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Hamilton, Ohio

HAMILTON

Walking Tours of Historic

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Table of Contents The history of Hamilton..........................................4 Downtown Hamilton tour .......................................5 High-Main Bridge Medallions ..............................17 Rossville tour........................................................21 German Village tour..............................................35 Dayton Lane tour..................................................46 Churches, Synagogues & Temples .........................56 Map of Hamilton. ......................................................67 Each tour is approximately 1 mile in length. This booklet was prepared by the Greater Hamilton Convention & Visitors Bureau and the Greater Hamilton Chamber of Commerce Accent Hamilton Committee. Research, Editing, Design: Brochure Chair: Debbie Fescina Rulon, Greater Hamilton Convention & Visitors Bureau (CVB) Architectural Style and Historic Resources: Walking Tours of Historic Hamilton, Ohio Greater Hamilton CVB 1997 Hamilton, Ohio, Its Architecture and History May 1986, James Schwartz, PhD, Hamilton City Planning Department www.lanepl.org - Jim Blount Local History Resource Ann Antenen, Director – CHAPS: Citizens for Historic and Preservation Services Acknowledgements Greater Hamilton CVB and Accent Hamilton Volunteers: Dave Belew, Pat Brown, Dave Crawford, John Fabelo, Ginger George, Amy Gray, Gerry Hammond, Jim Irwin, Pat Jonson, Matt Lantis, April Martini, Bobbi Sue Morrison, Bob Rusbosin, Judy Stitsinger, Tony Traub, Steve Tuck, Sherry Webb Photography: Downtown Hamilton– Claude Fant Dayton Lane – Tim Spoonster German Village – Brown Studios Rossville – Steve Tuck

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Visit Hamilton … Visit History! “The Greatest Manufacturing City of its Size in the World” That was one description of Hamilton, Ohio, about 1900 when the county seat of Butler County proudly boasted of being the home of the world’s largest machine tool factory. Hamilton’s world-class credentials weren’t the creation of an imaginative promoter. They were legitimate, the product of powerful elements: an array of bold entrepreneurs. Visionary civic leaders pushed Hamilton to the forefront of transportation advances with bridges, canals and railroads, and developed utilities, starting with a hydraulic canal system to power mills and shops.

“More skilled artisans are to be found in Hamilton than any other city of equal size in the world” Hamilton was more than a hard working town to William Dean Howells, a renowned author and editor. “It seems to me that (it) was a town peculiarly adapted for a boy to be a boy in,” said Howells, who reminisced about his joyful years in Hamilton in A Boy’s Town. Among the legacies of Hamilton’s success is an accessible assortment of architectural and historic treasures. Structures that represent a cross section of the city’s cultural and economic past have been preserved and polished. Three compact historic districts – plus scenic downtown Hamilton – showcase homes large and small along with a variety of business, industrial, non-secular, and other public buildings. First structures in Hamilton were usually log buildings. Later, some were enlarged; others were replaced by brick or brick and stone. Walking or driving, these glimpses into the past can be enjoyed one at a time on separate trips that fit neatly into a busy schedule or one after the other during a single visit. This booklet is your personal guide to a tour of Hamilton’s remarkable architecture and history.

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Before its abandonment by the U.S. Army, the log fort had become the nucleus of a town. An adjacent trading post attracted settlers, soldiers, and Indians who traveled the old Indian trails and the new military roads, which met at the river ford at the fort’s main gate. When the soldiers left, settlers recycled some of the fort’s timbers into cabins. One of its surviving buildings housed the first county court. When the first Ohio legislature formed Butler County in 1803, Israel Ludlow’s donation of land east of the fort site secured the county seat for Hamilton. The Butler County Courthouse remains the centerpiece of downtown Hamilton, but it is just one of an interesting blend of buildings in the area. Structures here range from a pioneer log cabin to a monument built by civil war veterans, an Art Deco municipal building erected during the Great Depression, and a locally-financed, high-tech creative arts complex that highlighted Hamilton’s bicentennial when it opened in 1991. 5

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1 Hamilton Welcome Center – One High Street

Historically, this portion of the Anthony Wayne Hotel was occupied for private business such as the high-style dress shop, “Erica’s”, owned by 2 sisters-in-law from Hungary. On the east end of the building was the after-hours Tap & Grille that operated from the 1920s to the 1980s. Beer was pumped up to the bar from kegs in the basement underneath. Renovated in 2005 and 2008 as part of a revitalization project, the building is now home to the Greater Hamilton Convention & Visitors Bureau, City of Sculpture, ReDiscover Hamilton, and Downtown SID. Stop in for brochures, maps and souvenirs such as post cards, note cards, books, t-shirts, photographs, mugs and much more!

2 High – Main Street Bridge In the early 1800s, settlers crossed the Great Miami River by ferry boat. A covered toll bridge was opened in 1819. That bridge was destroyed by flood in 1866 and replaced by a suspension bridge, which was torn down in 1895 and replaced with an iron truss structure. The worst flood in Hamilton’s history destroyed this bridge in March 1913, and a 5-arch concrete bridge was built in 1914. The current state-of-the-art 5-span bridge complete with flood lighting, a bicycle path, and pedestrian balconies was dedicated on May 6, 2007. Seven medallions depict the history of Hamilton’s relationship to the Great Miami River. The eighth is dedicated to the future.

3 Soldiers, Sailors & Pioneers Monument – High & Monument Streets The city landmark was dedicated to perpetuate the memories of Butler County pioneers and veterans. The cornerstone of the memorial was placed in 1902, and the dedication took place on July 4, 1906. Clustered Doric columns flank the entrance of the 3-story Classical Revival building. Each art glass window is unique, honoring the women of war. While the exterior of the memorial is faced with cut stone, the interior is finished with pink marble. On the temple dome stands a 17-foot 3,500-pound bronze statue created by Rudolph Theim titled, “Victory”, representing a Civil War private “Billy Yank” raising his cap in celebration of victory in the 4-year war. The Monument received a new lighted dome in addition to interior and exterior renovations as the result of a 1988 improvement project. A centennial celebration of the monument was on July 4, 2006. 6


4 Log Cabin – Monument Park While a larger structure was being razed in the 1960s, this 1804 log cabin was discovered on Park Avenue between North C and D Streets. The 2-story cabin features 2 large chimneys and a double entrance along with a stone foundation, log walls chinked with cement, and a gabled roof. The first recorded owners of the cabin were John Sutherland and Henry Brown, who laid out Rossville. Through the efforts of Walter A. Rentschler and his son, Thomas B. Rentschler, the cabin was reconstructed in Monument Park and furnished with period pieces. Dedicated in 1964, there are 2 bronze plaques that bear attention. One describes the history of the cabin while the other depicts Fort Hamilton, with its layout superimposed on today’s street plan.

5 Flood Levee – Viewed from Monument Park

The 1913 flood caused the deaths of 200+ Hamilton citizens and the destruction of $10 million worth of property. More than 10,000 people were homeless. The Miami Conservancy District was formed to prevent the recurrence of such a tragedy, to fund and engineer a flood control network of dams and levees, and to re-channel the river. No federal funds have ever been used by the Conservancy. Prior to the 1913 flood, this levee was A Street in Rossville on the west side of the Great Miami River.

6 Anthony Wayne Hotel – 10 S. Monument Avenue

This handsome 7-story structure, built in 1926 and detailed in the Beaux Arts style, has a broad stone clad 1st floor that includes the base of the tower structure, projecting pavilions to the north and south, and an extension to the east. The architect was the locally prominent Frederick G. Mueller, and associated architects were George B. Post and Sons of New York. Post was a prolific architect whose commissions included the Cornelius Vanderbilt house, New York Stock Exchange, and Wisconsin State Capitol. This facility now consists of senior housing and the Hamilton Welcome Center.

7 Fitton Center for the Creative Arts – 101 South Monument Avenue Built in 1991, Fitton Center was the culmination of a major cultural action planning process for Hamilton’s Bicentennial year. This contemporary structure is concrete and steel with a porcelainized steel exterior. Fiber optic lighting outlines the 7


2 pyramid roof peaks. The 12,000 sq. ft. Carruthers Center for Arts and Technology was added for the facility’s 10th year anniversary. Fitton Center provides exciting classes, outstanding entertainment of all types, and wonderful art galleries with thought provoking exhibits.

8 Court Street Worship Center – 23 Court Street page 62 9 The Presbyterian Church – 23 South Front Street page 62 10 Farmers’ Hotel – 21 South Front Street This rectangular building, with 3 front and 11 side bays, houses the offices of The Presbyterian Church. Constructed circa 1850 as a hotel, this 4-story building is one of the oldest in the downtown business district. Featuring a parapet dormer on the façade that exhibits corbelled brickwork and a segmental arch of radiating brick voussoirs over the window, the north and south facades have 9 dormers each. The hotel’s busiest era was 19431945, when the lower level was converted into a servicemen’s canteen. The canteen contained a coed lounge, a kitchen, recreation area, and separate areas for men and women. It served more than 40,000 persons by the time it formally closed on October 14, 1945.

11 Butler County Courthouse – 101 High Street Built between 1885 and 1889 with Corinthian columns and a mansard roof, the Courthouse is an outstanding example of Second Empire architecture and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The symmetrical massing features, which vary from one level to the next, contribute to the building’s imposing stature. It has survived fire, flood, many storms, and other attacks from nature. The worst was a March 14, 1912 fire that took the lives of 3 Hamilton firemen. Today’s clock tower 8


differs from the original. The first was a 4-tiered, onion-shaped cupola, projecting pedimented pavilions in the center of each façade, which collapsed into the courthouse rotunda during the fire and was replaced with a heavy-scaled, 3-tiered octagonal stone tower. About 1920, lightning damage caused the tower to be modified once again. Nationally recognized restoration occurred in the 1980s and again in the 1990s.

12 United States Post Office – 105 Court Street This structure was built during the early years of the Great Depression in Classic Revival style with 2-story pilasters and Corinthian columns. A large eagle carved in stone and 2 small balustrades adorn the front parapet. Inside, murals by WPA artists depict the industrial history of Hamilton.

13 Front Street Church of God – 111 South Front Street page 60 14 Hamilton Police Department – 331 South Front Street Formed in 1875, just 46 years after the Metropolitan Police was formed in London, England, the Hamilton Police Department is the 139th internationally accredited law enforcement agency. A memorial sculpture, “The Protector”, dedicated to officers killed in the line of duty, depicts an officer in authentic winter uniform. A bronze plaque lists the names of the fallen.

15 First Saint John United Church of Christ – 412 South Front Street page 58 16 Payne Chapel A.M.E. Church – 320 South Front Street page 61 17 Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church – 212 South Front Street page 66 18 First United Methodist Church – 225 Ludlow Street page 59

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19 Old Federal Building – South Third and Ludlow Streets Built as the Federal Building in 1909 at a cost of $130,000, this Neo-Classical Revival square building with 5 front and side bays sits on a high base of smooth stone blocks with a stone water table. Four Corinthian columns that alternate with 2 large multipaned windows flank the main portal. Other details include wide pilasters, modillions, egg-and-dart molding, and small raised circle patterns. Occupants have included the U.S. Postal Service, Butler County Board of Elections, and Board of Health.

Symmes Monument – Third & Sycamore Streets In 1826, Hamilton resident John Cleves Symmes developed his well-known though controversial theory that “the earth was hollow.” The Symmes Monument at Symmes Park honors the Hollow Earth Society’s belief that the earth is made up of five concentric spheres and has openings at each pole wide enough for explorers to travel from one end to the other.

Train Station – Martin Luther King Blvd. & Sycamore Street Built in 1885, this structure is a brick Victorian 2½-story building with Romanesque details. It has a high hip roof with large wall dormers exhibiting stone trim. Abraham Lincoln made a speech from a platform near this site on September 17, 1859. 10


20 214-216 South Third Street A rare example of the Richardsonian Romanesque style, this 3-story building was erected around 1890. The façade is composed of 3 front and 6 side bays, twin gables, 2-story oriel windows, stone decorations, and a band of smooth stone that contains metal spandrels with panels and floral motifs. It was known as the Trevel Building and as the Third Street Department Store before housing Max Joffe Furniture Company for over a century.

21 Palace Theater – 215 South Third Street Completed in 1919 as Hamilton’s first theater to be built exclusively for showing movies, this opulently appointed silent movie theater was widely lauded as being unparalleled in cities many times the size of Hamilton. A newspaper said that the $100,000 facility was “a replica of the famous Rivoli Theater in New York City.” Designed by Fred S. Meyer, managing director of the theater, and Frederick G. Mueller, renowned Hamilton architect, this building is of Classical design with ornate columns and windows on the front façade. As was the rage in the 1960s, the theater was “modernized” and covered with an unfortunate front façade of textured plaster, rough sawn board, and batten wood framing. In 2003, the half-century-old Greater Hamilton Civic Theatre (GHCT) purchased the building and soon brought the original rather striking 1919 façade back to sunlight. The Palace Theatre is used for GHCT theatrical support needs.

22 CHACO Credit Union – 100 South Third Street CHACO Credit Union was born in 1938, the product of a simple loan between workers at the Champion paper mill in Hamilton when 22 members deposited $10 each. By 1958, it was the 2nd largest credit union in the state. In 2002, CHACO opened offices in this downtown Hamilton structure, which was built in 1922. 11


23 JournalNews – 228 Court Street Built as a newspaper plant in 1887, the Journal Building is an example of a modernized urban industrial structure. Receiving its present-day facelift in the mid-1920s, the rectangular building was covered on the Court Street side with dressed stone that creates a Venetian appearance. Arched windows appear on the 1st story while square headed windows are seen at the 2nd and 3rd level. The Journal Square side of the building on the west has elaborate brick corbelling, rock faced inset lintels, and dressed stone sills.

24 Government Services Building – One Renaissance Center

The concept of this facility was born from two concerns: the need to better develop the downtown and the idea that citizens could better be served by a “one-stop shop” approach to government services. Five different mayors and city councils over almost a decade moved this project to completion. This block once contained retail stores that had been the heart of Hamilton’s downtown shopping district. By the 1990s, the buildings were vacant; and the owner was planning to tear them down. It was thought that the land could be better utilized for Hamilton’s future development. Ground was broken in 1997 for this 11-story structure. City and county offices moved to the building in 1999.

25 Ohio Lunch – 332 High Street Founded in 1927 by a first generation Greek family, the restaurant is long known for its excellent ‘traditional’ meals at favorable prices. Housed in what an early newspaper account refers to as the “handsome George Bast building between Third and Fourth Streets that will hereafter remain as one of the city’s most important business houses.” The circa 1895-1905 structure withstood the famous 1913 flood.

26 First Financial Building – Northeast Corner of High and North Third Streets This Neo-Classical Revival structure features Corinthian columns, metal spandrels with centrally placed medallions between the windows, and a decorative panel of anthemions and eagles at the top of the building. The 8-story building was built in 1930 on the same site as the bank’s previous facility. Founded in 1863, First Financial is the city and county’s oldest financial institution and the 13th national bank chartered in the country. The fountain on the High Street side of the bank was erected in 1890 and was the first public drinking fountain in Hamilton. The trough was for horses; the base for cats and dogs. The fountain was found and returned to its original location in 1976. On the Third Street side of the building is a plaque commemorating noted author William Dean Howells, whose home stood at this site in Hamilton during his youth (18401848). Howells wrote affectionately of the time in A Boy’s Town. 12


27 Mercantile High Street Commercial Block – 228, 232 and 236 High Street The three 3-story buildings, known as Mercantile Buildings, were placed on the National Register of Historic Places in March 2004. “Hidden under the false front at 226 High Street are actually two buildings,” wrote Sherry Corbett, a successful local preservationist, in a March 7, 1999, guest column in the JournalNews. “Nestled up against the limestone-faced Second National Building, built first in 1870, is the T. V. Howell & Son dry goods store, which was built circa 1880 along with the McCrory store at 236 High Street.” Corbett described the McCrory building “as a fine example of the First Renaissance Revival style.” The McCrory building previously housed two department stores, Strauss & Co. and Blair & Co.

28 Ryan’s Tavern – 235 High Street Renovation for Ryan’s Tavern, an authentic Irish Pub, began in 2007 within the combination of three buildings with multiple addresses on several floors that historically contained a wide variety of businesses. The 1892 city directory recorded the 231 property with Myers & Co. Paints, Dory Bourne Grocer, a druggist and Gus Lados Boot and Shoe Shining. The property at 233 High housed attorney James See (1892); Mathes Sohngen’s Dry Goods Store (1920-1922); and Shoupe’s Band, business and home of a music teacher (1922-1967). The kitchen side of the pub, the 235 building, housed Winkler & Straub Men’s Furnishers & Hatters (1892); Tom Buganis Boot & Shoe Shining Parlor and Fred Mayer Music (1912); and then Jonson Brothers confectioners (1931), which became Jonson Brothers Restaurant (1938-1970). A loft, built as a private dining room, still stands and is used as an office over the kitchen. Other restaurants located here included Gold Star Chili, Skyline Chili, High Street Chili, Weber’s Grill, and Cozy Café. The restaurant side of the pub, originally 237-241 High Street, was home to Seidensticker, a seller of silver and plated ware (1892-1920), F.W. Woolworth (1922-1954), Martin’s Town and Country Fashions (1955-1983), Dunlap’s Clothing (1985-2001) and Extravagant Bargains (2001-2007). Other businesses associated with the property have included a paper hanger, dentist, optician painter, bookkeeper, furniture store, and several photographers.

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29 Robinson-Schwenn Building – 221 High Street This 3-story building was constructed in 1866 as Dixon’s Opera House. Renamed as the Globe Opera House, its 1200-seat auditorium was the site of traveling theatrical productions, vaudeville, lectures, and even roller skating. Firstfloor retail businesses have included the Robinson-Schwenn Co. (1907-1964), Mabley and Carew (1964-1977), and the Dollar General Store (1980-1992). Renovation started in 1997 for the current offices on upper floors and retail at street level. Architectural details include a rose window, a Palladian window, corbelling, and a bracketed roof. This building houses Cappuccino Depot and Miami Hamilton Downtown.

30 Journal Square – High Street In the center of High Street stands “American Cape”. This sculpture of Alexander Hamilton, the city of Hamilton’s namesake, was commissioned jointly by Hamilton Ohio, City of Sculpture, Inc. and Historic Hamilton. The 13-foot-high bronze sculpture was installed in the High Street median and dedicated in 2004. Educational plaques placed at Journal Square describe the contributions that Alexander Hamilton made to the formation of the U.S. government.

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31 US Bank – 219 High Street Recognized as an outstanding Art Deco building, this 1931 structure features sculpted stone emblems and an imposing eagle with folding wings at the top of the building. It sits upon a foundation of stone faced with marble, and the walls are finished with smooth cut stone blocks. The interior includes original wood and marble work. The original Second National Bank was founded in 1865.

32 KeyBank Building –High and Second Streets Since its construction in 1906 as the Rentschler Building, this Second Renaissance Revival 8-story structure has been a prominent center of local business and professional activity. Both the building and bank remained in the Rentschler family until 1982, when they were acquired by Society Bank, now known as KeyBank. Note the ornamental stonework such as gargoyles, wreaths, and modillions on the top and lower floors and the terra cotta parapet.

33 Christian Science Building – 128 North Second Street

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34 YMCA – Second & Market Streets Dedicated in 1914, the YMCA building is a Second Renaissance Revival design with Egyptian detailing. The Ohio Historic Inventory states, “…the imaginative and decorative use of colored tiles, terra cotta, and wire-cut brick as well as Italian sources in the loggia and gallery make this a very significant building architecturally…” The building is “L” shaped with 9 front and 7 side bays. An arcaded gallery with a loggia above tops the main sections on the east and south sides.

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35 Frederick G. Mueller Building – 20 High Street One of only two Art Deco structures in the city, Hamilton’s original Municipal Building was designed and built by Frederick Mueller in 1935 as a federal public works project during the Great Depression. Carvings surround both the High Street and Monument Avenue entrances, depicting the growth of Hamilton from pioneer days to the city’s industrial heritage. The carvings were designed by Hamilton native, Robert McCloskey, who achieved national fame as the award-winning author of Make Way for Ducklings, Lentil, and other children’s books. Displayed in the former Council Chambers is a large mural, “Founding of the Fortress”, by local artist, Jack Willard, which is an idealized representation of the building of Fort Hamilton in 1791. This building is now home to Heritage Hall and the Robert McCloskey Museum along with Hamilton’s BizTech Center.

36 Heritage Hall and Robert McCloskey Museum – 20 High Street at Monument Avenue Heritage Hall offers the McCloskey Room and former Council Chambers; 2 separate videos on the life of Robert McCloskey; and a touch-screen kiosk showing historic sites and architecture, information on Robert McCloskey, and rotating exhibitions of Hamilton’s history. Call (513) 737-5958 for hours of operation or to schedule a tour. 16


High-Main Bridge Medallions

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ronze medallions, created by Tom Tsuchiya, are featured on eight overlooks on the HighMain Street Bridge. Seven of the eight medallions depict the history of Hamilton’s relationship with the Great Miami River. The following descriptions are in chronological order:

French Exploration In 1749, Pierre-Joseph Celeron, Sueur de Bienville, with 200 to 250 French soldiers and some Indians, was sent to renew and strengthen France’s claims on the Ohio country and drive out the British. He also sought the continued cooperation of Indians, including the Miami, in the fur trade. During navigation of the Allegheny, Ohio and Great Miami Rivers, he planted lead plates with text declaring the French land claim along the waterways. The last plate was placed on August 31, 1749, at the mouth of the Great Miami River. Helping to record the expedition was Father Joseph Bonnecamps, a Jesuit priest. High-Main Bridge photo is courtesy of Jana Brown

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Native American Trail The site for Fort Hamilton was chosen because of a ford on the Great Miami River at the site of this bridge. The U. S. Army used the shallow crossing on October 4, 1791, as it began a campaign against the Indians from Fort Hamilton. The ford was believed to have been on an ancient Indian trail called the Wabash Trail. During the late 18th century that north-south trail, the rivers in western Ohio and much of Indiana, and the portages between them were controlled by the Miami tribe, led by Little Turtle, a war chief, who repelled army offensives against the Indians in 1790-1791.

Site of Fort Hamilton Fort Hamilton was completed on September 30, 1791, which is now regarded as the date of Hamiltonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s founding. It was manned by the frontier U. S. Army commanded by General Arthur St. Clair advancing toward the Indian stronghold of Kekionga (Fort Wayne). The supply base was the first in a chain of forts north of Cincinnati (Fort Washington) in the Northwest Territory. The log structure on the east bank of the river was enlarged in 1792 by General Anthony Wayne. It supplied Wayneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s army as it maneuvered toward victory over allied tribes at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, near Toledo, Ohio on August 20, 1794.

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Flatboats and Early Trade Because water was the most efficient way to transport goods, most early Ohio roads led to a navigable stream, such as the Great Miami River. Through the late 1820s, much of the countyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s agriculture and livestock output found its way to distant markets on flatboats that traversed the Great Miami, Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to New Orleans and other intermediate ports. Locally-built wooden flatboats -- erected in varying sizes and hauling capacities -- risked extreme river conditions, weather hazards, robbery and accidents in hauling tons of goods on two-month, one-way trips.

Earliest Industry Mills were essential in the settlersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; struggle to convert their land from a debt to an asset. Financial survival depended on access to grist mills, saw mills and carding mills, which formed the trading complexes and community centers on the frontier. The land tracts most coveted by pioneer farmers and land owners were those suitable for water-powered mills along the banks of the Great Miami River and its tributaries. In its natural state, the Great Miami River fell an average of 3 feet per mile over its course of over 160 miles, including about 25 miles through Butler County.

Miami Bridge The Miami Bridge, the first bridge at this site, opened on December 19, 1819, between Hamilton and Rossville, easing travel across the Great Miami River and promoting the eventual merger of the towns in 1855. The bridge was a 380-ft. covered wood bridge, 38 ft. wide with 2 traffic lanes and 2 walkways. It replaced unreliable ferries. (No medallion) 19


Hamilton Hydraulic The privately-developed Hamilton Hydraulic opened on January 27, 1845, providing cheap, reliable water power and starting Hamiltonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s era of industrial growth and diversification. Water was diverted into the hydraulic canal system from the Great Miami River north of Hamilton. The water level fell 29 feet in about five miles before returning to the river at the west end of Market Street. The hydraulic was a gamble since there were no factories along its course when it was proposed. In the 1840s and 1850s, several industries were created on its banks, employing waterwheels and pulleys to power machinery.

Flood and Recovery On March 25, 1913, a record Great Miami River flood hit Hamilton, claiming more than 200 lives, leaving about 10,000 people homeless and causing more than $10 million in property damage. The 1913 flood, considered Ohioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s greatest weather disaster, hit with little warning. Shown on the medallion is a man running for safety as an iron truss bridge (1895-1913), the third bridge at the site, collapses. After the 1913 flood, leaders in nine counties formed the Miami Conservancy District (MCD), a 65-mile flood protection system. MCDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work was completed in 1923. Jim Blount, Butler County Historian

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Ad as a separate city from ossville was founded in 1804 cY dc E^ Hamilton. It was named after Senator Ross of `Z James Gi#&' Pittsburgh, a friend of George Washington and General Arthur St. Clair. Throughout the 19th century, Rossville was known for its inns, agricultural businesses, breweries, and industry. The town joined Hamilton in 1854, and served as a valuable refuge during the great flood of 1913. Rossville Historic District was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. Both sides of Main Street are lined with a variety of 19th century commercial buildings that once contained taverns, livery stables, hatters, meeting halls, drug stores and grocers. The architecture of the Rossville and Main Street provides excellent examples of all the major styles of domestic and commercial buildings from the 1830s through the 1920s.

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37 Riverbank Café – 102 Main Street Located at the northwest corner of Main and North B Streets, this building is in the Federal Transitional style and contains 10 front and 9 side windows. Best viewed from the east bank of the Great Miami River, it is considered a focal point and anchor building of the entire Rossville commercial area. Built around 1856 by Daniel Rumple and originally named Rumple’s Hall, the auditorium on the 3rd floor hosted dramatic and musical events, dances and meetings until the opening of Dixon’s Opera House in 1866. Street level retail operations have included Beeler Drug Store (1867-1941), Burg’s Men’s Clothing (19412001) and Porcellana Gift Shop (2001-2003). When this building was renovated for Riverbank Café in 2007, the original tin ceilings were retained.

38 110 Main Street Hooven & Sons, circa 1864, moved their hardware business from Xenia, OH to this Hamilton building in 1874 and changed to an agricultural implement business that manufactured portable engines, thrashers and saw mills. Hooven Owens Rentschler Company, later specialized in “Corliss Engines.”

39 139 Main Street Known as the Homestead Building, this circa 1860, 2½-story, and 3-bay square structure was built in the Federal Transitional style and long served as a café. The building exhibits plane stone lintels and sills and a bracketed cornice. Its wall construction is brick and cast iron.

The Joseph Doron Homestead and Radio Tower – 329 North C Street This circa 1890 3-story home is listed on the Ohio Historic Inventory as “a fine and rare (in Hamilton) example of Shingle style architecture” at the original site of the Doron Brothers amateur stations “D5” (pre-1911), “8AJT” (1912-1915), Special Land Station “8ZU” (1915-1919), and “WRK” (1922-1930) which was the first broadcast radio station in the City of Hamilton and our country’s 57th licensed broadcast radio station. Shuler Doron and his brother Joseph were pioneers in early amateur radio and formed the Doron Brothers Electrical Company around 1910. According to the Hamilton Telegraph in 1915, “Shuler Doron started experimenting with wireless apparatus when he was 13 years old, and he developed a powerful wireless station for his own use and made the apparatus in the cellar at his home.”

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40 Marshall Electric Supply – 214-218 Main Street The 3-story brick building is of a Transitional Greek Revival style. Built around 1850 for varied commercial and residential uses, the building has a stepped gabled roof and full-length porch with an iron balustrade. It is noted that the 3rd story windows on the western half are slightly taller than those on the eastern half. However, all exhibit plain stone lintels and lugsills. The Ohio Historic Inventory sheet notes that the Tuscan columns may be original.

41 222 Main Street Built circa 1860 with Italianate style architecture, the balcony and railings were influenced by New Orleans. It is believed that the railings were transported by flatboat up the Mississippi, Ohio and Great Miami Rivers. The trip to Hamilton from New Orleans usually took 2 months. With a single-family residence in the upper 2 floors, the 1st floor level was first documented as Stephens’ Grocery Store. The interior was renovated in 1997. Blade’s Salon moved to the 1st floor commercial area in 2006.

42 226 Main Street The circa 1848, 3-story, square brick building is of the Transitional Greek Revival style. Among the architectural features are a bracketed cornice, brick pillars, and a dentiled entablature. The Italianate door on the 3-bay façade is original and contains a transom and sidelights. The 1910 census lists the building as a residence. Paxton Shoes operated here for 54 years before Porcellana Gift Shop moved here in 2004.

43 230 Main Street With the signatures of President Thomas Jefferson and Secretary of State James Madison, the NE corner of Main and D was 23


originally deeded to John Sutherland and Henry Brown and can be traced to 1807. The 1892 Hamilton City Directory lists Mr. Jacob Schlarb as a carriage manufacturer; Jacob Jr., as a carriage painter; and another son, Charles, as a carriage blacksmith. Paxton Shoes was founded at this location in 1919, serving the Hamilton community for 30+ years before moving next door.

44 235 Main Street Built about 1865 in Federal Transitional style, the 2-story rectangular brick building was probably first used for residential and commercial purposes. While the 1st story has been altered for commercial purposes, the end pilasters and entablature are original. There is a bracketed cornice and a transom over the recessed door on the front façade. It is believed that the 2nd story balcony and the French doors at the front are original. The building contains 5 front and 4 side bays. Marilynâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, a womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s apparel shop that operated for 46 years, was housed in this building after moving from 233 Main. Bargain Bungalow, a resale shop for the Colleagues of Fort Hamilton Hospital, moved to the building in 2002.

45 323 Main Street This refurbished store was built in 1841 by John Falconer, a tailor and tavern owner, and served as a private residence until the 1970s. It is representative of many Federal style residences built in the district between 1832 and 1849 and may be the oldest building on the street.

46 401 Main Street This structure was built in the 1840s as a residence, and the family used a corner of the building as a grocery store. The Main Look Hair Salon has operated here since 2006.

47 21 North E Street Built in 1850, the 1-1/2 story clapboard sheathed structure sits on a rubble foundation. A stubby brick chimney rests in the center of the roof ridge. Salt Box Colonial structures such as this one are frequently a 1-1/2 or 2-story square or rectangular building with a steep gable roof that extends down to the 1st floor in the rear. This style derives from New England farm houses.

48 501 Main Street This circa 1850 building was owned at the turn of the 20th century by a saloon proprietor. The design incorporates Federal vernacular and Italianate features and contains many interesting architectural details such as Doric columns, arcaded windows, and a 2nd story balcony.

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Fire Station 4 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 605 Main Street The first fire company in Hamilton was established in 1827. The City of Hamilton Professional Firefighterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Association is the oldest local in the State of Ohio and 20th oldest in the IAFF (U.S. and Canada). This structure, constructed in 1930 as the First Ward Fire House, is a good example of the prevailing style in firehouse architecture. The Jacobean Revival brick building easily fits in with the adjacent residential properties. The fire doors and entry are surrounded by field stone. Vertical field stone is used for window lintels. There are dormers in the irregularly shaped roof. The hose drying tower area ran from the basement to the ceiling so that no special exterior feature was required.

49 404 Ross Avenue This superb example of Federal Transitional architecture was the first building in Hamilton placed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was built in 1859 by Daniel Rumple, a hardware merchant, and later became the home of George K. Shaffer, a prominent coal and grain dealer. Note the hitching ring and block at the curb.

50 312 Ross Avenue This Federal Transitional style painted brick home is the oldest of three adjacent row houses. Initially built in 1821, this was a 1-story 1-room house that faced what is now D Street. In 1836, a 2nd story was added to the original structure and an 25


additional 2-story townhouse was completed on the south side, which changed the entrance to Ross Avenue. The interior building may be the oldest structure in Rossville. The entrance displays bracketed entablature, pilasters, and a recessed door with transom. Note the difference between this house and the next two which were built in the 1870s.

51 304-306 Ross Avenue This 1870 structure is a rare example of a Federal row house, which is usually built flush with the sidewalk and separated by a common wall. The first owner, John Longfellow, was a native of Delaware. The home was built in a manner common to his native state. The original hitching post and stone steps are at the curb.

52 302 Ross Avenue Built circa 1870 as a grocery store and residence for J. B. Carson, this is another example of a Federal row house built by John Longfellow. This structure was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2006.

53 105 South D Street Built circa 1915, this Georgian revival home is another Frederick Mueller structure. The Ohio Historic Inventory describes Greek elements such as the Doric columns and dentils in the frieze area along with stone and brick lentils and symmetrical emphasis. Note the Mosaic tile on the front porch. This property was renovated in 2008.

54 133 South D Street This Tuscany Villa-Romanesque home was built by local newspaper editor Homer Gard in 1922. Note the sculpted stone and fluted pilasters of the door surround. The Spanish tile roof and front piazza paved in a herringbone pattern are also superb.

55 141 South D Street This excellent example of Neo-Classic Revival was built in 1912. The front door is surrounded by Doric columns and topped by a semi-elliptical fan light. Fluted pilasters with Ionic capitals and veranda railings of wrought iron highlight this 3-story home. 26


56 219 South D Street Built in 1862 by Isaac Robertson, a teacher and attorney, this 3-story white brick house is a fine example of Victorian architecture that incorporates elements of Gothic Revival, Italianate, and Colonial Revival design. The entrance is covered by a pedimented gable peak supported by Corinthian columns. The central front bay – featuring a central gable peak, a round arched window, a balcony, and decorative bargeboard – accentuates the dramatic setting atop a small hill.

57 341 South D Street This Queen Anne home was built in 1870 by Charles Hossfeld, an early businessman important to the development of Hamilton. The house has remained in the same family throughout its existence and is currently occupied by the great-great-granddaughter of the builder. Note the tower with turret; Gothic arched windows on the attic gable; and wraparound porch with Tuscan columns, wood balustrade, and dentils in the frieze area.

58 371 South D Street An unusual Spanish Colonial Revival home incorporates red tile “awnings” and small turrets on the side facades, capped with tiled hip roofs. An iron railing tops the portico over the central entrance. A parapet wall with rectangular openings tops the buildings. 27


59 375 South D Street The late 19th century saw the beginning of a movement away from the less restrained architectural styles of the Victorian era. This Tudor Revival home features brick construction, steep pitched roof, and casement windows that are hallmarks of the style rooted in 16th century Tudor England.

60 379 South D Street This circa 1912 home is a fine example of Queen Anne architecture, the dominant style of domestic building from about 1880 until 1900. The style borrows most heavily from late Medieval England. Note the classic gable and hipped roof that are characteristic of Queen Anne. The front porch of this Queen Anne Transitional contains Tuscan columns and a wood balustrade. The front gable peak features imbricated shingles and a hood over the window.

61 401 South D Street Local architect, Frederick Mueller, designed this Georgian Revival home, which was built in 1906 for Will Andrews, a prominent contractor of the period. Bowed bays on either side of the doorway contain 3 windows each of blown glass. The door and transom also contain blown glass. Both front and side porches feature 6 Doric columns 1½-stories high. The porches and entrance piazza are of Rookwood tile.

62 425 South D Street What was once the old Dyer farm house opened as the Children’s Home in 1875 due to the efforts of a group of Hamilton women who were determined to “found an institution for the relief of poor and unfortunate children.” Many of these children had become homeless during the Civil War. Hamilton industrialist Clark Lane and his partner E. J. Dyer offered $10,000 toward the purchase of a permanent home. Built circa 1850, this property has several buildings on spacious grounds. The Children’s Home closed in 1985 and the structures became a private residence. 28


63 380 South D Street This circa 1908 Foursquare home was designed by Frederick Mueller for the Mason family, owners of the brewery. Notable are the deeply recessed front porch with ornamented pediment and wide overhanging eaves with box gutters and brackets. The front gable features a Palladian window.

64 350 South D Street This Federal style home, with a distinctive hitching post, was once the residence of the brew master of Eagle Brewery. The 1843 structure was connected by tunnel to the brewery. Stone lintels and exterior chimneys are of interest. The back portion of the house and side porch were added in the 1890s. Wrought iron cresting was added to the porch roof in the early 20th century.

65 318 South D Street This brick mid-Victorian home was built in 1869 for Reverend George Mechling, who organized the German Reformed Church at the corner of Ross and D. The original T-plan was altered with a 1-story addition at the southwest corner. The addition of a modern picture window and splayed Tuscan porch columns complement the original design and proportions.

66 306 South D Street This circa 1885 mid-Victorian home is influenced by at least two popular styles of the period, Queen Anne and Romanesque. Note the hipped slate roof and Tuscan columns along the porch. The 1st floor includes a large arched window with 3 sections and outer transom flanked by decorative wooden panels. 29


67 232-234 South D Street This Italianate 2-family residence was built in 1874 by Colonel Thomas Moore, a Union Army officer and attorney, who served as mayor of Rossville prior to the Civil War. The 1st floor windows are full length and rest on a stone water table. The bracketed cornice and the round arches and bracketed sills of the 2nd floor windows are also of interest.

68 218 South D Street This charming Gothic Revival 2-story cottage, built by John Strode circa 1850, is extremely well-preserved. The clapboard treatment of the center of 3 front gables, clapboard pillar, painted stone lintels, and lug sills are of interest. The center frame gable projection and its supports are additions.

Sohngen Malt House â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Franklin and South C Streets This is the last significant structure remaining in Hamilton of an industry that played an important role in the economy of Butler County. The distilling and sale of spirits was found as early as the establishment of Fort Hamilton and survived until prohibition. A malt house is the building in which grain is steeped in water, allowed to germinate, and then used in brewing and distilling operations. Established in 1859 by Louis Sohngen, this structure was built in 1872, and was once reported to be the largest malt house in Ohio.

69 140 South D Street Built in 1860 by Louis Sohngen, owner of the malt house at C and Franklin Streets, this Italianate painted brick home reflects its classical design in its symmetry, bracketed cornice with frieze, and recessed doorway ornamented with pilasters and flat entablature.

70 128 South D Street This brick Italianate home, built for James Traber in 1861, has 30


characteristic large overhangs and brackets. The Corinthian columns, low pitched roof, and large overhangs emphasize its verticality. This house is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

71 Christ Tabernacle Church – 235 Ross Avenue page 57 72 223 Ross Avenue Matthew Hueston, a member of General Anthony Wayne’s army, built this brick Federal home in 1836 or 1841. Mr. Hueston was also a director of Cincinnati’s Miami Exporting Company, which is believed to be the first chartered banking operation in the Great Miami Valley. The pedimented hood and pilasters of the entrance and the center window on the 2nd floor are probably not original. Note the unusual asymmetrical window placement, gabled roof, and bracketed cornice.

73 217 Ross Avenue This 1881 home is the most outstanding example of Eastlake architecture in Hamilton. Note the 2nd floor keyhole porch, along with the spindle woodwork, bracketed cornices and imbricated shingles of the front porches and gable.

74 Webb Noonan Funeral Home – 240 Ross Avenue This imposing Queen Anne house was built in 1898 for George P. Sohngen, a prominent businessman and civic leader. The complex roof contains a center cupola and large gabled dormers in the front and sides. The eclectic style with its 31


elaborate decoration, round turret, and balancing porch roof is characteristic of the style. Webb Noonan has been serving the community since 1900.

75 228 Ross Avenue The oldest known visible structure in the Rossville Historic District, this brick Federal home was built in 1832 by carpenter, Alanson Stibbens. Asymmetrical brick windows include splayed vertical brick lintels. The recessed door with arched brick surround is not original.

76 202 Ross Avenue This 1907 house is an excellent example of the American Foursquare style with characteristic square form and full width porch. Classical elements like Corinthian columns and pilasters have been added.

77 Murstein Senior Center Building â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 140 Ross Avenue First Ward School, the first schoolhouse built after the HamiltonRossville merger, was replaced by the present 2-1/2 story Classical Revival building in 1902. Round arch windows with brick surrounds and wood keystones are of interest. This design is echoed in the main entrance with its round arch, radiating stone surrounds with keystone, and quoins at the side. Originally named Miami School but renamed Adams School, Senior Citizens, Inc. moved into the building through the generosity of William Murstein, a local merchant, in 1953. The center was renamed Partners in Prime in 2008. Partners in Prime, a nonresidential wellness center for fitness, socializing, education and more, was the first senior center of its kind in Ohio and was the first in the nation to own its own building.

32


78 103 South B Street This striking Federal residence was built in1870 by merchant, Daniel Sortman, for his son, William, who ran a stable. Purchased by Blanche and Cosmer Piraino in 1966, this house became part of the redevelopment on 4 pieces of property in Rossville including 103, 105, 117 South B Street and 113 Ross Avenue. This building currently is the studio and showroom for Joanne Piraino Wallisch I.D.S of Piraino Interiors.

79 The Rossville Inn – 117 South B Street This Greek Revival brick home was built in 1859 by S.K. Lighter, a businessman who had owned a frame shop and stable on this same site. Windows feature wood shelf lintels with brackets and plain stone sills. The door is recessed and has ¾ sidelights and beaded molding. The portico with fluted columns is a later addition. This Rossville home functions as a bed & breakfast.

80 121 South B Street This Greek Revival home was built in 1841 by William Leflar, a stockholder in an early turnpike company. Plain stone lintels and sills, along with the recessed porch on the north façade, articulate the style. The pedimented hood over the entrance is an addition. 33


The Arches is a 665-foot, 17-arch viaduct in Hamilton that crosses 3 streets at the tops of houses. John S. Earhart’s legacy is a highlyvisible one -- the stone arches have carried the railroad over the low land and into the hill west of the Great Miami River since 1855. Earhart, who designed the arches in 1853, was born in 1824 in Jacksonburg, OH. His family moved to Hamilton in 1826. After studying civil engineering at Ohio Farmer’s College, he assisted his father in projects such as turnpikes, hydraulic canals and railroads. The Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad, the first to enter Hamilton (1851), was more than 3 years from completion when another line was planned, this one extending west from Hamilton. The Junction Railroad was incorporated (1848) to connect Hamilton, Oxford, College Corner, Connersville, Rushville and Indianapolis. Work on the 98-mile railroad began in 1853, reaching the OH-IN line at College Corner in 1859 and Indianapolis in 1869. An engineering challenge was bridging the Great Miami River and climbing the steep Rossville hill (between present South C and D Streets). Earhart overcame the incline by building a gradual approach from the river’s east side with embankments on the river’s east side, a high approx. 700-ft. bridge over the Great Miami, a stone viaduct over low area in Rossville, and cutting the railroad into hillside below ground level for several hundred yards to a point near present Millville Avenue. A key to Earhart’s plan was this 665ft.17-arch viaduct. When the Civil War started in April 1861, Earhart was a chief engineer on the Miami-Erie Canal. He took command of Company C of the 35th Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment and was appointed as topographical engineer, capitalizing on his civilian training. Earhart became ill while serving at Camp Thomas, near Winchester, TN. He died in 1863 at age 39 and is buried in Greenwood Cemetery. The Arches photo is courtesy of Jana Brown

34


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81 St. Julie Billiart Church â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 224 Dayton Street page 64

82 304 North Second Street This building dates back to 1836 when it was the home and cabinet shop of James Neal. Specializing in Scandinavian Artifacts, the Temptress Shop opened in the 1970 at this address as one of the first restored structures of German Village as a historic district.

83 308 North Second Street This fine brick structure showcases self-watering window boxes, which are popular throughout German Village.

84 324 North Second Street This home, built in 1875, is occupied by McDonaldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s corporate office. Note the elaborate inlaid porch and side stone walkway.

85 328 North Second Street Note the brick outbuilding at the rear of this circa 1880 Victorian and Greek residence. It was likely originally a smokehouse.

86 340 North Second Street This Federal Transitional house dates from the 1850s and was originally the home of Nicholas Allstatter, a dealer in stoves.

87 350 North Second Street Known as the John Neff House, this is a good example of American Foursquare architecture. Highlights include a pyramidal slate roof and brick corbellings, belt courses, leaded and stained glass. Built circa 1892, the front entrance was originally on the right side of the building. This structure was entered into the National Historic Register in 1988. Flood mud from the 1913 flood was found under the basement stairs and in the basement ceiling during restoration. 36


88 341 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 343 North Second Street This High Victorian Italianate double mansion was built in 1860 for the homes of John M. Long and Robert Allstatter, business partners who produced farm machinery. The Long family lived on the north side of the house, the Allstatters on the south. The home still has 2 owners today.

89 Butler County Museum â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 327 North Second Street Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973, this High Victorian Italianate was built in 1862 by N.C. McFarland, a prominent attorney. In 1874 it was acquired by John W. Benninghofen, a Prussian immigrant and leading industrialist. The home remained in his family until 1949 when it was deeded to the Butler County Historical Society. Period furnishings reflect the lifestyle of a prosperous industrialist during the Gilded Age. Collections include 19th century decorative arts, toys, dolls, and locally manufactured products. Call (513) 896-9930 for hours or to arrange group tours. 37


90 319 North Second Street Built in 1860, this Italianate home with a Greek Revival porch was the residence of Henry Frechtling, Sr. He was a partner in a dry goods and grocery establishment. The large open porch was added at the turn of the 20th century. This structure has been home to Wilks Insurance Agency since 1965. Bill Wilks, founder, has been honored for his extensive commitment to improvements throughout German Village.

91 315 North Second Street This Greek Revival Vernacular home, built circa 1870, was once the residence of John Frechtling, who was associated with his brother in the Henry Frechtling, Jr. Company.

92 303 North Second Street / 140 Buckeye Street Built in 1888, this spectacular Italianate Victorian home with a round porch was purchased in the 1890s by George Helvey, a mechanical engineer with Hooven-Owens-Rentschler Company. H.O.R. manufactured the Corliss steam engine, producing a total of 700 such engines by 1901. By World War I, Hamiltonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plant was the largest exclusive Corliss Engine plant in the country, employing nearly 800 men.

93 304 Riverfront Plaza This home was built in the late 1830s and was the home of H.C. Howells, dentist, surgeon, and uncle of author William Dean Howells. When Dr. Howells began his practice in the 1840s, he charged 35 cents to extract a tooth.

94 Riverbank Gazebo The gazebo provides a scenic view of the river and Riverfront Row. Workers, residents and visitors often take advantage of the picnic tables provided here by the city. 38


95 322 Riverfront Plaza This home has had an obvious variety of additions to the original structure. How many additions can you find?

96 Linden Street Among these quaint cottages is the Victorian Vernacular at 122 Linden, which features a pointed roof line and wood battens, dating from the 1860s.

97 328 Riverfront Plaza This corner property anchors Wilksâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Green (see #101). Note the brick and wrought iron fence that united the block.

98 338 Riverfront This Carpenter Gothic house dates from the 1860s and features a curious chimney pot.

99 348 Riverfront This side hall plan, a corner house dating from the 1840s, is an example of Federal Vernacular architecture.

100 104 Village Street Built in 1829, this Federal home is the oldest known structure in Hamiltonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s German Village Historic District.

101 Wilks Green Take a right onto Wilks Lane. All outbuildings, garages and fences were removed as part of the original German Village Historic District plan in the 1970s to create this common green area where various activities and special events are held. 39


102 The William C. Wilks Carriage House – 131 Village Street This double carriage house for the Long-Allstatter House is the headquarters for Hamilton’s German Village, Inc. and is available for rental for receptions, parties, and meetings. Call (513) 868-9000 for rental information. Note the matching archways on the east and west sides.

103 North Second and Village Streets Note the original street name carved in the sandstone pavement at the northwest corner of the intersection.

104 422 North Second Street This brick Queen Anne home with Romanesque Revival features has lovely stained glass windows. It was built in the 1890s for Frank X. Black, president and founder of Black and Clawson Company. Presently an adult care facility, the front porch has been remodeled and enclosed. The three buildings on the same side of the street to the south, 410, 406, and 402 North Second Street are three Federal Transitional homes built in the early 1880s by Henry Frechtling, Sr.

105 228 Village Street John Wagner, tinsmith, and foreman of the American Can Company on North 3rd Street, built this all wood Queen Anne style home in 1898-1900. Three generations of Wagner’s lived here. John’s son operated a funeral home from the family living quarters from 1920-1948. The large garage served as a casket display area. The stained glass, oak woodwork, ceramic fireplaces, and leaded glass are original. It has been reported that this was the first house in town to be wired for electricity. The house has been home to Brown Studio Photography for more than 30 years. 40


106 401-405 North Third Street Constructed in 1900, this is a fine example of commercial property with residences above. The building use is common and approved for German Village.

107 411 North Third Street The beautifully preserved Federal Transitional cottage was built in 1860. In 1896, it belonged to blacksmith, William Kilfayle.

108 415 North Third Street In 1898, this Federal Transitional home was the residence of Edward Kuhlman, a bartender, and housed Granny Kuhlmanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Saloon. It was built in 1860.

109 435 North Third Street This lovely Victorian Italianate home was built in 1920. It features heavily molded doors, oversized windows, and a beautiful Queen Anne fireplace in the formal parlor. A restoration was completed in 2005.

41


True North Marker – North Third Street at Hensel Place (SW corner) Surveyors left this benchmark to indicate True North when the streets in Hamilton’s oldest residential neighborhood were laid out.

110 311 Village Street In 1900, this 1-story frame building was a shoemaker shop belonging to Nicholas Schmitt. The double doors are flanked by large storefront windows. The front gable peak contains a round attic vent, while a rectangular window is seen in the rear gable.

111 350 North Third Street This fine example of Italianate architecture has fascinating eyebrow angles over the windows and is an excellent example of a bracketed cornice. Originally Lehmkuhl’s Dry Good Store, this building is home to the Greater Hamilton Safety Council that has served Butler County since 1942.

112 332 and 340 North Third Street These two very different Carpenter Gothic cottages date from the 1860s and have been converted to commercial use.

113 345 North Third Street Built by wealthy industrialists in 1853, this building was originally 2 homes that stood side by side. The structure was altered with a new single-story façade and rough shingle roof in 1974. An interesting mural of Front Street can be viewed inside the Third Street Tap & Grille.

114 333 North Third Street Constructed in 1879 by the Fitton Family with Gothic and Italianate features, this is a 2-story L-shaped house featuring an open front porch with a decorative spindlework frieze. The windows are 2/2 double hung. 42


115 329 North Third Street This circa 1880 Eastlake Shingle Style home was the residence of Samuel D. Fitton, a prominent civic leader and president of First National Bank, at the turn of the century.

116 United Way Building – 323 North Third Street Built in 1885, this 2½-story painted brick structure’s in the Greek Revival style. Side dormers in the hip roof have 3 arched windows. The front gable, remodeled later, has a divided elliptical window. The frieze and cornice over the door have dentils. The porch is a 20th century addition. This was home to Lazard Kahn, a partner with his brother in the Estate Stove Company and an appointee of President William McKinley to the Paris Universal Exposition where he was awarded a medal by the French Republic President.

117 The Lane-Hooven House – 319 North Third Street Home to the Hamilton Community Foundation, this rare and beautiful home was built in 1863 by Clark Lane, industrialist. The octagonal design is in the Gothic Revival style. It differs from octagonal buildings of the period because of its unusually steep gabled roof. A Tudor front door, Gothic arched windows, cast-iron tracery of the balconies, and the jigsaw bargeboards decorating the eaves add to the romantic character of the house. Call (513) 863-1717 to arrange a group tour.

118 303 North Third Street The unusual yellow ashlar limestone home, an example of Richardsonian Romanesque architecture, was built for attorney John Slayback in the 1880s. The lot was once the site of a spectacular fountain built by Clark Lane, which drew water from the hydraulic.

119 Lane Public Library – 300 North Third Street The Hamilton Lane Library, with an octagonal main room, was built in 1866 by Clark Lane, a prominent industrialist and philanthropist. Equipped with 3,000 books, the library operated at Lane’s expense until he turned it over to the city of Hamilton in 1868. It was the first free public library west of the Alleghenies. A 1996 renovation project included the reinstatement of the cupola, with stained glass windows and weathervane, at the top of the original building and the restoration of architectural details both inside and out. Across the street is the house of its designer and builder, Clark Lane, now known as the Lane-Hooven House.

43


120 322 Buckeye Street A t-shaped 2-story brick house, circa 1880, is front gabled with 2/2 double hung windows. The entrance is on the west side of the front façade.

121 328 and 330 Buckeye Street These twin brick houses were built in 1875 by Henry Tabler, a dealer in boots and shoes who emigrated from Germany in 1836. The modest Italianate homes remain matching in many details.

122 331 Buckeye Street This was once the home of prominent 19th century industrialist and inventor, William Ritchie. The house was built in 1888, combining German and Italianate features. William’s son, Oscar, invented one of the first gasoline engine automobiles in 1896.

123 230 North Third Street A Federal Transitional house that was built in 1835, this was once the residence of John W. Erwin. A Butler County turnpike engineer and supervisor of hydraulic canal construction, Erwin was also responsible for raising money to purchase land and laying out Greenwood Cemetery.

124 Easy’s in the Village – 241 North Third Street This structure was built in the early 1900s. Half of the house washed away in the 1913 flood and was rebuilt. It is rumored that John Dillinger stayed in this house during the time Hamilton was known as Little Chicago.

125 Fenmont Center – 229 North Third Street This community center for St. Julie Billiart Church was built in 1929 and originally owned by all Catholic Churches. The center had a swimming pool, bowling lanes, gym and auditorium before becoming a school for St. Stephens in the 1940s. 44


126 North Third and Dayton Streets – YWCA Dedicated in 1931, the YWCA building is Jacobean Revival style with stone trim of Gothic profile. It has a crenellated roofline and large stone finials. Inside the oak door under the oriel is a Rookwood drinking fountain as well as original railings and light fixtures. In 2004, a $5 million renovation was completed that included 38 expanded new apartments with a kitchenette in each of them, a communal kitchen for residents, an expanded commercial kitchen to host events, and converted offices.

127 Ohio Casualty Building – Dayton and Third Streets Incorporated in 1919 by five Hamiltonians, Ohio Casualty was the first stock insurance company in Ohio to offer full coverage insurance for automobiles. Located in this building on the Dayton Street side is the Thyme Savor Restaurant and Banquet Facility with an outdoor patio.

128 332 Dayton Street Originally constructed in 1889 as the Third Ward School and renamed as Washington School in 1908, this Victorian Romanesque structure is the oldest school building in Hamilton. This 2-1/3 story structure exhibits symmetrical facades, a truncated hip roof and large gable roofed wall dormers. Functioning as a school until 1947, this building now houses several departments of the Hamilton City Schools.

129 Mohawk Fine Papers – 400 Dayton Street Founded in 1848 as the Beckett Paper Company, this is the oldest paper mill west of the Alleghenies. In 2005, it was purchased by Mohawk Fine Papers. The company’s location is no accident, since its machinery was originally driven by water power drawn from a hydraulic canal on the east side of the building. The Hamilton Hydraulic was completed in 1845 and brought water from the Great Miami down what is now North Fifth Street and west across the present Market Street. By 1852, more than a dozen industries were located along the hydraulic canal. 45


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isted on The National Register of Historic Places in 1985, the Dayton-Campbell Historic District, commonly called Dayton Lane, represents the residential neighborhood of choice for Hamilton’s prominent industrialists at the turn of the last century. Campbell Avenue was named for Lewis D. Campbell, advisor to Presidents Lincoln and Johnson. He was a principal landholder who donated a stretch of land, previously used as a IgV^c race course, for Campbell Avenue. HiVi^dc

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130 Catholic Social Services – 140 North 5th Street (5th & Dayton Streets) Built in the early 1900s as a private residence, this building became home to the Hamilton office of Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of Cincinnati in 1954. The name was changed to Catholic Social Services in 1975.

131 Hamilton City Schools Board of Education Offices – 533 Dayton Street Originally constructed in 1923 as Hamilton Catholic High School, this 2-story brick school is in the Spanish Colonial Revival style that includes a façade composed of 2 square corner pavilions and an open bell tower with a conical roof.

132 610 Dayton Street This home was built in 1883 for Robert McKinney, president of Niles Tool Works, which was the largest machine tool manufacturing company in the world. The McKinneys became leaders of Hamilton’s “Smart Set” during the “gay 1890s.” The house and carriage house are two of the finest examples of halftimbered Queen Anne architecture in the city. Interior features of the main house include 7 ornate Victorian fireplace mantels, 15 bucolic paintings of rural settings, intricately patterned wood floors, along with stained and leaded glass windows including an elaborate tri-part Oriel window. Thomas Carley, the next owner, was president of The Columbia Carriage Company, which operated out of the carriage house. Carriages built on the 2nd floor were rolled down a ramp into the courtyard. Remnants of original horse stalls were incorporated into the restoration of 1st floor units. This property was the last restoration project completed by preservationist, Sherry Corbett. She called it her “jewel.”

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133 616 Dayton Street This Italianate building features rounded arch windows and keystones with the original shutters. It was built in 1885 for Charles Hilker of Hamilton Machine Tool Company. It is known as the Peter B. Holly House, after its 2nd occupant, a prominent Hamilton attorney. The house is enhanced by large side and front gables and the oriel tower with a finial in a moon and sun design.

134 622 Dayton Street This building was home to J. E. Wright, vice president of Columbia Carriage Company. Originally designed in the Italianate mode and then extensively remodeled in the Second Empire style in the early 1900s, it then became home to Ben Strauss, a leading Hamilton merchant. The red tile mansard roof is a noticeable part of remodeling efforts.

135 644 Dayton Street This Victorian home was built in the 1870s as the residence of John McKee, postmaster. It later became home to attorney Allen Andrews, a member of one of Hamiltonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prominent families. 48


136 633 Dayton Street Henry Sohn built this Italianate Victorian home for his family in 1882. It was the Sohn family residence for 75 years. Inside there are 6 Italian hand-painted slate fireplaces, which furnished the only heat in the building at one time. Sohn was one of the original partners in the Sohn and Rentschler Company.

137 643 Dayton Street This 3-story brick home was designed by Charles Eisel for George Adam Rentschler, founding father of one of Hamilton’s most illustrious families. Built in 1882 and enlarged in 1900, it “is significant as an example of late 19th century eclectic architecture and for its long association with one of Ohio’s foremost industrial families,” according to Ohio Historic Preservation Office of the Ohio Historical Society. Special features include a variety of woods, a cherry staircase, 8 fireplaces, unique parquet floors, plus a wealth of beveled and stained glass.

138 709 Dayton Street This mansion is the former home of Civil War Major John F. Bender, a contractor and noted community leader. Built in 1892, the 3-story brick mansion is considered a striking example of Queen Anne/Jacobean architecture with exterior features such as fluted Doric columns and tall chimneys. Its interior is noted for a multitude of jeweled stained glass windows, parquet floors, and ornately carved fireplaces.

139 723 Dayton Street This Queen Anne home was built in the late 1880s for Linus P. Clawson of Black-Clawson Manufacturing Company. Architectural details on the interior include beveled glass windows, Rookwood tiles, and 6 hand-carved wood fireplaces. 49


140 240 North Seventh Street Built between 1875 and 1885 by the Bender Construction Company, this house is an eclectic combination of the Queen Anne and Colonial Revival styles. The house features 18-inch crown moldings, a half-round dining room buffet, a floor to ceiling cherry mantel in the formal parlor, and a combination of cherry, oak, and maple woods throughout the house.

141 228 North Seventh Street Combining features of Greek Revival and Italianate styles, this residence was built in 1878 for James Imlay, a local grain merchant. The woodwork is of gum, and the floors are oak. Sections of the original iron fence remain intact.

142 Nye Family Vision Center â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 712 Dayton Street This 8,200 sq. ft. Prairie style home with Italian Renaissance details was built in 1910 by William Shuler of Shuler and Benninghofen. The homeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exterior brick was fired in Belgium and arrived individually paper-wrapped. Interior features include quartered oak molding, a Rookwood fireplace, and a solid mahogany beamed ceiling.

143 730 Dayton Street This Italianate brick home, originally built in 1870, was substantially updated near the turn of the century with the rounded tower and elaborately detailed wood porch. Interior features include fretwork between rooms, ornate wood fireplaces, and an entrance foyer complete with elaborate oak wooden arches.

144 734 Dayton Street This house, built in 1885, is a very good example of residential Italianate architecture. The multi-colored paint scheme highlights the distinctive brackets at the roof line. The porch was added later in the Colonial Revival style. 50


145 806 Dayton Street This home is a good example of Prairie style architecture popularized by Frank Lloyd Wright. It was built around 1920 by Charles Griesmer, a partner in Griesmer-Grim Undertakers. Interior features include built-in bookcases, a china cabinet with leaded glass doors, and tile murals in the kitchen.

146 807 Dayton Street This home was built in the 1890s for Christian Benninghofen, a prominent industrialist. Construction began in 1890 and was completed in 1892. It is considered to be one of the finer examples of turn-of-the-century Queen Anne free classic style. The interior features parquet floors and distinctive woodwork.

147 819 Dayton Street Built by the Bender Construction Company, this modest Queen Anne home was purchased by David W. Heiser for $1,800 in 1890. Hamilton’s first radio station (Station Q, founded in 1909) was located in the rear of the home. It features beveled glass windows and cove ceilings on the first floor.

148 825 Dayton Street This Queen Anne style home illustrates the variety possible within the style. The house was built for Max and Marie Reutte in 1900. Some of the features that add to its charm include a dining room bay seat window, a built-in pantry and cupboard, and the hand-painted mantel in the parlor.

149 843 Dayton Street This lovely Federalist styled home offers the grace and charm of a bygone era. It features a magnificent central foyer with a 2-story atrium, stained & leaded glass, a beautiful staircase, and a rear porch that includes a 2nd floor “summer porch”. 51


150 937 Dayton Street This large Queen Anne duplex features a variety of wood siding, a recessed 2nd floor porch, and a turret.

151 1003 Dayton Street This Colonial Revival residence features many Queen Anne details such as the arched stained glass window and the wrap-around porch.

152 1008 Dayton Street This was built by John Schweizer, manufacturer of carriages, as a wedding gift for his daughter. It has elements of the Prairie style with clean, crisp lines, earth-colored bricks and geometric patterns in the entryway.

153 42 North Tenth Street Built in the late 1880s, this Colonial Revival home was the residence of the prominent realtor Charles Martin. It was remodeled to create apartments in 1936 and features ornate fireplaces, parquet floors, and oak woodwork. 52


154 903 Campbell Avenue Built in 1887, the Daniel Hensley house is a rather elaborate example of Queen Anne architecture. Hensley was Hamiltonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s postmaster. The house features a turret with art glass windows and decorative Eastlake porches. The interior features 6 fireplaces and 2 staircases.

155 Temple Bene Israel Building â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 914 High Street page 65

156 25, 27 and 29 North Ninth Street This former commercial building first appeared in the tax records as the Miami Valley Hosiery Mills. In 1892, owner Charles Zwick added extensive brick and frame additions and converted the building into 3 row-house style residences.

157 838 Campbell Avenue The Reister house was originally built in 1909 for August Fischer, Vice President of Ohio Tile Company. It represents the Georgian Revival style which includes an elaborate entryway and porch with columns topped by terra cotta capitals. The interior features a beveled glass entry and numerous stained glass windows. Four mantels display unusual tiles.

158 841-843 Campbell Avenue This Queen Anne style home was built in the mid-1880s by Charles Zwick, probably as a residence for his employees at the Miami Valley Hosiery Mills, which is the brick building to the rear. The residence was nearly destroyed by an arsonist in 1986, but was rebuilt featuring fish scale shingles and decorative porches. 53


159 835-839 Campbell Avenue Built in the late 1880s, this charming Victorian duplex was part of the land developed by Charles Zwick, owner of Miami Valley Hosiery Mills.

160 817 Campbell Avenue William Stumph purchased property from William Beckett and built this home in 1886 for an estimated cost of $1,160. The 2nd floor porch was added when the property was duplexed around 1918.

161 St. Paul Church Building â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 725 Campbell Avenue page 65

162 720 Campbell Avenue This structure was built circa 1870-75 and is described as an Italianate influenced commercial style. The building was originally used as a carriage house â&#x20AC;&#x201C; livery stable. A delivery wagon for the grocery store fronting Seventh Street was kept here. During the holiday seasons, chickens and turkeys were dressed for delivery to homes in the area.

163 36 North Seventh Street This sturdy 3-story brick home built with Greek Revival and Federal style influences was originally built for Mildred Antenen 54


in 1894. The home was purchased by David and Shelly Wallpe in 1983. It features beautiful woodwork, stained and leaded glass windows, front and rear stairways, a recessed entry, and an arched window on the 3rd floor surrounded by rough textured stucco. Notable is the arbor of wisteria that surrounds the front entry, which reportedly has been there for over 50 years.

164 Fellowship Christian Center – 32 North Seventh Street page 57 165 Calvary Church – 7th & High Street 166 724 High Street – Masonic Temple

page 56

page 60

167 27 North Seventh Street Mary Hawthorne was the original owner of this 6-room, 2-story, brick home built around 1877. The building was recently renovated as a single family residence.

168 41-43 North Seventh Street Built in the 1880s, the “Golden House” has been restored with ornate porches and distinctive Italianate cornice and brackets.

169 Beth Israel Congregation – North 6th Street and Butler page 56 170 Trinity Episcopal Church – 115 North 6th Street page 65

New Hope Baptist Church – 532 High Street page 61 55


Churches, Synagogues & Temples (in alphabetical order)

Beth Israel Synagogue – North 6th and Butler Streets Eight orthodox Jewish families first gathered for services in 1901 and formalized in 1911 under the name Bais Israel. In 1929, the year of the great crash on Wall Street, the site at Sixth and Butler Streets was purchased. It took tremendous courage, faith, and enthusiasm to enter into such an ambitious project as the building of a new Synagogue, which was dedicated in 1931. In 1947, the congregation acquired its own cemetery located on Pleasant Avenue. Today, with a full range of activities and contemporary conservative outlook, Beth Israel continues to provide that spiritual sustenance which has lent meaning and purpose to the lives of hundreds of Jewish men and women in southwestern Butler County and beyond. This building is #169 on the Dayton Lane map.

Calvary Church – North 7th and High Streets Built in 1895 to serve the Westminster Presbyterian congregation, the church building was then used by the Congregationalists for a number of years before being sold to the Calvary congregation. The 1-story asymmetrical church building was designed by the Cincinnati architectural firm of Crapsey and Brown, whose commissions were generally in Gothic and Romanesque styles. Exterior walls exhibit a dark red random ashlar treatment. Other characteristics include gables and large stained glass Gothic windows. The Gothic influences are evident at Calvary; although the sanctuary floor plan may be described as tabernacular, a rather popular design in urban Protestant churches of the period. This building is #165 on the Dayton Lane map.

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Christ Tabernacle Church – 235 Ross Avenue This Gothic Revival Church was built for the First Reformed Church, a German congregation in 1869. The symmetrical façade towers were originally topped by steeples. The church still has original stained glass throughout the building. Two doors facing Ross Avenue originally provided the main entrance. Square towers with battlements frame the doors. The parson’s house was built at 318 South D Street where the original house still stands. Following the 1913 flood, the church hosted a residents’ meeting of the isolated First Ward where relief was coordinated, and John Neilan was elected emergency mayor of the First Ward. Christ Tabernacle Apostolic Church, which was founded in 1959 by Dr. James L. Harding, Sr., moved to this location in 1976. This building is #71 on the Rossville map.

Christian Science Building – 128 North Second Street Constructed in 1933, this building is significant for its unaltered Neo-Classical Revival design, which is based primarily on Greek architectural styles. The façade features a central recessed area with 2 double door entrances. These entrances incorporate transoms, which contain a Union Jack cross design. Four fluted Doric columns in this central area support a frieze that is inscribed “First Church of Christ Scientist”, for which the church was built. The wall treatment of the 1-story church is wire cut brick and concrete. The parapet wall, or low railing, at the top of the building has concrete coping and raised circular decorations. The wall encompasses a flat roof. There are 5 side bays whose windows have round arch openings with cement keystones. The window panes are an opaque light green glass. This structure houses the Kingdom Ministries House of Prayer. This building is #33 on the Downtown map.

Fellowship Christian Center – 32 North 7th Street Built in 1893 by German architects for the Universalistic Congregation, this building housed the Church of Christ from 1939-1991 before it was purchased for the North 7th Street Fellowship Christian Center. Exterior features include original stained glass windows with 9 found within the sanctuary alone, a Romanesque arch entry, and the square turret bell tower. Inside is a built-in baptistery and cathedral ceiling. When the pulpit area was replaced in 1991, 2 inches of flood mud was found. The attic of this building is considered to be the “9th wonder of the world” by the members due to 8 inch thick beams that were hewed by hand with a broad axe. This building is #164 on the Dayton Lane map.

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First Saint John United Church of Christ – 412 South Front Street This Romanesque Revival Church, built in 1867 for the German Protestant Reformed congregation, was known for decades by its German name, “St. Johannes Kirche”. The brick building is capped by a bell tower and spire and contains 6 side and 3 front bays. The central projecting bay in the façade incorporates a recessed entrance with a beveled glass transom and features both a large and small rose window. In 1900, 14 large stained art glass windows were installed. All were made in Germany and exhibit round, Romanesque-style arches. The interior includes a significant pulpit, which is a high wooden structure reached by a flight of steps at both sides and placed directly at the front and center of the church. The domed ceiling is painted to represent the heavens. A descending white dove behind the pulpit was designed by Rudolph Thiem, whose best known work includes “Billy Yank” found atop of the Butler County Soldiers, Sailors and Pioneers Monument. During extensive remodeling in 1919, the organ was moved to the front of the sanctuary with the pipes behind new lattice work over the chancel area. In 1931, the bell clock tower was declared unsafe and dismantled. A new tower was not erected until 1964. The parsonage built next to the church in 1905 is now used for offices, chapel, and children’s education. In 1990, St. John United Church of Christ merged with First United Church of Christ and became First St. John United Church of Christ. This building is #15 on the Downtown map.

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First United Methodist Church – 225 Ludlow Street In 1819, the Methodist Church was established in Hamilton. In 1820, a “meeting house” was erected on the present Ludlow Street site. The 2nd Methodist Episcopal Church was dedicated in 1833, but burned in 1839. The 3rd church stood from 1839 until 1893 when it was torn down to make way for “The Stone Church”. It burned in 1924, and the present 2-story brick church was dedicated in 1926. The architect was Frederick Mueller. The building was recognized by the National Architecture Planning Board for the Methodist Church. Built in Romanesque-type architecture for $250,000, the exterior is buff tapestry brick laid in an interesting pattern with colored inserts of faience. Notable features include a recessed front entrance that is flanked by Tuscan columns. The entrance is topped by a semicircular fanlight of ceramic tile made by the Rookwood Tile Company. Directly above is a large stained-glass rose window. Inset into the brick above the 1st floor windows are diamond-shaped ceramic tiles and rectangular tiles embossed with shields. This diamond shape motif is repeated in the small arches created by the brick corbelling. Large round arched stained glass windows on the 2nd level are flanked by piers and feature tracery, brick arches, and a continuous stone sill. A square bell tower is located on the rear southeast corner. In 1968, the Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethern Church (EUB) merged and First Methodist Church became First United Methodist Church. This building is #18 on the Downtown map. 59


Front Street Church of God – 111 South Front Street Originally built as St. Mary Roman Catholic Church for Hamilton’s Irish Catholics, who had separated from the German St. Stephen Church over language difficulties, this 1857 Greek Revival-style brick building is now home to the Front Street Church of God. The high stone foundation with a stone water table is marked by windows that have some lugsills. In the center of the front façade is an entrance with new modern doors that were hand carved in Mexico from Phillippine mahogany. Above the entrance is a diamond-shaped stained glass window. Near the roofline of the front façade runs a row of small Gothic arches set into the wall. Above this decorative brickwork is a white stone cross. A fire in 1970 heavily damaged the church and destroyed the Gothic steeple. The fire accounts for bricked-up windows on the front façade that originally contained stained glass. Elsewhere, many of the old stained glass windows that were destroyed were replaced with brilliant stained glass windows of contemporary design. This building is #13 on the Downtown map.

Grace Methodist Church – 1200 Main Street A historic congregation in a modern church at 1200 Main Street, Grace Methodist officially organized in 1854 as a German Methodist Episcopal Church that was originally a stop on a 3-point circuit serving Hamilton, Mt. Healthy and Richmond, IN. The cornerstone for the former German Methodist Church that today shelters Payne Chapel was laid in 1906.

Masonic Temple – 724 High Street A charter authorizing the establishment of a lodge of Free Masons in Hamilton was granted in 1811. This 2-story square Second Renaissance Revival design building was constructed 1927-28 and is one more work of the prominent architectural firm of Mueller and Hair. Mr. Mueller’s studies in connection with design of this temple were published and used by Masonic Lodges throughout the world. Characteristics include 7 front and 3 side bays, fluted pilasters, roses and leaves along with Masonic symbols that are placed between the pilasters, and a frieze at the 1st story height decorated with Anthemion. Double wooden doors are set in a recessed entrance and the portal is framed by rope molding. Although this is not a public building, there is no question that lodges such as this have had considerable influence in the life of communities. This building is #166 on the Dayton Lane map.

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New Hope Baptist Church – 532 High Street Prior to 1976 this church was home to the High Street Christian Church, which was affiliated with the Disciples of Christ. The American-founded denomination was organized in Hamilton in 1856, and the present church completed in 1883. The land and other financial support from life-long member, Asa Shuler, permitted the building of this massive and imposing 2-story brick edifice. Shuler was partner with John W. Benninghofen in the manufacture of woolen goods and later became president of the First National Bank. The church is primarily of Gothic design. A central front gable is flanked by symmetrical twin towers that are capped by intricate wrought iron finials. The towers are composed of several polygonal shapes with octagon-shaped slate roofs. The stained glass windows memorialize the Shuler family. Large side wings contribute to a look of solidity in this 102-year-old structure, which was designed with the floor plan of a capital “T”. An interesting feature in the sanctuary is what may be Hamilton’s oldest baptismal pool, as the Disciples of Christ were practitioners of total immersion. It was a practice quite in keeping with the beliefs of the present congregation. This building is located on the Dayton Lane map.

Payne Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Church – 329 South Front Street Although only located in this structure since the 1950s, the organization of this historic congregation dates back to 1840. For a time before 1880, the church served congregations in both Hamilton and Oxford. In Payne Chapel’s earliest years, it was attached to the Cincinnati Circuit, and preaching occurred every 3rd week. Beginning in 1880, the church stood at the corner of Water (now Monument Avenue) and Ludlow Streets. The City of Hamilton purchased the property in 1953 for a parking lot, and negotiations were soon completed to purchase a church building located at 320 South Front Street from the Grace United Methodist Church. The congregation moved into the South Front Street church in 1956. Forty years later, the congregation erected a new church building connected to the edifice at 300 South Front Street. This building is #16 on the Downtown map.

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The Presbyterian Church - 19 S. Front Street Court Street Worship Center â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 23 Court Street Fort Hamilton was built in 1791, and the chaplain was the Reverend David Jones, a Presbyterian Minister. The first church in Hamilton was the former Front Street Presbyterian church, organized in 1810. In 1816, the former First United Presbyterian Church at 23 Court Street was organized as an Associate Reformed Church. Union of the two downtown Hamilton Presbyterian churches was official in 1984. The site of the present church at 19 South Front Street was acquired in 1835, and the current structure was built 18541855. Five major changes occurred over the years including 1940, when the slender white spire replaced the old octagonal cupola and the entire building was veneered in brick. Three high, narrow, arched windows are an important surviving detail from the original Romanesque look. The façade exhibits a projecting bay, which features a rose window on three of its sides. The recessed entrance to the church is in this bay, flanked by beveled glass windows and pilasters. It is topped with a fanlight in the Federal style. These buildings are #8 and #9 on the Downtown map.

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St. Ann Catholic Church - Pleasant at Clinton Avenues (St. Rt. 127) In 1907, Catholic families living in Lindenwald attended St. Joseph Church. The roads were impassible during bad weather, which brought about a new parish. There were 36 Catholic families in the parish in 1910 when construction began on a combination church and school. The rectory was built in 1912, and the convent was built in 1921 to house nuns. The cornerstone of the current church was laid in 1936, and the original structure became St. Ann School. Designed by prominent Cincinnati church architect, Edward Schulte, St. Ann’s exhibits a floor plan similar to the Latin cross. Both the foundation and the walls are constructed of smooth ashlar block. The main entranceway is flanked by pilasters capped by angels. Most of the windows are narrow stained glass with tracery and segmental arches. All windows are recessed from the exterior walls in varying degrees.

St. Joseph Church - 925 South Second Street St. Joseph Church, its structure reminiscent of Medieval Cathedrals in Europe, was founded in 1867 and still gives evidence of its German heritage with its “St. Joseph Kirche” inscription. The land was donated by Hamilton industrialists William Beckett, Job E. Owens, John M. Long, and Robert Allstatter after St. Stephen Parrish had grown too large to serve the German Catholic community. The building was constructed by 23 families, on a part-time basis whenever the families could take time from their regular jobs, with home-made bricks and the help of horse and pulleys. St. Joseph’s was built in the Romanesque Revival design with characteristic round arches over doors and windows. The 175foot steeple, topped with an 8-foot high gilded cross, boasts 3 bells weighing a combined 4,800 pounds, a statue of St. Joseph, and a 4-sided clock. The immense interior, with a seating capacity of approximately 600 (including the choir loft), contains a breathtaking display of religious art and architecture. There are 3 ornate wooden altars. The painted glass windows by G. C. Riordan are the largest intact collection of this type in the United States. The 1895 rectory adjacent to the church also contains stained glass windows, ornate woodwork, and fireplace hearths made with Hamilton tile. St. Joseph established a 2-room school, which was the first Catholic school in Hamilton in 1869. The current school building was constructed in 1925.

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St. Julie Billiart Church - 224 Dayton Street Historically known as St. Stephen Church, Butler County’s first Catholic Church was founded in 1831 although reportedly there was only 1 Catholic residing in Hamilton and not more than 12 others in Butler County just 2 years earlier. The Irish and German immigrants who came to build railroads and canals and to work in industries caused a rapid growth in Catholicism. The first St. Stephen Church building was dedicated in 1836. By the 1960s, it was written that 40 parishes in Butler, Preble, Miami and Mercer Counties traced their origins to St. Stephen Church. A larger church was built around the original Gothic building in 1853, because the first church’s stone foundation would not support a larger structure. Further expansion took place in 1893 when new transepts were added, which extended the church to its present size. Ornate Gothic limestone façade was added in 1912. The woodcarved main alter (circa 1868) is an elaborate example of Gothic woodwork. Other attractive interior features are the Stations of the Cross art glass windows that were imported from Germany. St. Stephen Church and its Rectory were entered into the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. In 1989, the church name was changed after a merger with St. Mary and St. Veronica churches. After extensive renovations and a month before the 1990 dedication, a $2.3 million dollar fire completely destroyed the roof and ceiling. The church again underwent renovation, reopening in 1992. Windows, altar pieces, and Stations of the Cross from 1912 remained. Time in German Village is kept to St. Julie’s clock and chimes. Services originally held in German, today are held in English and Spanish. This building is #81 on the German Village map. 64


St. Paul Church Building – 725 Campbell Avenue St. Paul Church was organized in 1892, and became a member of the Evangelical Synod of North America. This structure was dedicated in 1894. In 1904, the bell was placed in the bell tower. In 1911, through the aid of Andrew Carnegie, a pipe organ was installed. The great flood of 1913 damaged the church, but through substantial aid from the Synod, the church was restored and remodeled. The educational wing was added to meet the baby boomer spurt after WWII. As part of a merger in 1982, St. Paul Church UCC became Faith United Church of Christ on Millville Avenue. This structure has been home to the Hamilton Dream Center since 2006. This building is #161 on the Dayton Lane map.

Temple Bene Israel Building – 914 High Street This structure was built as the Temple Bene Israel during 19221923 and constructed largely through the generosity of Ben Strauss, a prominent clothier, in honor of his parents. Records tell that the first Jewish congregation was formed in the city in 1866 and that Hamilton native and literary figure Fannie Hurst was a member of this congregation. The 1-story, rectangular temple was designed by the architectural firm of Mueller & Hair and built by the F.K. Vaughn Building Company. Constructed with a cut stone block foundation, brick walls and a red tile roof, the temple’s design incorporates projecting front and back entrances with a center parapet gable. Other features include Ionic columns, stained glass windows and Anthemion. This building is #155 on the Dayton Lane map.

Trinity Episcopal Church – 115 North 6th Street The Episcopal Church came to Hamilton in 1823, originally meeting in the Butler County Courthouse as St. Matthew Parish. Cincinnati architect, A.C. Nash, drew plans for an early English Gothic style church, and the first service in this structure took place in 1888. Colonel Alexander Gordon, President of the Niles Tool Works of Hamilton, and William Procter, President of Procter and Gamble, donated funds to complete exterior stonework and interior woodwork. The result was a lovely English Gothic church constructed of rough-cut native stone. A bell tower, containing a large pointed arch opening, is capped with a pyramid-shaped roof that is decorated by brackets. Buttresses found along the length of the church are finished with dressed limestone caps. Trinity’s pride is the stained glass altar window made in Innsbruck, Austria, which is the only one of its kind in the world. In 1920, Trinity was the first Hamilton church to sponsor a Boy Scout troop. It was the first to broadcast a regular service in 1921 when the Doran Brothers, owners and builders of the first commercial radio station in the United States, arranged for an 65


Easter Sunday broadcast. Trinity celebrated the 1976 National Bicentennial by building a lych-gate that is a replica of the one in Sir Winston Churchillâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s home parish in England. This building is #170 on the Dayton Lane map.

Zion Evangelical Luther Church â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 212 South Front Street Organized in 1843, when a few Lutherans withdrew from St. John Church for doctrinal reasons, Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church has worshipped at its current home since 1865. Zion operated a parochial school from its beginnings to 1918, and the school was a major contributor to the growth and development of the congregation. Much like Hamilton, Zion has a strong German heritage. All services were held in German until 1909, when a monthly English service was introduced. The structure is of Gothic Revival design featuring a central 137 ft. steeple, 3 front bays, and 8 side bays. A large art glass window, called the Resurrection window because of the subject it depicts, was installed in 1890 behind the altar. The window was made by Meyer & Company of Munich and New York City and was donated by the family of Mrs. Wilhemina Benninghofen. Twelve more art glass windows were brought from Germany in 1910 and flank the nave of the church; the windows each depict a biblical story. Originally brick, the exterior was covered in the 1940s with Permastone, a stucco-like stone material. The interior has seen many renovations and alterations over the years, the most recent in 1999, but maintains its historic charm and grandeur. In 2003, Zion celebrated its 160th anniversary with various festivities and services. Zion is firmly rooted in the past, yet continues to grow into the future. This building is #17 on the Downtown map. 66


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