Page 1

STUDY ON THE FEASIBILITY OF

SEQUENTIAL APPROACH IN THE DEVELOPMENT PLAN SYSTEM OF MALAYSIA

A MONOGRAPH

2010


Part 2 ISUG Approach Table of Contents 1 2

THE ISUG APPROACH

THE 9 STRATEGIES UNLEASHED

3 INCLUSION OF ISUG APPROACH IN MALAYSIA PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 4

Page 1 10

15

IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES 17 5

CONCLUSION 24


THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH

1.0 THE ISUG APPROACH The Integrated Sustainable Urban Growth ( ISUG ) is an approach that address urban growth issues and development issues in an integrated, holistic, and sustainable manner that can be incorporated in the development planning system of Peninsular Malaysia.

The ISUG approach, which is now widely adopted in the UK, Europe, USA and Canada, may be suitable to be emulated and practiced in Malaysia.

In order to adopt this approach in the planning, implementation and monitoring of urban developments and the management of urban lives in the Malaysian context, this study had explored its applicability, strengths and ways for its successful adoption and practice.

1.1

ITS DEFINITION

It refers to land use and development practices that enhance the Quality of Life in urban communities,

“ISUG ” is defined as the

preserve the natural environment and save public money

efforts of communities to

over time. And most importantly the enjoyment of living in

manage and direct its

cities and urban areas should be sustained for the present

urban growth which puts

until the future generations.

emphasis on minimising damage

to

the

According to Smart Growth BC (British Columbia, Canada

environment

(2002), a ‘Smart Growth” is a collection of urban

building liveable towns

development strategies to reduce urban sprawl and that

and cities for them to

enhances the quality of life, protects the environment and

enjoy.

while

use tax revenues wisely.

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH

1.2

CRITERIA OF INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE URBAN GROWTH

Hence, in essence ‘ISUG’ is all about the following criteria or ideas that help define it in a comprehensive manner. They are: Creating more compact developments via infill developments and new developments;  Encouraging infill development for more efficient use of existing urban assets and infrastructures.  Creating walk able, transit oriented and mixed use developments;  Providing a variety of transportation choices (walk, cycle, transit and private car);  Offering housing choices and mix of different type or cost of houses;  Promoting sense of community in new and expanding areas through quality design and active public participation;  Conserving environmental sensitive areas and natural resources;  Protecting sufficient agriculture lands and food production sector; and  Establishing and maintaining urban growth boundaries.

1.3

COMPARISON BETWEEN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE URBAN GROWTH (ISUG) AND CONVENTIONAL (SPRAWL) Table 1.1 summarise the comparison of the ISUG and the conventional urban sprawl development.

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH Table 1.1: Comparison of the ISUG or Smart Growth versus the Conventional Approach (Urban Sprawl)

ISUG TOPIC Land supply, land use and urban form

SPECIFIC CONSIDERATION Land consumption Directional focus of growth Density intensity Urban form Land use

Natural resources and the environment

Housing

/

Values / ethics Open provision

space

Open location

space

Compact and contiguous Mixed; jobs and housing balance Land as a resource; sustainability Maintain, enhance and expand

Proximate to connected

all

users;

Brownfield’s Energy

Clean up and reuse Conservation

Values / ethics

Choice; diversity; affordability Disperse in all locations, especially in city/activity centres Wider variety, mixtures of types

Location

Type mixes

Transportation

COMPARISON ISUG CONVENTION (SPRAWL) More efficient use of land Not as efficient and generally a more as a limited resource. excessive land consumption pattern, larger individual lots. Infill and redevelopment. Greenfield development. Expansion into Maximum use of existing new / undeveloped areas. developed areas. Higher Lower

of

unit;

Cost

Sufficient for all incomes. Example, mixed income housing

Orientation Road system and network pattern Accessibility

Multiple modes Grid or network of streets

Scattered, dispersed and leapfrogged Single function and separated Land as commodity; Satisfy market preferences. Provide when supported by market force. Provide as per Malaysian Government requirement. Normally following the minimum requirement only. Inaccessible; unconnected; include ‘remnant’ parcels of left-over pieces of land Abandon More consumptive due to separation of users and location in areas without infrastructure Provide what the market will bear. Predominantly in exclusive residential areas (subdivisions) Predominantly detached, single-family; rigid separation of types and price Market fails to provide affordable units for all incomes Provide low cost housing as per Malaysia Government requirement. Normally, with poor location. Automobile-dominant Hierarchy of arterials, collectors and local streets.

Interconnectivity Separation encouraged encouraged Predominant Through streets with alleys Cul-de-sac and collectors streets encouraged Street pavement Skinny; concept of street Wide / more excessive than needed for widths ‘diets’ functionality Source: Jerry Weitz & Associates, Inc (2001) in Atlanta Regional Commission, “Smart Growth Audit”.

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH 1.4

The 7 Goals of ISUG On the whole, there are 7 Goals of ISUG Approach:-

Goal 1: Promoting urban revitalization and a healthy working land base by rural preservation and by containing urban areas, channelling development into

existing

neighbourhoods

and

adopting

integrated

planning

and

management approaches.

Goal 2: Incorporating green infrastructure into communities.

Goal 3: Creating compact complete communities by mixing land uses and using land more efficiently.

Goal 4: Increasing transportation choices through land use.

Goal 5: Creating inclusive neighbourhoods by ensuring that a diversity of housing types are accessible to a wide range of people of different age groups, family types and incomes

Goal 6: Maximising the enduring benefits of developments by using resources wisely on sites and in buildings that are tailored to specific neighbourhood conditions

Goal 7: Supporting municipal goals through cost recovery by ensuring that development cost charges and other taxes and fees reflect the true cost of different types of growth

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH Above all, in the long run this approach has the overriding Goal of attaining Sustainable Development. “Sustainable Development is commonly defined as “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (Brundtland, 1987)

However, the commitment to meet the needs of present and future generations has Economic, Social and Environmental implications which are closely interrelated and interwoven to reach Sustainability. See Figure 1.1

Figure 1.1 Sustainable Developments

"Meeting the needs of the present" means satisfying: 

Economic needs – including access to opportunities for an adequate livelihood or productive economic activity; also economic security when unemployed, ill, disabled or otherwise unable to secure a livelihood.

Social, cultural and health needs - including a shelter which is healthy, safe, affordable and secure, within a neighbourhood with provision for piped water, drainage, transport, health care, education and child development, and protection from environmental hazards.

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH 

Political needs - including freedom to participate in national and local politics and in decisions regarding management and development of one's home and neighbourhood, within a broader framework which ensures respect for civil and political rights and the implementation of environmental legislation.

1.4

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE ISUG APPROACH - THE MALAYSIAN WAY

In order that the ISUG Approach is adopted the main Functions of the ISUG or Smart Growth Approach should be adapted in the Malaysian way and they include:-

i.

To Guide, coordinate and integrate goals, objectives and strategies of National Planning Policies with those of the existing State and District development plans which have been gazetted.

ii. To Function as an integrated and holistic approach for the planning, implementation, controlling, management and monitoring of urban growths in Peninsular Malaysia so as to achieve an overall sustainable development via new concepts such as Smart Growth, New Urbanism and Sequential Approach.

iii. To Guide the adoption of a more efficient, effective, responsive and accountable system and process for the planning, control and management of urban development and growth;

iv. To ensure that appropriate and effective techniques and strategies of urban growth and management are implemented to achieve the desired outcomes.

Meanwhile, other salient features of this approach which are dynamic and should be incorporated into the Present day Malaysian practice are:-

a) Ability to Plan for and accommodate anticipated growth in economic activity, population and housing demand as well as on-going changes in demographics and lifestyles while protecting the environment.

b) Ability to Provide for a wide range of housing types to suit the needs, preferences and income levels of the community's diverse population. FEDERAL DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULA MALAYSIA

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH

c) Adoption of a comprehensive land -use planning process at the local level that specifically identifies strategic land uses and meaningful open spaces. d) Identification and sourcing of a reliable means to finance and pay for the construction and expansion of roads, schools, water and sewer facilities and other infrastructures required to serve a prosperous community.

e) Using land more efficiently by allowing higher density development and innovative land use policies such as encouraging mixed use and pedestrian-friendly developments with access to open space and mass transit.

f) In revitalizing older suburban and inner-city markets and encouraging infill development.

1.5

RELEVANT ISUG STRATEGIES TO ADDRESS ISSUES AND WEAKNESS IN THE PREPARATION OF DEVELOPMENT PLANS

The identified issues and weaknesses in the present system and process of formulating development policies and preparing development plans are shown in Table 1.2, as well as the possible ISUG mechanism that can overcome weaknesses.

Table 1.2:

ISUG Strategies to address the issues and weaknesses in the Preparation of Development Plans

Weaknesses in the present system

ISUG Strategies

i Plan preparation process Can be made faster and more efficient by adopting the too long and too costly. ISUG Integrated Planning Management (IPM) Approach, the ISUG Database Management and Decision Support System (DMDSS), and the Community Participation and Support (CPS) mechanism. The ISUG Approach will also take into account macro and micro plans already prepared but only needs updating. Thus, adopting the approach will only need the strengthening of existing plans. ii Planning problems and

The adoption of the ISUG DMDSS and its mechanisms

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH Weaknesses in the present system issues not well identified.

ISUG Strategies provides easier and more efficient compilation and analysis of data, more accurate identification of urban problems and issues, and the formulation of more effective and responsive proposals. The participation of stake-holders from the beginning of the plan preparation process by the CPS approach will also ensure that issues are identified in a holistic and in-depth manner. The ISUG IPM Approach ensures that urban issues and problems are looked at in an integrated and holistic manner.

iii Public participation process not effective.

The ISUG CPS process will ensure more effective participation of the various stake-holders at all stages of plan preparation.

iv. Development plans not responsive and effective

The ISUG DMDSS and the adoption of an appropriate set of ISUG Indicators (ISUGI) will ensure that the proposals and strategies of development plans are more directly responsive to, and more effective in solving, the urban problems identified. The ISUG Development Control Guidelines (DCGs) are more flexible and allow developers to change their development proposals in response to social, economic and political changes. The Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) and Government Fiscal Incentives (GFI) also provide lee ways for developers to make their development more feasible.

v Development plans not action oriented and not time specific

The ISUG Sequential Approach ensures that the development plans are more action-oriented and time specific, as it provides the time frame for development by various agencies, authorities and private sector. The Transit Oriented Development approach ensures that urban growth and the development of public transport and other infrastructures are timed together.

vi The ISUG approach, with its many mechanisms allow for greater flexibility without sacrificing quality of development. FEDERAL DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULA MALAYSIA

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH Weaknesses in the ISUG Strategies present system Development plan too The ISUG DCGs, like the Performance-Based and Incentiverigid or too vague. Based Control Guidelines and the Planned Unit Development approach provide flexibility and encourage innovation in development by private developers. The Form-Based and Design-Based Control Guidelines, on the other hand, ensure that development achieve the expected vision. vii The ISUG DMDSS and ISUGI, with Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Environmental Management System (EMS), CostPlanners and decision- Benefit Assessment (CBA), prepared according to ISUG makers not responsible requirements will ensure that planners and decision-makers and not accountable. are meticulous and transparent during the plan-making process and can be monitored and checked and made responsible and accountable. Under the ISUG approach all development agencies can be made accountable for the impact of development. The ISUG CPS system, where plan preparation can be monitored by the public and stake-holders, the planners will feel more responsible. viii No development impact The adoption of the ISUG DMDSS and ISUGI will ensure that analysis in plan thorough assessment of impacts, risks, costs and benefits preparation process of proposed development will be done before the development plan is approved.

ix Lack Coordination and Integration among agencies and departments in planning.

The ISUG IPM approach will ensure that the is adequate integration and coordination at all stages among the various agencies and departments involved in the planning process

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH

2.0 THE 9 STRATEGIES UNLEASHED The ISUG Approach combines 9 distinct strategies for the planning, controlling, implementing, managing and monitoring of urban growth and development. These 9 strategies as depicted in Figure 2.1 should be employed cohesively.

Figure 2.1: The ISUG approach and Its Strategies

The importances of these 9 strategies are explained as below:-

i.

The Integrated Planning Management Approach aims towards an integrated and holistic planning and development;

In general, integrated planning management aims to consolidate all related group of expertise to achieve ISUG strategies at all government administrative level (i.e. national, regional and local government) as shown in Figure 2.2

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH Figure 2.2: Flow Chart of Integrated and Planning Management Approach

ii.

Urban Growth Boundaries (UGB) and Green Reserves (GR) is to attain balanced sustainable development and conservation; Urban Growth Boundaries (UGBs) in the UK or Urban Containment Boundaries (UCBs) as they are called in the US acts as a ‘limit’ of urban development and growth. Its main purpose is to channel future urban development to urban areas and permanently retain green reserves, rural and country side areas. UGBs prevent suburban sprawl and encourage orderly development. Refer Figure 2.3 The processes involved in the designation of UGBs in a land use plan are as shown in Figure 2.3:

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH Figure 2.3Urban Growth Boundaries Principles

iii.

Transit Orientated Development (TOD) and Compact City Development (CCD) strive for better and more efficient urban living environment;

Transport Oriented Development (TOD) concerns about the requirement to design viable land use patterns (but most preferable compact patterns), social integrity, infrastructure spending priorities (fiscal), and environmental protection. The major goals of the TOD is to increase ridership, promoting economic development, reducing infrastructure cost and rising revenues for transit properties and protecting the environment.

iv.

Sequential Approach (SQ) helps to prioritize development areas.

The sequential approach may be one of the mechanisms to slow down urban sprawl and at the same time, ensure that development projects is demand based and not the supply led as is the case in Malaysia, resulting in the oversupply of certain types of properties. The Sequential Approach is closely related with the Brownfield development and urban revitalization mechanism such as: 

involvement of the private sector

Local authorities should manage the release of sites over the plan period

Sufficient sites should be shown on the local planning authority’s development plan’s to accommodate at least the first five years (or the first two phases) of housing and other developments proposed in the plan.

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH v.

Community Participation and Support (CPS) is for community-responsive planning and management of urban growth;

Community participation in development process provides a source of special insight, information, knowledge, and experience gained (may not be seen by others) through discussion and representative of citizen consensus. Also participation can legitimize a program, its plans, actions, and leadership.

vi.

ISUG Database Management and Decision Support System (ISUGDM and DSS) is for more effective, transparent and accountable planning, management and monitoring. 

ISUG Database Management System - an integrated database management system for the collection, compilation, analysis, storage, retrieval, reviewing, updating, communicating and dissemination of information for planning and management of ISUG,

ISUG Decision Support System - an integrated computerized system to help in decision-making in urban development planning, control and management,

ISUG Cost Benefit Assessment – a comprehensive analytical approach for the assessment of environmental, social and economic impacts and risks of proposed development in the formulation of plans and in development control and monitoring.

vii.

Urban Form, Urban Design, Incentive-Based, Performance-Based, Licensing Control and Other Control Approaches

are tools for more effective and responsive

development control;

viii.

Development Charges (DC) and Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) are to promote the right development in the right place and lastly ;

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH Table 2.1:

Summary of Urban Form, Urban Design and Incentive Based and the Approaches for Effective Development Control

No

Type

Contents

Application

1

Urban Form, Urban Design Control Guidelines

Control form, massing, scale, design of new buildings to existing natural features and public spaces; Regulating plans, public space standards, building form standards, environmental Resource Standards, Architectural Standards, Landscaping standards; signage standards, etc.

Traditional Neighbourhood developments; Town Centres, Transit Oriented Development Zones; Urban Heritage Conservation Areas.

2

Incentive Based Control Guidelines

Higher densities, plot ratios, increased height, reduced setbacks, car parking, etc.

3

Performance based Control Guidelines Planned Unit Development Guidelines Licensing Control Guidelines

Focuses on impact of development; provide flexibility on density and floor space Create a process to bend rigid rules in order to create a better environment;

Can be used to encourage infill developments, TOD and Compact developments; Can be applied with fiscal incentives, transfer of development rights and development charges. Can be used to supplement conventional land use zoning;

4

5

ix.

Control building use and business activities

Town Centre, TOD areas and urban renewal. Licence control guidelines

Government Fiscal Incentives are of course to encourage more favourable developments. National and State Governments must lend support to the ISUG Approach if the goals and objectives of sustainable urban planning, development and management are to be achieved.

Notice that each strategy is symbiotic of the other. No one strategy can stand alone as to implement one would mean the need for another supporting strategy and actions. Hence the integrated approach here means that, in order to achieve the desired outcomes for a more sustainable urban planning and development system all the 9 strategies should be equally emphasized and employed.

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH

3.0 INCLUSION OF THE ISUG APPROACH INTO THE MALAYSIAN PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT SYSYEM Suggested inclusion of the strategic policies in the 5 year Malaysia Plan especially in the NPP and the NUP can be summarized as in Table 3.1 and Table 3.2 below:Table 3.1 : Incorporation of the ISUG Approach in the National Physical Plan Existing NPP Provision NPP 2 The planning of urban-based economic activities shall adopt the concept of ‘Selective Concentration’ for strategic urban centres for all states. NPP 12 The individuality and physical separation of the cities, towns and villages within the conurbations shall be maintained.

Recommended ISUG Incorporation NPP 2 The planning of urban based economic activities shall adopt the Integrated Sustainable Urban Growth Approach for all states. NPP 12 The physical separation of cities and towns within conurbations shall be maintained through the adoption and implementation of the ISUG Approach.

Table 3.2 : The Relevant Strategies of the ISUG Approach to achieve the NUP Thrusts NUP thrusts

ISUG strategies to achieve the thrusts

Thrust 1: An Efficient and Sustainable Urban Development

a. Urban Growth Boundaries and Green Reserves b. Transit Oriented Development and Compact City Development c. Sequential Approach, Brownfield Development, Town Centre Development and Revitalization d. Integrated Planning Management Approach e. Community Participation and Support for Livable Communities f. Development Charges and Transfer of Development Rights

Thrust 2: Development of an urban economy that is resilient, dynamic and competitive;

a. Development Charges and Transfer of Development Rights b. Integrated Planning Management Approach c. Incentive-Based Control Guidelines d. Government Fiscal Incentives a. Integrated Planning Management b. Transit Oriented Development and Compact City Development c. Sequential Approach d. Development Charges and Transfer of Development

Thrust 3: An Integrated and Efficient Public Transport System;

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH Rights Thrust 4: Provision of Urban Services, Infrastructure and Utility of Quality

a. b. c. d.

Integrated Planning Management Urban Growth Boundaries Sequential Approach Development Charges and Transfer of Development Rights e. Transit Oriented Development and Compact City Development f. Government Fiscal Incentives g. Incentive-Based Control Guidelines

Thrust 5: Creation of a conducive liveable Urban Environment with Identity

a. Urban Growth Boundaries and Green Reserves b. Transit Oriented Development and Compact City Development c. Sequential Approach for town centre development and revitalization d. Form-Based and Design-Based Control Guidelines and Planned Unit Development Guidelines e. Community Participation and Support in the Development Process and for Liveable City

Thrust 6: Effective Urban Governance

a. Integrated Planning Management Approach b. Community Participation and Support in the Development Process c. Incentive-Based and Performance-Based Control Guidelines, Licensing Control d. Development Charges and Transfer of Development Rights

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH

4.0 IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES 4.1 THE 4 IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES.

To implement successfully the ISUG Approach, there are 4 major challenges that need to be tackled by the Malaysian Planning and Development Authorities and they are:-

4.1.1

Strong Political Support.

The political masters at federal, state and local levels must have the sincerity, and commitment to achieve sustainable urban growth and development. Therefore, this approach will have to receive not just endorsement by the National Physical Planning Council but also the Cabinet.

Once Cabinet has endorsed the approach, it shall be

imperative for others to follow, as Cabinet Instructions are taken very seriously by all departments and agencies.

4.1.2

Integration and Coordination.

Integration and coordination amongst all related ministries, agencies, departments,

local

authorities and utility providers is pertinent for the implementation of the Approach. Problems of compartmentalization of government powers and jurisdictions should

be

overcome by the ISUG approach which is indeed a cross -department and cross-agency mechanism.

4.1.3

Capacity Building

There needs to be capacity building at all Federal, State and Local government levels especially in the form of monitoring. Capacity building shall be not just in the numbers of officers involved but also in the skill building, knowledge development and data management and upgrading. In the light of the One Stop Centre (OSC) approach to process development applications, the ISUG can be implemented in tandem with the OSC. When all policies and strategies are in place and applications meet up with the criteria and requirement of the ISUG, plan processing and decision making shall be more efficient. FEDERAL DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULA MALAYSIA

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH 4.1.4

Stakeholders involvement and participation

Community involvement must be supported by the willingness and sincerity of government agencies to include comments and suggestions from NGO’s, CBO’s and other stakeholders. It is imperative that there exists private-public sector partnership for ISUG to be effectively implemented and monitored. Land owners and developers begin to understand the philosophy, the ultimate goals and objectives of the ISUG and do not oppose its implementation.

4.2

FURTHER RESEARCHES AND STUDIES

It was suggested by the Study Team that before The ISUG Approach be adopted and implemented, further researches and studies are to be carried out on each of the 9 recommended ISUG strategies and mechanisms in order to:

i.

Work out the working details of each of the strategies and mechanisms;

ii. Test the suitability and effectiveness of each strategy or mechanism on different reallife situations, iii. Work out how and where each of them can be adopted and implemented in the present urban planning and management system, organization and procedure, and alter any of the present system, organization, procedure or law, wherever appropriate.

Hence further studies and Researches which need to be carried out in the next stage include:

4.2.1

The Integrated Planning Management (IPM) Approach

This important approach is a prerequisite for sustainable development, as this calls for an integrated approach to the planning and management of the various social, economic and environmental sectors; land use and transport, housing and cost of

living,

work

and

recreation, risks, costs and benefits of development, short term and long term, present and future needs and demands.

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH The concept of “sustainable development� peculiar to the Malaysian context will

have

related to our Agenda 21, issues of climate change and global warming. Thus Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and Environmental Management System (EMS), and the ISUG Indicators (ISUGI), will have to be jointly studied. Meanwhile, Organization and management (O & M) studies should also be carried out to look into the integration, cooperation and coordination among the various government departments, semi-government agencies, government-linked companies, private agencies, non-government organizations, and other organizations, and the public.

Also New approaches and methods for development planning, such as the Unitary Plan System and the Local Development Framework System being adopted and practiced in UK, should be looked into to determine whether they are improvements to the present system and whether they can better achieve a more holistic, coordinated, effective, efficient and transparent system for sustainable urban growth and development. Amendments to the Town and Country Planning Act, Street, Drainage and Building Act, Local Government Act, Compulsory Purchase Act and other related acts may then be necessary.

4.2.2

Urban Growth Boundaries (UGBs), Urban Growth Areas (UGAs) and Green Reserves (GRs)

Further studies on this strategy should be carried out to work out the precise format and method of incorporating UGBs, UGAs and GRs in the future review and amendments of the National Urbanization Policy, the National Physical Plan, approved structure plans and approved local plans, and in the formulation of new structure plans and local plans.

4.2.3

Transit Oriented Development (TOD) and Compact City Development (CCD)

Further research will need the involvement of the Ministry of Transport, The Ministry of Public Enterprises, The EPU as well as the Public Works Department, in order to work out the long term strategy for an integrated public transportation plan for all major cities in the country. This shall not involve just the physical provision but also the long term planning and management, in line with the NPP and the NUP.

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH 4.2.4

Sequential Approach

Amongst the research that has to be carried out include the following:

i.

The identification of possible areas for the approach to be implemented, including state and local government lands;

ii.

The zoning and development control guidelines such as the density and plot ratio allowable;

iii.

The preparation of more detailed local plans and that are prescriptive and performance based, with flexible development guidelines;

iv.

The readiness of LPAs with data and information systems on the areas and lands within the city centres that will be identified as priority areas for implementation of the Sequential Approach.

4.2.5

Community Participation and Support

For more effective public participation and community support, the following need to be undertaken:-

i.

Research and surveys on the community’s perception of government policies and strategies.

ii.

Capacity building of facilitators and moderators at the public participation events to encourage interaction, communication, ideas; expression by the community;

iii.

Employ other ways and means of getting people at all levels and ages to participate or provide views and opinions;

iv.

The use of other forms of media and other activities for community to interact;

v.

Research on use of technology for effective community participation.

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH 4.2.6 ISUG Database Management and Decision Support System (ISUG-DMDSS)

Further studies are required to work out the details for setting up the components of the recommended ISUG-DMDSS, i.e. i.

the ISUG Database Management System (ISUG-DMS)

ii.

the ISUG Decision Support System (ISUG-DSS),

iii.

the ISUG Indicators (ISUGI), and

iv.

The ISUG Cost Benefit Assessment (ISUG-CBA).

Common electronic formats for the entering, compilation, analysis, storage, retrieval; dissemination, presentation, and up-dating of all relevant data from the various departments and agencies are to be established.

The DTCP should also establish the formats and manuals for the ISUG Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA), Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA), and the Environmental Management System (EMS) and Cost-Benefit Assessment for development planning, development control and development management.

A complete set of ISUG Indicators for the assessment of environmental impacts and for ISUG Cost-Benefit Assessment and risk assessment of proposed development will be needed. The ISUG indicators should include:  Geotechnical and land resources: land stability, land slide, soil settlement, erosion, flooding, land availability, land suitability;  Ecological: fauna and flora, natural biodiversity, forests and wetlands, rivers, marine resources;  Food production: agriculture, fishing, aquaculture;  Climate: Climate change, global warming, carbon emission, green house gases, trees and vegetation;  Air qualité: air pollution, air qualité index, noise pollution  Water quality: water pollution, water quality index;  Public utilities: supply, demand and costs of water, electricity, sewerage, telecommunication, waste management services;  Economy and Income: employment, income, costs of living;  Traffic and Transport: traffic impact, public transport, cost of traveling, FEDERAL DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULA MALAYSIA

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH  Housing and living environment: housing demand and supply, costs of housing, clean neighborhood environment, safe, bicycle lanes, foot paths;  Community facilities and services: facilities for recreation, schools, no of teachers, health clinics and hospitals, no of doctors, police stations, no of policemen, shops;  Social: sense of place, sense of belonging, sense of community, sense of security;  Cultural: traditional practices, religious facilities, heritage, spiritual pursuits;  Design and Aesthetic: protection of vistas, urban design, arts, public realm design.

The electronic dissemination of planning information to the public along the line of the JPBD Land use Planning Portal is envisaged, as well as the setting up of permanent planning information centres and “operation rooms” in all departments and local planning authorities and for the National Physical Planning Council and the State Planning Committees.

4.2.7

Urban Form, Urban Design, Incentive-Based, Performance-Based, Licensing Control and Other Control Approaches

Further studies to look into the details and suitability of the various alternative development control approaches should be carried out. The work should also look into the formulation of the various components of the control guidelines, such as the regulating plan, public space standards, building form standards, environmental resource standards, and architectural standards, landscaping standards, signage standards, incentive criteria and performance criteria for guiding new development.

4.2.8

i.

Development Charges and Transfer of Development Rights

Development Charges

It is crucial that the Rules for Development Charges be prepared and adopted for all local planning authority areas, especially those that have local plans. The rules should specify the rates and method of calculation of development charges. The steps to be taken include: 

Determine the base land / building use, density and plot ratio entitlement of various locations within the Urban Growth Areas,

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULA MALAYSIA

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THE ISUG APPROACH - A MONOGRAPH 

Carry out a Land Valuation Exercise for the Urban Growth Areas, to determine the “Base Land Values” of the various locations,

Create the formula and rate for calculating DCs,

Draft and Prescribe the Development Charge Rules,

Establish an administrative system of imposing DCs by LPAs.

ii.

Transfer of Development Rights

The further studies to be done should look into the requirement and suitability of the Transfer of Development Rights in the plan area. The steps to be taken to establish the system in the plan area include: 

Identify the “Sending Areas” and the “Receiving Areas”,

Carry out a Real Estate Market Analysis (REMA),

Determine the “Base Development Rights” of these areas,

Create a Formula for Calculating “Development Rights Values” or “Credits” in these areas,

Drafting the Rules,

Establish administrative procedures and setting up a TDR Register

4.2.9

Government Fiscal Incentives

The following are some examples of areas in which fiscal incentives need to be further researched upon:

i.

Incentives that will encourage the development of more affordable housing in the city especially within transit planning zones;

ii.

Incentives to encourage the setting up of more colleges and universities within the CBD and around transit nodes;

iii.

Incentives that will encourage people to leave their private vehicles and use the public transportation systems;

iv.

Incentives to encourage small and medium scale services to locate in the city;

v.

Incentives that will encourage more corporations to adopt and beautify the city’s gardens, public spaces, walkways, etc.

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5.0 CONCLUSION As a conclusion it was found that Sequential Approach by itself will not be an adequate tool to manage urban issues. Hence, an integrated approach is needed more than one strategic mechanism or tool will be applied to render its adoption in the Malaysia context.

The ISUG contains comprehensive mechanism from planning, design, management, community inclusion and fiscal strategies that will be required for a holistic urban management approach. It thus recommended that this approach be adopted into the Malaysian Planning and Development system.

Indeed, to ensure effective implementation of the ISUG Approach in Malaysia, further researches and studies on the 9 interrelated Mechanisms and Strategies need to be pursued .The effect and impact of these multi-dimensional instruments will consequently attain the ultimate goal of Sustainability

and

henceforth

Sustainable

Development

for

Malaysian

Urbanisation and Urban Growth.

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Study On The Feasibility of Sequential Approach In The Development Plan System of Malaysia  

Study On The Feasibility of Sequential Approach In The Development Plan System of Malaysia