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Paper 7

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY

CLEAN UP THE INNER CITY

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY UPGRADING OF EXISTING UTILITY

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P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY

UPGRADING OF EXISTING UTILITY NEW TELEPHONE INSTALLATION

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY UPGRADING OF EXISTING UTILITY STREET FURNITURE

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Paper 7

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY

POCKET GARDENS IN THE CITY

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY UPGRADING OF EXISTING UTILITY STREET FURNITURE

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P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY FACILITIES FOR HANDICAPPED

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY

SOFTSCAPE

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Paper 7

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY TRISHAW PARKING & TAXI PARKING

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY LIGHTLIGHT-UP BACK LANE

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UPGRADING EXISTING HAWKERS STALL

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY “DEEPAVALI” NATIONAL CELEBRATION

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Paper 7

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY “RAMADHAN BAZAAR”

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Paper 7

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY

ACHIEVEMENT

P OCKET GARDENS

PROMENADE PLAZA

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P OCKET GARDENS

LEITH STREET

P OCKET GARDENS

TAMAN TIRAM

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Paper 7

P OCKET GARDENS

MACALISTER ROAD

PANGKOR ROAD

KAMPUNG BARU ROAD

GURDWARA ROAD

P OCKET GARDENS

SULTAN AHMAD SHAH ROAD

IN FRONT OF ISLAND HOSPITAL

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P OCKET GARDENS

TOPIARY GARDEN, CORDRINGTON HIGHWAY

P OCKET GARDENS

LAMAN MUTIARA (IN FRONT OF GOVERNOR’S RESIDENCE)

TOWN HALL

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Paper 7 ISSUES ISSUESON ONPROPERTY PROPERTYDEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT IN ININNER INNERCITY CITYAREA AREA

1. Vacant land (no building structure) 2. Vacant land (partly occupied by buildings) 3. Idle land / dilapidated houses 4. Abandoned development 5. Polluted area (require treatment) (Source: Study on identification of land development in ‘brownfield’ areas for the purpose of redevelopment, 2003)

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

U

RBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS IN INNER CITY AREA

PPP :

PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP

� ���������������������������������� ����������������������������������

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

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CASE CASESTUDY STUDY1: 1:PIER PIERHUB HUB

A) PROPOSAL: PLANNING PERMISSION APPLICATION TO DEMOLISH EXITING STORES AND CONSTRUCTING A MIXED DEVELOPMENT COMPRISES : •

1 BLOCK OF 9 STOREYS SERVICE APARTMENT (72 UNITS)

1 BLOCK OF 3 TO 4 STOREYS HOTEL (94 ROOMS) WITH 3 STOREYS BASEMENT CAR PARKS

2 BLOCKS OF 5 TO 9 STOREYS COMMERCIAL BUILDING WITH 1 BASEMENT

B) LOCATION: LOT 9, 136, 137, 283 & 284, SECTION 23, WELD QUAY AND BEACH STREET, GEORGETOWN, DTL, PULAU PINANG

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

KEY PLAN PROPOSED SITE

LOCATION PLAN

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Paper 7

SITE PLAN

PELAN DASAR PERANCANGAN & KAWALAN PEMAJUAN MPPP [No.Pelan : MPPP/PN-020(PL/PP)(F1/96)]

28 0

28 4 28 6

28 7

283

uh eb tL Ga

29 1

13 7 28 5

ina Ch

299

ja re Ge uh eb tL 2 Ga 28

29 0

6 13

i nta Pa h bu Le

28 1

JPB/PM/4652

9

eld W lan a k ng Pe

PETUNJUK

230

JPB/PM/4652

Tanah/Proj Kerajaan/Utiliti & Infrastruktur Awam

Tempat Letak Kereta Perniagaan Am

Kegunaan Keagamaan / Kebudayaan

N

Jalan Sediada

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GAT LEBUH CINA

PROPERTY BELONGS TO THE CORPORATION OF RAILWAY ASSET PROPOSED TO BE THE MAIN GATEWAY

AERIAL VIEW TOWARDS THE MARINA AND FERRY JETTY

OVERALL VIEW OF ‘PIER HUB’ PROJECT

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Paper 7

EVENING LIGHTING

VIEW OF THE HOTEL COURYARD TOWARDS ‘TANJUNG CITY MARINA’

CASE CASESTUDY STUDY2: 2:PENANG PENANGTIMES TIMESSQUARE SQUARE A) PROPOSAL: PLANNING PERMISSION APPLICATION FOR CONTRUCTING A MIXED DEVELOPMENT COMPRISES: •

1 BLOCK OF 11 STOREYS OF COMMERCIAL BUILDING

TOWER 1: 1 BLOCK 20 STOREYS APARTMENT (416 UNITS)

TOWER 2: 1 BLOCK 21 STOREYS APARTMENT (358 UNITS)

TOWER 3 & 4: 2 BLOCK 25 STOREYS OFFICE BUILDING

TOWER 5: 1 BLOCK OF 25 STOREYS HOTEL (450 ROOMS)

1 BLOCK OF 2 STOREYS COMMERCIAL AREA AND 1 STOREY SUBBASEMENT CAR PARK

B) LOCATION: LOT 96, 98, 101, 145, 146, 150, 159, 160, 163, 278, 279, 735-767, SECTION 10, GEORGETOWN, DTL, PULAU PINANG

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

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LOCATION PLAN

KEY PLAN

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

Pelan Dasar Perancangan & Kawalan Pembangunan MPPP [No. Pelan : MPPP/PN-020 (PL/PP)(F1/96)]

PROPOSED SITE

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Paper 7

Type of Brownfield Area : Escoy smelting site Type of redevelopment : Shopping Complex (Times Square)

TOWER 1 – 1 Block of 20 storeys apartment (416 units)

TOWER 6 – 1 Block of 2 storeys cmmercial building

Podium Open Space 1 8528.28 m.sq. TOWER 3 & 4 – 1 Block of 25 storeys office building

TOWER 2 – 1 Block of 21 storeys apartment (358 units) TOWER 5 – 1 Block of 25 storeys hotel (450 rooms)

Podium Open Space 2 5279.30 m.sq.

APPROVED PROPOSAL

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CASE CASESTUDY STUDY3: 3:MALAY MALAYENCLAVE ENCLAVE

P R OJECT OF BAI TUM AL AN D W AK AF LAN D DEVELOP M EN T OF P EN AN G STATE I SLAM I C R ELI GI OUS COUN CI L (M AI N P P )

 In 2001 MAINPP planned to develop its land within the Georgetown Conservation Area

BUSINESS BUSINESS CONCEPT CONCEPT OF OF MALAY MALAY ENCLAVE ENCLAVE AREA AREA

Health product Tourism product Education product Economic product Services product Spiritual activity centre

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

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Paper 7 TYPE TYPE OF OF BUSINESS BUSINESS WITHIN WITHIN THE THE PROJECT PROJECT CONCEPT CONCEPT TYPE OF BUSINESS

NO.

EXAMPLE

1.

‘IT’ based business

•‘Software’ shop •Spare parts and computer repair shop

2.

Health related business

•Hospital •Pharmacy •Traditional herbs shop

3.

Handicraft and boutiques

•Traditional attire •Muslim Attire •Bridal boutique

4.

Halal food business/ meeting centre

•Restaurant •Bistro

5.

Financial related business

•Islamic banking •Foreign currency exchange

JENIS JENIS PERNIAGAAN PERNIAGAAN YANG YANG BERSESUAIAN BERSESUAIAN DENGAN DENGAN KONSEP KONSEP JENIS PERNIAGAAN

BIL.

CONTOH PERNIAGAAN

6.

24 hours business

•24 hours Convenient Store (PUZ )

7.

Education related business

•Reference book network •Religious Book Store •Tuition Centre •Iqra’ Classes

8.

Islamic Heritage and Tourism

•Heritage building

9.

Others

•Gold & Jewelry Business •‘Budget hotel’ •‘Flea market’

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AERIAL AERIAL VIEW VIEW OF OF ‘MALAY ‘MALAY ENCLAVE’ ENCLAVE’ ‘MALAY ENCLAVE’ AREA

� �

Masjid Alimsah Waley

(Lebuh Buckingham, Jln. Jln. Masjid Kapitan Keling, Keling, Lebuh Carnavon, Carnavon, Lebuh Campbell, Lebuh Acheh, Acheh, Lebuh Chulia) Chulia)

Masjid Kapitan Keling

Masjid Nagore

� Masjid Melayu

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

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PACKAGE 1B – MAINPP TREATMENT CENTRE

PACKAGE 1C – BUSINESS PREMISES

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MASJID BENGGALI

APARTMENT AT LEBUH CHULIA 56 UNIT (825 sq. ft.)

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Paper 7

C “

ONCLUSION

PENANG NEEDS EVERYBODY’S COMMITMENT AND EFFORT TO IMPLEMENT ALL THE PLANS IN CREATING A MORE

SUSTAINABLE & LIVEABLE INNER CITY AREA

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MPPP MPPP MPPP MPPP MPPP

TER I M A K ASI H

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�������

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PLANNING LIVEABLE CITIES IN AN ENVIRONMENT OF NON-COMPLIANCE Dr. Goh Ban Lee COLUMNIST FOR THE SUN NEWSPAPER, RETIRED ASSOC. PROFESSOR IN THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, UNVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA MALAYSIA Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.


Paper 8

Abstract

PLANNING LIVEABLE CITIES IN AN ENVIRONMENT OF NON-COMPLIANCE Malaysian cities are generally vibrant and successful theatres for the creation of wealth and generators of dreams. Despite the appearance of being packed to capacity, they continue to attract new comers, including foreign entrepreneurs and workers as well as home-grown rural poor the not-so-poor from smaller towns. But in the context of liveable cities or cities of choice for work, bringing up families and having a life, they are not at the top of the international chart. There is no lack of town planning. There is also no lack of visions. Many municipal leaders have vision of ‘garden cities’, ‘sustainable cities’, ‘cultural cities’, ‘historical cities’, and ‘Islamic cities’. Yet there are flesh floods, traffic jams, illegal changes of land and building use and haphazard development plans. Many incidences of non-compliance can be attributed to what social scientists refer to as ‘weapons of the weak’ as a result of the neglect to provide for the needs of urban poor, the not so poor and small businessmen. This is complicated by the phenomenon of the malaise of Third World mentality. As such, town planning becomes ineffective. The challenges facing town planners are not only to ensure that the lower income groups and urban poor have a stake in the cities, but also that development plans can be implemented and are complied with.

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CONTENT 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2.0 LIVEABLE CITIES 3.0 TOWN PLANNING IN MALAYSIA 3.1 The State of Urban Malaysia 3.2 Challenges 3.3 Non-compliance 3.4 Weapons of the Weak 3.5 Third World Mentality 4.0 CONCLUSION

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Paper 8 1.0 INTRODUCTION Since its emergence about a century ago, town planning has been recognised as an important tool in making cities conducive for work, bringing up families and having a life. The recent biggest gathering of mayors, town planners and social scientists interested in urban issues in Vancouver for the third session of the World Urban Forum has reaffirmed that planning is ‘a tool for urban development and environmental management’ (Final Report in www.WUF3.com). A basic assumption of town planning is that urban stakeholders, including the government, comply with planning rules and regulations, including development plans. Furthermore, for the few cases of non-compliance, the local planning authorities will enforce the law. Unfortunately, in most cities of the developing countries, this is usually not the case. On the contrary, cases of non-compliance with gazette development plans and planning regulations and standards and other municipal rules in general, are ubiquitous. The objective of this paper is to emphasise that town planners and those who are interested in the development of town planning must take cognizance of the realities of non-compliance. At the very least, they must recognise the incidences of non-compliance and their underlying causes, especially those that are referred to as ‘weapons of the weak’ and ‘Third World mentality’. 2.0 LIVEABLE CITIES It was not so long ago, when announcing the completion of structure plans or local plans, state and municipal leaders in Malaysia wanted their towns to be ‘garden cities’. For the politicians and most town planners, garden cities are taken to mean cities with patches of green areas and landscaping projects. This usually means planting a few trees, shrubs and flowering plants in roundabouts, road meridians and odd corners of land that cannot be used for everything else. Often forgotten is the original concept coined by Ebenezer Howard about a century ago. In his ‘Garden Cities of Tomorrow’, besides the parks are employment opportunities, adequate housing for the working class and the sense of safety. ‘Liveable cities’ is beginning to replace garden cities as the catchphrase among town planning and urban development circles. The term must not be allowed to be taken to mean building bigger cities for more people in the form of high-rise compact housing, super highways and shopping malls. Although there is no internationally recognised definition of ‘liveable cities’, a perusal of the literature shows that they are largely people-centred places with particular emphasis on the well-being of their residents. This is to be accomplished by strengthening community and is to be facilitated by increasing civic engagement and shaping a built environment to facilitate interactions. In terms of urban development, there is a need for a well-functioning public realm for meetings and encounters among the people of all ages, acquaintances, friends and even strangers. This requires the existence of multifunctional public places, squares and marketplaces. Furthermore, the public places must have appropriate human scale architecture and mixed land

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use of shops and houses, outdoor cafes and restaurants, farmers’ markets and community festivals to enliven the public realm. Liveable cities are also characterised by short travelling distances that can be met with pedestrian networks, bicycle networks and efficient public transportation. As the San Francisco-based Liveable City movement puts it, the objective is ‘to create more great streets and complete neighborhoods, where walking, bicycling, and transit are the best choices for most trips, where public spaces are beautiful, well-designed, and well-maintained, and where housing is more plentiful and more affordable’ (see www.liveablecity.org). It is useful to note that the cities named as offering the best quality of life in internationally recognised ranking exercises, such as those of the Mercer Consulting and Economic Intelligence Unit, exhibit features noted above. These include Zurich, Vienna, Vancouver, Melbourne and Singapore, the highest ranked city in Asia (see www.citymayors.com/current/ eiu_bestcities; www.citymayors.com/features/quality_survey). 3.0 TOWN PLANNING IN MALAYSIA Town planning has a relatively long history in Malaysia. It was imported from England as early as 1921 when the then government of the Federated Malay States invited Charles Reade from South Australia to be the first government town planner. Reade, who was an early disciple of the Garden City Movement of England, following the publication of Ebenezer Howard’s famous book, Garden Cities of Tomorrow, not only established a town planning department, but also pushed for a very comprehensive town planning legislation. Today, hundreds of Malaysians are qualified town planners, some with Ph. D. from notable universities. Many have further their knowledge by attending seminars and conferences all over the world. Furthermore, the Malaysian government has even passed the Town Planners Act which gives town planners a legislated title. This means that only those who are academically qualified and recognised by the Malaysian Institute of Town Planners are allowed to style themselves as town planners and provide consultancy services. The machinery to implement town planning is also well developed. There is not only a wellstaffed town planning department in the federal government, but also one in every state. All the 32 major local authorities in the country also have a town planning department. Hundreds of millions of ringgit have also been spent formulating structure plans and great pains have been taken to get them gazetted as legal documents. Furthermore, no one is allowed to undertake land development without obtaining prior permission from the local planning authorities. 3.1 The State of Urban Malaysia On the whole, the towns and cities in Malaysia are generally conducive for employment and bringing up families. Many rural poor and those from smaller towns, including many from neighbouring countries, continue to flock to the bigger towns and cities in Malaysia.

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Paper 8 The urban centers in Malaysia are rather efficient theatres for administration, commerce and industry and some continue to attract foreign capital and expertise. The capital city, Kuala Lumpur, has attracted favourable comments from visitors. Visitors to the new administrative capital, Putrajaya, cannot but be amazed by its buildings, bridges, highways and parks. Furthermore, there are enclaves that Malaysians can be proud of. An example is Bangsar, a well-known watering hole in Kuala Lumpur to have a life after work. Another is Taman Tun Ismail, a housing area that is pleasant and conducive for bringing up families. Yet, it is also fair to say that in view of Malaysia’s economic development and the long history of town planning, the quality of life in the urban areas could be much better. Many major towns and cities, including Kuala Lumpur, still suffer from frequent flash floods. There is a shortage of parks. The few that exist are generally poorly maintained. Traffic jams are almost taken for granted. The state of public transportation system in most urban areas is inadequate. Almost all towns and cities do not have adequate facilities for pedestrians. Very little attention has been given to the mobility of the aged, physically handicapped and mothers with young children. Furthermore, there is haphazardness, both in the city centers and at the urban fringes, largely as a result of incompatible land use and buildings. In the context of liveable cities, there is the lack of conducive public realm to facilitate and encourage urban dwellers to gather, meet and interact. In fact, lately, there has been a growing fear of crimes in the cities (see NST 6 Sept. 2006; Star, 23 Oct. 2006). This is manifested in the growing popularity of gated communities, the anti-thesis of liveable cities, even though properties in such communities are highly priced and have very high management fees. Even those living in ordinary suburban areas are organising themselves to engage security guards to turn their enclaves into ‘guarded communities’. Some even build illegal obstacles across the entrances into their enclaves and the local authorities have turned a blind eye to such illegal structures (see Star, 5 Sept. 2006; NST 6 Sept. 2006). 3.2 Challenges There are many reasons for such state of affairs. The main culprit is poor urban management. But town planners also must share part of the blame. They include weakness in town planning theories, poorly formulated development plans, shortage of town planners, lack of funds to prepare development plans, weakness in the town planning system, including the scope and content of town planning. Most of the factors have been addressed elsewhere, some more than the others (Goh Ban Lee, 1991). In the context of planning for liveable cities, the challenge facing town planners is not in understanding of what Malaysians want. This is rather easy. Everyone wants a better quality of life and this is largely linked to his or her ability to access infrastructure (transportation, communication, water, and sanitation); food; clean air; pleasant environment, affordable housing; meaningful employment and green space. Lately, safety has been added in the wish list. As a result of unequal distribution of wealth and ability, access to the good things in life is seriously uneven. The challenge to the town planners is to detect the differential access of people to the wish

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list noted above and formulate ways to facilitate equitable access. Unfortunately, this aspect of town planning is not given the seriousness it deserves. In most town planning exercises, large amount of time and resources is spent on collection of physical data, such as those on population, housing units, facilities and etc. There is little attempt to understand the social and economic fabrics of the towns and cities. As a result, although the planners may know the physical features of the towns and cities, they still are in the dark about the society: its function and what make it tick, so to speak. To make matters worse, usually too little is spent on the formulations of plans. For instance, in many planning exercises, there is little debate on the socio-economic impacts of proposed land use or intensity of use and planning standards and regulations. An important area that has escaped the attention of town planners is the question of compliance. 3.3 Non-compliance One of the basic assumptions of town planning and urban management is that everyone plays by the rule. The assumption is not true. In reality, there is much non-compliance with development plans and the rules governing development control. To make matters worse, non-compliance has been a neglected agenda both in town planning and urban governance as a whole. Compliance is doing what is stated in rule books or moral codes. In the context of town planning and urban development, this means complying with town planning rules and gazette plans and other municipal rules and regulations to ensure the development of productive, pleasant and efficient cities. As a general rule, people comply with rules and regulations because of strict material selfinterest or for purely altruistic reasons. In the case of the former, this can be coercion or positive incentives. Coercion can be in the form of monetary disincentives such as fines or physical penalties such as jail terms or caning. It can also be in the form of social pressure, such as being held in odium or ridicule. Positive incentives can be in the form of monetary rewards or social recognition in the form of state or national awards. Those who comply because of altruistic reasons make their choice on moral principles. They do what they believe to be right, irrespective of the costs. For instance, in Germany and Japan, most pedestrians do not cross the roads with traffic signals unless the ‘walk’ signs light up and drivers stop at zebra crossings for pedestrians because these are the right things to do. Furthermore, they comply with the established methods of waste disposal based on moral principles. Unfortunately, in most developing countries, those who comply with municipal rules out of moral principles are very few. Many comply because of the fear of possible punishment, either in the form of jail terms or fines. As such, it is imperative that there is a system of enforcement against those who break rules and regulations and punishment of those who are guilty. In this respect, Singapore is the best example. It carries out punishment even if it sometimes

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Paper 8 appears to be cruel and drastic. Perhaps the best example of its resoluteness on enforcement is the punishment of Michael Fay, at that time an 18 year old American boy who was found guilty of spray-painting cars that were parked on the road in 1994. He was sentenced to an 83-day jail term and six strokes of the cane. His parents, who were expatriates in Singapore, and prominent personalities, including United States President Bill Clinton, appealed to the Singapore government to set aside the caning. Many accused the government as barbaric. But the Singapore government stood firm. According to the then Singapore Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew, ‘Can we govern if we let him off and not cane him?… If we do not cane him because he is an American, I believe we’ll lose our moral authority and our right to govern’ (in Time, 9 May 1994). The need to enforce municipal rules and town planning regulations and development plans is not only to punish the culprits and to let them know of their wrongdoings. It is also to send out a message to the rest of the society that the authority means business. This is especially important in view of the compelling argument that people are more likely to comply if they believe that other people would do the same and that the government is procedurally fair in both decision-making and implementation process (Levi, 1997). In other words, many people are contingent consenters. A detailed discussion on non-compliance with municipal rules and regulations and the neglect of local authorities to take cognizance of this in Malaysia has been done in Non-compliance – A Neglected Agenda in Urban Governance (Goh Ban Lee, 2002). Suffice to note here is that non-compliance with municipal rules and regulations is a major factor for the haphazard and unhealthy state of towns and cities in Malaysia and many developing countries. It is also fair to say that non-compliance with town planning rules and gazette plans is making nonsense of the millions of ringgit spent on making development plans and the promises of better quality of life by the planners and politicians. For instance, in most towns and cities, it is common to see hawkers in places that are supposed to be open spaces or pavements or road reserves. Squatter colonies are found in areas that are marked as open spaces, railway reserves or ex-mining land in development plans. In planned housing suburbs, there are cases of change of building use, such as from residential houses into hair-dressing saloons, medical clinics and tuition centers. In some areas, there are even sundry shops, motor-repair shops and places of worship. Illegal parking of vehicles is a common sight in most city centres and on pavements in housing estates. However, before the town planners and municipal officers rush home to enforce strictly development plans and town planning regulations, it is also important to consider the reasons for non-compliance. This paper will focus only on those generally referred to as ‘weapons of the weak’ and ‘Third World mentality’. 3.4 Weapons of the Weak It is clear, even to casual observers, that many instances of non-compliance with development plans and planning regulations are committed by the urban poor and small businessmen. Some

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social scientists, including James Scott (1987), have coined the concept ‘weapons of the weak’ to describe actions that are contrary to established rules and social ethics. In a nutshell, they maintain that the weak, meaning the poor, the disenfranchised and the small businessmen, have to resort to non-compliance or feign compliance with rules and regulations to survive in an environment that is hostile to their needs and interests. The ‘weapons of the weak’ concept is very pertinent in the development and growth of cities in developing countries. For instance, for many who are poor and have little capital to begin a business, building illegal stalls to sell banana fritters or fried noodles is the only way to survive in the cities. (In reality, the rural poor who just arrive in the cities do not build illegal stalls. They rent them from established ‘slumlords’ who put up the illegal structures. Nevertheless, without such illegal stalls, the poor and the lower income groups would not have the facilities within their means to begin their businesses). Similarly, without the illegal sheds or cubicles, many urban poor will have no roofs over their heads. The point is that the poor have no choice but to construct or rent illegal built structures in order to survive and begin life in the cities simply because development plans and municipal rules do not facilitate them to do so legally. Perhaps the most well known act of non-compliance was that of Rosa Park, a black American seamstress, when she refused to vacate her seat for a white man and move to the back of the bus. In 1955 Montgomery, Alabama, municipal rules required a black person to give his or her seat to a white, man or woman. Park was arrested and put in jail. This led to a series of protests that contributed to the eventual repeal of the unjust segregation laws in America. It is important to note that while the cities in the developing countries are bursting at the seams, they are still magnets to the rural poor and those from smaller towns to seek a better quality of life or become richer. Despite the pollution, flesh floods, health hazards and inefficiency and even unsympathetic government officials, cities are still the places for the rich to become richer and the poor to entertain dreams of climbing out of poverty. The poor and not so poor will still migrate to the cities whether the town planners or municipal leaders provide for them or not. It is clear that non-compliance with town planning standards and gazette plans has facilitated and enabled the growth of most cities in the developing countries. More importantly, it has allowed the poor and small businessmen to have a stake in the urban areas. For instance, if there are no illegal hawkers or illegal change of building use or land use and breaches of food handling by-laws, there is very little doubt that food prices in many towns and cities will be at least three times the present rates. In other words, if all food outlets and food handlers were to comply with existing development plans and municipal rules and regulations, many poor urban dwellers will have to go to bed without adequate food. If a massive campaign is initiated against all illegal hawkers and traders, there would be riots, as happened in Daressalem in Tanzania (see BBC News 18.10.06). Furthermore, if there are no illegal settlements and illegal extension of buildings, or illegal subdivision of buildings into cubicles, many urban poor would have to sleep on pavements and other public places. Rentals for the poorer quality houses or shelters will be a few times the present rates.

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Paper 8 It should also be noted that all development plans, such as Structure Plans, do have statements on the need to eradicate poverty and catering to the poor, especially in housing. All call for adequate low cost housing. But having stated the good intentions, these are not followed by concrete plans for the poor, the not-so-poor and the physically handicapped. As such, it may be counter-productive to call for strict enforcement of the law and plans until and unless the town planners begin to recognise their social justice role and are committed to play such role. Unfortunately, this apparent contradiction has escaped the attention of town planners and those who are interested in urban development. Another important factor for non-compliance is outdated plans. For instance, in Malaysia, despite the requirement that Structure Plans be reviewed and revised every five years, many are not. In fact, many are not revised even after a decade or more. Worse, in the case of Local Plans that show in detail the permissible use of land, most local authorities in Malaysia are still finding it difficult to complete and gazette theirs. As a result, the only legal plans to guide the development of the towns and cities are the old zoning plans that were prepared under Cap 133 and 137 for the areas known as the Straits Settlements and the Federation of Malaya respectively. It should be noted that the Structure Plan and Local Plan system of town planning has been in existence in Malaysia for about 30 years! The local authorities, which are the local planning authorities, are not in compliance with the requirements of the Town and Country Planning Act themselves. If they cannot complete and gazette their Local Plans to regulate and control property owners and developers, it is difficult to see how the latter are expected to comply with town planning rules and development plans. In terms of liveable cities, the irony is that the acts of non-compliance with development plans, especially in the form of illegal hawker stalls and illegal food handling, have contributed to making part of the public realm more interesting and places of interactions of the urban dwellers and even visitors. Besides, it is useful to note in passing that without the services of the poorer section of the society who live in illegal structures and subsist on food provided by illegal outlets, the rich and the middle class would find life in the cities less bearable. 3.5 Third World Mentality Unfortunately, it is usually not possible to clearly distinguish acts of non-compliance as a result of struggling against unjust rules and regulations and those that are based on ‘Third World mentality’. Although there is no standard definition of this term, Malaysian Prime Minister Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi has used it to refer to poor execution and inept management of public facilities and appalling customer service of the public sector (see Competing for Tomorrow, 2003). Third World mentality is also commonly used to refer to acts of non-compliance with civic rules and moral codes by those who should know better simply because there is little chance of punishment or the pains of punishment is equivalent to a slap on the wrist. Among the common acts of Third World mentality are indiscriminate disposal of waste and littering, illegal vehicle parking, illegal extension of buildings and illegal change of land use and construction of

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buildings. In all these cases, the acts of non-compliance are not the result of ignorance or the need to survive in a very difficult environment, but the result of lack of civic discipline with a tinge of arrogance or conspicuous consumption. For instance, many Malaysians park on pavements and sidewalks, thereby making walking to schools, markets or corner shops an unpleasant and even dangerous exercise. Many drivers double and triple park at school entrances waiting for their children or grand-children. For the convenience of their loved ones and themselves, the drivers not only cause problems to other road users, but also set bad examples for school children regarding traffic rules and regulations. In many instances of illegal parking, there are usually proper parking spaces within short walking distances. Unfortunately, these inconsiderate drivers include business tycoons, professional consultants, government officers and even those with titles such as Datuks and Yang Berhormats. It is clear that the economic and educational systems that are so successful in enabling them to afford cars, many of which cost hundreds of thousands of ringgit, somehow fail to inculcate the civic responsibility that comes with car ownership and respect for the law. Even the government has acknowledged the malaise of Third World mentality in Malaysia. It has established the Malaysian Institute of Integrity and a National Integrity Plan has been formulated. So far, however, it has no positive impact. On the contrary, there is still a reluctance or inability to punish those who transgress town planning and development regulations, especially if those who breach the law are in position of power. The recent case of the building of an illegal four-storey mansion in Klang, a booming municipality in the state of Selangor is perhaps the clearest example of hubris of power. The almost completed building belongs to the wife of the Klang municipal councillor and also the State Assemblyman for Port Klang. Being a councillor, there is no question that he knows of the need to get a series of permission from the municipal council before building the house. Worse, even the president of the council told the press that he had advised the councillor to submit application plans to the council, but to no avail (Nadeswaran, 2006 and Goh Ban Lee, 2006). Apparently, the building owner has been fined about RM24,000, which is ten times the amount of building plan processing fees (Star, 22 Oct., 2006). For a person who can afford to build the reputedly RM5 million mansion, this sum is equivalent to ‘chicken feed’. What has been ignored by the local council in the enforcement of development control rules and regulations is that a breach of the Town and Country Planning Act carries a maximum penalty of RM500,000 and jail sentence. Sadly, the four-storey is not the only illegal house built by a councillor. Another councillor from the same municipality has also been reported to build a mansion without proper permission (Star, 22 Oct., 2006). In and by itself, each case of non-compliance is of little consequence to the liveability of a town or city. But a high incidence of non-compliance with town planning rules and development plan does render the towns and cities to be less liveable than they should be. It may be useful to note that in the cities such as Vancouver and Zurich that are ranked as the most liveable in the world; the level of civic obedience is very high. In many of these cities, compliance is expected

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Paper 8 and is volunteered individually. In the case of Singapore which is ranked as the best in Asia, the government is willing and known to crack the whip. Either way, compliance with municipal rules and regulations including development plans, is the ‘secret’ to their success stories. 4.0 CONCLUSION There is no doubt that town planning has played a positive role in making the towns and cities in Malaysia relatively attractive places to stay, work and having a life. But after about 80 years of town planning, there is an expectation that more could have been achieved. Malaysians are traveling far and wide and have seen cities that are much more liveable. Equally important, Malaysian cities are competing with other Asian cities for expertise and capital to sustain the impressive economic growth. It is useful to note that property prices in the cities in Malaysia are the cheapest in this part of the world and yet they are not able to compete effectively with places like Singapore, Hong Kong, Bangkok or Shanghai. The something missing could be the ‘livability’ feeling. Standing still is not an option. The high degree of non-compliance with rules and regulations and the apparent successful role of the cities of developing countries in fulfilling the dreams of rural poor and those who want to become rich pose an important question. How should town planners handle the situations in which there is a high incidence of non-compliance with town planning rules and development plans and the inability or unwillingness to enforce compliance? So far, there has been little attempt to take cognizance of the situations. Very few town planners, either those in the public sector or those practising as private consultants, have voiced out the lack of compliance with their plans. There have been no public protests that their hard work is negated by lack of compliance. It is pointless to spendtime and tax dollars to prepare development plans or formulate development control rules and regulations if these are not complied with and the culprits are not punished. Town planners cannot claim to be ignorant or oblivious to the realities of non-compliance and lack of enforcement. There is little doubt that if town planning takes into consideration the question of non-compliance in its formulation of development plans and development control procedures, Malaysian towns and cities will be more become more liveable.

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References 1.

Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (2003) Competing for Tomorrow, a speech delivered to the Oxford and Cambridge Society of Malaysia, 6 March 2003.

2.

Cherry, G. E. (1974) The Evolution of British Town Planning, London: Leonard Hill Books.

3.

Goh Ban Lee (1991) Urban Planning in Malaysia, Petaling Jaya: Tempo Publishing.

4.

Goh Ban Lee (2002) Non-compliance – A Neglected Agenda in Urban Governance, Skukai: Institut Sultan Iskandar, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

5.

Goh Ban Lee (2006) The hubris of power, in The Sun 17.10.2006.

6.

Levi, Margeret (1997) Consent, Dissent and Patriotism, Cambridge University Press.

7.

Nadeswaran, R. (2006) Testimony of abuse, in The Sun 12.9.2006.

8.

Norliza Hashim (2006) Vancouver Technical Visit 2006, in Berita Perancang, August 2006).

9.

Rodwin, L. (1981) ‘On the Illusions of Planners and the Growth and Management of Metropolitan Areas in the Third World Countries in the 1980s’ in M. Honjo (ed) Urbanisation and Regional Development, Nagoya: Maruzen Asia.

10. Scott, J. (1987) Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance, Yale University Books. 11. Newspapers USJ 17 floks opt to pay for security, Star, 5 Sept., 2006. Neighbourhood under siege, NST 6 Sept., 2006. Crime index rising, NST 6 Sept., 2006. Stop this betrayal of trust, Sun, 13. Oct., 2006. Only a fine for Zakaria, Star 22 Oct., 2006. Second councillor builds mansion without approval, Star, 22 Oct., 2006). Sharprise in crime index, Star 23 Oct., 2006. 12. Planning Liveable Cities in an Environment of Non-compliance/25.10.06. Paper presented at the World Planning Day Convention 2006 with the Theme ‘Towards Liveable Cities – The ASEAN Way, 8-9 Nov. 2006, organised by the Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Malaysia.

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Convention Participants ASEAN Beng Hong Socheat Khempro Nouth Narang Tan Jun Han Wong Kai Yeng Acting Capt. Tneeraphong Anukul Tanskananukulchai Pichai Kruachaipinit Zahiah Hj.Abd. Samad

Min. of Land Mgmt. Urban Planning & Const., Cambodia Min. of Land Mgmt. Urban Planning & Const., Cambodia Urban Redevelopment Authority, Singapore Urban Redevelopment Authority, Singapore Dept. of Public Works, Town & Country Planning, Bangkok Dept. of Public Works, Town & Country Planning, Bangkok Dept. of Public Works, Town & Country Planning, Bangkok Dept. of Town and Country Planning, Brunei

Federal Government Abdul Gapar Hj. Abu Bakar Abu Bakar Johar Anuar Kamal Sidin Azizul Nizam Hamdan Faridah Ahmad Hu Chang Sieu, Peter Iliani Idris Khairul Nizam Othman Lily Hamaddah Ramle M. Noor Azman Taib Md. Isa Jaafar Mohd Salleh Mustapa Mohd. Anuar Maidin Nor Hisham Ahmad Dahlan Norjafni Zainuddin Prema Letha Nair Roslinawati Misdi Alhaj Shabudin Saad Tengku Mohd. Diaraif Raja Abdul Kadir

Min. of Energy, Water and Communications Min. of Housing and Local Government Min. of Federal Territories Min. of Federal Territories Agriculture Department, Putrajaya Min. of Housing and Local Government Min. of Energy, Water and Communications Min. of Federal Territories Min. of Federal Territories Min. of Federal Territories Min. of Works Min. of Federal Territories Min. of Federal Territories Min. of Federal Territories Min. of Works Statistics Department of Malaysia Min. of Rural and Regional Devt. Dept. of Survey and Mapping of Malaysia Min. of Energy, Water and Communications

State Government Augustine Jose Duna Lawrence Tseu Sed Kong, Phd Mohd. Sidi Daud

Sarawak State Government Chief Minister’s OfďŹ ce, Sarawak Dept. of Mineral and Geosciences, Selangor

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Local Government Abdul Aziz Hj. Abd. Ghani Abdul Malik Ismail Abdul Rahman Salleh Ahmad Amir Ismail Alijus Hj. Sipil Anri Arif Azmi Razak Che Huzzana Che Husin Chong Ted Tsiung Eddy @ Ismail Hashim Hazlin Ibrahim Hii Chang Kee Hj. Ahmad Fuad Hj. Hashim Hj. Amran A. Rahman Hj. Husni Yahya Hj. Ibrahim Hj. Malek Iskandar Suparlan Ismail Muhamad Kamariah Kamarudin Mohd Adzwan Hj. Paying Mohd. Helimy Samat Mohd. Norulamin Ahmad Mohd. Yushaa Ismail Muhamad Sujab Abu Hasan Muhammad Zaidi Omar Nazlee Abu Bakar Nazri A.Ghani Nor Mohd Azrin Zainuddin Norleeza Zainuddin Prof. Madya Dr. Dasima Omar Rozina Hazali Samiun Salleh Shaiful Fauzi Mohmin Siti Aisyah Zakaria Syed Mohd. Nor Syed Jaafar Wong Fu Toh Zafir Annuar Ghazali Zainor Adani Zolkifle Awang Zuraidah Abdul Majid

Kulim Municipal Council Labis District Council Kulai Municipal Council Kerian District Council Kota Kinabalu City Hall West Kinta District Council Marang District Council Kuantan Municipal Council South Kuching City Council Kuala Lumpur City Hall Shah Alam City Council Sibu Municipal Council Seberang Perai Municipal Council Batu Pahat Municipal Council Kuala Terengganu Municipal Council Rompin District Council Kluang Municipal Council Subang Jaya Municipal Council Kuala Lumpur City Hall Kuala Lumpur City Hall Seremban Municipal Council Kuala Kangsar Municipal Council Sik District Council Kuala Lumpur City Hall Kulai Municipal Council Kangar Municipal Council Nilai Municipal Council Nilai Municipal Council Nilai Municipal Council Shah Alam City Council Kuantan Municipal Council Hulu Terengganu District Council Labis District Council Kuala Lumpur City Hall Bentong Municipal Council Sibu Municipal Council Yan District Council Tangkak District Council Shah Alam City Council Kuantan Municipal Council

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Convention Participants Statutory Bodies Rohani Hj. Berak

South East Johore Development Authority

Private Sector Abdul Rahman Ibrahim Ahmad Ab. Majid Ahmad Jefri Clyde/Julie Chok Anne Yuen Kam Peng Ar. Ahmad Izaham Mahayudin Ar. Hj. Mohd Nazam Md Kassim Atiyah Ismail Bartholomew Wong Kee Kho Che Mohamed Che Idris Chuah Hoon Hoon Dato’ Hj. Najmudeen Kader Fadzil Abdul Rahman Fauzi Abdul Rahim Haji Ramli Hasnul Nazmi Mohammad Hj. Kamaruzaman Abd. Wahab Hj. Zainal Abidin Yusof Ihsan Zainal Mokhtar Indah Sulastri Zainuddin James Chua Khairuzaman Hj. Nopis Lee Kee Teck Lim Ech Chan Mazlan Hj. Othman Megat Sahrir Zainal Mohamad Fauzi Ahmad Mohamed Shamsudin Mohamed Muhammad Khairuddin Abu Bakar Nik Mohd Ruiz Noorahaman Mohamed Nor Azura Mohamed Nordin Nor Halim Ahmad Norasiah Yahya Robert Bantan ak Banta Rohani Osman Salme Abd. Nasir Abd. Hamid Suki Mee Suzana Mohkeri Syed Azelan Syed Yusof Syed Danial Haris Syed Husin

ARI Planning MEGA Rancang AJC Planning Consultant Sdn. Bhd. Jururancang ATP HL Design Group Focus Architects & Urban Planners Sdn. Bhd. WP Perancang Sdn. Bhd. Axis Planning Desa Konsult Sdn. Bhd. I Com Ventures (M) Sdn. Bhd. MNF & Associates F. I. Planning Sdn. Bhd. MHHR Consultant Sdn. Bhd. Metropolis Planning Sdn. Bhd. Desa Konsult Sdn. Bhd. EPG Sdn. Bhd. IZM Consult Enviro-Lift Service Sdn. Bhd. HL Design Group Minconsult Sdn. Bhd. Araiso Sdn. Bhd. GDP Planners Sdn. Bhd. Mazlan Planning Consultants EPG Sdn. Bhd. Arah Rancang Sdn. Bhd. F. I. Planning Sdn. Bhd. Rekarancang Sdn. Bhd. Sidman Planning Sdn. Bhd. Teras Teknologi Sdn. Bhd. Metropolis Planning Sdn. Bhd. SAW Geodata Services Sdn. Bhd. WP Perancang Sdn. Bhd. RNR Planning Consultants SAW Geodata Services Sdn. Bhd. Digi Planners Global Enviroment Centre JTC Planners Sdn. Bhd. MSO Associates Sdn. Bhd.

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Young Daud Nordin Ali Zolkafli Abdul Rahman

YD Planners Jururancang Gemilang Sdn. Bhd.

Institutions of Higher Learning Dr. Abdullah Abd. Rahman Dr. Foziah Johar Dr. Tarmiji Masron Dr. Wendy Bong Chin Wei Indera Syahrul Mat Radzuan Jamil Jusoh Melasutra Md. Dali Muna Sarimin Oliver Ling Hoon Leh Prof. Mohd. Abdul Mohit Prof. Madya Dr. Ibrahim Ngah Prof. Madya Dr. Norhaslina Hassan Raziah Ahmad Seow Ta Wee Shuhaidah Md. Noor Siti Mazwin Kamaruddin Yusfida Ayu Abdullah

ISI, UTM, Skudai UTM, Skudai USM, Penang Wawasan Open University KUiTTHO, Batu Pahat USM, Penang UM, Kuala Lumpur UiTM, Shah Alam UiTM, Shah Alam IIUM, Kuala Lumpur UTM, Skudai UM, Kuala Lumpur UiTM, Shah Alam KUiTTHO, Batu Pahat IIUM, Kuala Lumpur UiTM, Shah Alam UiTM, Shah Alam

Individuals Yip Siew Kuan Ng Choi Students Pn. Noraziah Abd. Aziz Rosilawati Zainol

UKM, Bangi UM, Kuala Lumpur

Federal Dept. of Town and Country Planning, Peninsular Malaysia En. Omar Jamaluddin Cik Suraya Dato Badaruddin Hj. Zaini Ishak Jamariah Isam Jasmiah Ismail Kalsom Yop Mohd Kasim Kamalruddin Shamsudin Lilian Ho Yin Chan Mohamed Jamil Ahmad Mohd Nasir Shaari Muhamad Ridzuan Arshad

Management Services Division Research and Devt. Division Research and Devt. Division Research and Devt. Division Research and Devt. Division Research and Devt. Division Research and Devt. Division Research and Devt. Division Research and Devt. Division Research and Devt. Division Research and Devt. Division

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Convention Participants Ramli Zulkifli Syazlina Bahari Abdul Rasyid Zainal Abriza Mohammed Che Zauliha Haji Che Lah Chee Ping Ngang Chua Rhan See Cik Noraida Abdul Rani Hj. Ahmad Abdullah Hj. Mohd. Azam Mohd. Abid Hjh. Zakiah Ali Khairil Khalid Lee Yoke San Lim Eng Bee Mior Azziddin Mohd. Ali Mohd Rusli Dalim Mohd. Faizalnizam Md. Zain Mohd. Syukri Yahya Muhammad Khamimi Mohd. Idris Nor Zaliza Mohd. Puzi Norzaina Salim Sarah Khalid To’ Pn. Hjh. Rozaimi Zainuddin Wardiyah Senik @ Abdul Mokhti Zainuddin Nali Amilia Muhamad Nor Dr. Dolbani Mijan Khairulzaman Ibrahim Mustafa Bakri Alias Sani Norasiah Bee Mohd. Haniff Tee Szu Fong Abdul Rashid Abd. Rani Abu Salehek Musa Agnes anak Johari Aziaton Shuib Che Rohani Mohamed Salleh Datin Wira Hamisah Ariffin Hamdan Sapri Hasnan Iberahim Khajar Ab. Sukor Khalijah Jamil Mohd. Ariffin Ahmad Mohd. Fahmi Said Nadzrah Md. Shah Naeimah Hassan Nazirah Mahmud

Research and Devt. Division Research and Devt. Division Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Legal, Planning & Regulatory Div. Corporate Planning Division Corporate Planning Division Corporate Planning Division Corporate Planning Division Corporate Planning Division Corporate Planning Division Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division

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Nor Mazlan Mohd. Yunus Norhana Mohamad Noor Yusnaim Abd. Rani Abbas Abd. Wahab Azman Talib Hj. Mohd. Jaafar Mohd. Atan Noor Yazan Zainol Rohani Mohd Hashim Sanisah Shafie Siow Suan Neo Camelia Melawati Ahmad Tamizi Che Fuziah Che Ali Marha Sidek Nor Salehi Kassim Norasniza Hamzah Toh Lay See Alina Apo Faridahwati Mohd Salleh Hjh. Noraini Hj. Ismail Juliana Ahamat Latif Kahar Syarifah Nuraida T. Mohd Apandi Yong Chee Kong Kamariah Ibrahim Noor Hafieza Hassan Wan Fauzi Wan Husin Aishah Abdullah Harizah Hassan Mohd. Sharif Che Din Robi Desa Rokibah Abdul Latif Rosili Ahmad Alimah Mohd. Suri Azmizam Abdul Rashid Dr. Dahlia Rosly Egna Francis Gitom Hazizah Sulaiman Khadijah Abd. Hamid Khairani Mohammad Marhamah Ab. Ghaffar Mohd Ali Abu Bakar Mohd Rizal Osman Mohd. Zaini Hj. Mohd. Yusof Mustaffa Kamal Mohd. Ali Noraini Kassim Qua Jen Min

Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division Regional Planning Division National Physical Plan Division National Physical Plan Division National Physical Plan Division National Physical Plan Division National Physical Plan Division National Physical Plan Division National Physical Plan Division Information Technology Division Information Technology Division Information Technology Division Information Technology Division Information Technology Division Information Technology Division Human Resource Planning Unit Human Resource Planning Unit Human Resource Planning Unit Human Resource Planning Unit Human Resource Planning Unit Human Resource Planning Unit Human Resource Planning Unit Project Coordination Office Project Coordination Office Project Coordination Office Alor Star Project Office Alor Star Project Office Alor Star Project Office Alor Star Project Office Alor Star Project Office Alor Star Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office

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Convention Participants Raja Shamsul Nizam Raja Abdullah Rozita Hamit Salmiah Hashim Siti Jailah Hj. Dol Lajis Suzlyna Abdul Latib Wong Seng Fatt Zaifulzahri Kamde Zulazhar Abd. Ghani Abdul Aziz Abdullah Ahmad Yusof Dzul Khaimi Khailani Hj. Madzi Mat Lin Hjh Zaleha Haji Shaari Jefri bin Kasman Lim Siew Chin Mohd Faidzal Hamzah Ahmad Fauzi Hj. Yusoff Asfazilah Samad Ezrein Faizal Ahmad Hj. Razali Mohd. Jabu anak Dugu Manmohan Singh Nawi Pa’ Tik Rozdiana Mohd. Rosmi Rohaya Abd Kadir Wan Hassan Wan Ismail Ydira Ibrahim Zailan Shaary

Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Kuala Lumpur Project Office Malacca Project Office Malacca Project Office Malacca Project Office Malacca Project Office Malacca Project Office Malacca Project Office Malacca Project Office Malacca Project Office Kuala Terengganu Project Office Kuala Terengganu Project Office Kuala Terengganu Project Office Kuala Terengganu Project Office Kuala Terengganu Project Office Kuala Terengganu Project Office Kuala Terengganu Project Office Kuala Terengganu Project Office Kuala Terengganu Project Office Kuala Terengganu Project Office Kuala Terengganu Project Office Kuala Terengganu Project Office

State Depts. of Town and Country Planning Abd. Hamid Abd. Majid Koh Cher Shen Mohd Zaki Ibrahim Hj. Idris Abdul Rahim Hj. Noran Shariff Mursidin Hj. Ismail Bakar Othman Shahidi Yusop Tn. Hj. Mohamad Fauzi Zain Abdul Jamil Arshad Abdul Rahaman Hamzah Annie Syazrin Ismail Any Nuhairah Abdul Razak Hjh. Fudziah Hj. Abas Mohd. Rozuwan Abdullah

Perlis DTCP Penang DTCP Penang DTCP Kedah DTCP Kedah DTCP Kedah DTCP Perak DTCP Perak DTCP Perak DTCP Selangor DTCP Selangor DTCP Selangor DTCP Selangor DTCP Selangor DTCP Selangor DTCP

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Hjh. Norimah Md. Dali Tn. Hj. Hamdan Mohd. Kassim Shamsul Azlan Mohd Anuar Tn. Hj. Zainuddin Ahamad Abdulhan Abd. Lamit Rosmawati Haron Saidin Lateh Dato’ Zainon Ahmad Nik Nuraisu Hj. Nik Ibrahim Hj. Hassan Yaakob Saifuddin Ahmad

Negeri Sembilan DTCP Negeri Sembilan DTCP Malacca DTCP Malacca DTCP Johore DTCP Johore DTCP Johore DTCP Pahang DTCP Pahang DTCP Terengganu DTCP Terengganu DTCP

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Convention Committees 2006 World Town Planning Day – Malaysia Patron Y. Bhg. Dato’ Mohd Fadzil bin Haji Mohd Khir Director General Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia Main and Financial Committee Chairman Tuan Haji Mohd Azam bin Mohd Abid Director Legal, Planning, and Regulatory Division Deputy Chairman Dr. Dolbani bin Mijan Director Secretariat, Coordination, and Corporate Planning Division Members En. Kamalruddin bin Shamsudin Director Research and Development Division Y. Bhg. Datin Wira Hamisah binti Ariffin Director Regional Planning Division Tuan Haji Mohd Jaafar bin Mohd Atan Director National Physical Planning Division Dr. Dahlia binti Rosly Director Development Planning Division Kuala Lumpur Project Office Pn. Kamariah binti Ibrahim Head Assistant Director Project Coordination Office Tuan Haji Sallehi bin Kassim Director Information Technology Division Pn. Hjh. Nooraini binti Ismail Head of Human Resource Unit

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World Town Planning Day 2006

Tuan Haji Omar bin Jamaluddin Director Management Services Division Puan Norliza binti Hashim President Malaysian Institute of Planners Sub Committees • Coordination Secretariat

- Secretariat, Coordination, and Corporate Planning Division

• Working Papers Committee

- Research and Development Division

• Exhibition Committee

- Research and Development Division

• Speeches Committee

- Legal, Planning and Regulatory Division

• Registration and Accommodation Committee

- Regional Planning Division

• Invitation Committee

- Project Coordination Office

• Launching Committee

- Information Technology Division

• Officiation/Protocols & Venue Preparation Committee

- Kuala Lumpur Project Office

• Banquet Committee

- Malaysian Institute of Planners

• Excursions Committee

- Legal, Planning and Regulatory Division

• Publicity and Promotion Committee

- National Physical Planning Division

• Souvenir and Competition Committee

- Human Resource Planning Unit

• Equipment, Security, and Transportation Committee

- Management Services Division

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Convention Photos

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International Convention

World Town Planning Day 2006

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Convention Photos

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International Convention

World Town Planning Day 2006

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Convention Photos

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World Town Planning Day 2006 - Convention Proceedings