Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Ministry of Housing and Local Government, Malaysia
JPBD September 2003: Malaysian Townplan. Copyright @2003 by The Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Ministry of Housing and Local Government, Malaysia. All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any other means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing of the publisher. ISSN 1975-7629. Published in Malaysia by The Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Ministry of Housing and Local Government, Malaysia.
The planning profession in this country has put in about 82 years of fruitful contribution to sustainable human, economic and environmental development. I am pleased to note that planners in the department continue to have strong interest and the tradition of cultivating writing habits to disseminate planning thoughts, ideas and experience. It is my sincere hope that Malaysian TownPlan will receive good response from readers. Planning today has grown to encompass much wider areas of concern. We have gone beyond the conventional forward and development control processes. Now we are actively monitoring prescribed development and reporting the status of the town and country planning. In the meantime, concerted attentions are given to social, environmental, conservation and heritage issues. The looming impact of globalisation on Malaysian land use planning practice, would necessitate planners to constantly reinvent and retool their planning expertise. I take this opportunity to thank the editorial board for their initiatives to publish this journal. Malaysian TownPlan will certainly be the medium of communication connecting and disseminating planning discourse, innovations and debates on issues of concern to all in the planning profession. With these thoughts in mind, I wish the editorial board success in their endeavours. Datoâ€™ Haji Abd. Mutallib Jelani Director General Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia
townplan 01 M A L AY S I A N
Contents T O W N P L A N
This Journal is a quarterly publication of The Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Ministry of Housing and Local Government, Malaysia. Jalan Cenderasari 50646 Kuala Lumpur. Tel: 603-26989211 Fax: 603-26933964 Webpage : http://www.townplan.gov.my E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org A D V I S O R S Dato’ Haji Abd. Mutallib Jelani Mohd. Fadzil Hj. Mohd. Khir Dato’ Haji Zainul Ayob C O O R D I N AT O R
E D I T O R ’ S
J O T T I N G S
F E A T U R E S Sustainable Land Use Development in the Klang Valley : An Elusive Dream?
Emerging Town Planning Issues Confronting the Unprepared
Konsep dan Proses E-Submission dalam Permohonan Perancangan
P L A N N I N G
Hajjah Norasiah Hj. Yahya C H I E F
E D I T O R
Kamalruddin Shamsudin E D I T O R I A L
B O A R D
Jamil Ahmad Dr. Dahlia Rosly Dr. Dolbani Mijan Mohd. Nasir Shaari Rokibah Abd. Latif Datin Hamisah Ariffin Lilian Ho Yin Chan Sanisah Shafie Chua Rhan See E D I T O R I A L
R E V I E W
S TA F F
Noraziah Abd. Aziz Saifuddin Ahmad Khatijah Embi Zahrah Salleh Mohd. Nasir Kamin E D I T O R I A L
P A L A V E R
P O L I C Y
Planning Book Review
Planning Website Highlights
P L A N N I N G
B L A S T
U P D A T E S
F R O M
T H E
P A S T
The content of this Journal do not necessarily reflect the view of The Federal Department of Town and Country Planning nor are they official record. Manuscripts or articles submitted which do not conform to the conventions of the Journal may be returned to the authors for revision. The Editorial Board will not take any responsibility for any information published in this journal for their authenticity. M A L AY S I A N T O W N P L A N S e p t e m b e r 2 0 0 3
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" A policy of the Journal was not to bar articles that were critical of the department or any government office carrying out town planning functions, provided such criticism was of professional nature. The Journal set out to promote and nurture the development of town planning as a profession with a high standard of intellectual rigour, technical competence and social responsibility. Honest opinions and criticisms, expressed constructively, were not out of place. This does not mean the editors abdicated any responsibility of selection and editing; articles were indeed rejected because of gross personal bias, unverifiable facts or unwarranted tone or target of criticism... A journal is not produced by command: it is a labour of love...A journal like its related word, journey, is a travel, a going from one place to another, or rather a record of that travelling. " Ho Khong Ming
E v o l u t i o n
Planning Malaysia Issue no 1 September 1995,
T h e
Editorâ€™s Jottings Reflecting on past journal publications produced by the Federal Department of Town and Country Planning (JPBD), one comes away with a tinge of nostalgia. Such creative outlets are largely sustained and driven by individuals who wrote and contribute articles, with the aim to forge communication and the sharing of planning ideas. Malaysian TownPlan is no different. With the recent amendments to the town planning legislature, greater scope and diverse roles are entrusted to the planning service; thereby providing a rich and diverse source of planning ideas and experiences. In this inaugural issue, we traverse and examine Klang Valley contribution to sustainable development; this article is hard-hitting and long overdue; if only planners wake up from their slumber! Then we explore emerging town planning issues and ask planners whether they are prepared and what they ought to do. E-submission is another new tool in town, and comparison made from a number of experiences. Planning Palaver updates innovations in planning ideas worldwide, this time on smart growth, new urbanism and transit oriented development; it would be interesting to see how such ideas jostle with the traditional urban designs in the country. A book review is provided, plus some planning websites revisited. And upcoming planning events posted. We hope this edition of TownPlan format and layout is pleasing to your eyes. We have paid attention to colours and illustrations. The second and subsequent issues will probably keep these motives. Give us your feedback; we'll have a reader's feedback column too. More importantly be a contributor of articles and let others know of your planning experiences or viewpoints. We thank all contributing authors for this inaugural issue and the good support from JPBD management.
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D E S I G N
The front cover denotes the mythical phoenix rising from the ashes signifying rebirth. The phoenix is shown flying towards the light of new things to come, heralding future excitements in store for the Journal. Concept: Jamil Ahmad. Design: A&I Network
Sustainable Land use Development In The Klang Valley : An Elusive Dream ?
KAMALRUDDIN shamsudin, email@example.com Research and Development Division, Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia
Abstract: The Klang Valley is the most developed region in Malaysia and continues to pursue high level of land consumption to accommodate a projected population of 7 million by 2020, compared to its existing 4.7 million population. Already unsustainable practices in land development are a common feature in a number of areas, featuring in sprawl development with the consequence worsening traffic congestion, air and noise pollution, lost in recreational open spaces, landslides, and various safety or quality of life parameters etc. Inevitably, policy issues that need to be addressed may not only include strategic policy recommendation within various development sectoral policies but also those of the institutional and legislative. To what extent can the institutional and legislative machinery innovate progressively in keeping with the rate of development, which is largely dictated by global and market forces within a deregulated economic environment? To what extent could a statutory planning document be complied with and what new innovative areas could such document incorporate within its covers to fulfil sustainable land development?
Conformity of land use development to planning documents is a moving target. Conflicts in land uses have a direct negative impact to sustainable land development. The Klang Valley provides a classic example where such pervasive conflicts continue to tease good town planning intentions. A complex mix of conditions and processes related to legislative, institution and the dominant planning ideology of the day, all have a bearing on the direction land is finally used and developed. The adoption of sustainable principles emanating from a proliferation of documents (The Langkawi Declaration, 1989; The Kuala Lumpur Accord on Environment, 1990; and The Rio Declaration, 1992) has reaffirmed and made land use planning a vital tool in delivering sustainable land development. However, contemporary planning ideology (through its current plan making tools and value system) has yet to actualised itself efficiently as an integrating and coordinating tool of sustainable development. Since 1976, when the Town and Country Planning Act was promulgated, the development plan system has been used as a tool to regulate and promote good land use management practices within all local authority areas in Peninsular Malaysia. Indeed, a higher-tier planning document has been formulated recently, i.e. the national physical plan, over-arching the structure and local plans. In a nutshell, these planning documents are seen as coordinating tools between various multi-sectoral agencies and agents of development of the State and Federal government, and a required reference for consideration of the suitability of public and private sector land use development. Indeed it was meant to translate the government and the citizen aspirations within the covers of a planning document. This combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches (through stakeholders participation) appears to stay for the foreseeable future despite some ideological and institutional limitations. They relate to power relation, plannerâ€™s interpretation of their roles (advisory or advocacy), institutional openness to democratisation in the decision-making process etc. Within the remit of sustainable growth, this article will limit discussions on salient institutional, legislative, and the plan making tools and processes (in particular how well it has been able to guide development along sustainable lines). The focus is on the Klang Valley region, the home to 4.7 million people.
Sustainable Development : Incorporation Into The Local Settings To-D Date
The Town and Country Planning legislature in this country (through two recent amendments, 1995 and 2001) has incorporated elements of sustainability, and this has been translated within various planning guidelines and statutory planning documents (namely within the structure and local plans). New chapters have been introduced, for example strategic environmental assessment (SEA), and social impact assessment (SIA).
â€œ...contemporary planning ideology (through its current plan making tools and value system) has yet to actualised itself efficiently as an integrating and coordinating tool of sustainable development.â€? Another recent development was the adoption and adaptation of the principles and tools of sustainable development. One of these, the precautionary approach, in particular appears administratively and politically convenient, but its application has been widely contested by concerned citizens and NGOs, as such tools appear to be in favour of the project proponent rather than other affected stakeholders. This is particularly telling of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) that appears either towards the tail-end of the planning application procedure or running parallel to it. Such EIA requirements are beyond the remit of local planning authorities, they are decided by the Department of Environment.
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Features matter, the structure plan guidance (covering the district) may or may not be followed. It is felt many of the public complaints over noise, air pollution and traffic safety are tied-up to this aberration (more on this later).
A Brief Background Of The Klang Valley Region
The Klang Valley region comprises the entities of Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and seven other local authorities of the state of Selangor. A common visualisation of the valley is its rapid rate of population growth with attendant sprawling residential and commercial development to outlying areas of Kuala Lumpur. Today the Klang Valley built-up area constitutes more than 61% of the region compared to 17% in 1985. Such rapid land consumption has made many local planning authorities statutory planning documents looks out of date. The region has seen much socio-economic development, and also its share of geohazard incidences. Meanwhile, institutional capability has not grown in tandem with the rate of urban growth. There continues to be shortage in professional staffing at local authority level (every structure and local plan document never fails to point this out), although of late, most local authorities have appointed town planners on a contract basis. But it is inadequate to handle post approval and monitoring of development projects (example administering the environmental management plan, EMP, and other projects in sensitive geo-hazard prone areas). The Klang Valley has been well studied since the early 70s, by a number of regional plans studies, either in a comprehensive manner or from a single sector perspective (example transportation, drainage etc). All its local authorities have some form of planning document to guide their growth. There was also a need to sort out planning and coordination of infrastructural development given the fact that the valley contributes about 1/3 of the country's GDP. Indeed a Klang Valley Planning Secretariat was formed in the early 80s to deal with planning and coordination of large infrastructural projects (example highway infrastructure) and to act as a framework for other planning studies (in particular economic development plans, structure and local plans). Though this secretariat still exists today, its role and functions have been diluted with other administrative expediencies. It has since merged with the defunct Federal Territory Ministry office to become a division in the Prime Minister's Department. Thus a strong and unified regional planning authority for the Klang Valley does not exist.
(1) Planning Documents in the Klang Valley: Quality, Non-C Conformance and Lost of Regional Green Areas
Despite all eight local authorities having their own planning documents as a guide to good planning of development, the reality is that for a greater portion of the valley much haphazard development has already occurred in the late 80s and early 90s, especially those areas outside the local authority boundary. In particular the district of Petaling have seen rapid growth of both legal and illegal industries, squatters and housing projects. It was only recently that MPPJ and MPSJ (a new creation) and MBSA had extended its borders to cover the whole of the district. So despite the existence of the Petaling District Structure Plan, this has not deterred sprawl development into such outlying areas. One reason for this is the State Authority's prerogative in approving land development, using the power of the State over land 06
The quality of many of the structure plans too is in doubt. It is common knowledge that the strategies and development growth options of such plans are largely undertaken from a top-down approach with strong physical bias and a weak consideration of implementation mechanism and their uncertainties. Methods in generating such growth proposals and their evaluation appear to need much needed robust decision methodology. The past two decades shows no substantial progress in analytical methodology in its intelligent, design and evaluation stage (the certification of MS ISO 9001 in local planning notwithstanding). Structural and local planning issues are a mix of semi-structured and unstructured category and all are related in a system. Being a comprehensive plan, the structure plan attempts to tackle a wide range of issues (incorporating sectoral functions and utilitarian policies), all within a limited 2 years span of study (many of its implementation budget and schedule under different agencies). Its dominant linear decision context within the planning process has deceptively made plan making looks simple. As a result poor or non-existent application of conflict and uncertainty analysis methodology is a major drawback of such planning studies. The recent usage of matrix table for strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to assess conflicting policies is a welcome change, but is still a poor substitute for rigorous conflict analysis methodology.
â€œdespite..... having planning documents as a guide to good planning of development, the reality is that for a greater portion of the valley much haphazard development has already occurred in the late 80s and early 90s,â€?
The structure plan although giving the notion of sectoral integration, has persistently failed to mobilize the motivations, values and priorities of public as well as private sectors crucial roles in the implementation of the plan (especially its future spatial locations). The number of contacts and duration of communications within the planning process although having improved slightly (emanating from the recent planning legislative amendments) have yet to show substantive and genuine participatory involvement from various major stakeholders. Cross-sectoral linkages and implications of non-implementation of sectoral infrastructures were not properly examined. Despite adopting various working and steering committee format during the study process, such gaps in fulfilling realistic integration between various sectors and stakeholders still remain elusive.
â€œ A weak regard for regional policies and its spatial proposals, and overlapping land administration practices, all contributes to the current regional sprawl 'mayhem'... More importantly will local plans proposals be ambivalent towards such issues through propagating and playing to the tunes of market driven economy, and conversely giving haft-hearted and impractical environmental and recreational (green) policies to the plan? â€? technology to aid in the evaluation process for better decision-making. More importantly through SMCE, participatory processes could be realistically leverage in the decision-making context, thereby moving closer to transparency in the decision making processes in plan making (for more information on SMCE see the latest development within JPBD GSARD program).
(2) Land Administration and Planning Approval
Environmentalist, conservationist and resident associations have decried over the lack of open spaces including inter-connected or a regional green recreational area for the Klang Valley. Such green reserves also serve as nature reserves. But the burgeoning economic climate in the last decade has derided the green buffers recommended in the Klang Valley Perspective Plan of 1984. Forest areas have drop from about 10,000 hectares in 1985 to 3000 hectares in 1997. Today a sprawling urban development from Klang to Kuala Lumpur welcomes visitors to the Klang Valley. Earlier multi-nucleated or polycentric urban regional development framework has largely been forgotten, resulting in a corridor or ribbon development with hardly any discernable open green areas to clearly demarcate the leaving and arrival of an urban entity or its use as a recreational retreat of the urban population (save the last bastion of the forest and water catchments reserves in the foothills of the main range, even this has not been spared from development). A weak regard for regional policies and its spatial proposals, and overlapping land administration practices, all contributes to the current regional sprawl 'mayhem'. How well the national physical plan and the state structure plan handle this issues remains to be seen. More importantly will local plans proposals be ambivalent towards such issues through propagating and playing to the tunes of market driven economy, and conversely giving hafthearted and impractical environmental and recreational (green) policies to the plan? On paper things appear to look hopeful for sustainable development in the Klang Valley. Based on the latest amendment of the TCP Act, the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and social impact assessment (SIA) has been introduced for new structure and local planning studies. This will address some of the weaknesses in the sectoral integration process. For some of us, this may be too little too late given the fact at least 2/3 of the built-form of tomorrow already exists today. To make matter worst,much property development have obtained approval in the last few forested areas in the valleyâ€Śa subject of intense public oppositions and a looming protracted struggle (for sustainable development?). JPBD is currently working on institutionalising Spatial Multi-criteria Evaluation (SMCE) Methods for plan generation and evaluation into the development planning process. Such decision science methodology is currently been coupled with GIS
Unsustainable land development could also be attributable to the manner in which decisions are made. The National Land Code provides for the State in matters relating to administering change in land use category and ownership. Although administratively the relevant planning and infrastructural agencies are consulted, the decision of the State may not be tied to the recommendation of the structure or local plan. Thus at the local planning authority level, the use of land by an applicant may already have been approved by the State which need not be in conformity with the structure or local plan. This obviously creates imminent problems in land use conflicts either to existing land use or future use of adjoining land, which complies with the use, set in the structure or local planning document. Such dual authorities in regards the use of land at town planning level has caused much unnecessary conflict and deplorable consequences. Indeed such matters should be straightened out where planning considerations be settled earlier before decision on change of use is administered. A professional attitude towards land administration with compliance to planning documents would certainly reduce such unsustainable land administration; but institutional domain and power relation limits this possibility. It is also felt that detailed descriptions in the change of use (within the National Land Code) need not be explicitly stated, for they can be sufficiently settled within the local planning requirements. Similarly, the giving out of government land for certain category of activity ought to be in conformity with the local plan requirements.
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“Highways too dissect existing communities, leaving facilities on the other side and having to build overhead pedestrian bridges to connect them. All in all, the urban image of such networks are a picture of ‘geography of nowhere’ ”
Without such changes in legislature, confusions at the planning approval stage will persist when two separate authorities give differing conditions. In regard matters relating to application of the precautionary approach, the case of EIA provides illuminating examples where things can go awry. For those applications falling within the prescribed list, an application for subdivision may be approved subject to approval of the EIA by DOE. For their part, EIA are usually approved with the usual mitigating measures to ensure the project gets off the ground. Thereupon the administration of the EMP will be undertaken by the DOE and the concerned local authority. It is common knowledge (especially to developers) that the local authority and the DOE are in no capacity to monitor the various conditions imposed in the EIA. The number of cases whereby adjoining residential areas are put to risk, due to failure to comply with such mitigating measures are not isolated. This is an area requiring urgent attention, both at DOE and the local authority level. Federal and State government directives for greater efforts at monitoring such post approval activities are no deterrent and certainly not a solution to such curative urban problem. Within the planning approval process, project proposals are required to be submitted with the Development Proposal Document (LCP). Although such document should relate to the impact of the project and the nature of the geological features etc, this part of the report has been widely known to be of doubtful quality in their preparation. Related reasons to this are the small fee imposed to undertake such report and its consequent poor documentation of relevant analysis submitted by the developer's consultant. Monitoring of approved development in sensitive areas (either those approved prior to the administrative circular on hillside development or those that had their land use class approved by the State authorities for building) is poorly managed by local authorities, due to unavailability of adequate professional staff. Perhaps all is not lost, based on the recent amendment to the TCP Act (A1129), especially section 22(2A), has provided for referral of three
category of development to the National Physical Council (NPC) for advise. These refers to (1) proposed new towns with population more than 10,000 population or area exceeding 100 hectares, (2) major infrastructural facilities, and (3) development on top or hill slope within sensitive environmental area of a development plan. Following this, a regulatory role has been provided whereby a Regulatory Technical Committee has been approved by the NPC, headed by the Director General of JPBD. In conforming to this role, JPBD has reorganized its Legal, Planning and Regulatory Division with additional manpower. Follow-up administration of guidelines and procedures relating to processing of such prescribed list of development are currently on the way.
(3) Unsustainable Transportation: "A Geography Of Nowhere ?"
A classic example where there exists no creative integration between different sectors is the transportation system in the Klang Valley. The region is the most studied area in regards transportation planning. And what is common in all these studies is the recommendation for an autonomous authority on transportation for the Klang Valley or matters to that effect. But such recommendation goes against the structure of existing institutions. Politically it is unpalatable. Currently such roles are placed in different ministries. Thus substantive transportation solutions are implemented halfway or less. For example, light rail has been implemented for selected areas only leaving many congested routes still unchanged. New sprawling neighbourhoods are left with poor public transportation facilities, especially the Kuala Lumpur conurbation. Bad condition of buses, poor scheduling, and lengthy travel time due to congested routes are no incentive to encourage greater ridership; the light rails being an exception. Overcoming traffic congestion in the city and routes leading to the city has been a constant struggle by the government. Undoubtedly measures taken today are all curative and retrofitting in nature, i.e. double deck flyovers (at Subang/Sg.Way), elevated highway over the Klang River, elevated and underground light rail tracks etc. These are billion ringgit projects and the impact to traffic reduction is arguably small compared to growth in congested areas. The recent Kuala Lumpur Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (Smart) project also points to this costly curative process. Highways too dissect existing communities, leaving facilities on the other side and having to build overhead pedestrian bridges to connect them. All in all, the urban image of such networks are a picture of "geography of nowhere" in terms of neighbourhood image lacking safety and clean air quality. Retrofitted noise screens are obtrusive and do not contribute to a likeable community image as one passes from one 'taman' to another in a continuing row of double storey shophouses, flats, and punctuated by islands of wooden buildings,warehouses, hypermarkets and poorly sited schools and mosque along the highways (example Middle Ring Road 2).
Concluding remarks: Institutional and Legislative Reform...
Will the Klang Valley score high on the sustainability scale? Assuming no substantive change in land administration procedures (resolving the dual land administration) in regards approval of land use development at State level; the application of newer approaches in the local and structure planning; the continuing crisis management and retrofitting by the Federal and State agencies; and the gradual adoption of sustainable development strategies at State level; the resulting outcome will not change much, indeed a declining environmental situation may occur.
The Klang Valley secretariat has conducted a social impact study (TranSimpact 1999) to assess the impact of a number of highways and rails crossing such communities; this has culminated with a proposed participatory process framework and a software (TS-1, to assess its social impact) with a view to creatively handle such highway and rail planning and development issues in the future; but whether these can be institutionalised within the immediate future is a moot question; will participation of affected parties move beyond settlement of compensation and into the decision process itself?
Achieving sustainable land development indeed is a herculean tasks. For to aspire to achieve it (balancing economic, social and environmental objectives), would require the following key structural changes: a (radical) shift in land administration vis-à-vis resolving the dual administration of land use activities between the State and the local planning authorities, the establishment of a central authority on transportation for the Klang Valley; a professional and NCIT skilled human resource at the local authorities to handle processing and monitoring of projects; improvement to the quality of development plans in regards integration and coordination of various sectors vis-à-vis the formulation of realistic growth management strategies (a position needing extra demands on its formulation to bridge the various agencies and stakeholders); and a pro-active and efficient administration of the SPC with regards to matters which do not conform to gazetted development plans. Unless such features are in place, achieving sustainable land development will be an elusive dream.
Given the poor integration between land use development and transportation studies, the Klang Valley secretariat has recently initiated an integrated public transport system and land use development plan study, with a view to enhance and encourage usage of public transportation through harnessing existing and future transport nodes incorporating living, recreation and employment characteristics and appropriate transit built designs. More importantly, the study for the first time, introduced the spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) methodology to assess the various alternative routes from various stakeholders perspectives.
A number of readers will dispute such gloomy conclusion, by arguing that some state government has started work on sustainable development (producing a number of sustainable documents, and the State adoption of Sustainable Strategy and Agenda 21), and that at Federal level, data are been collected for the urban indicator programme, to measure level of sustainability for a number of towns. Such efforts are laudable, it is a beginning, but it is too little. For while the key structural prerequisites are not tackle head-on or seen as bypassing the heart of the conflict, such efforts and small beginning will be meaningless in climbing up the sustainability ladder. Of the key structural prerequisites, the establishment of a central transportation authority for Klang Valley, and the resolution of a dual land administration, will prove to be the most intractable to implement under existing political and administrative structures. An earlier version of his paper was presented at the National Seminar on Legal Regime of Sustainable Land use and EnvironmentalDevelopment, organised by the Land Tenure and Environmental Planning Unit (LATEC), International Islamic University Malaysia, 9 August 2003.
KAMALRUDDIN shamsudin. Kamalruddin (aka Kl'din) created the Geotechnical Spatial Analysis Research and Development (GSARD) programme in 2001 with the aim to institutionalise spatial analytical planning techniques and decision science methodologies in the planning service. He currently works on two research theme (town planning failures and successes; and the contribution of Charles Reade to town planning in Malaya). A 336-page compilation of his past articles, papers, booklet, speeches and planning ideas has recently been completed and kept at JPBD library.
1.Banister D, Button K and Nijkamp P (eds) (1999), “Environment, Land Use and Urban Policy”, “Environmental Analysis and Economic Policy 2”, An Elgar Reference Collection. 2.JPBD Selangor (2003), “Laporan Pemeriksaan Rancangan Struktur Negeri Selangor (20022020)”, JPBD Selangor. 3.JPBD dan LESTARI (2003), “Agenda 21 Selangor. Iltizam Selangor Kearah Pembangunan Mampan”, Kerajaan Negeri Selangor Darul Ehsan. 4. JPBD Semenanjung Malaysia “Geotechnical Spatial Analysis Research and Development (GSARD)” Website can be viewed at http://www.townplan.gov.my/eng/gsard/gsard.htm 5.Kenny M and Meadowcroft (eds) (1999), “Planning Sustainability”Routledge. 6.Kunstler JH (1993), “The Geography of Nowhere : The Rise and Decline of America's Man-made Landscape”, Simon and Schuster. 7.Layard A, Simin D and Batty S (eds) (2001), “Planning for a sustainable Future”. Spon press.
8.Macnaghten P and Pinfield G (1999), “Planning and Sustainable Development : Prospects For Social Change in Allmendinger P and Chapman M (eds) Planning Beyond 2000” ,Wiley. 9.Kamalruddin bin Shamsudin (2001), working paper on "Pembangunan Pengangkutan Transit Awam Dan Hubungannya Dengan Penggunaan Tanah : Cabaran dan Halangan Perlaksanaan di Lembah Klang" presented at the Klang Valley Region Metropolitan Policy Workshop organised by JPBD Selangor- Equatorial Hotel Bangi. 10.Miller D and Roo GD (eds) (1999), “Integrating City Planning and Environmental Improvement : Practicable Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development”, Ashgate. 11.Owens S and Cowell R (2002), “Land and Limits: Interpreting Sustainability in the Planning Process”, Routledge. 12.Salet W and Faludi A (eds) (2000), “The Revival of Strategic Spatial Planning. Proceedings of the Colloquium, Amsterdam, 25-26 February 1999”, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.
ISSUE.01/ VOL.01/ SEPT 2003
Emerging Town Planning Issues Confronting The Unprepared JAMIL ahmad firstname.lastname@example.org Research and Development Division Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia
"The fact that globalisation has come does not mean we should just sit by and watch as the predators destroy us"
Dato'Seri Dr Mahathir bin Mohamad (Globalisation and New Realities)
Abstract Town planning in Malaysia has always been saddled with housekeeping exercises and "ad hoc" programmes so much so that the original aim of planning itself that involves the formulation of comprehensive pre-emptive measures has been sidelined. Current planning practices in Malaysia be it planning guidelines or development plan format are actually having more remedial objectives than being futuristic in nature. The lack of insight into things to come due to a strong grip in doing the traditional way in planning are some of the factors contributing to this state of affairs. Emphasising in newer approaches (although are nothing new elsewhere) in planning with such techniques such as scenario writing, operational research, scientific methods in planning are much needed. Current and emerging trends in technology in communication and other sciences will have a big impact on future planning practices. Thinking in 3 dimensional planning platforms, sophisticated planning support system such as What if, MultiCriteria Decision Making processes, Carrying Capacities and Ecological Footprints and reinventing planning approaches are some of the topics being discussed. Trends in lifestyle, globalisation and cross country protocol and even global terrorism have been emerging issues confronting planners in developed countries and everywhere else...
Preamble The future has always been a preoccupation with futurists while predictions are the ramblings of a fool Planning, however, is an act that concerns the future! But planners are no fools unless they are blind to the emerging trends that will shape the way we think, live and play. Trends do not appear in a flash but invades our presence in an unseemingless fashion. By the time one realized it, we are already dancing to the tune of change. Changes in the way we have to think, live and play are an inevitable force that one has to cope. However, the most important question is whether we are prepared for such changes? Resisting change will only be worthwhile if the majority of the populace are with us, and at the end of the day it is dollars and sense that will determine the final decision.
Current Thinking and Actions
Town Planning in Malaysia has a rich history of problem solving approaches. Disasters trigger sets of planning guidelines and developments plans cater for the minimization of man made catastrophes. A majority of the planning guidelines prepared are actually directives from the Cabinet as a result of mishaps or a court's decision. An ap propriate example is the guidelines on rooftop gardens and development on highlands (see appendix 1) although on paper, Structure Plans and Local Plans have the general notion that it is devised for the future, in actual sense it is merely a set of actions that is more remedial to past and current issues than pre-emptive ones. Keeping abreast with current trends in planning in the developed nations have always been the privileges of a few selected professionals. Making the knowledge of such changing practises and future proposals widely available to other planners and decision makers would be an important agenda as far as the FDTCP (Federal Department t of Town and Country Planning) is concern. Planners are often caught "flat footed" in tackling fast changing issues. As an example current planning guidelines on telecommunication towers are unable to cope for the fast changing technology making it obsolete and causing unsightly structures that bemoans both the Cabinet and the public.
The New City Century 9, Quatrain 92
â€œThe king will want to enter the new city, Through its enemies they will come to subdue it, Captives liberated to speak and act falsely, King to be outside, he will keep far from the enemyâ€? Nostradamus
So what are the major world changes in the years to come facing the planning fraternity that will have major impact in the way we do our plans?
able to anticipate any changes that will best suit the nation. At the same time master plans and planning guidelines being formulated will not be made redundant and irrelevant by such moves.
The emerging issues are:
Globalisation And CrossCountry Protocol Definition: According to the UNESCO's world Communication Report (1997) globalisation refers to a
"Concept originating in Anglo-Saxon countries which refers to the increasingly worldwide nature of industrial production and trade, caused by the rapid development of new information and communication technology, and the instant, planetary transmission of their content."
In 1997, 160 countries met in Kyoto Japan to negotiate binding limitations for gaseous release by developed countries to reduce greenhouse effect. Curtailing the number of polluting and ozone depleting utilities as CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) emitting devices are one of the major breakthrough achieved. However, the United States of America agreed to limit gas emissions by 7% from the period 2008 to 2012. With the advent of Globalisation and other multilateral agreement such as the Rio Declaration (Agenda 21) on sustainability, Planners will have to keep abreast with the current as well as emerging cross country protocols that will effect their planning practices.
Impact of Globalisation and International Pacts on Planning
The opening of our doors on the front of trade, environmental and other sectoral agreements will definitely shape the form and content of development plans. No longer will the plans be rigid in their approach but flexible enough to cater for International regulations and requirements. The effect of trade liberalization will see bigger players more free to take over smaller industries as such the numbers and other projections by planners will have to be relooked in the light of such situation. Dato' Seri Dr Mahathir Mohamad himself time and time again in his series of talks and books caution us about this predicament 1. Planners have to be in touch with the latest trade agreement and other international protocol so as to be
The advent of AFTA in 2005 will definitely have an impact on transportation planning and the overall master plan's projection on land use if the cross-country protocol will cause a surge in car ownership and thus affecting the travelling pattern of Malaysians. Or will cheaper cars be just a dream if protectionist strategies are in place to safeguard the National Automobile Industry?
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Measures In Gearing The Civil Services Into Venturing In A K-Economy. A. Developing Human Resources Recommendation 1: Develop management of human resources based on competency Recommendation 2: Attract some of the best brains into public service. Recommendation 3: Improve training policy and strengten training programmes. Recommendation 4: Strengthen support infrastructure for training. Recommendation 5: Inculate stronger thinking skills and a culture of innovation by 2005 Recommendation 6: Develop a management system. Recommendation 7: Enhance transparency. Recommendation 8: Strengthen capacity for policy analysis and R&D. Recommendation 9: Improve English language capabilities. B. Reform of Structure and Organisation Recommendation 10:Introduce flexible, flatter,non-hierarchical structures. Recommendation 11:Recognise the public sector. C. Reform of Work Progress Recommendation 12:Intoduce more efficient work processes. D. Absorption and Application of ICT Recommendation 13:Address ICT shortfalls and introduce improvement Figure 1: Source: Knowledge based economy Master Plan 2000
How Ready Are We for the Knowledge Based Economy ?
Malaysia's journey towards becoming a k-economy began when vision 2020 was launched in February 1991. For the purpose of this paper, Malaysia knowledge based economy is defined as an economy in which knowledge, creativity and innovation play an ever-increasing and important role in generating and sustaining growth. 1Some of the measures in gearing the civil service into venturing in a k-economy are; (Figure 1) The above strategies to reshape the public service, which include the planning profession obviously need a quick transformation not only in provision of adequate and appropriate physical infrastructure but most important would be preparing oneself mentally to cater for such a knowledge based era. The Federal Town and Country Planning Department have in fact answered to the call partly to equip herself to k-economy by strengthening not just the Research and Development Division but other divisions in line with the emerging changes of the Information and Communication Technology age.
Emerging Trends in the Town and Country Planning Legislations
The Town And Country Planning Act (Act 172) has gone substantial modifications and amendments ever since its inception in 1976.The act is a useful "tool" to reflect whether planning activity in Malaysia is pre-emptive or reactive. Some of the amended provisions reflects the reactive nature of planning as in the following examples; Section 12(3): Act 933 (a) formulate, in such details as the local planning authority thinks appropriate, its proposals for: (iii) the protection and improvement of the physical environment of; (iv) the preservation of the natural topography of; (v) the improvement of the landscape of; (vi) the preservation and planting of trees in." Part VA, section 38H The emphasis on the protection of the environment is a result of a series of natural and manmade disasters such the Highland Towers tragedy in 1993,the water crisis in Klang Valley on 1993 and the rapid depletion of water catchment and forest reserves. Section 2A.(I)Act 1129 â€œThere shall be established a National Physical Planning Council...â€?
The Role of the National Physical Planning Council (NPPC)
The most recent (Sept 2001) amendments to the Planning Act which looks more preemptive are actually reactive in nature. The formation of The National Physical Planning Council, the preparation of the National Spatial Plan, and the creation of
Regional PlanningCommittees are actually long over due! Having said that, it should be noted that Malaysia is one of the few nations in the world to have a National Physical Plan with the Prime Minister at the helm..With the latest amendments to include provisions in Heritage protection, planning in this country has join the league of developed nations where conservation planning have actually been long in practice. While it is commendable that provisions is enshrined in the Planning Act towards the protection of the environment, the actual implementation and monitoring on the ground is indeed a monumental task to follow.
Scientific Approaches To Planning Evaluation And Formulation
The current approaches in our development plans as explicitly manifested in the 1st and 2nd generation (between 1980 to 2000) Structure Plans and Local Plans, the formulation of Key Diagrams and Proposals Maps, uses conventional techniques in evaluating best proposed uses of the land. A manual approach in evaluating land budget based on population projections was the practise in formulating key diagrams and proposal maps. Unfortunately this approach could not cope with the ever dynamics of the market forces and in Klang Valley alone non compliance of the Local Authority's Structure Plans is about 40% deviation from the original uses proposed in the Key Diagrams.9 With the help of GIS applications and Land Use Modelling techniques named ILA or Integrated Land Assessment being developed in Klang Valley Planning Secretariat it is possible to predict and simulate future trends in the land uses (see diagram 1)
Scenario generating programmes such as MIKE 11 and Watershed for floods prediction and What If for land use scenarios and Multi Criteria Decision Analysis which is an offshoot of Operational Research will give the town planners a wider scope in determining better and more appropriate future use of the land. These scientific approaches are and will be an integral part of the planning process in the future.
Diagram 1 :Criteria used in Integrated Landuse Assesment for Environmentally Sensitive areas in Gombak District Selangor .(BKWWPLK) 2002 - Source:AGISWLK 2002
Currently the Research and Development Division under the coordination of Researcher Kamalruddin Shamsuddin is embarking vigorously on the GSARD programme (Geotechnical Spatial Analysis Research and Development) incorporating spatial analysis methods in plan formulations (http://www.townplan.gov.my/eng/gsard/gsard.htm)
Diagram 2 : Land Suitability analysis using locality as a criterion in ILA ( Source:AGISWLK 2002)
Thinking In 3D
The usage of Geographical Information System (GIS) in planning is a standard practise in most planning organizations. Many GIS based applications are already "matured"systems such as AGIS Wlk (GIS for Klang Valley Region), PEGIS (Penang GIS) and DEGis (Selangor GIS), which have undergone a decade of progress. One of the basic components or applications in any GIS based planning system is land use. A standardized land use classification will be of utmost necessity if the Geographical Information system is to involve interfacing with other GIS based planning systems. MAGDI (Malaysian Geospatial Data Infrastucture ) is in the midst of producing an international code
Reinventing Planning Approaches of land use classification. The work of the American Planning Association in formulating a 3Dimensioanl land use classification in line with the GIS application in the country makes sense since GIS are basically data kept in layers and are such more easily categorized and retrievable. The existing cornucopia of land use categories among local authorities and in the currently 2-dimensional form is complicated since the categories tend to infuse and mix hierarchical structure of land with feature classes and status of land use. A 3D classification will ease reading and interpretation as one can easily decipher categories by GIS layers without cluttering many emblems and logos to depict their uses. (see diagram 3)
1. An Integrated Regional Master Plans for All Agencies.
The existing "line of command" for the implementation of Regional Master Plans and other non statutory Plans have sometimes been accused of leaning towards Town Planning Department centric; in other words master plans formulation tend to cater for planning departments requirement rather than other related agencies. Taking for example the Klang Valley Perspective Plan, approaches, the Plan was formulated by the Klang Valley Planning Division with consultation of the various key Government Agencies. However some government agencies within the Klang Valley also undertake their own planning programmes not in
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Features Diagram 3: American Planning Associations Landbased Classification Standard using a 3D Approach
Land-Based Classification Standards LBCS Activity Residential activities Shopping, business or trade activities Industrial, manufacturing and waste-related activities Social, institutional or infrastructure-related activities Travel or movement activities Mass assembly of people Leisure activities Natural resource-related activities No human activity or unclassitiable activity
LBCS Function Residence or accomodation functions General Sales or services Manufacturing and wholesale trade Transportation, communication, information, and utilities Arts, entertainment and recreation Education, public amin., health care, other inst. Construction-related businesses Mining and extraction establishments Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting
LBCS Structure Residential buildings Commercial buildings and other specialized structions Public assembly structures Institutional or community facilities Transportation-related facilities Utility and other nonbuilding structures Military installations Sheds, farm buildings or agricultural facilities No structure
LBCS Site Developed site Developed site with a structure - building Developed site with a structure - nonbuilding Developed site that is functional (crops, storage etc.) Developed site that is primarily ornamental (landscape) Developed site that is functional and ornamental (park) Developed site that is graded Site with temporary structure Site in natural state
LBCS Site Ownership No constraints - private ownership Some constraints - easements or restricted use Limited restrictions - leased or tenancy restrictions Public restrictions - local, state, federal ownership Other public use restrictions - regional, special district Nonprofit ownership restrictions Joint ownership character - public entities Joint ownership character - public, private, nonprofit etc. Not applicable to this dimension
conformity with the strategies outline the Perspective Plan. A rethinking of the whole planning format and approaches is underway to make the Regional Master Plan more integrated and action oriented. The "overlapping function" of the Selangor State Structure Plan will make the Perspective Pelan redundant unless The Klang Valley Planning Secretariat seriously reinvent the current form and content and implementation mechanism. What is more important the modus operandus for implementing the strategies which involves monitoring and periodical review should be the focus of the Klang Valley Planning Secretariat In the context of formatting, there should no longer be a one single volume of Perspective Plan exclusively by and of the" Prime Minister Department but ideally would include Perspective Plan of the Drainage and Irrigation Department and other relevant implementing agencies. Each sub Perspective Plan then will contain strategies and programmes of the relevant Departments in line and in consonant to the main strategies of the MainPerspective Plan Report. The main task of the Klang Valley Planning Secretariat then will be outlining main physical planning policies and broad framework and monitoring of the strategies and disbursement of funds for the implementation of programmes by the various agencies.
â€œThe best mismatch example between land use and transportation network that result in a "lose lose situation" is the Midvalley Shopping Megacomplex and the Putra LRT line that does not meet.â€?
2. Emerging Retail Development and Shopping Patterns
The recent mushrooming of big retail establishments in the urban areas in particular and the property overhang in general reflects the 'inability' of the current development plans to cope with ever changing economic scenarios. The input of big corporate players in the plan making formulation in an effective manner could be one of the reasons for such inadequacies. The issue of giant retail multinationals in the form of hypermarkets especially in the Klang Valley recently warrant a full review by planners at large. The Cabinet in May 2002 have directed that no more hypermarkets should be approved pending proper guidelines. Existing Structure and Local Plans do not designate areas for major retail outlets. As such, application of hypermarket is either targeting existing commercial zones in Structure Plans or green field areas within close housing estates. Is the whole Structure Plans and Local Plans too long in its preparation stage? Should the whole plan making process not be regimented by legal provisions? Are the public participation activities just superficial formality? These are the questions constantly being asked by planners and other parties affected by the Plans. 3. The Potential of Sequential Approach in Planning
Structure Plans and Local Plans should incorporate clear Shopping hierarchies in the Plans. In the United Kingdom and most Europe Local Plans designate areas meant for Hypermarket and Super Stores. PPG 6 (Planning Policy Guidelines) or directives by the Secretary of State for The Environment and Planning in the United Kingdom details out the use of Sequential Approach in retail Planning. Sequential Approach11 determine the areas meant for retail and shopping activities within and out of town sites according to demand and time phase. In other words before a major retail outlet such as a hypermarket can be approved by local authority a market study has to be conducted to warrant such an establishment is necessary and viable at that time. In this case the private sector is actively involve in the plan making process of the Local Plan. In determining the number of hypermarkets viable at one time for an area, or their saturation point, Sequential Approach can be used as an effective tool. This control mechanism coupled with an integrated approach with public and transportation policies will give optimal use of the land. The Regional Structure and Local Plans however must detail out clear policies on shopping and commercial activities. The vibrancy of the inner city centre must be ensured while formulating "out of town shopping policies". A proper balance in distributing commercial and real estates zones must be studied and translated in clear policies and guidelines. 4. Increasing the Role of the Private Sector in Planning
The role of the private sector and other agencies involves in the planning process must further enhanced in a more integrated manner and upgrade to a better-coordinated situation. The best mismatch example between land use and transportation network that result in a "lose lose situation" is the Midvalley Shopping Megacomplex and the Putra LRT line that does not meet. Common sense shows that lack of planning coordination existed in the creation of such planning folly thus the need to reinvent existing planning approaches and methodology must be undertaken. Perhaps the National Physical Planning Council can address this uncoordination in planning for the nation's interest.
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â€œUnderlying sustainability concept in new planning approaches is being looked into by planners formulating development plans. The initiative of the Selangor State Government especially The State Town and Country Planning Department together with the Malaysian Institute of Planning in the formulation of Sustainable Community Guidelines.â€?
Transit Oriented Development And New Urbanism
Major cities in the world where land is expensive have been advocating and implementing the principles of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) where high density land use are centred around transit stations for higher accessibility and at the same time retaining and maintaining ecological balance in other green areas for future use. Toronto, Curitiba, Singapore and Munich are some of the major cities that have embarked on this philosophy of sustainability. Klang Valley is the new kid on the block to embrace such planning principle as outlined in the Klang Valley Perpective Plan 2000-2020. With its 3 principles of Safety, Healthy and Wealthy other major conurbations in the country are expected to join these league of sustainable cities. Transit Oriented Development should also be coupled with other planning control mechanisms such preferential infill development, increasing density measures around transit nodes, bonus plot ratios and inner city parking measures. Optimisation of land utilization to avoid wastage which could result in property overhang is the basis of current and emerging planning models and initiatives. Underlying sustainability concept in new planning approaches is being looked into by planners formulating development plans. The initiative of the Selangor State Government especially The State Town and Country Planning Department together with the Malaysian Institute of Planning in the formulation of Sustainable Community Guidelines. This pilot project called Komuniti Sejahtera augurs well for the country. The elements of new urbanism and smart growth is being studied to be part and parcel of new Structure and Local Plans being prepared by the Department. Urban sprawl and uncontrollable development is a phenomenon that will face this country if development zones as delineated in Structure Plans and Local Plans are not being adhered to. Over approving of planning permissions outside development zones should be a thing of the past if planning is to be effective. Effective "realtime" monitoring of property development in the country should the ideal goal of the nation.
Sustainability And Carrying Capacities
China planners are in the midst of vigorously reviewing their masterplans to accommodate millions who want to settle in the urbanfringes where housing units are more spacious and healthy.
The second Klang Valley Perspective Plan (2000-2020) puts heavy emphasis on Transit Oriented Development and infill development while proposing a 6 million population for the Valley by 2020.While the Valley can accommodate more population but at the expense of more green spaces including environmentally sensitive areas, the Plan advocate studies in carrying capacities measures based on future supply of water and to create a sustainable balance of development. Two important Studies: The (Sustainable)Quality of Life Indicators Study and the Integrated Transportation and land use Study is being undertaken. It is also recommended that an Ecological Footprint measures be formulated for major urban agglomeration in the country. An Ecological footprint study will indicate the status or rate of environmental depletion that is the cost of our lifestyle. The FTCPD is also undertaking a Sustainable Urban Indicators Study (Murninet). In the future, these sustainable indicators will be an integral part of running a local authority or a planning organization.
Virus And Planning
The recent outbreak of SARS not only have a profound effect on the tourism industry but many other aspects of human life. In China the outbreak of SARS resulted in many fatalities in closed knit, densely inner city areas. As a response the China planners are in the midst of vigorously reviewing their masterplans to accommodate millions who want to settle in the urban fringes where housing units are more spacious and healthy. The unprecedented occurrence of such devastating global biological catastrophe has caught many planners worldwide off guard. The irony of it all is that the discipline of modern town planning originated from sanitary and health problems in the late 19th century England.
Emerging Technologies 1. Telecommunication
The current Information and Communication Technology (ICT) age is already seeing some exciting innovations with the migration from the analogue to digital. format Now not only can we receive sound signals using microwave but also transfer of data at high speed. WAP over GPRS is the current exciting consumer facilities. With the coming 3G, 4G, 5G or future generation telecommunication technology speedier and greater transfer of video, text and audio is possible. Wi Fi or wireless technology is already making inroads in advanced countries and will be the latest phenomenon in this country in the coming years. The laying of Hotspots or communications nodes in public areas will affect the Planning Guidelines on communication and technology. While unsightly telecommunication antenna and receivers cluttered the Malaysian skyline except in Putrajaya and Cyberjaya the Island paradise of Bali uses satellite network for its mobile phones users making their architectural aesthetics intact and devoid of such intrusions. 2. Nanotechnology
One of the most exciting scientific fields that is getting growing attention is Nanotechnology Advancement in research of this technological field involves heavy investment because new technology gives cutting edge advantage to nations. A huge investment has been put aside in the United States and Japan to undertake further long-term research in nanotechnology dubbed THE technology of the 21st century. Nanotechnology will be the next Industrial Revolution preceding this age of Information Technology. As a philosophy, this emerging fields of nanoscale science, engineering and technology-the ability to work at the molecular level, atom by atom, to create large structures with fundamentally new properties and function are leading to unprecedented understanding and control over basic building blocks and properties of all natural and man made things. Nanotechnology is synonymous with the works of Dr K .Eric Drexler but the term is actually coined by Professor Norio Taniguchi in 1974. Nanoscience works at the smallest level a bout a billionth of a metre and each nanometer is 4 atoms wide! Some of the most promising potential of nanotechnology exists due to the laws of quantum physics. Quantum physics laws take over at this scale, enabling novel applications in optics, electronics, magnetic storage, computing, catalysts, and other areas. The basic principles involves in nanotechnology is the ability to reassemble atomic structure of things to produce another physical shape much like genetic engineering and manipulation of DNA. In some local authorities in the United Kingdom, conferences on the impact of nanotechnology has already been organized (see http://www.egovmonitor.com./newsletter), MINITEC a research Institute in Grenoble France is also aggressively pursuing reaseach into nanotechnology, photonics and micro technology. It is also heartening to know that Local Universities are giving increasing attention to this emerging field namely the University Science Malaysia, Universiti Putera Malaysia and the National University Malaysia and the University of Technology Malaysia. The National University of Malaysia have even set up an Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMENS)and is embarking on incubator joint projects with Telekom Malaysia. Research labs the various Universities are dedicated to the field of microtechnology, photonics and nanotechnology.
Diagram 3: Nanogears no more than a nanometer wide could be used to construct a matter compiler, which could be fed raw material to arrange atoms and build a macro-scale structure
3. Potential of Nanotechnology
Prof Drexler's prophecies7 about the potential and dangers of nanotechnology gives an exciting insight into the science fiction or facts of tomorrow and will have a profound effect of the planning systems in the world. Some of the startling predictions are; > Nearly free consumer products > PC's billions of times faster than today > Safe and affordable space travel > Virtual end to illness, aging > No more pollution and automatic cleanup of existing pollution > End of famine and starvation > Superior education for every child on Earth > Reintroduction of many extinct plants and animals > Terraforming Earth and the Solar System
a. Nearly free consumer products Nanotechnology according to the proponents will enable using nanoscale assemblers and nano devices which can replicate itself and produce no waste as a result. As such there will be no need to have money since most material things are relatively free. Working for money will no longer be relevant and there will be no more offices and shops. Commercial spaces will be a thing of the past. Since most consumer materials will be easily transformed into other items there will be no waste. There will therefore be no need for incinerators and sanitary landfill.
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b. PC's billions of times faster than today The most powerful supercomputer will be the size of a grain of sugar and will use microorganism as its chips. Storing of data into nanoscale computers will mean the whole books in the national Library can be stored in a computer hardisk the size of a grain of sugar! Everybody will have their own supercomputer built within their bodies and computers is ubiquitous in future world. This highly sophisticated world of computer linkages to everything we do is often called evernet is not an impossible scenario.
If such a future will be in store it will make our current planning practise redundant and irrelevant. The seriousness of advanced countries in research into nanotechnology is reflected in the amount of money invested. As an example the 2003 budget by the United States Government in nanotechnology research and development amounted to US 710 million involving multiple agencies from Defence to Agriculture.7 The most significant question now is when will we get to see all these utopian dreams? Although some applications are in already in reality like the tunnelling microscope and MIPS chips in PDA's, as well as the stain repellent Steve Bauer Nano care Khakis. The Foresight Institute a non-profitable organisation founded by Dr Drexler predict such possibilities in 5 to 50 years12. What an exciting new world! Wallahhuallam! However, while the benefits of this radical technology might bring greater prosperity to Earth there are dangers that comes with a little knowledge. Nanoweapons that can disintegrate human molecule as popularise in science fiction movies such as Star Trek is also possible!
c. Safe and affordable space travel The use of carbon filament made from carbondioid the lightest as well as the hardest material known to man will make space travel and levitation possible. Would that spell the demise of vehicular tyres?
What Should Planners Do?
d. End of famine and starvation The possibility in restructuring atomic structures of common materials to form another physical form such as food means there will be less dependence on land to grow food. The implication will be the need to control population explosion as a result. Population projection will take new dimension in development plans if such a need a rise. e. Terraforming Earth and Solar systems This is the most exciting prospects with nanotechnology. The prediction that there will be an end to pollution and cleanup of existing mess is a planners dream and utopia. Terraforming Earth means using self replicating processes it is possible to replenish Earth in its Greenery. Deserts can be turn to huge tropical Amazons. JAMIL ahmad Jamil Ahmad is currently the senior assistant director at the Research and Development Division Federal Town and Country Planning Department.His 25 years of experience in the planning profesion includes stint at the Spatial Planning Division, State director for Perlis and Penang and City Planner for Ipoh.He was also seconded to the National University as the resident planner as well as the Principal Assistant Secretary at the Klang Valley Planning Council.He has written and delivered many papers including at International level, the most recent at the 7th CUPUM (Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management) conference in Hawaii in 2001.
Planners should read and take note of things to come, there are abundant of resources both virtually and in the conventional form.
> OPEN MIND! Planners should have an open mind to things but should NOT evade reading materials "sensitive "to their belief. However one should not be too gullible in reading materials and easily convinced over what they read. Giving opportunity to see the other side of things before making a decision is an adil practise. > THINK GLOBAL!
The coming era will see more interaction and interfacing with the outside world. No longer the adage "FROG UNDER THE COCONUT SHELL" applicable in this age if we want to progress. Learn what the outside world is doing and adopt and improve on their technology.
> SELF CRITICAL!
Planners must never be satisfied with their work and would want to improve on their professionalism. Planners must never be afraid to invent and be creative to new things and methodology if they want to play on equal playing ground with their International counterparts.
An earlier version of his paper was presented at the National Seminar on Legal Regime of Sustainable Land use and EnvironmentalDevelopment, organised by the Land Tenure and Environmental Planning Unit (LATEC), International Islamic University Malaysia, 9 August 2003.
References 1.Dr Seri Mahathir Mohamed: “Globalisation and
7.M.c Rocco NSF: “National Nanotechnology
New Realities”, Pelanduk Publications 2000
Investment in the FY 2003 Budget Request by the
2.Stretegic Initiative One of the 2151 Century:
President”, National Nanotechnology Initiative See:
“Knowledge based economy Master Plan”
Economic Planning Unit Prime Minister's Department
8.A global inquiry, Robert Cervero: “The Transit
Metropolis”, Island Press Wahington 1998
3.Arthur C Clarke: “July 20, 2019 Life in the 2151
9.Federal territory Development and Klang Valley
Century”, Omni Book Publishing Com pany New
Planning Division “Klang valley Perspective
Plan 2”, Prime Ministers Department. 2000
4.Nik Rairi Omar ,Arena Che Kasim,Azima Abdul
10. Application for Geographical Information System
Manaf,Suhana Saad: “Pembangunan Abad ke 21 :
for Klang Valley: “AGISWLK”, Federal Territory
beberapa Perbincangan Falsafah dan
Development and Klang Valley Planning Division
Peradaban”, Fakulti Sains Sosial dan
Prime Minister Department. 2000
11.CB Hillier Parker : “The Sequential Approach to
5.Mohamed Jamil Ahmad: “Penggunaan Teknik
Retail Development”, Report on a National;
Pemetaan Terrain (Terrain Mapping) Dalam
Research Project for The National Retail Planning
Analisa Pembangunan DiTanah Tinggi Dan
Forum British Council of Shopping Centres
Lereng Bukit di Lembah Klang”, Bahagian
Department of the Environment, Transport and The
Kemajuan Wilayah Persekutuan dan Perancangan
Regions Jan 2000
12. “The Foresight Institute Webpage”,
6.Jack Malczewski : “GIS and Multicriteria
Decision Analysis”, John Wiley & Sons 1999
Konsep dan Proses E-SUBMISSION dalam Permohonan Perancangan
NOR SALLEHI Kassim (email@example.com) Bahagian Rancangan Fizikal Negara Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia
Abstrak: Tujuan kertas kerja ini ialah untuk menerangkan cadangan konsep dan proses e-submission yang melibatkan aplikasi permohonan/kelulusan perancangan. Kertas kerja ini akan menumpukan kepada konsep dan proses yang dipraktikkan oleh Pihak Berkuasa Perancangan Tempatan (PBT) dan Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Negeri (JPBD) di dalam memproses permohonan perancangan secara manual dan kemudiannya akan meneliti contoh-contoh pelaksanaan sistem e-submission sediada dan kesesuaiannya untuk digunakan oleh PBT dan JPBD Negeri. Satu konsep sistem e-submission dicadangkan dengan mengambilkira pemakaiannya secara menyeluruh dan dijadikan asas di dalam merangka sistem e-submission, diperbaiki dan diperluaskan skopnya.
Konsep pemohonan kebenaran merancang secara elektronik ini merupakan satu proses mengemukakan sesuatu permohonan kepada Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan (PBT) dan Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Negeri (JPBD) untuk kelulusan. Jika dahulunya proses permohonan dibuat secara manual tetapi dengan perkembangan teknologi komputer dan disokong oleh perisian yang mudah, kebanyakkan PBT dan JPBD Negeri telah mula mengalih kepada keperluan penyediaan dan penghantaran kebenaran merancang secara elektronik. Ianya bukanlah satu proses atau prosidur yang baru tetapi yang membezakan diantara e-submission dan penyerahan secara manual (manual submission) ialah e-submission diproses secara on-line. Sungguh pun terdapat pelan-pelan masakini diserahkan dengan menggunakan perisian AutoCad oleh pemohon ke PBT dan JPBD, namun keluarannya masih dicetak dalam bentuk hard copy sebelum diedarkan kepada Ahli-ahli Jawatankuasa Teknikal yang terlibat di dalam proses kelulusan. Walaubagaimana pun proses secara elektronik seperti penyerahan, penyemakan dan penghantaran secara on-line ini masih belum dilaksanakan sepenuhnya. Sungguh pun demikian, dewasa ini terdapat juga beberapa PBT dan JPBD Negeri sedang giat dan telah membangunkan konsep e-submission mereka, seperti PBT Kulim, JPBD Selangor, Planning Application System (SEPAS) dan yang terbaharu melibatkan Majlis Daerah Sepang yang sedang di dalam proses membangunkan Virtual Approval Environment (VAE).
Sesuatu permohonan untuk kebenaran merancang berkenaan dengan sesuatu pemajuan hendaklah dibuat kepada pihak berkuasa perancang tempatan dan hendaklah mengikut bentuk dan mengandungi butir-butir dan disertakan dengan dokumen-dokumen, pelan-pelan dan bayaran yang ditetapkan (Akta Perancangan Bandar dan Desa 1976 , Seksyen 21). Pada kebiasaannya, permohonan perancangan yang diterima dikategorikan dalam tiga jenis iaitu, permohonan tukar syarat, pecah sempadan dan pecah bahagian. Permohonan tukar syarat, mendirikan bangunan dan cantuman diterima dari semua Majlis Daerah / PBT untuk ulasan teknikal. Bagi tanah yang berkeluasan 5 ekar keatas, pemohon adalah disyarat menyediakan Laporan Cadangan Pemajuan (LCP). Selain dari itu di dalam mengendalikan permohonan perancangan, Khidmat Nasihat Perancangan dikaunter juga diberi pada orang ramai untuk membuat pertanyaan berhubung dengan kesesuaian dan potensi tanah. Nasihat dan panduan yang diberikan adalah berpandukan kepada maklumat Rancangan Struktur dan Rancangan Tempatan sebagai dokumen rujukan utama. Permohonan yang dirujuk akan disemak dengan kehendak perancangan berpandu kepada Akta 172, Kanun Tanah Negara, Undang-Undang Kecil Bangunan Seragam 1984, Garispanduan, Piawaian dan dasardasar yang berkaitan.Prosidur memproses permohonan adalah seperti ditunjukkan di Rajah 1.
Sungguh pun proses kebenaran merancang dilihat sebagai a straight forward process, ia dari masa kesemasa menghadapi tekanan apabila permohonan yang dibuat makin bertambah dan timbul isu-isu yang lebih kompleks. Justeru itu pihak PBT dan JPBD Negeri mengalami masalah backlog kerana ia mengambil masa yang lama untuk menyediakan pelan, membuat pindaan dan mengemaskini data dan maklumat. Berdasarkan masalah-masalah tersebut, beberapa JPBD Negeri telah mengorak langkah memperkemaskan proses permohonan perancangan mereka. Sebagai contoh JPBD Negeri Terengganu, Perak dan Kedah telah mempertingkatkan proses permohonan perancangan mereka, dimana kesemua pelan-pelan dibuat dengan menggunakan komputer dalam format ACAD. Walaubagaimana pun keluarannya masih dalam bentuk hard copy. Namun kaedah ini didapati memberi banyak kelebihan seperti mengeluarkan pelan susunatur yang menarik, mudah dipinda, fleksibel dan menjimatkan masa ( JPBD Terengganu ). Apa yang pasti proses dan pendekatan ini menampakkan usaha-usaha untuk membentuk asas (foundation) di dalam menyokong penyediaan pelan berdigital pada masa hadapan. Sungguh pun demikian, terdapat beberapa kelemahan mengenai proses permohonan perancangan kaedah CAD Drawing ini. Seperti dinyatakan di dalam kertas-kerja Unit Bank Data, JPBD Semenanjung Malaysia (Februari 2000), memang benar tiada terdapat proses yang menyeluruh kearah memperlengkapkan proses kebenaran merancang secara elektronik ini. Ia adalah berasaskan perkara-perkara berikut: 1. ACAD Drawing diguna hanya untuk menghasilkan pelan. Ianya satu proses dimana dahulunya menggunakan kertas surih diganti dengan sistem pendigitan berkomputer. 2. Proses rujukan kepada kajian Rancangan Struktur dan Rancangan Tempatan di buat secara merujuk kepada laporan sahaja.
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Rajah 1: Proses Permohonan Kebenaran Merancang (Sumber: Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Negeri Terengganu) Pemohon
Jabatan Teknikal JPBD, TNB, JKR, JPS
(JPBD) Penerimaan / Pendaftaran Surat
Tindakan Bhg. Teknik
Terima Fail Permohonan Tukar Syarat
Terima Fail Kebenaran Merancang (LCP) Jika Perlu
Terima Fail Permohonan Mendirikan Bangunan
Catatan / Semakan
Catatan / Semakan
Catatan / Semakan
Lawatan Tapak Jika Perlu
Lawatan Tapak Jika Perlu
Perbincangan (Jika Perlu)
Membuat Pindaan Jika Perlu
Sediakan Pelan Rangkaian Jalan
Membuat Pindaan Jika Perlu
Sediakan Draf Jawapan
Tandatangan dan Menghantar Jawapan
3. Permohonan disemak di bawah kehendak Akta 172, Kanun Tanah Negara, Undang-Undang Kecil Bangunan Seragam 1984, Garispanduan Piawaian dan Dasar-Dasar yang berkaitan semuanya dibuat secara manual, memakan masa dan integrasi maklumat yang lemah. 4. Faktor- faktor Pre-Requisite. Tidak menggunakan format digital (CAMS), perolehan data statistik dan spatial yang tidak sempurna. Berdasarkan faktor-faktor ini adalah dirumuskan langkah-langkah yang dibuat oleh beberapa JPBD Negeri masih ditahap percubaan dan belum dilaksanakan sepenuhnya.
K e a r a h P e m b e n t u k a n A s a s S i s t e m E -SS u b m i s s i o n
E-Submission disifatkan satu sistem yang komprehensif, mengambilkira data-data digital dan interlinkages process, menghubungkait sistem ini dengan kesempurnaan perolehan data. Kertas-kerja Unit Bank Data, Februari 2000, telah mengutarakan contoh-contoh proses elektronik permohonan perancangan di Australia, Jepun dan Amerika Syarikat, tetapi tidak dijelaskan proses integrasi sistem yang digunakan oleh negara-negara tersebut. Negara-negara tersebut telah menggunakan kemudahan internet sebagai alat untuk menyebarkan maklumat, menerima maklumat dan mendapatkan maklum-balas berhubung dengan isu-isu perancangan tetapi ianya bukanlah satu sistem permohonan perancangan. Di dalam merujuk kepada applikasi E-Submission ini, dua contoh yang dapat dijadikan panduan adalah applikasi sistem E-submission di Putrajaya dan Electronic Development Application (EDA), Urban Redevelopment Authority di Singapura.
â€œ... the submission of application for development (planning permission), has in the past, been a tedious process requiring the printing of many copies of plans and reports, followed by a journey to the local authority's office to hand in the documents.â€? (John, Jebasingam Issace. March 2000)
Kes 1: Applikasi Sistem E -SS u b m i s s i o n P u t r a j a y a
Rajah 2: Putrajaya Planning Submission System
Petikan di atas menerangkan keremehan proses permohonan perancangan yang diamalkan bagi mendapatkan kelulusan perancangan. Proses ini bukan hanya berlaku pada masa yang lepas tetapi ada setengah PBT dan JPBD Negeri masih mengamalkannya. Di atas kesedaran inilah, Putrajaya telah memperkenalkan sistem permohonan perancangan elektronik (electronic planning submission system) SUMBER PUTRA. Sistem ini di bentuk bagi tujuan memperbaiki aktiviti komunikasi diantara Jabatan-Jabatan di Perbadanan Putrajaya dengan Perunding, kontraktor dan orang awam dengan menggunakan internet dan mel elektronik. Selain dari itu ianya juga bertujuan mengemaskinikan prosidur menilai dan meluluskan permohonan pembangunan melalui computerised workflow management. Dalam ertikata lain, Sumber-Putra ini merupakan applikasi sistem komputer dibentuk membantu Perbadanan Putrajaya mentadbir aktiviti-aktivitinya dengan lebih berkesan lagi. Secara keseluruhannya sistem ini merangkumi beberapa sistem kecil terdiri daripada Perancangan Pembangunan, Permohonan Perancangan, Pentadbiran Tanah, Kawalan Bangunan, Pembayaran dan Pangkalan Data.
Start of The Layout E- Submission Workflow
Decryption Virus Scan E- Mail Check Status of Submission
Register Clerical Details
Eveluate Submission Checklist
Register Technical Details
Internal Consultation by all Units
External Consultation if Necessery
Compile External / Internal Comments
Verify External / Internal Comments
Konsep asas proses permohonan kebenaran merancang yang diamalkan oleh Perbadanan Putrajaya tiada bezanya dengan proses yang diamalkan oleh PBT dan JPBD Negeri (Lihat Rajah 2). Ia melibatkan peringkat penerimaan permohonan, penglibatan ulasan teknikal dari Jabatan-jabatan yang berkaitan, mesyuarat teknikal dan seterusnya melibatkan aktiviti-aktiviti pindaan dan kelulusan. Konsep asas ini menjadi rangkakerja (framework) kepada sistem yang dibentuk secara elektronik atau lebih dikenali dengan nama Planning Permission Expert System (PPES). Sistem ini akan meneliti sebarang permohonan
Check Meeting Comments
Finalise Technical Minutes of Meeting
Prepare / Print Technical Meeting
Jawatankuasa Perancangan dan Pembangunan Putrajaya (JKPP) Meeting
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Features Rajah 3: Putrajaya Electronic Submission System
Di antara ciri-ciri potensi mengenai sistem ini adalah seperti berikut:
Encrypt and Compress
Perunding Terima Applikasi E-Submission, Nombor ID dan Username
Fail di Decrypt dan Decompressed, Virus Scan
Garispanduan dan Piawai
Submit Kepada Perbadanan Putrajaya Melalui Internet
Menilai dan meneliti Permohonan untuk Kelulusan Standard Layering Membuat Keputusan
Ia membolehkan pemohon menghan tar permohonan mereka pada bila-bila masa samada dari rumah atau pejabat. Memendekkan masa memproses permohonan dan keputusan dibuat dengan cepat. Membolehkan pemohon meneliti status permohonan mereka secara on-line. Memudahkan membuat pindaan Menjimatkan masa, penyimpanan data, kos pengangkutan dan tenaga kerja.
Mekanisma Sistem Electronic Development Application
Sistem EDA ini menonjolkan faktorsecara automatik dan berintegrasi dengan pelbagai keperluan seperti kegunaan tanah, anjakan belakang, plinth area mengikut kehendak Akta Perancangan Bandar dan Desa 1976. Sistem permohonan perancangan elektronik melibatkan semua permohonan di buat melalui Internet (Lihat Rajah 3). Applikasi e-submission Perbadanan Putrajaya ini akan membekalkan kepada mereka yang telah mendaftar dengan program Permohonan Elektronik (Electronic Submission Program). Perisian ini akan memboleh dan membantu semua perunding di dalam penyediaan dokumen yang diperlukan bagi tujuan e-submission ( ID numbers and Username). Seterusnya program ini akan encrypt dan compress data sebelum menyalurkan kepada Perbadanan melalui Internet. Sebaik saja data diterima oleh Perbadanan proses permohonan akan bermula. Fail atau data akan di decrypt, decompressed dan virus scan dimana semua dokumen serta data akan disimpan secara automatik di dalam sistem pengurusan dokumen. Di dalam memastikan e-submission ini mengikut garispanduan dan piawaian yang ditetapkan, Perbadanan Putrajaya telah menyediakan piawaian mengenai simbol dan sistem lapisan data untuk diguna dan dirujuk oleh semua perunding. Hanya dengan pemakaian piawaian dan lapisan yang ditetapkan membolehkan Planning Permission Expert System berjalan dengan lancar.
1. Setiap pemohon terlebih dahulu perlu mendaftar dengan pejabat Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA). Setelah mendaftar, komputer akan mengesahkan (verify) electronic signature pendaftar. 2. Pemohon akan menyerahkan permohonan mereka dalam format CAD dan mengisi borang elektronik yang disediakan oleh URA secara on-line. Di dalam proses ini kedua-dua pelan dan borang tersebut perlu di encrypt dan di tandatangani secara digital.
Electronic Development Application (EDA) merupakan satu lagi contoh aplikasi per-
3. Proses seterusnya melibatkan penghantaran (submission) melalui Website EDA. Urban Redevelopment Authority akan menjawab setiap penerimaan dan memberi nombor rujukan kepada setiap pemohon. Pemohon pula akan menggunakan nombor rujukan ini untuk memeriksa status permohonan mereka.
mohonan perancangan dibuat secara elektronik. Ia merupakan satu sistem membolehkan penghantaran permohonan dilakukan terus kepada Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) untuk mendapatkan kelulusan. Sistem ini dihubungkan melalui Internet dan Singapore One Network yang memberi kelebihan penghantaran data digital dan maklumat dilakukan dengan pantas.
4. URA akan menilai setiap permohonan dan menghantar setiap keputusan melalui pemberitahuan elektronik (electronic notification).
Kes 2: Electronic Development Application (EDA) - Urban Redevelopment Authority, Singapore
faktor seperti user-friendly dan mudah capaian (accessibility) berasaskan applikasinya melalui EDA Website/InternetSingapore One. Mekanisma yang di praktikkan di dalam penggunaan sistem ini melibatkan (Lihat Rajah 4):
Developer / Owner
Sistem EDA ini pada dasarnya memberi penjelasan bagaimana permohonan perancangan boleh dilakukan melalui elektronik (electronic submission). Walaubagaimana pun sistem ini tidak menerangkan jumlah masa yang diambil di dalam memproses permohonan. Selain dari itu ianya juga gagal menunjukkan faktor-faktor pre-requisite yang pada kebiasaannya penting sebelum menjalankan kerja-kerja mendigit pelan.
Applicant / Agent
Prepare Electronic Form
Prepare CAD Drawing
Electronically Sign and Encrypt Files
Kemungkinan Singapura sudah mempunyai pelan digitalnya dan memudahkan setiap pemohon mengikut skala dan dari segi maklumat garispanduan, kemungkinan mereka sudah mempunyai maklumat tersebut dan boleh di access secara on-line (lawatan ke URA pada bulan Mei 2000, tidak memperincikan sistem ini seperti, bagaimana mereka menggunakan GIS, storan/menyimpan maklumat/data dan mendapat semula (retrieve) data serta penglibatan Jabatan-Jabatan Teknikal di dalam memproses dan menilai permohonan) Kedua-dua kes applikasi Sistem Permohonan Perancangan di Perbadanan Putrajaya dan Urban Redevelopment Authority telah menunjukkan persamaan. Kedua-duanya menggunakan kemudahan internet sebagai laluan penghantaran dan penerimaan permohonan.
Justifikasi Keperluan Sistem E -SS u b m i s s i o n
Permohonan kebenaran merancang melalui kaedah elektronik ini sememangnya memberi kelebihan dari segi penyediaan pelannya yang lebih kemas, mudah di buat pindaan, menjimatkan masa dan kos. Sistem yang diguna oleh URA dan Perbadanan Putrajaya telah menunjukkan contoh-contoh bagaimana sistem e-submission ini boleh dijalankan. Namun begitu, ianya bukanlah satu prosidur yang mudah dan boleh diilhamkan secara spontan, malah ia memerlukan masa dan penglibatan kos yang tinggi untuk menyediakannya. Sebagai contoh Perbadanan Putrajaya telah mengambil kira-kira 2 tahun (dilancarkan pada 17 April 2000) untuk memastikan sistem e-submission mereka boleh dilaksanakan.
Submit Application to EDA Web Site via Internet S-One
Urban Redevelopment Authority
Send Electronic Acknowledgement Notice
Evaluate Application for Planning Decision
Send Electronic Notification of Decision Rajah 4: Electronic Development Application System, Urban Redevelopment Authority, Singapore Sumber: Urban Redevelopment Authority, Singapore (Mei 2000)
Berdasarkan contoh dan keperluan untuk menjayakan proses e-submission ini, ia memerlukan perkara-perkara berikut: a. Membangunkan sistem aplikasi. Sebagai contoh Putrajaya telah membangunkan Planning Permission Expert System. Ini termasuklah merekabentuk dokumen seperti borang elektronik, format pelan-pelan dan seterusnya menentukan aliran kerja (workflow). b. Membangunkan infrastruktur dan rangkaian capaian. Ini melibatkan pembangunan Local Area Network dan Wide Area Network bagi memudahkan perhubungan dan penghantaran permohonan kebenaran merancang. c. Menjalinkan perhubungan terus dengan lain-lain Jabatan yang menganggotai Jawatankuasa Teknikal. d. Membangunkan garispanduan dan piawaian untuk gunapakai oleh pihak perunding dan agensi yang berkaitan. Putrajaya sebagai contoh telah menyediakan piawaian mengenai simbol dan sistem lapisan data bagi memastikan setiap penyediaan pelan dan pindaan mengikut standard format. e. Membangunkan pangkalan data yang lengkap dan sistematik. f. Membangunkan personel yang terlatih dan berkemampuan menggunakan sistem applikasi yang dibangunkan.
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Features Rajah 5:
Cadangan Konsep Menyeluruh E-Submission
CAD Drawing / Mapinfo
Submit Plan / Application
PBT Virtual Planning Studios
GIS / MASTER PLAN
Berdasarkan contoh dan ulasan dibuat mengenai proses permohonan kebenaran merancang berelektronik ini adalah tidak mustahil jika semua PBT dan juga JPBD Negeri untuk melaksanakannya. Walaubagaimana pun untuk tujuan melaksanakannya ia perlu digubal dalam bentuk dan perspektif yang menyeluruh. Diantara faktor-faktor penting di dalam memastikan pembangunan sistem yang menyeluruh ini ialah, memastikan pembentukan sistem on-line yang praktikal, membentuk pangkalan data yang lengkap dan berinteraksi serta membangunkan secara berperingkatperingkat. Rajah 5 menerangkan cadangan konsep menyeluruh aplikasi sistem e-submission ini. Ia merangkumi aplikasinya di peringkat negeri dan hubungkaitnya dengan lain-lain agensi dan JPBD Ibu Pejabat. Proses yang ditunjukkan di atas akan merangkumi pelaksanaan sistem e-submission secara menyeluruh. Konsepnya ada persamaan dengan proses sediada 24
dan disesuaikan dengan sistem applikasi di Putrajaya dan URA. Proses menyeluruh ini telah mengambilkira perkaraperkara berikut: 1. Pembangunan infrastruktur dan rangkaian capaian. 2. Pembangunan sistem applikasi yang melibatkan pendaftaran elektronik dengan menggunakan borang elektronik dan menentukan kaedah pengesahan (authenticating). 3. Pembentukan pangkalan data peringkat Negeri dan PBT Oleh kerana pihak PBT tidak mempunyai rangkaian unit atau jabatan setempat seperti di Putrajaya, proses menyeluruh ini telah mencadangkan di tubuhkan Virtual Planning Studio (VPS)Â˛. Ia akan berfungsi sebagai pusat perhubungan sumber terutama sekali di dalam mendapatkan maklumat dan data yang berkaitan. Selain dihubungkan secara
networking , ia juga akan menggunakan kaedah video conferencing dimana PBT yang ingin mendapatkan maklumat boleh melalui VPS ini terutama sekali di dalam membuat keputusan yang kadangkala menemui jalan buntu. Keputusan dijangka dapat dibuat secara tepat dan segera. Sebagai contoh, pihak PBT boleh melayari ke GIS Masterplan JPBD untuk mendapatkan maklumat terkini mengenai arah tujuan pembangunan. Maklumat Rancangan Fizikal Negara misalannya akan memberi gambaran arah tuju pembangunan, manakala Rancangan Struktur Negeri akan menjelaskan arah pembangunan Negeri dan seterusnya Rancangan Tempatan akan memberi terperincian pembangunan dikawasan PBT. Selain dari itu pangkalan data yang diwujudkan oleh Pelan Induk ini boleh digunapakai terutama sekali di dalam membuat analisis. Proses ini dijangka akan menjamin satu sistem perancangan yang teratur dan bersepadu.
Sistem e-submission ini amat meluas sekali skopnya. Ia merupakan satu proses permohonan perancangan yang boleh membantu pihak terbabit meluluskan pelan dengan cepat dan berkualiti. Ia juga menjimatkan kos dan boleh di access dimana sahaja. Justeru itu, pihak PBT atau JPBD Negeri yang ingin melaksanakan sistem ini perlu membangunkannya secara berperingkat-peringkat. Jika sekiranya mereka sudah mempunyai infrastruktur yang lengkap, buat permulaan ia perlu menumpukan kepada pembangunan sistem applikasi, pembentukan format CAD dan hubungan elektroniknya dengan Jabatan-jabatan Teknikal yang berkaitan. Jika sekiranya pembentukkan sistem aplikasi melibatkan kos yang tinggi, adalah disyorkan PBT atau JPBD Negeri menumpukan kepada kaedah CAD Drawing dan membangunkan pangkalan data sahaja. Âš Â˛
Kertaskerja mengenai E-Submission ini telah dibentangkan kepada KPKT pada November 2000. Kertas Cadangan Teknikal Virtual Planning Studio - ditulis bersama Nor Sallehi Kassim & Chris Webster 1999.
NOR SALLEHI kassim
Bertugas di Bahagian Rancangan Fizikal Negara Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia. Sebelum ini pernah bertugas di Bahagian Luar Bandar Ibu Pejabat dan Pejabat Projek Kuantan terlibat dengan projek Rancangan Pengumpulan Semula Orang Asli, Kajian Kampung Tradisional, Rancangan Struktur dan Rancangan Tempatan. Selain dari tugas utama, juga terlibat dalam kerja-kerja Sistem Maklumat dan perkomputeran berkaitan dengan Computer Aided Design, GIS dan Multimedia. Di dalam perancangan Pusat Pentadbiran Putrajaya terlibat secara lansung dalam kerja-kerja IT dan Multimedia. Pada masa ini terlibat di dalam Kajian Rancangan Fizikal Negara (RFN), khususnya dalam Pakej Sistem Maklumat RFN. Pakej Sistem Maklumat RFN ini melibatkan penggunaan Sistem Maklumat GIS untuk membangunkan pangkalan data dan analisis. Selain dari itu, terlibat di dalam Kerja-Kerja Perkomputeran Jabatan, Jawatankuasa Penilaian Teknikal Komputer Jabatan dan Jawatankuasa Sistem Maklumat Jabatan.Telah menulis beberapa kertaskerja untuk Jabatan seperti : 'Sistem Integrasi Perkomputeran di JPBD Dalam Pelaksanaan Sistem Maklumat RFN, ' IT and Its Application in Urban Planning' dan 'Pendekatan Perancangan Dalam Sumber Asli Negara: Dialog Perkongsian Pintar Dalam Perancangan Pembangunan Warisan Bumi dan Pelancongan Tabii.
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Smart Growth , NewUrbanism and Transit Oriented Development ( T O D ) SANISAH shafie, firstname.lastname@example.org National Physical Plan Division Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia.
Something old, Something new, Something borrowed, Something planning... How do I justify this feature? Selfishly - it's my channel to share (what used to be) my ignorance, with others. Don't you every once in a while find yourself perplexed with certain words? - some are just too new a word for you, some not-so-new (but you just forgot to look them up the last time you heard them), some are borrowed words (German), while some are plain old words being used way too often, but suddenly when it really matters (interview!) your memory seems to fail you as to what they really mean. Well, I do. 'Palaver' (p&-'la-v&r) for example - I first came across the word at Merriam-Webster Online Thesaurus, where it appears to be one of the synonyms for the word 'Terminology'. Then, I look up its etymology at Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, and find that it is Portuguese (palavra) for 'word', and in Late Latin (parabola) it means 'speech'. Then again at Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (6th Edition) where it is defined as 'a lot of unnecessary activity, excitement or trouble especially caused by something that is unimportant'; and finally at (Online) HyperDictionary as 'loud and confused and empty talk'. So there, (Planning) 'Palaver' here can mean either one of them - I find the words, you read, and you choose. Whatever it is, the aim of this feature is noble : to introduce, clarify and refresh you on new, not-so-new and old words respectively; and if it triggers more questions .. well, that is good too. Or I can be downright wrong, in which case, I can be contacted at the above address. I hope you realize that this feature is not a result of deep intense research, nor very original. What I did was surf the internet during the interval when it was actually online (and for the next issues, maybe look up the words in the various literature), and then I merely select and/or summarise the best descriptions and definitions - most comprehensive, comprehensible and agreeable, to put in this feature, along with little bits of my personal comment. Nevertheless, I hope it will be of some use to some of you. â˜ş
i. Smart Growth Smart Growth is a general term for policies that integrate transportation and land use decisions, for example by encouraging more development within existing urban areas where additional growth is desirable, and discouraging low density, automobile dependent development at the urban fringe. Smart Growth can help create more accessible land use patterns, improve transport options, create more liveable communities, reduce public service costs and achieve other land use objectives. Smart Growth is an alternative to urban sprawl. Smart Growth emphasizes accessibility, meaning that the activities people use frequently are located close together. For this reason, the basic unit of planning is the local community, neighbourhood or 'village', that is, a mixed-use, walkable area, 1.5 - 1 mile in diameter, with commonly used public services clustered into a central commercial area. This is in contrast to conventional planning which tends to emphasize mobility as a solution to transport problem, and so tends to plan communities at a larger scale that relies primarily on motor vehicle travel, with little consideration to pedestrian access. SMART GROWTH
Higher density, clustered activities
Lower density, dispersed activities
Infill (brownfield) development
Urban periphery (greenfield) development
Land Use Mix
Mix land use
Homogeneous land use
Human scale, smaller buildings, blocks & roads Careful details (People experience the landscape up close as pedestrian)
Larger scale, larger buildings, blocks, wide roads. Less details ( People experience the landscapeat distance as motorist)
Public Services (Shops, schools, park)
Local, distributed, smaller. Accomodates walking space
Regional, consolidated,larger. Requires automobiles access
Multi-modal transportation and land use patterns that support walking, cycling and public transit.
Automobiles orientated trasportation and land use pattern, poorly suited to walking cycling and public transit
Highly connected roads, sidewalks and path, allowing relatively direct travel by motozed & non-motorized
Hierarcihical road network with numerous loops and dead-end streets, unconnected sidewalks and paths
Street design to accomodate a variety of activities Traffic calming
Street design to maximise motor vihicle traffic volume and speed.
Planned and coordinated between jurisdictions & stakeholders
Unplanned with little coordination between jurisdictions & stakeholders
Emphasis on public realm (streetscape, pedestrian environment public parks, public facolities)
Emphasis on private realm (yards, shopping malls, gated communities, private clubs).
Figure 1:Comparison between Smart Growth & Sprawl- Ewing 1996; Galster,et al,2001 26
So, what happen when the growth is not-sosmart ? Maybe this 'SMS Survey From 3 Sept.- 8 Sept. 2003' by TV3, is what happened :
Smart Growth usually reflects regional policies and planning, while New Urbanism and TOD reflect similar design principles at the local and site level.
Figure 2: SMS Survey on KLâ€™s Roads - TV3
Modern, sophisticated but roads in the National Capital City are still congested ?. What should be done ? 22% -Implement car-pool and limited access zones 8% -Ban all cars above five years of age
Smart Growth strives to provide the best of all possible worlds: adequate automobile mobility with good alternative transport options, and accessible, mixed-use, resource efficient land use patterns that offer residents and employers a range of urban development density and price options, while preserving greenspace and community liveability as much as possible. Smart Growth includes a number of individual policies and practices, such as those listed below: --Strategic Planning --Self-contained Communities --Distinctive, Attractive Communities --Quality, Compact Development --Encourage Infill Development --Encourage TOD --Network of Interconnected Streets --Preserve Greenspace --Mix of Housing Types Smart Growth can be implemented in many different ways and under many conditions. Urban: In urban areas it emphasizes redevelopment and infill of existing urban neighbourhoods, improving mixed-use design features and enhancing multi-modal transport systems, particularly walking and public transit. Suburban: In suburban areas it creates medium-density, mixed-use, multi-modal centres (sometimes called Transit Villages), either by incrementally developing existing suburban communities or by Masterplan developments that reflect Smart Growth principles. It encourages more complete suburban communities and improved regional travel options. It supports greenspace preservation. Rural: In rural areas Smart Growth involves policies that help channel development and public services into accessible and mixed-use villages. (Source: (Summarised from) http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm38.htm)
4% -Increase road tax and parking charge 66%-Town planners need to be innovative.
ii. New Urbanism New Urbanism (also called New Community Design, Neo-Traditional Design and Traditional Neighbourhood Development) is a set of development practices to create more attractive and efficient communities through significant improvement in accessibility and reduction in per-capita automobile travel. A growing movement of architects, planners and developers, the New Urbanism is based on the belief that a return to traditional neighbourhood patterns is essential to restoring functional, sustainable communities.
4. There are a variety of dwelling types. These take the form of houses, row houses, and apartments, such that younger and older, singles and families, the poorer and the wealthier can find places to live. Density averages 6-7 units per acre or greater.
At the heart of the New Urbanism is the design of neighbourhoods; and there is no clearer description than these specific design features listed below, that is mostly developed by town planners Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk (from Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company (DPZ)). Of course, not all of these features are included in all New Urban developments.
7. A small ancillary building should be permitted within the backyard of houses. It may be used as a rental apartment, or as a place to work.
New Urbanism Neighbourhood Design Features 1. The community has a discernible centre. This is often a plaza, square or green, and sometimes a busy or memorable intersection. A transit stop should be located at this centre. 2. Buildings at the centre are placed close to the sidewalk and to each other, creating an urban sense of spatial definition. Buildings towards the edges are placed further away and further apart from each other, creating a more rural environment. 3. Most dwellings are within a five-minute walk (a quarter mile) from the centre, an average of roughly 2,000 feet. Streets are designed for walking and cycling, with sidewalks on both sides, bike lanes where needed, good crossings, traffic calming features used to control motor vehicle traffic speeds, and other features to `encourage non-motorized travel.
5. There are places to work within and adjacent to the neighbourhood, including shops, office buildings, and live-work units. 6. There are shops sufficiently varied to meet common household needs, such as convenience stores, a post office, a bank machine, and a gym.
8. There should be an elementary school close enough so that most children can walk from their dwelling. This distance should not be more than one mile. 9. There are parks, trails and playgrounds near every dwelling. This distance should not be more than one-eighth of a mile. 10. Thoroughfares within the neighbourhood form a continuous network, providing a variety of itineraries and dispersing traffic. The neighbourhood has multiple access routes connect to adjacent neighbourhoods. These access points may be highlighted with a gateway or signs. 11. Thoroughfares are relatively narrow and shaded by rows of trees that slow traffic and create an appropriate environment for pedestrian and bicyclist. 12. Parking lots and garage doors rarely end of front the thoroughfares. Parking is relegated to the rear of the buildings and usually accessed by alleys or lanes. 13. Certain prominent sites are reserved for public buildings. A building must be provided at the centre for neighbourhood meetings. 14. The neighbourhood should be self governing, deciding on matters of maintenance, security, and physical evolution.
ISSUE.01/ VOL.01/ SEPT 2003
Palaver Figure 3: Putrajaya Neighbourhood Concept
New Urbanist features tend to increase the value and marketability of buildings. National market surveys indicate that about a third of homebuyers would prefer to live in New Urbanist community if available (Hirschhorn and Souza, 2001). A study by Eppli and Tu (2000) found that homes in New Urbanist communities sold for an average of $20,189 more than otherwise comparable homes in more conventional communities, an 11% increase in value. Although most well-known New Urbanist projects are "master planned communities," meaning large urbanfringe developments design as a unit, these concepts can also be incorporated
dwellings (Âą15,000 population) with a mix of low, medium and high-cost housing and a variety of designs. Each neighbourhood is of cycleable, humanscale, and equipped with necessary public amenities like multipurpose halls, clinics, kindergartens, schools, food courts, parks and other communal facilities, creating a distinct sense of place. While such design is not ideally New Urbanist in nature, to me this is a hybrid of New Urbanism and the more conventional mass/commercial housing, and it surely represents a positive step towards more sustainable communities and a better quality of living environment.
iii. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is compact, mixed-use development within an easy walk of a transit station, which is designed to maximize access by transit and non-motorized transportation, and has other features to encourage transit ridership. into existing urban communities (Otak, 1999), and even in communities that have highways with heavy traffic through their commercial centres (DEA, 1999). Existing residential and commercial areas are incorporating New Urbanist design features as part of redevelopment efforts.
These TOD neighbourhoods/villages has a centre with a rail or bus station, surrounded by relatively high-density development, with progressively lowerdensity spreading outwards, matching the existing scale of development. For example, the neighbourhood centre may have a transit station and a few multi-
New Urbanism has gained increasing attention among development professionals and the general public, particularly in regions experiencing growth-related conflicts. Many see the New Urbanism as a way to accommodate growth while enhancing community and environmental objectives. (Source: (Summarised from) http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm24.htm, http://www.newurbannews.com/AboutNewUrbanism. html)
Putrajaya masterplan, based on the Garden City Concept, delineates the area into twenty precincts, of which five are in the Core Area (comprising i.Government, ii.Commercial, iii.Civic and Cultural, iv.Mixed Development, and v.Sports and Recreational) while the remaining fifteen are Neighbourhood and Residential precincts. Here the neighbourhood concept is adopted, whereby each unit contains some 3,000 28
NEIGHBOURHOOD UNIT 15,000 Population 3,000 Residential Units NEIGHBOURHOOD CENTRE School Complex Kindergarten Community Hall Health Centre Surau Convenience Shops Neighbourhood Park COMMUNITY CENTRE Mosque Multi-Purpose Hall Polyclinic Other Religious Reserves Shopping Centre Police Station Community Park
combined with thoughtfully designed community spaces, plazas, etc., forms a vibrant village-like neighbourhood where people can live, work and play. Such a neighbourhood is compact in size, pedestrian-friendly in design, and can be customized to offer a wide variety of housing options, with convenient access to services, jobs, and plenty of ways to get around. These TOD neighbourhoods can be new construction or redevelopment. (Source: (Summarised from) http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm45.htm, http://www.dvrpc.org/planning/TOD.htm, http://www.rtd-denver.com/Projects/TOD)
To date, as far as I am aware, this concept has clearly been adopted in the Klang Valley Perspective Plan 2000-2020, the Regional Masterplan for Klang Valley, and currently incorporated within the Klang Valley Integrated Transport and Land Use Development Study. This is followed by Selangor State Structure Plan (Report of Survey, 2003) and National Physical Plan (Draft Final NPP, 2003). On the ground, the development of KL Sentral, which is still in progress, is testimony that TOD is a feasible planning approach to be adopted in this country. References
storey commercial and residential buildings, surrounded by several blocks of townhouses and small-lot single-family residential, and larger-lot single-family housing farther away. TOD neighbourhoods typically have a diameter of 1.25 1.5 mile, which represents pedestrian scale distances (5-10 mins.). Mixed uses within these TOD neighbourhoods include residential, commercial, office, civic uses and entertainment, or some combination. This mix of uses,
1. Reid Ewing: Best Development Practices Planners Press (Chicago; www.planning.org), 1996 2. George Galste, et al: "Wrestling Sprawl to the Ground: Defining and Measuring an Elusive Concept," Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 12, Issue 4 Fannie Mae Foundation (www.fanniemaefoundation.org/programs/hpd/pdf/HP D_1204_galster.pdf), 2001, pp. 681-717. 3. Joel Hirschhorn and Paul Souza: New Community Design to the Rescue; Fulfilling Another American Dream National Governor's Association, Centre for Best Practices (www.nga.org), July 2001. 4. Mark Eppli and Charles C. Tu: Valuing the New Urbanism; The Impact of New Urbanism on Prices of Single-Family Homes Urban Land Institute (www.uli.org), 2000. 5. Otak, Inc: Infill and Redevelopment Code Handbook, Transportation and Growth Management Program Oregon DOT and Dept. of Environmental Quality (www.lcd.state.or.us/tgm/publications.htm), 1999. 6. DEA & Associates: Main Streetâ€ŚWhen a Highway Runs Through It Transportation and Growth Management Program, Oregon DOT and Dept. of Environmental Quality (www.lcd.state.or.us/tgm/publications.htm), 1999.
Planning Book Review
KAMALRUDDIN shamsudin reviews â€œThe Regionmakerâ€? for this issue of Malaysian Townplan
THE REGIONMAKER : The RheinRuhrCity Author : MVRDV, Rotterdam Publisher: Hatje Cantz Publishers, Germany Pages : 351 Cover Price: RM 135 Ever wondered how a region could be analysed and its possible future and identity visualized and compared? This book is a collaborative effort between the Dutch planning office, MVRDV and various academic institutions and input from distinguished international professionals. The REGIONMAKER has been developed as an innovative planning device and applied to the agglomeration at Rhine and Ruhr, Germany. The authors have envisioned that the software will ultimately answer questions like the following: "What would be the perfect population for a chosen specialization? What is the relation between politics and regionalism? What is the relation between accessibility and attractivity for specific companies? What is the influence of (land value) towards regional competitiveness? What is better: spreading or concentration of a chosen program?" This colourful book is nicely structured despite catering to two languages (German and English). A brief discourse on regional interpretations from various disciplines is presented. Mathematical Set Theory with union of two sets is explained to precede serious discussions on spatial regions and those of its societal activity and processes, including predicament of cores and boundaries. This is followed with views from prominent regional theorist about the dynamism of region within local and the global settings. A brief history of the growth and emerging importance of computer aided technology to understand and control the urban and regional processes is discussed. Contributions from prominent professionals in the field of urban and architectural disciplines (example Doxiadis, Chermayeff and Alexander) were narrated up to the present where the REGIONMAKER could be "seen as a tree structure of mini machines, all leading to a chain of very specialized inter-related software". The software program is constructed out of several components, namely : solution envelope (three dimensional space with defined size, scale and limit of a region); unit types (smallest entity or building block of solution envelope representing either house, industry, roads, parks, forests, agriculture, offices, services etc); parameters (spatial decision rules of unit types; defined by Boolean operations [and, or and not]); sliders (enabling user to adjust importance of a certain parameter); evaluation criteria (relate to parameters in term of achievements, usually structured hierarchically and optimised by the computer), scenario (generated based on user preset conditions, criteria and expected qualities through using levels of sliders), visualisation (3D simulation, fly-through, zoom-in and selected perspectives) and score (indexed score diagram for each scenario generated depending on user preset objectives example economic or sustainability performance and sub-parameters). Two other important components are the variation mechanisms (possibility to derive one or more new solutions from existing one) and the optimisation algorithm which determine the manner how solution space is navigated. The heuristic structure of the REGIONMAKER is based on a software named OptiMixer which consists of a formalized process that evaluates, variates and optimizes spatial envelopes. It adopts a modular system building on latest development from the internet, modelling, simulation, visualization and animation software industries. ISSUE.01/ VOL.01/ SEPT 2003
Review Detail explanations are given on the optimization components including its optimization algorithm (example the local search, local maximum and global maximum) within its spatial envelope of three dimensional, orthogonal, homogenous grid of cubical shapes (example 2x2x1 solution envelope). An equal amount of attention is devoted to describing how to operate the software in the manual and scenario setting chapters of the Rhein Ruhr region. Four scenarios were generated i.e. park scenario, archipelago scenario, campus scenario and lastly network scenario. Characteristics of each scenario were explained and this serves as a good platform to visualise required regional image and effects from various land use perspective and urban setting, population densities, development strategies and commitment etc. To generate such scenarios the user is required to have a good understanding how real regions work. It certainly requires interdisciplinary researchers and experts to add and integrate (inputs from economics and social-spatial sciences etc.) in order to optimize the software capabilities. In other words the software absorbs and combines knowledge from different professions, and optimizes the chosen and available parameters. Visionary planners, urban designers, architects and those with interest in GIS and visualization would find this book interesting read. Nowadays there are a number of softwares which have similar capabilities to REGIONMAKER, a few are in the game industry (example SimCity), a few in universities (example UrbanSim and CLUE Model) and a number have been carried out by research institution (example Dynamic Urban Exolutionary Modelling, DUEM and TRANSMS). It appears such scenario development softwares will soon be common place in planning institutions in this country (optimistically) within a couple of years from now (when the tools starts maturing) performing decision support system at a regional level and they be further augmented with dedicated impact softwares for urban planning applications. This review copy was purchased from Basheer graphic books, 3rd Floor BB Plaza, Jalan Bukit Bintang, Kuala Lumpur.
Planning Website H i gh h l i gh h ts JAMIL ahmad reviews Cyburbia at www.cyburbia.org.for for this issue of Malaysian Townplan
Cyburbia, the Internet's oldest portal site for urban planners and others interested in cities and the built environment, contains a selective directory of Internet resources relevant to planning and urbanism. Cyburbia also includes information about mailing lists and newsgroups, and it hosts a very active bulletin board and image hosting gallery. Cyburbia is maintained by its founder, Dan Tasman AICP. In 1995 Dr Lee Lek Meng from the Housing and Building School of the University of Science Malaysia introduced me to the site and The Penang State Department of Town and Country Planning become the first State Planning Department to have link to this huge planning depository.Highly recommended for Planners. Cyburbia history
The first incarnation of Cyburbia was established in November 1994 at the University at Buffalo, when a page of links to the few urban planning and architecture-related Web sites then online was created on the personal Web site of the founder. As the Internet grew, subcategories were added, and the list of links was given a somewhat awkward name; PAIRC, an acronym which stood for "Planning and Architecture Internet Resource Directory" PAIRC was renamed Cyburbia in 1997, after its founder saw the word used as a pseudonym for "cyberspace" in a Wired magazine article. In 2000, a partnership was formed with Chris Steins of Urban Insight, who started the acclaimed PLANetizen Web site. That year, due to an increased number of architecture-related Web portals, and Cyburbia's lack of exposure and its reputation as a planning-related site among architects, links to architecture-related Web sites were reduced to those pointing to Web sites that held some appeal for planners. Cyburbia was gutted and rebuilt in 2001. The Web site indexing program was replaced with In-Link, allowing links to be indexed in a hierarchical directory, like Yahoo and DMOZ. The bulletin board software was replaced with vBulletin, one of the most powerful and popular bulletin board systems for small and medium Web sites. In 2002, an image gallery was added, where users can upload and view planning and built environment-related photos and graphics. Cyburbia started off as a personal endeavor, created in the spirit of giving something back to the Internet. Cyburbia isn't a commercial venture intended to make a profit. Cyburbia is no longer the most visited or most popular planning-related Web site, but it is still the only Web site of its kind for urban planners.
A sample page of Cyburbia the Urban Planning Portal. ISSUE.01/ VOL.01/ SEPT 2003
Review Awards Cyburbia was named a Top 50 planning Web site by PLANetizen. Browser Compatibility Cyburbia should be viewable with most Web browsers released in recent yearsand has been successfully tested with the following browsers: Lynx 2.8.3 - Linux kernel 2.* Microsoft Internet Explorer 4-6 - Windows XP, Mac OS 10.* Mozilla 1.0-1.4b - Windows XP, Linux kernel 2.* Mozilla Firebird 0.1b-0.6b - Windows XP, Linux kernel 2.*, BeOS 5.0, Mac OS 10.* Netscape 7.0 - Windows XP, Linux kernel 2.* OmniWeb 3.0-4.5b - Mac OS 10.* Opera 5.0-7.2 - Windows XP
Colophon Bulletin board - vBulletin 2.3.0. Photo gallery - PhotoPost PHP. Link directory - In-Link 2.2. Content editing - Notepad Plus (Windows XP), emacs (Linux) and pico (Linux). Web site hosting - 100 Megs Web Hosting.
News and Events for August - December 2003
Compiled by: CHUA ran see, email@example.com Legal,Planning and Regulatory Division, Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Peninsular Malaysia.
August 2003 The Assistant Town Planner Forum was organised by JPBD Training Unit, in Putra Palace, Kangar, Perlis on 6-10 August 2003. 161 participants from all over the country had attended this forum which was officiated by the Director-General of JPBD. A course on Project Monitoring System II was organised by JPBD Training Unit and Project Coordination Office on 19-20 August at the Computer Lab of the Ministry of Housing and Local Government. 40 participants from JPBD attended the course.
September 2003 A seminar on the Application and Enforcement of the Town and Country Planning Act (Act 172) for Local Planning Authority was organised by JPBD Legal, Planning and Regulatory Division in Crown Princess Hotel, Kuala Lumpur on 3 September 2003.. 500 participants from 100 local authorities have attended this seminar which was officiated by the Deputy Secretary-General of the Ministry of Housing and Local Government. The Expertise Network for Spatial Planning and Decision Support (ENSPADS) project. The Steering Committee inaugural meeting was held at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) on the 19 September 2003. The project's main objective is to improve the urban and regional planning processes by enhancing the role of spatial information technology, decision theory, and multi-criteria decision analysis. Members were from the International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC, Holland), IIUM, JPBD (represented by Nor Sallehi Kassim and Kamalruddin Shamsudin.), Macres and two representatives from the private planning practise. The 2 years project is funded by the European Commission and lead by ITC (Holland). An international seminar on Land Readjustment Development was held in The Renaissance Hotel in Kuala Lumpur on 23 September 2003. This seminar was jointly organized by JPBD National Physical Plan Division, JICA and the Association for Town Planning Officers. 150 participants have attended this seminar which was officiated by Dato' Seri Ong Ka Ting, the Minister of Housing and Local Government, Malaysia.
November 2003 A briefing will be organised by JPBD National Physical Plan Division for the JKKK of Kg. Pulau Meranti, Puchong Malay Reserve on The Implementation Plan of Land Readjustment Development (PTB) in its area. The briefing will be held at Cyber Lodge, Cyberjaya on 7 October 2003. A meeting entitled Sepang District Council As An One Stop Agency will be held at Sepang District Council on 10 October 2003. JPBD National Physical Plan Division will be the co-chairman of the meeting. The International Symposium and Exhibition on Geoinformation 2003 will be organised by UiTM at Grand Blue Wave Hotel, Shah Alam on the 13-14 October 2003. For more information please logon to: http://www.uitm.edu.my MapAsia 2003, an international conference and exhibition on GIS, global positioning system (GPS) and remote sensing will be held at PWTC on 13-15 October 2003. This conference is jointly organised by MACRES, Malaysia; Centre for Spatial Database Management and Solutions, India; GIS Development and AIT, Thailand. For information, please logon to: http://www.mapasia.org JPBD Quality Day will be celebrated at JPBD HQ on 16 October 2003. A series of activities will be organised on that day which include web design and oration competition. In conjunction with this event, a dinner will be held at Pan Pacific Hotel, Kuala Lumpur at night. A seminar on Building A Knowledge Society (Value Creation Through People Knowledge and ICT) will be organised by The Kulliyyah of ICT, UIA at Prince Hotel & Residence, Kuala Lumpur on the 21-22 October 2003. For more information, please logon to: http://kict.iiu.edu.my/ncict The Draft Pasir Gudang Local Development Plan will be opened for public viewing and inspection in October 2003 at Komplek Pusat Bandar, Pasir Gudang, Johor.
December 2003 The World Town Planning Day 2003 celebration will be held at JPBD, HQ on 13 December 2003. The activities organised for this celebration include photography competition, colouring competition for primary school children and drawing competition for secondary school students in the federal territory. ISSUE.01/ VOL.01/ SEPT 2003
from the Past
The First Assistant Planning Directors Conference held in 1980 at Fraser’s Hill (Photograph from Kl’ din’s private collection) Who’s wearing the platform shoes and guess where is the Chief Editor? (The answer in the next issue of Malaysian TownPlan).
Blast from the Past
Next issue will give special focus on GIS
“Is GIS palatable to planners?” “ Planning Palaver on GIS gobbledygook” “ Integrated Land Use Assesment (ILA)” “ Special Area Plan” .. and many more exciting read.
Guide to Contributors Malaysian TownPlan welcome articles that would further the cause and development of the town and country planning service in this country. All planning agencies (public and private), local authorities and from academia (local and overseas) are invited. Articles should be submitted to the following address: Chief Editor, Malaysian TownPlan Journal, Bahagian Penyelidikan dan Pembangunan, Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa, Semenanjung Malaysia, Jalan Cenderasari, 50646 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Submission should be in the form of a hard copy and a digital version. The editorial board reserve the right to select and edit articles submitted. Articles selected for publication will be made known to contributors and followup communication on fine tuning of article etc. may follow. Feature articles should conform to conventional format i.e. abstract, main body of article, references (author, year, name of book etc, publisher). A short profile of contributor is required. Other submissions, example book review, planning updates, news, reader's column may be submitted. Followup communications are expected in some cases, so e-mail addresses and telephone numbers will be required. Successful contributors will receive two copies of Malaysian TownPlan. Potential contributors may contact any of the editorial board members (JPBD main line tel: 03 26989211), for further information or e-mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org