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tsD SETlENANJUNG

DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNNG PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

Ministry ot Housing and Local Government, Malaysia


City of Georgetown


GONTENTS

I

FOREWORD

3

I

lntroduction -

The lmage of Georgetown

2 Themes of The City 3 The City Landscape 4 Regeneration of the City 5 Urban Links 6 Formation of the City Centre 7 Sustainable Development and Urban Components 8 Philosophies and Plans 9 Further lnformation

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GEORGETOWN GITY IMAGE "Sustainable Approaches to Town Planning" Foreword s the nation steps lnto the new millennium, one city in particular stands out. The city

of Georgetown, which is located in the State of Penang, is a living embodiment of rich

heritage amidst an urban environment. Progressing towards a fully developed city, Georgetown is a manifestation of the fusion of heritage conservation, ecological management

and urban redevelopment, further refining the uniqueness of a city that aims to meet future needs and demands. Georgetown is one of the most liveable cities in Asia and has risen to become one of the best cities in Malaysia. Accelerating economic groMh has deemed this city its name, the Pearl of the Orient. This has attracted both local and foreign investors who have

further economically augmented and diversified the city-

As a country with lslam as the official religion, each development is planned and lmplemented

to assure the integration of ethnic values towards developing a civil society and adherence to sustainable development principles. The Total Planning and Development Guidelines form the backbone of sustainable town planning for Georgetown and other emerging cities in Malaysia. The Vision 2020, development plans, sustainable development strategies, laws and acls have

provided a significant portion in the formation of a global capital city - a city of e-commerce, k-economy,


rich cultural and social diversity, and progressive development. ln the last three decades, the

city fabric has evolved with the addition of various physical element developments. The current image of Georgetown clearly reflects its great success in its prbgressive participation

towards realising Vision 2020. Georgetown, is,

a city that is

adaptable, resilient and

conducive for the growth of its economy and society.

This publication portrays some of the major elements that shape the image of Georgelown. Beginning with an introduction to the city, the scene is set with preceding chapters which places an emphasis on key elements of the city. Supported by strong guiding principles and plans, proper city planning has helped heighten and redefine the image of the city. The Federal Department of Town and Country Planning has laid the groundwork to ensure that the cities in

Malaysia remain as sustainable entities that would ensure the aspirations of a developed nation are accomplished through the implementation of Total Planning and Development Guidelines, which are the nucleus of all planning. Gratitude and appreciation is extended to all parties that are making these philosophies into reality, a continuous effort from everyone.

Director General Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia Geaeetown

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lntroduction Tha city image of Gsorgetown r€presents a symbiosls ofthe pastand future. Layers ofhlstory

€n

be peeled

away by discening the different structural images of iho city. The besis of ths city lies ln lh€ adoption of lhe Total Planning and Development Pdnciples which is also lhe catalysl of otller planning actMties. The city of Georgetown, which acts as lhe Slate capitalofPenang is govemod stlhe locallsvelby a MunicipalCouncil.

Wilh a cunlnt populalion of 40O,0O0 and a varie9 of physical slructures, Georgetd m is a culturalv dlv€rse city. Although lhe city has been in exislence befor€ specilic sets of policios, guidelines and doclrines came into being, lhs city is rep€s€ntalive of city planning ideals. The image that Georgelown poftays ls ol a cityscape blended wilh the nalural environment. As wilh other 6ties in MalaFia, the basic undedying pincipl€ of planning embodies lhe philosophy ofa fundamentally balanced relationship b€tw€en Man and his Crcator, Man and his'fellow l\,4an, and l\,{an and Environmont, which

fom the basis of

l\,{alaysla's Total

Planning and D€velopmenl Guldelines.

Planning for Georgetown incorporales thsse principles in shaping the image

of Georgelown.

EEch

component is evldent throughout the city landscapa.

Georyatown City

tndg. | 6


Peacefi,rl A ctty is a human habitat that supports the social, economical and personal noeds oi its residenis. lt allows a lelatively uninterrupied environmenl. The image of peace is inlertwined wiih the element of safely as ihe two ate mutually exclusive.

An environmenl such as this stimulates buslness developmenl and culturcl growih. Thus, the planning of Georgetown has always emphasised the elements oi safety, equitabillty and health. ln fact, the city is designed lrom a human point of view enabling its residents to jnteract wiih lls u|ban and narural environmenis efiiciently. Access to the city is designed io facilitale accâ‚Źssibility and enhance these

ln terms of secu ty, the provlsion of infmstructure and seNices are well arranged lo prcvide comfort and safety for residents. The prevention of crime is a basic c.iterion and lhus, pursued vigorously through ihe placemenl of public seruices and activities. Local neishbourhood watches are an ideal example of how a peaceful socialelement js part ofthe Malaysian city matfix.

Preventive and mitigating steps are undertaken to ensu.e thal ihe natuml occurences of nooding and soil erosion, and additionally, man-made threais such as pollution and c me, are not part of the city image. Additionally, thrcals of pollution are either elimlnated or contained within a specified site. A peaceful city embraces beneficial elements while shying away from components which pose a danqer to the â‚Źsidents in particular and the city io qeneral.


Friendly lnteraction emong peop'e plays an imporlanl role in the shaplng ol a liveable city. Du€ to Georgetown's cultural divelsity, it is easy

to see how ils resldenls move around ln large social grcups. Thus, it is lhe city's aim to inslil the spirjt of good neighbou iness among its r€sld€nls through proper land-use, especially in lhe planning of residenlial areas. With the deslgn and placements ol social lacilitios and public places take lhis relationship into account. Due lo the high nomb€r of Iourists to the cily, social interaction is heighlened and need to be inconorated in the planning oflhe city itself. Thus. lhe design and plac€m€nt of Georg€town's public faciliiies are blilt lo facilitate interaclion between locals and

visitors. Apart from lhal, the city's facilitles also c€ler lo groups with special needs such as childr€n, sonior citizens and the physically disabl€d, making Georgelown a truly peoplejd€ndly city. Wilh a balanc€d dsvelopment ofmod€n infrastructure and lush greenery G€orgelown exudes warmth and acceptance.


Knowledge Because the Crestor has beslowed upon man the capacity lo learn, w€ have lhe duty to maximize acquisition of knowledge in order to establish the foundalion of a civilized society. G€orgelown is a well-Planned and developed

city as well as a centre of learning. Based on lhis conc€pt, lhe neighbourhood unil is modelled aftel institulions of higher leaming as lhe centre of infomalion. Educ€lion centres, schools and libmries form some of the physical manifestations of knowledge and as a focal point in lhe cily design. The Fikrah Garden or places that

are used to upgrade the knowledg€ of urban residenls are greatly emphasised in this concspt. The quest fot knotlledge has to be achieved through educailon in order to build th€ foundation of a civlllsed sociely. ln addjtion, knowledge as the comerslone of a city would result in enormous benelils io every aspect of human existence. A

cily wilh knowledge is a city wellequipped to overcome problems through prcper planning, consultalions and accurate jniormalion. This is lhe ultjmate goalol lhe city's concepl of knowledge.

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Gleanliness and Beauty Beauty and cleanliness arc two noble values that are enshdned in all cultural and social systems. ln sliving to become a progressive city, Georgeiown recognises the impodance of these values and, in fact, incorporates them inlo its public ameniti€s and services. However, these values cannot be realised without a sense ofcivic consciousness

in lhe rcsidents. Tl.rus, residents are encouraged to pmctice good hygiene to ensure cleanliness of the city. Tho proper design and construction of bujldings, transporlation systems and industries also

pl6ce impodanco on lhe elemenl of cleanliness. The public too are encouEged to utilise the amenilies that exist in the city lo encourage a healthy lifeslyle. Georuotown isalso blessed with lush greenery dueto landscaping measureswhich mainlain the surrcunding green areas. The many open ar€as, public parks and green lungs around the city not only balanc€ lhe urban landscape but also b€come venues for outdoor

rccrealional aclivities. The adoption of lhis value endows the cily with

a

multi-lold return that

is derived from

lhe

beautiful landscapes and gardens, enhanced aesthetic values and an overall positive health ofthe city.

Georyetown city

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Prosperous A prosperous cily alows its residents lo enjoy the benenb of sustainable periods of growth development. SocaL impacts especaly due lo economic downturns is lessened and lhe opporiuniiy to ach eve socla and economlc advancemenl a.e

To manlan its prosperty, the cty recognises the mporlance ol lts nalubl resources. Wh le Geoeelown striveslo develop,lt a so recosnlsesthe importance

ol

proper use and management of lts natural resolrces. A cty with prosperily

would progress towards lntegrated development, which in lum would mould the citizens lowards a progressive way oI

life

of others and

respecl ng the rlghts

!pholding the principLes of juslice.

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Active An actve city supporls lhe needs oi visllors and residenls on a contifuous

bass From day to night, facillies tor

â‚Źccommodalion, healthcare and

enterta nment are readily available. Besdes thal the cty also caterc lo the needs of lhe business and rndustrial worklorce with long operating hours Roadways

aâ‚Ź weulit to ensure the

safely ot users at all limes and slreels

and buildings are decorated with lighls to create a llvely atmosphere. An aclive city also calels to lhe health needs ol ils residents. This is in line with the prcmotion of a healthy sociely. Traditional and rnodern health and flness

cenlres are easily found within the

cly

Spods complexes lhal cater lo

various indoorand ouldoor sporc are slralegrcally localed w lhin the city and

lhe sububs. Open areas are converled to p!blic parks and garders which

provide adequale recreallonal faclities Hosplals and clrnics ofler slate'of-lhe-ad medlca technology to provde advanced healthcare iacilrties and seruices to the p!blic, heallhcare Georqetown

s

ncreasingly becom ng an aspecl of

s allracton. Ths is in ine wlh the obiectve of buildino a

productive, strong and healthy nalion.


Multicultural Georgetown is home to a my ad of culture and ethnicity that have co-existed for generations. As such, a great level of tolerance and underclanding has been established in the residenis' ideals and aspiEtions. Unity is the key factor jn binding ihe different people of Georqetown and is manifested ln the archileclure and planning of the lown itself. Places

of worchip of ditrerent faiths that exist side by side are common sights in Georgetown. The celobralion of the town s cultural difterences are embrcced and showcased through the varjous colourful fostivals thal adom the city's streets every year. The planning and development oithe city also incorporate the diverse cLrltural elemenis within the choice oi facilities, placement and designs. Celrainly, the city takes greai pfide in such cultural and lacial diversity lhal have survived for centuries. Hence, planning and development of lhe city is balanced wilh equal respect for each culture to maintain a peaceful and harmonious existence.


Gonservation Conservation of heritage landscapes and natuml environmenl is an imporlanl aspect of the planning and dev€lopment of the city. These envircnmont funclions as a source of balance belwesn d€velopment and cullural values which add value to its residents' lifestyle. A well conserved envircnment off€rs a knowledge of how lhe past shaped th6 present. As lhe oldesl urban settlement in l\,lalaysia, Georgetown demands great responsibility in the car€ and maintenance of its diverse natural environment. A"s the citygrows,

ils natural environmenl is mainiained and conserved as an imporlanl element within lhe cily malrix. ln the cily, built sites often 9o through pedods of @turbishment and renovation in order lo constantly adapl theil use to modem demands. Suslainable development requjrcs lhal lh€se imporlant siles do not become idle but are utillsed for the beneUt ofthe city. Laws and legulallons to this effecl are avallable, prcviding clear dkections lo the city s growlh. Knowing the potenllals and limils ol our

natural and built environment

is

crucial wilhin the conloxt

ol

planning and development. Thus, pristine areas are

conserued for lhe benetil of residents. This symbiolic relalionship between man and the environment has to be balanced lo ensure the well-being ot residenls. Georyetown City

tnas. \ 14


THEMES OF

THEGITY.

GEORGETOWN

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lntroduction Physical planning and developmsnt is based on unique or specific lhemes

that contribule towards achioving thâ‚Ź ideals of Vision 2020. Themes cen

be based on natural or man-made leatures and characterislics thal ar6 prominent or identillable wilhln a city- ln Georgelown, health and

conseNation arâ‚Ź importanl aspects

of the city which are

canied

throughoul most ofthe respecllve lhemes. The city being situstsd belween gre6n landscapes end the sâ‚Źa, has slived to maintain an image as a healthy city. lndeed wilh such nalural surroundings, ihese are important aspects of lhe cily that are sometimes overlooked-

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Vision The vision city isthe idealMalaysian city which would act as a catalyst towards achieving Vision 2020. Vision 2020 requjres the country and its cities to be fully developed by the year2020. The vision eocompasses the development of infrastructLrae and society as well as ihe creation of a caring society with the acquisition of scientific and technological expertiso.

The city is geared to become a world class technology hub lhai will provide various types of facilities; education, transportalion and healthcare services. Combined efforts between the Fedeâ‚Ź|, Stats and public

lnstitutions are gâ‚Źafing their etrods with transforming the hediage enclaves of Geo.getown as a heritage protection zone for Malaysia and the world.

lnfraslructure and ulilities such as water and ejeciricity suppty, irrigation and roads are

we

provided despile

land constrainls. The planning of an efficient transportation network is further enhanced to decrease congestion. Educational and health facilities are excettent whjte sustainabte use and managernent of the coasts arc unde ined The city's emphasis on its three unique resources which are its peopte, cutture and nalural resources helps Georgetown in realising the aims ofVision 2020.


The facililjss below are som€ €lomonts that instila sense of priclo and molivate lhg citizens of Goorgolown io aspk€ towards lhe vision that ha8 b€en set down for th6 county as a whole. Thes€ landma 6 play a local and nalional 1016 in dErachtorlstlcs of sovereignty

and administrdion. Th€y ar€ lh€ b€drock of a Vision Cily. Havlng a 3trong adrmnistratiofl support€d by sufrci€nt tac$ilies are lh€ hallmark of a Vr€ion City. Adr$nlstratlon facililies folow a c€rtain hiorarchy thal encompasses h€ facilifies bebw.

city

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is a beacon otthe city's devsbgnstt and

growth. The building that

ls

situated

in

the

adminiskative nod€ has b66n in uae since the 1880's. Georgetown

is designat6d as lhe Slate capilal of

Psnang and the c€ntre of admlnistration. The City Hall

authority vested 1016

is a symbol of the ot lhe

Management

affl

meeling lhe needs of lhe city represenl of City Hall. Good govemanco is Gflected nol

onvirons lhe

in lh€ clty.

local

only by the image of City Hall, but also by lheir r€sponsibilllies and actions.

Sed Mdiara The Seri Mutiara is the oflicial rssidence of his Excellency, lhe Govemor

of Penang. Since

Penang does not have a Sultan,lhe Governor upholds the sovereignty in lhe city and slate.

A symbol of state sovercignlty, th€ Govo.nor pr€sides over functions of state importaoce,

Each capilal city in the counlry has the placement of lhis institLrtion at sites that are able to portray preslage, strenglh and power

The landscaping surrounding the

sile

together with lhe aura lhat permeales from

the Seri Muliara provides for a sense of continuily and leadership.


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Penang High Gourt Laws and r€gulalions are upheld in order to mainlain an orderly and civilised society. Through the provision of a High Courl, law and order is maintainod. As a major city, Georgetown has one leg of ths highesl legal circuit in lhe country. The site has been used conlinuously as a courl since 1809. Through lhe application of laws and rights by the Hlgh Courl, lhe city and th6 counky as a whole would have a significant symbol of fairn€ss and equality.

State Mosque lslam is a major religion in this counlry This is reflected by ils'omcial stalus within the national context. The stale mosquo ls situated in

slate capitols throughout the country. This enables the city and it's €sidenls lo have a living instilution that upholds thek beliels, culture and heritage. The stale mosque in Georgelown completes lhe hierarchy of herjtage mosques and olher religious institutions in lhe cily.

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Recreational G Open space, recreaiion and landscape are imporlant aspecls lhat need to b€ given emphasls in development efforts for th€ residents'

wellbeing. Recreational developmenl within Georgetown's co3slalareas can be found in various places. I'lowever, the more popular ones are lhe esplanades located within the city centre lik€ the Gu.ney Dive and lhe Padang Kola Lama prom€nades.

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The Gurney Dive is a popular

two-kilometre long esplanade

that stretches along north'easlern

lhe

coast

of

Georgetown. Street fumiturc

and such as benches and potled plants are provided alonq the pedeslian walkway

thal sandwich the asphalt ! su ace road. l,latured casuarina and yellow flarne trees provide shelter from the aftemoon sun and cont

buting

6

to a cooler microclimate forthe comfort of pedesl ans. Slrcetlighting is sufficienlly provided to ensurc the salety of visitorc at nighl.

Gurney Drive also plays host to interesiing local festivals such as Buddhism's Loy Kralhong and Taoism's Nine Emperor Gods Feslival. ln the backgrcund is a mixlure of upmarkel rcsidential and hotel development,

bLrilt

facing the sea to make tull use of the

scâ‚Źnic beachfront view and ihe cool sea breeze. ConseNed bungalows provide a stunning conirast when set against the background ot high-rise residential and hoteltowers.

Located towards the east of Gurney Drive is another popular promenade - the Padang Koia Lama, or the City Hall Esplanade.

Elements of hard and soft landscape werc carefully blended 10 provide a promenade lhat js both beautiful and practical. ln ihe backgrcund, opposite the seaside of the promenade is the Clty Hall. Built in the 1880s, this stalely colonial building incorporates

British PalladiBn architecturc featufing magnificent Corinthian columns and large windows- Successtully conserved, lhe building

now serues as the office of the Penang lsland Municipal Council and provides a picturesque backdrop to lho arca- Adjacent lo the Fort is Taman Kota Lama - a public

pa*

regulafly visited by local

families. The park, which overcees lhe sea and featuring children playground and a malure landscape, is a perlect place for picnic and light rccreational activities.

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Urban Parks Providing much needed space for public â‚Źcreation,

llban parks also create public

awareness and educate people on the

impodance oI env ronmentaL conservaUon. Al the same time, some of these parks have tumed oul lo bâ‚Ź successful tourist sttraclions. Urban parks also function as green lungs and contribute towards the microclimate ol an area.

The Ait Hilam Recreatron Pa.k is an example of the islands urban park which ofie6 bolh recreational space as well as environmental educalion. The 1o0-heclare Forest Recreatron Park is home to countless species of plants, insects and small animals. It also features a neiwork offootpaths and flowing streams for the enjoymenl ofvisitors. Aforestry museum is also located within the

pa.k area. Constlucled ftom vadous species of wood and other lorest produce, ihe muselm houses a large collection of forest produce frcm all over rhe country

Georgelown has numerous pafts whtch lange from state to neighbourhood parks. These spaces are planned and developed as recreaUonal areas for rcsidents to carry oul leisure activties. They lunction as green lungs and addilionally are also equipped wlth facilities lrke footpaths, rcsl huts, chidrens playgrounds, plcnic sites, and archery. Areas such as lh6se include lhe Teluk Kumbar Forest Recreatlon Park and the Youth Park.


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Recreational Forests The rcpid industriaLisalion and development of other economic seciorc have brought intense pressure on undeveloped land, includjng lracts of naturalforests. Neverthetess, rhe conrinued exisrence of narurat forests on the island as waler calchment area is vital. Hence, utmosr attenrion is qiven by the Slate covernmenl on efforts to conserue the naiuralforests of the island. The Penang Slate Forestry Department has ptanned and devetoped

foresled areas on lhe island for recreational purposes. Various types of facitities are atso provided for visitors. Some of the recreational forests are the Teluk Bahang Recreationat Foresi, the Pantai Keracut Recreationat Forest and the SungajTukun Recrcationat Forest.


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found on Penang Hill which is the collective term r€leffing to a cluster of peaks such as Strawbery Hill, Western Hill and Buklt Bendeta. The highest peak is Western Hill, whlch rlses to 817 meterc. Cove€d with

primary and secofdary forcsts, the hills

are ch ln

bjodiversity. R€ceiving a high fiean annual rainfall of about 3, 126 mm per annum, Penang Hill is also lhe source of four main river systems thal drain the cenlral part of the Penang lsland. Combine this with the largely

untouched foresl cover, Penang Hill is the main water catchment ar6a lhal supplies lhe city. Presenlly, lhe hill

catchmont area supplies 30% of lhe total volume of water supplied lo tho State water authority - the Pulau Pinang Water Supply Board.

Visitols can roach lh€ hilllop via a tunicular railway from

a slation at Hlll Rallway Road. Completed in 1923, the

line rises 737 met€rs. The 3o-minute ride will lake visitors from th€ base of the hill to lhe summit through

jungles caQeled with lush vegetation inhabited by lroops of long-tailed macaques. Allelnatively, visitors

may want

to uss a iungle Irack, which

begins at

Walerfall Road adjacenl lo Ihe Bolanical Gaden

Ge.tg.lown Cily lnage


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ln addition to natuâ‚Źl forests, recrcational forests also play significant rolâ‚Źs in promoting environmental education and sustainability ofthe island's resources. One

such forest is the popular Botanical Garden. Located off the Waledall Road, the 30 hectares of beautifuUy landscaped valley is also commonly known as the Waterfall

Garden due to the local;on of a secluded watedall flowing through the undulating

lerain. Created in 1884 bylhe firct suporinlendent, Charles Curtis, the garden

is the

only gazetted botanical garden in Malaysia- The well"planned landscaping design of the garden remains relalively unchanged until today.

.eoqetown cty tnaqe | 28


L@ Georcelowo is renowned for ils treelined roads, Scotland Road, Residency Road, and Macalisier Road are fine examples of rcads

where the skeel landscape is decorated wilh well-maintained matu.e k€es. Trees of all sizes and heights are utilised in an integraled design for all parks and landscaping (in accordance

with lhe National Landsc€pe Guidelines 1997). Road shouldeF and medians have been meiiculously mainlained lo acl as a buffer

and balance the harsh hard landscape ofthe roads. Landscaping beautifies the city and efforis to incrcase landscaping together

with maintaining curr€nt landscapes adopl Fsd€ral and Local guidelines in their application.


Located close to Georcetown, yet secluded from lhe hustle and bustle of the clly, the Botanical Garden

.enes as lne ciys g'ee_ lL'rg. Today.

t s a p'irre

recreational spot not only for cily dwellels but also for many of lhe island's residents. Accordingly, facilities are provided to caterthe rccrcalionalneeds ofthe visitors. ln addiilon to the vast ar€y ofvegetation, three loop roads

are provided for ioqgers and strollers. Today, lhe Botanical Gaden s also a place for rcsearch and education. With over 300 species of flora with n ils beautifully landscaped ground, the garden caters lot bolh

scientlfic research as well

as school

envlronrnental

educatjon proqrammes.

Geotrlawn city lh.ge


Gultural Th€ r€sid€nls of G€orgei(Mn kace slek roots to the inner arcas of lh6 city. \rvhjb most of tll€m sharc cornrnon beginnings. lhey also display a rainbow of coltural and spiritual legacy. ln facl, ihe term - lh6 'P6nang Way of Life'was sp€cially coined to r6f€ct th€ ctllmina{on of coloudul customs and lradltlons du€ to each racs's rich cultural contributions.

G€orgetown is a cily lhat lolorates and €ncourag€s differcnt religious pracuces and b6llefs. The fre€dom of religion is the comerstons of tho cily'6 multic1jltu.al strerEth. Many hedtage sit€s b€ar testimony to this. Th€ Jalan Pitl area serves as th€ best sxample, As one walks akmg lhe slr€et, ono will encounter lhe f\apitan Kling mosque, lhs Sri Madamrmn Hindu temple, lhe Kuan

Yin l€mple worship and the Angli:an St. G€orge's church. All lhes€ four farnous places ot worshh syrnbolis€ G€org€town's spirilual heritrago. Th€y also indic€ls lhs fostedng of closer lies among lie peopl€ of many races and orltures who have lived together for gsneralions. Cunently, newer places of worship are developed wilhin r€sidonlial ar€as which also funclion as community centres, ln addltlon to reljgious functions. Culture in Georgetown also takes th€ fo{m of performances and th6 arts. Supplemenling th€ rich heritag€ of the city, the local council formed lho P€nang State Cultural Council, whose task is lo overs€€ lhe developm€nt and adminisbalion of cultural eveots lhroughoul tho cily a.d lho state. There is a mixture of pfivate, pubttc and instilutional facilites that c€ter to culltlral evenls. Th€se faciliti€s offer a conlrast to ihe built heritage of the city by 6howcasing the human

h6 lage.

StaL Mllseum The State Museum was odginally the slte of lhe Ponang Free Schoot b€fore it moved to its prssent site in 1927. The buitdtng was buitt in two parts, in 1896 and 1906, as funds onty a owed

lhe compl€lion of one half at a time- During Wortd War

[,

ths eastem hatf was dest oy€d, lsaving only lh€ wesisrn wing ss it is today. The museum was founded in 1965 and in 1998 it unde&enl major renovation works, The museum is consid€r9d one of the ,inest stals mus€ums in lh€ country

The Hall sils on what was formody the Edinburgh House. Further enhancing the Hall,

ll ls silualed wilhln one of the Heriiage nodes of

Georgetown, lhe L6buh Light area. tt can accommodala around 2,000

p€ople and usage

of ths facility is complinentary for state

arts


Universiti Sains Malaysia Gultural Hall As a facility specifically for students and generally for the public, the Universily has a hall for cullural and artistic pedormances. lt is parl ofeducating and exposing studentsand

the public lo local cultural aspecls soch as dance and music.

P. Rarnlee Audliodum Culture plays an important pad in the development of a city. Th€ state has laken iniiiatives lo develop this area ofhuman activily by eslablishing their own cultu€land arls department. One ofthe facilities that this depanment provides is an 3ldilorium bearing lhe

name of one of Penang's most famous lh€spian sons, the late Tan

S

P

Ramlee. The audiioium is open lo cultural, art and

enterlainment performanc€s. Geapetawn city

lnase

32


T6cing ils history it can be said that Georgetown remains lrue to its role as centre of trade and commerce, As a

hislo cally impodant coasl,alcily, lhe cily plannets succeeded

in creating a symbiosis of the old and new. Rural

paths lhal were crossed by travellerc and Iraderc of the past are still being used by today's businessmen and holidaymakeas. The innerareas of the city are constanily being upgrcded with many modem conveniences and

seNices while reraining ils rustic charm. lnduslry, especially high-lech, is lhe main goods ol trad€ lhat functions as the lifeblood of commerce. Georgetown sorves as the marshalliog point of ihese goods that also

cater to a wofldwide market. Banking, shipping and treight are some of the services lhat ihe city provides. Commerce, lrade, finance, insurance and

higher-order seNices are critical s€ctors

that have augmented grcllth and lhal have lunher diveGill€d the economy lo help establish ihe cily limly as a regional cenlre, currenlly, commerce and lrade,

as w€ll as the llnance and insurance induslries are in the midstof improvement

by the Slate to meel

international

standads to attracl bolh local and global

demands and n€eds. Just as some

adminislrative departments make heritage buildings as their centre of operations, so have many commercial enlerprises. Their occupancy has certainly given these old and often forgolten buildings a new lease ol life.

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KOMTAR KOIVITAR is the largest commerclal centrc in

lhe city. lt is named Kompleks Tun Abdul Razak (KOI,4IAR) in honour of the second

Prime l,,linister

of

Malaysia, the late Tun

Abdul Razak bin Hussein. At its time of completion in 1985, it was the largest urban

€development projeci.

A 65-siorey

urban

cenlre overchadowins the heart

of

Georgetown with a brcaihtaking view of the

city, KOMTAR also coniains

thealres,

squash couris and a geodesic dome which

muliipurpose hall. Today, KOMAR is recognised as a landma* of Georgeiown and Penang, and has prcven ilself to be a successfulcity landmark.About

5,500 people for

wo*

in ihe complex daily,

including 1,800 clvil workerc serving the State Governmeni and allied services.


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lndustrial Development and Free Trade Zones The industrial alea represents the wo* place wherc some of the ulban residents earn ihek livelihood. lndustrial areas are caretully planned and integ€led witb other related developmenls such as housing, urban and commercial cenires and open spaces as well as recreaiion arcas. ln Georgeiown and geoerally Penang, the grcMh of the industrial sector, especially the manufactu ng division, is one

of the success stodes of ihe state's economic developmeot- lt has transiormed the state economy trom one that was largely agriculture-based in the 1 970s into an industdalised on6. ln the year 2000, the manufacturing lndustry cont buted over 45% of ths stale's

lndustfial development in the state is carefully planned to minimise detrimental effects of such activity on tbe human environment, As a result, most faciories operate wilhin the designated indust al arca known as an industdal ostate, industrial park and free trade zone- The Penang Developmenl Corporalion (PDC) develops and markeis these siles. On the island, the main industfial development is the Bayan Lepas lndust al Park and Eayan Lepas Free Trade Zone. As of the year 2000, Bayan Lepas lndust al Park consists of more than

1 1

7 factories within an area of

1 1

0 heciares. The total number of employmeni

in the area stands at 25,000, with the total number ofjobs created in PDC indust al areas boing closo to 200,000Covering an area of 238 heciares, the Bayan Lepas Free Trad€ Zone is made up of 83 facto es that genercies over 60,000 jobs. The electronics and electrical industdes are the biggest employerc wiih close to 100,000 workers employed in approximately 170 factories. Despiie their close localion to the shoreline, the presence of this industrial development does not interfere with th6 use and enjoyment ofthe shoreline. Dominated by high{ech industries, the impacts of the industrial area on its surrounding environment is minimised due

to the low pollution generated by these 'clean' indusiries. Additionally, a well-landscaped coastal highway functions as a buffer zone between the iodustrial a€a and shoreline. This coastal highway also €nsures tho industries are sasily accessible by heavy v€hictss tEnspoding goods and maie als to and irom ihe Penang Port or lhe penang Bridge.


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Georgetawn

city tnage


Education

irl!

The educational inslitulions are slrat€gically located wilhin lhe city. They are also close to public facilitl€s. Even wilh scarcity ofland, many institutions manage to have an open space

oriield lor sporting and socialevenlE. Geoqetown has extonsive educational facilitlos for all levels of educa$on. The public and private education seclors complement each olher by oflering more courses and increasing student inlake. Hence, €ducation is lop pdorily for the people of G€orgetown,

The Penang Free School, established in 1416, is the oldest English sciool in South fust Asia, Government schools €nge from primary, secondary, technical, vocational and boarding schools. Tertiary education is provid€d by the Govemment wlth ihe establishment

of lhe Universili Sains Malaysia, lhe premier science university in lhe county. lncidentally, ihis unaversity has th€ mosl eslablished town and counlry ptanning department in the oouniry Th6ro are numerous private schools catering to educalion from lhe primary all the way lhrough professional cours€s. The Bukit Jambul residential ar6a is cunenlly being developed as an educational toumship.

h

a nutshell, Georgetown is solf-sufiicient in tems


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Healthcare Gity I t

tr*

As part of the citys vision, the Penang Slate Govsrnment has now added e new dimension to th€ h€alth development policy of the State. Currently,

there are extensave healih facilities with mod€rn govsmment polyclinics,

hospilals and mat€mily homes, and h€alth centes made easily availabl€. The public sector complements lhes€ efiorts with hodem hospitals and facilities. Medical education is also emphasised with the establishment

of a prlvate medic€l college in 1996. ln an effon lo

diversify the economy, medical tou sm is slowly bejng accepted and promoted, Private hospitals arc aggressivsly pursuing lhis economic segm€nt by including in-house ma*eting deparlments. Foreign visilors enjoy \0ellness programmes in addilion to curative visits. Traditional

forms of therapy like reflexology and acupuncture are also easily available in the city c€ntr€.

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Recreaiional and alhletic sports are an impo.tant stilch in lhe cily's social fabic. The cjty, where most of the Slate's alhletes irain, has

produced numercus alhlsles of iniemational calibre. Domestically,

the State is a top achiev€r ofien surpassing athletic offods and rcsulls of much bigggr States. The succsss of sports is due pimarily to the lact lhat there is a multitude of spoftng options available in lhe city. One of lhe aims of sports is to encourage a heallhy lifestyle for all levels

of lhe

society. The city offers a

microcosm of lvalaysia's natural environment to

l€in

in. The hitts

ofler highland areas, lhe sea ofiers the coastal perspective of lhe co!'ntry aod the city olf€rs l,4alaysia's world-class sporting facilities. There are a few inl€mational level sporting events lhat take place in

Georgelown. Such evenls are normally held in areas lhat lake advantage of lhe nalural and man-made elements of the istand. The Penang Bridge Run is the most prestigious evenl held annually. The run ulilises the Penang Eridge as a route ofthe maft hon. lt is an ingenious use of facililies and has eveo been adapted by lhe Second Link to Singapore. The lnternalional D€gon Boat Race is anoih€r annual eveni lhal utllises water bodies on the island like lhe Telok Bahang Dam. With such hjgh-profile events, th€re is constant €ncouragemenl to its r€sidents lo take up a healthy and sporty lifeslyle. ln addition to organising ev6nts, the localgov€mmsnt hastaksn


], PISA is an inlemational class multi-purpose sports complex developed on 25 acres of land in Bayan Baru' The complex is equipped with an indoor sladium, an aquatic centre with an Olympic size swimming pooland a multi-storey carpark. ll also serves as a grand venue lor banquets, exhibitions, conferences 3nd conceds.

Balik Pulau Sports Gomplex The Balik Pulau Sports Complex is one of the main facilities for sports and social development. Buill on a 12.9 acre sile to meet

the needs of a rapidly dâ&#x201A;Źveioplng town, the complex offers a range of facilities including a multi-purpose hall wlth a capacity of

2,000,4 sepak takraw courls, and secretadal room, meeting rcorns, an audio visual rcom, and a slage, changing looms, prayer rooms and adequale car parks.

f"*,*;"',r;;I46


Georgetown is rich in herilage both in tems ofarchitecture and culture. Colonisalion has iefi behind buildings ofwesiem classicism, some with lslamic influence. lnfluence frcm ancient civilisaiions as faras China and India can also be seen in the many temples located amidst modern archilectures all over the city. Georgelown has an extensive herilage environment of shop houses, villas and manslons. Today, it contains lhe largest collection of 1gth and 20lh ceni!ry buildings in SoutheastAsia. The uniqueness of Georgetown lies in the preservation of historic communities and living traditions. The ich architectural heritage of Georgetown is a viable resource for the city. As one ofthe oldesttrading centres in [4alaysia,

Georgetown has retained many of its unique historical landscape. Although the economic activilies of the island have evolved, the cily continues to uphold its distinctiveness. Businesses have continously adapted to modem demands, yet the city is preserved in its ich heritage, forming a fusion of lhe tradilional and the modem.


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Fort Gomwallis Fort Cornwallis stands at the

very

tip of the

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it is

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Georgelown. Today, p

riv ate ly-

m a n a g ed

of

vanue. The ramparts ovedook the hatbow in the Nodh Channel end the porl activities which extend along the easlem wate.front.

Al the northwestem point of thâ&#x201A;Ź fort is a Dutch cannon from 1603, called the Seri Rambai.

Gitv Hall Although most

ol the city

H{H

council oftlces have moved lo KOMTAR, the city hall

'rsed

is

slili

as the Council Chamber

wherc the city council members

convene-

lt slill

a

houses some

services such as lhe llcensing

and city services office.

lt

is

silualed next lo lhe To\in Hall

and formed the

early

adminiskation node for the city.

l,(aoitan Kelinq Mosoue Lyingwithin one oflhe largesl religious designaled lands (waka0ln the city,

lhe mosque has been an important community centre within lhe historic core. The mosque serues the urban community as a place of worship, spiritual well-being and place for conlemplalion. lt shows not only lhe effec1

of religion can have upon a city bul also what different c1lllural elaments wilhin a specific religion can accomplish. Goarsotawn city

tnage

48


The Gity Landsca

Funclioning as an adminastrative capitaland commercialhub, G€orgetown's 6kyline has bocom€

a symbol of PeMng's achi€v6rn6nt. Th€ gatoway to th€ city is lho 14 klbmotre long P€neng Bridge whach was completed in 19a5. Th6 bridge has b€com6 a symtlol of fl€ progresi and strides that lhe city and the state of Penang has achiev€d. Th€ bridge was a giant l€ap that was

underlaksn by th6 state to fudher enhanco th€ progJossiv€ d€vel@menl of lhe city, Today, the city of Georgsto',r,n has evolvsd trom rows of shop houses and mansiors lo a oity o{

skyscrapers. Modem high-riso office towers such as ih€ M€nara UMNO and KOMTAR dot the city's skylin6 and symbolise a

th

ving and bustling modern-day melropolis. Mature lr€es line the maln roads of Georgetown. Those tr66s

flnclion as buffer zones to mlnimise lraffic pollution and enhances the city's landscap€. Mass lourism has r€srillsd io lh€ mushrooming of holels, bolh in the city and along the coasls The attraclron of beautiful sandy b€aci6s a.ld rl€ luring wamth of lh6 troftcal sun have beckoned the groMh of coastal areas that are now occupisd by hotels and condorniniums. Yel Georgstown strll hou6a6 a plethora of landmarks frcm as eady as the 1 8th century, many of whlch has significant hlstorical and cultural imponance and now symbolls€ the rich h€ritage of the cily

The city skylire is growing rapidly and forms one of lhe most impressiv€ in the region. Yet, it cor{orms lo th€ high living standerds of residents. Wilh proper deslgning and execution of holistic strategies, Georgetown will further cultivate its aconomlc achievgrn€nts and simullan€ously enhance lhe qualily of lif€ in a vibrant island city.


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C.atgeL.wn City lnage


The Birth ol a l

Over the lasi two centuries, Gâ&#x201A;Źoryetown has experienced a wealth of hlstorjcal events lhat rcnders thâ&#x201A;Ź island unique

h its

servsd

ardrilecture, physical developmont and land-use patterns. Beginning as an impo.tant trading centre in the 18lh century, Penang as a pod to harbour, replenish and repair ships carrying valuable merchaMise between lndia and CNna. Remgnising Penang's strategic locallon, the

B tish formally took possessjon of Penang lsland in 1786 after lengthy negoliations wilh the Sultan of Kedah.

The city was fomed and planned by Sir Francis Light under lhe auspice of the B tish Government in the latâ&#x201A;Ź 1700s. His son, Wiltiam Ligh! did the same for lhe Australian city ol Adelaide in 1836. Adelaide and Penang are in fact twin cities due to this close historical

conneclion The city lvas laid down in a framework style frcm Lebuh Light to Lebuh Chulia. For the next one and a half centuries, lhe island floutished under British rule, as pan of the Saaits Settlements and later as part of Malaya. tn time, Goorgotown became an important immigation port for Chinese immigrants from South China and indentured lndian labourers from South lndia $ho sought a better life.

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l I


Wilh lhe advent of lhe Second World War in 1941, Penang, and then Mataya, fel under Japanese occupalion, which lasted for three yearc before the B lish look over again in 1945. When lvalaya achieved independence tn 1957, l4ataysia was formed and in 1962, Penang became one of its slates, made up of lwo separate physical entities - Penang lsland and Province Wettestey. Even then, basic town planning and developmenl of ceorcetown were practiced as early as the 18th century Slrcels such as Lebuh Armenian and Lebuh Chutia

have since undergone complex transformations in terms of their rcsidenls and businesses. Yet, lheir unique landscape dominates lhe city image and reveals the is'and's coloudul pasl.

As Georgetown marches towards lhe formallon of a developed cily, the histoncal

t

charactedstics that shaped lhe cuffent image of ihe cily are not forgotten. The Bdtish colonisalion led to an increased British selllement on the island. Colonial

adminislration buildings began to mushroom as eady as lhe 18th cenlury many of which still sland prcudly Ioday. Among some of lhe more prcminent historicalsites arethe FortCornwallis and the Clock Tower located near Porl Swettenham. The establishmentof lndian and Chinese setllements have also left significant sites that are located wilhin the heart ofthe cily. l,{ansions owned by va ous Chlnese clans are nowgiven facelifts 1o accenluale the physica l appeal of these 200-yearold herilage sites. Many of

them are loâ&#x201A;Źted along streets within the inner city zone. Slmilarly, Jalan Kapitan Kling still sewes as historically imporlanl trading venues forjewellery and other prccious stones from lndia. Today,lhe unique culture of trade in fine jewellery remains as one of lhe biggest

tou st attractions in Georcetown and expectedly occupies the same premises as

it did a century ago.

Georsetown Cilv lnaqe


Archatectural History

Ethnic lnfluences The builtherilage in Georgetown describes a historiâ&#x201A;Źland culturally ich caty. Various iniluences can be seen in the present archLlecture. The story of the cty can be traced back to its roots as a kading posl with South lndian and South Chinese influences

evident in the deslgns of shop hooses and residences. Malay influence can be seen most in residential areas, with the house being buit on stilts, in order provide to nalural venlilal on during the day and to save it duing floods.

Most of lhe buildings lhal remain in Georgetown are designed afte. shophouses which are commonly two storcy buildings, wrth the lower iloor as lhe work ng space and lhe upper floor as lhe residenlial space The fiont portion oi the second storey juts out over lhâ&#x201A;Ź pavement, crealing a covsred walkway known as a five foot way or

'kaki-lma' While lhere is addilional space reserved ior pedestians, most current ierraced style shops have a kaki-lima'in fronr ol rhet shops. Th s Chrnese-inspked design is seen in its greatest concenlration outside China in Georgetown The city is also a showcase lortemple designs.


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Western lnfluences commercial and civic buildings incorporate Wâ&#x201A;Źstern architecture. The design ts most suitabTe with the current urban tandscape ofthe city. This balances the design archileclure of ethnically influenced structures wilhin the city which are used for soctat and cufturat purposes.

The No(h East region of the city or the Tanjung has lhe most concentration of western-influenced buitdings. From arcas surround Fod Cornwallis to Lebuh Chulia, offce buildings provide space for financtat institulions, distribulion and trade cornpanies.

Modern Architecture There is a tendency lo go for slyles thal arc al a langenl

from pasl architectural designs. New strucluâ&#x201A;Źs lake into accounl modern technologies and requirements and lhen adapt lheir slructures around lhem. Tum of the century

building

fit in wilh

contemporary designs

wthin

the

country. Frcm Straits Ecleclic style through to lhe Post lndependence style is in abundancewlthin lhe corc ofthe

city. Akin to following concentric circles, more modern styles appear towads lhe outer growlh rings.

The United [,4alay National organisation

(UIUNO)

building is a focus on the emeruence of a dislinctive style

of architecture thal is the city's own. ldentifiable and unique structures are used as landmarks and often

of public congregation. lnlegrated mullislorey development is also emeruing in the cily. The Bukit places

Jambul complex houses

a

mullj-use structure. This

adaptive and economical use

of land eases some

prcssures faced by lhe city.

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Adapnve reuse oi previousy rent controled premLSes places an ernphasis on services slppodinq tourst and lrban requ rements Shop lots withn the core oflhe citv are

rcdesigned internally to meet curâ&#x201A;Źnl requirements The demand of retail and industry places an emphasis on infraslflrcture that meets k economy standards Pedeslflan palhways have been reslored in some parts ol the crly. lt is expecied thal Geo.getown will be pedestrlanJriendly.

The emprrcal evidence of structures exposed lo vehrcular pollution Pornt iowards a more envircnnrenta ly friend y mode of trcnsporlation Traffic congest on is allsvialed through lhe periodrc road upgrading exercises PoPulalion pressure is rncleasrng road usage. The residentalareas wrthln the city are dominated by high rse apanmenls due

to and constra nls. Georgâ&#x201A;Źtown s prepaing itseli for the future bv ncreasirrg public


Georuelown has the potentiaT

to be a model of a sustainable city that ls

planned

holistically. Georgelown would have to lnlâ&#x201A;Źgmle itsell more with services gearâ&#x201A;Źd towards

industry tourism and transportalion. Iowards achieving

a

developed cily slalus,

Geoqetown would be in an enviable position of introducing development ideals lhatwould be invaluable to the nation.

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As the city g.ows. ele/neats that are outdated or

are unsuilable with modern demands

are

upgEded and enhanced. Thâ&#x201A;Ź city's image and

amenities are two areas that are being regenerated, along wilh neighboufioods. Regenâ&#x201A;Źration is rneant to be comprehensive and

is integraled with plans and aclions to

a levate

urbanisation problems. On lhe rnicro level, urban

design elements wilhin the city are one way lo regenerate the city's overall image, lmproved dâ&#x201A;Źsigns of public amenities cater 10 the elderly and tl'e ha'rdicapped. Large scale regeneration

rs

being carried out. Specinc areas of the city ate

beiT developed as nodes lo.enlrarise aclivities such as busi.ress a1d I'er:lage planning. Regeneration of the cily is an oToing prcce.s which incorpomtes l\,{alaysia's cultural and natural he tage.

ceorqe/oud crri /maae | 60


Planning of an ulban centre incorporates and utilises jts natu€l iopography to create a beautiful urban envkonmeni. This is possible thrcugh holislic land-use planning and aclivilies lhat do not affect its natural envjronment. Urban design of lhe

city should rellect lhe local socio-culture, local physical f€atures

and

natural sunounding. The d€Sign should also be iexible to meet cunent and future requirements of the vadous ulban cenlre activilies. ConseNation and preseNaion of

areas and buildings of heritage, civil and historic€l value is maintajned and ihus, anhances the image olan uban centre.

a caring society is incorporaling urban elements ihal prcvide safety, comfort and beau9 for the residents and visilors. People-friendly amenities are undergoing design rnodilications to meel standards lhat are suilable for lhs elde y, childlsn and handicapped. crcen landscapes are included Part of lhe ideals of

ln most uban designs where possible. Wth proper urban design, resid€nts and visiiors are abts to have a high tevet of mobility increased coupled with a s6nse of ssranity and peace,

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l-ebuh Pantai / Lebuh Bishop Node The Lebuh Pantavlebuh Bishop node

is the banking and

commercial arsa of the clty. The Bank Negara ls situated along this node

and prcvidos easy access to neaby linancial institutions. Buildjngs that

are archit€ctural heritage are being used and ouditi€d with modem commercial n€eds. lnftastructure in this nod€ i5 of major importance du€

lo the lime-sensilive sjgnmcance ofthe inslitulions situated here.

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Pulau Tikus Node Demand for retail space in the city has led to the d€velopmenl of this node whjch caters

lo the commercial

development ofGeorgetown. This node provides access to the ciiy centre and is the gateway to lhe city's beaches.

This node is nourishing as a vibrant business district alongside high-quality condominiums, which provide luxury

Jalan Penann Arterial Node Cutiing through the lrading and rctail sections of the city, the Jalan P€nang Arte al node is one of the main access points 1o the centrc of the city. Shophouses dominate this node. This node is also pedestrianjriendly. The council has begun upgrading works which would enhance lhe landscape of th€ atea.

I I


Herita

Gentres


Past and Present Use The turn ofthe 20th cenlury brought a boom in tmde for Georgetown which was the

centre of expod for two commodities found in the British Straits settlements in the Malaya Peninsula - rubber and tin. Along Georgetown's oldest roads such as Lebuh Pantai, tin snd rubbertrading have long become exlinct and are replaced by modem

businesses. Such is lhe same for many of the old trcding businesses lhal once occupied colonial buildings in Geoqetown.

ln the last live dscades, Georgeto\,vn has witnessed thâ&#x201A;Ź â&#x201A;Źvolulion of hades and businesses within the same physical colonial structures. This unique blend of East

andWest, old and newleavesthe lsland with

valuable archilecluEl hsritage. Amidst the

of heritage colonial buildings and the demands from tou sm. nost of preservation

Georgetown's old slrcets and buildings are rcstored wllh friendly sl.eei furniture, better traffic management and spacious pedestrian

Georcetown Cily lhage


-fl l-ebuh Licrht Node Among the historically imporlant sites located along Lebuh Light are the High Cou( and Fort Cornwallis. Letuh Light is also lhe protocol road for lhe city. The cultLrral and adminislrative heart of the city lies within

lhis node. The high importance ofthe node makes the whole a.ea a landmark.

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Heritage Centrcs

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Jalan Masiid Kapitan Kling Node This area is religiously impodani to the city.

-fhree main places of worship arc

siluated within this node.

The

closeness and uniiy of the Georgetown

communily radiales from the core of the city.


Urban Links ,€€essibility is a key characterislic of lhe city. lt is one of lhe few cities in Malaysia where il can be accessed by lend, sea and air Within Goorcetown, points ofactlvity such as commercial zones, residenlial zones and recreation zones a.e relatively near, A positive oulcom€ to users ofpublic lransportation has be€n lhe ssrvice provided by lh€ LocalCouncilin the fom ofa gralis bus iransport loop. Connecting

all major inner cily points, this is indeed a posiiiv€ effort to promoto accossibilily at all levels. Eeing a compact urban area, a mode of mass transil is needed lo alleviate lhe effects of private car ownership. Land scarcity and olher selbacLs are not an issue as the same

issu€s were resolv€d by Kuala Lumpur when building its mass tansit system. Th€re is a disiinct need for an altemalive form of lransportation to saf€guard the natuml and built environment of rhe city.


Two of lhe moâ&#x201A;Ź prominent infrasiruclures along the coaslal erea of

Geooelown arc the Penang Port and the imprcssive Penang B dge. The Penanq Port, oriqinatly known as Pod Swettenham, is located at the eastem-most tip ofthe city and is closest lo the malnland. lt is the island's centre of shipping activities and also houses the tenninal for

fenies that ply lhe Nofth Shails of Penang between the island and the mainland. Once an eight strong fleet that ran day and night, lhe ferry services today remain the main access to the island for those on foot.

A fifteen-minute de will lake passengeB from lhe mainland to the island amids{ the brealhtaking view of the open sea, ships anU the sprawling Georgetown shoreline. Therc are park and nde lacilities available.

lt integtaies bus, ferry and taxi

seruices. This facility is

available al the ferry terminal in Georgelown and on the mainland, which ale part of the few transportteminals in the city. The other major

kansport teminal is at the KO[,4TAR where public buses ply their routes to allparts ofthe city and the island.

Geaqeta||n city

tn.se

72


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The conslruciion ofthe Penang B dge has grcatly complemented the existing ferry seNices to Georgetown. The bddge, which took

lhâ&#x201A;Źe and a half years to complele and costing

Rl\,4800 million,

was ofiiciated in Seplernber 1985. Stretching fourteen kilometres, it

was oncelhe third longest bridge in the world- The bridge is designed to withstand earlhquakes ofup to 7.5 on Richterscale and fea-

tures a 225-metre high middle span to allow ships lo pass. Linking Seberang Perai on the mainbnd and Gelugor on the island, the bddge has proved lo be a successful alternative gatewayto the island despite iis relatively recent operation. The bridge seNes as one

of the main highway access poinls into the cily. There are more highways being planned to connect major parts of the city with the rest ofthe island lhrouqh hishways lhal border the coastline.


Formation of the City Gentre The urban centre represents lhe mode for learning, economy and civllisation of a country, slale or districi. lt is also the place for social development where the public interacts thrcugh shopping, learning, and

working whilsl obtaining governmeni services. Currently, the.e are approximately 600,000 people living on Penang lsland with about 400,000 occupying ihe Norlh East Dislricl, where Georgelown is

localed, and the easlern part of lhe island. Complete urban facililies enable different communily levels to live and integlate- ln fact, these facililies, private or public, exisl within a larger hienrchy ofsupport

facilities, which act as a complete and syslematic unit- Neverlheless,

health, education and housing remain as lhe pdmary facilities that suppo( lamilies in the area.


Traditional Villages ln lhe

for weath and progress, sonre parts of the citys environment remain uniq!ely traditjonal as seen in villages and agriculture land. Towards the soulh of the city, one can lnd the famous pLrrsuil

Kampung Seronok (Vllage oiEnjoymenl). Named byan English ens neer

who happened to observe the merry-maklng oilhe village folks following

lhe end of Japanese occupaUon, the village provides a refreshlng envkonment in comparison lo hectic city ]fe. There, one caf wllness l.adilional houses constructed from ilmber and surounded by ush fr!ii lrees and flowery gardens. Even paddyJields are retained and worked on

byvillagers themselves.


Mlxed Residential There have been various addltions of new rcsidential townships such as

the Bandar Bayan Baflr, which ,xas doveloped by the

Penang

oevelopment Corporation (PDc). Smaller mixed tesident al developmenls

ar€ located at Bandar Ay€r Hilam, Tanjung Blnga, Pulau Tikus and Gelugor.

h tandem with

its drlve towards industrial development, housing and new

township developmenl programmes were nitiated lo upgrade rural and less d€veloped areas like Ealik Pulau and Sayan Baru. Developed in the

mid 1970s, lhe Bayan Baru township is a fasl

expanding

satelllte lown. Residents here enjoy a plelhora of community programs, organised by the Residents' Association and othercommunity organlsalions suppoded by the Stale Governmsnt. Venturing furlher into the township conc€pl, vaious facilities were offered to the lown's population to provide a compLete residenlial package. Relail shoplots, shopping complexes, departmental stores, holels and a medical cenlre are among lhe well-planned facilities provided by

the Slate Governmenl at another lownshjp, the Batu Kawan township, in line with its strategy of rural industrlalisation and rural utbanisalion. Townships and neighbourhoods are centrcd a.ound neighbourhood centres which encompass open spaces, business and hawker cenlres as well as socialfacilities. These cenlres are easily accessible and meet lhe needs ofthe rcsidents. lt provldes adequate space for rccreation and sport lacilities, thus ens!ing a healthy and acUve lifestyle.

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High-Rise LMng H

gh'rise living is becom ng lhe norm. Scarcity of land coupled with lhe increase in

populallon has resulled ln a higherdemand forslratiUed living. This has led to a boom

in apartmenl, condominium and flat-type residential developmenls- Both the public

p vate sector have incorporated this demand when planning and developing new housing areas. Facilities and amenities such as car parks, recreallon and

and

accessibility are considered in the design and prcvision of such structures.

Radiating from the city cent@, condominjums and apadments dominale the island

with increasing conslruction of high-rise structure occupying the

coastal

neishbourhood. Beachfront houses

like Miami Bay and

internalional

acclairned holels occupy mosl of the coastal areas frcm Tanjung Bunsa lo

Telok Bahang, whlle high densily condominiums and apa menls are localed nearer to lhe foothills and ofier

an

impressive ocean fronl view. Scarcily of bnd on the island and the higher valuF of.oactal lard have ircrcased lhe (osl

ol

'vinq

or Ihe is'and

Ge.tgetaan crtv tnaqe | 78


Affordable Housing Affordable residenlial housing areas are also provided by lhe Slale Govemmenl to meel the housing needs of the island's population,

predominantly for those betlveen the low and medium income grcups. This is pad ot Georgetown's housing and urban renewal programme. Among the PDC housing areas are Kedah Road, l'racalister, Sungai Pinang, Bukit Jambul, Bayan Baru and Batu Kawan.

lnsoiar as urban renewal is concerned, KOMTAR for instance, has changed the outlook ol Georgetown, making it a cily of modern

limes, and a centre for commercial developrnont in ihe no.thern rcgion.

A holislic approach is adopted by lhe State Government in ils housing and urbanisation program to provide better living siandards. This program encompasses lhe construction of affordable housing faclllties, the provision of conmercial space,

basic civic and social amenities and facililies for recreation and

leisure. Communily centres with

a wide

spectrum

of

mode

amenities are also developed to cater the needs ol lhe community,

hence, enhancing racial, cultural and social antegration. hdustrial workers are also provided housinq facilifes clos6 to induslrial areas.


a? it1


Hillside lleveloprnent The environmenl of G6org6lown consisG of undulaling landscap€ dominated by steep topography wilh a series of hills and tlat plains.

The highest peak on th€ island is located at P€nang Hill while Georgelown slands on lh6 lou/est lying area of lhe island. Despile rapid udanisation ofi almost all of the island plain, the forested hilly

areas remain relalively untouched and thus, retain lhek natural ecological functions as habitats for wildlile and water catchment areas. This is nol surpdslng given the sLong commitmont lhe Slate

Government has display€d towards €nvironmenlal conservalion. Nevertheless, pressures

to develop the land for

residentlal and

commercial purpos€s have shifted lhe construction of buildings from

the lowland to the hillsides. ln order to practice susiainable development. we need lo have proper planning and developmenl as well as th€ proper enforcemenl of stict guidelines.

Conservation

Act 1990 and the Town and Counlry

Planning

(Amendment Acl 2001) Act A1129. M€€ting this needs are pads of rhe Land ConseNalion Act of 1990 which resirict d€v€topment at; hitt areas of geological interost, hillareas of historical valu6, areas which have been gazetled as water catchmenl areas and areas which hav€

b€en gazetted as permanenl forest rcsewes. This is to ensurc developmenl does nol encroach into green arcas, Hence, the prevention of llood, landslide and water pollugon is integrated into

every aspscl of hillside developmonl. ln addition, mitigation measures are also r€quk€d dudng the implementation of any developmeht project.


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Goastal Development

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Georgelown has lhe good tortLrne of being stuated on a tropicat jstand. The coas ine of Georgelown is dotted wilh numercus beaches. lndeed the cily is synonymous wilh ts brealhtaking views of the sea. Realisino the vatue of such an assel, lhe cily was quick lo prcmole and implement development along its coaslal areas in order lo enhance its beautifut beaches and accommodate the needs of lc,cal communilies and visitols al ke.

Coaslal developrnent of lhe cily is concentrated in the norlh, south and east of the island. These parts of lhe istand are also popular tourist spols. Hence, emphasis on well-planned mixed development is crucialto ensure that the needs ofthe peopTe

are met. A wellplanned coaslal developmenl prcject will ens!re that lhe needs of lhe residenls

aâ&#x201A;Ź

met without

compromising the lsland s nalural coastal areas. This is achieved thrcugh lhe proper proteclion of coastal ecosystems and

lhe mainlenance of safe and clean beaches. Coastal developmenl comes in va ous forms, ranglng from ultra modem induslrial estales to lraditional fishing vittages. Nevedhâ&#x201A;Źless, the coastal envircnmenl is also a popular tourist attracUon, which has resuted in lhe devetopment of tourist friendly faclities and accommodalion. Other forms ol coastal development incllde infrastructure, recreational and residential development.

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Geoeetawn ciry

tnaso

88


Pollution Airand watff are non"ronowable resources, and once polluted, r6cov6ryand rehabililation is very

challenging. Pollution and developmeni, unfortunately, oft6n go hand-in-hand. The challenge is to contro and safely deal with pollution, as the city progresses. The Envircnmenlal Quality Acl 1974 is lhe primary legislative instrumenr which addresses the generic issue of pollution. Sewerage is one of the major sources of pollution in lhe city,

therefore wastewater tr€aimont

and

managemeot is a major sffort. There ar6 lhre€ biological wastewaler treatment

plants that treat th6 sswage wastos from the residenlial ar6as in th€ vicinily of Georgetown and two more sit6s on lh€ outskirts ofthe city. ln

addition to treating sewage wasles, educatjoo

al keepiog drainage and irrigalion clean and clsar of debris are campaigns aimed

conducted frequend, Air pollulion from induslry

is decaeasing due lo lhe emphasis on dean induslries being approved. Low polluting induslries such as lhe high-technology industries are being lar96led as the new industrialgene€tors.


Solid Waste Management '_ .- al Solid wastes frcm city dwellorc demand careful management, and the linat destinalion of the wasle generated rcquires proper ptanning and design. As more and more waste is generated wilh lhe increasing poputation and activities

ofthe grcwing metropolis, the oxisting system of managing sotid waste is being reviewed, frcm the aspect of disposal sites and pottution reduction. Waste minimisation and reduction al source will be the best option. The culture and

practicâ&#x201A;Ź of lhe 3R's - Recycling, Reuse and Reduction is timely and is being adoptod by the city. Education of recycting is not onty caniod out at the tocat

levelbutatthe nationallevel- The l\,llnistry ofHousing and Locatcovemment in conjunction with the Federal Depanment of Envi.onment are carrying oul inlense educallon campaigns for people from allwalks oflife,

Ge.ryetown Cily lnage


I

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I

City T?ansportation SYstem Th6 transportation system is on€ of tho main compon€nts in any ciiy lt

aims

to flrltil

several objectives, which ancludes lacilitaling

accessibilily to places of wotship, work and recr€alion lt also opens up opportunities for social int€raclion and sirengthens unily among

:F+-

residents, increases economic acttvilies and provides employmsnt opportuniti6s.

Traffic has increassd by leaps and bounds du€ to the increase io disposable income ol rcsidents and influx of visjtors. Upgrading of roads is on6 of the atlampts by the city to deal wilh this issue, as is lhe

construction of a n€w highway linking major points in lh€ North East

Dlslricl. Fudher att€mpts to r€duce trafiic congestion and increas6 mobility has b6€n made by shifiing govemmsnt (local and fsderal) adminislralive oflicss out of the ciiy inlo new grov!'th ar€as such as Bayan Lepas or off tho island enliroly. These are short term m€asures al best Long{erm apptoach€s lo llamc manag€ment such as a light rail system, altematrves to diesel buses. cenlral elecltonic lralf'c sysiems and

organised vehicle pa*ing r€quired,

a€as

arc


Pedestrian Management The inner city has hislorically been a city where all poinls are connected by pedestrian walkways. Shophous€s have special areas in lhelr lronts for pedestians, 'kaki-lima h3s been a parl of the design of shophouses in the city since th€ fomation of lerraced shophouses. This is turlher augmented by modern style paved pedeslrian walkways and overhead bndges. Safety

and comfort are the goals of any pedeslian management system. Bicycle lanes increase accessibilily and provide safety and comfod. lnlroduction of facilities such as ramps. safe crossing zones, lexlured paths are all examples of how G€orgetown accommodales pedestnans. Along lhe Jalan Penang Arterial Node, which is the nucleus of future pedestrian malls in the city, upgrading works are being cornpleled with the inlroduction of wider pedeslian

Li!A:rrSs'' '

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P!anning and Development Many of lhe pre-and post-colooial bujldings in the city have received extensive facelifts to showcaso its historical and cultural legacy. As a show of pride in the uniqueness ofthe city image, Governmenl and administrative omces, and other businesses have

chosen these heitage buildjngs as their official centrcs of administrciion.

Surounding these colonial buildings, msticulous and proper landscaping enhances the aesthetics oi the built envkonment whilst crealing hamony with naiure. Landscaped gardens, fountains, scuLptures, decorative streei lightings, textured pedestrian walkways, hidden car pa*s, recrcational parks and lakes arc some o, the powerful integrating elsmenls used to provide the city wilh a dynamic environment. ln essence, ihe lotalplanning aod developmenl ofthe cily revolve around properheritage planning and development. Cuffently, the

city image speaks a thousand words and through strong advocacy by vaious padies, Georgetown has wilhstood the tesl of time lhrcugh the preseNation of its cultuâ&#x201A;Źlly diverse physical slructures, Businesses and other various economic acijvities have simultaneously adapted to prclecl Georgetown's rich cultural hefiiage throLrgh the enforcement and implementation of proper heritage planning and development during the construcUon of physical siructures.

'

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Geoeetawn city tnase

192


Social Facilities The residents of the city enjoy additional beneiils living in an envkonment. Some of these include good access to 'rrban government privale preventive organisations, welfare be they or initiatives, and cuâ&#x201A;Źuve healthcare, and fire and crime prevention services. The city provides for these services in order to achieve the ideais of a caing socieiy. Social programmes and activities are also included in the provision of social facilities to slrengthen the family institution,

einforce fiendships, enhance the spiril

of

neighbouAiness and

act as an agenl for development of the

local

community. New technologies are being incorporated into lhe structure of social services, modernising the melhods of operation. Conslant upg.ading in line with the pace of developmenr is an impo(ant part ofthe supply of these services.

Public

S#tv

Roads are kept clean and maintained to reduce the n

umbe. of accidents. Public safety campaions are caried

out from time to time targeiing road safety, pedestrian

safety and healthcare issues. These educational campaiqns are seen as a positive preventive step. The n.e bigade, being under the t,linistry of Housing and

Local Govemment, is a required serujce in any Locat Plan. The fire bigade service has thek basic operations supplemented by a hazardoLrs waste management wing and a specialised search and rescue wina.

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Places of Worship lralaysia, being an lslamic counlry provides places of worship for this purpose. Addilionally with a multicultuâ&#x201A;Źl country, the needs of non l\,luslims are nol nâ&#x201A;ŹgleLled and lac:lities lo p'actsF olhFr falhs in the form ol temples and churches are planned for. The mosque and olher places ofworship function as a civic, administrative, educalion and strategiccentre

for a civil sociely and as a base to strenglhen solidariiy and unily among lhe communities. Places of worship also function as a place for rneeling or

discussion and

as an instilution of

developmenl. Provision oI ihis facilily

national

is not only

meant for worship bul embraces a wider scope and

in li1e wilh govemments etlorl ro achieve Virion 2020 towards lhe formalion of a civil society without sacrificing high moral values.

Georsetown City

lna,e

94


$ #trB# n6lo, arc6sway hro se .1y in hddnhn

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The Philosophy behind the TPD Doctrine V1fith

lhe establishment of the Committee of Assessois in 1801, GeoQeto$n

ma*ed the epitome of early lo m and country planning. From the modem to the tradilional, Georgeto\,m is a kaleidoscope of development. Though poper 1o /n and muntry planning, vadous aspecls of the city have been mainlained. This is

lo mainlain a balanced and suslainable €ity thal analgamares ceoeetown\ distinctive elements - ils society, envionment, econonry and spirit, el€menls that fom 3 progressive cV derived fiom lhe necessity

Today, these distinctrve €lemenls have meEed

wfi

sbucture plans and policies to

bdng lo fruition a city image of unblemished quality. The phlsical developmenl of GeoBeto\iwr has iourished under the guiding pdnciple of

he

Total Planning and

Oovelooment Doctflne which lhrusts upon the inteqration of spiritual values within

lhe sphe€ of planning and development. These spiritual values take the fom of thr€€ main relalionships which fom

tte

basis of lhe l,4alaysian society.

Geogelawn city tnage I gB


Relationship betureen Man and lfie Gleator Due comldaration and rosp€cl lo lh€ Crsalor musl be m€inlaln€d and lncoporat6d intoanyhumen undedaking.ln addltlon,lh€ conilnuous culllvation and stlsnglh€ning belief of m€n snd his cl€Elor musl be uph€ld within the co.ien ol develophenl- Honc€, tE plaf,ning yinciples emb€ce lhis stlng relalionshlp lo tte hishsl d€g€€ and lEnsform ll to the physic€l €l€rnenls lhat

Relationship betureen Man and Man Man and socieiy

tofis

the driving iorce behind every developmenl that lakes

place Oovelopmeit evo ved ftom the needs of man as an individlal lo man as a social beiig to complernent his exslenc€. lndividuals living i. communal spaces fom societes lhal are moulded to lom communiles. This wll eventually lorn the basis ol a cily. A city, lhus. ptovides meaning[ri exisrene io its

citizeB lh.ough the fosterlng ol inreEction among individuals lmn all lewls

Relationship between Man and the Errironment Th. €nvironhenl is not dnod bul m6€ly bofiowsd frch tutuE gonoralions- A6 tne cu.r€nt ca.elakers of this priceless Eeurce. rnan has lhe t€sponsibility to mainlain, p.eseNe and enhance his suroundings. Slructures arc built acmding lo ac@plable guldsllnes and incoAo€ted into tho snvlrcnmenl ofa parllcular ar€a. Prcper ass€sshent and evaluallon are onducled to ensure a holistic apprcach to any lom ot developm€nt. Hence, a physlcsl struclur€ siqnilies h€ beginninq ol lolal planning and d€velopmern.

ceatqetaw. cty tnase I EE


Goncepts The Toial Planning and Development Doct ne is translated and implement€d lhrough five

charactefisiics which in ium benefits the residenls and cities.


Comprehensiveness All valu€si moral, spidtual, physlcal or maledal hav6 to be addressed. Non-funcllonal if segregal6d or lndlvlduallzed, th€se valu€s sm essentlal to

ensuB th6 $Jstainability and w€ll6eing of all planning 6nd development

Man as the Focus ot Derrelopment ll ls lmportant lo strik€ a balanc€ between p6opl€'s nature's capacity

of

besic needs and sustalnlng thsm. As such, pollclos need to be

fomuleted and ac-tivrlles plann€d end developed accordlngly to mainiain a heallhy envircnment br cl0z€ns. Formulation of polld$ togelher wllh plannlng and developmenl sclMties will have to emb€cs the needs,

attltud€s and aspirations

of

people within the boundadss

of

lhe

Multi"Dimensional Activities Wlhln th6 sphere of proper plannlng and developmenl, ev6ry aspect of the way ol lMng and its relalgd aclMties will have to b€ liaken lnto sedous coisideralion. Throogh srrch hollsdc planning and developm€nt coupled with the provision of equit€bl€ solulions, a fair dev€lopmenl modsl u,ill meteialise.

Quantitative and Qualitati\re Change Quantltatlve rnd qualitativE changes are results ot development- Well balanced plannlng and development will result in chenges lh3t represent manb approcialion of to the Cresbr,

Equitable Utilisation and Distribution of R Thls doclrlne emphasisas opllmum and wise usagg

ol €sources

in

prcventlng wastage- Based on the concepts ofjuslice end €quelity, man is provided wilh an equitable dbtdbution of all avallable naturEl r€sourc€s. Georgetown Cily tdase


Further lnfiormation There are nume.ous guidellnes and plans whlch relates to each element of city planning such as zoning, siting and standads. These can b€ oblained from the Research afd Deveopment olvsion, Federal DBparlment of Town and Counlty Planning. They provide a mors in depth look at minute aspects of town and counlry panning. Some of the major references for this book are: 1. Toial Planning and Dev€lopment Guidelines, Second

Edilion, JPBD 2001.

2. Georgetown Structure Plan 3. Bukit Bend€ra Structure Plan

Contact details for the Federal Department of Town and Gountry Planningr Res€arch and Development oivision Federal D€padment of Town and Country Planning Peninsular lvalaysia Minlstry of Housing and Local Government 50646 Kuala Lumpur

Iel: 03 - 2968

9211

Fax: 03 - 2968 3994 E-maiL: uppl@ townplan.gov.my IJRL: www.townplan.com,my


SEMENANJUNG

MALAYSIA

Acknowledgements

Secrelarlat :

-

The Publsher and the Res€arch and Deveoprnent Divison wish lo express their dsepest gGlitude to all peope who @nlribuled n

so many ways towards lhe prodrction of lhis

Research and Development Dlv slon Federal Dopadmenl of Town and Country P annlng

publication.

Wilhout your valued assislancs this book would not have materialized. To a[ wno have contibuted Thank You

En Saifuddin

bin Ahmad Pn. Naeimah binli Hassor

Pn. Khatiah blniiChe Embl

Pn Zah6h

bnl Md

Sareh

Pn Nofsah blnliRahim YBhg Dalo Wan Mohamad Mukhlar bin Mohd Noot

En- Mohd. Yasir bin Mohd. Said

Fedebl Deparlm€nt of T@n and Country Planning

Cik Sabrina binli Nordin

Tn. Hj. Abd Mulalrb b n Jerani Deputy Director General (Developnenl) FedeEl Departnenl ol Town and Country Planning

Concepl

!

Puan Haiiah Nobiah binli HajiYahya Division Head, R*earch and Oerelopmenl Division Federal Depanment of TNn and Country Planning

En. [4ohd Fadzilbin Hj. Nlohd. Khn Oepuly Direclor Geneml (rManagenrent) Fede€l Oeparrrnenl ol Towi and Counlry Planniig Peiinsuar

Pholography:

Coardinatorrchiet Edilor :

Khaidi bin krmarurldin

Puan Hajjah Norasiah bnl HajiYahya Division Head, Research and Developmenl Division Federa Deparlm€nt of Town and Couniry Planning P6ninsular

lMohd. Shah b n MLftarharuddin

Giaphic Design and Concept :

EdlloB : Research and Developmenl Olvls on Federal Deparlmgnl ot Town and Counlry Planning

Timothy Ong Sens Hau Muhamrnad Helm bin ft4uharnnrd Khir

aPs by : En. Mohd Zainibin Mohd. Yusof En Sulaiman bin Mohamnad Ef S.inrddin bin Ahma.l

consultlng Editors and Yvrlt€rs:

Muhammad Fa s bii Abdullah

Ho Chin Soon Research Sdn Bhd.

Georgetown City Image  

Georgetown City Image

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