Page 1


Sphinx A*A

"Sorry. This house has just been sold!"


Would you believe it? North, South, East, West—time after time—too many Americans find doors closed to them in this "Free Society." The problem of fair housing reaches to the very roots of so many other problems in America.

Yet even thoughtful people sometimes turn emotional at the idea of a Negro or other minority-group family in "their" neighborhood. How about you? Examine your conscience deeply. A good place to start is in your church or synagogue.

Equal and well-balanced education and job opportunity, for example. And true justice. And true brotherhood.

Look at what the very roots of your Faith have to say about brotherhood.

Thoughtful people know the time has long since passed when we can afford prejudice—yes, even in real estate.

It just may make you the strongest person on your block—the one with the strength to take a stand. ^RELIGION .{I*

* * & •



Volume 5 3

Number 2

May, 1 9 6 7

ALPHA PHI ALPHA FRATERNITY, INC. P.O. Box 285 Lincolnton Station New York, N. Y. 10037

Editor-in-Chief Executive Assistant Editorial Assistant

Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. Directory for 1966-1967

George M. Daniels Danna Wood Ernest B. Boynton Jr.

Jewel Henry A. Callis

2306 E Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. Officers

Contributing Editors Charles A. Broaddus, Stenson E. Broaddus, David A. Dowdy, J. M. Ellison, Malvin R. Goode, Martin L. Harvey, L W. Jeffries, Belford V. Lawson, Samuel A. Madden, Lionel H. Newsom, Gus T. Ridgel, Floyd Shepherd, A. Maceo Smith, Frank L. Stanley, Sr., L. H. Stanton, Charles Wesley, O. Wilson Winters, Laurence T. Young.

General President — Bro. Lionel H. Newsom General Secretary— Bro. Laurence T. Young General Treasurer—Bro. Leven C.Weiss General Counsel — Bro. James H. McGee Editor, The Sphinx — Bro. George M. Daniels

Vice Presidents Eastern — Bro. Ronald F. C. Allison Midwestern — Bro. John Wesley Sharp Southwestern — Bro. Earnest L. Wallace Southern — Bro. Victor R. Jackson Western — Bro. Oscar V. Little

Cheyney State College, Pennsylvania 1166 Marcy St., Akron, Ohio 2018 Van Cleve, Dallas, Texas Morris Brown College, Atlanta Ga 5835 Ernest Ave., Los Angeles. Calif.

Assistant Vice Presidents

Editorial Advisory Committee Frank Ellis, Malvin R. Goode, Marshall Harris, John H. Johnson, Moss H. Kendrix, J. Herbert King, Belford V. Lawson, Samuel A. Madden, J. E. Martin, Lionel H. Newsom, Gus T. Ridgel, Floyd Shepherd, L. H. Stanton, Felix Warren, Laurence T. Young. Staff Photographer

3286 W. Manor Lane, S.W., Atlanta. Georgia 4432 South Parkway. Chicago, III. 4676 West Outer Drive, Detroit, Michigan 1526 W. 3rd St., Dayton, Ohio 470 Lenox Ave., New York, N. Y.

Eastern — Bro. Ronald F. C. Allison Midwestern — Bro. John Wesley Sharp Southwestern — Bro. James E. Glover Western — Bro. George H. Pressley Southern — Bro. Victor R. Jackson

"*," Tenn. State Univ

Comptroller — B r o . Gus T. Ridgel Historian — Bro. Charles H. Wesley Dir. Ed. Activities — Bro. Oscar W. Ritchie

Kentucky State College, Frankfort. Ky. 1824 Taylor Street, N.W., Washington, D C. 4778 Lakewood Rd., Ravenna, Ohio

Chr. Alpha Phi Alpha Building Foundation, Inc. — Bro. William M. Alexander

Henry Crawford

Nashville, Tenn

4272 Washington St., St. Louis, Mo.



Eastern Region Massachusetts — Bro. James Howard 105 Greenwood St., Boston, Mass. Rhode Island — Bro. Ralph Allen 179 Doyle Ave., Providence, R. I Connecticut — Bro. W. Decker Clark 66 Dry Hill Road, Norwalk. Conn. New York, Northern New Jersey— Bro. Albert Holland 31 Hickory Hill Rd., Tappan N Y Pennsylvania, Delaware, Southern N. J. — Bro. Frank Devine 6202 Washington Ave., Phila., Pa. Maryland-Washington — Bro. Thomas Hunt 911 Spa Rd., Annapolis Md Virginia — B r o . Talmadge Tabb 324 Greenbriar Ave., Hampton, Va.

Cjc • L l B R I S


US 1


Midwestern Region Indiana — Bro. Montague Oliver m E. 19th, Gary. Indiana Northeast Ohio — Bro. Charles Nunn 10926 Pasadena Ave., Cleveland, Ohio Central Ohio — Bro. Oliver Sumlin 2724 Hoover Ave., Dayton, Ohio Northwest Ohio— Bro. Robert Stubblefield 1340 W. Woodruff, Toledo Ohio Southern Illinois — Bro. Harold Thomas 1731 Gaty Ave., East St. Louis, Illinois West Missouri and Kansas — Bro. Edwin Byrd 2533 W. Paseo Dr., Kansas City, Mo Wisconsin — Bro. Hoyt Harper 5344 N. 64th. Milwaukee. Wisconsin Southeast Ohio — Bro. Paul Turner 2335 Gardendale Dr., Columbus 19, Ohio Western Michigan — Bro. William Boards, Jr 680 W. Van Buren St., Battle Creek, Mich Northern Illinois — Bro. J. Herbert King 4728 Drexel Blvd., Chicago, Illinois East Missouri — Bro. Clifton Bailey 3338A Aubert Ave.. St. Louis 15, Mo. Iowa — Bro. Ernest Russell 3927 Amherst St., Des Moines, Iowa Southwest Ohio — Bro. Holloway Sells 699 N. Crescent Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio Kentucky—Bro. Herbert Olivera Kentucky State College. Frankfort. Kentucky West Central Missouri — Bro. Jimmy Buford 3548 Park Avenue, Kansas City, Mo Central Missouri — Bro. Thomas D. Pawley. Jr 1010 Lafayette, Jefferson City, Mo Regional Secretary—Bro. Cramon Myers 404 West 44th Street, Indianapolis, Indiana

Oklahoma — Bro. Vernon L. Foshee Louisiana — Bro. Elliot J. Keyes Arkansas — Bro. T. E. Patterson Texas— Bro Reby Cary

Southwestern Region 725 Terrace Blvd., Muskogee, Oklahoma 7462 Benjamin St., New Orleans, Louisiana 1624 W. 21st St., Little Rock, Arkansas 1804 Bunche Dr., Ft. Worth, Texas Southern Region

The Sphinx has been published continuously since 1914. Organizing Editor: Bro. Raymond W. Cannon. Organizing General President: Bro. Henry Lake Dickason. Second class postage paid at New York, N. Y. Postmaster: Send form 3579 and all correspondence to P.O. Box 285, Lincolnton Station, New York, N. Y. 10037.

Alabama — Bro. Kirkwood Balton Georgia — Bro. Henry Collier Florida — Bro. Herbert Starke Mississippi — Bro. T. J. Ranee North Carolina — Bro. G. H. Vaughn South Carolina — Bro. Luke Chatman Tennessee — Bro. George W. James Bro. Odell Lewis Bro. William Corbin Bro. Carlton Dias

1303 Main St., Birmingham, Ala. 1527 Mills B. Lane Ave., Savannah, Ga. 724 N.W. 27th St., Fort Lauderdale, Fla 407 Washington St.. Brookhaven, Miss. 1708 Shady Ave., Winston-Salem, N. C. P.O. Box 1311, Greeneville, S. C. 1527 E. 3rd St., Chattanooga, Tenn. Western Region 330-22nd Avenue, East, Seattle, Washington 2401 W. Cherry Lynn Road, Phoenix, Arizona 949 Broderick St., San Francisco, California



NAME: ADDRESS: CITY & STATE: (Minimum Annual Membership $2.00; with the Crisis, $3.50, $5.00, $10.00. Youth Membership, under 17, $.50; 17-21, $1.00; Life Membership $500.00, payable in annual installments of $50.00 or $100.00)



Positions Available There are two important positions available in the national office of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., according to General Secretary Laurence Young. Brother Young says that applications are being accepted for field secretary and assistant general secretary. For further information write: Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., General Office, 4432 South Parkway, Chicago, 111., 60653.

Features Africa: Crisis and Challenge/ A. Phillip Randolph 'Johnny Can't Read' Because . . ./ Bro. Oscar W. Ritchie



How to Succeed in School Without Trying (Too Hard)/Leo Hamalian.. 12 The Devil's Paradise/ Ernest B. Boynton, Jr


Alpha Swings Los Angeles Way


Departments Alpha in Action


Frat Humor


Alpha Workshop




Front Cover: Alpha Delta Chapter President Clifford Webb pauses with 1967 Alpha Sweetheart Delores Tate and 1966 Queen Andrene Hall at Los Angeles formal ball that drew over 1,200 Alphas and guests.

Our Contributors A. Phillip Randolph, venerable civil rights leader and president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, needs no introduction to Alphamen. Neither does Bro. Oscar Ritchie, professor of sociology, Kent State University. Both are well known and have appeared within these pages before. Undergraduate brothers should find Leo Hamalian's article How to Succeed in School Without Trying (Too Hard) especially interesting. Mr. Hamalian is assistant dean of curricular guidance at the City College of the City University of New York. General Convention Call of 1967 By the authority vested in me as General President of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., I hereby summon our lone living founder, all past and present General Officers, Regional Officers, appointed officers, delegates and other brothers not already designated to convene in the city of Los Angeles, State of California, August 6-10. for the purpose of conducting the 53rd General and 61st Anniversary Convention of the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. I urge representation from all chapters, but especially the undergraduate chapters. Appropriate arrangements have been and are being made for your luxurious comfort in both the business sessions and social activities which follow, at the beautiful Hilton Hotel, located in the heart of the fastest growing city in America. The City of Angels and our brothers on the West Coast await your arrival. Each brother is urged to come prepared to give his best thinking to the following: undergraduate housing; ritual and initiations; Sphinx Club manual; National PanHellenic Council handbook; location of National Headquarters; Field Secretary; and firming up the Education Foundation. We must also look carefully at the potentialities of and the possible ways to use the vast resources of the Great Society in the interest of the Fraternity and our neighbors in need. By the aforementioned authority and obedience to Article VII; Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 of the Constitution and By-Laws of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., Revised 1965, I direct the General Secretary and the Chairman of the General Convention Committee to inform each chapter of the necessary arrangements to be made in convening the 53rd (61st Anniversary) Convention. f) Yours in Alpha, LIONEL H. NEWSOM, General


Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

ALPHA PHI ALPHA FRATERNITY. INC. - the first Negro college fraternity - was founded December 4, 1906, at Cornell University Ithaca New York Beginning with its seven founders more than 30,000 men have been initiated into Alpha Phi Alpha. Interracial since 1945, there are now H I undersraduate chapters on college campuses and 199 graduate chapters in 38 states, the District of Columbia. West Indies. Europe and Africa Its members have served and continue to serve with distinction in widely diverse areas and furnish responsible leadership in hundreds of communities In the emerging economic advance, in their business enterprises, in the professions, in government and in civic life it is Alphadom that comprises the heart of the Negro market A close knit organization, bound together with common loyalty in the struggle for human dignity; with common causes for cultural enrichment- and with historic accomplishments m educational advance - Alpha Phi Alpha stands dedicated to the principles on which this nation was founded. Alphamen everywhere constructivelv help in achieving America's promise. ' ' ' lumiiutuveiy "Since Alpha Phi Alpha was founded at Cornell University in 1906, it has espoused many good causes and achieved many victories of benefit to the country but its most important service has been in the development of the scholars and creative leaders who will assist our country in meeting the challenges of the 1960's." JOHN F. KENNEDY


AFRICA CRISIS & CHALLENGE By A. PHILIP RANDOLPH Africa is a vast human volcano seething with unrest which threatens eruption any time into a massive, violent, catastrophic race war between black and white Africans. An irrepressible bloody conflict looms menacingly upon the horizon of Rhodesia and South Africa. South of the Zambezi River, which divides Zambia from Rhodesia, is a hotel which overlooks the vast expanse of Kariba Lake. At the entrance to the hotel is a sign which reads: "This hotel is not multiracial." This is a warning of "ne plus ultra", or no further beyond, to the traveler who may entertain beliefs in the idea of the brotherhood of man, for he is crossing the divide of Africa into two completely different worlds. To the north as far as the Sahara Desert the sweep of the fires of nationalist revolutions of rising expectations, is ruled by virtually all of the continent, as a result of Black Africans. To the south lies the white man's Africa. Four million whites of Rhodesia, South Africa, Angola and Mozambique live among and dominate, exploit and oppress

30 million Black Africans. The impending hostile racial confrontation stems from two dynamic forces: One, the determination of Black Africans to rule all Africa south of the Sahara Desert. Two, the equal determination of white Africans to maintain their control of southern Africa at any cost. The danger of armed conflict between Black and White Africa was escalated and became more acute when the Rhodesian Government, representing 220,000 whites, on December 5, rejected British terms for ending a year old dispute over Rhodesia's unilateral declation of independence without regard to the wishes and interests of 4 million Black Africans. President Johnson is to be commended upon his constructive, wise and timely act of statesmanship in supporting the highly sensitive policy of mandatory sanctions against the rebel regime of Rhodesia voted by the United Nations. It is not surprising that the John Birch Society-Barry Goldwater reactionary wing in the Senate should intemperately denounce President

Johnson's order invoking sanctions against Rhodesia as "dictatorial, deceitful and dangerous." These anti-Black African critics and partisans of the white African school of thought contend that the Ian Smith white government of Rhodesia has only exercised the right of self-determination and that does not constitute a threat to the peace. While Ambassador Arthur Goldberg has brilliantly answered the opponents of President Johnson's Administration's position on Rhodesia, support is needed and required, especially from the Black American community as a catalyst for mobilizing public opinion in support of the cause of Black Rhodesia in particular, and Black Africa in general. Well does the New York Times editorially observe in a recent issue: "And anyone who argues that this illegal act aimed at perpetuating the rule of the 6 percent white minority over the 94 percent African majority is not a long-run threat to peace simply ignores the realities in Southeast Africa." Moreover, in view of the growing mood of anger of Black Africans and the widening credibility gap between Black and White Africa, as well as between Black Africa and Western Man, it is a serious question as to whether the sanctions will be vigorously enforced and, if adequately enforced, whether they can bring down the rebel Smith regime of Rhodesia. Certainly there is little faith among Black Africans in sanctions alone as an effective weapon to topple white Rhodesia. Black Africans take the position that the only answer to white Rhodesia's refusal to agree to Britain's demands for guarantees of majority rule for the country's four million blacks is the use of military force by Great Britain or the Military PeaceKeeping Forces of the United Nations. Verily, there is considerable justification for the skepticism of Black Africans in the capability of sanctions alone to over-throw Rhodesia. Black Africans understand that white governments in southern Africa are realizing that survival is only possible, at least for some time to come, if they unite into a white bastion, for a defeat for one is a defeat for all. Thus, until sanctions are extended to South Africa, a great industrial

power and the heart of the alliance of southern white African governments, Rhodesia is not likely to fall under the pressure of U. N. sanctions. Military and Financial Sanctions There is. of course, another weapon in the arsenal of the U. N., namely, international military force. But unless much greater pressure of world opinion is mobilized to defeat the white rebellion in Rhodesia, its implementation is quite unlikely. If the U. N venture against Rhodesia should succeed, it will have established its importance as an instrument for the peaceful settlement of one of the last stubborn problems of world decolonization. If it should fail, it will have reduced the U. N. to a sounding board of world problems and an agency for occasional voluntary peace missions. Because of long historical political domination and economic exploitation of Black Africans in southern Africa by Great Britain, it is the responsibility of Britain to employ her military power to strike down the Rhodesian government. But Britain evinces a lack of will to send expeditionary forces to Rhodesia to bring down the white Rhodesia government in the interest of the Black African majority. Britain just cannot stomach white British soldiers shooting their white kith and kin in Rhodesia for Black African majority rule. But, at the turn of the century, British troops went to South Africa and fought for three years against the Boers before achieving a doubtful victory. The Boers used guerrilla war tactics and, although the British were much stronger, the war dragged on. Thousands lost their lives. There is no reason to assume that it would be different today. While Britain stresses its appalling financial plight as a reason for not embarking upon military action against the rebel Ian Smith regime, one might inquire where Britain found the money to support the Malaysian operation, and to send troops to Aden, and to pay for the support of the puppet states in the Persian Gulf. Obviously, because of South Africa's strong army, viable economy and prosperous export and import trade with Great Britain, United States, West Germany and

Japan, Black Africa cannot win the fight against the evil racialism of apartheid of South Africa and Rhodesia alone. Britain has 3.5 billion dollars worth of investments, and the United States 700 million, in South Africa. More than 200 U. S. companies are doing business with South Africa. A revolving credit of 40 million dollars has been extended to South Africa by ten great American banks, including Chase Manhattan, First National City, Chemical, Bankers Trust, Morgan Guaranty, Manufacturers Hanover Trust, Irving Trust in New York, Continental of Illinois, National Trust and Saving, and First National in Chicago. This economic blood of the banks of the United States helps to give and maintain the life of apartheid. Despite the utter horror of the Sharpeville Massacre of 1960 and the unspeakable degradation of the racial separatism of the the system of Batustans, it will take nothing less than a major revolution to break the grip of South Africa on the financial lifeline of American business. Of course it can be done if the American churches, unions, educational and fraternal institutions could be aroused to withdraw large amounts of their accounts in these giant banks because of their support of apartheid. There is no nerve so sensitive as the nerve of the pocketbook. Insult of Apartheid The fight against apartheid has been waged not only inside South Africa but in almost every part of the world, be it said to the great credit and racial pride of Black Africans. A veritable deluge of information and propaganda has been disseminated, pointing out the evils and inhumanities of apartheid. This has resulted in an unparallelled growth of repugnance to apartheid and total commitment by its victims to fight for its eradication. The South African government has now taken steps to counter this rising tide of propaganda against apartheid. Her information services are expending millions of dollars on counterpropaganda. Semi-government bodies are hard at work trying to sell apartheid to the world. This is proof of the value of and need of Negroes of the United States and the West Indies joining hands with their Black African brothers in

wurning the world of the grave dangers of apartheid to the peace of the world. The life of a non-European under apartheid is very cheap in South Africa, as cheap as the life of a Jew in Nazi Germany. But if the Buchenwald in South Africa, the sadistic fury with which the Herrenvolk policemen belabor the Black African — guilty or not guilty — is comparable only to the brutality of the SS Guards, and if we accept the premise — as I hope the nations of the world do — that peace is indivisible; if we accept the moral concept that there could be no peace as long as the scourge of Nazism exists in any corner of the globe, then it follows that the defeat of Nazism is not the final chapter of the struggle against tyranny. To the Black Africans, and to us of African descent, there can be no peace in the world as long as the tyranny of apartheid remains. One of the grossest of insults, not only to the millions of Black Africans and non-Europeans of South Africa but to all those who are honestly striving to shape the world upon new foundations of freedom, equality, racial and social justice, occurred when, in 1945, Jan Smuts, Prime Minister of South Africa, who had once declared that "every white man in South

Africa believes in the suppression of the Negro, except those who are mad, quite mad", stood before the assembled peoples of the world and pleaded for an article on human rights in the United Nations charter. Nothing so vividly illustrates the twisted contradiction of thought in the minds of white Western man. What brought it about? What caused this paradox? I believe it was the slave trade commerce in human beings between Africa and America, which flourished between the Renaissance and the American Civil War, which is the prime and effective cause of the contradictions in European and American civilization and the illogic in modern thought and the collapse of human culture. Nor are Nazi Germany and South Africa alone guilty of this grave moral contradiction. How can we account for the Founding Fathers of the United States writing the Declaration of Independence, in which they asserted, "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness," while they owned slaves.

Development Decade While the freedom fighters of Black Africa, the West Indies and the United States must not cease in their crusade against apartheid in white South Africa, it must not be forgotten that Black Africa, Asia and the Caribbean countries are in the category of "have-nots." They are developing countries yet seeking to enter the Twentieth Century while many of them, in many respects, have not yet reached the Nineteenth. Many still need to achieve the precondition of industrialization, including stable government and the capacity of advancing technology. It, too, is important to recognize that the price of admission to the industrial society is much higher today than it was a century ago. Technology is costlier, capital requirements are greater, established producers are harder to overtake in world commercial competition. The fact is the poor nations are getting poorer while the rich nations are getting richer. Of the 80 or more developing countries of the world, 30 or so depend for more than half their foreign exchange earnings on exports of a single crop or commodity such as cocoa or sugar. Just as a Marshall Plan was necessary to help rebuild Europe out of its ashes of economic exhaustion and despair, it is obvious that Africa, Asia and the Caribbean areas of the world, whose people have been exploited and oppressed for centuries by imperialist colonialism, must be lifted up by another world Marshall Plan, under the aegis of the United Nations, or the world may be set afire with a conflict of catastrophic dimensions between the "have" and "have-not" countries. The United States, the richest and most powerful nation in the world, should lead the way. It is the responsibility of Negro Americans to point the way. A strong, aggressive and dedicated Negro movement committed to the abolition of apartheid in Africa can exercise effective and meaningful influence on the foreign policy of the United States in behalf of Black Africa. Such a movement can give help and hope to the brave and dedicated Black African freedom fighters in the resistance movement against apartheid in South Africa and Angola, Rhodesia and Mozambique.


• roadly conceived, education is a continuing and necessary process which takes many forms. Irrespective of its form, however, education is functionally related to the continuity of society; for it is the process through which a people acquire, preserve, transmit, enlarge, and modify their culture heritage. In modern societies, education as a formal process of learning is implemented through the school system. In the school system, pupil and instructor are the principal participants. It is they who, jointly and in interaction, determine the effectiveness and the efficiency of the learning process. The school system is organized and operated for the purpose of learning. It is important to note that although learning in the school is a shared experience, the extent and the rate of learning vary from pupil to pupil. This fact is, of course, quite relevant for understanding the deficiencies in the school system which can be symbolized by the expression Why Johnny can't read. Why Johnny can't read (this is to say the human relations problems in the

learning process) can never be adequately understood by looking at or examining Johnny. To understand and counteract under-achievement. truancy, dropping out, or pupil-teacher conflict, for example, all of those involved in the problem must be regarded as probable "causes." Moreover, to arbitrarily put the blame on the pupil comes dangerously close to scapegoating. In the discussion that follows, certain widely discussed problem areas in the school system are given attention. Hopefully, this discussion will provide the reader with a point of departure for his own analysis of certain problem situations in the school. The situations and the relationships that are of the essence for the purpose at hand may be listed as follows: 1. The essential oneness of mankind; 2. forces which facilitate cultural diversity and deprivation; 3. the resultant cultures of the underprivileged, of the privileged, and of the school; 4. basis of social-class differentials in aspirations and motivation; 5. the indispensible attribute of the master teacher; and 6. the teachability of all children. Teacher Potential

Johnny Can't Read

The discussion of these ideas is intended to imply that the potentials of the teacher role can never be fully expressed if the "teaching tool kit" contains only the values, attitudes, knowledge, and skills usually emphasized in teacher-training institutions and in the schools. For to teach effectively, mere knowledge of the subject matter and skill in transmitting it are not enough. The teacher needs to be insightful regarding the significant social, psychological, and cultural orientations of the children who are being taught. Teaching, it should be remembered, is always in-


fluenced by the environmental circumstances under which it takes place. And now, to the business at hand. Except for degrees of individual differences, all human beings are much alike: thus, the essential oneness or unity of all mankind. Emerson expressed this oneness or unity of all mankind succinctly. and well, when he wrote: "In the beginning the gods divided Man into men, so that He might be more helpful to Himself. "This means." continues Emerson, "that there is one Man and you must take the whole society in order to find the whole Man." From this conception of the oneness of all men. it follows that, in some respects, each person is like every other person, like some other persons, and like no other person. It may be concluded, therefore, that children are best taught when they are viewed not as categories, but as individual and unique personalities. All too frequently, however, this is not done. Why is this? Why are children categorized? Why, for example, is George, a third grade student, regarded as a Negro? Or, Sam, an eighth grader, looked upon as Jewish? Or, Pete, a graduating senior, defined as an Italian? Are these definitions relevant in the teaching-learning process? Do they facilitate the transmission of positive knowledge, the commitment to desirable values, the internationalization of constructive attitudes? Many students do exhibit traits commonly found, or said to be found, among Negro, Jewish, or Italian-Americans. But, what does this mean? What should it mean to the teacher? Whatever these traits, they are not limited to any one category of people. Furthermore, upon examination it will perhaps be found that (1) these traits are not necessarily significant in the learning process; and (2) if there are socalled racial or ethnic traits which are reasonably regarded as significant in the learning process, the teacher then faces a dual obligation. First, she should understand the source, the development, and the meaning such traits have for the child; second, she should not assume that a particular child, be he Negro, Jewish, or Italian — has such traits merely because he is Negro, Jewish, or Italian.


Societal Forces Teachers, no less than other functionaries, and indeed citizens generally, are subject to the impact of prevailing social forces. But if they are to contend successfully against the more insidious social forces, they would do well to examine the total social and cultural situation in which they live and work. They might begin, for example, by considering these five generalizations regarding societies in general and the American social system in particular: 1. Every society approves and promotes certain ends. 2. Every society approves and supports a limited number of means (and opportunities) to these ends. 3. In every society the number of effective means to the approved ends is always greater than the number of approved means to those ends. 4. In no society do all people have equal access to all of the approved means to the approved ends. 5. When a society emphasizes the achievement of certain ends for all, but fails to make the approved means to those ends available to all, some people pursue some of those ends through the use of illegitimate means. Often. therefore, crime (for example) comes to be a consistently utilized means by which socially approved goods and services are gained. Manifestly, the extent of the differential distribution of means (or opportunities) is greater in some societies than in others. The United States is a case in point. In the United States, everyone is encouraged to aspire to any of the socially approved ends. Everyone is promised equal opportunity for the achievement of these ends. However, the availability of legitimate means to these ends often depends upon nonrelevant considerations, such as race, religion, ethnic origin, regional background, or social class. It is no mystery, therefore, that the experiences of people in minority groups or in the depressed areas are significantly different from those in the more stable areas of the community. Admit it or not, the life chances of the depressed-area

child are quantatively and qualitatively inferior to those of the child in the socalled better areas. Despite this, however, the larger community tends to judge all children by the same moral, legal and scholastic standard. To illustrate this consider, in general terms, the contrasting patterns of family life in the lower and the middle classes. Then compare each of these contrasting patterns with the prevailing pattern in the public school. Every child is born into a specific family of a particular social class within a definite community of a distinctive society. Each of these units contributes to the culture the child internalizes. Within any society, the culture of each family is somewhat unique; yet many families share common and distinguishing cultural components. Taken collectively, these families are characterized by certain values, attitudes, and behavior. Characteristically, they live in the same environmental circumstances, perform similar jobs, and participate in similar community-wide activities in much the same degree. Such, in brief, are the principal characteristics of a social class. Social Class Companion In many lower-lass families, the degree of child care and protection is at a minimum. For children of this class, food, clothing, and shelter are often less than adequate. Not uncommonly, appropriate role models, wholesome companionship, and parental supervision are insufficiently experienced. Frequently, these children are faced with wide fluctuations in their need satisfactions. At times, their needs are adequately met; at other times, they are minimally met; and sometimes, various deprivations are their lot. In these families where living is on or near the subsistence level, parents are likely to have had very little formal education. Their interest and involvement in community-wide affairs are usually at a bare minimum. In general, mothers spend much of their time and energies on the job and little time with their children; fathers are wholly absorbed in their work, or in search of work. Not uncommonly, such families are broken, live in nearsqualid surroundings, and the parents are

unable to provide their children with the material comforts and the psychological support necessary for successful performance in the school and the community. In contrast, the home environments of other children are relatively free from depression, deprivation, and unwholesomeness. Some children are born and grow up in wholesome, pleasant, and hope-producing environments. They are well cared for and protected, well clothed and fed, highly encouraged and motivated. Their parent-models are sources of socially approved inspiration. Their families are structurally complete. Their homes are harmonious, their physical surroundings pleasant, and their material and psychological needs are supplied. Such, in brief. is the style of life of the middleclass child. These two children — the lower-class child and the middle-class child — have two things in common which are relevant here. First, both are American children who have been made the same promises. Second, despite their contrasting lifesituations, both participate in the same school system, but they are evaluated by a set of standards to which only the middle-class child is well adapted. In the light of this situation, it might be hypothesized that the lower-class child enters the public school under a handicap; not because he is less intelligent, but because he has been ill prepared. With this hypothesis as a point of departure, consider the role of the teacher. The teacher's role is potentially productive for the community, rewarding to the teacher, and stimulating to the learner. Despite the potentials for good inherent in the role of the teacher, public reaction to this role is sometimes marked by ambivalence. To some extent, this is reflected in socially recognized need, but low pay; in promised support, but minimal

cooperation; in verbalized importance, but minimal prestige. Teachers frequently experience misunderstanding, opposition, and conflict in the performance of their role. The difficulties inherent in the role of the teacher are perhaps well illustrated in the process of career or job preparation. Today, the boy's future occupation is likely to be considerably different from that of his father. A comparable change involves the girl, too; for her training need no longer be directed mainly toward homemaking and motherhood. These changes in occupational roles are necessitated by the increasingly complex, industrialized, and bureaucratized nature of the present-day economy. Admittedly, job training is not a prime responsibility of the teacher in the lower grades. But effective job training depends largely upon the transmission of a high level of literacy. And education, even for literacy, requires motivation on the part of the learner. Motivation and Aspiration For many school children high aspirations and motivations are generated principally in their home environments. Others acquire their aspirations and motivations in school. For some children, however, high aspirations and motivations are only minimal or even non-existent. Children who do not aspire to "better things," or who are not significantly motivated to learn, may well have understandable reasons for such deficiencies. Conceivably, their parents are defeated, and therefore express little hope for their children. Or. such children may identify with people who are discriminated against and, as a result, decide "its no use to try." Certainly. among the culturally disadvantaged, many people are defeated. It is equally certain that job discrimination against such people is systematic and widespread. Little wonder, then, that many children from such situations, do not approach the learning process with eagerness nor look upon it with favor. To inspire and motivate children who are culturally disadvantaged often requires extraordinary efforts by the teacher. To compensate for the lack of parental encouragement and stimuation is but part

of the job. How, for example, can a teacher persist in encouraging a boy to aspire to a high prestige job, when they both know, or think, there is no real opportunity for him? How does one get a student to develop an interest in a skilled job when the student doubts that he will be admitted to the technical course in his own school system? Traditionally, many Americans have experienced economic deprivation and job discrimination. Today, there is a decline in such practices; yet, the survivals and the memories of the past often blind people, including students, to the realities of the changing present. Such, then, are but some of the difficulties and the challenges that face the teacher, especially the teacher of the disadvantaged. The transmission of knowledge, the communication of attitudes and values, the performance of what might be called "childrearing" duties, the pursuit of positive relations with parents, and the preparation of the child for occupational placement and social mobility are all significant components of the role of the teacher. But there is another important component in the role of the teacher. This component is not merely necessary; ideally, it is the indispensable attribute of the teacher. What is this component or attribute? It is "psychological buxomness." Perhaps a more elegant term would be "affective concern" or "personal warmth," or better still, "the ability to love." Call it what you will, it is an attribute involving emotional security, acceptance of self, respect for children, and the ability to feel comfortable with others, irrespective of their station in life. More than other professionals, teachers are expected to be involved with total personalities. Doctors and lawyers, for example, apply their knowledge and skills not to persons, but to the problems of persons. Doctors abstract "patients" and lawyers abstract "clients" out of persons. Their principal concern is with the abnormal or deviant aspects of the people they serve. Teachers, in contrast, are committed to deal with whole persons and the end results are not easily nor immediately susceptible to measurement. (Parentheti-


cally, this is perhaps one reason for the relatively low prestige and pay teachers receive.) The strictly professional attitude that one's charges are just patients, or clients, is, of course, to be expected in a society where specialization, impersonality, bureaucratization, and social stratification prevail. But because the teacher's role is a socializing role which involves "living the job," the affection of the teacher must be invested in the job; for affection is the first language man understands, and it is the basis from which the learning of all other languages, arts, and skills can best proceed. "Psychological buxomness" or affectivity in the teacher cannot be emphasized too strongly. The reason is two-fold: first, reciprocal acceptance, respect, and good will are significant prerequisites to productive and creative human relations; second, in this period of communities-in-transition, when the class and racial compositions of classrooms are undergoing change, teachers must have a measure of self-protection against the corrosive impact of certain myths, stereotypes, and prejudices. Otherwise, the satisfaction to be derived from a "job well done," the release of the creative potentials of children, and the fuller realization of the ends of democratic education are likely to be dissipated or denied. Having the Power and the Duty At this point, and in conclusion, five summary observations seem to be in order: First, like sin, death, and taxes, social change is inevitable. But the nature and direction of change are susceptible to some measure of human control. Teachers, school personnel and community leaders have the power and therefore the obligation to promote those changes which are most consistent with the basic values to which Americans, generally, are committed. Second, teachers would do well to remember that the popular images of certain racial, religious, ethnic, and class categories are at best stereotypes. More important, they would do well to remember that no child is truly representative


of any racial, religious, ethnic, or class category. It is better, therefore, when each child is approached as the unique person he is. Third, most teachers have a firm middle-class orientation and are sometimes inclined to categorically promote, even impose their middle-class values upon their pupils. For middle-class children, this may pose no real problem. Among children of the lower class, however, the teacher's efforts to communicate middleclass values is likely to meet with some significant degree of resistance, or at least a relative lack of interest. It is situations such as this that really test the teacher's social skills and interpersonal effectiveness. In such situations, knowledge of society and culture, of persons and groups, are most important. In addition, effective skills in interacting with others, and attitudes of self and other-acceptance can be most beneficial. Fourth, justice, impartiality, and sound educational principles support the view that the previous record of any student, as found in his IQ, his P.L.R., or his former teacher's evaluation of him is no sufficient basis for a subsequent evaluation by another teacher. Every student has the right to an independent and impartial evaluation by each of his teachers. Finally, except perhaps for one who is sick, no child is unteachable. But what of the retarded, the slow learner, the under-achiever? Consider these three points: 1. Necessarily, the teaching-learning process occurs in a social-cultural situation; 2. The nature of that situation is never determined by the learner; and 3. The teaching-learning process always requires communication between at least two persons. Therefore, when a child fails to learn, or under achieves, the possible reasons are multiple, may be complex, and certainly are both personal and social. Thus, to understand the performance of the child who is said to be retarded, a slow learner, or unteachable, one would do well to examine both pupil and teacher and to do so within the context of the school system in which his learning is expected to occur. For, in the final analysis, learning is part of the process of human interaction.

1 HOW TO SUCCEED IN COLLEGE WITHOUT TRYING vJollege, as you will find out if you do not already know it, is different from high school. You will be expected to do more work while the teachers seem to do less. You will be in class fewer hours and required to do more work independently. There are two main reasons why so many well-intentioned freshmen fail to survive the first year of college: the much heavier work load and a wrong approach to it. Some freshmen simply do not study, but many of them attempt to meet the challenge of college by working longer hours and sleeping less. Paradoxically, this approach often causes them to fail. They can continue with this procedure for a few days and even for a few weeks, but finally discouragement sets in and they decide that watching television or chatting in the Student Union is much easier.


general introductory courses is difficult for the student to organize and therefore requires more preparation time. Try preparing a written outline of each chapter ahead of the lecture (or of each novel or play to be discussed in class). Do this throughout the semester, using the short sentence type of outline. This outline can serve as a skeleton for your class notes and leave your mind free for listening. If after studying ahead on your own, you are still unable to follow your instructor, get help. Another student can discuss the advance work with you and put in a position to learn as you listen. To master a subject from the very first day and to carry it at a "A" level really takes less work than to drag along at a "C" level. By quick reviews, you can keep a firm hold on each course. Every few days precede your study session for a course by asking yourself "What has this course covered so far and where does it go from here?" Most of the time you should find at least a partial answer. This step is part of discovering the organization of the course, a discovery essential to learning new material.

(TOO HARD) If you are working "too hard", the chances are you are not putting your efforts in the right place. For instance, much of what you learn could be absorbed right in the classroom. Here efficiency will be rewarded in the time saved for other academic operations. An excellent test of your efficiency in learning is how well you comprehend what you hear in class. If your studying has kept your background sufficiently up to date, you should be able to follow the presentation of your professor. If following his lecture seems difficult, change your procedure of preparation. The fault is likely to lie in you, not in your stars or in your professors. If you are taking a general course in literature, sciences, or the social studies, take enough time to prepare thoroughly for the lectures. Often the material of

Also, try not to panic at the first low grade you receive. Perhaps you would have received a "A" for the same paper in an examination in high school. But you are now in a very tough college where standards are very high. The instructor wasn't wrong in his grade; you simply didn't understand the requirements. Your cue now is to find out not only what was wrong with your paper, but also what kind of paper receives a higher grade. The primary source of information in this case is the instructor himself. Listen intently in class as the papers are returned. Talk to a student or two whose papers received higher grades. Perhaps they can enlighten you. If necessary, confer with the instructor. A guidance counselor or friendly classmate may be willing to work with you until you have acquired the necessary skill. The first examinations in a college course shock many students. These tests usually cover more ground in more detail than the short unit tests in high school. They place a greater emphasis on the ability to formulate and to express ideas. Often introductory courses in college are

large in number and conducted by the lecture system. In such classes, students often feel safe knowing that they will not be called upon to recite. Therefore, they see no rason to spend time formulating ideas. The books and the teachers seem to express them clearly enough. However, when examination time arrives, the student is tested on his own ability to organize and to express ideas. These skills he must develop by himself. Here are some suggestions which may help you to do so. 1. While reading examinations, stop at the end of each section and put the ideas into your own words. 2. As you listen in class, summarize the teacher's ideas in your own words. If you take notes of this kind, make them short sentences of your own composition. Do not take down the teacher's ideas in his syntax when that syntax seems too complicated for you. 3. Take a few minutes at the end of a day to think over the ideas you have newly acquired. 4. In reviewing for tests, practice formulating answers to questions. Take turns with fellow students in holding the book and asking questions while the other formulates the answers (do this as a polishing practice after each of you has done his own reveiwing). 5. Meet severe crises with emergency measures. Even though you have failed a mid-semester test, you are still not lost if you can do two things: get the course straightened out in your own mind and convince your instructor that you have done so. Resignation from the course may not be the answer. 6. Resist the temptation to borrow papers from friends or fraternity files. This practice helps for a time, but eventually somewhere along the line you get found out or your lack of knowledge catches up with you. Despite what you may hear, most students get through college by working hard and by doing their own work. With these suggestions in mind, you have a practical approach to the mastery of your subjects.




Business is at a near standstill. The government is said to extract payoffs and kickbacks.

The Haiti of Duvalier is a frightening world of terror, torture, and death. Yet the world closes its eyes to it. The life-sized portrait on the airport ramp staring back at you through the plane window announces your arrival in Haiti and proclaims the dark, bespectacled figure to be "Francois Duvalier, President for Life." When you set foot in the Haiti of Francois Duvalier, you enter a frightening and distant world, where terror reigns supreme and no one knows where it will strike next. Francois Duvalier was once a medical doctor who worked for the benefit of his people. He was once a Roman Catholic. Today he is none of these things. He is rather the man who, it is said, boasts of having willed John Kennedy's death by voodoo magic and thus hexed the United States for opposing his rule.


He is the consort of the legendary Haitian voodoo apostle and keeper-of-thedead. Baron Samedi. Indeed, in his top hat, formal collar, and tails and with his cigar, Duvalier looks the embodiment of the Baron — a parallel the voodoo-terrified Haitians are quick to grasp and accept. For ten years, Duvalier has sat astride Haiti's half of the island of Hispaniola, midway between Cuba and Puerto Rico. Slowly, its four and one half million people, 90 to 95 per cent of whom are illiterate, have fallen under the grip of constant fear, attributing to Duvalier magical powers, in part traceable to the counsel provided by a palace magician, Ludovic Nassar. His choice of dark clothes, the rumors of palace-held voodoo ceremonies, his curses on enemies such as Juan Bosch and countries such as the United States, and

his use of blood-red robes which he has been known to wear at cabinet sessions weigh heavily on the poor, ignorant Haitian national. Haiti's history has never been calm, has never been peaceful. A slave state under Napoleon, Haiti rose up in revolt and, by 1804, had become the first independent, free Negro republic in the world and the second independent nation in the western hemisphere. The depth of its suffering and the intensity of the slaves' hatred toward colonial France are today still visible in the nation's flag, from which the white of the French tricolor was ripped to represent freedom from white rule. The names of Haitian history resound with romance and blood: Toussaint L'Ouverture, the island's liberator; Henri Christophe, the master builder, who died with a self-inflicted, silver bullet in his brain;

Dessalines, the cruel illiterate who made himself the first emperor of Haiti. Against this background of violence, the spectacle of a Duvalier is not in itself strange. What is stange is that the world has largely chosen to close its eyes to the horror of present-day Haiti. The one-third of the island of Hispaniola — discovered by Columbus in 1492 — which is Haiti has the lowest per capita income in the Aemricas, less than one sixty dollars per year. The island's economy is lower in income and productivity today than it was in 1806 under Dessalines. Malaria, yellow fever, and parasites are endemic. Hunger abounds, and death by starvation is no longer a threat — it is a reality. People living on the streets of Port-au-Prince and suffering from chronic and terminal illnesses are relocated to isolated compounds in the deserted country where they die without benefit of medical attention or treatment. Business is at a near standstill. The government extracts payoff and kickbacks under the guise of levies for any new, contemplated industry and continues its economic pressure and tactics on already established firms. Duvalier is well aware that the United States and the Organization of American States have openly condemned his seizure of lifetime power. He is also aware that

his craven ambition to be remembered as Emperor Francois 1 will bring greater contempt from his already discredited regime. But he has no alternative. He has been victimized by his own brutality, and out of this morbid recognition has come the development of a devilish method of rule: arbitrary terror. Working through a motley, ragtag, private militia loyal to him and known to his fearful subjects as the Ton Ton Macoute ( T T M ) , Duvalier has built a wall of torture, death, and beatings between himself and his country. You find the victims of torture everywhere: the harmless art-dealer whose only crime was to have a competitor allied with the Ton Ton Macoute; the embassy chauffeur, whose ambassador's contempt for Duvalier brought retaliation; the dead merchant from Cap Haitien, whose request for order in a bar was met with a TTM bullet in the back. Port-au-Prince, once a picture-book and not uncharming city set between sea and mountains, has disintegrated because of disrepair and neglect. Duvalier presides over this decaying kingdom from a once-ornate and slightly ridiculous White House in the center of Port-au-Prince, ringed by soldiers, tanks and militia, a sign of his never-ending fear of assassination.

You cannot escape the feeling that this should be make-believe. And this sense of the preposterous is not dampened when you learn that, several years ago, a handful of Florida-led volunteers very nearly upset Duvalier by attacking the palace — a bold assault which floundered only when the panic-stricken, 500-man palace bodyguard learned by accident that the attackers numbered less than twenty. Today, there are some eight thousand Ton Ton Macoutes, which is Creole for "Bogeymen," divided into a civil militia of five thousand denim-clad killers and three thousand civilian informers, petty, shake-down artists, and thugs. One of the most celebrated examples of Duvalier's cruelty and criminal intent was reflected in the forcible ejection at gunpoint in 1964 of the Episcopal Bishop of Haiti, Charles A. Voegeli, a United States citizen. Bishop Voegeli, who is a major patron of Haiti's famous and colorful primitive art and whose Holy Trinity Cathedral is itself an outstanding example of the island's religious art, was seized in his residence without warning and ejected bodily from the country on the first outgoing commercial flight. Behind the expulsion order was a further effort not only to restrict religious independence but to seize the episcopal collec-

Duvalier presides over this decaying kingdom from a once-ornate" White house" in the center of Port-au-Prince .

The stage is set. In one corner, watching Duvalier, spurring him on to still more corruption, racism, murder, and rejection of the free enterprise system with its investments and economic aid, is Castro. In the other corner is the United states, with its influence in eclipse, its marine and military mission banished, its moderating hold on the five-thousand-man Haitian army broken, and its policy uncertain and diluted.

rr 79

~ i "tor M I MTH _ jfc


^Bfm i n n llli-i




^B ^B


4 «



Much of the Port-au-Prince public transportation is hazardous; essential motor parts are scarce. Accidents are not unusual.

tion of art, which would obviously bring a handsome price on the international market. The plot failed because the Bishop's followers and friends quickly and secretly intervened and removed the art from his residence; to this day, it remains safely in hiding, to the anger and frustration of the regime thus deprived of a fast profit. The Roman Catholic Church in Haiti is crippled, under persecution, and completely at the whim of a mad racist. Duvalier has an intense hatred for whites and mulattoes — the traditional source of Haiti's clergy. The tyranny of the Harvard doctor who wants to be Haiti's third emperor, which helps perpetuate the lowest health, educational, and economic standards in the hemisphere, breeds not only the anarchy which the United States fears but the radical hatred which spawns a sympathy for communism. This relationship has not gone untended. While Haiti's communist underground party, outlawed since 1948, has traditionally relied on French-speaking Martinique and Paris for advice and supplies, of late Fidel Castro has shown increasing interest in his neighbor seventy miles to the south. Castro has since 1965 been training hunderds of Haitian exiles in guerrilla warfare, according to the successful principles developed by Che Guevara.


Radio Havana beams to Haiti at peak morning and evening listening hours in Creole broadcasts by Haitian communist poet Rene Depestre and stresses Cuba's socialist success, its racial equality, and its hated and defeat of white U.S. imperialism. The United States does not have a countering Creole broadcast of its own.

In the middle is the Republic of Haiti, with its 150 miles of paved roads, an unworkable telecommunications system, a country with 70 per cent of its doctors in exile, a two-hour electrical blackout every night, and a national life expectancy of thirty-three years. Reigning supreme over this tragedy is Francois Duvalier, with his hired killers. hoodlums, and corrupters. Downtrodden under this weight of oppression is a basically wonderful people. who in their hearts are a nation of poets. artists, and musicians but who today represent vividly the bleeding, torn, suffering humanity of the oppressed — forsaken by all but God.

In the cities 85 per cent of the children attend some kind of school. But in the country-side where the great bulk of the population lives, only about 15 per cent go to school.


Alpha* in* Action


Bro. James H. McGee, Alpha's general counsel, is a junior member of Dayton's (Ohio) city commission, named to fill the unexpired term of Commissioner Don L. Crawford, who moved over to the full-time post of executive assistant to the commission...Bro. Rudolph V. Slaughter, Cocoa, Fla. , was installed April 2 as president of Iota Beta Lambda •

Chapter, at Greater St. Paul Baptist Church...Bro. Eddie L. Madison, Jr., edits Mu Lambda's sparkling and informative newsletter. One of its most recent issues carried the chapter's statement of support of Bro. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. Gamma Iota Lambda (Brooklyn and Long Island, N. Y.) inaugurated a newsletter in February. Among chapter projects are plans for social action, reclamation of inactive Brothers and scholarships...General President Lionel Newsom and Secretary Laurence Young were among Alpha's representatives at the recent National Pan-Hellenic Council's meeting in Richmond, Va...The Sphinx magazine would like to be placed on the mailing list of all chapters that have regular newsletters. Bro. Joseph T. Taylor, Iota Lambda Chapter, has been appointed dean of the Indianapolis Downtown campus of Indiana University... Bro. Franklin Breckenridge, also of Iota Lambda, was promoted to supervisor of the Department of Corporate Taxes, Indiana State Sales Tax Division, Indianapolis, Ind...Bro. Jack Whitted, Delta Epsilon Lambda, teacher and coach at East St. Louis' Rock Jr. High School, has been appointed to the staff of officials of the Missouri Valley Conference. The Los Angeles (Calif.) convention looms as one of the hottest ever. What makes it so? Location of national headquarters, for one. Brothers are screaming for action, want definite plans outlined without further delay. Also up for discussion: the Education

Foundation, hiring a field secretary and outlining his duties, undergraduate housing, the Sphinx Club manual, the ritual and initiations...Historian Charles H. Wesley has agreed to write a four-part, condensed history of Alpha for publication in the Sphinx magazine...When Chicago experienced its worst blizzard in history with 27 inches of snow on January 26, Alpha's General Office experienced one of its most miserable days when its 60-year-old boiler exploded. A new one purchased and installed for $1,100 is adaptable to gas but is now operating with an oil burner...The need for a new boiler had been pointed out to the Fraternity for three years, the last report being made in the Spring of 1966 stating that the boiler would not survive another heating season. It didn't ! The 61st anniversary convention in Los Angeles August 4-10, at the Statler Hilton Hotel, will mark a decade since Alphas have held a general convention on the West Coast...Host chapters for the convention are Beta Psi Lambda and Alpha Delta...Board of Directors will meet August 4...Registration and information desk will open 9 a.m. Saturday, August 5, Ballroom floor...Committee meetings will dominate the first day along with several social events including family tours to Disneyland, Marineland, etc...On Sunday, August 6, a golf tournament, public program, theatre party for teenagers and an informal reception will be held along with meetings of the Board of Directors, Housing Foundation and usual committee meetings... Convention sessions actually open at 10 a.m. on Monday, August 7... Extensive plans have been made to entertain Alpha wives, children and guests—even a nursery and baby-sitters for the very young... Post convention activities (not included in registration fees) can include seven days in Hawaii, a 3-day star-dust heavenly holiday in Las Vegas, a day in San Diego and Tijuana, Mexico, and a trip to San Francisco and the Bay Area...Bro. Kermit J. Hall is chairman of the National Committee on General Conventions. Members of the committee are Brothers Leven C. Weiss, general treasurer, and Gus T. Ridgel, general comptroller. Local Convention Committee chairman is Bro. Edward T. Addison...A hotel reservation blank is published elsewhere in this issue of The Sphinx...If you already haven't made your reservation, cut it out, fill it in and mail it immediately. Funeral services for Bro. W. Barton Beatty, Jr., were held March 23 at Hampton Institute. Brother Beatty died March 20 in the Mary Immaculate Hospital, Newport News, Va. He was editor of The Sphinx from 1951 to 1961...Services also were held recently for Bro. William Yancey Bell, Jr., who died April 9 in San Francisco, Calif. 18

Frat Humor By O. WILSON WINTERS Professional writers and columnists do not have to speculate and wonder if there is a mass acceptance and perusal of the grist that comes from their literary mills. To others of us there come moments of doubt among the thousands of readers in The Sphinx family that there are many who read Frat Humor, like it and appreciate the intimacy its humor proffers. It is not only "To whom it may concern" as Mrs. O. Wilson Winters suggested in the February Issue but is, "To whom, I am concerned." This following letter is a sample of the reaction and response from our readers over the February Issue. From St. Louis came this illuminating note: Dear Frat Fun-Frat Humor — No. 1 and 2 — Just received and read February 1967 Sphinx. Same quality jokes Same quality humor Much better photograph!!! FRATERNALLY, JOHN D. BUCKNER




Giggle Showers In Washington, D. C , the struggle for identity in public life has grown to such extent that a new past-time known as "name dropping" is rife in every social and diplomatic circle. "Name dropping" is the casual, very- familiar mentioning of names implying intimacy. If applied to the long list of well known and prominent Alpha men, the conversation would proceed in the following manner: First Alpha man: Bro. Dr. Daniel made a wonderful address at the convention. Do you know Bro. Daniel? Second Alpha Man: Oh, yes, I knew him before he went into the lion's den. More casual and abbreviated it would sound like this — Dick Moore of Bethune Cookman? Oh, I knew him when he was less. I Knew Lawrence Young before he got old. I knew Dewey Christian when he was an infidel. I knew Kermit Hall when he was a Closet. I knew Russell Holland when he was in Dutch. I knew Weiss when he was Schwartz. I knew Oscar Little when he was bigger. I knew Bill Alexander before he had his Rag Time Band. I knew Dick Campbell when he was in the soup business. I knew John Hope Franklin when he was flying kites. Grandvel Jackson? Oh yes. I also knew his Uncle Stonewall.

Frankie Dee? Yes, I also knew his cousin Fiddle Dee Dee. Mayberry? Burt? I knew his ancestors, the Bayberry Candle makers. Ted Berry, the office of Economic Opportunity executive? Did you hear the story of the Berrys who ran a large department store in Cincinnati. A customer slow in paying his account received a bill. He was amazed and wrote the Berry firm this note: You must be a goose Berry To send me this bill. Berry Before it is due, Berry Your father the Elder Berry Should have had more sense You may look very black Berry And feel very blue, Berry But I don't care a straw. Berry For you or your bill Berry. * * * Sign in a beauty shop window "Do not whistle at girls leaving our beauty parlor. One of them may be your grandmother." * * * Two senior citizens were discussing their many ailments. One complained in particular about a nagging pain in one leg. "It must be old age," said the friend. "Don't think so," replied the sufferer. "My other leg is just as old and it doesn't hurt a bit." * * * "We are surprised that we haven't received anything from you," the collection letter began. In a few days the letter came back with a note attached: "There's no reason to be surprised. I didn't send anything." "Why did you leave your last job?" asked the personnel man of the job seeker. "Illness, sir," was the reply. "What illness? "I don't rightly know, sir," the applicant answered."They just said they were sick of me." * * * The budding author sent a poem to an editor and wrote: "Please let me know at once if you can use it, for I have other irons in the fire." The editor wrote back: "Remove irons and insert poem." Casual guests 1. 2. 3.

expressions that will speed your long staying evening homeward. "Let's go to bed, the folks want to go." "This time last night we were sleeping already." "Sorry you're going: thank God." * * =!:

To speed this column on — turn the page! Thanks to Bro. Charles Garvin. Apologies, if necessary, to names of lampooned brothers.


Apha wives in Los Angeles, Calif., are among the busiest and most productive anywhere. They have their own organization (the Alphabettes), turn their homes into Alpha houses, boost their husbands and sometimes can be credited with keeping their husbands active. They entertain, sell tickets to Alpha affairs, and, to make certain they are a success, they often help them.

Los Angeles Way

That's the way it is with the coming general convention scheduled to be held in Los Angeles in August. Among the many and varied activities planned for visiting wives by the Angel City Alpha Wives are visits to "Inside Hollywood," the make-believe world of Disneyland, tours through many ultra-modern California homes, sea adventures of Marineland and the newly-opened children's zoo. Other highlights will include a fashion show and luncheon, a teenage A-Go-Go, and a variety of sun and fun parties. An adequately staffed nursery will eliminate baby-sitting problems.

Meeting to make final arrangements for the 1967 Alpha Convention are some of the members of the Alpha Wives Convention Steering Committee. Seated (l.-r.): Mesdames Birdia Perkins, president; Charles Etta Sterling, co-chairman Convention Steering Committee; Marylyn Franklin, Elaine Newsome, Pinkie Pickens. Standing (l.-r.): Mesdames Willetta Fletcher, Doxie Mason, Alice Fisher, Oreathetta Osborne. Wardrobe Suggestions for Ladies

Members of the Alpha Wives Auxiliary of the Beta Psi Lambda Chapter of Los Angeles, Calif., take time out from the chores of preparing for the Convention. Seated first row (l.-r.): Mesdames Archie Franklin, co-chairman Convention Steering Committee; Clyde C. Osborne, recording secretary; David R. Bass, Lige D. Greene, Melba Birch Halley, sergeant-at-arms. Seated second row (l.-r.): Mesdames Howard Pickens, Leander West, Hortense Russell, reporter; Henry Thomas, Charles W. Smith, James D. Brown, Franklin Fisher, Jr., Elmer Lewis, corresponding secretary. Standing (l.-r.): Mesdames Thurman Fletcher, treasurer; Lloyd G. Perkins, president; Jesse H. Sterling, co-chairman Convention Steering Committee; Delia McDonald, financial secretary; Roger Q. Mason, Olin Newsome, Howard N. Willis, chaplin; Orpheus L. Jones, Harold J. Fleming, Jr., Crawford George.


Here are general suggestions for your wardrobe packing for the sunny days and cool evenings of the Los Angeles area. — Lightweight suit or jacket dress. — Dress shoes (for special occasions), and comfortable walking shoes (for sight-seeing and tours). — All-purpose coat, sweaters—stole, optional (for cool evenings). — Casual cotton or drip-dry dresses. — Dressy outfit—silk print, linen, cotton knit, with hat (for luncheon). — After-five dresses (cocktail parties ). — Silk scarf and plastic rain wear (for sudden wind and unpredictable showers). — Formal gown (banquet and formal dance, separate). — Swim wear (splash parties, pool and beach). — Pants (tours and games). — Sunshades.

TENTATIVE PROGRAM 61st ANNIVERSARY CONVENTION OF ALPHA PHI ALPHA FRATERNITY, INC. STATLER-HILTON HOTEL Los Angeles, California August 4-10, 1967 Theme: Quality Education for Responsible Leadership Public Meeting: Statler-Hilton Hotel Ballroom, 5:00 p.m. August 6. Address: Sen. Edwgard W. Brooke of Massachusetts or Ralph McGill, Editor, Atlanta Constitution. MONDAY, AUGUST 7 7:30 a.m.Registration, Exhibits and Information— 8:00 p.m. Ballroom Floor 9:00 a.m. Opening Business Session Presiding, Bro. Oscar V. Little Welcome Addresses Presentation of General President Presentation of Jewel, General Officers and Committee Chairmen Appointment of Convention officials and Committees Report of Rules and Credentials Committee Introduction of Keynote Speaker — 61st Anniversary Keynote Address (Bro. John W. E. Bowen) 1:30 p.m. Second Business Session Presiding, Bro. Lionel H. Newsom Report of Board of Directors Meeting Reports of Assistant Vice Presidents. Preliminary Report of Budget & Finance Report of Personnel Committee TUESDAY, AUGUST 8 7:00 a.m. Registration—Ballroom Floor 7:30 a.m. Life Members' Breakfast. 9:00 a.m. Third Business Session Reports of:

National Headquarters National Sweetheart Song Undergraduate Luncheon/Report of Achievement and Awards Committee Fourth Business Session Report of the General President Reports of the Vice Presidents: Founders' Address by Past General President Bro. Raymond W. Cannon

12:15 p.m. 2:00 p.m.


9:00 a.m.

Ritual and Sphinx Manual Pan-Hellenic Council Constitution Scholarship and Financial Aid Undergraduate Housing WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 9 Fifth Business Session Reports of: Committee on Audit Standards and Extensions Constitution and By-Laws

1:30 p.m.

General Secretary General Treasurer General Counsel Chr. of Education Foundation Editor of The Sphinx Historian

Fraternal Address Workshops: Equal Opportunity and Career Choices Undergraduate Activities Final Budget Report Sixth Business Session Presiding, Bro. Lionel H. Newsom, Nomination and election of officers Reports of: Grievances and Discipline Resolutions Public Policy Recommendations Public Relations General Convention

Report of Board of Directors Final report of Election 61st Anniversary Banquet Alpha Awards Banquet Address—Bro. James E. Cheek, President, Shaw University Installation of Officers Closing Remarks— Bro. Lionel H. Newsom Fraternity Hymn

Alpha Housing Foundation

If you haven't made your reservation, mail the following coupon to: Front Office Manager, Statler Hilton Hotel, 930 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, California 90017.

ALPHA PHI ALPHA FRATERNITY, INC. August 6 • 9, 1967 RESERVATION REQUEST — STATLER HILTON HOTEL, Los Angeles, Calif. Indicate Accommodations Preferred: Room for One Person 13.00 • Room for Two Persons 17.00 • Double Bed • Twin Beds D Extra Person in Room $4.00 • Undergrads-—Three to a Room $6.00 Each • 2. Mr 3. Mr With Connecting Parlors, Add: $26 • $22 •

The Statler Hilton Guarantees the rate marked above will be the rate charged— plus the 4 % Hotel Tax. Name Address City State M Date Arriving Hour M Date Leaving Hour RESERVATIONS MUST BE RECEIVED NOT LATER T H A N 2 WEEKS PRIOR TO OPENING DATE OF C O N V E N T I O N S A N D W I L L BE HELD ONLY U N T I L 6 P.M. ON ARRIVAL DATE UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.


ALPHA WORKSHOP Laurence T. Young,



The last mailing to the Chapters from the General Office included a copy of the minutes of the 60th anniversary convention, a copy of the National Plan-Hellenic Council Handbook, and the announcement of the 61st anniversary convention to be held in Los Angeles, California, August 5-10. FORMER EDITORS TO OMEGA CHAPTER: A note of sadness permeates the realms of Alpha with the passing of two former editors of THE SPHINX — Brother Carl J. Murphy, Brother W. Barton Beatty. It is to be remembered that Brother Murphy was elected editor of The Sphinx at the 10th General Convention, December 1917, and served in that capacity for five years, until 1922. Brother Murphy died at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Md., February 25, at the age of 78. Memorial services were held for him by Delta Lambda Chapter under the direction of Eastern Vice President Frank J. Ellis. A requiem mass was held later at St. James' Episcopal Church with Brother (Fr.) Donald O. Wilson, celebrant. It was Brother Murphy who adopted a format for the Sphinx to include six sections: Who's Who in Alpha Phi Alpha; Chapter Letters; Department of Negro History; Editorial Department; Pictorial Department and Department of 'Frat Fun'. At the time of his passing. Brother Murphy was chairman of the board of directors of the Afro-American newspapers, and is largely responsible for the character, the dignity, and the excellence of American newspapers today. Brother Beatty was elected editor of The Sphinx at the 36th General Convention in Kansas City, Mo., December 1950, and served in that capacity until the 55th Anniversary Convention, December 1961 in Louisville, Ky. Brother Beatty died in Hampton, Va., March 19. Funeral services were held at Memorial Church, Hampton, Va., with Brother (Fr.) Ivor A. Ottley, celebrant. The President of the United Negro College Fund, and the Headquarters staff were among the Honorary Pall bearers. Brother Beatty added new life and another dimension of The Sphinx and constantly pledged himself to continue to develop the official journal in keeping with the traditions of the Fraternity. We will long remember the Special 1956 edition. which depicted the Alpha chronicle of 50 years of progress and achievement. THE GENERAL CONVENTION: Delegates' credentials for the 61st general convention are being mailed to every chapter to be executed by the proper Chapter officers, seal placed thereon, the original mailed to the Office of General Secretary, the copy to be presented by the dclegate(s) to the Chairman of the Committee on Rules and Credentials upon registration at the site of the General Convention in Los Angeles, Calif.


REGIONAL CONVENTIONS: Three regional conventions were held simultaneously during the week-end preceding Easter — the Southern Regional under direction of Bro. W. Dewey Branch, the Southwestern Regional under direction of Bro. Ernest L. Wallace, and the Western Regional, under leadership of Bro. Oscar V. Little. The General President will report on the Southern and Southwestern Rcgionals at a subsequent time. The General Secretary attended the Western Regional Convention in Seattle, Washington. This Convention was provocative and certainly lent itself to small group work shops dealing with communications — the break down and build up — and the function of the undergraduates on college campuses. Brothers Little and Wallace Johnson are to be congratulated for executing a fine convention, in spite of the great odds under which they worked. Since Brother Little was not eligible to succeed himself as Western Vice President, the Region unanimously elected Bro. Clifford Paul Johnson, and will recommend his election by the General Convention in August. We all know Brother Johnson and look forward to his leadership and are sure his dynamic personality will generate interest and growth in this far-flung western region. CONGRATULATIONS: To Mr. Jackson W. Campbell, newly appointed executive secretary of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity and to Mr. Finus C. Winkler, newly appointed assistant executive Secretary of Omega Psi Phi Fraternity. OUR NATIONAL HYMN: We are to remember that the Alpha Phi Alpha national hymn, which is the most beautiful in all Greekdom, was adopted by the General Organization in 1921. In 1919, Brother A. L. Simpson presented to the 12th General Convention in Chicago for consideration this hymn as the national hymn. It was referred to the Song Committee. At the 14th General Convention, held in Baltimore, Md., in 1921, the General Organization adopted the hymn as previously presented, as the National Alpha Phi Alpha hymn — words written by Bro. A. L. Simpson, and musical arrangement by Bro. John R. Erby, both of Xi Chapter, Wilberforce University (Ohio). HELP WANTED: Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity is anxious to hire a field secretary, a challenging position for a qualified member of the Fraternity. Applications will be considered by the Committee on Personnel, and the Board of Directors at the General Convention in August. It is hoped the qualifying Brother will be duly appointed at that time. Interested Brothers will please file applications, or some form indicating an interest in this stimulating post with the General Office, 4432 South Parkway, Chicago, 111. 60653. PLAUDITS: Congratulations are being extended to a few of our outstanding Brothers of the Month for excellence in their chosen fields. Bro. William H. Hale, President, Langston University; Bro. Otha N. Brown, Jr.. City Councilman and State Legislator, Norwalk, Conn., and Bro. James H. McGee, newly appointed City Commissioner (Alderman), Dayton, Ohio. ZIP CODE: Do not forget to include your zip code on every piece of correspondence mailed. This is not only important and a great help to the General Office, but, it is the law.

NEWS Baton Rouge, La., Chapter Holds Valentine Party, Elects Officers

Alpha Rho Lambda

Named to Federal Credit Union Board

First Negro state senator, Bro. John W. E. Bowen, of Columbus, Ohio, was seated in the Ohio Senate on January 2, 1967. A member of Alpha Rho Lambda, Atty. Bowen was seated with two other prominent Negroes, Morris Jackson of Cleveland and Calvin Johnson of Cincinnati.

Bro. Lieutenant Colonel Roscoe Cartwright has been elected to the Board of Directors of the Pentagon Federal Credit Union. He will serve for two years. An initiate of Upsilon Chapter at Kansas State College, Pittsburg, Bro. Roscoe is currently serving as an Army management analyst/project officer in the Management Directorate of the Army Comptroller's Office. The Pentagon Federal Credit Union is the second largest federal credit union, with assets of over $20,000,000 and over 45,000 members. A resident of Oxon Hill, Maryland, Bro. Roscoe's two sons are Alphas: Roscoe, Jr., at Langston University Chapter, and Stanley at Lincoln University Chapter.

The Beta Iota Lambda Chapter, of Baton Rouge, La., recently held its annual Sweethearts and Wives dinner-dance at the Jack Tar Capitol House in Baton Rouge. Toastmaster was Bro. Edward E. Johnson, chairman of the Psychology Department at Southern University. Newly installed officers are Bros. William B. Breda, president; James B. Bryant, vice president; Julius J. Payne, secretary; Joseph E. Wilson, financial secretary; Jack J. Jefferson, treasurer; Thomas J. Wilcox, Jr., parliamentarian; Oscar A. Bouise, chaplain; Frank Williams, sergeant-atarms; and Ernest B. Newsom, editor to The Sphinx.

Pi Lambda Chapter, Little Rock, Ark., presented these 35 young ladies at its annual Debutantes Ball. They all attend colleges and universities throughout the U.S.



Los Angeles' Beta Psi Lambda (graduate) Chapter officers and wives pause during their Formal Ball recently. They are (l.-r.) Ball Chairman Bro. Lee Joseph and Mrs. Joseph, Graduate President Bro. Tommie Robinson and Mrs. Robinson, and Graduate Vice President Bro. Richard Tatiim and Mrs. Tatum.

Dr. Harvey Dondero (r.), assistant superintendent of Las Vegas public schools, receives first of 300 copies of American Traveller's Guide to Negro History from Theta Pi Lambda Bros., President Floyd Plymouth and Dr. John Crear. The chapter awarded a $115 grant and aid scholarship on January 31 to a 20 year old sophomore, matriculating at Nevada Southern University in Las Vegas.

Past General President Belford V. Lawson, Jr., of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., (2nd r.), and Chairman Andrew R. Tyler of the Board of HARYOU-ACT, Inc., New York City antipoverty agency, (2nd I.) were presented awards by the Chicago Conference for Brotherhood at a banquet in the grand ballroom of the SheratonChicago Hotel. Congratulating the Alpha Brothers for their significant and outstanding work in race relations are (I. to r.) President Richard P. Larsen of the South Side Bank and Trust Company, Bro. Tyler, President Morris H. Tynes of the Conference, Bro. Lawson, and FounderExecutive Director Bennie D. Brown of the Chicago Conference for Brotherhood. 24


a ?4 r






w J^ i W ^#>]r r 'ÂŤ



H HL-^tf^flK

Bray. of Alpha Delta (undergraduate) Chapter and dates. They are (l.-r.) Miss Priscilla Miles, Bro. David Gunning, Miss Donna Williams, Bro. Lee Francis, Miss Edrena Hall, President Bro. Clifford Webb, Miss Karen Mason, Bro. Ted Eagans, Miss Brenda Davis, and Bro. Jeriel Nutter.

Bros, of the Eta Upsilon Lambda Chapter, of Odessa, Texas, as they appeared at their annual Spring Formal. 25

Columbus, Ohio's top golfer, Bro. A. D. V. Crosby won first place at the Alpha Phi Alpha National Convention Cold Tournament last year in St. Louis. An instructor in mathematics, he was also named one of the top three teachers of the year by the Columbus Chamber of Commerce.

For the wives of Alpha Omicron Lambda Chapter, of Pittsburgh, Pa., paper dresses were "in" at the February "Portrait of a Paper Doll" formal. Dressed in silver paper gowns, each member created her own original design. Hostesses wore "Barbie Dolls" attire with white leotards and red velour paper miniskirts.


During installation services for officers of Mu Lambda Chapter, of Washington, D.C., Jewel Henry A. Callis (r.), shaking hand of Bro. President James Speight, expressed concern for greater chapter involvement in community problems. He called upon Alphas to accelerate their work with youngsters of all races; and the establishment of a nation-wide forum of college men to review problems confronting young people today and propose possible solutions. Looking on is Bro. Luther Burnett, recording secretary.

Celebrating the recent 102 Founders' Day observance of Virginia Union University, Bro. Dr. Charles H. Wesley (3rd from r.), keynote speaker, meets with Gamma Chapter Bros. Asa James, Robert Jamerson, Tony Mendes, treasurer; Thomas D. Harris, IV, president; and Judson D. Howard, dean of pledges.

Alpha Phi Lambda President Clinton T. Smothers (I.) presents a Citation Award plaque to Atty. Joseph A. Jordan, Jr., one of two Iwnorees cited for contributions to the community in law and sports. Other honoree (2nd I.) is Bro. Ernest D. Fears, Jr., standing with fellow Alphas. They are (3rd l.-r.) Bros. Lloyd P. Williams, chaplain; Talmadge H. Tabb, eastern regional director State of Virginia; Walker H. Quarles, Jr., Alpha Phi Alpha chapter state president; and James L. Bryant, Jr., Citation Awards program chairman.


Kappa Lambda Seeks to Reclaim 25 Alphas President Harold Mazyck of Kappa Lambda Chapter has launched a wideranging reclamation projection. Serving the regions of Greensboro, High Point, and Burlington, N. C , Bro. Mazyck hopes that a minimum of 25 Brothers will return to the Chapter this year. Plans call for educational activities, smoker for undergraduate Brothers, summer social, and annual dance. Alpha wives are being organized, too. Community activities include working with junior and senior high school boys in a tutoring program. Other Chapter officers are Bros. J. Henry Sayles, vice president; F. L. Bailey, corresponding secretary; Johnny Hodge, Jr., recording secretary; Arthur Cole, treasurer; George Breathett, associate editor to The Sphinx, Vance Chavis, historian, Chester Bradley, sergeant-at-arms; O. H. Hinnant, chaplain; and O. F. Hudson, director of educational activities.

15 Alphas Appointed to Special Committee on Housing General President Lionel H. Newsom of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., has appointed the five Assistant Vice Presidents, for undergraduate representation, and ten other Stalwarts of the Fraternity to serve on the Committee on Housing. This most important committee will deal with matters of every nature pertaining to housing on a national level for the benefit of undergraduate housing and attendant problems, including management, control and every other facet in this connection. The committee is as follows: Bros. William M. Alexander, chairman; A. Maceo Smith, vice chairman; Ronald F. C. Allison, eastern region; John Wesley Sharp, midwestern region; Victor R. Jackson,


Bro. and Mrs. James E. Huger are shown with some of the many gifts received during a recent Delta Beta Chapter "This Is Your Life" program at Bethune-Cookman College, Daytona Beach, Fla. Bro. Huger is business manager at Bethune-Cookman and Daytona Beach City Commissioner.

Count Basie and his orchestra provided the music for the sixth annual Roy J. Gilmer Scholarship Benefit Dance, under the sponsorship of the Eta Alpha Lambda Chapter, of New Haven, Conn. The scholarship fund is named in honor of the late New Haven physician and civic leader.

Miss Doris Foye was the door-prize winner of the Eta Alpha Lambda's scholarship dance. Bros. Allen Brown (I.) and Haywood Hooks (r.), dance ticket chairman and general chairman respectively, look on approvingly.

southern region; James Ervin Glover, southwestern region; George H. Pressley, western; Milus J. Graham, Cleveland; Frank W. Morris, Jr., Boston; Charles M. Johnson, Washington; James R. Williams, Akron, Ohio; M. G. Ferguson, Nashville; Horace J. Rogers, Detroit; Elmer C. Collins, Cleveland; Frank T. Lyerson, East St. Louis; George Buckner, St. Louis. Eta Zeta Lambda Is Reorganized The Eta Zeta Lambda Chapter, of Westchester County, N. Y., has been revitalized and reorganized. The following officers have been elected: Arthur Wallace, Jr., president; Dr. J. H. N. Jones, vice president; Arnold C. Baker, secretary; Harold H. Fields, treasurer; the Rev. Henry J. C. Bowden, chaplain; and Richard Maurice Moss, editor to The Sphinx. President Wallace is a manager of General Foods Corporation's commodity research services, in the Corporate Purchasing Department. Bro. Wallace received an M.S. degree and a Ph.D. degree from Oklahoma State University. An employee of General Foods since 1964, his current position is a recent appointment. Bros. Baker and Bowden are Alpha Life members.

Bro. George (Chubby) James (I.) presents Psi Lambda Chapter's annual award for achievement to Bro. Bennie J. Harris, a Chattanooga, Tenn., lawyer. Alpha Phi Alpha General President Newsom (r.) spoke at the award presentation.

These brothers were among those attending the Georgia state meeting of Alpha. Theme of the statewide gathering was 'New in Chapter Programming.' Host chapters were Beta Phi Lambda and Delta Eta.



Search on for Lyrics to Sweetheart Song Brothers with poetical or lyrical talents have a rare opportunity to win a prize and have his name go down in fame. According to General President Newsom the Fraternity is searching for the proper lyrics for Alpha's new National Sweetheart Song. Brothers interested in competing should send words or lyrics to Bro. Dr. Wendell P. Whalum, Music Department, Morehouse College, Atlanta, Ga., on or before July 4.

Mrs. Carey B. Preston is congratulated by Bro. Walter Washington upon her election as chairman of the National Pan-Hellenic Council, Inc. Brother Washington is past chairman.

Members of Epsilon Delta Lambda Chapter, Talledega College, Ala., pause for welcomed break during regular chapter meeting at which plans for the year were being made.




"I am confident that AFRICAN FORUM will play an important part in focusing the attention of the world on the history and culture, the hopes and the achievements of the African people and of people of African descent." The Hon. Oscar S. Kambona Minister for External Affairs United Republic of Tanzania

AFRICAN FORUM: A QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY AFFAIRS is a new journal of opinion and documentation. Scholars and national leaders examine the contemporary political, economic, and social development of African nations and reveal the contribution to world culture of Africans and persons of African descent. Each issue discusses a topic of current and continuing concern. Past issues have dealt with: African Unity • African Socialism • Negro Creativity: The Writer • The Military in Africa • South Africa and Her Neighbors Within. Contributors have included Nnamdi Azikiwe Robert L. Carter James Farmer Jack Greenberg Langston Hughes Kenneth Kaunda Jomo Kenyatta Martin Kilson Rayford Logan Kwame Nkrumah Saunders Redding Leopold Sedar Senghor Sargent Shriver

Please enter a subscription to AFRICAN FORUM as indicated below. SEND TO

(Please Print)


1 year

1 enclose $



1 year (student) •

Bill me

SUBSCRIPTION RATES In U.S.A. 1 year — $4.00 1 year (student) — $2.00 In all countries except Africa: the equivalent of the above rates in local currency. (or its equivalen t in local African currency)


The Sphinx P.O. Box 285 Lincolnton Station New York, N. Y. 10037

Second Class Postage Paid At New York, N. Y.

Return Requested

Bros, of Alpha Rho Lambda Chapter, Columbus, Ohio, receiving outstanding service award for 1966 were (l.-r.) Howard E. Nolan, Sterlyn L Allen, Warren L. Pemberton. President Bro. James A. Wright is at the micro-

The SPHINX | Spring 1967 | Volume 53 | Numb196705302  
The SPHINX | Spring 1967 | Volume 53 | Numb196705302  

Africa: Crisis and Challenge. 'Johnny Can't Read' Because... How To Succeed In School Without Trying (Too Hard)