMBER PCT 2226 10 2.5 605 15 3.8 204 76 19.0 302 223 55.8 105 76 19.0 3442 400


0-19% 20-39% 40-59% 60-79% 80% + TOTAL

PROP 0.4 2.5 37.3 73.8 72.4

SEATS 779 256 76 116 25 1251

SENATE NUMBER PCT. 3.1 4 3.1 4 21 16.5 80 63.0 18 14.2 127

PROP. 0.5 1.6 27.6 69.0 72.0

Source: Adapted from Tyson King-Meadows and Thomas F. Schaller, "Packed, Cracked or Stacked (Against?): An Empirical Survey of the Distribution of Minority Voters in State Legislative Districts," Paper presented at the annual meetings of the Southern Political Science Association, Savannah, Georgia, November 3-6, 1999. Table 2. PRESIDENT KENNEDY JOHNSON NIXON FORD CARTER REAGAN BUSH CLINTON

Select Judgeship Appointments by President

SUPREME COURT 2 2 4 1 0 3 2 2

COURT OF APPEALS 20 41 45 12 56 83 37 55

DISTRICT COURTS 102 125 182 52 206 292 150 275

TOTAL APPOINTMENTS 126 181 238 65 265 389 195 339

Source: U.S. Courts Report on Judgeships and Appointments, 1999 (as of 12/21/99)

Table 3.

Presidential Cabinet-Level Agency Political Appointments

















































Source: Office of Personnel Management, Central Personnel Data File, 1998






/ i Celebration OF A LIFE OF SERVICE & FULFILLED DREAMS By Brother F. Romall Smalls

he news out of Mississippi last winter of the December 1,1999 passing of Dr. Walter Washington, the beloved educator, power broker, former president of Alcorn State University and 24th General President of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., spread throughout this international Brotherhood like the approaching cloak of night. The word appeared across countless computer screens as sorrowful e-mails, and traveled on as unwanted late night telephone calls and quiet conversations. "He was a man that produced results. His funeral was like a history lesson," said Brother Rickey L. Thigpen, immediate past president of Alpha Epsilon Lambda Chapter in Jackson, Mississippi. "I remember the current president of Alcorn saying at Brother Washington's funeral, 'On that day a huge oak tree fell on the campus of Alcorn State and the reverberation was felt around the world.' And I think that statement says it all," said Brother Thigpen, who further explained that Brother Washington served as his mentor and groomed him for leadership in the chapter shortly after he joined Alpha Epsilon Lambda alumni chapter fresh out of Mississippi Valley State University's Zeta Phi Chapter. Born on July 13, 1923 to the Reverend Kemp Washington, a Baptist minister and homemaker Mable Washington in Hazelhurst, Mississippi, Walter Washington was educated in the racially segregated public schools of the southwestern plains of rural Mississippi. He was the youngest of six children according to his widow Dr. Carolyn C. Washington. "We met when we were freshmen at Tougaloo College in 1944. He and a friend were the first to go to college from his town," said Dr. Washington, a retired Social Science professor at Alcorn State University and 50-year member of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. "He wanted to be whatever was high, he was always grasping for something higher," she said of the ambitious young man that was her college sweetheart who in time became her husband. As a result of this inalienable desire to lead and serve his community, Brother



Washington would subsequently embark on a life-long career as a respected educator and nationally recognized civic leader. Washington-The Early Years After graduating from Tougaloo College with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1948, Dr. Walter Washington moved back to his hometown area as a schoolteacher. "We lived in Hazelhurst for two years as young newlyweds and we were both employed as teachers in the local schools. Hazelhurst was a segregated mid-sized town that was known for shipping vegetables. Because there was an Illinois Central Rail Road stop in town it was not as rural as other places. The African-American community on our side of the railroad tracks was very close-knit. Everybody was on the same level of income and people didn't feel like they were poor back in the '40's and '50's," said Dr. Carolyn Washington. As a college student Brother Washington contemplated becoming a preacher like his father or becoming an educator. He chose the field of educationâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;which traditionally offered young talented, African-American men who were dedicated to the uplift of young adults a position of high esteem in the community, very much in the same fashion as ministers in the African-American church. As a young schoolteacher Brother Washington quickly earned the respect of his peers in Hazelhurst and became the Assistant Principal of Parish High School while still serving as a classroom teacher within less than a year. Brother Washington was initiated into the Brotherhood of Alpha Phi Alpha on December 5, 1949 through Alpha Epsilon Lambda Alumni Chapter. Fraternity records show that he was a financial member in good standing since his initiation until congestive heart failure caused his death at the age of 75. He became a Life Member of Alpha Phi Alpha in 1967. In addition to his career in education Brother Washington was very active in numerous civic national organizations other than Alpha Phi Alpha. He was a charter member of the Beta Gamma Boule of the Sigma Pi Phi Honorary Fraternity, a member of a host

WALTER WASHINGTON of academic honorary societies including Phi Delta Kappa Educational Fraternity, and the Alpha Kappa Mu National Honorary Society (which was founded by Brother Dr. George Gore, Jr. in 1937). He also served on the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA) Presidents' Commission for Division I-AA schools, the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, the American Association of University Administrators and President George H.W. Bush's Presidential Board of Advisors to Historically Black Colleges and Universities. In 1952 he earned a Master of Science degree from Indiana University and became the Dean of Utica Junior College and head of its adjoining high school in Utica, Mississippi. He later served as principal of Sumner Hill High School in Clinton, Mississippi in 1955. Then in 1957, he returned to Utica Junior College as its new president and remained in that position for some 12 years. When reflecting on the breadth of Brother Washington's career as an educator and administrator, where he worked at every level of academia from secondary schools to the junior college and the university level, one could easily forget the context in which he obtained his success. In the 1950s it was not uncommon to see signs specifying "whites only" posted at local libraries, movie theaters and virtually any other place of business or education. Tuskegee Institute (now University) reported in a national study that 1952 was the first calendar year in its seventy-one years of tabulation of racial brutality that there were no lynchings in America. The long struggle for Civil Rights had begun in earnest and Brother Washington would bear witness to its labors and rewards not as a spectator but as a leader in both in Alpha Phi Alpha and in the world of higher education. Leading the way at Alcorn State In 1969 Brother Washington was appointed president of what was then called Alcorn Agricultural & Mechanical College by the Mississippi State Legislature. He also completed his course of study for his doctoral degree at the University of Southern Mississippi. Alcorn State University, as it would be later classified under Brother Washington's 25-year tenure as presidentâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the longest in ASU his1 tory, was founded in 1871 with a faculty of just eight who were charged with educating 179 freed male slaves. The first president of Alcorn State, which was organized on the former campus of Oakland College, a school for whites established by the Presbyterian Church, was Hiram Rhodes Revels. Revels who was born free in Fayetteville, North Carolina in 1822, was the first African-American I to serve in the U.S. Senate. Brother Washington helped merge two divergent philosophical ideologies that have shaped the growth and development of

Historically Black Colleges and Universities. One side framed institutions around vocational training. The other focused on liberal arts academic preparation and political activism. These two conflicting views were the centerpiece of the historic debate between Booker T. Washington (the founder of Tuskegee Institute) and Brother Dr. W.E.B. DuBois (the author of The Souls of Black Folk and progenerator of the "Talented Tenth" concept) at the turn of the century. As the chief administrator of Alcorn State University from 1969 to 1994, Brother Washington worked at bridging these two educational objectives under the aegis of one historically African-American university. When Dr. Washington was installed as president of Alcorn State in 1969, it had a student body of over 2,000. History was in the making not only on Alcorn's 1,756-acre Lorman, Mississippi, campus. In that same year, Brother Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. of Harlem, New York, along with the first Black woman to serve in the U.S. Congress, Shirley Chisholm of Brooklyn, New York, began their first terms in the U.S. House of Representatives. The man accused of murdering Nobel Prize winner, Brother Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1968 was sentenced to 99 years in prison. Civil unrest continued to touch off firestorms of riots and student protests in cities and college campuses across the country. In fact 100 African-American student activists made national headlines when they took control of the Student Union Building at Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York, brandishing handguns and rifles in April of that year. Dr. Carolyn Washington said that when she and Brother Washington arrived on Alcorn State's campus in '69 they had, "just missed most of the protest" that had taken place on campus. ft Under Brother Washington's administration at Alcorn State, scores of new academic and residential buildings were built and equipped with the latest technology. In 1971 with Walter Washington's leadership, Alcorn State introduced an Army ROTC Unit and established an Honors Curriculum Program. Brother Washington also established an accredited School of Nursing and organized the university's Division of Graduate Studies in 1975. In 1987 WPRL-FM began broadcasting to Southwestern Mississippi from Alcorn State University studios. The list of national accreditation for various academic programs that Alcorn acquired and the significant upgrading of university facilities and resources helped established Alcorn State as a leader among land grant institutions in the south. A large measure of that success is attributable to the vision and leadership of Brother Washington according to an article that ran in the Jackson (Mississippi) Daily News in the late 1980's. Life as the president of an HBCU was most fulfilling for Walter Washington and his wife. She states, "for 19 years I also worked at THE SPHINX" SUMMER 2000

WALTER WASHINGTON Alcorn as a tenured faculty member. We lived in this huge antebellum homeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; all of the college presidents lived there previously. It was pretty nice; we had household help and things like that. But we made a decision that we would leave the business of school at the front door." The Washington's had one child, a daughter, Wendy Carol, in their 50-year marriage, who was born in 1963 but succumbed to illness shortly after birth. L To be an Alpha Man Like Brother Washington "We interacted with Brother Washington so much in chapter meetings and things, we would forget that he was a former General President of the Fraternity," said Brother Thigpen, who added that Brother Washington was always well-dressed and groomed and that he never saw him with out a jacket. "He was a very powerful man but he was very grounded. When times were tough in terms of the state budget, Brother Washington always got what Alcorn State needed even when no one else in the state could." Brother Thigpen also noted that Brother Washington had a vast personal library in his home and that he often encouraged Brothers to develop an economic investment strategy and to find their life's passion. "He always talked about finding your passion in life," said Brother Thigpen. "Educating and mentoring were his life's passion and he did it at all levels. He also always talked about the critical importance of investing and saving money in our community." Dr. Carolyn Washington said Brother Washington's two main hobbies were managing his personal investments and reading. "He said every Alpha should be a millionaire and he lived what he preached," she said. Many have stated that no matter how busy Brother Washington was with his presidency of Alcorn State, various civic affiliations and meetings for an assortment of corporate boards around the country, Brother Washington always found time to answer the call of Alpha Phi Alpha. He spoke at numerous Fraternal functions. "He went to everything you Alpha's had, he missed but one National Convention in 50 years," stated Dr. Carolyn Washington with a chuckle. Dr. Walter Washington's last address to the general body of the Fraternity was last year at the Life Membership Breakfast during the Fraternity's 93rd Anniversary Convention in Dallas, Texas. He was bestowed the "Alpha Award of Merit," the highest honor bestowed on a Fraternity member in 1988, but his service to this, the oldest historically AfricanAmerican Greek-letter organization began many years before then. Brother Edwin A. France, a staff aid to the Mayor of Chicago in 1973 stated at the instillation ceremony of Dr. Walter Washington as the 24th General President of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., "You will be remembered as having been Southern Regional Vice President; Chairman on the Committee on Standards, and Extensions for four years; having served on almost all the other national committees, and serving as the Alpha Phi Alpha representative on the National Pan-Hellenic Council, where you distinguished yourself and the glorious name of Alpha Phi Alpha, by havCELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM

ing been selected by your peers on that Council as its National President." Two of the greatest accomplishments of Alpha Phi Alpha made during B r o t h e r Washington's presidency (1973-1976) according to Dr. Carolyn Washington and Ozell Sutton, the 26th General President of the Fraternity, were the development of the "$1 Million Campaign," which was the largest philanthropic effort undertaken of its kind by any national fraternal organization, and the convening of the Fraternity's 72nd Anniversary Convention, which took place in both New York City and Monrovia, Liberia in 1976. The "$1 Million Campaign" raised over a million dollars over some four years and was distributed to the NAACP, The National Urban League and The United Negro College Fund. Before his death, Brother Washington was in the process of writing a book according to his wife. She said, "he was writing a book about how every Alpha man should be the best and that everyone of them should be a millionaire. He felt that Alpha Phi Alpha was the cream of the crop. He wanted to see Alpha as the top men's group in this country. He was very proud of the accomplishments of the many notable Brothers in the Fraternity." Brother Sutton stated that the job of General President of Alpha Phi Alpha is no easy task and that getting elected is a major feat. "Leading an organization like Alpha Phi Alpha is an awesome task. You have two full-time jobs and you must provide leadership, direction and purpose to an organization of over 140,000 educated men." He added, "and it's not easy getting elected. We are different than most other organizations where they elect their leaders at their national conventions. In Alpha you have to convince the whole electorate, every active member gets a ballot in the mail. "Many of who have not seen you or been to a convention. It's like running for any high office in the United States." Brother Sutton stated that he believes that Brother Washington's legacy will be, "his love for the Fraternity as a whole and his love for the Brotherhood as individuals, and that should never be forgotten."




he modern period of the Civil Rights Movement from 1954 to 1968, was historically bracketed by 1 tithe brilliant and courageous leadership of two Alpha men. Brother Justice Thurgood Marshall and Brother Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The former, standing on an extensive body of case law that he had helped to establish as an NAACP attorney, successfully argued perhaps the single most important case in civil rights history: Brown v. the Board of Education in 1954. Though primarily concerned with school desegregation, the Brown decision overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1893), and with it, the entire legal foundation for American apartheid. The following year, in 1955, sparked by the simple resistance of Mrs. Rosa Parks, Brother Martin Luther King, Jr. met his cosmic destiny in Montgomery, Alabama, when he was chosen to lead that city's bus boycott. This event was the opening salvo in the non-violent battle against segregation and disenfranchisement that resulted in the desegregation of public accommodations (1964 Civil Rights Act), and voting rights (1965 Civil Rights Act). These legislative achievements were facilitated, to a large degree through another Alpha man, Brother Congressman Adam Clayton Powell. Brother Powell worked with President Lyndon Johnson to pass the most important Civil Rights legislation since Reconstruction's constitutional amendments that abolished slavery and sought to establish the rudimentary rights of citizenship. In previous articles in The SphinxÂŽ, and elsewhere, when the achievements of the 1960's are discussed, opportunity is generally equated with access. Whether that be the ballot, the right to sit anywhere on the bus, eat in any restaurant, sleep in any hotel, attend any school; or perhaps most significantly, the right to live without the continued brutality of the Ku Klux Klan's terroristic activity against African-American existence as human beings (although recent occurrences of church burnings, lynchings [Jasper, Texas], and police brutality demonstrate the persistence of racist violence). But black Economic Development as an extension of the Civil Rights struggle is usually a critical missing link that must be understood, defended and protected. Brother Martin Luther King realized that access must be accompanied by economic opportunity, but was stopped short in this quest by his assassination. Seldom examined, but inextricably connected to this era of progress is the entry into high paying job markets and the advancement of black business through Affirmative Action â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

construction industry and how that struggle continues today as one of the linchpins for economic justice in the future. It is based on my own civil Brother Paul King guides Illinois largest African-American construction firm. rights and business experience in that arena, along with the role and contributions of other Alphas. Business opportunity is arguably the least documented and most neglected side of the economic civil rights movement, whose legal foundation is based largely on the Affirmative Action program advanced by President Johnson in his 1965 Executive Order 11246, which required all government agencies and entities doing business with the federal government to end discrimination and take "Affirmative Action" to expand opportunities for blacks by developing programs to redress the historical legacy of racial discrimination and exclusion, with its consequent economic disparities. Demography was a primary barometer of change, in that the distribution of public sector jobs and contracts were required to positively reflect the proportion of minorities in the local population. This principle was also applied to the voter redistricting process. It should be noted that this Order was later amended to include women; consequently, white women have been a primary beneficiary of affirmative action in the workplace, as well as the business arena. â&#x20AC;˘ I For many of us either not around or unfamiliar with the history of the last 30 years, it may be difficult to imagine what it was like to essentially have all political and economic authority vested in white elected and appointed officials, professional workers, civil servants, and private construction contractors, who built virtually every public building, shopping center, highway, airport and library, in large metropolitan areas, including inside the ghetto itself. But the current need for affirmative action is also clear: economic disparities abound and are easily documented. Today the poverty level in the black community (35% and upward) exceeds the 25% unemployment rate for Americans generally during the Great Depression over seventy years ago. And THE SPHINX* SUMMER 2000

. EQUALITY this fact persists in the midst of what economists tell us is an economic boom period. Still, Affirmative Action has helped to change the social, economic and cultural landscape of the country in ways that are too pervasive to recount. For example, the city of Atlanta today has produced numerous black million-dollar construction firms all beneficiaries of Affirmative Action programs executed by Brother Maynard Jackson, the former Mayor of Atlanta. But in spite [or because] of the progress made under Affirmative Action, today, it is one of the most widely contested issues in the United States. Opponents of Affirmative Action use all types of misleading data to say enough has been done - that it results in illegal quotas and/or reverse discrimination. Their premise is that the attention given to race is unconstitutional, even though many blacks among them have benefited from such policies. The most egregious case of the latter is Clarence Thomas (a George Bush appointee), who now occupies the Supreme Court seat vacated by Brother Justice Marshall (a Johnson appointee), and Ward Connerly, spokesperson for the campaign to abolish Affirmative Action in California and an ally of organizations who have a similar mission in the construction industry. They are, in the words of one Black historian "our modern day Judases." Each application of Affirmative Action requires a different type of historical analysis and investigation. College and graduate school admission must be viewed through a different prism from that of the promotion of Black public service workers, such as firemen and policemen, for example. But one of the most significant, yet poorly understood areas of Affirmative Action as an engine for economic advancement and challenge remains the construction industry - traditionally one of the largest industries, nationally constituting about 10% of the Gross National Product, and an area in which I have personally been active as a businessman and advocate for over 30 years. Affirmative Action in construction has its genesis in the construction project shutdowns that began in Chicago on July 23, 1969. During the summer of that year, the spirit of activism and black empowerment were like an infectious virus. The legacy of Brother Dr. Martin Luther King and the memory of his successful battles witnessed on television were fresh in our minds and gave us a "hopeful boldness" that inspired us to fight for whatever we believed to be right. Against this backdrop, 12 organizations, including the local black contractors association that I headed, came together under the leadership of the Dr. King lieutenant, Rev. C.T. Vivian to form the Coalition for United Community Action, which closed down over $60 million dollars in construction in Chicago. The shutdown combined Dr. King's principles of non-violence with the traditional construction union protest practices of blocking access to worksites. Our approach was to focus on federally financed HUD-sponsored work, which could not be used to foster the inherent discrimination in the industry, based on the affirmative action guidelines of Executive Order 11246. CELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM

In 1969, construction nationally totaled $100 billion dollars, with 870,000 contractors, and 3-3 million construction workers. But only 16,000 of these contractors were black, with only 3,800 having paid employees, meaning that 75% were effectively self-employed operators, with total receipts of $464 million - less than half of 1% of overall construction volume. In Chicago, less than 2% of all construction workers were black and many of the trade unions like the Iron Workers, Sheet Metal and Elevator Operators had no AfricanAmerican members. Without union membership, one did not work on public construction projects in Chicago. This situation was the same throughout the country in major cities, with some exceptions in southern and rural areas, where unions were not as powerful. Blacks were largely relegated to the "Wet and Trowel Trades," i.e. painting, plastering and masonry. By virtue of this systematic exclusion, there were few black contractors in existence outside of the above-mentioned trades. Although there was a long history of pioneering work by the National Business League, the NAACP and the National Urban League, the 1969 Chicago construction shut-down signaled the emergence of a new Black Business initiative on the national civil rights scene through non-violent direct action in a major industry. Thousands of persons were mobilized in these actions over many months, which culminated in the signing of the Chicago Plan the following year, 1970. The Chicago Plan became a national model for the integration of the construction industry by establishing and enforcing goals and timetables for Blacks to enter all construction crafts. The principal signers of the agreement were Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley, the Chicago and Cook County Building and Construction Trades Council, the Building Construction Employers Association and myself, along with other Coalition leaders. After successfully establishing the Chicago construction model of job shutdowns and the negotiation of an action plan, the effects of which still have impact, I became involved in organizing and/or applying the direct action model in other cities around the country, including Seattle, Pittsburgh, Memphis and Denver. Meanwhile, several other developments propelled this issue into the national arena. The first was my participation in the founding of the National Association of Minority Contractors (NAMC) in 1969, organized by Brother Joseph Debro of Oakland, California, and upon his invitation, becoming the Chicago representative. This ongoing organization represented the institutionalization of the national Black contractor movement. The third national development phase stemmed from the publication of my essay on "Black Elected Officials and the Black Construction Issue," in the early 1970s. After it came to the attention of Congressman Parren Mitchell (D-Maryland), he invited me to Washington D.C. to assist him in the creation and development of a Black Business Braintrust. This entity formulated the Black Business Agenda, which became part of the ongoing work of the Congressional Black Caucus. One of its primary purposes was



to lead the effort to expand the economic participation of Black business, including construction firms, through federal legislation, regulation and implementation. Parren Mitchell assembled an important cadre of industry leaders who worked to advance this new Black business agenda. My entry into this national arena was an offshoot of the '69 Chicago action. Thus we had combined Affirmative Action with administrative policies and our street enforcement capacity to get Black economic development on the national radar screen. This marked a turning point in the battle moving from Local Street to City Hall, to the Congress, the Senate and the White House. While some might say that their business success was never helped by Affirmative Action, there can be no doubt that the climate we created during this period caused government agencies and private corporations to seek out Black business in response to this public policy. The mandates required by congressional regulation, combined with a politicized and vocal Black community, aided established Black businesses that were able to immediately benefit from the process. There may have been publishers, bankers, insurance and accounting firms that had existed and performed well without Affirmative Action prior to its inception, but they were clearly enhanced by the external stimulus provided by the new attention on African-American business utilization. As in all significant aspects of my life and work, Alpha men played pivotal roles in this struggle and were critical to this process as we moved forward. Brother John Wilks, Director of the Office of Federal Contract Compliance (OFCC) in the Department of Labor during the Nixon administration's Black Capitalism initiative, converted our unbridled goals into a coherent, politically acceptable form, which, after his counseling, I could articulate. Under this policy, a number of economic development, technical assistance and business creation programs were funded by the U.S. Department of Commerce, the Small Business Administration, and various model city agencies that we effectively merged to promote the advancement of Black contractors. These programs and policies permitted our people to develop and work in all crafts and learn while they earned. Moreover, as construction contractors, we were the businessmen who had a natural interest in employing our people. That interest was viewed by majority contractors as a frontal attack on their traditional prerogatives that allowed them to control the entire industry. We must understand that there is a huge difference between employment opportunities for Blacks and entrepreneurial empowerment, as conveyed through Affirmative Action business programs. After the initial resistance to integration by the construction unions in 1969 and the early 70's, there have been no Supreme Court cases against the mandated goals and timetables for Black construction workers (and later Hispanics and females). Yet, since 1969, there have been countless challenges all over the United States against Black contractor utilization goals - with the Croson (1983) and Adarand (1995) Supreme Court decisions that ignored egregious

examples of discrimination in the letting of public contracts being the most damaging. The construction industry constitutes the primary challenge to Affirmative Action in the business world. Construction is a major Black economic engine that White corporations have rediscovered as an enemy to their total dominance of the Black consumer. Indeed, many of the civil "rights" that we acquired, such as access to public accommodations, are generally consumer in nature, and have further fattened the coffers of those who would keep us is a second-class economic status. Consequently, our job is to better understand and demand attention to Black business development. Girded with a college education, and my experience as a contractor and advocate in the industry, I helped form UBM, Inc. in 1974. The firm has grown from two employees to being the largest black construction firm in the state of Illinois with over 100 employees, a multi-million dollar credit line, and $50 million dollar bonding capacity. We generate over 350 jobs annually and millions of dollars in contract awards to black subcontractors. UBM has gained tremendous opportunities by virtue of Affirmative Action; however, only good management and technical competence have allowed us to be financially successful. We have examples of similar or greater Black successes in the construction industry around the country, due in significant measure to the continued organizing efforts of the NAMC and the emergence of black elected officials. But while these successes have been great, they are minuscule in comparison to the larger construction economy. The total of all Black contractors in the United States ($2.7 billion) is less than half the volume of the three top firms in Chicago alone. In fact, the number one Chicago construction firm's volume is more than one-third of all Black contractor sales nationally. This ever-widening gap is proof that the continuous attacks by the majority contractors' organization, the Associated General Contractors (AGC), are having a serious negative impact on the quest for economic parity. The role that Alpha Phi Alpha played in my personal and professional development that allowed me to contribute to this historic movement for economic justice is noteworthy. The glue that connected three Black men from Chicago (myself), Oakland (Debro) and Washington, D.C. (Wilks) was/is the principle of "First of all, servants of all, we shall transcend all", and the guiding principles in our collective effort were "encouragement, education and guidance," along with a commitment and mutual cooperation with one another that we were taught and had perhaps, unconsciously, incorporated into our thinking, worldview and actions. The desire to institute change and provide service to other Black people was a given. We didn't talk about it as a philosophy, nor did we have to convince one another as to why we should do this type of organizing. There was no strategic plan or development model needed to generate our enthusiasm. But the social and cultural climate of the late 1960's is 180 degrees different from today. On the heels of the work of Brother THE SPHINX* SUMMER 2000


King, the atmosphere in Black America was one of "possibility" and we valued the competition of how much we had read and could discuss about African History, politics and social theory among each other. From the time of my initiation into the Fraternity, I have been overwhelmed with good fortune - both, in terms of the men that were made with me and the national leaders who mentored me. The friendship that I currently hold with my fellow initiates and the mentoring I received from older brothers is worth examining. I can certainly credit my parents and family for their nurturing, values, example and financial support to go to school. But, where did the inspiration and challenge come from to excel in school or business? It came from being surrounded by other Black men of my Theta Chapter pledge line, all of whom graduated from college and are successful today. We are not only "Ship Mates," but also "friends" who sponsor and host an annual dinner inviting other Alphas to meet and talk. One is a trusted CPA and another is a valued member of the UBM team. Brother Marv Wilson is a more recent addition to our company who serves as vice president for strategic planning, and continues the tradition of Alpha men playing key roles in my business development activities. This organizational genius is a key player in constructing a plan to make our firm multigenerational in the future. Do we foresee this type of closeness emerging among today's Black men and their families and lasting 40+ years? The point is made best by citing a recent meeting where a representative of the Chicago Public Schools was trying to get two high school students involved in construction jobs, but could not find one or two with enough confidence to stand out by availing themselves of this opportunity. Compare this mindset to that of Theta Chapter in 1957. We were encouraged to be different. Nobody took me to a "leadership class" and said these are the strategies and tactics for being an effective leader or that this is what you do to behave as an upright Black man. My pledge group selected many careers, including chemistry, civil engineering, accounting, pre-med studies, aeronautical engineering, etc. - but we were all expected to succeed by graduating and using our experience to help others. This absence of great expectations, mutual support, encouragement and commitment to service is often absent from our current scene. When I contemplated going into business, it was Brother Oscar Brown Sr. who afforded me an opportunity by giving me my first painting contract while I was still in college. He "schooled" me in the ways of doing business through the many times we talked, as well as through his personal and professional example. He would loan me payroll money, which I was always slow or late in paying back. But he never gave up and he would often counsel me by stating that I should "continue to try and never give up on myself.. .you have nothing to lose, but your own insecurity." What young man could not be successful with this kind of mentoring and positive intervention in his life? If the attacks on Affirmative Action led by Clarence Thomas CELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM


and Ward Connerly are not curbed, we will not only see a cessation of Black Business progress, but a decline in African- American youngsters' development of the confidence, self-esteem and skills provided previously through university Affirmative Action admission and hiring policies. Therefore, I would urge the Brothers of Alpha Phi Alpha who read this article to become more knowledgeable about and protective of Affirmative Action, and recognize the fact that, like it or not, it has helped us all. Alpha Phi Alpha, as the first Black fraternity, with thousands of leaders in all fields of endeavor, must take a lead in three key initiatives. 1) Educating our young brothers about the facts of the Civil Rights era, including Affirmative Action. 2) Developing models for intervention and mentoring. 3) Helping to meet the challenge of engaging Black men in the Information Revolution - a task that which I have developed a strong personal interest, along with the others. The Seven Jewels had a vision beyond our capacity to grasp. But it has sustained us for almost a century. Recently, we succeeded in developing [plans for] a Martin Luther King memorial in Washington, D.C., and one only needs to read The Sphinx"1 magazine to learn of historic achievements that Alpha men are making each day. Brother John Stroger, for example, the first Black President of Illinois' Cook County Board, controls over 27,000 jobs and a budget of close to $3 billion dollars. Yet, these individual and chapter accomplishments will pale against the enormity of the problems challenging young Black men. It is my fervent hope that by sharing our experiences through the new energy of The Sphinx91, we can institute a new sense of fraternal community, which is needed to offset the attacks on Black people's quest for full equality. The fact that I have benefited from fraternal life, particularly, the guidance received from older Brothers, challenges me to see ways to help younger Black students. This spirit led my graduate chapter, Xi Lambda, to adopt the Adam Clayton Powell Elementary School in Chicago, where an Alpha Brother was principal. We must realize that there is a tremendous body of information requiring "knowledge management", and we need a way to take the best ideas, concepts and practices that we have achieved and make them available to younger brothers. Perhaps the information revolution can yield devices for accomplishing this task. Finally, we must recognize that the social constructs which allowed Brothers Adam Clayton Powell, Martin Luther King, Ed Brooke, J. Herbert King, Judges Sidney Jones and Myles Paige, Clark Burrus, Brother Mayor Eugene Sawyer, Belford Lawson and Charles Wesley to talk to me and embrace me as a protege under their mentorship, no longer exist, particularly in urban areas. But just as Henry Arthur Callis had the vision to put an organization in place to successfully address the problems facing Black men during the early 1900's, it is our responsibility to make the Alpha Phi Alpha experience a relevant, exciting and necessary force in facing the challenges confronting Black men in this new century. My hope is to continue to participate in that struggle.

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A Killer Among Us... COLORECTAL CANCER By Brother Cornelius W. Chinn, MD, FAAFP

e've kept our blood pressure under control; had our annual prostate exam and blood sugar checked; even watched our cholesterol intake and just when we think we've shanghaied most of life's health battles, a new enemy lurks, patiently biding its time to rob us of our golden years. It deprives us of a Norman Rockwell retirement because we were too embarrassed to get checked for it, or, just unaware of our vulnerability. Brothers, there is a killer among usâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;colorectal cancer. The word cancer is the common term for all malignant tumors. Although the ancient origins of the term are somewhat obscure, it probably was derived from the Latin word for crab, cancer, because a cancer adheres to any part that it seizes upon in an obstinate manner much like that of a crab. The scientific term for cancer is neoplasia meaning growth. A neoplasm is a new growth which can be categorized either as 1) benign/non-harmful or 2) malignant/harmful. Malignant neoplasms/cancers can grow uncontrolled invading and destroying the normal tissues. Colorectal cancer refers to those cancers involving the colon and the rectum. These are the segments of the gastrointestinal tract that make up the lower one-third of the intestines. The gastrointestinal tract begins with the mouth then passes into the esophagus, next to the stomach, then into the small intestine which has three segments (jejunum, duodenum and ileum), and finally into the colon, often referred to as the large intestine. The colon ends in the rectum. The primary function of the gastrointestinal tract is to absorb nutrients and fuel for bodily functions and eliminate byproducts and waste matter in the form of bowel movements. If left unchecked, cancerous cells may eventually disrupt the functioning of the normal cells and tissues to the point of not being able to carry out their functions which ultimately lead to death. Excluding cancers of the skin, cancer of the colon and rectum are the third most common malignancy in terms of new cases and deaths among men and women in the United States. The incidence of colorectal cancer is higher in North America and Europe than in Africa, Asia and South America. In the U.S. colorectal cancer is greater in the Northeast than in the Southeast. It is higher in large cities as compared to rural areas. In 1999, approximately 1,200,000 diagnoses were expected in the United States, and 560,000 Americans were expected to die due to this disease. Black Americans are 34 percent more likely to develop cancer than any other racial or ethnic group. Black women have the highest incidence rates of colorectal cancer among women at 45.5 cases per 100,000 U.S. citizens; black men have the highest incidence rates at 59.4 cases per 100,000. But there is good news. Cancer mortality rates for many racial and ethnic groups have



begun to decline. From 1990 to 1995, the mortality rate among White Americans decreased 0.4 percent annually. During the same time frame, the mortality rate among Black Americans were reduced 0.8 percent annually. What are the factors of colorectal cancer? There are several: age, genetics, diet, physical activity and aspirin. As we grow older, the risk of colorectal cancer increases. Age is the single most significant risk factor in the development of colorectal cancer. Inherited conditions can put a person at a much greater risk of developing colorectal cancer, such as a genetic tendency to develop polyps (abnormal growths within the colon) which subsequently develop into cancer. Diet plays a major role in preventing or developing colorectal cancer. The suggestive protective mechanism of high-fiber diets is the increased rate of intestinal transit time produced by fiber, such that any potential carcinogen products are in contact with the colon for a shorter period of time. Additionally, because fiber increases the amount of water retained in the stool, it may serve to dilute any carcinogens that were ingested. Physical activity levels have also been correlated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Participation in regular physical activity is linked with lower rates of obesity, thereby helping to reduce risk. Aspirin use in men and women, as well as other nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) taken on a regular basis may reduce risk of colorectal cancer, and reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. Existing screening tests have shown reduction in death rates either by detecting and removing polyps before they become cancerous; or by detecting and removing early stage colorectal cancers while the disease is still highly curable. Tumors detected because they are causing symptoms have usually progressed to an advanced stage. The screening tests described below have all been determined to be effective in reducing the risk of death from colorectal cancer. Digital Rectal Examination (DRE). During a DRE, a physician physically explores for any irregular or abnormal areas. Although useful in detecting some polyps and cancers, the DRE is limited to only the rectal area. This simple test is not painful and should be performed prior to sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy or a double-contrast barium enema. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT). Cancerous tumors and occasionally polyps can be a source of bleeding in the intestine. The FOBT examines samples of stool for the presence of hidden or "occult" blood. Patients receive a test kit to take home along with dietary instructions to follow for several days before beginning the test. The test consists of taking small stool samples from three

consecutive bowel movements and then returning the kit to the doctor's office or laboratory for evaluation. Sigmoidoscopy. During a sigmoidoscopy, the physician uses a lighted tube (called a sigmoidoscope) to look inside of the rectum and lower part of the colon for cancer or polyps. If a polyp or other mass is present, the patient will then be referred for colonoscopy so that 1) a biopsy, or removal of a small piece of the growth can be taken and 2) the remainder of the colon, which is not reachable by a sigmoidoscope can be examined. The biopsy specimen will be sent to a laboratory to determine if cancer is present. This test may be somewhat uncomfortable, but it should not be painful. Colonoscopy. A colonoscope is a long, flexible, hollow, lighted tube, similar to a sigmoidoscope, that is also inserted into the rectum. Its advantage over the sigmoidoscope is its length and ability to examine the entire colon. Brothers, don't let colorectal cancer steal what ought to be the most rewarding years of a person's life. Healthier lifestyles and early detection of this disease are key. No matter which method you choose, be aware and get screened.

1. American Cancer Society

References 2. American Academy of Family Physicians 3- Cancer Facts and Figures

4. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center


he Harlem Renaissance era, generally referred to as the period between 1920-1935, holds a special place in the history of African-Americans. Also called the Black Renaissance, the period witnessed a tremendous outpouring of literary, historical and artistic productions by black people in the United States; with Harlem, New York, serving as the major vantage point of the movement.1 During this period, Alpha Phi Alpha celebrated its second major decade of growth and development, and Alpha Brothers were major contributors to the Black Renaissance.2 In fact, this Article documents the roles of twenty-one Fraternity Brothers during the Harlem Renaissance. The Black Renaissance occurred during a critical period of modern Black American history. Politically, socially and economically, an Age of segregation gripped black life in America, especially so in the South. With the coming of World War I in 191418 and into the 1920's, many blacks sought to escape the harshest consequences of American racism by migrating from the South to the North. Hundreds of thousands left the South, and took their talents and skills with them. When combined with the native northern black populations, an urban phenomenon took place, transforming the black population in the United States from a largely rural people to one concentrated in cities. One scholar estimates that "at the end of the 1920's there were 164,566 black people living in Harlem, making it the most densely populated black area in the world."3 Black writers, artists, intellectuals and leaders were especially attracted to New York City, because of its major importance in the economic, cultural and political life of the nation. New York was extremely important because of its size, the largest city in America; the banking and commercial activities of the region; the press; its foundations; and the national book publishing and other cultural institutions which were prominent there, and its role in bringing together a large range of black artistic and literary talent. The list of outstanding black figures who contributed to the Black Renaissanceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and made New York their homeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;(at some stage of their career), reads like a who's who among AfricanAmericans of the Twentieth Century, including: James Weldon Johnson, Jean Toomer, Jessie Fauset, Marcus Garvey, Walter White, Brother Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes, Brother Eric Walrond, Brother W. E. B. DuBois, Rudolph Fisher, Nella Larsen, Claude McKay, Wallace Thurman, Arna Bontemps and Zora Neale Hurston among others. Yet, it must be understood that the Black Renaissance also took place in many other cities throughout the United States, such as Chicago, Illinois, Washington, D.C. and Atlanta, Georgia.4 It should also be clearly understood that although the



Harlem Renaissance had perhaps its greatest impact in the area of literature production - (poetry, stories, and novels) - the movement also encouraged an expansion of black jazz, gospel and blues; other fine arts, such as painting, sculpture and theatre; education (what we today would now call black consciousness); and the study of Africa and blacks outside of the mother continent, especially United States black history, life and culture.5 Certainly the impact of the movement was impressive. Scholar Nathan Irvin Huggins notes that the Harlem Renaissance: "left its mark as a symbol and a point of reference for everyone to recall.. .the very name continued to connote a special spirit, new vitality, black urbanity, and black militancy. Through the activities, the writings, the promotion of Negroes in the 1920s, Harlem had become a racial focal point for knowledgeable black men [and women] the world over".6 Within the world of the Black Renaissance characters, at least twenty-one Alpha Phi Alpha Brothers made remarkable contributions to the movement. Of twenty-one Brothers listed, ten were bom in the South, seven in Eastern states, three in the Midwest, and one in a foreign country, Guyana. At least eighteen of the Brothers were bom in the Nineteenth century: (four in the 1860s, one in the 1870s, six in the 1880s, and seven in the 1890s). Collectively, they were a highly educated group. Sixteen of the Brothers attended historically African-American colleges and universities, with the top three being Howard (6), Virginia Union (4) and Fisk (2). Many of the Brothers received their undergraduate degrees, or advanced training at thirtyfour historically white institutions. Four each who attended the University of Chicago, and Columbia University, and two each at Cornell and Northwestern. Howard University had the most from historically black institutions with six Brothers. One Brother attended a third world institution, Cairo University, in Egypt. Four outstanding Alpha Brothers hail from the theater world: Brother Dick Campbell, who, in 1935, became one of the first blacks to manage a professional theater company, the Negro People's Theatre in Harlem, and later with his wife, Mauriel Rahn, the Rose McClendon Players. He also performed in Hot Chocolates, in 1929.7 Brother Duke Ellington was a leading composer and bandleader of the era. In fact, during his career, he composed over 1,000 musical compositions, including such famous ones as "It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got that Swing," "Satin Doll" and "Sophisticated Lady." During the Renaissance he contributed music for Chocolate Kiddies (1925) .8



Brother Paul Robeson was a major actor and concert singer during the Harlem Renaissance. His theater credits during the period includes: "Taboo," New York, 1922; "Emperor Jones," New York, 1923; "All God's Chillun," New York, 1923; "Emperor Jones," England, 1925; "Black Boy," New York, 1926; and "Show Boat," London, 1928,1932.9 Brother Nobel Sissle was a leading bandleader and composer during the Harlem Renaissance. With Eubie Blake, he helped to open the musical foundations of the era with Shuffle Along in 1921. Brother Sissle also contributed his talents in the production of "Eisle" (1923), and "Chocolate Dandies" (1924). He wrote the famous song, "I'm Just Wild About Harry." In 1937, he was a founder of the Negro Actor's Guild.10 Ten remarkable Alpha Brothers worked magic with pen and paper as poets, authors, novelists, and journalists. Three creative writers are significant. On this list are, namely, Brothers Countee Cullen, Fenton Johnson, and Eric Walrond. Brother Cullen's body of work must be considered among the leading poets of the era, but he was also the author of a novel (One Way to Heaven, in 1932), an editor, dramatist (St. Louis Woman, written with Arna Bontemps, in 1946), and essayist. Brother Cullen is especially remembered for his lyric poetry, for exploring the complexities of the black experience, and for his observations on universal themes, such as beauty, the search for truth, and human understanding." During the highlight years of the Harlem Renaissance, he was famous for such poems as "Heritage," "Shroud of Color," "Yet Do I Marvel," and "Incident." His poem "For A Poet" reflects therichnessof his lyric style and mood. I have wrapped my dreams in a silken cloth, And laid them away in a box of gold; Where long will cling the lips of the moth, I have wrapped my dreams in a silken cloth; I hide no hate, I am not even wroth Who found earth's breath so keen and cold; I have wrapped my dreams in a silken cloth, And laid them away in a box of gold.12 Brother Fenton Johnson made his mark during the Black Renaissance as a poet, editor and journalist. In 1916, he founded the Champion Magazine, followed two years later with the Favorite Magazine. Brother Johnson published three collections of poetry: A Little Dreaming (1913), Visions of the Dusk (1915), and Songs of the Soil (1916). He is also remembered for his collection of short stories, Tales of Darkest America (1920).13 Brother Eric Walrond served as an editor at the Brooklyn and Long Island Informer (1921-1923), the Negro World (1923-25), and as business manager of Opportunity for 1925-27. He is best known for his collection of stories, Tropic Death, published in 1926.14 Six other Alpha Brothers were important authors, essayists and journalists during the Harlem Renaissance. This list includes Brothers W.E.B. DuBois, Charles S. Johnson, Rayford W. Logan,

Kelly Miller, Jesse E. Morland and Charles H. Wesley. Brothers DuBois and Johnson were critical to the movement, since they served as editors of The Crisis and Opportunity, two of the most significant journals of the period.15 Other key editors, include: Brothers Countee Cullen, Fenton Johnson, Carl Murphy (editor of the Baltimore Afro-American, 1922-61), Robert Vann (editor of the Pittsburgh Courier, 1910-40), and Eric Walrond.16 These Alpha Brothers were very important in aiding the development of black writers, by publishing many of them, by reviewing their books in the pages of their journals and newspapers; and by helping to increase the literacy rates among black readers, thus increasing the marketplace for more African-American purchasers of literary and educational materials.17 In the 1920s and 1930s, four major Alpha Brothers made important contributions as historians in the Black Renaissance. They were Brothers W.E.B. DuBois, William Leo Hansberry, Rayford W. Logan and Charles H. Wesley. Their scholarship was in the forefront of African-American efforts to recapture the meaning and significance of the black past, from ancient Africa to the modern world.18 Similarly, during this period, Brothers Charles S.Johnson and Jewel Eugene Kinckle Jones were outstanding figures in the field of sociology. Brother Johnson was one of the best known sociologists of his day, as reflected in his books, The Negro in American Civilization: A Study of Negro Life and Race Relations in the Light of Social Research (1930) and Shadow of the Plantation (1934). Jewel Jones was the leading social worker and a key Executive Secretary at the National Urban League between 1911-1950. He also played a special role in the founding of Opportunity, the official organ of the National Urban League.19 Six Alpha Brothers, under the heading major educators, performed outstanding service during the Harlem Renaissance. They were Brothers John Hope (president of Morehouse College, 1906-29, and Atlanta University, 1929-36); Rayford W Logan (a major professor and head of the history department at Virginia Union University, 1925-30, Atlanta University, 1933-38, and Howard University, 1938-69, Chair, 1942-64, and historian of the University); Howard H. Long (the first African-American to be awarded an Ed.D. degree, and professor of Psychology at Howard University, 1916-17, Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Howard University, 1907-19; Jesse E. Moore (a professor at Howard University and significant contributor of books to Howard University); and Charles H. Wesley (head of the History Department, Howard University, 1921-42, and Acting Dean, College of Liberal Arts. Howard 1937-38), Dean of the Graduate School, 1938-42, and president of Wilberforce University (Ohio), 1942-47).20 The collective educational service contributions of the above Brothers and others helped to advance the field of higher learning for thousands of students across the Harlem Renaissance years and beyond. Under the category major leaders (especially in the area of civil rights) for the 1920s and 1930s, must be listed twelve Alpha Brothers, who made a distinguish contribution in the struggle to THE SPHINX速 SUMMER 2000

HARLEM uplift and advance the political, economic and social interests of the African-American people, and, in reality, all of the poor of America. The leaders on this list include: Brothers W.E.B. DuBois, John Hope, Charles S. Johnson, Jewel Eugene Kinckle Jones, Rayford W Logan, Kelly Miller, Jesse E. Moorland, Carl Murphy, Paul Robeson, Jewel Venter W Tandy, Robert Vann and Charles H. Wesley. They worked through a host of organizations and movements to aid in the reform of American society. They were major leaders in such historic organizations as the NAACP, the National Urban League, the PanAfrican Movement, the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, religious, fraternal, labor, and educational groups, the black press, political parties and social clubs. Their body of work helped in the painstaking efforts of the earlier generations to advance the black cause in the struggle to overthrow the Age of Segregation (1890-1970), while promoting the growth and development of the culture, creativity and spirituality of blacks in America and around the world. As scholar Edward Hirsch observes: "The writers [and other leaders] of the Harlem Renaissance were inflamed with a fresh faith in blackness and a fervent racial pride, the symbol and gospel of the New Negro... the Harlem Renaissance marked a major watershed in black, and consequently, in American literary history."21 Thus, the legacy of black writers, artists and leaders of the 1920s and 1930s remains a vibrant challenge to all of those who lived after this period. Certainly the work and contributions of the Brothers of Alpha Phi Alpha during the Harlem Renaissance must be appreciated in the continuing efforts of our scholars, young people, and the general community to assess the impact of the historical past, and to determine how the struggles and achievements of yesterday may continue to impact on contemporary lives at home and abroad.


Huggins, Harlem Renaissance, 303-


Loften Mitchell, Black Drama: The Story of the American Negro in the Theatre (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1967), 91-95,100,105108. 8

James A. Page, Selected Black American Authors: An Illustrated Bio-Bibliography (Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1977), 77-78.

'Martin Bauml Duberman, Paul Robeson (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988), 157-159; Joseph J. Boris, ed. Who's Who In Colored America (New York: Who's Who In Colored America, 1927), 171. '"Boris, Who's Who in Colored America, 1927,185. "James A Emanuel and Theodore L. Gross, eds., Dark Symphony: Negro Literature in America (New York: The Free Press, 1968), 173; Jean Wagner, (Translated by Kenneth Douglas), Black Poets of the United States: From Paul Laurence Dunbar to Langston Hughes (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1973), 283-347; Alan Shucard, "Countee Cullen," in Trudier Harris and Thadious M. Davis, eds, Afro-American Writers from the Harlem Renaissance to 1940, Vol 51 (Detroit: Gale Research Co, 1987), 35. 12

Gerald Early, ed. My Soul's High Song: The Collected Writings of Countee Cullen, Voice of the Harlem Renaissance (New York: Doubleday, 199D, 109"Nancy Pear, "Fenton Johnson, 1888-1958," in Linda Metzher, Hal May, Deborah A. Straub, and Susan M. Trosky, eds. Black Writers: A Selection of Sketches from Contemporary Authors (Detroit: Gale Research Co, 1989), 300-302; Barksdale and Kinnamon, Black Writers of America, 455-456. 14

Works Cited and References

Boris, Who's Who in Colored America, 1927, 212; Metzher, May, Straub, and Trosky, Black Writers, 579-

'Roger M. Valade III, The Essential Black Literature Guide (Detroit: Visible Ink, 966), 165-67; Nathan Irvin Huggins, Harlem Renaissance (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), 4.

"Roland E. Wolseley, The Black Press, U.S.A (Ames, Iowa: The Iowa State University Press, 1971), 42-46; Elliot M. Rudwick, "W E. B. DuBois in the Role of Crisis Editor," Journal of Negro History 43, No. 3 (July 1958); 214-40; James O. Young Black Writers of the Thirties (Baton Rouge, La.: Louisiana State University Press, 1973), 77,13638; David Levering Lewis, W. E. B. DuBois: Biography of A Race, 1868-1919 (New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1993), 408-434.

'Charles H. Wesley, The History of Alpha Phi Alpha: A Development in College Life (Chicago: The Foundation Publishers, 1991), 118237. 3

Carole Marks, Farewell - We're Good: The Great Black Migration (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1989); Richard Barksdale and Kenneth Kinnamon, eds., Black Writers of America: A Comprehensive Anthology (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1972), 471. 4

See special Issue, "The Harlem Renaissance Revisited," Black World, XX, No. 1 (Nov., 1970). 5

Arna Bontemps, ed., The Harlem Renaissance Remembered (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1972), 1-26; Vincent Harding, Beyond Chaos: Black History and the Search for the New Land (Atlanta, Ga.: Institute of the Black World, Black Paper No. 2,1970), 1-20. CELEBRATING THE MILLENNIl! 1/


Rayford W Logan and Michael R. Rinston, eds. Dictionary of American Negro Biography (New York: W. W. Norton & Co, 1982), 148-151; "Carl J. Murphy," in Boris, Who's Who in Colored America, 1927,147; Andrew Buni, Robert L. Vann of the Pittsburgh Courier: Politics and Black Journalism (Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1974), 42-47,133-135. "Theodore G. Vincent, ed. Voices of a Black Nation: Political Journalism in the Harlem Renaissance (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1973), 1-38.



'"Constance A. Burns, "William Edward Burghardt DuBois," Joseph E. Harris, "William Leo Hansberry," and Julius E. Thompson, "Rayford Whittingham Logan," in E C.Jones-Wilson, C. A. Asbury, M. Okazawa-Rey, D. K. Anderson, S. M.Jacobs, and M. Fultz, eds., Encyclopedia of AfricanAmerican Education (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996), 147-149, 201-203, 268-269; Kenneth Robert Janken, Rayford W. Logan and the Dilemma of the African American Intellectual (Amherst, Mass.: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1993), 80-85; James L. Conyers, Jr., ed., Charles H. Wesley: The Intellectual Tradition of a Black Historian (New York: Garland Publishing, 1997), 227-264. "Charles S. Johnson, The Negro in American Civilization: A Study of Negro Life and Race Relations in the Light of Social Research (New York: Holt, 1930); and Shadow of the Plantation (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1934); Boris, Who's Who In Colored America, 1927,110; Vernon E.Jordan, Jr., "Eugene Kinckle Jones," in Logan and Winston, Dictionary of American Negro Biography, 364-386. 20 Page, Selected Black American Authors, 290. "Edward Hirsch, "Helmet of Fire: American Poetry in the 1920s," injack Myers and David Wojahn, eds., A Profile of Twentieth-Century American Poetry (Carbondale, 111.: Southern Illinois University Press, 1991), 56-57.

Brother Julius E. Thompson, Ph.D., is Director of the Black Studies Program and Associate Professor of History at the University of Missouri in Columbia. He also is a member of the Fraternity's Historical Commission.

• EDITORS of THE SPHINX® Raymond W. Cannon 1914

Lewis O. Swingler 1936-1943

L.L. McGee

Mereditk G. Ferguson


1943-1944 (Interim) Reid E. Jackson 1945 Lewis O. Swingler 1946-1947 Arnett G. Lindsay 1948

W.A. Pollard 1916 V.D. Jok nson 1917 (Interim) Carl J. Murpky 1918-1922 Oscar C. Brown 1923-1929 P. Bernard Young, Jr. 1930-1933 Arnett G. Lindsay 1934-1935

Lewis o. owing ler 1949-1950 W. Barton Beatty, Jr. 1951-1961 C. Anderson Davis 1962-1965

George M. Daniels 1966-1968 J. Herkert King 1969-1972 Laurence T. Young, Sr. 1973 (Interim) J. Herkert King 1973-1974 Mickael J. Price 1974-1990 Ckarles F. Rokinson, III 1991-1992 John J. Joknson, III 1993-1996 Seaton J. Wkite, III 1997-2000 Jokn I. Harris, III

2000 (Interim)THE SPHINX" SUMMER 2000

Little Brother Robert enjoys beating his Big Brother, Duane, at the video arcade. Duane is a graduate student at North Carolina AST University.

And you thought being a Big Brother was serious business. We know. You thought that being a Big Brother meant being a serious, mature role model, giving lots of sage advice, and taking trips to cultural events. Guess again. What a Little Brother wants and needs most is just your friendship, a few hours of your time, and some fun. That's all. So go ahead, call your local agency to become a Big Brother — and let the serious fun begin.















t is difficult to think about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. without envisioning his beautiful vet strong black skin against the alabaster white marble of the Lincoln Memorial. As our minds recall his immortal words and ponder his early death, our visions of him are as lasting as the stone which now encase his remains. It is the contrast of colors, black against white and the beauty of the marble which is ever present in our thoughts of this leader whose vision, whose mission, whose message is as permanent as this element of the earth. The marble used to create the Lincoln Memorial, the U.S. Capitol, the Hart building in Washington and the tomb of our King is the product of the same Georgia soil upon which Brother King walked as a child and later as a leader of this nation. It is the same marble that was mined to create the bricks that now commemorate the memorial that will honor this 20th Century visionary. Yes, you own a piece of American history; that is, if you've received one of the bricks issued by Alpha Phi Alpha. The brick you own holds a story as rich i cy of Martin. A few miles north of Atlanta in a town called Tate, there is a huge hole. It i largest open pit marble mine in the world and the home of Georgia Marble. From depths of this mine come hues of marble from stark white to black. This stone 1 its formation and journey to the top of the earth 600 million years ago. Once i covered, marble has been the choice for builders of great monuments, for craftsmen, architects and sculptors. Developers of the world's first civilization carved masterpieces in marble over six thousand years ago. King David provided gold, silver and "marble stones in abundance" to beautify the great temple at Jerusalem about 1,015 B.C. The Greeks used marble in the 5th Century B.C. to attain their greatest glory in architecture and sculpture, memorializing their gods with temples and statues that are still among the world's marvels. Marble can be found as the substance that brought beauty to statues such as "Venus de Medici." Michaelangelo chose marble for his works of the 15th and 16th Centuries. He used this stone to create a lasting memory of Moses; and now, Alpha Phi Alpha uses marble to create momentos of a modern day Moses: Brother Martin Luther King, Jr. The Washington, D.C. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Project has not yet decided the medium that will be used to create the memorial in Washington. What we do know is that regardless' of what is chosen, the memorial will embody the simple principles that have served as the mantra for this effort. The Man, The Movement and The Message. In issuing the bricks made from Georgia marble, Alpha Phi Alpha has joined the ranks of those who built monuments in Greece, the Taj Mahal in India, and the greatest symbols of our nation's capital city. Marble: a substance which stands the test of time, and maintains its boldness, its beauty, and its brilliance â&#x20AC;&#x201D; much like the light of Alpha and the man whom we come to honor. If you have not made your contribution to this memorial and received^ your piece of history, one has to wonder, .why not?


Brother Carter is the Primary Anchor for CBS Television Station WJZ-TVin Baltimore, MD








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License granted by Intellectual Properties Management, Inc. as Manager of the Estate of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. A project of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. authorized by the United States Congress, Public Law 104-333; also known as the "Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Project."

By Brother Norman E. W. Towels e all know the story as chronicled by Brother Charles H. Wesley in the History of Alpha Phi Alpha: A Development in College Life; how in the autumn of 1905, eight students gathered together forming a social studies literary society, the precursor to Alpha Phi Alpha: Henry A. Callis, Vertner W. Tandy, George B. Kelly, Charles H. Chapman, Nathaniel A. Murray, Robert H. Ogle, Morgan T. Phillips and George Thompkins, C.C. Poindexter, James H. Morton, Eugene K.Jones, Gordon Jones and Lemuel Graves, associated with the organization shortly thereafter, making a total of 13 individuals critical to the beginnings of the organization Alpha Phi Alpha. These men served as the genesis to the Seven Jewels and to the foundation of our great and wonderful organization, the Black and Old Gold of Alpha Phi Alpha, representing, from the beginning, qualities of leadership and scholarship, whose purpose was to uplift mankind. But let us, if you will, turn to a slightly different time and place, and here begins our true tale of an alternate Alpha universe. Imagine, if you will, that cold dark day in 1905 when some college students came together to develop the precursor to Alpha Phi Alpha, the Hynathian Society. "What," you say, you've thoroughly read The History of Alpha Phi Alpha by Charles H. Wesley, first published in 1929, and you don't remember that piece of history. Then read on and you will learn of the unwritten history of Alpha Phi Alpha. Beginning in 1905, the Hynathian Society was established. Not much is known of that organization at this time other than to state that after a few years of existence the members decided to form a fraternity and thus Alpha Phi Alpha was bom in 1910 at Colby College in the state of Maine. The physical evidence of this occurrence is overwhelming. In fact, Alpha Phi Alpha is documented on page 122 and depicted on page 123 of the 1910 Colby Annual. In fact, two members of the organization were graduating seniors and proudly listed their affiliation with their graduating picture. M.E. Woodman, Af A[sic], A.M. Henderson, A f A, and L.C. Garland were the first graduates. Further it identifies the class of 1911 as being R.M. Pillsbury and E.M. Laurence. The class of 1912 as E.L Clark, S.M. Wentworth, E.C. Gardiner, C.E. Gile, E.R. Lenhart, and L.B.Powers and the class of 1913 being E.K. Litchfield, M.J. Wall, F. Haynes, and E.A. Ward. In fact, the chapter boasted 14 members in 1910. Actually the


yearbook also gives us a glimpse into the involvement in campus life in those early days. M.E. Woodman, A f A, graduated from Waterville High School in 1905, participated in the Sophomore Declamation (a kind of debate society), served on the Ode Committee, was Class Vice-President and a member of Kappa Alpha Honorary Fraternity. A.M. Henderson, A f A, graduated from Kimbull Union Academy in 1904, won first prize in the Sophomore Declamation, was a member of the basketball team during her senior year and also a member of Kappa Alpha Honorary Fraternity and was extremely active in campus life. L.C. Garland, A f A, graduated from Hampstand High School in 1904, participated in the Sophomore Declamation; won the German Prize, served on the School Finance Committee, Executive Committee was Class Historian and Associate Editor of the Oracle (Colby College Yearbook) and was a member of Kappa Alpha Honorary Society. Easily one can see that from the very beginnings of the organization that Alpha Phi Alpha members embodied concepts of leadership and social involvement. Key elements of scholarship were inherent as all three of the first graduates were members of Kappa Alpha Honorary Society. The 1910 Colby Oracle identifies E.M. Laurence, A f A, and R.M. Pillsbury, A f A, as being members of the class of 1911 (p.) 71. While no indication is given of the class of 1912, the class of 1913 is identified with E.K. Litchfield, Af A, M.J. Hall Af A, and E.A. Ward Af A, among the class members along with FF. Haynes, Af A, as reflected on page 189 of the 1910 Colby Oracle. In 1911, Colby additional information is obtained on the list of illustrations. Identified as campus fraternities are Delta Kappa Epsilon, (p.) 93, Zeta Psi, (p.) 97, Delta Upsilon, (p.) 101, Phi Delta Theta, (p.) 105, Alpha Tau Omega (p.) 109, Sigma Kappa, (p.) 113, Chi Omega, (p.) 117, Delta Delta Delta, (p) 121 and Alpha Phi Alpha (p.) 125. Also listed were Honorary Societies. Among them was Kappa Alpha, (p.) 135. In reviewing the 1911 Colby, we find E.M. Laurence, Af A, (p.) 70, a 1906 graduate of Madison High School, a member in the sophomore and junior years of the Glee Club, as well as the Nextor Club, Dramatics, and Kappa Alpha. R.M. Pillsbury, Af A, (p.) 71, is identified as being a graduate of Rockland High School, served on the Executive Committee, the Dexter Club, Class Executive Committee and Kappa THE SPHINX" SUMMER 2000

Alpha. The chapter consisted of 13 members; two seniors; E.M. Laurence, and R.M. Pillsbury, six juniors; E.L. Clarke, E.C. Gardiner, H. Hurt, MA Strickland, E.A. Ward and S.M. Wentworth, two sophomores; E.K. Litchfield and B.N. Tobey and three second semester freshmen, M.J. Farrar, A.A. Hunton and M.H. Hunt (note page 124, 1911 Oracle). I don't have records of the 1912,1913 and 1914 Colby Oracle, but the 1915 Oracle identifies M.M. Chamberlain, Af A, Waterville High School, graduating 1911, served with the German Club, Dramatics Club and the Pageant, M.E. Everett, Af k, another identified member graduated from Hartland Academy in 1911 served as Class Treasurer, Dramatics Club, Basketball Team and the Colby Day Pageant Committee. J. Farnum, Af A, graduated from the Wilton Academy in 1910, served on the Pan-Hellenic Council, Class Secretary, Dramatics Club, the Pageant and the German Club. A.C. Gilman, Af A, graduated from Dexter High School, inl908 served as Class President, and in the all-out-of Door Club, Bible Study Committee, President of YPSCE, Dramatics, Pageant and Glee Club, M.E. Tobey the final graduate graduated from the Coburn Classical Institute in 1911, the Deutscher Club, Kappa Alpha Honor Societyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; all of the early members were also affiliated with the Youth Christian Association. The year 1915 was probably the last in the life of Alpha Phi Alpha at Colby College. In 1915, Alpha Delta Pi was established at Colby. Alpha Delta Pi was established at Wesleyan College in Georgia in 1851. On May 15,1851, this organization being the first of its kind in the country, but remained local to Wesleyan until 1905 when it decided to become a national organization and took out a charter



incorporation as Alpha Delta Pi. This organization's purpose was the moral and social uplift of the members. The colore are black and gold. Alpha Delta chapter of Alpha Delta Pi was established when Alpha Phi Alpha made petition to join the organization in 1915 and was accepted and set its founding date as 1905 with the initiation of the Hynatia Society, 1905-1910, and encompassing the short lived life of Alpha Phi Alpha from 1910-1915. Thus, our story ends as the light flickers from Colby, but it leaves us with some questions; for example, what if the Brothers of Alpha Phi Alpha at Cornell had not incorporated in 1908? Did Alpha Phi Alpha Colby attempt to become National and thus learn of Alpha Phi Alpha Cornell, hastening their merger with Alpha Delta Pi? Isn't it curious that they merged with the oldest sorority in the country having been established in 1851? How did it happen that a Georgia sorority just happened to get transplanted to Maine and date the Colby chapter from 1905â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the first year that it decided to become National, and what about their purpose to uplift the moral and social future of its members, or its colore of Black and Gold? What if the Hynathia Society had not become Alpha Phi Alpha nor established at Colby or Cornell, might the two African-American male students at Colby in 1917 and 1920 been the genesis for starting an African-American fraternity? Both were probably among America's earliest black members of a white fraternity. Well, of course that's food for thought for another day and perhaps another tale of an alternative Alpha

Brother Norman E. W. Towels, Ph.D., is National Chair of the Fraternity's Racial Justice/Public Policy Committee. He served as Western Regional Vice President and was selected as the National Alumni Brother of the Year in 1983.

Appendix Initial Glossary

Precursors and Early Members of Alpha Phi Alpha Cornell, 1905 - 1906

H.A. Chapman V.W Tandy G.B. Kelley C.H.Chapman N.A. Murray R.H. Ogle M.T. Phillips G. Thompkins C.C. Poindexter J.H. Morton E.K. Jones L. Graves G.Brown

Henry Arthur Chapman Vertner Woodson Tandy George Biddle Kelley Charles Henry Chapman Nathaniel A. Murray Robert Harold Ogle Morgan T Phillips George Thompkins Charles Carlyle Poindexter James H. Morton Eugene Jones Lemuel Graves Gordon Brown


Precursors and Early Members of Alpha Phi Alpha Colby 1905 - 1 9 1 0 M.E. Woodman A.M. Henderson L.C. Garland R.M. Pillsbury E.M. Lawrence E.L Clark S.M. Wentworth E.C. Gardiner C.E. Gile E.R. Lenhart L.B. Powers E.K. Litchfield M.J. Wall F.F. Haynes E.A. Ward

Mary Ellen Woodman Alice Mary Henderson Leona Cassandra Garland Rose Maud Pillsbury Elsie May Lawrence Emma Louise Clark Susan May Wentworth Elsie Carleton Gardiner Carrie Estella Gile Edith Rose Lenhart Louise Brooks Powers Ella Kelsey Litchfield Mabel Josephine Wall Florence Frances Haynes Ethel Annetta Ward



1911 Chapter Members - Additional Members Included H. Hunt M.A. Strickland B.N. Tobey M.J. Farrar A.A.. Hunton M.H. Hunt

Helen Hunt Mary Annie Strickland Bessie Noble Tobey Marcia Jennie Farrar Alice Almina Hunton Mayble Hancock Hunt


1915 M.M. Chamberlain M.E. Everette J. Farnum A.C. Gilman M.E. Tobey

Marguerite May Chamberlain Myrtle Erdene Everett Jennie Farnum Aldine Clarke Gilman Mary Esther Tobey

I.B. Brown E.R. Robinson H.N. Lane C.L. Hinckley H.A. Moore A.A. Hunton E.M. Lane E.H. Porter

Ida Blanche Brown Ella Russell Robinson Hazel Nina Lane Clara Louise Hinckley Hazel Alice Moore Alice Almina Hunton Elsie Mae Lane L Ernestine Harriet Porter

And H. Barney

Hazel Barney


Alpha Delta Pi, Founded Wesleyan Female College 1851 - Established Alpha Delta Chapter, Colby College 1915 E.M. Lane, Alpha Phi Alpha

Elsie Mae Lane

Chronicled in 1917 Colby, p. 128 Note: E.C.Niles

George Halley

Edward Coburn Niles, Member of Pi Kappa Delta White fraternity founded at Ottawa University in 1912 -Colors: Cherry and White Alpha of Maine established in 1920 L Niles, a Black student was a charter member, also on track, baseball, football, 1st prize Hollowell Prize Speaking Contest, Debating Society and wearer of the "C" Gamma Gamma Sigma / Coburn Classical Institute L Track squad, class baseball, Student Endowment Committee


171 1:s ORICAL M MEK MG m



lpha Phi Alpha's organizational structure is extremely complex â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a far cry from the simple one established at the first General Convention in 1908. The writer, having "grown up" with the Fraternity, so to speak, over the past sixty-five years, came to realize this as he researched this essay. It is a six-tiered structure incorporated in the District of Columbia on April 3,1912, with a General Convention (the supreme authority) and its numerous standing and ad hoc committees and commissions, a 16-member Board of Directors, and five geographic regions subdivided into districts, areas and chapters. Operations are administered by both salaried and non-salaried elected and appointed officers and staff on the national level. The paid employees include both members and non-members of the Fraternity. Elected and appointed officers manage the affairs of regions, districts, areas and chapters. Concomitantly, it embraces two subsidiary not-forprofit corporations, the Alpha Phi Alpha Education Foundation, Inc., chaired by an appointee of the General President, and the Alpha Phi Alpha Building Foundation, Inc. Both are funded almost entirely by appropriations from the parent organization. There is a third subsidiary whose structure is not clear, The Foundation Publishers Inc., the entity which publishes the Fraternity's historical documents (See endnote 12). The Corporation's "stockholders," that is to say its members, are either undergraduate students or college graduates (alumni), either of whom may be regular or life members. Income is derived, not from issuing stocks and bonds or selling goods and services, but primarily from one-time fees paid upon initiation, annual chapter assessments and membership dues, fees assessed members and vendors at the General Convention and earned income from certain invested funds permissible under the tax code.' How did all of this come about? This essay will attempt to trace the evolution of this development chronologically during the first 75 years of the Fraternity's existence as abstracted from The History of Alpha Phi Alpha, A Development in College Life by Charles H. Wesley2 and from writer's files and memorabilia. Changes in the Fraternity's structure came about slowly even though the organization's structure was constantly being considered. Of this, Dr. Wesley states, "Committees on re-organization...were almost perennial.. .but each found the values of the past so fundamentally sound that revolutionary change was impracticable." (p. 394) This is a nice way of saying that the Brotherhood tended to




resist change. The unincorporated General Organization was governed by its General Convention and four elected general officers from 1909 1914 viz. General President, General Vice President, General Secretary and General Treasurer. In 1914 the General Vice President was also designated Editor-of-the-Sphinx Magazine. The following year, the two functions were separated and the Editor of the Sphinx became a separate office. Officer, War Secretary, was added in 1917, but dropped in 1918 so that the five-officer format continued until 1922, when a sixth officer was added a second time. In that year the office of General Vice President was dropped and the offices of First and Second Vice President created. A Third Vice President was added in 1926 and a Fourth Vice President in 1925. Beginning in 1925, and continuing until 1927, there were eight general officers. At the 18th Convention, the vice presidents were given geographical designations, but that lasted only one year. In 1927, the immediate past General President, Raymond W Cannon, was elected the first Director of Education. The Executive Council was created, and the office of Fourth Vice President abolished. All of the officers and council members at this time were graduate members of the Fraternity, even though some of them were members of chapters we regard today as college chapters; for example, Pi Chapter. Conventions were being held annually - tradition which continued with few exceptions until recently.3 Eight general officers and the Executive Council constituted the administrative structure from the 20th Administration in 1928 until the 29th Administration in 1935, the three vice presidents having been given regional titles in 1931. In 1936, the huge Western Region was partitioned creating a fourth region and a fourth vice president, the Midwestern. Three years later in 1939, the office of General Counsel was established, thus increasing the general officers to 10 and the Director of Education became the Director of Educational Activities. Belford V. Lawson, Jr. was elected the first General Counsel. Increases in the number of chapters created a need for additional administrators; thus in 1936, the office of Regional Director was established as a representative of the General Organization to be appointed by and assigned supervisory responsibility for chapters within a specific area by the Vice President of that jurisdiction. Regional Conventions were established by the 22nd Annual Convention in 1929, to be held in alternate years (p. 184). The first

HISTORICAL MOMENT continued: such convention convened March 6 - 7,1931, at the seat of the Beta Zeta Chapter, Samuel Houston College, Austin, Texas, in the Southern Region. Brother Charles Green, Southern Vice President, presided (p. 190). Following a call from General President Wesley for each region to hold a regional convention, conventions were held for the first time in all regions in 1932. The Eastern Region met in Washington, D.C., the Southern in New Orleans, and the Western in Indianapolis, Indiana. These "regionals" were intended to bring Brothers together in alternate years when General Conventions were not being held (p. 196ff). Sentiments expressed at these Regional Conventions in 1932 led directly to the creation of the Education Foundation (p. 204). Ten General Officers and the Executive Council served as the administrative structure from 1939 until 1947 when the Southwestern Region was formed. For two years, 1946 and 1947, during which there were annual meetings of the General Convention.4 The Vice Presidents were given numerical titles resuming a practice which had been abandoned in 1932. But it was ended in 1947 when a fifth region, the Southwestern, was established, creating a new office, and the Western Region was changed to the Far Western Region5. At this point, there were eleven general officers. Meanwhile, the Executive Council was expanded from three members in 1945 to five in 1947 in order to give representation to the new regions. Originally composed of only graduate Brothers (we had not yet adopted the term "alumni") it gradually became the means for giving College Brothers a voice in the administration of the Fraternity. By 1947, all of the lay members were College Brothers, one from each region. At the 48th General Convention in 1954, a major change occurred. Lay members of the Executive Council were eliminated and replaced by five Assistant Vice Presidents, one from each region, elected from among College Brothers. This action created a 16member Executive Council.6 At the same time the election of the General President ceased to be a function of the General Convention (p. 353)- The Constitution was changed to provide for a mail ballot. Four Brothers were nominated under the new procedure at the General Convention in 1955, but two of them later withdrew, setting a precedent that would subsequently become mandatory.7 Brother Frank L. Stanley of Louisville, Kentucky, was the first General President elected by mail ballot (p. 354). Efforts to return the election to the "floor," i.e. the General Convention, failed. A constitutional amendment to that effect was actually approved by a General Convention. The writer recalls its being defeated after chapters received a passionate letter from Founder Callis strongly opposing a return to the old ways. Among other things, he cited the "horse trading" that went on and complained that too much time was being spent in "politicking" and not enough time on doing the business of the Fraternity. Another change which had a brief existence was the creation of the office of General President-Elect, utilizing the same balloting procedure. Recommended in 1957, it was adopted by the General

Convention in December 1958 (p. 410). Brother William H. Hale was selected the first General President-Elect in 1959, succeeding General President Myles Paige on January 1, i960. This "trial office" as Brother Welsey calls it, lasted until 1964 when the Convention voted not to have an election the following year. In 1965, General President Newsom recommended that the office be abolished after only three Brothers had been elected to the office.8 Meanwhile the term of the General President had been extended to two years and a maximum of two terms. However, a constitutional change forced the incumbent to stand for re-election after having served only a few months of this initial two-year term. This awkward situation created by the necessity of nominating candidates at the General Convention preceding the election was not remedied until the 1990's when the present system was established.9 The day-to-day operations of the corporation are now managed by the Executive Director, a non-voting member of the Board of Directors. Once an elective officer with the title General Secretary, the question of an Executive and Traveling Secretary was presented as early as the 13th General Convention in 1921, by General President Lucius L. McGee. His recommendation was discussed but not approved (p. 131). The Fraternity was ably served prior to the establishment of the office by three General Secretaries: Brother Norman McGee, 1920-25, Brother Joseph H.B. Evans, 1926-45, and Brother Burt Mayberry, 1945-47—all on a voluntary basis. In 1946 a Committee on Executive Secretary was appointed by General President Lawson to act on a previously approved recommendation that a part time salaried Executive Secretary be appointed to replace the General Secretary. Brother Charles Wesley was its chairman. A report listing candidates and a job analysis was presented at the next General Convention. It recommended continuing the office of General Secretary (p. 288) effective February 1,1948. Brother Brown served until 1952 when he was succeeded by Brother James E. Huger. Brother Huger occupied the office until he was succeeded by Brother Lawrence T. Young in 1958. In 1957 The Committee on Reorganization recommended a series of changes in the office, calling it "the hub around which the entire wheel turns" (p. 397). A constitutional amendment transferred the election of the General Secretary to The Executive Council (p. 400). The title of the office was finally changed to Executive Secretary at approximately the same time (1966) that the Executive Council became the Board of Directors. Brother Laurence T Young of Chicago, the incumbent, was appointed the first Executive Secretary nearly five decades after the office was first proposed. It has since been changed to Executive Director as the Fraternity moved toward adopting the Corporation pattern.10 Several general offices, in addition to the Executive Secretary, are no longer elective. The General Counsel and Director of Educational Activities are now appointed by the General President with the advice of the Board of Directors. In 1975, the Editor of The Sphinx® Magazine became the responsibility of an Assistant Executive Secretary. In the same year the elective office of Comptroller was created. These changes effected a new basic structure of administrative offices and board members, salaried and non-salaried, voting and non-voting. Former General Presidents sit with the Board of Directors but only the Immediate Past President may vote." The 1980's witnessed another major change which some THE SPHINX® SUMMER 2000

Brothers have called the "regionalization" of the General Organization viz. the election of Vice Presidents and Assistant Vice Presidents by their respective conventions - biennially for the former, annually for the latter. Regions had been holding "preliminary elections" but the election at the General Convention was the deciding factor. The election at the General Convention sometimes ran counter to the election results at Regional Conventions - in some cases electing candidates who had been rejected. A constitutional amendment finally ceded authority to the regions to elect their officers without the necessity of being confirmed at the General Convention. Thus they ceased being "general" officers. Today only the General Treasurer and Comptroller continue to be elected by the General Convention. This study would not be complete without at least a brief mention of the two subsidiary, not-for-profit, corporations which bear the Fraternity's name.12 The Alpha Phi Alpha Education Foundation Inc. was established at the 26th Anniversary Convention in St. Louis in 1933, "in recognition of the increasing educational, economic and social needs of the Negro people in the United States... [It] grew out of the expansion of the educational program.. .Go-to-High School, Go-to-College.. .It was directed by a board of seven Brothers, the chairman being the Director of Education" (p. 204). It was one of the major agenda items of a special General Convention in August 1934, which resulted in a lengthy report regarding the purposes, scope and proposed activities of the Foundation (p. 209). Incorporated in 1965, it continues to be the principal vehicle by which scholarships and fellowships are awarded. Recently it was given the responsibility for certain Fraternity programs as well. The Director of Educational Activities is the official liaison between the Fraternity and the Foundation. The Alpha Phi Alpha Building Foundation, Inc. was established to meet the need for undergraduate housing on college campuses. The 38th General Convention meeting in Cleveland, Ohio, created a "National Housing Fund" as one way of meeting this need (p. 330). The following year "a resolution was adopted creating a housing commission to establish a foundation under separate charter for assisting in the operation of chapter housing activities" (p. 343)- A charter was subsequently issued by the State of Illinois for the Alpha Phi Alpha Building Foundation, Inc.'3 In 1965, the articles of incorporation were amended in order that the Foundation could sponsor not-for-profit rental and cooperative housing projects under the National Housing Act (p. 460). As a result, it has become the agency for funding numerous projects in the name of the Fraternity in St. Louis, Chicago, Toledo and Akron. The Director of Housing is the official liaison between the Fraternity and the Foundation. During the last three decades there has been an increasing emphasis on the Fraternity as a corporate entity, beginning with the creation of the Board of Directors and the office of Executive Director. This was facilitated in the 1990's after the General Headquarters were moved from Chicago, Illinois, to Baltimore, Maryland, motivated by the need for a more efficient management system and better fiscal accountability. The use of such terms as "corporate headquarters" and "corporate directory" reflect this tendency. It is imperative, however, that the General Organization never forget that although we are a corporation, incorporation was not an end in itself but a means for achieving our goals as a Brotherhood which seeks to serve all mankind. CELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM

Endnotes 'A small fraction of its income is derived from the sale of publications, jewelry, wearing apparel and Fraternity memorabilia and advertising in publications. 2 Page references are to the 1991 printing of the history. 'The Committee on Internal Structure, chaired by the writer, recommended in 1987 that biennial conventions be held. The recommendation was rejected but the proposal was later approved. 4 No conventions were held in 1930,1932,1938,1943, and 1944. 5 The Far Western Region became the Western Region again in 1951. 6 The Executive Council became the Board of Directors in 1965. The General Convention decided that the two nominees at the General Convention receiving the highest vote would appear on the mail ballot. They were William Hale, Thomas Cole and Lionel H. Newsome. This became necessary because of a change in the Constitution requiring the nomination of candidates a year in advance of the end of the two-year term. A single four-year term resolved the dilemma. 10 For example "general headquarters" has become "corporate headquarters." Officers are listed in the "corporate directory". "This change occurred in 1989 after the adoption of a recommendation of the Committee on Internal Structure chaired by the writer. 'The Foundation Publishers Inc. is the imprimatur of the agency responsible for publishing the Fraternity's history. It was discussed in a prior Historical Moment Vol. 84 #2, Summer 1999'The change in name was necessary in order to meet the requirements of incorporation.

Brother Thomas D. Pawley, III, Ph.D., is a former National Historian for the Fraternity.


THE I\ljr

FROM THE "MINORITY" PERSPECTIVE By Brother Gregory Scott Parks

t was an afternoon in July of 1999 when I found myself standing in the subway station at 125th Street and Lexington Avenue in Harlem, New York. I had been standing there feeling tired, hot and sweaty waiting on this brother to show up so that we could head across town to check out some sights. When dealing with Brothers at times like these it reminds me of how much I love Alpha—the Fraternal bonds particularly. I hadn't been waiting terribly long, when out of the lower level of the subway appeared the brother I had been waiting for. It was none other than Brother Andrew Zawacki, the white Brother who was the Rhodes Scholar, featured in The Sphinx® several years ago. He came through the turnstile, apologized for the tardiness and gripped me. Needless to say, it was good to see him. We proceeded to head across town—destination, the Audubon Ballroom, the site of Malcolm X's assassination. On our way, we engaged in some nice philosophical discussion about W.E.B. DuBois, Malcolm X, the Nation of Islam and of course Alpha. I must say that it was one of the more interesting conversations I have had on these subjects and the fact that the gentleman who was sharing his ideas on the subjects was white added to the uniqueness of the dialogue. When we reached the Audubon Ballroom, we stood in front of it and peered in as we continued our exchange of ideas. As we stood there, peering into glass front doors of the building, I began to reflect on what had brought us to this point—namely the specific sight, but also to a pretty significant level of friendship in only our second time meeting. What had brought Andrew—who was raised Catholic in a small predominantly white town in Pennsylvania—here to spend a few moments of his time to exchange ideas with me? More of a concern to me was how did I—a young Black male who as a teenager believed so strongly in the Nation of Islam's ideology—come to feel no qualms about opening up to this "white" man? On both of our parts, it was some level of maturity that we had developed since our teens. However, it was largely due to this thing we call brotherhood. I seemed to be so far from who I used to be, as I am sure Andrew felt about himself, and I had Alpha, partly, to thank for being that "school for the better making of men" that made me more open minded. What follows is an attempt to understand the rationale for why Brothers of Andrew's persuasion sought out Alpha in the first place and some of their experiences over the years. Also, there is an attempt to capture the historical landscape upon which their story is painted.


During the administration of General President Charles H. Wesley, the General Convention of 1940 authorized that the word 'Negro' be removed from the Membership Clause of the Fraternity's Constitution.1 This became the first official action, taken on the part of the Fraternity, to open its doors to all qualified youth. Apparently this issue was revisited two other times, once during the 1945 General Convention and finally, during the 1952 General Convention.2 In 1948, Jewel Henry Arthur Callis said of the Founders that "when Alpha Phi Alpha was founded, we foresaw the day when it would include others, besides those of the strictly Negro heritage; and the word 'Negro' did not occur in the Constitution limiting membership nor in the ritual."3 These were most significant actions, which took place on paper and in words. However, there were a number of key individuals who became the first white Brothers to be admitted into the hallowed halls of Alpha, thus exemplifying Alpha Phi Alpha's commitment to "love for all mankind." One such man was Bernard Levin,4 who had been born in Chicago in 1924 and enrolled in Wright College by 1941. After his graduation in 1943, he enrolled in the University of Illinois at Chicago's dental school. While matriculating there, a friend of his from DePaul University encouraged him to seek membership in Alpha Phi Alpha, as Levin was desirous in improving Black/white relations. Since other fraternities, according to Levin, were only social organizations, and since he deemed Alpha as being engaged in constructive activity, he sought membership in Alpha Phi Alpha.5 On Friday, June 21, 1946, Brother Bernard Levin was initiated into Theta chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. and became the first white man to be initiated into any Black fraternity. Along with Brother Levin, Brothers William Rhetta, Spencer Hardy, James Gaither and Hershel Wallace were also initiated into Theta chapter.6 After graduation, Brother Levin practiced dentistry in Chicago for five years, served in the Air Force for two, and eventually practiced in New Mexico for 12 years. In 1966 he joined the faculty at the University of Southern California's dental school where he continues to teach. Another gentleman by the name of Roger Lee Youmans7 was born in 1933 in Kansas City, Kansas. By 1951 he had enrolled at the University of Kansas where he was initiated into Upsilon chapter in 1954 along with Brothers Ralph Jones, Willie Brown and Robert Williams. Brother Youmans initially learned of Alpha from a friend of his, Herby Cates, who was his next-door neighbor as a child and president of Upsilon Chapter in 1954. Brother Youmans recounts how he had approached Brother Otis Simmons of THESPHIWT SUMMER 2000

Upsilon and asked him why blacks wouldn't join the college Christian Wesley Foundation. He was advised that instead of trying to get blacks to join a white organization, why didn't he seek to join a black one? This, in addition to Brother Youmans feeling that white fraternities were too self-centered, was why he sought the Light of Alpha. The white community on campus did not take too kindly to Brother Youmans' decision of fraternal ties, which resulted in a cross being burned on his family's yard. However, he never wavered in his decision to be an Alpha. In 1954, Brother Youmans became the first white Brother to deliver an address at a General Convention,8 where he called for a sincere reevaluation of Alpha with regards to effective leadership. That same year, Brother Youmans combined his last year of college with his first year of medical school. Upon graduation from medical school and after finishing his internship and residency, he moved to Africa to do missionary work. For two years his line brother, Robert Williams, lived in Africa with him while he worked in the Kinshasa General Hospital. Currently, Brother Youmans resides in Princeton, New Jersey where he is a retired physician. During the thirty-fourth General Convention in 1948, Senator Hubert Horatio Humphrey gave the address at the public session. His subject was "Minimums in a World of Maximums."9 Seventeen years later, in 1965, he was no longer a U.S. Senator. He was now the Vice President of the United States. During that year, at the 59th Anniversary Convention, Vice President Humphrey was awarded an Honorary Life Membership, metal pass card, and a copy of the History book. General President Lionel Newsome did the presenting as Jewel Henry Arthur Callis looked on.10 From 1946 to 1954 to 1965 a mere handful of white men entered the ranks of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. Recent decades tell a slightly different story. Though Alpha has remained an undeniably Black fraternity, it is not totally uncommon to attend a Regional Convention or General Convention and see a white man stroll by with an Alpha shirt on. The following interviews tell their story. What attracted you to Alpha? Alex: Two things stood out right away. First, were the types of activities, community services, etc. that the Fraternity was involved in. Secondly, the way that the Brothers conducted themselves impressed me. I liked the emphasis they placed on academics and how they acted in public. David: The work they did on campus, the leadership positions they held and the unity they displayed in their endeavors. Karl: All of the members that I knew were scholars, intelligent, and seemed to have the same outlook on life in general, that is that we must make our own opportunities collectively and individually, and remove the barriers that stand in our way. As I was iconically a representative of the white establishment, I was impressed at their ability to see past that and know me as an individual. I understood that it was a radical thing that they were willing to do to invite me to a smoker, let alone consider the possibility of my membership in the organization. After finding out how many of the historical and present leaders that I respected were affiliated with the organization, I felt that it was an organization that was looking to building the future, and I wished to contribute to that future if I were to be allowed. CELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM

THE ALPHA EXPERIENCE continued: Why did you choose Alpha over the other Black fraternities? Alex: The other Black fraternities, primarily Omega Psi Phi and Kappa Alpha Psi, seemed to place more emphasis on social functions than on academic progress and community service. The Sigmas were relatively non-existent in the Northwest. Karl: Each of the organizations has its own personalities; the Kappas are known as ladies' men, the Omegas are fun-loving hell-raisers, and the Sigmas are kind of a mixture of types of people, depending on where you go. The Alphas, fairly consistently, are known as being gentlemen and intelligent men. I had much more in common with the Alphas than anyone else, and they seemed to have the most integrity out of all the groups. While many members of other groups may not be as dependable in student organizations, you could count on the Alphas to stand behind their commitments. The fact that the Alphas were willing to undergo criticism and scrutiny in considering having me in their chapter said a great deal about their confidence in their identity and willingness to resist the pressures of absolute conformity. The other organizations just didn't seem to fit who I was. Why did you choose not to join a white fraternity? Andrew: They were basically social organizations, if not drinking clubs. Any evidence of greater purpose was minimal and transparent. Karl: To anyone who has been involved even peripherally in the collegiate white Greek scene, certain stereotypes abound concerning the reputation of "frat boys." It's very superficial, nepotism and money are as much a constraining factor on membership as personal character and integrity. They can be inconsiderate and obnoxious, and seem to join as a gesture of mutual prostitution to up their own reputations at the price of increasing the coffers of the organization. The community activities consist of alcoholic saturnalias and pointless binge drinking on weekends. Alumni involvement is limited to financial grants for bragging rights. Now I understand that that's the impression I get from being on the outside, and doesn't personify all of the organizations by any means. Truth or not, that was the impression I had, and saw no real personal advancement to result from association with the organizations. It would have been a foreign environment to me, regardless of the cultural similarity to which I was associated. Were/are you involved in any odier Black organizations on campus? Brian: I am currently the President of the National Pan-Hellenic Council [at Ohio University]. Chadwick: I was involved in the Black Student Union for sociopolitical reasons... I became involved in the USF Gospel Choir. I served one semester as a general member. I served two years as Chaplain and two years as President. Alex: Yes, I was a member of the Black Student Union. Are you currently affiliated with any Black organizations? Jason: The NAACP. Alex: Yes: I am a member of Plymouth Rock Masonic Lodge #86.

THE ALPHA EXPERIENCE continued: Did/do you feel uncomfortable being affiliated with an organization with so much African imagery? Bernard: No, never a problem. Michael S.: I cannot imagine feeling awkward or uncomfortable with Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.'s African iconography or imagery for many reasons. I had already acculturated many of the attitudes, activities and values of the African-American community. [Acculturation is the cultural modification of an individual people by adapting to traits from another culture; a merger of cultures as a result of prolonged contact; a process by which a person acquires the culture of a particular society.] I was a fervent student of politics and culture of Africa and the African Diaspora. I was knowledgeable about the ancient and contemporary cultures. My minor was in Africana Studies. My academic interest was resistance movements and struggles (from maroons and insurrections to the political theories of David Walker, Martin Delaney, W.E.B. DuBois to national and global movements like the Niagara Movement, the United Negro Improvement Association, Pan-African Congress, the Nation of Islam, the Civil Rights Movement, the Black Power Movement, and most especially the Black Panther Party of Defense. I learned Kiswahili too. Andrew: I was amenable to it at the time and remain so. I'd been doing a lot of research on Malcolm X ..., and much of my intellectual time...was spent wondering about Alpha's relative position vis-a-vis Malcolm X, Martin Luther King Jr., Franz Fanon and a number of other social thinkers. What were/are your interactions like with other Brothers once you became an Alpha? David: At first, some treated me different, but once they got to know me it passed. There was a Regional Convention right after I came into the Fraternity, and some Brothers there acted "different." But as I have grown in the Fraternity, that doesn't bother me anymore. I know I work hard for Alpha, so judge me as a Brother, not a "white" Brother. Roger: Warm. [I] went to nightclubs, dances, etc. with them. My fiancee (a white student I later married) Mary Ellen Stewart was the queen of the Alpha Valentines dance in 1964. Karl: Life is not without lessons as I discovered at the General Convention in Baltimore in '91. That was the first time I was publicly derided and treated like a contagious disease by some Brothers. These were people that I didn't know, that I had never seen in my life, so what could I have done to deserve this kind of treatment? It took me quite a while to understand that at the end of the day, in this world, I'm.. .part of a violently oppressive society—an icon of the white man that tries to make life so difficult for people of color. Whether or not that was my personal disposition was irrelevant; I was an interloper, an invader into the sanctity and refuge of the brotherhood of men. Sooner or later, to quote so famously, "the chickens come home to roost." The sins of the father are definitely the sins of the son. I withdrew for a while and became bitter at the personal abuse I had received and so unknowingly deserved. My line brother, Wil, spoke the words that burned with truth. "You wondered so much what it might be like to live as a black

man. Now you got a little taste and you don't like it. Too bad, suck it up or get out. I'm not trying to be mean, but you have to understand something—I've been dealing with this my whole life, and for better or worse, I've learned to adjust. You're just now getting a small part of it, and you don't like it. You chose the path. You can always get off. I walk this path like it or not, so live with your decisions. I do.".. .It was one of the most valuable lessons of my life. It took a year to sink in, but I eventually understood. What was/is your relationship with Brothers in your chapter like? Andrew: We were incredibly close, and that's all there was to it. We supported one another both in endeavors common to the Fraternity and in pursuits conducted individually. All of them, for instance, ...entertained my parents at different time, and so on. Michael S.: Although my... Brothers were very different, we forged strong and close relationships. I met every single chapter member before my interview not only to improve my candidacy, but also to leani more about the Fraternity, chapter and members. After my initiation, most of the chapter Brothers welcomed me wholeheartedly. Three members remain reserved about me to my recollection. Whereas the Fraternity promotes brotherhood within each pledge class and between pledge classes, my chapter has "families" that promotes brotherhood between older members from various generations. They introduced me to older Brothers who welcomed me wholeheartedly. Brian: The relationship I have with .. .the chapter is just like family. We communicate effectively. If there is a problem, we solve it. If there is ever a discrepancy among each other, we talk about it then drop it. I can honestly say that if any one of these Brothers from Phi chapter called upon me for help, I would be there in a second. What was the response of your white friends once you became an Alpha? Michael S.: I am very ambivalent about white people's reaction then and now. I do not have white friends. Chadwick: My white friends and family all had about the same response, "Why couldn't you join a white fraternity?" I believe that it was actually bigger than Alpha. It was my overall involvement in the Black community. Many of the friends I had before I joined are no longer my friends Roger: Most thought that I had gone off the deep end. Many thought I had some hidden agenda about the reasons for joining. My family discouraged the intention to join. The white girl I had known since childhood broke her date with me when the papers publicized my pledging. I haven't seen her or her brother since that time. Alex: What really surprised me was the administration's response. The two Deans of student activities had a real problem. This was especially interesting considering one of them was Black and a former student [at the university]. Of course he had protested my membership in the B.S.U., so it was no surprise that he questioned my being an Alpha. Fortunately, a Brother who was a faculty member took care of the situation. Michael M.: Heh, I made quite an impression; that's for sure. I was actually involved in the Black Student Union on campus before I became an Alpha, so I was already fairly accepted in the THE SPHINX® SUMMER 2000

Black community. My membership in Alpha made many more people curious, but after anyone talked to me for a while, I was usually accepted with open arms. Roger: The Chancellor of Kansas University called me into his office to talk about what I was doing when the cross was burned on our lawn, but put his arm around my shoulder after the talk and encouraged me. How did black students respond? David: I never had one bad experience. I got the most applause when we "came out," and it was one of the best nights I've ever had. Most people probably didn't care. Chadwick: Black people at USF were enormously positive about my becoming a "Bro." From the moment I was initiated, people were walking out of their way to come congratulate me. Three weeks after I was initiated, I participated in my first step show (which we won handily). When I started to step, the noise was deafening. I do not purport to be the world's greatest stepper. It was just a great response to a white Alpha from a wonderful, receptive crowd. Many of the people knew me from community involvement. Many were probably just enjoying the novelty. How do black people respond to you when they find out that you are an Alpha? Jason: There is an initial amazement and questioning stage. Usually when they get to know me, they agree with my affiliation. Chadwick: Black people in general are initially incredulous, then amazed, and then extremely inquisitive about who I am, what I am about, and how I came to be an Alpha. Do you think there is a feeling among black Brothers that whites should not be initiated into our Fraternity? Michael M.: Each Brother obviously has his own opinions on the subject. But most of the Brothers seem to share the sentiments that Alpha exists for the love of all mankind, while focusing on the Black community. I share that sentiment, and feel that the Fraternity is and should stay heavily focused on issues that affect the Black community. As long as its Brothers continue to share that opinion, the Fraternity will continue to have the amazing impact that it had [in the 20th] century. Brian: I have occasionally come across a few Brothers that don't approve of the membership of white Brothers in the Fraternity, and I can usually feel that ignorance (it's never stated to my face). I don't really care if that is their view because that is how they are and I can only do so much to change their opinion. The rest is up to them. If a Brother does the business of the Fraternity and takes care of his responsibilities, it shouldn't matter the color of his skin. But until this society we live in changes as a whole, there will always be someone opposing a positive movement in racial harmony. Andrew: I think there's probably a feeling that not too many should be initiated, and given the history of the Fraternity's founding, I don't think this hesitation is in any way illegitimate. But I've never felt that there's been a concern about admitting some white Brothers. Perhaps I'm naive or optimistic, but I've found Alpha to be at once full of conviction and yet enormously open to change. That is its strength.


THE ALPHA EXPERIENCE continued: Without question, these Brothers tell an interesting story. Being white members of the oldest Black Greek-letter fraternity, one can understand why. Despite their background, they have entered a world few white men would and have attempted to become a part of a body of men that are servants of all. At the outset of researching this article, I wanted to know why a white man would want to be an Alpha. The answer seems simple in retrospect. It is the same reason why the vast majority of us sought the Light, because Alpha has been, is and always will be the greatest fraternity to existâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;plain and simple. My sincerest thanks go out to the following Brothers for allowing me to interview them: Brother Jason Scott Jurkowski (Mu Pi Chapter, Charleston Southern University), Brother Bernard Levin (Theta Chapter, University of Illinois at Chicago), Brother Michael Hunter Morath (Nu Beta Chapter, George Washington University), Brother Karl Gunther Rainhold (Theta Sigma Chapter, University of Florida), Brother Michael David Scott (Alpha Chapter, Cornell University), Brother David Preston Sniffin (Theta Nu Chapter, University of South Carolina), Brother Brian Spangler-Campbell (Phi Chapter, University of Ohio), Brother Chadwick Tate (Theta Gamma Chapter, University of South Florida), Brother Alex K. Wood (AlphaXi Chapter, University of Puget Sound), Brother Roger Youmans (Upsilon Chapter, University of Kansas) and Brother Andrew Zawacki (Kappa Pi Chapter, College of William and Mary). Also, thank you to the Brothers of Omicron Omicron Chapter at the University of the District of Columbia for the support as well as their extended family. Brother Gregory Scott Parks is currently enrolled in a doctoral program in Clinical Psychology at the University of Kentucky and is active with Alpha Beta Lambda chapter in Lexington. For questions, comments, criticisms or lingering concerns contact Brother Parks at


Wesley, C.H. (1996). The History ofAlpha Phi Alpha: A Development in College Life. Baltimore: Foundation Publishers. P. 328. 2 Ibid, p. 334. 5 Ibid, p. 295. 4 Correspondence with Brother Bernard Levin. 5 Ebony. October, 1946,1(2). P. 27. 6 The Sphinx. October, 1946,32(3). P.17. 7 Correspondence with Brother Roger Youmans. 8 Wesley, C.H. (1996). op cit. p.348-349. 9 Ibid, p.295 10 111213 Ibid. p. 453-454.


April 11,1998,1 was initiated into the Rho Delta chapter of is Fraternity. To date this is the happiest day of my life took an oath of allegiance, learned the ritual and heard the Hymn for the first time. I am an Alpha! So now what? After I was initiated, I took a week to do some much needed meditation. I meditated on the man before Alpha and the Brother of Alpha I became, and I came to this conclusion: I will always hold up the light. I attended my first convention in November of 1998, The Michigan District Convention in Kalamazoo, Michigan. This was a true learning experience for me. I sat in the business session soaking up my surroundings and trying to take in all that I could. The business session filled me with that "Good Ole Alpha Spirit." After the session was over, it was time to have fun. I went to the hotel ballroom for the party, and the room was filled with "Bruhs." It was the wildest scene that I had ever witnessed. There were party hop lines so long that the beginning and ending of the line overlapped. Still spirit-filled, I joined the fun. Later that week, as I sat glowing

I thought the Michigan District Convention was something, but it did not prepare me for Kansas City and the Midwestern Regional Convention. It started for me at the airport where I met up with my sands, Marcus Channey from Pi L'psilon Chapter, and we headed to the hotel, courtesy of Brother Larry Boatwright who was on our flight from Detroit. After check in we headed back to the lobby and met Brothers from Zeta Iota Chapter and the Wisconsin District. We made an unsuccessful attempt to explore the city, so we had some fellowship back at the hotel. The next morning we were up at the business sessions. Once again I absorbed my surroundings, but this time I was able to process a little better with the help of the Michigan District Director, Brother Mark Tillman. After business was done, I headed down to the step show and Friday night jam. Once again I asked myself, "Where did these Brothers come from?" Saturday morning, up again, tired and sluggish after the party, I am back in business sessions with colleagues from Michigan and Wisconsin. All of the Brothers at the party last night were not in these meetings. This took some serious pondering. And to this day, I do not understand this phenomenon.

about mv first convention, I wondered where all of those Brothers â&#x20AC;&#x201D;



The following summer my district director gave me an opportunity to attend the College Chapter Leadership Academy in Baltimore, Maryland. In addition to gaining excellent leadership skills and learning the ropes of chapter administration—the ins and outs of the Fraternity—13 College Brothers, an assistant regional vice president, assistant district directors, and several chapter presidents from four regions of the Fraternity had an opportunity to fellowship, and we realized that we shared some of the same concerns and problems. One of the issues that we discovered is the conflict between Alpha Phi Alpha—the corporation and Alpha Phi Alpha—the Brotherhood. I used the convention to illustrate my point because it is something that we all have seen, the party or step show having more Brothers than the business session and Brothers having spent money at the vendors and not the registration booth. This happens not only at convention but also in our chapters. We allow Brothers to slide on meeting the programming targets or paying their dues because they are Brothers. Some Brothers are good only at being Brothers. They only come around when it is time for the party or to chill at the frat house. This is a trend that must come to an end. One of the conclusions that the Beta class of the Leadership Academy is that we must hold Brothers accountable. Alpha is a business with a president, treasurer, board of directors and an executive director. This is the reason that we have district, regional and national conventions — to make sure the business of Alpha is being done. We seem to have the Brotherhood part of being an Alpha down. We fellowship, we are supportive of each other's endeavors, we are the best men at our LB's wedding. It is now time for College Brothers to become a part of the Alpha Phi Alpha Corporation and insure that the business is done and we have a voice in it. We must not treat Alpha as just a college experience that we forget about after graduation until it is a convenient networking tool to get ahead. Go out and join Alumni Chapters and continue to hold true to the oath that you took in the beginning. Pay your dues! Alpha cannot function without finance.


College chapters must address the programs and projects that the Fraternity has placed before us. There are implementation guides to Project Alpha, A Voteless People is a Hopeless People and Go-to-High School, Go-to-College. In our objectives, we say we are to aid down trodden humanity in its efforts to achieve higher social, economic and intellectual status. That is the business of Alpha, and all Alphas must be accountable for these objectives. No excuses. Something drove us to Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. I encourage Brothers to recall what drove you to become an Alpha and find the motivation that drives you to be the Alpha man that you set out to be upon initiation. For me it is the Hymn, especially these words: "manly deeds, scholarship, and love for all mankind are the aims of our dear Fraternity." Nothing moves me more than to hear those words sung by Alpha men. Find that something in Alpha that keeps the flame burning and use it to keep Alpha going and the light high. I will close with a memory from our 1999 General Convention in Dallas, Texas. After the party, the Brothers were asked to leave the hall where the party was being held. Before we left a Brother got on the microphone and said, "Let's sing the Hymn." This is a sight that I will never forget. More young Brothers than I have ever seen formed a circle and proceeded to sing the Hymn. This was not during a meeting, but during a party. Brothers removed their hats, calmed down and proceeded to sing the Hymn. It was the sweetest sound that I ever heard and a lasting memory. To that Brother on the mike who said, "Let's sing the Hymn," thank you!!!




rother Timothy McFadden of Baltimore, Maryland, called Brother Kelvin Chadwick of Rocky Mount, North Carolina, to see what kind of assistance was needed in North Carolina after Hurricane Floyd. Much to his dismay, three Brothers had lost everything. Brother McFadden asked me to go with him to North Carolina and help. We embarked upon our journey without hesitation. We were ready to serve.




â&#x20AC;˘ M

What was initially intended to be a mission of delivering money and supplies to our Brothers in need, and a campaign to help salvage what we could, turned into a brutal lesson about the inequities of America. When we arrived in Greenville, N.C., we were greeted by the Brothers of the Northeastern District of the Association of North Carolina Alphas. They gave us a sense of what was needed and how the relief efforts were going. Brother Chadwick took us through Princeville (the oldest incorporated African-American city in the country), Tarboro and Pitt County so we could see the devastation first hand. Houses were ripped from their foundations, blocking streets. We saw people trying to clean up the destroyed areas. They were removing furniture and all sorts of items from their homes, attempting to dry them in the sun. People were wearing gloves and masks for protection. As we drove through East Tarboro and Princeville, the apartments and homes resembled the remains of a war zone. We met two young women who volunteered to show us their apartments. The first woman showed us the line where the water settled after it had receded. It was nearly to the roof. Nothing remained in her apartment except the walls and sinks. Her ceiling had been completely destroyed with the insulation dangling from the crossbeams. The second woman took us to her apartment. I could smell the stench of mildew immediately after she opened the door. The ceiling fans were hanging from the fixtures. She told us all she was able to get out was her son when the evacuation order was given. Her apartment remained fully furnished. But everything was waterlogged. Didn't they receive any warning? Both women said the dams in Raleigh and Rocky Mount were opened around 8:30 a.m. Thursday and the evacuation order did not come until about 9:00 p.m. People went to work in the rain Thursday morning, and when they returned home that evening, the flooding had already happened. They said, "The water rose so quickly that you could not save anything if you wanted to." They told us about the difficulties they experienced in obtaining a Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) identification number. Without this number, they could not receive any goods from the distribution centers. Residents had to show a picture ID, birth certificate and social security card to obtain a FEMA ID number. However, many of their important documents were lost to the flood. The women shared with us stories of how some of the white victims received $700.00 in aid from FEMA and many of the black victims received only $97.99 to $150.00 in aid. One of the most disturbing aspects of this trip was learning of the gross disparities of the treatment black communities received versus that of the white communities. Brother Ed Carter, former mayor of Greenville, said his entire community (which is black) is surrounded by a white community. During the flood, Brother Carter said airplanes came and dropped food and supplies daily, only to the community on the perimeter and not to the community in the middle. Another unsettling factor was the elapsed time between opening the dam and the mandatory evacuation of the towns. Twelve hours or THESPHINT SUMMER 2000

more slipped by before people were notified to leave. We were told that the mayor of Princeville was made aware of the impending danger well in advance. Her home and the Town Hall were completely unloadedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Wednesday evening prior to the massive flooding on Thursday. It is also alleged that an insurance company instructed residents in the white community to purchase flood insurance, and the warning never made it to the black community. It has been extremely hard for our brothers and sisters to recuperate. So Brothers, it is time to step up. Let us help one another and ourselves. To quote my mentor, Brother Reverend Frederick D. Hayes, III, "We expect handouts that soon become handcuffs, because we expect someone else to do for us what God has given us the strength and resources to do for ourselves." Brothers, we cannot and must not expect the government to do for our community what God has given us the strength and resources to do for ourselves. We must step up because:

FLOYD oiiliiiucd:

Below: Brothers Timothy McFadden <tu<l Mark Wainwrighlflanktiro riclims of the Hurricane Floyd in Has/en/ North Carolina.

The test of a man is the fight that he makes, The grit that he daily shows, The way that he stands upon his feet, And takes life's numerous bumps and blows. A coward can smile when there's naught to fear, When nothing his progress bars. But it takes a man to stand and cheer While the other fellow stars. It isn't the victory after all, But the fight that a Brother makes. A man, when driven against the wall, still stands erect And takes the blows of fate with his Head held high, bleeding, and bruised and pale, Is the man who will win and fate defied,

FOR HE ISN'T AFRAID TO FAIL. My Brothers, let's come to the aid of this community. We took the pledge at the Million Man March. We took the oath to be "First of All, Servants of All, and We Shall Transcend All." If these words are in your heart and spirit, join in the struggle to revive this community, for we never know when the dam will open on us.

Brothers Wainright and McFadden discuss solutions and concerns with hurricane victims. CELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM




By Brother T. Winston Cole 21st General President 1963-1964 Reprintedfrom the Spring 1964 Sphinx9

Brothers in Alpha: We will soon be facing another convention. New York under the direction of Brother Aaron Brown is preparing for our visit. Your General President has developed definite plans for more undergraduate participation in National Affairs of our Fraternity, more meaningful programs for our conventions and a greater and more positive impact in the field of Civil Rights. Recommendations were presented to the Executive Council at its first session since the Boston Convention on November 2,1963. Your General President recognizes the fact that the men of Alpha have helped to shed the "light" of education and dedication within our own country and to send its illuminating rays into the remote corners of other lands for almost sixty years; and with your assistance, he will continue his efforts with even greater dedication for your General President strongly believes "it is better to light a candle than to curse the darkness." I should like to call to your attention a very urgent matter, best expressed in an excerpt from my letter of October 17,1963, to the members of the Executive Council and the Presidents of all Chapters. .. ."henceforward and forever free." Abraham Lincoln-1863. This quotation is one hundred years old! Since that time there has been and will continue to be a never-ending struggle for the realization for real freedom. I am writing to you relative to how our Fraternity can help in this realization. As you are aware, the Executive Council of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., at our 57th Annual Convention in Boston, Massachusetts, last August, passed a recommendation that the three hundred and twenty-one (321) graduate and undergraduate chapters of our Fraternity give our cooperative efforts to the vital CELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM

civil efforts for equality by becoming Life Members of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People needs our financial assistance in addition to our interest and zeal, and we need the civil rights leadership which the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People has and continues to provide. That we have supported the program of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in the past is to our credit. Continued and increased support will indicate our faith in the future. As your General President, I should like to announce the complete enrollment of every Alpha Chapter as Life Members in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People at our 58th Anniversary Convention in New York City in August 1964. Soon you will receive letters and pledge cards from Jackie Robinson, Co-Chairman of the National Life Membership Committee. A booklet, "Action for Freedom," which suggests ways to finance your activities on behalf of this vital campaign will be forwarded to you also. In addition, the Vice-President of your region will keep in touch with you and will aid you in your progress toward the realization of your goal. Freedom is everyone's job; however, freedom is certainly not free! As your General President, I know that I can be assured of the one hundred percent cooperation of the Men of Alpha! I feel certain that you will agree with the idea in this letter, and that you will contribute your share to this most worthwhile venture of our organization.

BACK TO BASICS: THE GREATNESS OF OUR PAST IS THE KEY TO OUR FUTURE By Brother James II Williams 25th General President. 1977-1%'()


What follows is a brief summary of some of the activities of my administration (1977-1980) as I reported to the Brotherhood at the 1980 General Convention in Chicago. In this, my last report to you as your General President, I am pleased to report great progress on the major initiatives which we have undertaken over the past four years. Collectively, the activities involved during this period have served to demonstrate that Alpha Phi Alpha is still willing to take its rightful place of leadership in this country. This is our legacy... as articulated in our national program theme: "BACK TO BASICS: The Greatness of Our Past is the Key to Our Future!"

FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY A major goal of my administration was to improve the financial posture of the Fraternity. We have been able to achieve great success in this area, primarily through two factors: (A) By placing the General Convention on a sound financial foundation; and (B) By setting up a Life Membership Reserve Fund, restricted to protect our accumulated assets for the future. The General Convention: During the past four years, we have worked to make programmatic improvements in the General Convention to make it reflective of the stature of our organization. The 1977 General Convention in Atlanta is still recorded as the largest convention in the history of Alpha Phi Alpha. There we launched our national program theme, "BACK TO The Million Dollar Drive and "A Tribute to the BASICS: The Greatness of Our Past is the Key to Our Future." Black Woman" were two important programs instituted by Brother James Williams. In Minneapolis, in 1978, we staged "A Tribute to the Black Woman" - an idea which is still being emulated by other organizations. Most of the top leading Black women in America joined us, and it was a special privilege to honor civil rights heroine Rosa Parks. Other advances in our Convention Program Include: The reinstitution of the Alpha Smoker and Symposium, a feature of early Alpha conventions. This program, honoring 50-year Brothers and newly initiated Brothers, insures that younger Brothers in attendance will have the opportunity to meet and share the wisdom of those who are responsible for shaping the posture of the Fraternity as it stands today. The convention weekend registration rate for College Brothers was designed to encourage their participation in this important Fraternity event.

FRATERNITY PROGRAMS The Million Dollar Fund Drive: At the forefront of our efforts during the past four years has been the Million Dollar Fund Drive to benefit the NAACP, the United Negro College Fund and the National Urban League. This project is perhaps the greatest undertaking in the history of Alpha Phi Alpha. This is a project worthy of Alpha Phi Alpha, for we have always been "First of All." Alpha awarded more than $600,000 to the three organizations at the 1981 Dallas Convention. In addition to the above, we completed our support pledge to the Martin Luther King Center in Atlanta during the annual ceremonies held in honor of this esteemed Brother. Commission on College Brothers Affairs: The College Brothers Affairs Commission was formed in 1977 and charged with developing a complete program designed to meet the special need of Alpha Men in college. These include the long-standing issues affecting College Brothers, such as housing and college-alumni relations, as well as programs designed to increase the participation of College Brothers in all aspects of the Fraternity program. A major objective of the Commission is the adoption of the STANDING ORDERS and development of the MODEL PLEDGE PROGRAM. This program is designed to insure the inculcation of the proper precepts of the Fraternity and, at the same time, eliminate the remnants of physical and mental brutality which unfortunately remain in some segments of the organization. Business Encouragement Commission: The activities of the Business Encouragement Commission are an important part of the proTHE SPHINX速 SUMMER 2000

BACK TO BASICS: continued:



gram of our Fraternity. Under the chairmanship of Brother Robert Sanders, the Commission developed the Business Encouragement Handbook - outlining procedures for implementing the program at the local chapter level. This handbook was distributed to all chapters and should serve as a guide for annual "BUSINESS ENCOURAGEMENT WEEK" activities. Senior Alpha Service Program: This program was designed to recognize and utilize the talents of the thousands of experienced Alpha Men who are willing to give the Fraternity their time and expertise. This effort seeks to insure that we adequately meet the needs of our older Brothers - at a time when these Brothers constitute a growing segment of our membership. This Commission is hard at work developing programs for consideration by the Brotherhood... and it is instrumental in the execution of the Alpha Smoker and Symposium at the General Convention. Among its many accomplishments thus far has been the design and production of the Alpha Phi Alpha 50-year Pin, developed in conjunction with the Office of the Executive Secretary. Through this program we have made a concerned effort to involve our senior Brothers in the total Fraternity program ... including such stalwarts as Past General Presidents Raymond W. Cannon, Rayford Logan and Maceo Smith.

THE NEW ALPHA THRUST By Brother Ozell Sutton 26th General President, 1981-1984

In the early 1900's, African-Americans he New Alpha Thrust characterbegan to organize nationally to address izes the administration of the the terrible conditions in which they 26th General President. The New found themselves. African-Americans Alpha Thrust was adopted as a prowere being lynched and brutalized by gram of the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, any Whites who decided to prey on them. Inc. at its 75th Anniversary Convention The Ku Klux Klan led a series of hate in Dallas in 1981. Many still rememgroups that intimidated and brutalized ber the 1981 convention for its public Black Americans. These were times of impact and the beginning of a new extreme suffering for Black Americans direction for Alpha. and certainly signaled the need for In 1981, Black Americans were blacks themselves to do something about experiencing some of the same eroding their own plight. of rights and opportunities that were They began to organize nationally to visited upon them following the address the suffering imposed by a Reconstruction Period. A reversal of mean-spirited society. In 1906, the Alpha the gains of the civil rights movement Phi Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. was of the 50's, 60's and 70's was in full Twenty-Sixth General President Brother Ozell Sutton helped founded at Cornell University in Ithaca, view Gunnar Myrdal's "An American N.Y. as an effort to enroll the best-trained Dilemma" frames the core of the sec- Alpha Phi Alpha stay on course as a leader among AfricanAmerican Greek-letter organizations during the early 80's. Blacks in the struggle. The founding of ond aftermath of reconstruction. The the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity was followed by Alpha Kappa Alpha gains of the civil rights era, like the gains of the Reconstruction Sorority in 1908. The National Association for the Advancement of Period, were slipping away. The gains of the Reconstruction Period Colored People was founded in 1909 with a primary thrust to fight ushered in progress for the newly freed slave. The 13th Amendment against lynchings. In 1910, the National Urban League was organabolished slavery. The 14th gave Blacks citizenship rights and the ized. Then Kappa Alpha Psi and Omega Psi Phi Fraternities were 15th Amendment gave us the right to vote. A sense of freedom and formed in 1911, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority in 1913; Phi Beta a sense of progress were everywhere. Sigma Fraternity came in 1914; Zeta Phi Beta was organized in One of the greatest contributors to African-Americans during 1920; and Sigma Gamma Rho was formed in 1922. All were organthis period was the coming of educational opportunities. Africanizations of uplift designed to enlist the best-trained Black men and American colleges were founded at an unprecedented pace. By women in the struggle. 1900, approximately 100 Black colleges had been established in the Alpha, among others, adopted a method of programming to United States. At first the colleges for the most part were not offeraddress the plight of Black Americans. The "A Voteless People is a ing education at college and university levels but rather at the levHopeless People" program designed to encourage and assist Blacks els of academies and institutes, etc. They took Black students where in securing their right to vote program was launched. The "Go to they were and taught "reading, writing and 'rithmatic" before High School, Go to College" programs was made a national promoving on to broader subjects. gram of Alpha. However, during the years of the 1950's, 60s and But the Reconstruction Period was brought to a screeching 70's the Fraternity paid less attention to programming as its memhalt in the late 1870's with southern legislatures passing a series of bers enrolled in and gave leadership to the civil rights movement. "Jim Crow" laws that restricted the Blacks rights to vote, restricted The New Alpha Thrust, the crown jewel of the Sutton admintheir right to public education, denied them the use of public facilistration, returned the Fraternity to solid programming in ities and segregated them from the rest of society. In fact, blacks addressing the Black Struggle. From a continuous theme, "The had no rights that whites were bound to respect and found no jusStruggle Continues," The New Alpha Thrust was a turnaround for tice in our justice system. This process of denial of rights and releAlpha, a revisiting of action, not simple pronouncements in gation to an inferior position were sealed by the Supreme Court's addressing problems. 1896 decision - Plessy vs. Ferguson - that ruled the recently passed


"Jim Crow" laws constitutional. THE SPHINX" SUMMER 2000


Simply, "The New Alpha Thrust" consisted of programs, some old and some new, primarily designed to assist beleaguered Black youth in meeting and addressing the problems they faced. The thrust consisted primarily of these programs: (1) The Leadership Development-Citizenship Education Institutes to be carried out by all graduate chapters and the five regions of the Fraternity. (2) Youth Motivation and Culturally Enriching Programs. (3) Project Alpha - The Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program. (4) Reinstituted and revitalized the "Go to High School - Go to College" Program. (5) Re-constructed and revitalized our "A Voteless People is a Hopeless People" by making voter registration and voter participation primary efforts among all our chapters. (6) Reinstituted the Belford Lawson Oratorical contest. (7) Reinstituted the Miss Black and Gold Pageant and revised it to demonstrate talent, charm, articulation and intelligence. With the theme "Alpha Belongs in the Forefront of Leadership" in the Black Struggle, the Sutton Administration reached far beyond the bounds of in-house programming and joined major civil rights leadership in the fight for freedom, equality and justice. It solidly enrolled in the leadership in support of efforts to make the birthday of our esteemed Brother Martin Luther King, Jr. a national holiday. The Fraternity became active and participated in huge numbers in marches and rallies across the nation. It promoted and led its own marches and called on national leaders to join in at our national conventions. The Fraternity is rightly proud of the fact that it assisted greatly in forcing passage of legislation authorizing the holiday. Too, Alpha was vigorous in its support of the extension of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. This act had done more to protect and promote the right to vote among African-Americans since passage of the 15th Amendment. The south had found a way to circumvent the 15th Amendment by promoting Democratic Primaries as nongovernmental or private institutions. Extensions of the Voting Rights Act beyond the original time frame set in the 1965 Act was essential to Black full participation in the political arena. Again, Alpha can be extremely proud of its role on the national scene among national leadership in successfully promoting the extension. Again, demonstrations, rallies and direct contact with senators, representatives and other political leaders produced success in a noble effort. Again, Alpha has every reason to be proud of its role. In other outreach roles in Alpha's sense of belonging in the "Forefront of Leadership," it made its strength and influence felt. The Fraternity's 26th General President gave the primary leadership in the establishment of the "Council of Presidents" composing the top leadership of the eight [now nine] primary organizations of the CELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM

Pan-Hellenic Council. Through its leadership, Alpha successfully promoted and organized the first joint convention of the Executive Boards and top leadership of the eight organizations and enrolled their full strength and influence in passage of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Holiday Bill, extension of the Voting Rights Act and development of a consensus on problems related to initiations. The organization continues to be a great mechanism for combined action on issues of mutual concern among the groups. The initiative to place a monument on the Mall in honor of Brother M.L. King, Jr. was born during the Sutton administration. A group of Brothers brought the idea to the General President, who assisted in getting the national convention to adopt the concept. It has taken more than 16 years to get congressional passage of legislation authorizing the monument, but here we are in the millenium year 2000, on our way to making a 20- year dream a reality. Three other efforts to place Alpha in the forefront of leadership register high among many. The General President became a member of the Executive Board of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights. LCCR gives overall leadership to all organizations across racial and ethnic lines enrolled in the national struggle for civil rights, human rights and human uplift. The 26th General President accepted membership on the Special Contribution Fund Board of the NAACP. Two boards plan and manage the affairs of the NAACP - the Executive Board and the Special Contribution Fund Board, which raised the budget for operations. Little known but an extremely significant action, Alpha gave leadership to the establishment of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. This is a multi-million dollar center that searches for and locates missing children. In addition, the Center develops and supports efforts to protect and enhance the welfare of children. In 1981, Alpha leadership convened a national conference on children. The conference was called in Louisville, Kentucky, as a result of the "Missing and Murdered Children Crisis" in Atlanta. From this conference came the concept of the establishment of the NCMEC. In addition to giving primary leadership to organizing and facilitating the conference, Alpha contributed the first of $25,000 needed and supported it with staff and other resources. Some 150 experts on children from across the nation participated including three senators and five members of the House of Representatives. Alpha answered the call to be in the forefront of leadership in the Black Struggle and in the general human struggle. The Fraternity remains in that forefront as it continues to give leadership to that struggle.


A legacy of Leadership and Service By Brother Charles C. Teamer 27th General President, 1985-1988

Twenty-Seventh General President Charles Teamer shares a word with Coretta Scott King.

he primary goal of my tenure as the 27th General President of the Fraternity was "Strengthening and Restructuring From Within." To achieve this goal, the Fraternity examined its internal structure and proceeded to take the necessary steps to achieve the desired results. These steps included, among others, the implementation of long-range planning, a program to continue financial stability, a national membership/reclamation/maintenance program, an emphasis on the delivery of basic services to the membership and improving the operations of the General Conventions. Beginning with the inaugural activities for the 27th General President in 1985, the Teamer administration geared its program around the goal of strengthening the Fraternity's internal capacity to serve its members and the larger community by establishing a Task Force on Planning and a Commission on Internal Structure. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; â&#x20AC;&#x201D;


us in workshops and seminars on the basics of Fraternity organization, membership, governance and finance. The Task Force on Planning reported directly to the President on areas of concern and ways to address those issues. During my first year in office, the Commission on Internal Structure was appointed drawing from all segments of the Brotherhood. In 1987, the group prepared an impressive preliminary report that was presented to the general membership at the Regional Conventions. The group compiled information based on the feedback from the membership at the Regional Conventions. The information was used for the final report of the Commission, which was adopted by the membership of the Fraternity at the 81st Anniversary Convention. In the months that followed, numerous administrative and operational issues were identified and resolved. A careful review of the administrative records revealed that the Fraternity faced a numTHE SPHINX8 SUMMER 2000

A Legacy continued:

ber of potentially disastrous lawsuits. Many of the lawsuits were several years old. Through consultation with several Brothers in the legal profession, we were able to successfully resolve these matters without material damage to the name or fiscal status of the Fraternity. The Risk Management program was conceived during our deliberations on legal affairs. The program brought national attention to Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., for becoming the first primarily African-American fraternal organization to establish such a program. Another issue which confronted us was the fact that our name, the Badge (pin), coat-of-arms and shield were not properly registered. This oversight was immediately corrected through the registration of these items with the U.S. Trademarks and Patent Office. One of the biggest challenges we faced was financial. How could we maintain the overall level of services in the face of rising costs and a relatively static membership pool? During our administration, the operating budget increased by 45% through increasing fees, and non-member revenue. The increase in revenue enabled services and programs to continue within a balanced budget. The successful registration of our name and symbols also provided us the opportunity to increase the percentage of our annual income which comes from sources other than direct payments from members and chapters. Membership increased by 12% over the four-year period from 1985-1988, equal to the growth of the previous ten-year period. Financial membership reached an all-time high (14,749) during the 1987 Fraternal year and the number of Brothers becoming Life Members increased substantially. The most important membership development of my tenure as General President was our concerted effort to gather and analyze as much information as possible about the chapters and the brothers that make up the Fraternity. Beginning with the membership workshops at the inaugural forum in New Orleans, followed by the workshops in Washington at the 86th General Convention, and the membership update in 1988 at the Kansas City Convention. We also developed for the first time, a detailed series of membership profiles. This information helped improve our operations and proved to be an invaluable tool for strategic planning. CELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM

A much-needed publication entitled "A Legacy of Leadership and Service:" a program overview, the full-color brochure was designed with the general public in mind and outlined the various programs of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. We are especially proud of the General Conventions in Atlanta (1985), Washington (1986), San Francisco (1987), and Kansas City (1988). The Atlanta convention featured a massive "Free South Africa Rally & March" through the streets of Downtown Atlanta ending at the King Center in front of the tomb of Martin Luther King, Jr., where we were received by Mrs. Ml. King, Jr. We shall not forget the thousands of Alpha Brothers, their families, political and social leadership marching through the streets of Atlanta, successfully raising consciousness on these crucial issues. The Washington Convention was marked by the "Capital Hill Blitz." The "blitz" was a lobbying campaign that led Brothers to converge on Capitol Hill for the historic sanctions vote against South Africa. The lobbying effort was a part of our national campaign to end apartheid. We were proud to be greeted by members of the Fraternity that served in the United States Congress, including Representative Ron Dellums. Brother Dellums motivated us to apply pressure in support of the ultimately adopted sanctions bill. I am extremely proud of the support given our administration in raising funds to support the National Headquarters Fund Drive. This money was later used to purchase the current Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. Headquarters in Baltimore, MD. I left office more convinced than ever that Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., is the GREATEST Fraternity in the WORLD. In closing, I would like to say that I shall remain eternally grateful to the "Teamer Team," the men who were responsible for four wonderful years of service to the organization.


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RELOCATION OF THE GENERAL HEADQUARTERS or many years the General Headquarters of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity was located on Martin Luther King Drive in Chicago, Illinois. By January 1, 1989, as a result of deferred maintenance, the Headquarters had been demolished. The Fraternity then began operating from an old warehouse building in Chicago and this was not the image the Brotherhood desired for its General Headquarters. The building of a new General Headquarters had been discussed for many years and the General Convention assessed a General Headquarters Building fee for that purpose. The assessment was $100.00 for each Alumni Brother and $50.00 for each College Brother. During the General Presidential Election of 1988, one of my campaign promises was that "I would build a new General Headquarters representative of Alpha Phi Alpha." In 1989, in an effort to keep the "campaign promise," in a grand affair, attended by many Brothers, I presided over "ground breaking" for a new building at the old site. Shortly after the "ground breaking," the Board of Directors met with the architect. It was clear from the meeting that the architect fee plus projected construction costs were in excess of the collected $1 million allocated Fraternity revenue. An unsuccessful renegotiation attempt by the Board of Directors was reported to the General Convention, and the General Convention instructed the Board of Directors to get a General Headquarters building even if it meant relocation away from Chicago, Illinois. At the request of the Board of Directors, the Brotherhood submitted proposals.The Board of Directors received 10 good pro- Twenty-Eighth General President Brother Henry Ponder helped spearhead the relocation oj the Fraternity's Corporate posals for sites which were either for a new building or an existing building. A General Headquarters Relocation Committee was appointed to visit and Headquarters from Chicago, Illinois to Baltimore, Maryland, assess these sites and reduce the list to three. The Chair of this Committee was Brother Jim Johnson. This Committee served the Fraternity with distinction and is deserving of high praise from the Brotherhood. Tht Committee made its report to, and fielded questions from the Board of Directors. The Committee Chair answered all questions, professionally, honestly and sensitively to the great satisfaction of the Board of Directors. The report was accepted with accolades for a job well done. The Committee reduced the list to three locations - Atlanta, Georgia, Winston-Salem, North Carolina and Baltimore, Maryland Board of Directors visited each site and reviewed the strong points of each before making its final selection. The members of the Boan Directors deserve much praise for the professional and unbiased manner in which they made this selection. I can truthfully say that Director approached the task with the thinking "what is best for the Fraternity, not what is best for my region." The final selection was the Goucher House in Baltimore, Maryland. It then became the responsibility of the Fraternity's Genera Counsel, Brother Julian Blackshear and the General President to negotiate the purchase. Thanks to Brother Blackshear for his knowledge and professionalism in insuring a good deal for the Fraternity. The Fraternity was able to negotiate: a $850,000 purchase price; a $100,000 local foundation gift; no closing costs; help in recruiting staff and staff training specific to Alpha Phi Alpha from the Baltimore Chamber of Commerce; and a Maryland State flag. The reloc; of the General Headquarters to Baltimore also brought about operational changes including: relocation of staff members; severance pay fc former staff members; computerization of the General Headquarters; building a corporate image; and establishing a permanent building maintenance fee. ^k When the Fraternity closed the purchase there was $300,000 left in the General Headquarters Building Fund. This was transferred to the Building Replacement and Maintenance Fund which was the initiation of the permanent General Headquarters Maintenance Fund. Most assuredly, credit goes to the late Brother Augustus "Gus" Witherspoon who was responsible for design/layout of the Headquarters; keeping the Board of Directors focused. Without his influence much of what was accomplished would not have been. Brother Witherspoon was truly, a great "Servant of All."




RENAISSANCE: By Brother Milton C. Davis, 29th General President

-anuary, 1993 ushered in new beginnings and Transitions for the *trar nation, the AfricanA m e r i c a n Community and our Fraternity. The political era of Presidents Ronald Reagan and George Bush was at an end. The inauguration of President William Jefferson Clinton offered new hopes and directions for America. The African-American community braced itself for a retrenchment in the cause of civil justice by the federal government and the abandonment of affirmative action as a weapon against racism in our society. The nation and particularly the African-American Community mourned the passing of civil rights stalwart Brother Thurgood Marshall and my first public function as the 29th General President was to attend the funeral of Brother Marshall. Only 10 days earlier at my own inauguration in Birmingham, Alabama, I said: "We can take great pride in, and gain inspiration from, the role Alpha has played in changing the course of this nation. But Brothers, the past should only serve us as a preface and Prologue to the present and the future. Our time and energies are not well spent looking backwards and reminiscing about bygone days, people and events. Although we must honor and profit from our history, our focus must be fixed on looking and moving forward." The 1990s offered us opportunities for growth, leadership and service. We adopted as the theme for the administration "The Alpha Renaissance: Rekindling the Spirit of Leadership and Community Service." The goals of our administration were to heighten the national image of our Fraternity as leaders in America, to impact national policy and public debate, to advance our African-American community through mentoring programs and political awareness, and to stimulate the Brotherhood worldwide to raise the level of activism in the affairs of their community. We achieved these goals in the following areas"

General Office: _ _

Established the Internet Website for the General Office. Established the Alpha Shop, the first national paraphernalia shop owned by the General Organization. Provided the corporate headquarters staff with a retirement plan.

Programs: _

_ _

_ _

Established the Collegiate Scholars' Bowl National Competition with cash awards. Inaugurated the first Alpha Education Foundation Scholarship Forum. Established the Alpha World Policy Council. Established the Charles H. Wesley Lecture Series. Established the "Sankofa Program" a funded national program for mentoring through a $400,000 Kellogg Foundation Grant. Donated $31,000 to the NAACP during the 1994 Chicago General Convention. The U.S. Congress passed the legislative Act authorizing Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity the exclusive right to erect a national memorial in honor of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in Washington, D.C. President Clinton signed the Act into Law in November, 1996.

Public Relations & Networking: _ _


_ _

Established Alpha National Receptions during Congressional Black Caucus Weekend, Washington, D.C. General President Milton C. Davis and Myrtle Davis were invited as special guests of President and Mrs. William Clinton at a formal White House State Dinner and Concert, September, 1994. Conducted National Board of Directors Meetings on the campuses of historically black colleges and universities including Dillard, Tuskegee, Clark-Atlanta, Howard and Xavier Universities. Endorsed and participated in the 30th Anniversary of the March on Washington, August, 1993. Endorsed and participated in the Million Man March, October, 1995.


International Activities: Appointed U.S. Ambassador Horace Dawson as International Advisor to the General President. Established the International Policy Forum of Distinguished speakers as a General Convention Program. Initiated International Service Project to support a Youth Center in Botswana, Africa. Presented donation of $10,000 to Hon. Quett Masire, President of Botswana, Africa 1993Sponsored Reception and support for South African Diplomatic Trainees prior to majority rule coming to South Africa. Sponsored Alpha representative to the Third African, AfricanAmerican Summit in May, 1995. Visited Alpha Chapters in Frankfurt, Germany and Nassau, The Bahamas. Archives and History Commissioned Fraternity Historian to produce first video tape history lecture. Established official Alpha Archives at Moorland-Spingarn Archives, Howard University, Washington, D.C. Established the office of Fraternity Archivist. Membership


Established membership requirement that all candidates must be registered to vote. Established and published an Annual Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Calendar from 1993-97.

Building Foundation Launched the Alpha Village Housing Development Phase I, which included the construction and dedication of one of three residences in Chicago, Illinois. General Conventions Conducted membership voter referendum resulting in the change from annual to biennial general conventions. Established official legislative day during the general convention condensing voting on all major agenda items to one day. Established the professional cluster meetings of college and alumni brothers during the general convention having Brothers caucus according to their professions and/or majors. Sampling of Presenters and honorees at General Conventions during quadrennium Brother Edward W. Brooke, U.S. Senate, Brother Eddie D. Robinson, Grambling State football coach, Brother Lionel B. Richie, entertainer, Brother Earl Hilliard, Member of Congress, Brother Robert Scott, Member of Congress, Brother Thomas Pawley, historian, Brother John H.Johnson, publisher, Brother CELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM

iSfifsSANCE nunvd:

Dennis Archer, Mayor of Detroit, Hon. Alexis Herman, U.S. Secretary of Labor, Hon. Cardiss Collis, Member of Congress, Atty. Marian Wright Edelman, Children's Defense Fund, Brother Lee P. Brown, U.S. Cabinet Member, Brother John Hope Franklin, historian, Mrs. Myrlie Evers-Williams, NAACP Chair, Brother James E. Forbes, Senior Minister Riverside Church, New York, Brother Delano Lewis, President National Public Radio, Brother Hugh Price, President National Urban League, Brother Marc Morial, Mayor of New Orleans, Brother William Gray, President United Negro College Fund, Brother Winston Scott, U.S. Astronaut. I am convinced that the principles and foundations laid down by our founders are sound and compelling today. An Alpha Man is not ordinary, average or common. By definition and tradition an Alpha man is extraordinary in every way. He is a person who has committed himself to live well while doing good for others. An Alpha man is a man who can afford to take risks on the behalf of fairness and justice; one who through academic training and scholarship is an able advocate for an issue as well as an articulate spokesman for those who have no voice. An Alpha man is a leader where and when that is necessary or a good supportive follower when others provide leadership, but he is never indifferent and uninvolved. No longer can we afford to give just our spare time, our spare change and our small talk to the affairs of our Fraternity, community, nation and world. Our great commission is that we undertake to give quality time, strategic resources and profound thought to these affairs and that we inspire others by our example to do the same. This is the mission passed down from our Founders. This is the challenge of this new 21st century. This is the essence of the Brotherhood of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. May it be so forever.




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IN RETROSPECT By Raymond W. Cannon Reprinted from the Fall 1981 Sphinx*

am pleased that a kind and understanding providence has preserved me that I may celebrate with you our 75th Anniversary and Diamond Jubilee in Ithaca and Buffalo, New York. Jewels Kelley, Callis and Murray—survivors of the original seven—were there and I see here this evening a few others who were there. After the experience, I had with hot humid weather at a previous Convention, I had decided to forego attendance. I changed my mind. Furthermore, I may not be able to be with you when our 100th Anniversary is celebrated, so I am here now. This evening, I am proud to state that I have been a member of Alpha Phi Alpha since April 6,1912—almost 70 years—during all of which time I have never had occasion to regret a moment of my career in this Fraternity. I LOVE ALPHA PHI ALPHA! Only a very few of us are left who had to do with shaping this organization when it was in a plastic state. In recent years, I have received many invitations to address groups of Brothers and chapters. They want to hear the stories about the Founders and the early trials and tribulations of the Fraternity. Groups of Brothers have come to my home, some with tape recorders. I know all the Jewels, worked with them, enjoyed the hospitality of some of their homes, and I have received their viewpoints and listened to their stories.


Now I shall endeavor to follow as closely as possible the subject assigned to me by General President Sutton. Someday, I hope to tell you about many of the great stalwarts of Alpha Phi Alpha and what they gave and did to make this Fraternity a great organization—also, some of the happenings with which we had to contend. The Jewels were somewhat older than the students of today. They were very practical men. Some had attended higher institutions of learning prior to their matriculation at Cornell. And they came from various parts of the country. They already had considerable life experiences. Each was different than all of the others but they had the ability to cooperate and work together toward a common goal. I would state that they were men of wide experience, they knew and understood people, both in their weaknesses and strengths. One important attribute of character each had was that although all of them had tasted the bitter dregs of racial discrimination, humiliation and prejudice, they did not permit that fact to deter them from their urge to serve. They were able to love their fellow men. Of the Founders, only Tandy was not obliged to work while in university. His father was a prosperous contractor in Kentucky and he was financially well situated as a student. Some of the other Founders used to borrow from him, and he said they used to hang on his coattail. Chapman, somewhat older, operated a brickyard and dining hall. Some of them had irregular menial employment of various kinds. CELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM

In order to understand some of the influences of their day, and some that led to their banding themselves together into fraternal union, we turn for a moment to note conditions in this country as a whole in their time as students. A great controversy was raging between two schools of thought—one headed by our late Brother W.E.B. DuBois advocating higher education and the other headed by the late Dr. Booker T Washington advocating industrial education. In addition, each differed from the other on the great social questions of the day. The Niagara Movement in 1905 preceded the founding of Alpha Phi Alpha in 1906, and this, as you know, was the forerunner of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, which came into being in 1909. For a few years before and after this period the South was feverishly endeavoring to push the (African-American) down the social scale and keep him there. Senator "Pitchfork" Ben Tillman of South Carolina, Vardaman and John Sharp Williams of Mississippi, Cole Blease of Georgia, Hoke Smith and a number of other white southerners were appearing in print, and Tillman on the lecture platform throughout the country, especially in the northern states, vilifying, defaming and maligning the (African-American). In some of the southern areas, lynching and burning were almost commonplace. In those days, we had little on which to pin our hopes for better days. The old order of leadership had failed, and current courageous leadership was pitifully handicapped. Even there was prejudice at Cornell University. But the Founders of Alpha Phi Alpha were men of great integrity. They believed in themselves and their ability to do things constructively. They decided that they could and they would change things, circumstances and conditions. At first, they thought they would try and make it better in all respects for the (African-American) students who would come to Cornell in the future. But one among their number, Jewel Henry Arthur Callis, when our General Constitution was drafted, insisted upon provision to be included that would justify a social action program, and the provision in the Preamble of the General Constitution, "to destroy all prejudices" is attributed to Jewel Callis. This constitutes the foundation upon which Alpha Phi Alpha can stand to justify all of its public programs of education, uplift and guidance. Each Founder made his contribution. All at that time appeared to be of equal competence. Jewel Kelley seemed to feel that Jewel Callis proposed the name of our Fraternity and he endorsed it with a motion that it be adopted. Jewel Tandy designed our official badge, "the pin." Tandy, incidentally, had the first pin. Jewel Murray wanted to see and examine it. Tandy let him do so. Murray dropped it in the snow it was lost. Roscoe Conkling Giles,

COLLECTIONS though not one of the Jewels, became the second General President and he in large measure helped to devise our Ritual with a background of Egypt, the Pyramids and the Egyptian Sphinx. The Ritual was in cipher for secrecy and protection. Here I wish to state that the Niagara Movement had a terrific impact on the Founders. They were greatly influenced by DuBois whom Callis had met, circa 1909, enroute to Epsilon Chapter, which DuBois became an Honorary member. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity was the first Greek-letter Society composed of (African-American) men of college grade. In some quarters it was viewed with curiosity, and in others some thought we were creating a "Jim Crow" organization. These impressions soon disappeared. And for more than a quarter of a century the very name—ALPHA PHI ALPHA—was magic. Its ranks were difficult to enter. One negative vote ("black ball") excluded a candidate from membership. A"C+" average in scholarship was required by many chapters. Just now I recall that at the 16th General Convention held in Columbus, Ohio in December 1923, Jewel George B. Kelley, who was not a very tall man, stood up on his chair so he could be seen and loudly exclaimed, "Alpha Phi Alpha wants QUALITY, not QUANTITY!" After Alpha Phi Alpha was founded and operating, presently other similar organizations began to come into being and they appeared to be watching us. Now, when Alpha Phi Alpha was established, the Founders had no rules or guidelines nor did they have very much information pertaining to Greek-letter college societies. They fashioned a Fraternity to meet their needs and to enable them to carry out a program. Two of the Jewels had worked in the fraternity houses with white students. They overheard things and acquired by bit, some ideas of what these organizations were all about. But chiefly, their own wisdom guided them. Alpha Phi Alpha was very careful and our Fraternity knew that others were watching everything that Alpha Phi Alpha did. We were constantly under their observation. We held our General Conventions in December, and all of the others did likewise. We created a Fraternity journal, The Sphinx®, and the others, including the sororities, did likewise. And Mr. Lionel Artis, Editor of the journal of the Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, having been a personnel officer in my regiment in World War I overseas in France, felt he could write to me for information pertaining to his journal and I gave it to him freely. In the course of our progress, we began to hold a public meeting during our General Conventions, and finally we inaugurated our published programs of uplift, education and guidance. All of the other Greek-letter societies of our race did the same. Alpha Phi Alpha produced its Fraternity song (now called our Fraternity Hymn). All of the others composed songs. And when we started to hold General Conventions in the summer months, they copied that procedure, too. I am glad we were right because if we had made a mistake all of the others would have made that mistake also. Finally, we authorized and brought forth our written history, the first authentic record of a group of (African-American) men of college grade; a very brilliant monumental work that will stand for all time in the future as incentive to our youth, and a constant refutation of Anglo-Saxon superiority over those of


African descent. I understand that some of the kindred bodies now have histories. Over the years, some students have used Alpha Phi Alpha's history as a source of information in writing their Master's thesis and dissertations for their Doctor of Philosophy degrees. One of these is a member of this Convention—Brother Doctor Herbert King. From the very beginning, Alpha Phi Alpha endeavored to build character into young men and prepare them for leadership. The smoker was the most important of the sessions of some of the early Conventions. Too, it was the greatest fellowship we had. In the beginning, all were undergraduates. The Brothers assembled in the evening before the Convention, sometimes, and after an hour or so of camaraderie and refreshments, the host chapter's Chairman called the meeting to order, presented a topic for discussion and the smoker was underway. The meeting usually lasted far into the night. All of the speeches were extemporaneous and very forceful. The Brothers were eager to gain the floor and speak, and many, even the quiet, timid Brothers, suddenly became articulate and participated. The young Brothers of the Convention, attending for the first time were amazed. The smoker was just such a meeting at the 12th General Convention held in Chicago in December 1919- Many of the Brothers present were veterans of World War I and had seen overseas service in France. I was one of those veterans. They had acquired a world perspective and were very resentful about injustice and prejudice. Brother Joseph Bibb of Chicago gained the floor. Chicago had been the scene of one of the worst race riots in the nation's history during the previous summer. Brother Bibb published a small weekly newspaper. He related how black voters had been disfranchised in the southern states, and all of the black senators and Congressmen of the reconstruction era had been eliminated. He explained what was necessary to be done for (African-Americans) to regain their losses. He electrified the audience when he told how black men would return to public office, including the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives, and he even placed a black man in the White House. He stated very positively that black men would return. Few there, if any, thought his predictions would come true in their lifetime, BUT THEY HAVE BECOME TRUE! all except the White House and that in due course may come true. This smoker set the tone of the whole convention. During the business session Brother Perry Jackson, now a retired Judge of the Superior Court in Cleveland, Ohio, and Brother Robert Martin, both of Pi Chapter, Cleveland Ohio, presented statistics and factual information showing that of approximately 30,000 black people in Cleveland, Ohio, the June 1919 graduating classes of the city high schools had but one black young man and only six black young ladies. Brother Herman Moore, who years later became a Judge in the Federal Court of the Virgin Islands, moved that the Fraternity launch a movement designed to influence our young men and women to Go-to-High School, Go-to-College. Brother Moore's motion carried; and thus Alpha Phi Alpha authorized its first public program designed to arrest the attention of halting youth standing on the threshold of life looking for direction and guidance. Now this was not altogether in keeping with the accepted THE SPHINX" SUMMER 2000

SnueA: C O L L E C T I O N S usage of Greek-letter College societies and fraternities but Alpha men thought they were wholly justified in taking this step to help the less fortunate of our race, and because of the numerous adverse circumstances affecting them. The influence of this educational program was terrific and had a very forceful impact upon our members, black folk throughout the land, and faculties of schools and colleges. This instance will give you some idea of the way it worked. Attorney Charles P. Howard, an alumnus of Drake University, where he had been an outstanding player on its football team, learned about the Go-to-High School, Go-to-College campaign and he desired to participate in it. He found that it was being conducted by Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. In order to participate in the program, he organized a group of students attending the two universities in Iowa and petitioned Alpha Phi Alpha for a chapter. One of the other fraternities was trying to get most of these men in Howard's group but he held them together, except for two who defected, and in due course Brother David N. Crosthwaith and I were delegated to set this group up into Alpha Nu Chapter. One of the men whom we initiated was Frederick D. Patterson who, years later, became President of Tuskegee. The educational movement had "caught on." Groups of students began to petition for chapters. Our membership increased rapidly. High school faculties, social agencies, churches and prominent citizens throughout the country cooperated beautifully. After a few years some of our colleges in the south complained, their facilities were being taxed, some thought our program should be curtailed or slowed down. Instead, Alpha turned on more steam. In another instance, as I previously indicated, the Founders visualized Alpha as a great training institution to prepare young men for leadership. So far, this purpose had been fulfilled gloriously. I could mention many instances but this one will suffice. One day I heard the late Brother Earnest Greene of Xi Lambda Chapter in Chicago relate that after he became a member of the Illinois State Legislature, he developed into a fountain source of information on parliamentary procedure. His colleagues frequently sought aid and information from him. One day one of his white colleagues asked him how he became so proficient whereupon he proudly replied that he had learned all of that on the floor of the General Convention of his college Fraternity, Alpha Phi Alpha. In those days, our General Convention was a great deliberative body in which our intellectual giants of whom we had many took a very active part. Brother Jewel Callis was a member of the 12th Convention in Chicago, December 1919, and on page 13 of the minutes of that Convention, paragraph 3, having listened to the reading of communications, Jewel Callis was moved to remark, "the letters that have just been read reveal the fact that we are beginning to achieve the ideals which the original Founders had in mind when they formed the first chapter of the Fraternity. Alpha Phi Alpha is an African institution in America. It is within our power and province to be the greatest force for the good of the (AfricanAmerican) race in America." CELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM

Today, after 75 years of planning, toil and study, we see the members of our Fraternity, their sons and daughters, even their grandchildren in the front ranks of our activist organizations contending for our full rights of citizenship under the Constitution of the United States. In this respect, slowly but surely, we are succeeding. And today we have black men in the halls of Congress, a black woman there, too; black men and women sit on the benches of the municipal, state and federal courts in various parts of the country; black men are mayors of some of our largest cities, and they are holding various other high offices. We still have representation in the Cabinet of the President, and one black man, one of our Brothers, sits as one of the Justices of the United States Supreme Court. The predictions of the late Brother Joseph Bibb made in the 12th General Convention in Chicago back in December 1919 have come true! And the achievements of our Brothers Thurgood Marshall, Martin Luther King, Jesse Owens and Joseph Bibb, who eventually became the Public Safety Commissioner of Illinois, together with many others too numerous to name here, stand out as forceful incentives to our youth to prepare themselves so that they may continue our progress. And our youth must understand us, too! We do not want any special treatment; we want our youth to stand on their merits. Meantime, while we were strengthening our foundation, the 31st General Convention in Chicago, Illinois, eliminated the restriction of our membership to (African-Americans) thus affording Alpha Phi Alpha a firmer footing in its struggle for right and justice. As I bring this to a conclusion, I digress for a moment to relate one instance, which established Alpha Phi Alpha as an activist organization. When I was Second, or Midwestern General Vice President, I received an urgent request to come to Upsilon Chapter. Upon my arrival I learned that Alpha men were being subject to racial discrimination in the cafeteria of the University of Kansas, and elsewhere in that institution. Brother William T McKnight, Chapter President, tried several times to secure an appointment for me to see the Chancellor, but the Chancellor refused to see me. After subsequent attempts, the Chancellor told Brother McKnight he would step out in the hall and meet and greet me. I advised Brother McKnight that he should indicate to the Chancellor that Alpha Phi Alpha did not transact its business in the hall but that I would see him in his inner office, whereupon I prepared to take up residence in the Chapter House until the Chancellor could find it convenient to see me. Finally, after a day and a half passed, Brother McKnight succeeded in obtaining the appointment. Upon my arrival the Chancellor attempted to throw me off balance by stating that he was of Quaker stock in South Carolina, and that his folks freed their slaves before the Emancipation Proclamation because they did not believe in slavery. Brother McKnight and I took things in stride. We had quite a discussion. The Chancellor had proposed "reserved tables" in the cafeteria for our black students. I asked him if that would not lead to "reserving things" in other parts of the university. He said it would not. Brother McKnight then presented facts and instances of discrimination in other parts of the university. The Chancellor stated white students from the south had objected to the (African-

COLLECTIONS , American) students eating at tables in all parts of the cafeteria, that (African-American) students were there out of proportion to their population, and that unless (African-American) students accepted some kind of arrangement the white students would not patronize the cafeteria and it would have to be closed. I believe the chancellor knew we were aware of a provision by the donors of the land on which the university was built that there should be no racial discrimination. He solicited my opinion as to "reserved tables" whereupon I informed the Chancellor that I had no authority to speak for the entire (African-American) student body, but the problem in this matter of every member of Alpha Phi Alpha was the problem of every (African-American) student there, and that Alpha Phi Alpha could not accept his proposals. When we left his office (African-American) students, regardless of fraternal affiliation who were enrolled at the University of Kansas, could eat at any table in the cafeteria without humiliation or discrimination. I took the position that wherever we establish a chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha, the Fraternity is duty bound to defend and protect it and its members in all respects. Subsequently, our Fraternity had been obliged to oppose racial discrimination of various kinds in other places and institutions. Time, however, will not permit me to explain such further at this meeting. Now, one of the immediate tasks before us is to attract more undergraduates. Perhaps we should have alternate conventions, i.e., hold every other Convention during the last three or four days in December, as the Founders planned. This would accommodate those who must work during the summer months. They could attend an alternate Convention and do so at much less expense. We still have great tasks before us. Our mission has only begun. Our initial efforts were excellent and produced results beyond our expectations. But as time marches on, we must continually adjust our efforts and programs to meet changing times and circumstances. Our fraternities and sororities, all of them, are great and wonderful organizations dedicated to worthy purposes.

But the time has arrived when all of them together must help to shape the destiny of people of our race in this country. This we can do! Do you think the task is too great? Then let me tell you that in the 11th year of our existence, while we were a small, weak and struggling Fraternity, our Beta Chapter at Howard University alone spearheaded a movement which led to the establishment of an Officers' training Camp at Fort Des Moines, Iowa, to train and lead troops of our race in World War I. And in the first class to finish, 32 Alpha men received commissions in the United States Army as Captains, First and Second Lieutenants. And there were rumors of German agents visiting the homes of people of our race in the South posing as Bible agents and playing on the religious weakness of (African-Americans) and spreading German propaganda. We could not prove these rumors but they must have reached Washington because presently Brother Emmet J. Scott was appointed as Assistant to the Secretary of War, Newton D. Baker. So far, then, I think we have done a pretty good job. We tried, we have achieved, and we have accomplished our goals. We shall continue our efforts "to destroy all prejudices," and to serve and uplift humanity; and, since we are the first of all to create such an organization as this Fraternity, we shall continue to serve all; and as we proceed up this rocky road of progress, we shall transcend all; whereupon then we may devote our efforts to the more cultural aspects of fraternal endeavor. Oh Lord, May the true spirit of Fraternity rule our hearts, guide our thoughts and control our lives so that we may become, through Thee, SERVANTS OF ALL. I LOVE ALPHA PHI ALPHA!

Brother Raymond W. Cannon was the 12,b General President ofAlpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. and the first Editor-in-Chief of The Sphinx9 magazine.


AMONG ALPHA'S GREAT It s no idle boast when 1 Brothers in Alpha 1 ,. point to their mem- 1 bers who 1 j achieved greatness. 1 not to mention. 1 prominence, in the 1 various fields of senice. Here are four y Brothers in the bond...all true and tried. as they enjoy a k Smoker tendered in I their honor by mem- ' bers of Phi Lambda Chapter. Raleigh. NC and Beta Rho with its chapter seat at Shaw University. The event was held on the Shaw campus. Special guest was Brother Paul Robeson.




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THE HISTORY AND PURPOSE OF ALPHA PHI ALPHA By Jewel Brother George B. Kelley Reprinted from The Sphinx91917 true application of the saying that great accomplishments have humble beginnings is the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. In the Fall of 1905, a number of (African-American) students registered at Cornell University. It had been the first time in the history of Cornell that the citizens of Ithaca had seen so many students of the race enter the university with an expressed determination of succeeding by force of effort. (African-American) students had been in Cornell before, but never so many as now. It had frequently happened that one or two of the few (African-Americans) enrolled had either been sent home for insufficient scholarship or had left before completing a course. It is safe to say that prior to 1905, not more than 15 (African-Americans) had been graduated from Cornell, although its doors had always been open to the race. A large percentage of this 15 had been women of the race, who have always demonstrated at Cornell the best and greatest possibilities of the (AfricanAmerican), both in conduct and scholarship. Since 1905, I can recall personally over 35 (AfricanAmerican) graduates and not more than six of these women. Besides this number there have been several that I do not know personally. Twenty-six of these graduates were members of the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. The fellows soon realized that we were before the bar of public opinion and must govern our actions in and out of school accordingly. This was the condition that confronted the ten or more (African-American) students who found themselves that Fall in Cornell. We realized that we must accomplish our efforts by help to each other and to those who surrounded us. We soon formed a little literary and social club with the late Professor Charles C. Poindexter, the only (African-American) student taking graduate work, as our President. We had about ten fellows and two co-eds in the club but the young ladies, finding themselves so greatly outnumbered, graciously withdrew from the club. Some of us made ourselves members of the local Zion Sunday School and a few became teachers. In this manner, we showed our interest in the affairs of the (African-Americans) of Ithaca, who were actually doing something for the uplift of the race. As is natural, when a number of young men are con-



stantly together in classroom and out, we soon became greatly interested in each other. We were soon helping each other in schoolwork and in our different daily occupations, for nearly all of us were working for our board in the various fraternities around campus. If one of us had a dollar it seemed the common possession of all. Thus we were soon spoken of by the town people as the most united bunch of (African-Americans) that had ever entered Cornell. Don't think that we were different from other young men in the art of cutting up. We were as full of life and noise as the average student and some us had more than the average. We gave our landladies much trouble because of the rackets we would make in our rooms. Cornell is one of the greatest Fraternity centers in the country and as we came in contact with the members of these clubs every day, we could not but see the spirit of helpfulness and comradeship displayed by them toward each other. No doubt we unconsciously imbibed some of their spirit, for we were daily growing closer and closer in helpfulness and usefulness toward each other. Some of us began to think and expressed our thoughts to each other. If a fraternity could unite fellows in such bonds of friendship and usefulness because of the oath they had taken, we must have a fraternity. After several individual talks we brought the matter up at one of the meetings of our literary club, for discussion. Some thought the idea good and others thought it foolish. It was brought up at several meetings before action was taken and in the Spring of 1906 we decided to change our club into a fraternity. The following men voted for the change, and became the original founders of Alpha Phi Alpha: Henry A. Callis, Charles H. Chapman, Robert H. Ogle, Vertner W. Tandy, Nathaniel A. Murray, James H. Morton and George B. Kelley. A committee was named to find a suitable name and George B. Kelley was elected president of the Fraternity and Robert H. Ogle was elected Secretary. The name selected by the committee was the "Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity." In the Fall of 1906, we began to discuss the advisability of expanding or of becoming just a local fraternity. We then realized that what we had found should be shared by others and resolved that as soon as possible we would form chapters of our



Fraternity and if possible make the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity the means of uniting the most earnest and industrious (African-American) students in all the leading (African-American) and white universities and colleges of the country. We realized that in no better way could the spirit of race helpfulness, race pride and upright living be taught than through these little groups of men. As they leave college, they impart these ideas unconsciously to others and show to the world that the (African-American) college men are practically united for race uplift. Although this was our dream it was not until 1908 that we began to see it realized. In the Fall of 1906, we had our first initiation, which had been carefully worked out by some of the seven, and I am glad to say that a great part of this original initiation is in use today. The initiates were Lemuel E. Graves, now a Professor in the A & M College at Tallahassee, Florida; Eugene K. Jones, Secretary of the Urban League of New York City, and Gordon H. Jones, now a successful engineer with the Public Service Commission in New York City. How we did labor with these three men to impress upon their minds and bodies the great importance of Alpha Phi Alpha! Their excellent records in life show how well we succeeded. In 1908, the Fraternity was incorporated under the laws of the State of New York as the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity of Cornell University. During this same year began the realization of our dream of expansion, for through the efforts of Brother E.K. Jones, we formed the Beta Chapter at Howard University and the Gamma Chapter at Virginia Union University. It seemed a fitting application to our purpose that our first chapters should be among our own schools. Since 1908,16 active, one graduate and one alumni chapter have been formed. Our chapters are founded in all of the largest universities of the East and West where there are a sufficient number of (African-American) students and in four of our (African-American) universities: Howard, Virginia Union, Lincoln and Wilberforce. We are now more than 700 strong and enrolled in our Fraternity are some of the most successful and best known men of the race. Thus has the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity come through these past ten years, increasing its membership and broadening its vision of usefulness.

Brother George Biddle Kelley was a founding member of the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

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JEWEL VERTNER W. TANDY (Center) of Sew York, during his appearance at the 1937 General Convention in New Orlean With him are Brothers Attorney Sidney Jones. Jr. (left) then Mid-Western Vice President: and Dr. Milton S.J. Wright, of Wilberforce University, Associate Editor of the Sphinx. Brother Tandy hadJust been presented a bound volume of the Sphinx magazines by Editor 1.0. Stringier following his Pounders' Address when Ibis picture was made. Jewel Tandy's death on Monday. November 7th. reduced the number of living Jewels to only three.

A GREAT MAN HAS FALLEN ... Essayist, Reformer, Prophet By Brother C. Anderson Davis Reprinted from the October 1963 Sphinx" "A wide door for effective work has opened to me, and there are many adversaries." I Corinthians 16.9 RSV rother Dr. William Edward Burghardt DuBois, leader, author, scholar, educator, has passed this span of life, now he belongs to the ages and the glory of our imagination. He passed in Accra, Ghana (Africa) August 27th where he had become a citizen. Some time before leaving the United States, he wrote: "I was not an American. I was not a man. I was, by long education and daily reminder, a colored man in a white world." Brother DuBois settled in Ghana at the personal invitation of President Kwame Nkrumah. He became editor of the Encyclopedic Africana, a work sponsored by the Government. He was given a state funeral at Christiansborg Castle, now known as Government House and was buried just outside of the castle. President Kwame Nkrumah, his cabinet, members of parliament and state officials joined in the ceremony and a national state of mourning was declared. Death is not the end, but only an epoch in life which is endless, therefore, we need not fear, for he who lives in "manly deeds and love for all mankind" shall live, though his body falls in dust. The physical body cannot endure eternally, for we are in a vacillating world. The mountains, the forests, the landscapes, everything around us change, we are not the same today as yesterday and tomorrow may bring growth or digression, broadened horizons or narrow pitfalls. Here was a man who gave the full measure of his devotion in scholarly struggle for the freedom and redemption of his fellow brethren. No pangs of death can still his courageous endeavors. For him, there were problems to be solved, dangers to be faced and difficulties to be overcome. Catch a glimpse of his spirit, a spirit worthy to be imitated by all believers in equality for the human race. In his early years, great opportunities of service were opened to him in his own vigorous imagery. These opportunities were like a door of hope swinging widely and beckoning his dauntless spirit to pass through. "A wide door for effective work has been opened to me, and there are many adversaries." This man understood that difficulty and opportunity go hand in hand, but he knew how to transmit difficulties into opportunities. Brother DuBois was a scholar in truthâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;truth for a purpose, a way of life and not academic exercise. He could not compromise the truth, as he saw it, nor emasculate its form in search for selfish gain, academic expediency nor earthly fears. The think-



ing of this man was far ahead of the thinking of his day on matters pertaining to race. He might have been pampered by the socalled beneficent "angels" of (African-American) institutions, as many (African-Americans) were, had he confined his proclamations of truth to the classroom and withdrawn when truth conflicted with invested interest. But his nature could not endure such deceit for he was a symbol of those cutting words, "I would rather be right than president." Brother DuBois was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, February 23, 1868, five years after the Emancipation Proclamation. His father, a shopkeeper, was of French-West Indian ancestry. His mother was of African, (AfricanAmerican) and Dutch ancestry. He went to Fisk University and after his first year spent his summer vacation teaching in the rural South, where he lived among former slaves, slept on clay floors and ate from an iron pot. He received the B.A. degree from Fisk University in 1888 and from Harvard in 1890 and five years later he received a Ph.D. from Harvard. A grant from the John F. Slater Fund made possible two years study in Europe. He attended the University of Berlin and visited Poland. It was during this time that Brother DuBois began to see America's race problem, the problem of colonial peoples in Africa and Asia and the political development of Europe as facets of a worldwide problem. After teaching successfully at Wilberforce University, the University of Pennsylvania and Atlanta University, Brother DuBois interrupted his career as an educator in 1909 to devote full time to the NAACP, which he helped to found. He later founded the PanAfrican Congress. From 1910 to 1933, he was editor of The Crisis, official organ of the NAACP. Between 1930 and 1946 he edited The Encyclopedia of the Negro and in 1945, he edited and presented to the United Nations "An Appeal to the World", a document on the status of the (African-American) in the United States. By 1934 his growing policy differences with other leaders of the NAACP led to his first withdrawal. He went back to Atlanta University but ten years later, he returned to the NAACP leadership group. In 1948, he again left the NAACP to take up other duties. Brother DuBois was the author of 19 books. His Suppression of the Slave Trade, published in 1896 as Volume I of



the Harvard University Historical Series, became a college textbook. His last was World's of Color (1961). Among his other books were Souls of Black Folk (1903), Darkwater (1920), Dark Princess (1924) and The World and Africa (1947). Brother DuBois served as consultant to the United Nations on its formation in San Francisco in 1945. He later became head of the Council on African Affairs. In 1949, he was made chairman of the Peace Information Center in New York. In 1950, he ran unsuccessfully for United States Senator on the American Labor party ticket. Two years later he received the Grand International Prize of the World Peace Council, headed by the French physicist Frederic Joliot-Curie. In recent years, Brother DuBois traveled extensively in Communist China and the Soviet Union. On his 91st birthday, he was honored in Peking at a celebration attended by Premier Chou En-lai. In 1959, Brother DuBois received the Lenin Peace Prize "for strengthening world peace." He was the first (African-American) to be elected to the National Institute of Arts and Letters. He was also a life member and fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Before going to Ghana, he lived at 31 Grace Court, Brooklyn Heights. His first wife, Mrs. Nina Gomer DuBois, whom he married in 1896, died in 1950. A year later, he married Shirley Graham, a writer. Surviving are his widow, and a daughter, Mrs. Yolanda Williams of Baltimore. Close the shutters, pull down the shades, an era has ended—the era of William Edward Burghardt DuBois.

By Brother C. Anderson Davis served as Editor-in-Chief of The Sphinx® from


I^JJif^il^rfttiaW^MttlCKl Color or black & white photo prints are accepted for publication in The SPHINX9. Color pictures are preferred. Photographs sent to the magazine cannot be returned. Those sending photos should make duplicate prints of the pictures before sending them. Xerox copies of photographs, computer printouts, photos clipped from newspapers or magazines, and poor quality pictures will not be printed. Send materials to: Editor of The SPHINX®; Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.; 2313 St. Paul Street; Baltimore, MD 21218-5234. The SPHINX9 is the official organ of the Fraternity. Published quarterly, The SPHINX® is open to articles about the accomplishments of Brothers and Chapters. Notices of deceased Brothers should be sent for inclusion in the "Omega Chapter" section of the magazine. All articles submitted for publication must be keyed or typed in narrative form. It is requested that articles be submitted on hard copy, along with computer disk when possible. Microsoft Word and WordPerfect formats are preferred. Disks should be IBM compatible.


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General President Frank L. Stanley, accompanied by Southern Vice President Lewis O. Swingler and General Secretary fames Huger, present a check for $1,000 to Brother Dr. Martin Luther King, fr. as a donation in the Alpha Campaign of "Dollars for Freedom" in Alabama. The photo was taken on the front steps of the Montgomery, Alabama Court House where Brother King was on trial.



ne of the most cherished and important worldwide honors has been bestowed on one of our most outstanding Brothers. The Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded to Brother Martin Luther King, Jr. Brother King stated: "The prize is a tribute to 'millions of gallant (African-Americans) and white persons who followed a nonviolent course' in the (AfricanAmericans') struggle for equal rights. It is also gratifying to know that the nations of the world recognize the Civil Rights Movement in this country as so significant a moral force as to merit such recognition." Brother King further stated that he intends to spend every dollar of the prize money, $53,123.00, on the Civil Rights Movement. Brother King is a native of Atlanta, Georgia, where he now resides. He was born January 15,1929, and is the son of Dr. and Mrs. Martin Luther King, Sr. He is married to Mrs. Coretta King and has four children, Yolanda Denise, Martin Luther III, Dexter Scott and Bernice Albertine. He attended the public schools of Atlanta, received his A.B. degree from Morehouse College, 1948; the B.D. degree from Crozer Theological Seminary (Chester, Pa.) 1951; studied at the University of Pennsylvania, 1950-51; studied at Harvard, 1952-53, and received the Ph.D. degree from Boston University, 1955, in the field of Systematic Theology. (Thesis: "A Comparison of God in the Thinking of Paul Tillich and Henry Nelson Wieman"). He has received the following honorary degrees: LHD, Morehouse College, 1957; D.D., Chicago Theological Seminary of the Federated Faculties of the University of Chicago, 1957; LLD, Morgan State College, 1958; LHD, Central State College, 1958; D.D., Boston University, 1959; Lincoln University, 1961; LLD, University of Bridgeport, 1961; Doctor of Civil Laws, Bard College, 1962; Doctor


of Letters, Keuka College, 1963. He was initiated into Sigma Chapter, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts. Brother King is co-pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia, where his father is pastor; president-emeritus of the Montgomery Improvement Association, Inc. and president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference of which he is founder. In 1957, the Gallup Poll revealed that he was one of the most admired religious leaders in the world. In 1957, TIME magazine selected him as one of the ten most outstanding personalities of the year. He is listed in Who's Who in America. He has received more man 125 citation awards for his work in civil rights. In a poll conducted by LINK magazine of New Delhi, India, he ranked as one of the 16 world leaders who had contributed most to the advancement of freedom during 1959- In 1963, TIME magazine elected him as its 37th Man of the Year, stating that he had become "The unchallenged voice of the (African-American) people and the disquieting conscience of the white." Some of his publications are: Stride Toward Freedom; The Measure of a Man; and Strength to Love. A biography of Brother King entitled Crusader Without Violence by Lawrence D. Reddick, traces his life story from birth in Atlanta through his leadership in the Civil Rights struggle. Brother King has traveled extensively in Europe, Asia, South America and Africa. In 1957, at the invitation of the Prime Minister, he attended the independence celebration of Ghana, West Africa. He has lectured at more than 150 colleges and universities in the United States. We salute Brother King on his great achievements and this most magnificent achievement, winning the Nobel Peace Prize, which is a signal global honor for all of us.

ARTICLES BROTHER BRADFORD STILL ACTIVE AFTER 72 YEARS At age 92, Life Member Brother James Alfred Bradford has seen 72 years of active service in Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Inc. Brother Bradford has been a leader in vocational education, industry and the Fraternity. Initiated on April 28, 1928 at Kappa Chapter at Ohio State University, Brother Bradford earned both a Bachelor's and Master's Degrees in Engineering and Industrial Vocational Education. During his career as well as in retirement, he was instrumental in updating high school vocational shops in the Midwest as well as the East Coast. Brother Bradford wrote courses of study and instructions for metal and welding trades and was an instructor for trainees at the North America Aviation Company for the production of B-25 Aircraft. He also trained and wrote courses of study for the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Brother Bradford was also employed by two major military defense corporations beginning in 1950; American Bosch Arma Corporation and Airborne Instrument Laboratory. Brother Bradford has served the Fraternity in numerous capacities. He was Chapter President at Gamma Iota Lambda Chapter of Brooklyn/Long Island N.Y., as well as Vice-President and organizer of the Gamma Iota Lambda Memorial Scholarship Endowment Fund, which was incorporated in 1984. He also served as Secretary of Chi Lambda, Wilberforce, Ohio and Beta Lambda of Kansas City, Missouri. In 1950, Brother Bradford chaired the Executive Planning Committee of the Tri-Convention Executive Committee. The Tri-Convention in Kansas City included Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc. and Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. It was during this time period that Brother Bradford along with Brother Dawdal Davis met with then United States President Harry S. Truman, inviting the President to speak at the Tri-Convention's joint public meeting. President Truman regrettably declined the invitation because of the ongoing Korean Conflict as well as national agricultural industry issues. DUKE NAMES BROTHER GAVIN TO BOARD OF TRUSTEES Brother Dr. James Raphael Gavin III was recently elected to the Duke University Board of Trustees. Brother Gavin is a senior scientific officer for the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Chevy Chase, Maryland. He is a past president of the American Diabetes Association, a national program director and trustee of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and was

voted "Internist of the Year" by the National Medical Association in 1997. The ADA also named him "Outstanding Clinician in the Field of Diabetes" in 1990. Before joining the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, he served as the William K. Warren professor of diabetes studies at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, chief of the health center's diabetes division and acting chief of the center's endocrinology, metabolism and hypertension section. Brother Gavin earned his Bachelor of Science degree from Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina, where he was initiated into the Fraternity through Gamma Mu Chapter. He earned a Ph.D in biochemistry from Emory University in Atlanta in in 1970 l y / u and a n a aa medical degree from Duke in 1975. BROTHER LITTLE NAMED EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF ENF During his long and accomplished career, Brother Samuel B. Little has gained immeasurable experience in the areas of housing, research, employment and social services. All of that acquired knowledge recently landed Brother Little an appointment as Executive Director of the Empowerment Network Foundation in Adelphi, Maryland. In addition to administering the foundation's programs and fiscal and human services, Brother Little is also responsible for guiding the Self-Sufficiency and Empowerment for Achieving Success initiative, a flagship initiative of the foundation. Before his appointment, Brother Little served with the Housing Authority of Baltimore City as Director of STEP-UP. The STEP-UP program is a national model program that helps moves Baltimore City public housing residents toward self-sufficiency and independence while equipping them for jobs and careers in construction and other related trades. Brother Little earned his Bachelor of Arts degree at Morgan State University, a Master of Social Work from the University of Pennsylvania and a Doctor of Philosophy degree at the University of Maryland, where he also serves as an adjunct professor. He is a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha, initiated through Delta Lambda Chapter in 1973. He is now a member of Kappa Phi Lambda Chapter in Columbia, Maryland. BROTHER FOSTER RECEIVES JUSTICE COMMUNITY SERVICE AWARD Brother Attorney Ira L. Foster recently received the "Chief Justice Robert Benham Award For Community Service" for his

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outstanding contributions to his community. For the third consecutive year, the honor was bestowed upon Georgia's lawyers and judges who've drawn the most attention from law professionals for public service. Brother Foster is the founder of the Saxon Heights Elementary School Role Model/Drug Prevention Program and founder and President of the Young Professionalism Network. He also chairs the Rhythm Nation Center for the Arts Inc., serves on the Board of Directors of Dublin-Laurens County Boys and Girls Club and the Wabash Street Church of God After School Tutorial Program. Brother Foster also finds time to be active in the AdoptA-Role Model Program and on the athletic coaching staff of the City of Dublin Recreation Department. Among his many professional and civic memberships include the Dublin-Laurens County Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the Fort Valley State College Alumni Association and the Houston County/Warner Robbins Branch of the NAACP, where he serves as First Vice President. Brother Foster was initiated into the Fraternity through Gamma Zeta Chapter, Fort Valley State College in 1983. He is now a member of Gamma Sigma Lambda Chapter in Fort Valley, Georgia. BROTHER JACKSON HONORED BY NAACP On Nov. 6, 1999 Brother Dr. Prince A. Jackson Jr. was honored during the 19th Annual Freedom Fund Dinner held by the organization's Savannah, Georgia Branch. He was recognized for his outstanding contribution toward education in Savannah as well as the entire nation. Brother Jackson is the first graduate of Savannah State University to serve as its president. While serving as the school's seventh president, he increased the percentage of faculty holding doctorate degrees from 32 percent to 71 percent. He also established the third Naval ROTC and the fifth radio station (WHCJ) on a black college campus. Brother Jackson was named SSU's Distinguished Teacher of the Year in 1993 and NROTC Professor of the Year in 1996 and 1997. He is the author of 14 research and scholarly articles, the recipient of 30 academic awards and honors and a member of 29 professional and scholastic organizations. Brother Jackson's articles on higher education have appeared in Time and Newsday Magazines as well as the Chronicle of Higher Education. He was the statistician for the Legal Defense Fund of the NAACP, which led to the Federal Court decision to desegregate the Public School System of SavannahChatham County. ^^^ Brother Jackson is a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. and a charter member of Delta Eta chapter at Savannah State University, initiated in April of 1949. He received his Masters of Science from New York University and his Ph.D from Boston College. He is president of Beta Phi Lambda Chapter in Savannah and a former Southern Region "Alpha Man of the Year."



BROTHER BOLOIEN ELECTED NFDMA INC. PRESEIDENT Brother Jimmie Boldien Jr. was recently elected as President of the National Funeral Directors and Mortician Association, Inc. The NFDMA is the largest African-American Funeral Directors and Morticians Association in the world, consisting of 2,500 AfricanAmerican Funeral Firms throughout the United States and five foreign countries. Among Brother Boldien's awards include Man of the Year from NFDMA District Seven, the NFDMA Emerging Leadership Award and the Honorary Citizen Award from former Tulsa, Oklahoma Mayor Rodger Randle. Brother Boldien was initiated through Beta Eta Lambda Chapter in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma in 1978. NATIONAL AFRO-AMERICAN MUSEUM AND CULTURAL CENTER TAPS BROTHER COURTNEY Having served as acting director since 1998, Brother Vernon S. Courtney was the natural choice to be named as the permanent Director of the National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center in Wilberforce, Ohio. Brother Vernon is a 1990 initiate of Chi Lambda Chapter in Wilberforce. He received his undergraduate degree from Harvard in 1969. His graduating class included Vice President Al Gore and actor Tommy Lee Jones. Brother Courtney received his Masters in Education from Penn State University in 1978. He began his employment at the National Museum in 1987, where he was appointed assistant director. In addition to his new post, Brother Courtney is also the Executive Director of the Museum's foundation and informal curator of jazz history. BROTHER TURNER WINS CIVIL SERVICE AWARD Brother James M. Turner, Ph.D received the Highest Civil Service Award for 1999, one of just 300 senior executive across the nation to earn this distinction. He is Manager of the United States Department of Energy's Oakland Operations office in Oakland, California. In his position, Brother Turner is responsible for 340 Federal employees and an office budget of over $2 billion. While with the DOE, Brother Turner has traveled to the former Soviet Union (Republic of Georgia) and North Korea. He received his Bachelor of Science degree from Johns Hopkins University in 1966, and his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1971. The former Morehouse College and Southern University Associate Professor was initiated through

RAP IS MUSIC TO BROTHER HERRING'S EARS Brother Chuck Herring, owner and Chief Executive Officer of Millennium Education Company of America is catching the attention of youth of Western Pennsylvania with his educational rap production entitled, "Not Just A Month." A former teacher, Brother Herring's CD teaches students about famous AfricanAmericans such as Maya Angelou, Muhammad Ali and Alex Haley. His production has gained national acclaim, as Upscale Magazine as well as several newspapers in the Pittsburgh metro area have written glowing articles of his work. In the past year, Brother Herring has been requested to serve as guest speaker at numerous colleges and universities. Brother Herring was initiated through Xi Mu chapter at Slippery Rock State University in 1987. "LIVING THE DREAM" EARNS BROTHER GRIFFIN ACCOLADES

Brother Dr. Ervin V. Griffin Sr. was recently awarded the "Govenor's Living the Dream Award" during the Martin Luther King Day Ceremonies in Charleston, West Virginia on Jan. 17,2000. State Governor Cecil H. Underwood presented the award to Brother Griffin, who was chosen for displaying justice, scholarship, sharing of self, human and civil rights and advocacy of peace. Brother Griffin was initiated into Alpha Phi Alpha at Beta Theta Chapter, Bluefield State College in Bluefield, West Virginia. A life member now affiliated with Alpha Iota Lambda Chapter, Brother Ervin has served as Assistant District Director as well as two terms as State Director for the District of West Virginia. He holds a Master of Science from Western Illinois University and a Doctorate of Education degree from Virginia Tech. He has also pursued postdoctoral studies at Carnegie Mellon University as well as the Millennium Leadership Institute. During his current tenure as Vice President for Student Affairs at West Virginia State College, Brother Ervin was presented with the Alpha Zeta Chapter Brotherhood Award. Now called the Dr. Ervin V. Griffin Brotherhood Award, the honor is given annually to a graduate Brother who exemplifies the real Brotherhood of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. While at WVSC, Brother Griffin has led a task force that established the first day care center in the state of West Virginia college campus system. He was also instrumental in setting up leadership development, mentoring and cultural diversity projects on the WVSC campus. He currently serves as Project Director of the WVSC-House Project funded by HUD. Brother Griffin also serves as vice president and member of the Executive Board of the Charleston Branch of the NAACP, a Board of Directors member of the WVSC Golden Lions Club and the National Center for Human Relations. MIAMI HIGH SCHOOL HONORS BROTHER PERRY

_ Brother Ervin Griffin receives the "Govenor's Living the Dream

On November 3, 1999, Miami Northwestern High School renamed its sports complex after Brother Lee R. Perry, a longtime educator, athletic coach and administrator. Brother Perry served the Miami-Dade County school system for 44 years until his retirement in 1990, earning the nickname, "Mr. Athletics" along the way. He has also earned a place in the Florida Athletic Coaches Hall of Fame as well as the Florida Interscholastic Administrators Association Distinctive Service Award. While he remains retired, Brother Perry still serves as a mentor with the 500 Role Model Program at Miami Douglas MacArthur Senior High. A life member and active member of Iota Alpha Lambda Chapter, Brother Perry was initiated into the Fraternity on Dec. 1,1937 via Beta Theta Chapter at Bluefield State College in West Virginia. At Iota Alpha Lambda, Brother Perry has served as President and Treasurer. He is also the current head of the National Headquarters Building Fund. A veteran of World War II, Brother Perry earned his Masters degree at the University of Pittsburgh, and has completed post-graduate work at Thiel College, Wake Forest University and Florida A&M University.



BROTHER BAILEY WINS MELLON FELLOWSHIP Brother Michael S. Bailey, Ph.D. was recently awarded the prestigious Mellon Foundation fellowship to support his participation in the Salzburg Seminar from Oct. 21-28 in Salzburg, Austria. A professor at Clark Atlanta University, Brother Bailey will participate in the workshop entitled "Political Leadership and Media Democracy." The Salzburg Seminar is an annual conference of workshops and symposiums focusing on international public policy. A1978 initiate of Alpha Phi Chapter at Clark College, Brother Bailey received a Bachelor of Arts in Journalism from Clark before earning Masters Degrees in Journalism, English and Political Science from Ohio State University. He has also been a member of the Political Science and African-American Studies faculties at the University of Illinois at Chicago, West Virginia University and the University of Missouri at St. Louis. Brother Bailey is now a member of Eta Lambda Chapter in Atlanta. BROTHER GARCIA GRANTED TITLE OF ATTACHE The United States Department of State and the Foreign Service recently granted Brother Special Agent Marc A. Garcia the Diplomatic title as an Attache to the American Embassy in Nassau, Bahamas. His position requires that he serve on the Ambassador's Senior Staff, the Embassy Country Team, the Emergency Action Committee, the Counter Intelligence Working Group and the Law Enforcement Countemarcotics Working Group. Brother Garcia is a Life Member of Alpha Phi Alpha, affiliated with Iota Epsilon Lambda Chapter in Nassau, Bahamas. He earned his undergraduate and graduate degrees from Hampton and Central Michigan Universities respectively, and was initiated into the Fraternity through Alpha Gamma Lambda chapter in New York City in February of 1995. Prior to his appointment in the Bahamas, Brother Garcia was an Attache at the American Embassy in Port Au Prince, Haiti. Brother Garcia is a 16-year veteran of the United States Army and is a decorated combat veteran of the Persian Gulf War. BROTHER BONAPART TAKES COMMAND In April of 1999, Brother John H. Bonapart Jr. assumed the position of Commander of the 10th Air Base Wing, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado. He commands 2,028 military and civilian personnel who conduct all base-level support activities. He is also Battle Staff Director during USAF Academy contingency operations. A member of Iota Omicron Lambda Chapter in Colorado Springs, Colorado, Brother Bonapart entered the Air Force in 1975 after receiving his Bachelor of Arts degree in History at Fordham University. He earned a Masters degree in Public Administration from Golden Gate University in San Francisco in 1982.


Daniel D. Fowler*

A. Maceo Smith*

James R. Williams

First General President, 1908-1909

Ninth General President, 1919-1920

Seventeenth General President, 1951-1954

Twenty-fifth General President, 1977-1980

Frank L. Stanley, Jr.*

Ozell Sutton

Roscoe C. Giles*

Lucius L. McGee*

Second General President, 1909-1911

Tenth General President, 1920-1921

Eighteenth General President, 1955-1957 Twenty-sixth General President, 1981-1984

Frederick H. Miller*

S.S. Booker*

Myles A. Paige*

Charles C. Teamer, Sr.

Third General President, 1911-1912

Eleventh General President, 1921-1923

Nineteenth General President, 1957-1960

Twenty-seventh General President, 1985-1988

Charles H. Garvin*

Raymond W. Cannon*

William H. Hale*

Henry Ponder

Fourth General President, 1912-1914

Twelfth General President, 1924-1928

Twentieth General President, 1960-1962

Twenty-eighth General President, 1989-1992

Henry L. Dickason*

B. Andrew Rose*

T. Winston Cole, Sr.

Milton C. Davis

Fifth General President, 1914-1915

Thirteenth General President, 1928-1931

Twenty-first General President, 1963-1964

Twenty-ninth General President, 1993-1996

Henry A. Callis*

Charles H. Wesley*

Lionel H. Newsom*

Adrian L. Wallace

Sixth General President, 1915-1916

Fourteenth General President, 1931-1940

Twenty-second General President, 1965-1968

Thirtieth General President, 1997-

Howard H. Long*

Rayford W. Logan*

Ernest N. Morial*

Seventh General President, 1916-1917

Fifteenth General President, 1941-1945

Twenty-third General President, 1969-1972

Belford V. Lawson, Jr.*

Walter Washington*

William A. Pollard* Eighth General President, 1918-1919

Sixteenth General President, 1946-1951 Twenty-fourth General President, 1973-1976


*0mega Chapter


The Divine Nine: The History of African American Fraternities and Sororities. by Brother Lawrence C. Ross, Jr. (Kensington Books. ISBN 1-575666-491-7.) Reviewed by Brother Harry B. Dunbar

rother Ross has given us a significant book. It fills a substantial gap in the history of the black Greek-letter organizations in this country. The Divine Nine is a holistic look at the black fraternity and sorority movement. This reviewer knows of no other such book. Ross devotes a separate chapter to each of the following fraternities and sororities: Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.; Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc.; Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc.; Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc.; Iota PhiTheta Fraternity, Inc;Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc.; Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.; Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. and Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc. Each chapter consists of a brief narrative of the facts and the chronology of the founding and development of the fraternity or sorority being profiled, with emphasis on the personalities involved. Each chapter includes a "...Quick Question and Answer With...," an interview in which the author poses a standard set of questions to a member of a chapter of the sorority or fraternity. The fourteen


questions are designed to create a portrait of the chapter, its members and its history. Included are queries which elicit information about the members of that chapter, past and present, who have distinguished, or are distinguishing themselves within the organization or in life beyond it. Also included are questions about activities in which the chapter has engaged and the vision which the chapter has for itself in the 21st century. Each chapter is replete with profiles of the founders of the fraternity or sorority, of famous or distinguished brothers or sorors of that chapter or of the sorority or fraternity itself. A roster of renowned members both living and deceased, is also included. This feature is one of the significant contributions of the book. In many instances the reader learns of men and women who were and are members of The Divine Nine, which fact may not be generally known. For example, Mary McCleod Bethune was a Delta. (It would have been useful to include information about where and when she was initiated.) We learn that Soror Dionne Warwick of Zeta Phi Beta THE SPHINX6 SUMMER 2000

BOOK REVIEW is "...spearheading the development and the production of a history book that will finally detail Africa and African-American history for use in schools, libraries and bookstores throughout the world." This citation, in addition to being an exemplar of interesting information about the Divine Nine and about individual brothers and sorors, draws attention to one of the criticisms we have of this book. The writing in The Divine Nine is uneven and the editing lapses are surprising. Errors in usage, structure, style, grammar and syntax escaped the editor and mar the text. For example, the writing in the profile on Dionne Warwick is good. However, it does not make clear how Ms. Warwick's book will "finally" detail Africa and African-American history. A sentence or two about this would have been useful. The assertion that "...the odds could be overwhelmingly against you finishing high school, no less college" should have been revised, and "perspective" members of Alpha Kappa Alpha no doubt intends to convey the notion of "prospective" members. A reference to the non-existent Enfala, Oklahoma, in all probability, intends to cite Eufala, Oklahoma. We believe that the author intends to have us understand that Zeta Phi Beta Sorority opened its "rolls," rather than its "roles" to nonAfrican-American members and honorary sorors. Finally, it is a stretch to see Adam Clayton Powell and Thurgood Marshall as "young" Alpha men in the civil rights movement, though we can see Andrew Young in this way. (Everything is relative. Andrew Young is younger than this reviewer, while the late Brothers Powell and Marshall were both seventeen years older than I.) The above criticisms notwithstanding, The Divine Nine is an important contribution to the history of the black Greek-letter movement. This book provides information which is not available in print anywhere else. For example, the information provided on Iota Phi Theta Fraternity, Inc. is not available publicly elsewhere. Founded in 1963, this last organization to be affiliated with the



National Pan-Hellenic Council makes its debut in the literature of the genre through the venue of The Divine Nine. As with Mary McCleod Bethune, mentioned above, this book lists a number of other personalities who were not generally known, (certainly not to this reviewer) as members of various organizations of The Divine Nine. Among such fraters and sorors are Keenan Ivory Wayans, Kenny Burrell, Michael Jordan, Bobby Rush, Huey P. Newton, Leah Tutu, Ruby Dee, Esther Rolle, and Mother Love, to name but a few. One of the facts that this book brought to this reviewer's attention is that some sororities initiate non-college women, Hattie McDaniel of Sigma Gamma Rho being an example. The chapter entitled "The Achievers Talk" includes some insightful interviews with prominent members of the several fraternities and sororities in the National Pan-Hellenic Council. That with our own Brother John Hope Franklin, in which he reacts to the "exclusiveness" which characterizes Alpha in some circles, resonated within this reviewer. The interview with John Chaney of Kappa Alpha Psi has a message for members of all fraternities and sororities. At first blush, we believe that the writing in the section of the book called "Conversations," which subsumes "The Achievers Talk," is better, generally speaking, than that, say in the interviews in the other nine chapters. The profile/interview with Star Jones is an example. This book is recommended for all black Greeks who wish to be informed of the history and personalities of black sororities and fraternities other than their own. The chapter on the National PanHellenic Council is informative. Its mission statement should be read by all Greeks.The chapter on membership information for the several sororities and fraternities is useful. Finally the index to this book is excellent. As a member of the Historical Commission of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. I propose The Divine Nine as recommended reading. I hope the next edition will extirpate the errata from the book.


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DUDLEY RANDALL, BROADSIDE PRESS, AND THE BLACK ARTS MOVEMENT IN DETROIT, 1960-1995 by Brother Julius E. Thompson. (McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-7864-0360-8) Reviewed by Brother Harry B. Dunbar

rother Julius E.Thompson, home. As late as 1939, when he Director of the Black was twenty-five years of age, he Studies Program and was still unpublished and, as Associate Professor of History at Thompson observes, his work the University of Missouri in remained largely hidden in his Columbia, has given us a book of notebooks. He moved from the considerable significance. His employ of the Ford Motor plant impeccable scholarship sheds to that of the U.S. Post Office, brilliant light on three inextricamarried for a second time, and bly woven elements: a man, a continued to write poetry. press and a movement. World War II would be the Thompson's portrait of Dudley shaping experience of Randall's Randall, of Broadside Press and life. In July of 1943 he was of the Black Arts Movement in inducted into the U.S.Army, was Detroit is seamless. We get a trained in the Signal Corps, clear picture of the man who, as went overseas in 1944 and both a writer and a publisher served in the South Pacific theBrother Julius E. Thompson was, to use Thompson's term, ater. In 1946 Randall returned the "major role" figure for the second Renaissance, to Detroit after military service and resumed his the Black Arts Movement of the sixties and sevenposition in the U.S. Post Office there, becoming a ties. To the mind of this reviewer, it is no exaggeraclerk as opposed to the carrier he had been tion to see Dudley Randall's role not only as the before being drafted. He decided to continue his prime catalyst of the Black Arts Movement in education.Taking advantage of the benefits of the Detroit in the 1960s and 1970s, but also as the pro"G.I. Bill of Rights" extended to those who had genitor of the black book surge that we are seeing served in the military during World War II, he today. enrolled at Wayne State University. He attended as a full-time student during the day and worked in Dudley Randall was born in 1914 in the post office in the evening. Working in the Washington, D C , where his mother was a school evening did not prevent him from being active in teacher. His father was a teacher, a school principal student affairs at Wayne. He was a staff writer for and Congregational minister. When young Randall the Daily Collegian and was initiated into Kappa was five or six years of age, the family moved to Alpha Psi Fraternity.At age 35, in 1949, he received East St. Louis, Illinois where his father accepted a a B.A. degree in English from Wayne. He continued position with the YMCA. his studies in librarianship at the University of Dudley Randall's apprenticeship to poetry Michigan and continued to work in the post I began when one of his sonnets was selected as a office. On receiving a master's degree in library first-prize winner for publication on the "Young science in 1952, he resigned from the post office Poet's Page" of the Detroit Free Press. It was two and accepted an appointment to the library staff years after graduating from high school in 1930 at Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri. during the Great Depression that Randall got his After two years at Lincoln, he left to join the I first full-time job, in the Ford River Rouge plant. library staff at Morgan State College (now univerFrom 1932 to 1935 he worked in the Ford sity) in Baltimore. Randall remained at Morgan for I plant and continued to study and write poetry at



BOOK REVIEW continued: two years, leaving in 1956 to return to Detroit to accept a position in the Wayne County Public Library, and ultimately to become a catalyst in the Black Arts Movement which emanated from there. The Wayne County Public Library later became part of the Wayne County Federated Library System and Dudley Randall advanced in it. He started as assistant librarian, and later became the head librarian at the Eloise Hospital Library. Thompson notes that Randall's service as the Eloise Hospital librarian had an impact on his literary interests and quotes him as saying that some of his poems came out of his library experience. In 1957 Randall married for the third time, on this occasion to a social worker. The combined incomes of two black professionals enabled the Randalls to enjoy a black middleclass lifestyle. Moreover, his situation allowed Dudley Randall to expand his work as a poet, and he began to see his work published in little magazines. Thompson observes that by 1959, at age forty-five, Randall had studied and written poetry for thirty-two years, having started at age thirteen. However, since he had concentrated on writing, not on being published, little of his work that now filled many notebooks in his home had made its way into print. Now, Thompson says, all of his prior hard work in developing as a writer, and training in library science, would be harnessed to give birth to the most important publishing company ever created by an AfricanAmerican to promote the publication, distribution and enjoyment of black poetry—Broadside Press. It was a challenge which Dudley Randall was uniquely qualified to fulfill. The author's emphasis in the first part of this book is on Dudley Randall as a dedicated poet and committed intellectual. The fact that he worked days in a foundry and wrote poetry at night is one manifestation of this. A second manifestation is his earning an undergraduate degree while working full-time.And the fact that he later commuted between Ann Arbor and Detroit in order to engage in full-time graduate study during the day while working full-time in the post office in the evening gives further evidence of his dedication and commitment. Dudley Randall founded Broadside Press in 1965 as the result of what Thompson characterizes as the initial spark of his decision to publish his CELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM

well-received poem "Ballad of Birmingham." The poem was written as a tribute to the four black girls killed in the September 15,1963 bombing by the Ku Klux Klan of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham. He decided to publish it as a broadside, which is a single poem on a single sheet of paper. Other poets allowed him to reprint their work in subsequent broadsides. Thus, Broadside Press was born. This press was begun with neither blueprint nor savings. It had no financing from other writers or investors. It was propelled by Dudley Randall's energy and commitment and funded by money from his librarian's paycheck. His objective was to bring poetry to the people.This book documents in stellar, scholarly fashion the development of this enterprise. A first-rate scholar, Julius Thompson meticulously records the sources he used. His research enables the reader to see, for example, how Hoyt Fuller, the eminent critic, came to the conclusion that Broadside Press had become one of the most important publishing ventures in the history of Black Literature and out of the basement of Dudley Randall's home in Detroit. By this reviewer's count, some 379 authors and artists were published by Broadside Press. Included among them are Toni Cade Bambara, Amiri Baraka, Romare Bearden, Lerone Bennett, Jr., Arna Bontemps, Gwendolyn Brooks, Sterling A. Brown, Countee Cullen, Margaret Danner, Ossie Davis, James A. Emmanuel, Hoyt W Fuller, Addison Gaylejr., Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, Haki R. Madhubuti (Don L. Lee), Julian Mayfield, Toni Morrison and Ishmael Reed, to name a few. The third emphasis of this excellent literary work—the influence of Broadside Press on the Black Arts Movement in Detroit and the influence of the Movement on Broadside Press— seamlessly permeates this book. The only thing left to be said here is that this book belongs in every library that considers itself to be a resource for students of Black Literature. Any institution which presumes to offer a program in Black Studies and which does not have this book in its collection is woefully lacking.

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Brother Professor Cornel West receives a plaque of recognition from the Brothers of Rho Lambda. Rho Lambda Chapter honored Harvard University Professor Cornel West at Canisius College on February 11, 2000. The Brothers presented the renowned author/intellectual with a plaque of recognition. Earlier in the year, Rho Lambda continued its community service involvement with its annual voter registration project during Buffalo's Junetheenth Weekend Celebration. Rho Lambda also welcomed two new Brothers, Ahmed Ansar and Anthony Lochard, into the fold. Rho Lambda also conducted its "For Brothers Only" Founders' Day program. Thirty-five Brothers were present at the ceremony. KAPPA PHI LAMBDA Columbia, MD During its 25 years of existence, the Brothers of Kappa Phi Lambda have turned its Annual Martin Luther King Breakfast from an intimate gathering of less than two dozen people to a throng of over 1,000. This past January's breakfast raised over $12,000 toward its education fund. Throughout the years, the chapter has raised over $150,000 in scholarships for deserving students. In addition to various community service projects and affiliations, the Chapter also features the Alpha Drum, a community information telephone hotline service informing the public of programs and events of interest to the African-American Community throughout Howard County. Kappa Phi Lambda celebrated its 25th anniversary from May 19-21 with a series of events, including a formal ball and a public program.


Kappa Upsilon Lambda and Sigma Eta Chapters pose for a photo outside of the West Point Gospel Chapel. The Brothers of Kappa Upsilon Lambda and Sigma Eta Chapters celebrated the Fraternity's 93rd anniversary with a Founders Day Brunch at the West Point Club followed by worship at the West Point Gospel Chapel. Both Chapters enjoy a spirit of cooperation that will yield to many years of Brotherhood and service to the MidHudson Valley area.

DELTA NU LAMBDA Rocky Mount, VA "The Metaphysics of Alpha Phi Alpha, A Reality Check" was the theme of the Keynote Address given to those in attendance at the Delta Nu Lambda Area III Founders Day Observance day on December 4,1999. The event was held at the Beacon Ridge Retreat Center in Chatham, Virginia. Brother Waymon McGlaughlin, Professor of Philosophy at North Carolina A&T State University


C H A P T E R N E W S contiuned: served as the featured speaker. Several Brothers were given awards during the program, including Brother Blair Lockamy (Distinguished Service Award for College Brothers), Brother Rexford Hopkins (Fifty Year Pin and Brother of the Year) Ronald Sutton (Leon Moton Award) and Brother Kelvin Perry (Distinguished Service Award, Alumni).

NU LAMBDA Petersburg, VA

IOTA ALPHA LAMBDA Aberdeen, MD The Brothers of Iota Alpha Lambda Chapter have kept themselves busy over the past Fraternal year. Brothers offered their skills to help build seven homes in the Aberdeen area; often receiving added help from other Pan-Hellenic organizations in their efforts. Other events this past year included its Annual Black and Gold Ball to help raise funds for the Donald J. Walden Scholarship Fund, the Seven Jewel Scholarship Program, the Adopt-A-Highway Program and the Sharing Table Program which helps feed and clothe the needy in Edgewood, Maryland.

DELTA LAMBDA Baltimore, MD Brother Dr. Charles R. Salters was recently honored before over 500 people in an Appreciation Ceremony at Union Bethel AME Church in Randallstown, Maryland. He is a member of the Delta Lambda Chapter Hall of Fame. Brother Salters, Assistant Dean of Graduate Studies, was initiated through Delta Lambda in 1973 and is a past President of Delta Lambda Chapter.

XIZETA Longwood College Farmville, VA Xi Delta continued to faithfully serve Longwood College and its surrounding communities with a plethora of service projects and other positive events. The Chapter hosted the VACAPAF College Brother's Retreat on January 29, 2000. Featured Brothers included Xi Zeta President Blair Lockamy, Larry Henderson (Executive Director of VACAPAF), Craig Dixon (Director of College Brother Affairs) and Tony T Moss (Xi Zeta Chapter advisor and Xi Zeta Lambda president). The Brothers facilitated various discussions and sessions rel_

Brothers Jerronney Darrisaw andjamaal Bailey pose with the Virginia Avenue Elementary School stepteam. On December 20,1999, the Brothers of Nu Lambda participated in the Downtown Churches United Walk Against Hunger, an annual event designed to help alleviate hunger and homelessness in the community. The Brothers of Beta Gamma Chapter at Virginia State as well as members of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. also participated in the event. Nu Lambda Brothers Jamaal Bailey and Jerronney Darrisaw spend two weekdays per week at Virginia Avenue Elementary School coaching a step team. The Brothers provide their leadership to give students good role models to follow, give incentive to attend school regularly and provide fun, safe afterschool activity. The children put on an exhibition in late December to the delight of a standing ovation. OMICRON OMICRON University of the District of Columbia Washington, DC "Double 0" recently took part in the "Do Your Best Summer Academy" sponsored by the District of Columbia Housing Authority. The Chapter also hosted the "Youth Empowerment Forum," used to educate high school students on issues such as camaraderie, college resources and student organizations. The Brothers of Omicron Omicron also participate in the Maryland State "Adopt-A-Highway" Program.


CHAPTER NEWS contiuned: PSI University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA The word versatility can easily be used when looking at the many activities of Psi Chapter. The Brothers of Psi took first among Greek-Lettered Organizations and second overall in the 1999 Greek Picnic Basketball Championships, utilizing Brothers from Psi, Delta Pi, Pi Rho as well as other alumni Brothers. The Chapter recently acquired a new fraternity house in the University City section of the city, celebrated its 80th anniversary during Alpha Week last January, implemented its "Voteless People is a Hopeless People" project and produced the winner of the District V Belford V. Lawson Oratorical Contest, Brother Thomas Fitzpatrick. RHO Philadelphia, PA On November 3,1999, Rho Chapter, Alpha's only single Greek-lettered graduate Chapter, celebrated its 85th Anniversary with a dinner that included 90 Brothers. In addition to the Fraternity's national programs, Rho Chapter has begun efforts to reclaim at least 200 brothers by the end of the year 2000. Over 20 Brothers participated in AIDS Walk and the Chapter's step team and vocal ensemble performed at its Founders Day Celebration in front of over 145 Brothers. Rho Chapter contains a diverse set of Brothers, ranging in age from the early 20's to 89- Brothers from Delaware, New Jersey and Maryland as well as the Philadelphia-Harrisonburg area take part in Chapter activities.

DELTA OMICRON LAMBDA Princess Anne, MD Delta Omicron Lambda Brother Dr. William P. Hytche recently held a book signing at the Princess Anne Public Library. Brother Hytche's book entitled: "The Saga of A President of a Historically Black University" has enjoyed brisk sales within the past year. The book chronicle's the life of Brother Hytche, President Emeritus at the University of Maryland-Eastern Shore and 1947 initiate of Beta Kappa Chapter, Langston (OK) University. Another member of Delta Omicron Lambda, Brother Doctor James White, recently received his Doctorate in Educational Innovation and Leadership from Wilmington College in February of 2000. His dissertation entitled, "A Quantitative Inquiry of A Campus Response to A Fraternity PostInitiation Hazing Incident" was designed to develop strategies and recommendations to help college, universities and fraternal organizations respond to hazing.


EPSILON GAMMA LAMBDA Boston, MA Epsilon Gamma Lambda made reclamation and rededication the unofficial themes of its 1999 Founders Day. Brother William R. Lee won the Chapter's Brother of the Year Award, Royal L. Boiling Sr. and Frank W Morris Esq. earned the Distinguished Service Award and Patrick Showell won the Meritorious Service Award. Brother Clifton Reed recently celebrated his 50th year in Alpha.

OMICRON LAMBDA ALPHA Washington, DC For nearly 50 years, the Omicron Lambda Alpha Chapter has made its mark in the nation's capital. This past Fraternal year, the Chapter continued its commitment to "Manly Deeds, Scholarship, and Love for All Mankind." Omicron Alpha Lambda's Spring 1999 neophytes have thrown themselves into the mix and have taken on many important roles within the Chapter. Neophyte Brothers Anthony Breaud, Brocklin Quails, Chapter Chaplain Tomil Burke, Malcolm Eve and Dorian Powell have contributed plenty of time and talent in a myriad of activities. Some of those functions included Founders Day, Go- to-High School Go-to-College, Project Alpha, the Spring Renaissance Affair and membership and reclamation. Reverend Brother Barry K. Hargrove recently recovered from a kidney transplant at Howard University Hospital. He is now back in his ministry after completing kidney dialysis treatments. Brother Michael Young was recently nominated Eastern Regional Vice President of the National Urban League's Young Professionals. Brothers have also been leaders and agents for success in social service, the ministry, local Pan-Hellenic efforts as well as the military. Under the leadership of Chapter President Earnest Oliver, Omicron Lambda Alpha is making a commitment to network and support not only other chapters of Alpha Phi Alpha in the Washington-Baltimore Area, but with local businesses and other community service organizations. The Brothers also led efforts in the city's political circuit with its commitment to the Fraternity's "A Voteless People is a Hopeless People" National Program, Thanksgiving canned food drives, a Washington television mediasponsored Health and Fitness Expo, spring college tours and Census 2000 Drive (along with the NAACP). The History and Public Relations communication team recently developed an archival partnership with Howard University's Moorland-Spingarn library. Despite the heavy workload, the Chapter's social committee has also found time for recreation, as evidenced by its Saturday morning Brotherhood basketball and flag football leagues.

C H A P T E R NEWS .mam*

MIDWESTERN ETA TAU LAMBDA Akron, OH Eta Tau Lambda presented awards for outstanding community service at the Chapter's Annual Winter Formal held on December 11,1999 at the Radisson Hotel in Akron. The inaugural Alpha Awards were presented during the formal. Winners of the awards were as follows: The Alpha Civic Award, Dr. Jeffrey Wallace and Crystal Jones; The Alpha Education Award, Ms. Sara Brown; Alpha Corporate Award, National City Bank; Alpha Business and Professional Award, Arthur P. Bolden; Alpha Award of Valor, Mattie Rogers and Joe Williams. The Chapter's highest award, the Life-Service Awards were given to Akron Deputy Mayor Dorothy Jackson and Brother Edwin • time outfrom a busy schedule Parms Esq. Deputy Mayor Jackson was recognized for 40 years of outstanding service to the citizens of Akron on various community levels. Brother Parms was cited for his contribution as a civil rights attorney, including the landmark case that forced the city of Akron to invoke fair hiring practices for African-Americans. Brothers' Stanley D. Hampton, Dr. Willis L. Lonzer, III and Chapter President Thomas A. Tatum presented the awards

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KAPPA CHI LAMBDA North Chicago, IL Kappa Chi Lambda hosted its Martin Luther King Breakfast under the theme: "Honoring the Spirit of the Dream for the new Millennium." Approximately 280 attendees were treated to a keynote address from Reverend Reginald Blount of Eternal Flame AME Church.

Lambda celebrated Founders Day on December 12, 1999 at the Clarion Westgate Hotel. The Chapter dedicated the program to all founders and all of its members during the past 71 years. Brother Paul Hubbard, Director of HUD, Toledo served as guest speaker. Wives of Omega Chapter were special guests. ALPHA LAMBDA Louisville, KY

ALPHA XI LAMBDA Toledo, OH On January 15, 2000, the Brothers of Xi Alpha Lambda held its Seventh Annual Martin Luther King Jr. breakfast at the United Missionary Baptist Church. Over 200 guest attended the breakfast, as Reverend Clyde Beverly delivered the keynote address. NAACP Oratorical Award winner Ashley Futrell and 1999 NAACP Poetry Award winner Jard Cook. The Chapter also recently honored five Brothers for 50 or more years of active service to the Fraternity. Those Brothers include Franklyn Duffy Sr, William Copeland, William Bryant Sr., Virgil Chancy and Millard Jackson. Alpha Xi THE SPHINT SUMMER 2000

C H A P T E R N E W S amtiumd: Brother Tony Brown was the featured speaker at Alpha Lambda's Founder's Day celebration on December 4, 1999- The statewide event attracted Brothers from as far away as Washington D.C. In addition to honoring the Seven Jewels, seven Brothers were also recognized for making major contributions to the Louisville community and beyond. Brothers Lyman T Johnson, Lionel Hampton, Dr. Charles H. Wesley, Frank Stanley, Whitney M. Young Jr., Ed Hamilton and Art Walters. Proceeds from the banquet benefited the Chapter's newly established education fund. ALPHA BETA LAMBDA Lexington, KY Alpha Beta Lambda's Martin Luther King Day Breakfast attracted a capacity crowd of 700 people from throughout the Lexington community. Monies raised were put into the Chapter's scholarship fund. Also in January, Alpha Beta Lambda reinstituted its mentoring program with Ashland Elementary School, where the most atrisk youth have been selected for one on one tutoring and mentoring. Later in the year, the Chapter organized a concert featuring the American Spiritual Ensemble. EPSILON CHI University of Kentucky Lexington, KY The Brothers of Epsilon Chi have been involved in a myriad of activities at the University of Kentucky. During the course of the 1999-2000 school year, the Chapter has involved itself in sponsoring programs such as the Battle of the Sexes, "The Legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.: Past Present and Future," Race and the American Legal System, and African-American Academic Achievement. In addition to these programs, Epsilon Chi co-sponsored a post-lecture reception for Angela Davis on the University's campus. The Brothers also participate in a local outreach program for local alternative high school students. Epsilon Chi sponsored the Annual Miss Black and Gold Pageant and the Pink-Ice Ball with the ladies of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority Inc. THETA LAMBDA Dayton, OH Theta Lambda's Alpha Lites mentoring program has enjoyed plenty of success. This past winter, Theta Lambda hosted 20 young men of various ages at the West Dayton YMCA. The Brothers of Pi Phi based at Wright State University helped assist the event, which included mentoring sessions, lunch and basketball. The Chapter


sponsored a trip to the Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center in Wilberforce, Ohio. The youths were introduced to past and present music, paintings, pictures, artifacts and crafts depicting the life and times of African-Americans. Theta Lambda hosted its Annual Founder's Day Scholarship Dinner on Dec. 1, 1999 at the Dayton Convention Center. ALPHA IOTA LAMBDA Charleston, WV Alpha Iota Lambda Chapter recently donated $13,800 to the West Virginia State College Foundation, Inc. to establish an endowment for scholarships. The scholarships are named after Omega Chapter Brother Dr. William J.L. Wallace, President of West Virginia State from 1953 through 1975 and Brother Joseph Glider. Both Brothers served more than 60 years in the Fraternity. ETA BETA LAMBDA Wichita, KS On Saturday, February 26, 2000, the Brothers of Eta Beta Lambda Chapter held its third annual Tribute to Historically Black Colleges and Universities. This year's tribute featured Southern University. Music for the event was provided by Southern University music major Jedediah Spurlock, while Dr. Ernest Walker, Dean of the School of Engineering presented the keynote address. Eta Beta Lambda hosts this event as a part of the Fraternity's national program "Go-to-High School, Go-to-College." BETA LAMBDA Kansas City, MO Beta Lambda Chapter recently donated $1,000 to Alcorn State University during the Tom Joyner Morning Show's live broadcast. During the program, Brother Thomas Lowe exhorted the listening audience to support the Martin Luther King Memorial on the Mall in Washington D.C. The Chapter's New Year's Eve Party continues to be a success under the leadership of Brother Harold "Showtime" Foster. Other Beta Lambda activities during the Fraternal year include Cub Scouts, the Beta Lambda Educational Institute, its Annual Oldies but Goodies Party and its Youth Diversion program, which helps assist young men on the verge of incarceration. The Chapter has 14 Brothers who have served over 50 years in the Fraternity. They include Brothers Woodrow W. Austin, Victor M. Barker, Claude R. Bewley, Benjamin F. Boyd Sr., Edwin R. Byrd, Walter W Caldwell, Jr., Ephraim C. Ewing, Herman A Johnson, Robert P. Lyons, Frank R. Newman, Walter L. Peterson, M.D., Robert F. Short, Matthew H. Peach and Percy J. Perm.



SOUTHERN Mil PSI LAMBDA Homewood, AL Mu Psi Lambda Chapter hosted a leadership conference entitled "Leadership Alpha" on April 15,2000 at the Greater Antioch Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama. The conference focused on the following elements: membership reclamation, Chapter election processes, completion and explanations of National Programs and local Chapter projects, effective Chapter communication, recruitment, involvement and retention of Brother's Wives and significant others. Other highlights included an inspirational speech from Brother Arvin Sexton, and an informative talk headed by wives of the Brotherhood, focusing on their own involvement and participation with the Chapter. A fellowship luncheon followed the discussions. ALPHA UPSILON LAMBDA Montgomery, AL Brother John H. England Jr., Associate Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court was the main speaker at Alpha Upsilon Lambda's December 5, 1999 Founders Day Banquet at the Leila Barlow Theatre on the campus of Alabama State University. Brother England's accomplishments and service to the Fraternity earned him the Chapter's Distinguished Service Award. Life member Brother Willie Womack was selected as Alpha Upsilon Lambda's "Alumni Brother of the Year." Life member Brother Wendell Saxon was given the Chapter's Charlie Green Award for his service to the Fraternity as well as his community. The Founder's Day program was a joint effort of Alpha Upsilon Lambda, Beta Upsilon and Omicron Alpha chapters. ETA IOTA LAMBDA Athens, GA During April of 2000, the Brothers of Eta Iota Lambda raised $500 from the March of Dimes Walk and sponsored its "Middle School Career Day" for the local students of Athens. The Middle School Day Program involved Brothers and community businessmen present_

ETA PHI University of Tennessee-Chattanooga Chattanooga, TN This past fall, the Brothers of Eta Phi won several awards in the Fraternity's Tennessee Convention. Those honors included Chapter of the Year, Academic Chapter of the Year, Academic Brother of the Year, Most Spirited Award and the Charles H. Wesley Award (in conjunction with Psi Lambda chapter). The Chapter has aligned themselves witii Psi Lambda and the city of Chattanooga in the restoration of the predominantly black Pleasant View Cemetery. Throughout the fall 1999 semester, the Chapter volunteered at a local Boys Club and has served as mentors for inner-city youth. Eta Phi successfully hosted Alpha Week on its campus, which included the Miss Black and Gold Pageant and A Voteless People Are a Hopeless People national program. The Chapter won the River City Classic Stepshow for the second year in a row. GAMMA SIGMA LAMBDA/GAMMA ZETA Fort Valley State University Fort Valley, GA Gamma Sigma Lambda and Gamma Zeta chapters recently held the Sixth Annual Martin Luther King Jr. Scholarship Awards Luncheon in front of 275 attendees on the campus of Fort Valley State University. The speaker for the occasion was Brother Herman "Skip" Mason. Vincent Charleston, a 3-63 student at Fort Valley, was given the Ralph P. Malone Scholarship Award from the two Chapters. Other award recipients included Ms. Carolyn Sampson, winner of the Citizen of the Year Award and Brother of the Year Elliot S. Mizell, Area Director of the Georgia District. Gamma Sigma Lambda also presented a $500 check to Dr. Oscar Prater, President of Fort Valley State University. OMICRON LAMBDA Birmingham, AL Omicron Lambda's Education Foundation raised $2,000 for college scholarships from its inaugural golf tournament, chaired by Brother Tyrone Webb. The Chapter also won Alabama's Alumni Chapter of the Year Award during the 1999 Alabama District Conference.


CHAPTER NEWS t ontiuned: THETA PHI LAMBDA Cheraw/Bennettsville, SC

Organization, Most Improved Grade Point Average and Highest Community Service Hours Per Member.

On February 27, Theta Phi Lambda held its 18th Annual Community Awards Banquet under the theme: "Rekindling the Spirit of Leadership and Public Service." Reverend I.D. Hodge of Bennettsville and Benjamin McQueen of Cheraw were recognized for their service to the community. During the Christmas holidays, the Chapter presented gifts to 54 senior citizens of Marlboro County at the Baptist Training Union as well as the Society Hill Adult Day Care Center. ETANU East Carolina University Greenville, NC On November 13,1999, four new initiates of Eta Nu chapter were an integral part of the reactivation of the state of North Carolina's first black-Greek Letter organization on a predominately white campus. The line consists of Brothers Kengie Bass, Ade Galloway, Tremayne Nunley and Armstead Galiber. The neophytes began their work in Alpha by assisting the community of Princeville, North Carolina in the aftermath of Hurricane Floyd along with Zeta Eta Lambda Chapter of New Bern and Epsilon Sigma Lambda of Rocky Mount. The Chapter then co-hosted the North Carolina District Conference with Zeta Eta Lambda in New Bern, North Carolina from November 19-21,1999. The Chapter headlined East Carolina University's Martin Luther King Celebration on January 17, 2000. Eta Nu led a symbolic march across the campus to the Student Union. Chapter president Bass began the official program with greetings. The Chapter's Project Alpha focuses on the United States Department of Justice's Weed and Seed Safe Haven Program, an initiative designed to give youths a venue to enjoy activities such as arts and crafts, sports, technology and other activities. PI ALPHA Clemson University Clemson, SC Legendary actor, director, screenplay writer and author Ossie Davis highlighted Pi Alpha's 2000 Martin Luther King Celebration. His keynote address was entitled "Can We Dream Also." The Chapter also led a march across the campus along with Davis. MUZETA University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC Mu Zeta took several awards during the Spring 2000 Chapter Excellence Award Ceremonies held on the campus of the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. Among the honors included the Highest Grade Point Average of a National Pan-Hellenic Council CELEBRATING THE MILLENNIUM

Brothers ofMu Zeta Chapter collected a host ofawards during the Spring 2000 semester. ETA OMICRON North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC Alumni of Eta Omicron Chapter have initiated a fundraising campaign to help fund the Dr. Augustus Mclver Witherspoon Scholarship Endowment at North Carolina State Univeristy. The ultimate goal for the drive is $300,000. Brother Witherspoon, who entered Omega Chapter in 1994, remained on the faculty of North Carolina State for over 20 years after receiving his PhD. Prior to his death he held positions of the Dean of the NCSU Graduate School and Associate Provost. He is the only African-American to have a building named after him at the University. Brother Witherspoon was instrumental in establishing College Chapters at North Carolina State, the University of North Carolina and Duke University as well as other college Chapters throughout North Carolina. He served in several different capacities in Alpha at the National, Regional and District Levels. He showed a true commitment to involving College Brothers, conceiving the Belford V.l Lawson Oratorical Contest, and helped spur the Convention step | show and Miss Black and Gold into National Competitions. In addition to working on the frontlines for college Chapters in Alpha, hel also played an important role in helping other African-American Fraternities and Sororities onto the North Carolina State campus. The Scholarship Endowment contains approximately $19,165 with | additional pledges of $24,700.

C H A P T E R N E W S corUiuned: DELTA XI LAMBDA Orlando, FL Renowned author and lecturer Brother Dr. Dennis Kimbro highlighted Delta Xi Lambda's 14th Annual Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Commemorative Luncheon. The events were culminated by the presentation of the prestigious "Drum Major Award," given to six individuals embodying scholastic achievement, community service, civic affairs and social justice. Those six were: Alvin Cowans, Louis Carrion, Judge Emerson Thompson, Kattie Adams, Johnny Rivers and Brother Ray McCleese. OMICRON PHI LAMBDA East Point, GA On Friday, January 14,2000, the Brothers of Omicron Phi Lambda held its Project Alpha "Lock In 2000." The Brothers shared their own experiences while growing up and stressed abstinence to the youth in attendance. The Chapter also recently participated in a reading program at Fickett Elementary in Southwest Atlanta, where they helped students in such activities as arts and crafts, literacy and the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. The Chapter pledged to visit the school at least once a month. Omicron Phi Lambda's Christmas Basket project also proved to be successful program. Omicron Phi Lambda chapter Brothers enjoy performing community service throughout the Atlanta area. NU MU LAMBDA Decatur, GA For the second straight year, Nu Mu Lambda took honors as the Georgia District's Chapter of the Year in addition to the Charles H. Wesley Award at the Southern Region Convention. The Chapter was one of the co-hosts for the 2000 Millennium Convention in Atlanta. Brother George Moss won the Charles Green Award. On November 20,1999, Nu Mu Lambda initiated the following Brothers into the Fraternity: Anthony Stinson, Shun Palmer, David Freeman, William James, Arlington Thomas, Stephen Dean and William Watkins. On December 3,1999, General President Adrian Wallace served as guest speaker at the Metro Atlanta Founders Day Program. On December 5, 1999, the Chapter attended Ebinezer Baptist Church with other area Chapters. Following the service, the Miss Black and Gold 2000, Ms. Khaliajelks of Florida Memorial College, poses Brothers marched to the tomb of Martin Luther King Jr. to lay a with the Brothers ofNu Mu Lambda wreath with members of the King family.

THETANU University of South Carolina Columbia, SC Theta Nu Chapter made its mark at the 1999 Southern Region Convention. Brother Terrance Wilson won the Region's "Brother of the Year," while the Chapter also won the Charles H. Wesley Award for outstanding work performed with a graduate Chapter. The University of South Carolina's Interfraternity Council also honored Theta Nu with the monthly Community Spotlight Award for two consecutive months. The University's Order of Omega Greek Awards ceremony awarded Theta Nu with the Best New Member Class Award, as Brothers Martin L. White and Wesley H. Frierson were inducted into the Order of Omega Greek Society. The Chapter participated in the Martin Luther King Day of Service, won the inaugural Black History Stepshow, worked with Omicron Iota Lambda to present Project Alpha at WA. Perry Middle School and continued its ongoing mentoring of elementary school students at West Columbia Boys and Girls Club and Epworth's Children's Home. THE SPHINX速 SUMMER 2000

C H A P T E R N E W S contiuned: BETA DELTA South Carolina State University Orangeburg, SC Beta Delta Chapter recently completed yet another successful school year on the campus of South Carolina State University. During 1999-2000, the Chapter took several South Carolina District Awards, including Chapter of the Year, the Oratorical Contest, Scholars Bowl and Step Show. Beta Delta continues to take an active role in community service projects, such as Boy Scouts of America, the American Heart Walk, Stokes Residential Home for the Elderly, and Mentoring at Sheraton Elementary School and the Orangeburg Boys Attention Home. In addition to numerous voter registration drives, the Chapter also held its Founder's Day Memorial Candlelight March, its Annual Miss Black and Gold Pageant, Club Alphamingo and Club After Six. The Chapter also sponsored Beta Delta Reunion for Homecoming 1999, as Brothers from as far back as the early 50's blended with the neophytes to celebrate 70 years of Brotherhood. Members of Beta Delta also took part in "King Day at the Dome," a march in support of the lowering of the Confederate Flag at the state capital. Over 20 Chapter Brothers were recognized at the University's Honors and Awards Convocation for maintaining at least a 3-0 grade point average. Beta Delta has maintained the highest grade point average of all four fraternities on the SCSU campus and has held the Student Government Association Presidency for the past five years, respectively. Brother Derrick Williams was recently crowned King of the Pan-Hellenic Council 2000-2001. The Chapter culminated its year with its Annual Awards Banquet and the second annual Baby Miss and Master Pageant. The Chapter step team finished second in the Southern Region Step Show in Birmingham, Alabama. GAMMA ZETA LAMBDA Tampa, FL On December 4, 1999, Gamma Zeta Lambda celebrated its Founders Day along with Omicron Beta Lambda, Mu Zeta Lambda, Xi Psi Lambda and Delta Beta Lambda. The Chapter also kicked off partnership with Headstart. On December 18 during Gamma Zeta Lambda's Christmas Party, Brothers brought gifts for the Chapter's annual "Adopt-A-Family campaign. During the fall of 1999, Gamma Zeta Lambda initiated Brother Brian Lamb into Alphadom. ALPHA PSI LAMBDA Columbia, SC The following Brothers were recently honored for 50 years of service to the Fraternity: Alexander Graham, Dr. John R. Stevenson, Bishop Fred C.James, Matthew E. Cannon, Wendell Martin, Marcel Blakely, Wilson J. Davis Jr., Dr. Maurice Waddell and Hale Kennedy.


DELTA KAPPA LAMBDA Florence, SC On December 11, 1999, the Brothers of Delta Kappa Lambda Chapter sponsored its Project Alpha Program at a local boys home. On November 11,1999 Delta Kappa Lambda, along with Kappa Chi of Francis Marion College sponsored a canned food drive at a local grocery store. A total of seven boxes of food were collected and donated to the Manor House of Florence. BETA BETA LAMBDA Miami, FL Brother Dr. Solomon "Sol" Stinson was recently honored by the Brothers of Beta Beta Lambda during its recent Alpha Scholarship Ball. After retiring as a Superintendent in the Miami-Dade School System in 1993, Brother Stinson became a three-term Chairman of the Miami-Dade School Board. TAU LAMBDA Nashville, TN The Tau Lambda Chapter Education Foundation recently donated $10,000 to Fisk University for the establishment of a tuition assistance scholarship. It was the first award of its kind by an African-American Greek-Letter organization to any institution of higher learning in Nashville. The presentation was made at Tau Lambda's Scholarship Luncheon on Dec. 11, 1999, where the Chapter's Education Foundation announced plans to establish endowments at other historically black universities in Nashville. Brother Dennis Kimbro served as the guest speaker for the luncheon, while the Fisk Jubilee Singers put on a special performance. In addition to the endowment, Tau Lambda currently supports seven college students on $1,000 scholarships, renewable for four years. Tau Lambda Chapter, Tennessee's Alumni Chapter of the Year, continues to work on all Alpha programs. The Chapter supports on-going projects providing youth leadership training and male mentoring, voter registration and the Boy Scouts of America. Tau Lambda was recently cited for its contribution and participation to the March of Dimes Walk. GAMMA UPSILON Tugaloo College Jackson, MS The state of Mississippi's first undergraduate Chapter in Alphadom celebrated its 50th anniversary on February 27,1999- Four of the 10 Chapters Founders were present for Gamma Upsilon's celebration, as was General President Adrian Wallace and past General President Walter Washington.

C H A P T E R NEWS mmmmi PHI LAMBDA Raleigh, NC The "Stars of Tomorrow" talent showcase enabled high school students from Wake and Johnson Counties to show off their creative talents. Held on April 11,1999, Ms. Zakiya Alta Lee took first place over 13 other contestants. During the evening, Brother Harold Timberlake III of Shaw University's Beta Rho Chapter presented his 1999 Belford Lawson Oratorical Contest-winning speech titled, "Black Wealth, Self-Helpâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; Past, Present and Future." Ms. Zakiya Alta Lee took homefirstprice in Phi Lambda's "Stars of Tomorrow" competition.

BETA OMICRON LAMBDA Mobile, AL Brother Ralph Howard was recognized as Brother of the Year at Beta Omicron Lambda's Founder's Day Observance in December. Brother Seymour Irby received the Charlie Green Award and Ms. Yvonne Reed Madison was given the Citizen of the Year Award for her outstanding contributions to the Mobile community. Earlier in the 1999-2000 year, the Chapter raised $3,000 for its scholarship fund and presented three food baskets for local residents during the Thanksgiving Holidays.

The dapper Brothers of Beta Omicron Lambda completed a productive Fraternal Year. KAPPA BETA Mississippi State University Starkville, MS Project Alpha drew 37 teenaged males to the University of Mississippi State University campus from June 25-27,1999- The program was made possible through funds provided by Kappa Beta Chapter and a grant from the Mississippi Chapter of the March of Dimes Foundation, Inc. The weekend concluded with a recognition banquet for the participants and their parents. Special guests included North Mississippi March of Dimes chairwoman Lee Norris and Brother Clarence Christian, a founding member of Kappa Beta and former Southern Region Executive Secretary.




SOUTHWESTERN THETA DELTA LAMBDA El Paso, TX Theta Delta Lambda continued its impressive run of accolades in 2000. In March, the Chapter won the Southwestern Region's Alumni Chapter of the Year for the second consecutive year at the Region Convention in Houston. It will attempt to win its second consecutive National Chapter of the Year Award in Atlanta in August. The month before, Theta Delta Lambda won its third straight Texas Council of Alpha Chapters (TCAC) Alumni Chapter of the Year Award at its annual convention in Lubbock, Texas. Jan. 1,2000 Theta Delta Lambda ushered in the New Year with a Kwanzaa celebration at the McCall Neighborhood Center in El Paso. Brother adorned African attire and explained and performed the Kwanzaa rituals. Brothers Wade Hampton, William Doctor, James Ball, Orbie Stewart, Samuel Finlayson, Freddie White, Chauncy Nash, Chester Jordan and Danny Monroe were among the features speakers and presenters.

DELTA SIGMA Grambling State University Grambling, LA

State, Regional and National honors have been bestowt of Theta Delta Lambda.

than 160 Brothers joined Brother Pastor Bill Lawson in remembrance of the Jewels. In January of 2000, the Chapter along with the March of Dimes began conducting a five-month program that combines Project Alpha and the Go-To-High School, Go-To-College service projects for Phyllis Wheatley High School students.

"Alpha Week" at Delta Sigma culminated on November 20,1999 with Project Alpha. More than 60 high school-aged young men listened to an address from Honorable Brother Charles Jones and participated in a discussion concerning abstinence and precaution in sexual relationships. Other Alpha Week activities included the Goto-High School, Go-to-College Program, Miss Black and Gold Pageant, won by Ms. Letitia Smith, a Black Awareness Program featuring Honorable Brother Cleo Fields, a Prostate/Breast Cancer Seminar, a Brotherhood Worship Service on Sunday November 14,1999 and ajazz Night.

Brother John L Colbert was recently selected as the Volunteer of the Year for 1999 by the State of Arkansas Special Olympics Organization. Brother Colbert earned the award for his interest, enthusiasm and unselfish efforts that helped Special Olympians throughout the state enjoy athletic competition.



Brothers C. Anderson Davis and Al Henson teamed together to complete a $50,000 renovation project to the Chapter's Alpha House. The space was expanded to seat 100 Brothers for meetings and allows the chapter to host larger social events. Under the direction of Brother Okpara Young, Alpha Eta Lambda hosted a Halloween Party for neighborhood families. During November of 1999, Brothers Ron Peters and Larry Green arranged for the Chapter to visit six 50-plus year members of Alpha to do yardwork, chores and talk about experiences within the Fraternity. Alpha Eta Lambda hosted its Founders Day Program at its Fraternity house. Sunday service was held at Wheeler Avenue Baptist Church, where more

On December 4, 1999, Xi Kappa Lambda observed its Annual Founder's Day Celebration at the Willowwisp Country Club in Missouri City, Texas. More than 70 Brothers from the Greater Houston area attended the celebration. Brother Reverend William Lawson served as keynote speaker. The next day nearly 160 Brothers from the Greater Houston area Chapters including Xi Kappa Lambda, Alpha Eta Lambda, Gamma Pi Lambda, Eta Mu, Delta Theta and Epsilon Rho participated in the inspirational services at Wheeler Avenue Baptist Church.



C H A P T E R N E W S continued: KAPPA SIGMA LAMBDA Fort Hood, TX

WESTERN BETA PSI LAMBDA Los Angeles, CA In April of 2000, Beta Psi Lambda Chapter's scholarship endowment fund hit the $100,000 mark. The Chapter decided to establish a perpetual scholarship fund that would provide scholarships for local African-American high school students entering the four-year college of university of their choice. ETA SIGMA LAMBDA San Jose, CA

Brothers 0/ /v/j>pa, Battalion Memorial Banquet at the Fort Hood Officers Club. Kappa Sigma Lambda Chapter hosted the 761st Tank Battalion Memorial Banquet at the Officers Club in Fort Hood. The dinner honored African-American soldiers who served in the 76lst Battalion during World War II. The guest speaker for the occasion was Southwestern Region Vice President T.J. German. NU PI LAMBDA Arlington, TX Nu Pi Lambda recently finished its academic year of the Alpha Ambassador Club Program. Since its inception in 1991, the Club had assisted over 120 young men prepare for college and beyond. The Alpha Club academically challenges and trains young men, helping prepare them to become future leaders. Each year, a college-level curriculum and social calendar are prepared by the Brotherhood. Though the program, students develop analytical reasoning skills, sharpen written and verbal communications skills, prepare for successful completion of standardized test and develop and improve social skills. Campus tours are scheduled each fall and spring. This past year, the students visited colleges in New Orleans and Washington D.C. The Chapter also successfully implemented a successful Project Alpha program in conjunction with the Boys and Girls Clubs of Arlington-Kromer Branch and the March of Dimes-North Texas Chapter. Brother Reverend Phillip Mitchell gave a moving presentation on the social and moral obligations of teen parents.

The Bay Area Chapters of Alpha Phi Alpha celebrated Founders Day on December 5,1999 at Bates Hall in Oakland, California. Ninety Brothers representing nine Chapters were present during the ceremony, which included a special religious service featuring inspirational songs and a message from Eta Sigma Lambda Brother Jeff Moore. An Omega service followed, honoring Brothers for their service to the community. Each participating Chapter recognized its Brothers of the Year, while 50 and 60-year Brothers were given certificates acknowledging their service to the Fraternity. Brother Wilbur Jackson gave the keynote address under the theme "Alpha Phi Alpha's Progression into the new Millennium."



The Brothers of Zeta Sigma Lambda and Eta Sigma recently participated in the March of Dimes WalkAmerica fundraiser on April 29,2000, held at Sea World in San Diego, California. In its first year of participation, over 15 Brothers, including Western Region Vice President Gregory French represented the Fraternity. The Brothers walked a total of seven miles, collecting over $200 in contributions.


ROTHER BOBBY RAY PHILLS, II was 'initiated March 21, 1989 at Beta Sigma Chapter, Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He graduated Cum Laude, receiving a Bachelor's degree in Animal Science/Pre-Veterinary Medicine in 1991- An Academic All-American and All-Southwestern Athletic Conference basketball player for the Jaguars, Brother Phills led Southern to the 1991 National Collegiate Athletic Association Tournament, where they upset heavily favored Georgia Tech in the first round. He began a nine-year professional basketball career in 1991, selected in the second round by the Milwaukee Bucks in the National Basketball Association draft. After a brief stint in the Continental Basketball Association, Brother Phills played for the Cleveland Cavaliers and the Charlotte Hornets, averaging 11 points, 3-1 rebounds and 2.7 assists throughout his career. He was known throughout the NBA as one of the few guards able to defend with some success one of the greatest basketball players ever, the Chicago Bulls Michael Jordan. During his career, Brother Phills established the Bobby Phills Educational Awareness Foundation and the Club 14 Fan Club. He also hosted sports camps and golf tournaments to benefit youth activities. He was a member of the Wesley United Methodist Church.


RTHUR D. ALLEN SR. was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha. He was initiated April 1, 1950 at Beta Gamma Chapter, Wrginia State University in Petersburg, Virginia. He was also a member of Nu Lambda Chapter in Petersburg, Va., where he was selected Alpha Brother of the Year and received his Bachelor's degree. Brother Allen received a Master of Social Work from the Atlanta School of Social Work and a Ph.D. from the University of Pittsburgh. He served in the United States Army and became a part



of the 99th Fighter Squadron in Tuskegee, Alabama. While at Tuskegee, the Squadron prepared an undeveloped airstrip which eventually became the training ground for the Tuskegee Airmen. He was given an Honorable Discharge from the Army in 1943. During his professional career, Brother Allen held many positions. He began as a counselor in the Philadelphia County Department of Assistance, then served as Attendance Officer for the Philadelphia School System. Other posts held by Brother Allen include Executive Director of Leagues for the Urban League in Tampa, Florida and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, consultant for curriculum planning at the University of Pittsburgh, consultant in the Manpower Research Institute at Norfolk State University, Professor and Coordinator of Public Administration at Virginia State University and professor of Public Administration at the University of Kansas. Brother Allen was a life member of the NAACP, as well as a member of the Petersburg Breakfast Club, Beaux Twenty Club and a Connecting Link Member of the Petersburg Chapter of Links, Incorporated. ROTHER WILLIAM M. BATTS III was initiated August 8,1976 at Zeta Alpha Lambda Chapter, Newport News, Virginia. In 1999, he was named the Eastern Region Brother of the Year and the state of Virginia's Brother of the Year. Brother Batts was also named Zeta Alpha Lambda's Brother of the Year in 1998, and in 1997, received the Zeta Alpha Lambda Citizen of the Year Award. He was also the initiator of the "Brothers Helping Brothers" program, designed to assist Zeta Lambda Alpha Brothers, as well as the overall Brotherhood in Alpha with educational, economic and spiritual endeavors. ROTHER JOSEPH JOHN BEALE was initiated in April of 1949 as a charter member of Delta Epsilon Chapter at the University of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York. Brother Beale began his collegiate career at Virginia Union University before entering the United States Army. After his discharge, Brother Beale received his Bachelor's degree at the University of Buffalo in 1951. In 1976, he earned a Master of Business Administration from Canisius College in Buffalo. Brother Beale worked as an Aeronautical Engineer at Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory for 19 years while teaching business courses in the local Buffalo community. He also served on the Board of Directors of Child and Family Services as well as a tutor for young students in math and science. In 1977, Brother Beale moved to Johnson City, New York to work as a senior



OMEGA CH subcontract administrator for the Flight Simulation Division of Singer Link Company, retiring in 1988. He later became an ordained minister after graduating from Hebron Ministerial Institute. Brother Beale served as a minister at Grace World Outreach Church in Binghamton, New York, where he was a member of the Broome County Jail Ministry. ROTHER VICTOR MASON BARKER was initiated December 1, 1937 at Alpha Psi Chapter, Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri where he received a Bachelor's degree in Mathematics in 1941. Shortly after graduation, Brother Barker entered the Army Air Force, where he studied aviation at Tuskegee Institute and earned ratings as an Aerial Gunner, Navigator and Bombardier. He retired from the Air Force as a Flight Officer. Brother Barker taught Mathematics at Central High School, worked at the United States Post Office, and was later a Personnel Officer for the United States Department of Agriculture, retiring in 1979- He was a past president of Beta Lambda Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., Kansas City, Missouri. Brother Barker also held leadership positions with the Heart of America Chapter of the Tuskegee Airmen, the Linwood YMCA, Fairview Alternative School Advisory Committee and the Kansas City Chapter of the Lincoln University Alumni Association. He was also a member of the Kansas City Missouri Personnel Appeals Board, the NAACP, the Urban League, Boys Scouts Century Club and the Patient Advisory Council of the Kansas City Dialysis Center.


ROTHER DR. EDWARD DEPRIEST CLARK was initiated March 1,1947 at Beta Epsilon Chapter at North Carolina A&T State University in Greensboro, North Carolina. He was also a member of Phi Lambda Chapter in Raleigh, North Carolina. He received his undergraduate degree at North Carolina A&T State University, and earned his Master of Arts from New York University. He received his Ph.D. from Syracuse University. After military service in the United States Army, Brother Clark taught in high schools and colleges in Georgia and Louisiana. Prior to joining the faculty at North Carolina State University, he served as English Department Chair at Fayetteville State University. Brother Clark also taught American, British and World Literature. ROTHER CHARLES HENRY CLARKE JR. was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha. Brother Clarke was initiated February 1, 1930 at Phi Chapter, Ohio University in Athens, Ohio. Brother Clarke was a graduate of Ohio University and a veteran of World War II. He was a board member of the Christian Street YMCA, the Frontiers International and an active member of the Zeta Omicron Lambda Chapter in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania as well as Holy Trinity Baptist Church of Philadelphia, where he served on the Board of Trustees. He was also affiliated with the Pyramid Club, the Center in the Park Club and the Cambridge Rod and Gun Club.




ROTHER DR. LEONARD COBBS was initiated May 3,1947 at Gamma Theta Chapter, University of Dayton in Dayton, Ohio. He was a retired psychiatrist and a Fellow in the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. ROTHER GEORGE L. CONNALLY was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha. He was initiated in 1941 at Alpha Chi Lambda Chapter in Augusta, Georgia. After relocating to Cleveland, Ohio in 1942, Brother Connally became an active member of the Delta Alpha Lambda Chapter. He earned his Bachelor's degree at Tuskegee University. Brother Connally worked for Republic Steel, Telling Bell Milk Company and the United Insurance Company before founding the Connally Insurance Agency in 1958. He became the first black agent in Cleveland to represent major insurance companies. Brother Connelly was an usher and lay reader at Gesu Church, where he was a member for 30 years. He was also involved with many homeless advocacy organizations, including St. Herman's House of Hospitality. He was one of the founders and eventual chairman of the Delta Alpha Lambda Elmer C. Collins Golf Outing and served his chapter for many years as treasurer.



ROTHER DR. CURTIS V. COOPER was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha, initiated in 1952 at Delta Eta Chapter, Savannah State University in Savannah, Georgia. He earned his Bachelor of Science degree in Biology from Savannah State in 1955. Brother Cooper worked for Guaranty Life Insurance Company before taking a position with the United States Department of Agriculture as a technician. In the early 1970's he became Executive Director of the Westside Urban Health Center. In 1984, Brother Cooper became one of the first black members of the Board of Directors of Memorial Medical Center, eventually becoming Chairman of the Board. He was also Chairman of the Chatham County Hospital Authority and the Georgia State Access to Health Care Commission. Brother Cooper served on the NAACP Youth Council and later became president of the Savannah Branch Chapter. Other board memberships included the Savannah Area Chamber of Commerce, Economic Development Authority, The United Way, Hodge Day Care Center, the Housing and Development Corporation, the Chatham County Development Authority, the Greenbriar Children's Center, Carver State Bank, First City Club, the American Diabetes Association and the American Cancer Society. Brother Cooper was also a member of the Wolves Inc., the Falcons Club and the Waldorf's Club. He held membership in the Alpha Lambda Boule of Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity and was a 33rd degree Mason of the Mount Moriah Lodge, where he also served as Past Worshipful Master. Brother Cooper was also a chairman of the Trustee Board of the Second African Baptist Church, where he also served as Deacon and Sunday School teacher. In addition, he was a past president and active member of Beta Phi Lambda Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha. THE SPHINX* SUMMER 2000

OMEGA CHAPTER ROTHER DAVID L. DANIEL was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha. He was initiated April 23,1927 at Chi Chapter, Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. He was also a member of Xi Lambda Chapter, Chicago, Illinois. A high school Salutatorian, Brother Daniel received his Bachelor of Arts degree from Fisk University in 1929 and a Master of Arts from the University of Chicago in 1954. He began his professional career as a junior caseworker, eventually moving up to Director of Cook County Department of Public Aid and Assistant Director of the Illinois Department of Public Aid. Brother Daniel served in the United States Army from 1943-46, attaining the rank of Second Lieutenant by the end of World War II. He also received the rank of Captain in the Army Reserve Corps.


ROTHER RANDALL JAMES DANIELS was initiated on July 20, 1992 at Gamma Lambda Chapter in Detroit, Michigan. He received his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Detroit-Mercy. Brother Daniels also did post-graduate work at Detroit-Mercy as well as Oxford University in London, England. He graduated from the Word of Faith Bible Training Center in April of 1999. He served as Music Minister with the University of DetroitMercy Gospel choir for 10 years before breaking the group away from the University, where it was renamed Anointed Praise. Brother Daniels was a member of the Phi Alpha Delta Pre-Law Fraternity and Assistant Campus Minister of the G Phi G Campus Ministry at Eastern Michigan University. ROTHER ROBERT F. EVANS was initiated May 19,1962 at Zeta Omicron Lambda Chapter in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He received a Bachelor of Arts degree from St. Joseph's University in Philadelphia and did graduate work at the University of Pennsylvania. Brother Evans was a veteran of World War II, serving as Staff Sergeant in the Army. He received the Bronze Star for heroism while serving in Normandy, France. Brother Evans taught in Philadelphia Public Schools as well as Philadelphia Community College. He was also president of the Olde Philadelphia Club and the Couples Club. ROTHER THOMAS LEON GASTON was initiated February 6, 1953 at Beta Upsilon Chapter at Alabama State University in Montgomery, Alabama. He was also a member of Delta Gamma and Theta Lambda Chapters at Alabama A&M University and Dayton, Ohio, respectively. Brother Gaston received his Bachelor of Science degree from Alabama A&M and a Master of Education from Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio. During his career, Brother Gaston was employed as Director of the Opportunities Industrialization Center of Dayton, the Miami Valley Manpower Consortium of Dayton, Montgomery and Greene Counties as well as The Dayton Area Chamber of Commerce. He and his brother Berdell Gaston were co-founders of the Techni-Write Consulting Firm, Inc.







ROTHER RALPH STEVENSON GRAHAM was initiated December 10, 1949 at Alpha Rho Chapter, Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia. He was also a member of Theta Lambda Chapter, Dayton, Ohio. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics and Physics from Morehouse College in 1952. Brother Graham also obtained a Master's Degree in Mathematics from Ohio State University. He served in the United States Army for 40 years and taught at Sinclair Community College in Dayton for 30 years. ROTHER DR. DANIEL A. HALL was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha. He was initiated May 1, 1954 at Beta Chapter, Howard University in Washington, D.C. He earned his Bachelor of Science degree from Howard University in 1955, his M.D. from Temple University School of Medicine in 1958 and a M.P.H. degree from Columbia University in 1968. He served as a General Medical Officer in the United States Navy, Deputy Health Commissioner for Medical Care in Philadelphia, Associate Executive Health Director of Philadelphia General Hospital, Chief of the Regional Medical Program at Temple, as well as Student Advisor and Admissions Committee member. Brother Hall also served as Associate Professor at Temple Medical School's Family Practice and Community Health, Director of Medical Services and Director of AARP Division for Prudential Insurance Company. He was a longtime member and past president of the Medical Society of Eastern Pennsylvania, as well as Zeta Omicron Lambda Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. Brother Hall was also a member of Zion Baptist Church, where he served on the Finance Committee. He was honored by the Medical Society of Eastern Pennsylvania at its 18th Annual Mercy-Douglass Lectureship.



ROTHER PAUL LAWRENCE HARPER was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha, Theta Theta Lambda Chapter, Frankfort, Germany. He was initiated on November 3, 1941 at Delta Chapter, Huston-Tillotson College in Austin, Texas. Brother Harper received a Bachelor of Science degree from Huston-Tillotson College in 1943. He served in the United States Army with the 777th Field Artillery during World War II in England and Germany, where he took part in the Battle of the Bulge. Brother Harper retired from the United States Army in 1987. ROTHER REVEREND DR. THOMAS ALLEN HARRIS was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha, Epsilon Pi Lambda chapter in Ocala, Florida. He was initiated on December 1,1934 at Beta 1 Nu Chapter, Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, Florida. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Agriculture at Florida A&M University. Brother Harris did graduate work at Hartford Seminary, Yale University and the University of California as Los Angeles. He received his Doctor of Ministry degree from Drew University in Madison, New Jersey in 1978. Brother Harris served as an educator




in the state of Florida in both Sumter and Jackson Counties. He also carried on missionary and agricultural ministries in China, East Malaysia and Borneo for over 30 years. Upon returning to the United States, Brother Harris served as pastor of Harris Temple in Tampa and Ebinezer United Methodist Church in Jacksonville, Florida. He was also a member of the NAACP. ROTHER ERIC HEADLEY was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. He was initiated on April 15,1936 at Alpha Kappa Chapter at Springfield College in Springfield, Massachusetts. Brother Headley was one of the 23 charter members of Zeta Zeta Lambda Chapter in New York City. He received his Bachelor's degree from Springfield College and a Master of Education from Columbia University. Brother Headley served as a teacher and principal throughout his professional career. While with Zeta Zeta Lambda, Brother Headley was instrumental in scholarship fund raising. He also coordinated choir competitions throughout New York City. The Eric Headley Center for Youth Leadership was recently established posthumously in Rocky Mount, North Carolina. ROTHER BENJAMIN ROLAND HUNTER was initiated into Delta Zeta Lambda in Orangeburg, South Carolina. He was a graduate of Allen University in Columbia, South Carolina, and did graduate work at South Carolina State and Clemson Universities. Brother Hunter taught and coached in the public schools of Summerton, South Carolina, Bamberg, Norway and St. George, South Carolina for 26 years. He served in the United States Army and was member of Garden City Church of Christ in Orangeburg.



ROTHER HOLLIS DAVIS HUNTER was initiated December 13, 1969 as a charter member of Zeta Phi Chapter at Mississippi Valley State University in Itta Bena, Mississippi. Brother Hunter was the Head Laboratory Technician with Chevron Oil Refinery in Pascagoula, Mississippi. He was a member of Xi Lambda Chapter in Pascagoula. ROTHER ELMER C. JACKSON JR. was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha. He was initiated in 1937 at Beta Kappa Chapter at Langston University, Langston, Oklahoma. He received his Bachelor of Arts and Doctor of Jurisprudence degrees from the University of Kansas. Brother Jackson practiced law in Kansas City,



Kansas for 64 years. He was a member of the Kansas City, Kansas, Wyandotte County, Kansas State and American Bar Associations. Brother Jackson was also a Fellow of the American Bar Foundation and was a life member, past president and former Membership Secretary of the National Bar Association. Brother Jackson served his city, state and country in many capacities. He was a member and past chairman of the Kansas Board of Regents, past chairman â&#x20AC;&#x201D;



ber of the Board of Directors of the Kansas University Alumni Association, former director of the Kansas City, Kansas Chamber of Commerce, board member of the Kansas University Endowment Association and past president of the Kansas University Gold Medal Club. Brother Jackson was a member of First AME Church for 71 years, serving as Trustee Emeritus, usher, board member, reading clerk and the men's chorus. He was also a Life Member of the NAACP, served on the General Counsel of the Western University Association, Inc. and was a member of the Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity and Frontiers International. Among Brother Jackson's many awards, tributes and proclamations include the University of Kansas Law School Distinguished Alumni Award, the University of Kansas Distinguished Service Citation, the Fred Ellsworth Medallion for Outstanding Service to the Kansas University Alumni Association, and the National Bar Association's C. Francis Stradford Award. He also received the Grand Sire Archon award from Sigma Pi Phi, the Prince Hall Founders Award for outstanding legal and civic service and the Kansas Governor's Medal of Merit for outstanding contribution and service to Kansas City, Kansas and the United States. The Elmer C. Jackson Jr. Scholarship at Kansas University was established in 1991ROTHER BRUCE JOHNSON was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha. He was initiated into Zeta Zeta Chapter on November 20, 1983 at the University of Oklahoma in Norman, Oklahoma. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Oklahoma, and did post graduate work at Amber University in Garland, Texas. Brother Johnson served as Regional Secretary for the Southwest Region and was a founding member of The Gents of Distinction.


ROTHER DOCTOR CLIFTON R. JOHNSON was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha. He was initiated into Gamma Chapter on April 12, 1934 at Virginia Union University in Richmond, Virginia. Brother Johnson received his Bachelor's Degree from Virginia Union University in 1935. He earned his Master's and Doctorate Degrees from the University of Iowa in 1939 and 1943, respectively. After serving in the United States Armed Forces during World War II, Brother Johnson taught at Booker T Washington High School in South Boston, Virginia. He later became a professor at Florida A&M University, Morgan State University and Howard University. He eventually became Associate Dean of the Howard University School of Liberal Arts and Department Head of Sociology at Howard before retiring in 1980. Brother Johnson served as Professor Emeritus at Howard from 1980 through 1990. He is a former National Director of Educational Activities for Alpha Phi Alpha and former president of Delta Lambda Chapter. Brother Johnson was a member of the Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity and served on the Board of Directors for the National Urban League in Baltimore. He



OMEGA CHAPTER was also a member of the Maryland Committee of Public Welfare, the Mayor's Advisory Council on Health and Housing, National Conference of Christians and Jews, the Maryland Commission on Problems of Aging and the Governor's Commission on Daycare Services for Children in the State of Maryland. Brother Johnson was inducted into the Pi Gamma Mu National Social Science Honor Society, was a member of the General Education Board of Fisk University and a Rosenwald Fellow and a member of the Delta Tau Kappa International Social Science Society. ROTHER REVEREND ROBERT ROSS JOHNSON was a charter member of Zeta Zeta Lambda chapter, New York City, New York. He earned a Bachelor's degree in social science and a Master of Divinity degree from the Colgate Rochester Divinity School. Brother Johnson served as an instructor in Social Sciences and Theology at Florida Normal Industrial College in St. Augustine, Florida. He then served as Pastor of Second Baptist Church in Leroy, New York, and later became the founding Pastor of St. Albans Congregational Church, United Church of Christ. During this time, he also served as Chaplain at the Department of Corrections in New York. Some of Brother Johnson's memberships include the NAACP Board of Directors of York College, the United Negro College Fund, founder of the Queens Inter-Faith Clergy Council, a member of the Board of Directors of the Jamaica Chamber of Commerce and organizer and founder of the Human Resource Center of St. Albans, which was later renamed in his honor.


ROTHER THOMAS A. JORDAN was initiated on December 9, 1954 into Beta Alpha Chapter at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1957 as well as a Masters degree in Social Work from New York University. A veteran of the Korean War, Brother Jordan was a clinical forensic social worker for the state of Rhode Island and served as a board member of the Rochambeau Library. A devout Episcopalian, Brother Jordan served on the vestry as a communicant of the Cathedral of Saint John. He remained active in a number of organizations, including the Mu Theta Lambda Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha in Providence, Rhode Island, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the Rhode Island Black Heritage Society, the Rhode Island Media Coalition, the National Association of Social Workers and the Marathon Club. ROTHER SAMUEL BYTHEWOOD KIDD was initiated May 5, 1951 at Gamma Theta chapter at the University of Dayton, Dayton Ohio. He was also a member of Xi Lambda Chapter in Chicago, Illinois and Chi Lambda Chapter in Wilberforce, Ohio. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Education from the University of Dayton. Following his graduation, Brother Kidd worked for over 33 years at the Defense Electronic Supply Center in





Dayton. He was a member of numerous councils and organizations, including the Dayton Area Councils Service, Greene County Opportunities Industrialization Center, Xenia Area Housing Corporation, Greene County Mental Health Services, American Red Cross, Central State University's Interfaith Campus Ministry as well as a host of ad hoc community projects. Brother Greene was a faithful member of Christ Episcopal Church in Xenia, Ohio, where he was accepted into the Society of St. Simeon and St. Anna for his distinguished, affirmative actions and contributions to the Episcopal Church. While with Chi Lambda Chapter, he served as President, Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary and Associate Editor to the Sphinx. ROTHER JOSEPH MINCER KINDRICK was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha, initiated on December 1,1959 at Zeta Alpha Lambda Chapter in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Brother Kindrick was later affiliated with Delta Iota Lambda Chapter in Columbus, Georgia. ROTHER ALBERT MATTHEW MILLER JR. was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha, initiated on May 1,1936 at Beta Omicron Chapter at Tennessee State University in Nashville, Tennessee. He also served as Secretary of Psi Lambda Chapter in Chattanooga, Tennessee. He received his Bachelor's and Master's degrees from Tennessee State University before teaching science and music in Chattanooga City Schools for 37 years. He also served as Organist and Minister of Music for Thompkin Chapel A.M.E. Zion Church, which named its senior choir after him. Brother Miller also served his church as a Steward, Sunday School Superintendent and member of the Board of Christian Education.


ROTHER DR. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN MURPHY JR. was initiated on January 1,1936 at Alpha Chi Chapter at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee. He was also an active member of Rho Lambda Chapter in Buffalo, New York. He received his Bachelor's degree at Fisk as well as a medical degree from Meharry Medical College in Nashville. Brother Murphy was a practicing physician for over 50 years, and maintained a private practice for 40 years. He was also a physician for Buffalo Public Schools, the Erie County Health Department and was a medical director of the outpatient geriatric clinic at Sister's Hospital. Brother Murphy also headed the outpatient methadone clinic at Sister's Hospital. He served on the Erie County Narcotics Guidance Council and the Mental Hygiene Community Services Board, American Lung Association, the National Medical Association and the Upstate Medical Alliance. He was also a life member of the NAACP. Brother Murphy received many honors including the Community Service Award of the NAACP, the Health Award of the African-American Task Force on AIDS, the United Negro College Fund's Outstanding Alumnus Award and the Upstate Medical Alliance's Doctor of the


OMEGA CHAPTER Year Award. He was an active member of Lincoln Memorial United Methodist Church. ROTHER VERNON MOREL RHINEHART was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha. He was initiated May 25,1957 at Sigma Chapter, Boston, Massachusetts. Brother Rhinehart received his Bachelor of Arts degree from Boston University in 1958. Brother Rhinehart earned his L.L. B/J.D. degree from the Howard University School of Law in 1966. Brother Vernon became the first AfricanAmerican in the Industrial Relations Department at International Harvester (Navastar). He also worked for the Brunswick Corporation and The First National Bank Chicago. Brother Rhinehart practiced law for 26 years, and also served as an adjunct professor of Business Law at Malcolm X College in Chicago. He was also very active in politics, where he actively worked on the campaigns of the late Harold Washington, Roland Burris, State Representative Constance Howard and his own candidacy for judge of the Circuit Court of Cook County. Brother Rhinehart was affiliated with many organizations, including the City Club of Chicago, the American Society of Law and Medicine, The Chicago Urban League, the NAACP, the Cook County Bar Association, The Chicago Association of Black Journalists, The Boston University Alumni Club of Chicago, the Howard University Alumni Association and the Omicrons. His achievements also include the Ebony Success Library of 1,000 Successful Blacks, Who's Who Among Black Americans (1975-1988), 1977 Honoree of the League of Black Women, Who's Who in American Law and the International Who's Who of Contemporary Achievement.



ROTHER DR. WALTER LEON SALTERS was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha. He was initiated December 1,1954 at Delta Alpha Chapter at Claflin University in Orangeburg, South Carolina and was a member of Delta Zeta Lambda Chapter in Orangeburg. He received his Bachelor of Science degree from Claflin University, a Masters of Science degree and a Doctor of Philosophy Degree at Atlanta University. Brother Salters continued his education at Purdue University, South Carolina State University and North Carolina Central University. After an honorable discharge from the United States Army, he began his professional career in the public schools of Charleston County, South Carolina. He later joined the faculty of South Carolina State University, where he retired after 26 years of service.


ROTHER DAVID GARLAND SMITH was initiated on December 6, 1946 at Eta Chapter, in New York City. He received a Bachelor of Science degree from The City College of New York and a Master of Arts degree from Columbia University in International Relations. He was also a Fulbright Scholar at L'Institut d' Etudes Politiques of the University of Paris. He served as a USIA Foreign Service Officer throughout Asia. Brother Smith


served as Director of the New York Reception Center of the USIA. He retired from foreign service in 1985 earning the USIA Career Achievement Award. He was also awarded a citation by Amnesty International for his work related to "Chocolate Soldiers," a study and broadcast of the British Broadcasting Company relating to African-Americans in the United States Military during World War II. Brother Smith was also a graduate of the National Institute on Genealogical Research, as well as a member of the Association of Professional Genealogists, the National Genealogical Society, the Virginia and Albermarle County Historical Societies and was a charter member of the African-American Historical and Genealogical Society, Washington Chapter. Prior to his passing, Brother Smith served as president of his own company, Progeny, which offered research, consultation and speaker services in the area of Black family history and genealogy.


ROTHER WILLIAM N. SNORTON was initiated on May 1, 1942 at Gamma Epsilon Lambda chapter in Hopkinsville, Kentucky. Brother Snorton was also a member of Iota Lambda Chapter in Indianapolis, Indiana. He was a graduate of Kentucky State, Michigan State and Butler Universities. Brother Snorton taught for many years at the elementary, middle school and high school levels. He also served as a park director and youth basketball coach. He was a member of the NAACP, the Fraternal Order of Police and the Commission of Community Concerns United Givers. He also served on the board of the Martin Luther King Center. NDREW VICTOR STEVENSON II was initiated May 26,1958 at Beta Lambda Chapter, Kansas City, Missouri. He earned his Bachelor of Science degree in Business Education and Social Science at Kansas State College in Pittsburg, Kansas. He also did graduate work at the University of Minnesota, Michigan State University, the University of Missouri at Kansas City and the University of Colorado. Brother Stevenson began his professional career as a high school teacher and guidance counselor. He served as a Counselor in the Metropolitan Junior College System. Brother Stevenson also served as counselor and Director of Financial Aid and Job Placement at Penn Valley Community College, as well as Assistant Dean, Dean of Student Affairs, and ultimately, president of the College. He was appointed Vice-Chancellor for student services for the Metropolitan Community College District before retiring in 1991- Upon his retirement, he became affiliated with the Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs in Overland Park, Kansas. In a volunteer capacity, Brother Stevenson was a board member of The Niles Home for Children, The American Cancer Society, The Greater Kansas City Sports Commission, Operation PUSH and the Negro League Baseball Museum. His professional affiliations included the Professional



OMEGA CHAPTER Counselor's Association, Missouri Guidance Association, Missouri State Teachers Association, The American Association of Community and Junior Colleges and the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators. Brother Stevenson was also a member of the Phi Delta Kappa professional fraternity for men in education. He was affiliated with several churches, and was a member of the "Promise Keepers" Christian Men's organization. ROTHER GEORGE CLEMENT TALIAFERRO was initiated April 16,1947 at Nu Chapter, Lincoln University in Lincoln, Pennsylvania. He earned his Bachelor's degree from Lincoln and received a Teaching Certificate in 1949 before earning a Masters degree from Temple University. A veteran of World War II, Brother Taliaferro taught Physical Education at several schools in the Philadelphia area before becoming a social worker with the City of Philadelphia Department of Assistance. He later became an employee at the Waterview Recreation Center, where he served as an athletic coach. Prior to his death, Brother Taliaferro also participated in several community service capacities, including the "Meals on Wheels" program. ROTHER SAMUEL TRAMMELL JR. was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha. He was initiated on April 26, i960 at Psi Lambda Chapter in Chattanooga, Tennessee, where he served as Treasurer for over 25 years. He attended Morristown Junior College before receiving his Bachelor's and Master's degrees from Tennessee State University. Brother Trammell taught business education in the Chattanooga School System, where also counseled students in acquiring vocational skills. He was also an active member of First Baptist Church, where he also served as a Trustee. B R O T H E R JOHN PRESTON WARD was initiated November 19, 1949 at Gamma Eta Chapter, Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana. He received his Bachelor and Doctoral degrees from Indiana University, and was a graduate of the New York University School of Law. A retired educator and attorney, Brother Ward was a Professor Emeritus at the University of Minnesota, where he taught African-American Studies for seven years. As an attorney in Indianapolis, Indiana, Brother Ward represented the Indianapolis Public School System during the early 1970's during its original busing case. He fought to include township schools in the desegregation of those schools. Brother Ward was a member of the Indiana State and American Bar Associations. He was also a member of the American Society for Public Administration, the NAACP and the Urban League.



ROTHER JOSEPH NATHANIEL WARD was initiated at Alpha Rho Chapter, Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia on May 3,1956. He was also a charter member of Iota Phi Lambda Chapter in Muskegon, Michigan. He received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Morehouse College and a Master's degree at the



University of Michigan. After serving two years in the United States Army, Brother Ward became a teacher in the Muskegon Public School System. He served as a special education teacher, Director of Special Education and Principal of both East Park and Glendale Elementary Schools. Brother Ward was affiliated with numerous organizations, including the NAACP, Urban League, Mission for Area People, DeColores, the Muskegon County Library Board, Project Literacy, Big Brothers/Big Sisters, Boys Scouts of America, Lions Club, Optimist Club and the United Way. He also served on the Trustee and Deacon Board at Bethesda Baptist Church. ROTHER GLENN BYRON WHITE was initiated April 1,1972 at Zeta Alpha Chapter, University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri. He attended the University of Missouri and the University of the District of Columbia, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Urban Studies. Brother White was an active member of Omicron Eta Lambda chapter in Washington, D.C., where he served as Chaplain, as well as head of various other committees. He worked on several mayoral and city council campaigns in Washington. Brother White was a member of the Perm Branch Civic Association and Amalgamated Transit Union Local 689Brother White was also an active member of Ebenezer AME Church in Fort Washington, Maryland. At Ebenezer, he served as a Cub Scout Den Leader, participated in the King's Men Choir, African Liberation Ministry and Manhood Rites of Passage program. In June of 1999, Omicron Eta Lambda awarded Brother White its Jimmy B. Boyd Meritorious Community Service Award for excellence in serving the community and its educational programs. B R O T H E R WILLIE C. WILLIAMS was a life member of Alpha Phi Alpha. He was initiated February 9, 1967 at Epsilon Gamma Lambda Chapter in Boston, Massachusetts. He was aretiredUnited States Army Command Sergeant Major and teacher in the Boston Public School System.


ROTHER DR. DONALD RAY WOODS was initiated in 1980 at Zeta Phi Chapter at Mississippi Valley State University in Itta Bena, Mississippi. He was also a charter member of Rho Gamma Lambda in Greenwood, Mississippi. He earned his Bachelor of Science and Masters degree in Biology from Mississippi Valley State as well as a Medical degree in Dentistry from the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson. Brother Woods was a partner of Burton and Woods Dental Clinic in Greenville, Mississippi. He was also president of the Mississippi Dental Association, Vice President of the Shaw Public School Board and a member of 100 Black Men of the Mississippi Delta, Inc.


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Charles H. Chapman

Eugene K. Jones

OFFICER; General President ediate Past General President Administrative Director General Treasurer ^k Comptroller General Counsel ector-General Conventions Parliamentarian



f I

George B. Kelley

Nathaniel A. Murray

Robert H.Ogle

Vertner W. Tandy

Adrian L Wallace, 281 Debra Lane, Lake Charles, LA 70611-9216 Milton G. Davis, P.O. Box 830509, Tuskegee, AL, 36083 Zollie Stevenson, Jr., 806 Falls Lake Drive, Mitchellville, MD 20721 George N. Reaves, 2933 Balmoral Crescent, Flossmoor, IL 60422 Frank A. Jenkins m, 529 South Perry Street, Suite 16, Montgomery, AL 36104 Harry E. Johnson, Sr, 8606 Running Bird Lane, Missouri City, TX 77489 Al F. Rutherford, 8585 Stemmons Freeway, Suite 730N, Dallas, TX 75247 Kenneth Jordan, 15366 Kentfield, Detroit, MI 28223

Eastern Midwestern Southern Southwestern Western

LeRoy Lower* ffl, 1724 Portal Drive, NW Washington, DC 20012-1116 Samuel DeShazior, 911 Mercer Avenue, Akron, OH 44320 Lynwood Bell, 1902 East Pollock Road, Lakeland, FL 33813 Terry Arlington, 5426 Upton Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 Gregory G. French, 5625 Windsor Way #103, Culver City, CA 9023

Eastern Midwestern Southern Southwestern Western

Thomas Fitzpatrick, 20651 Moross Road, Detroit, MI 48224 Abdul-Kaba Abdullah, 1121 North College Drive Apt.#l, Maryville, MO 64468 Trenton Williams, 585 Caldwell Circle, Athens, GA 30605 Micah J. Smith, 1104 East Houston Apt A, Marshall, TX 75670 Edjah Nduom, P.O. Box 5865 Stanford, CA 94309



21st 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th

General General General General General General

President President President President President President

T. Winston Cole, Sr, 812 S.W. 50th Way, Gainesville, FL 32607 James R Williams, 1733 Brookwood Drive, Akron, OH 44313 Ozell Sutton, 1640 Loch Lomond Trail, SW, Atlanta, GA 30331 Charles C. Teamer, Sr, 4619 Owens Boulevard, New Orleans, LA 70122 Henry Ponder, N.A.F.E.O., 8701 Georgia Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910 Milton C. Davis, P.O. Box 830509, Tuskegee, AL 36083

STRATTVE ASSISTANTS TO%IE GENERAL PRESIDENT International Affairs Horace G. Dawson, Jr., 1601 Kalmia Road, NW, Washington, DC 20012 Special Assistant Darryi R. Matthews, Sr, 5075 Red Robin Ridge, Alpharetta, GA 30202 Robert A. Willis, 130 Old Fairburn Close, Adanta, GA 30331

Assistants Joseph E. Heyward, P.O. Box 384, Florence, SC 29503 Joshua Williams, Jr., 9696 HavneBlvd. #15. New Orleans, LA 70127



Chairman Horace G. Dawson, Jr., 1601 Kalmia Road, NW, Washington, DC 20037 Chairman Emeritus Edward W. Brooke, Suite 301-S, 2500 Virginia Avenue, NW, Wash., DC 20037 Members Charles Rangle, 2354 Rayburn House Office Building, Wash., DC 20515 Huel D. Perkins, 1923—79th Avenue, Baton Rouge, LA 70807 Henry Ponder, N.A.F.E.O., 8701 Georgia Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910 Vinton R. Anderson, AME Church Finance Office, 1134-11th Street, NW, Wash., DC 2000 Chuck S. Stone, UNC-Chapel Hill, 107 Oxford Hills Place, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 Bobby Austin, The Village Foundation, 211 N. Union Street #100, Alexandria, VA 22314 ALPHA PHI ALPHA BUILDING FOUNDATION, INC. C h a i r m a n Everett Ward, 5002 Avenida Del Sol Drive, Raleigh, NC 27604 ALPHA PHI ALPHA EDUCATION FOUNDATION, INC. Chairman James Ward, 9306 Twin Hills Drive, Houston, TX 77031 NATIONAL COMMITTEE/COMMISSION CHAIRMEN Alpha Collegiate Scholars Awards & Achievements Budget & Finance Business & Economic Development College Brothers Affairs Constitution Elections Endowment & Capital Formation Grievances & Discipline Headquarters Maintenance Internal Auditing Jobs Fair Life Membership Management Information Systems Martin Luther King, Jr., Memorial Project Membership/Standards & Extension National Historian National Programs Personnel Publications Racial Justice & Public Policy Reclamation Subcommittee Recommendations & Resolutions Rules & Credentials Rituals & Ceremonies Senior Alpha Affairs Special Projects Strategic Planning Time & Place Training & Development PROGRAM/PROJECT COORDINATORS Big Brother/Big Sisters of America Leadership Development & Citizen Education Miss Black & Gold Pageant Oratorical Contest Project Alpha

Willie Ruff, 314 Applegrove Court, Herndon, VA 22071 Ronald Madden, 834 Penfield Street, #2A Bronx, NY 10470 Frank A. Jenkins HI, 529 South Perry Street, Suite 16, Montgomery, AL 36104 Harold Patrick, 5959 West Century Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90045 Barton J. Taylor, 2117 Flat Shoals Road #4, Adanta, GA 30316 Lloyd Givens, 6050 Canaan Woods Drive, SW, Adanta, GA 30331 Russell C. Campbell, Sr., 1504 Delmont Lane, Takoma Park, MD 20912 Christopher C. Womack, 2109 Christina Cove, Birmingham, AL 35244 Isiah Ward, 303 Waterford, Willowbrook, E 60521 R. Leandras Jones II, 1045 Audubon Circle, SW, Adanta, GA, 30311 David M. Cheri, 5106 Porter Ridge, Houston, TX 77053 Ralph Caro, 6826 Garfield Avenue, Kansas City, MO 66102 George Wayne Watkins, 40983 Oaks Drive #4A, Troy, MI 48098 Eddie Henderson, 4563 Wellspring Way, Stone Mountain, GA 30083 John H. Carter, 3465 Somerset Trail, Adanta, GA 30330 Ronald T James, 1717 NE 16th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73111 Robert L. Harris, Jr., Cornell University, 310 Triphammer Rd., Ithaca, NY 14850 Ronald Peters, 1130 M.D. Anderson Blvd., Houston, TX 77030 Sean Woodroffe, 705 Summer Avenue, Uniondale, NY 11553 Harry Dunbar, 281 Rose Road, West Nyack, NY 10994 Norman Towels, 3243 Arlington Avenue, Riverside, CA 92506 Harold Foster, 5642 Georgia, Avenue, Kansas City, KS 66104 Tophas Anderson III, 14811 Tumbling Falls Court, Houston, TX 77062 John E. Walls, Co-chairman, 107 Colonial Drive, Vicksburg, MS 39180 Johnny Thomas, Co-chairman, 1414 Mill Street, Lake Charles, LA 70601 Darren Morton, Chairman, 549 S 7th Avenue, Mt. Vernon, NY 10550 James Ivory, 1241 Oak Hill Road, Downers Grove, IL 60515 Richard D. Smith, Jr., 3510 Medical Park Drive #7, Monroe, LA 71203 Chester A. Wheeler III, P.O. Box 6682, Macon, GA 31208 Elliot Ferguson, Jr., 2790 DeVinci Blvd.,Decatur, GA 30034 Phillip Jackson, 1200 Little Gloucester Road #1904, Clementon, NJ 08021 Dale Long, 1614 Dorado Street, Garland, TX 75040 Willis E. Baird, P.O. Box 74, Durham, NC 27702 Alvin Cavalier, 413-C Longwood Court, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 John German, 1124 32nd Avenue, Seatde, WA 98144 John L Colbert, 2140 Loren Circle, Fayetteville, AR 72701

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The SPHINX | Summer 2000 | Volume 85 | Number 2 200008502  

This magazine talk about the President's Letter, Brother Doimimy Hataway: Salute to a legend: By Brother Andrew Ahiakpor, The Legacy of Alph...