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remembering the kanji ii


Introduction As the title suggests, the present book has been prepared as a companion volume to Remembering the Kanji: A Complete Course on How Not to Forget the Meaning and Writing of Japanese Characters. It presumes that the material covered in the ³rst book has already been mastered and concentrates exclusively on the pronunciation of the Japanese characters. Those who approached the study of the kanji in a different manner may ³nd what is in these pages of some use, but it has not been designed with them in mind. As I explained in the Introduction to the former volume, if it is the student’s goal to acquire pro³ciency in using the Japanese writing system, the entire set of “general-use characters” (øä+°) need to be learned. To insist on studying them in the order of importance or frequency generally followed in Japanese schools is pointless if some other order is more effective as a means to that ³nal goal. A moment’s reµection on the matter is enough to dispose of the common bias that the methods employed by those who come to Japanese as a foreign language should mirror the methods used by the Japanese themselves to learn how to read and write. Accumulated experience and education—and in most cases an energetic impatience with one’s own ignorance— distinguish the older student too radically from Japanese school children to permit basic study habits to be taken over with only cosmetic changes. A clearer focus on the destination should help the older student chart a course more suited to his or her time, resources, and learning abilities—and not just run harder and faster around the same track. Perhaps the single greatest obstacle to taking full advantage of one’s privileged position as an adult foreigner is a healthy fear of imposing alien systems on Japanese language structures. But to impose a system on ways of learning a language does not necessarily mean to impose a system on the language itself. To miss this distinction is to risk condemning oneself to the worst sorts of inef³ciency for the worst sorts of reasons. Obviously the simplest way to learn Japanese is as the Japanese themselves do: by constant repetition, without interference, in a closed cultural environment. Applied to the kanji, this involves drilling and drilling and drilling until the forms and sounds become habitual. The simplest way, alas, is also the most time-consuming and frustrating. By adding a bit of organized complexity to


2

introduction

one’s study investments, the same level of pro³ciency can be gained in a fraction of the time. This was demonstrated in the ³rst volume as far as the meaning and writing of the characters are concerned. By isolating these skills and abstracting from any relationship they have to the rest of the language, a ³rm foundation was laid for the next step, the assignation of sounds or “readings” to the individual characters. That is the subject of this book. The earlier volume was described as a “complete course”; the present volume is offered as a “guide.” The differences between the two books are as important as the similarities. While both books are intended to be self-taught and allow individual readers to progress at their own pace, the former traced out a path step by step, in a clearly de³ned order. Here, however, the material is presented in such a way that it may be followed frame by frame or may be rearranged freely to suit the particular student’s needs. The reason is that the readings of the kanji do not allow for any more than a discontinuous systematization: blocks of repeating patterns and clusters of unpatterned material organized under a variety of rubrics. In fact, the only thing ironclad about the method is the assumption that the student already knows what the characters mean and how they are written. Without that knowledge, the systematization becomes all but opaque. In any event, it is important to gain some understanding of how the book as a whole is laid out before deciding how best to make use of it. The book falls into two parts of wildly disproportionate length. The ³rst ten chapters cover the Chinese or on readings (3œŠ); the last chapter, the Japanese or kun readings (rœŠ). This should not give the impression that the on readings themselves are so much more dif³cult than the kun readings, but only that their systematization requires much more attention. What is more, the method followed in Chapter 11 is closer to that followed in Vol. i and can thus be treated in relatively short shrift. One of the chief reasons for frustration with the Chinese readings is not that there are so many kanji to read, but that there are so few readings to go around, creating a massive confusion of homonyms to the uninitiated. No sooner does one attempt to establish a set of rules to rein in this phenomenon than exceptions begin to nibble away at one’s principles like termites until the entire construction begins to look like a colossal waste of effort. True enough, there are exceptions. A lot of them. But there is also a great deal of consistency which can be sifted out and structured for the learning. The principal aim of the ³rst ten chapters is to isolate these patterns of consistency and use them to the fullest, holding brute memory at bay as long as possible. To this end I have introduced what are called “signal primitives. By this I mean primitive elements within the written form which signal a particular Chinese reading. Since most of these primitive forms were already assigned a meaning


introduction

3

in the ³rst book, the strategy should come as a welcome relief and carry you well over one-third of your way through the on readings. Whatever readings fall outside the compass of this method are introduced through a variety of devices of uneven dif³culty, each assigned its own chapter. Chapter 1 presents 56 kanji which form the parent-kanji for the forms of the hiragana and katakana syllabaries and whose readings are directly related to the modern kana sounds. 49 of them are Chinese readings, 7 are Japanese. Chapter 2 covers a large group of characters belonging to “pure groups” in which the presence of a given signal primitive entails a uniform sound. Chapter 3 presents the small group of kanji whose readings are not homonyms and may therefore be learned in conjunction with a particular character. Chapter 4, conversely, lists characters with no on reading. Chapter 5 returns to the signal primitives, this time gathering together those groups in which a signal primitive entails a uniform sound—but with a single exception to the pattern. These are called “semi-pure” groups. Chapter 6 brings together readings drawn from everyday words, all or nearly all of which should have been learned during the course of a general introduction to Japanese conversation. Allowing for occasional slight shifts of meaning from those assigned the kanji in the ³rst volume, the only work that remains to be done is to see how Japanese puts the pieces together to create new meanings. Chapter 7 returns one ³nal time to the use of signal primitives, picking up what characters can still make use of the device and subdividing them into three classes of “mixed-groups” where a given primitive elements can signal two or more different sounds. Chapters 8 and 9 follow the pattern of Chapter 6, except that the compounds will be less familiar and require learning some new vocabulary. The only thing these kanji have in common is that they do not belong to any natural phonetic group. The most useful compounds are presented in Chapter 8. The generally less useful compounds of Chapter 9 are all introduced with explanatory comments. Chapter 10 is a wastepaper basket into which I have thrown the remaining readings: uncommon, rare, or generally restricted to proper names. All the kanji from Chapters 1 through 10 are arranged in a frame of uniform design (see FIgure 1 on the following page). Taken together, they cover the entire range of on readings established as standard by Japan’s Ministry of Education. Five indexes have been added to facilitate reference and review. Index 1 lists all the signal primitives, arranged according to number of strokes, and the frame in which they ³rst appear. Index 2 presents a listing of all the kanji treated in this and the former volume, arranged according to the number of


4

introduction

strokes. Index 3 lists, in syllabic order, all the on readings, their respective kanji, and the number of their respective frames. Index 4 lists all the kun readings and their respective kanji. Together these two indexes constitute a complete dictionary of readings for the general-use kanji. Index 5 follows the frame sequence of the ³rst book, giving the kun readings and the frame(s) in which the on reading is introduced in this book. The frames have been arranged to facilitate reviewing: if you block out everything to the right of the compound used as an example, the student is able to run a simple self-test from time to time. For more thoroughgoing review, the µashcards that were prepared according to the design given in Chapter 5 of the ³rst volume can be completed, with the aid of the Indexes. A complete explanation is provided in Chapter 11.

frame number

Chinese reading

1965

þ

exemplary compound

internal cross-reference

äû

342

ƒJ‡¥

commonplace; ordinary

pronunciation of compound

cross-reference to Vol. i

62

meaning of compound

figure 1

Although the principles that govern the structure of this book will become clearer as the student grows more familiar with the content, there are a few points that seem worthy of mention at the outset. They represent both the courtesies I paid my own memory in learning to read Japanese and the pitfalls I watched fellow students fall into following other methods. As time goes on, you may or may not choose to follow them, but at least you should know what they are. First, relating one compound to another by means of similarities of sound is to be avoided at any cost. It merely clutters the mind with useless information. The fact that the two svllables sensei can mean teacher (å´) or astrology (ç«) or despotism (é£) or oath (è½), depending on the kanji assigned to them, may come as such a surprise that you are tempted to make some use of the coincidence. Resist the temptation. Second, it is best not to try to learn on and kun readings at the same time for the same character. The idea of “conquering” a character in its entirety will be supported by nearly every textbook on the kanji you pick up, but is nearly


introduction

5

as mistaken as trying to lead to write and read the kanji at the same time. Once you have learned the general-use characters, you will have a much better base from which to learn the meaning, writing, and readings of new characters en bloc as you meet them. Until then, cling to the Caesarean principle of “divide and conquer.” Third, with few exceptions, it seems preferable to learn the several possible Chinese readings of a given character as they come up, in isolation from one another. When second or third readings appear, reference to earlier frames will inform you of the fact. You will no doubt notice that the quickest way to complete the information on your µashcards is to rush to Index 5 and start ³lling them in. If you do, you might end up with a tidy set of cards that are no longer of any use for review, or else ³nd yourself reviewing what you haven’t yet studied. In either case, you would be sidestepping the entire method on which this book is based. Be sure to read the instructions on pages 297–8 before doing anything with your cards. Fourth, certain Japanese sounds undergo phonetic alterations when set alongside other sounds. For example, sû, Ìû, Xû, are read ippon, nihon, sambon, the syllable hon being like a chameleon that changes to suit its environment. Some of these alterations are regional, some standard. In any case, they are best learned by trial-and-error rather than by a set of rules that are more complex than they are worth. Fifth, a word about Chinese compounds (lB, _”UZ). With a grain of salt, one might compare the blend of Japanese (kun) and Chinese (on) words to the blend of Anglo-Saxon and Latin-Greek words in English. Generally, our words of Anglo-Saxon root are richer in meaning, vaguer, and more evocative than those of Latin-Greek root, which tend to precision and clarity. For instance, the word “glass” can suggest a whole range of possible images and meanings, but as soon as we substitute its Latin equivalent, “vitrine,” we have narrowed it down to a more concrete meaning. The presence of Chinese words (generally a compound of two or more on readings) in Japanese performs a similar narrowing, specifying function, while the native Japanese words reverberate wider and deeper meanings. In the same way that we combine Anglo-Saxon words with Latin-Greek words (for example, in the term “³berglass”), Japanese will occasionally mix on and kun readings in the same compound. As a rule, I have avoided these in the exemplary compounds. The order of preference in choosing examples was roughly as follows: 1. a compound that includes a reading appearing in a previous frame; 2. a compound in ordinary use; 3. a compound that uses a reading to appear soon after the frame in question; 4. the most common or instructive compound;


6

introduction

5. a name of a person or place; 6. rare or archaic compounds. The student is encouraged to substitute familiar compounds at any time for the examples I have chosen. Sixth, the use of signal primitives demands the same rigor applied to primitive elements in Vol. i. Where a single jot or tittle of difference is present, the element is excluded. Additional attention will have to be paid to the position of the primitive, which was not important in the earlier book. Seventh, I would register a plea against trying to begin with the two volumes of Remembering the Kanji at the same time. I wash my hands (or as Japanese would have it, my feet) of all responsibility for the results. That having been said, there is no reason that these pages cannot be used in conjunction with a set of graded readers. I would only advise that you begin this after having worked your way through Chapters 2 and 5. The bene³t of such an approach is that it enables you to take full advantage of the grammatical and vocabulary drills that such readers provide. At the same time, the commonly heard advice about learning charactcrs “in context” is one that is not as sensible as it sounds. Even if I learn the English word “troglodytic” in sentences such as “I can trace my ancestors back to the troglodytic age” or “There’s a family of troglodytes in my tool shed,” the word still needs to be learned in the ³rst place. New Japanese vocabulary falls on the foreign ear with much the same impact-totally unrelated to anything we already know. The bene³t of a context is that it enables one to drill a number of words and assimilate something of how they relate to one another grammatically and connotatively. Context de³nes the ³ner nuances that usage and tradition have af³xed to the kanji, but the compounds themselves still need to be learned. For this reason, students who wish systematically to make their way through this book frame by frame need not trouble themselves over the absence of context provided they do not abandon all reading practice in the process. Eighth and ³nally, a vigorous warning against the use of rõmaji in learning to read Japanese kanji. Get the idea out of your mind that the Roman alphabet is a “crutch” to help you hobble along until you master the hiragana and katakana syllabaries. It is nothing of the kind. It is rather a slow and sel³nµicted amputation that will leave you crippled for the rest of your Japanesereading years. Not only does the Roman alphabet inµict quirks on your pronunciation, it cultivates a systematic bias against the kana that gets harder and harder to uproot. Be patient with the kana, and never write Roman letters underneath them. The stricter you are in expelling all rõmaji from your study of Japanese words, the quicker you will ³nd that Roman letters become an obstacle to reading and writing, which they are for the Japanese and should be for anyone learning the language.


introduction

7

The manuscript of this book was completed in December of 1977 and privately circulated in the spring of the following year under the title Adventures in Kanji-Land ii: A Guide to Reading Japanese Characters. I decided to issue it in a new edition at this time because of the many letters I received from those who had found pro³t in the ³rst volume of Remembering the Kanji and were anxious to know how further to systematize their study of the kanji. It is my hope that these pages will go some way towards answering that request. It only remains for me to express my thanks to Sasabe Midori Õ/Hk, Ito Akiko QnØ{, and Sasaki Hirofumi Õ/…Nk, who worked zealously to prepare the indexes and set the Chinese characters, and to the Japan Publications Trading Company for their continued interest and support. James W. Heisig Nagoya, Japan 25 October 1986


CONTENTS PREFACE by Tanya Sienko

5

INTRODUCTION

7 PART ONE:

1 2 3 4 5 6

New Primitives & Kanji Primitives Major Primitive Elements Miscellaneous Kanji Western Measurements Phonetic Characters Old & Alternate Forms PART TWO:

7 8 9 10 11 12 13

WRITING 15 28 144 160 162 165

READING

Old Pure Groups New Pure Groups Semi-Pure Groups Mixed Groups A Potpourri of Readings Kanji with Japanese Readings Only Readings of Old & Alternate Forms

14 Supplementary Kanji

177 203 236 264 299 344 355 359

INDEXES

1 INDEX 2 INDEX 3 INDEX 4 INDEX

Number of Strokes Keywords and Primitive Meanings Readings Primitive Elements

371 389 418 487

Layout of Frames for Part One Layout of Frames for Part Two

490 491

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

493


Preface Tanya Sienko

WHEN I FIRST contacted Dr. Heisig with a proposal to add a third volume to Remembering the Kanji, I somehow left the impression that it was my rather esoteric needs as a scientist that left me hankering for more kanji than the 2,042 I had learned with his method. Actually, it was not the technical prose of Yukawa and Tomonaga on ³eld theory that were causing me my biggest headaches but ordinary Japanese novels. Having read mystery novels to polish my reading in other languages, I was disappointed to ³nd that the “essential” or “general-use” characters were simply not enough to gain entry into the Japanese thriller. After just a few chapters, my maiden voyage ended on the rocks. So much for “basic literacy,” I thought to myself. And so was born the idea for this book. During the time of the American Occupation, the Japanese writing system underwent a complete overhaul, which saw the number of Chinese characters to be learned during the years of compulsory education reduced to a bare minimum of 1,850. The idea was to simplify the system and facilitate literacy by removing rarely used kanji from circulation. What the reformers did not count on in their long-range plan was the resistance of the general public to the disappearance of many kanji customarily used for names. Families reacted by continuing to name their children with “traditional” names, but the government refused to register the kanji. This resulted in the bizarre situation where a number of Japanese were growing up legally nameless. In 1951 the Ministry of Education grudgingly backed down and approved another 92 “legal” characters for names, followed by another 28 in 1976. In 1981 the number of “general-use” kanji was increased in 1,945 and in 1990 the


6

PREFACE

kanji approved for use in names was increased to 284. This is the situation at present. Of course, there were still numerous kanji outside the list that continued to be used in place names, or that appeared in books published before the educational reforms and were impractical to update. Over the past twenty years many of these exiled characters have migrated back into daily use. Advertisers often prefer the compactness and precision of older kanji to their phonetic equivalents. Increasing competition has induced universities to include more and more “unof³cial” kanji in their entrance examinations. And popular novelists, as always, cling tenaciously to their cache of little-known glyphs as a mark of the trade. Finally, the ubiquitous word processor has turned the distinction between what is “allowed” and what is “disallowed” into something of an anachronism. For the foreign student who has landed in this mess, there have been only two alternatives: either you adhere to the of³cial list, or you stumble about blindly trying to improve your knowledge as best you can. The idea behind the present book was to offer a third choice: supplementary kanji to lay a solid basis for contemporary Japanese. In addition to the method of selection explained in Dr. Heisig’s introduction, I myself checked the ³nal list against Edward Daub, et al., Comprehending Technical Japanese (University of Wisconsin Press, 1975), which used frequency lists to determine the 500 kanji most used in technical writings. With the exception of characters speci³c to one ³eld, this list is represented in the pages that follow. Of the many people who assisted me in this project, I would like particularly to thank Ronald D. Mabbitt for help in the cross-referencing and for his many useful suggestions on the structure of the book; and Kanda Yumiko P,ÆË{ for checking some of the more obscure compounds.


Introduction THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHER William James once wrote that a great idea goes through three stages on its way to acceptance. First, it is dismissed as nonsense. Then it is acknowledged as true, but insigni³cant. Finally, it is seen to be important, but not really anything new. Time and again history con³rms the wisdom of James’s observation, but it also reminds us that the very same bias that resists the invasion of novelty also serves to swat away many a µea-brained idea buzzing about for attention. In this connection, I must admit I am of two minds about Remembering the Kanji and its companion volumes. I have always had the sense that there was something µea-brained about the whole project. Its reception by students of the Japanese language across the world has been as much a surprise to me as to the publishers, the Japan Publications Trading Company. We had expected no more than a short buzz, followed by a ³rm whack into oblivion. From the start I was convinced that if there was anything important in the method, it surely was nothing new. All I had done, after all, was to put some semblance of order into what students of the kanji had always done: trick their minds into making easily forgettable shapes more memorable. The sales of the books, as well as scores of letters from readers, has convinced me that this is in fact the case. On the one hand, the method seems to have proved itself a natural one suited to large number of students motivated to study the kanji on their own. On the other, it remains virtually useless for classroom instruction. This is hardly surprising, since it aims to do something the classroom cannot do, namely to tap the imagination of the individual at the individual’s own learning pace. To the native speaker of Japanese trained in the traditional school system and trying to teach the Japanese writing system to those whose primary education was outside of the “kanji curtain,” it can only appear a distracting gimmick. For one who does not know from experience the question behind the method, the answer—even if it works—makes no sense. Whatever the merits of


8

INTRODUCTION

Remembering the Kanji as a learning tool, then, its demerits as a teaching tool are beyond redemption. This is probably for the best. To force the expectations of the textbook on the method would probably only end up frustrating everyone—teachers and students. The saving grace of the books is that they are simply too µea-brained to run the circuit of “course work.” Letters from readers have combined expressions of gratitude with more good ideas for improvements than I could ever assimilate into subsequent editions. The misprints that had slipped in along the way, thanks again to alert readers, have been periodically corrected in later printings. For the rest I have let the books stand as they are, reckoning that their unpolished edges encourage the very kind of participation that makes them work in the ³rst place. The one most common request that has haunted me over the years has been for a supplementary volume that would pick up some of the more useful kanji outside the lists propagated as standard by Japan’s Ministry of Education. The request always seemed reasonable enough. When I myself had worked through the of³cial list of kanji, I was left with much the same feeling: learning to write the characters is so simple—now if there were some list that could guide me into learning more of them…. The only solution I could see was to learn new characters as they showed up in reading. Unfortunately, I kept no records, and could only reply to readers that they, too, let their particular reading habits guide their acquisition of new kanji. But I always knew it was not quite the right answer to an important question. Then, about a year and a half ago, Tanya Sienko, a theoretical physicist from the United States employed at Japan’s National Institute of Science and Technology Policy, persuaded me that something concrete could be done. Her idea was for a volume that would aim at raising pro³ciency to the level of 3,000 kanji, based on the methods of volumes I and II of Remembering the Kanji. The present book is the result of our combined efforts. The initial decision to aim at a list of 3,000 characters was not based on any established measure of “upper-level pro³ciency,” but simply out of the need for some parameters within which to begin working. As the selecting of new characters progressed, the decision justi³ed itself and was left to stand. The choice of which kanji to include and which to leave out was far from simple. In 1990 the Ministry of Education published a revised list of characters for use in names, 284 in all. Kanji from this list that had


9

INTRODUCTION

not been covered in volumes I and II were added ³rst, together with all their readings. The next step was to consult a list of 3,505 characters published in 1963 by the National Japanese Language Research Institute.1 Since 1956 the Institute had been issuing periodic reports of research on the frequency with which kanji appeared in various ³elds of study. Based on some 90 academic and popular journals, a team of scholars turned up 3,328 characters, to which the Institute added another 177. Although the list was not based on the Ministry of Education’s list of general-use kanji (øä+°), it includes all the kanji found in the latter (latest revision, 1977) but, as you might suspect, does not include all the characters from the Ministry’s 1990 revised list for use in names. In any case, all new kanji in the list with a frequency of more than 9 were selected. The following chart shows the breakdown of the frequency and the overlay of kanji used for names. The darkened areas represent the ³rst two groups of kanji checked for inclusion in the present volume:

} 3,505 °

The next problem was how to sift through the remaining kanji to reach a total of 3,000. The solution consisted in overlaying a completely new system of classi³cation that has taken the world of Chinese characters by storm since the time of the frequency studies. 1978 marks a watershed in the story of the kanji and in the compilation of frequency lists. It was in that year that the Japanese writing system was converted into computer code, opening the way to the use of the personal computer in Japan. There was never any question that 1

AêÖP£GY)uäBä°B C³C³BÓÁ‹³²D 22 (1963).


10

INTRODUCTION

Japan would march enthusiastically to the drum of the computer revolution. But to do so, some way had ³rst to be found around the obvious impossibility of squeezing the Japanese writing system into the 7-bit character codes that make up the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) character sets. In response to the challenge, the Japan Industrial Standard or JIS was born. From the outset the JIS classi³cation has never wanted for critics, but the complaints were largely mufµed by the sheer thrill of having a simple tool to manipulate the Chinese characters. In the early stages, a ³rst list of less than 3,000 kanji (JIS-12) was installed as standard in personal computers and printers, while a second list of over 4,000 kanji (JIS-2) was sold separately. Writers and specialists grumbled about characters that had been left out of JIS-1 and relegated to the “second-class” status of JIS-2. By the end of the 1980s, both character sets had been adjusted and are now installed as standard in most computer equipment.3 The kanji that had been left out of both lists were another matter. Nearly all word-processing programs have included utilities for creating ‘° or “excluded characters.” Eventually a third set, the JIS-supplement, was devised. To date, it covers an additional 5,801 kanji. This supplement is not yet standard in personal computers and printers, though newer dictionaries include the code numbers that have been assigned.4 In the near future it is reasonable to expect that they, too, will become standard equipment. The control of language, which has been an important cultural weapon in the arsenal of modern governments for the past four centuries and more, has brought political complications to the computerization of the kanji in Japan, often masquerading in the robes of scholarly objectivity. Indeed, the more voracious the popular appetite for computer access to kanji becomes, the more these issues come to the fore. The Ministry of Education, for example, which seems to have felt slighted by 2 JIS-1 includes basic Roman, Greek, and Cyrillic characters, as well as a handful of general-use typesetting symbols. 3 Meantime, the early 1990s saw the arrival of Unicode, a workable worldwide standard, based on 16-bit code, that would cover all writing and symbol systems. By that time the Japanese JIS had already become a permanent ³xture, and adjustments were made to assign it a place in the Unicode structure that would not conµict with Korean and Chinese. 4 For an example of the most up-to-date kanji dictionary, which was relied on heavily for the production of this book, see: à, ±%y[¨°Áq CØ+BnD (Tokyo: Taishðkan, 1992).


INTRODUCTION

11

the designers of the new computer standards, still make no mention of the JIS ’s existence in their of³cial lists of general-use characters. Meantime, efforts by the Ministry to regulate the number of kanji in general use have been undercut by the very computers they use to compose and print their regulations. There is no reason to think that the situation will change in the years to come.5 Most important for our purposes here, the wealth of characters seems to have retarded research into standards of “upper-level pro³ciency.” After its latest revision in 1990, the tripartite JIS list now contains a whopping 12,156 characters but does nothing to address the problem of frequency of use. A simple, if time-consuming, procedure was followed in making the selection of the remaining characters for this volume. First, all kanji that appeared less than 9 times in the National Japanese Language Research Institute list and which also appeared in JIS-1 were included. The selection was then rounded off with a few characters that fell outside these borders but which, from personal judgment, we thought it best to include. Graphically, the ³nal results look like this:

5 For a fuller account of these conflicts, see special issues of C^rQD dealing with +°o»ûÜí2Ç[Kanji and the computer], 1/2 (1990), and J‰+°uy°5¤“L [Rethinking the standardization of the kanji at present], 4/2 (1993).


12

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 14 is intended to reµect the authors’ dissatisfaction with the unavoidable arbitrariness in the selection process. It opens with a list of 7 kanji (3001–3007) deliberately excluded from the selection process: 5 of them from the list of names and 2 from JIS-2 that seem worth learning. Space is left for you to record additional characters that you feel belong to “upper-level pro³ciency.” In future editions, we hope to be able to add to this list of 7, but that will depend on signi³cant numbers of readers sending in their lists for us to compare. Parts One and Two follow, respectively, the methods of volumes I and II of Remembering the Kanji. The layout of the frames has changed somewhat, but a full graphic description is included at the end of the book, after the Indexes. The choice of sample words for on-yomi readings has been made with an eye to providing useful vocabulary wherever possible, but here, too, there was some arbitrariness. In the course of assigning readings to the kanji, a shelf of dictionaries based on the JIS lists was consulted and compared, only to ³nd inconsistencies at every turn. Given the ease with which computerized data can be accessed, one would expect at least an overall accuracy in indexing and cross-referencing. This was not the case. To compensate for this, Index 3 errs on the side of excess, including more readings than are mentioned in the frames of Part Two. The only exception was made for names: only those readings in the Ministry of Education’s updated list are contained in the index. Otherwise, all four indexes cover all the kanji and readings contained in the three volumes of the Remembering the Kanji series. . James W. Heisig Nagoya


PART ONE

WRITING


CHAPTER 1

New Primitives & Kanji Primitives _NEW PRIMITIVES_ We begin our journey to 3,000 kanji with the addition of a few new primitive elements to those already included in volume I. They have been included only if they appear frequently enough in the kanji in general to be useful, or if at least three instances appear in this volume. Each new element is followed by the new characters in which it appears. After this, all the primitives in this volume will already be familiar to you. If you get stuck, consult the comprehensive list in Index 4 at the end of this volume.

2043. this here R-2670

Â

footprint … spoon. [6]

2044. brushwood R-2671

Û

this here … tree. [10]

2045. fort R-2672

this here … stone. [11]

÷


16

NEW PRIMITIVES

2046. whit R-2673

Ô

this here … two. [8]

2047. beard R-3140

Ñ

hair … shape … this here. [16]

* sheik

Ï

top hat … villain … belt … elbow. [10] This element is already familiar from the character ? (I.1492). The reason the part for elbow requires 3 strokes instead of the usual 2 is that the combination of elements l is actually a radical classically de³ned as having 5 strokes.

2048. crystal R-2454

8

jewel … sheik. [15] This is one of the seven classical stones of China.

2049. fowl R-2843

9

umbrella … sheik. [12]

2050. apple R-2844

?

tree … fowl. [16]

* shoeshine rice … sunglasses. [12]

m


17

NEW PRIMITIVES

This combination of elements has already been learned from the character t (I.1311). The assignation of the primitive meaning is almost entirely arbitrary.

2051. sympathize with R-2499

œ

state of mind … shoeshine. [15]

2052. phosphorus R-2496

p

³re … shoeshine. [16]

2053. camelopard R-2498

v

deer … shoeshine. [23] The keyword here refers to a motley-colored mythical creature from China with the body of a deer, the tail of a cow, and the crest and claws of a bird.

2054. scaled R-2497

u

³sh … shoeshine. [23] The “scales” referred to here are the kind found on ³sh, dragons, and so forth.

2055. encompassing R-2583

Õ

St. Bernard … eel. [8] The sense of the keyword is of something that is expansive and covers over everything. When used as a primitive, this will take the meaning of a dachshund. Think here of a particularly large and l-o-n-g one to combine the qualities of the eel and the St. Bernard.


18

NEW PRIMITIVES

2056. hermitage R-2582

I

cave … dachshund. [11]

2057. shrouded R-2584

Ù

³ngers … dachshund. [11] The sense of the keyword does not refer to an actually funeral “shroud,” but only to the sense of being covered over or concealed.

2058. myself R-2585

,

person … dachshund. [10] The keyword refers to a very familiar way of referring to oneself, usually restricted to men.

* streetwalker

¢

We learned this combination earlier in the character p (I.1014) as composed of the elements person … license … walking legs. The primitive meaning covers the sense of one “walking around licentiously.” [7]

2059. make amends R-2501

Ï

state of mind … streetwalker. [10]

2060. steed R-2503

team of horses … streetwalker. [17]

v


19

NEW PRIMITIVES

2061. steep R-2500

q

mountain … streetwalker. [10]

2062. complete a job R-2502

t

vase … streetwalker. [12]

2063. mortar R-2973

¡

back-to-back staples. [6] The mortar referred to here is a stone or wooden basin used for grinding with a pestle. As a primitive element it keeps the same meaning.

2064. father-in-law R-3085

+

mortar … male. [13]

2065. mouse R-2964

Q

mortar … two plows … four drops … hook. [13]

2066. bore R-3039

ß

standing in a row upside down … mortar and walking stick … missile … metal. [28] The sense of the keyword is boring a hole into something.

2067. break R-3043

mortar … soil … missile. [13]

8


20

NEW PRIMITIVES

2068. small craft R-2383

9

boat … mortar … walking stick … crotch. [15]

* I Ching

p

The appearance of this element looks enough like one of the combinations used in the Chinese Book of Changes, the I Ching, to give us a meaning for this element. Note that there is always something that comes between the two halves to keep them apart. [4]

2069. rhinoceros R-3018

õ

flag … I Ching … walking stick … cow. [12]

2070. lunar month R-3007

Q

white dove … I Ching … needle. [11]

2071. spinal column R-2915

Ñ

I Ching … umbrella … flesh. [10]

* stitching

o

This element is actually a character in its own right, a pictograph of something that has been stitched. [8]

2072. rice-³eld footpath R-3141

Æ

³eld … stitching. [13] The character learned for paddy-ridge in volume ‘ (I.1204) and that for paddy-³eld ridge –, which we will meet in FRAME 2571,


21

NEW PRIMITIVES

both mean the “ridges” that run between rice paddies. The character introduced here refers directly to the ridge that is used as a walking path.

2073. mend R-2918

»

thread … stitching. [14]

2074. let it be R-2473

¹

spike … eight … belt … stitching. [14] Note that the writing of element for spike is interrupted by the element eight. This character—among whose older usages was as a polite form of addressing someone—is now used chiefly in names, except for the famous Buddhist expression that will be introduced when its reading comes up in Part Two.

2075. imperial seal R-2474

º

let it be … jewel. [19]

* hill of beans

W

This element (actually a rather rare character in its own right) is made up of exactly what it says: a hill of beans. [10]

2076. suit of armor R-2486

œ

metal … hill of beans. [18]

2077. triumph R-2485

hill of beans … wind. [12]


22

NEW PRIMITIVES

* sapling

_

drop … St. Bernard. [4] This element is easily confused with the shape of the character ú in such kanji as þ (I.634) and in the element å(I, PAGE 155). It meaning comes from the rather rare kanji on which it is based.

2078. bewitched R-2862

Ø

woman … sapling. [7]

2079. irrigate R-2861

ó

water … sapling. [7]

2080. quaff R-2914

µ

sapling … mouth. [7]

* green onion

{

un- … floor. [9]

2081. leek R-3142

Ú

flowers … green onion. [12]

2082. lottery R-2835

Ã

bamboo … assembly line … ³esta … green onion. [23] The character can also replace assembly line and ³esta with Thanksgiving: Ä. This alternate form is less common, however.


23

NEW PRIMITIVES

2083. penitential R-3047

H

state of mind … green onion. [20] As in the previous frame, assembly line and ³esta can be replace with Thanksgiving: I, though again less commonly.

2084. hay R-3047

M

Think of this element as showing two ricks of dried hay lying on top of each other. The element for bound up is familiar. The 3stroked piece being bound up appeared in the primitive for mountain goat Ã. Think of the goat burying his “missing” horns in the hay to pick them up and toss them.[10]

2085. chick R-2466

Œ

hay … turkey. [18]

2086. scurry R-2465

run … hay. [17] The sense of this keyword is the way someone in kimono runs, taking short steps quickly.

2087. understandably R-3001

chihuahua with one human leg. [4] The sense of the keyword is that something “stands to reason.”

2088. training R-3001

wheat … chihuahua with one human leg … delicious. [15]


24

KANJI PRIMITIVES

2089. immense R-3035

G

cliff … chihuahua with one human leg … shape. [9]

_NEW KANJI FROM OLD PRIMITIVES_ We close this ³rst chapter with a handful of kanji that were already learned as primitive elements but not as kanji in their own right. The only thing you will have to learn now is their keyword meaning, which does not in each case accord with the meaning they have been assigned as primitive elements. Try to relate the two meanings together if this causes confusion.

2090. grab R-2565

ô

vulture … tree. [8] We already met this combination in the characters ï, û, and í (1.733, 734, 1714).

2091. a R-3143

E

mouth … floor … ³esta. [8] This character is roughly equivalent to the inde³nite article a in English or to the phrase a certain… It appears as a primitive in the characters o and Î (I.356, 614).


25

KANJI PRIMITIVES

2092. chop off R-2411

k

car … axe. [11] You may recall that this character already appeared as a combination of primitives in the character l (I.1134).

2093. rabbit R-2839

0

drop of … day on its side … human legs … drop of. [8] The older form from which the rabbit primitive was derived is actually −, but the abbreviation in this frame has, with the support of its listing in the ³rst JIS list, come to take over. Note that the primitive for rabbit q (I, P. 421) differs again from both of these by lacking the ³nal stroke. To distinguish the ³rst drop of from the last, you might think of the rabbit’s long ears and short tail.

2094. est R-2770

˜

This is the element we learned as scorpion. We give the Latin word est as a keyword to stress the “classical” µavor of the character, which appears today chieµy in names. [3]

2095. lofty R-2550

#

This was the primitive element we learned as strawman. [8]

2096. comma-design R-2762

ú

The primitive meaning learned in vol. I, mosaic, is close to the meaning of the original character here, which is the shape of a “comma” used in heraldic designs, the most familiar of which has 3 “commas” swirling around each other. (If it is any help in remembering the character, one older meanings is an “elephant-eating snake.”) [4]


26

KANJI PRIMITIVES

2097. offspring R-2682

¡

Thie character, none other than the element we learned as dogtag, is a nickname for a male child and is now chieµy used in personal names. [7]

2098. critters R-3144

Ð

Conveniently, the original kanji of the element we learned as zoo means a counter for animals in general. [5]

2099. violet R-2314

The element we learned as meaning cabbage comes from the kanji meaning for a violet. The addition of the 4th stroke appears in older forms of kanji that use this element also. Here you may think of it as a “purple cabbage” hanging on an overhead tressel of violets to recall the difference. [11]

2100. mandala R-2347

R

Since this character is most familiarly used in transcribing the Sanskrit word mandala, we shall allow its primitive meaning to stand as the keyword for the kanji also. [11]

2101. towel R-3019

2

If we allow the full range of original meanings for the English word towel, which includes cleaning cloths, covering cloths and strips of cloth used in clothing, we can keep the primitive meaning for the keyword here. [3]


27

KANJI PRIMITIVES

2102. quote R-2848

°

The primitive we learned as rising cloud is actually a kanji used to indicate someone’s spoken words. [4]

2103. augury R-2442

í

The primitive meaning of wand is not far from the sense of the original kanji here. [2]

2104. heaven-high R-2350

å

This character was learned as the primitive angel. [12]

2105. shalt R-2551

]

The keyword here is meant to suggest the “Thou shalt” and “Thou shalt not of the commandments. [10]


CHAPTER 2

Major Primitive Elements The kanji treated in this chapter comprise the bulk of PART ONE of this book, some 734 characters in all. Each character is entered under its principal primitive element, and the elements themselves are arranged in their dictionary order.

_: 2106. Yamato R-2534

PERSON_

È

person … committee. [10]

2107. chivalry R-2265

Û

person … scissors. [8]

2108. fed up R-2549

À

person … scroll. [11]

2109. comely R-2504

person … mingle. [8]

I


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

E:F ƒ + 3 / 4

2110. abrupt R-2286

29

_

person … ego. [9]

2111. work a ³eld R-2789

µ

person … ³eld. [7]

2112. minstrel R-2491

}

person … orders. [7]

2113. animal offspring R-2795

o

person … child. [5]

2114. foe R-2788

²

person … nine. [4]

2115. look after R-2685

8

person … add. [7]

2116. triµe R-2313

/

person … cabbage. [12]

2117. biased R-2624

person … ketchup. [15]

{


E:F ƒ + 3 / 4

30

2118. make a pro³t R-2738

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

person … various. [17] If it helps, you can also read the primitives as believe … puppet.

2119. bliss R-2461

L

person … happiness. [10]

2120. emigrant R-2349

Ü

person … angel. [14]

2121. partner R-2790

Q

person … spine. [9]

2122. performing artist R-2754

Z

person … branch. [6]

2123. integrity R-2969

ë

person … mouth … µood. [8]

2124. mate R-3022

H

person … tool. [10]

2125. as is R-3145

person … exhaust. [8]

A


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

E:F ƒ + 3 / 4

2126. adjutant R-2648

31

·

person … right. [7]

2127. fork in a road R-3146

9

person … mouth … heaven. [9]

2128. hire R-2406

Ö

person … commonplace. [13]

2129. memorial R-2423

Ú

person … think. [11]

2130. dried meat R-2852

Ô

person … walking stick … taskmaster … meat. [11]

2131. my son R-3051

m

person … graduate. [10]

2132. make do R-3137

}

person … happenstance. [11] The keyword combines the meanings of the character for make 6 (I.1142) and ` do (I.1918).


: EƒF + 3 / 4

32

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

ICE_

2133. nifty R-2390

¢

ice … wife. [10]

2134. sharp R-2667

)

ice … tusk. [7] The sense of this keyword is broad enough to include “bright,” “clear,” and “on one’s toes.”

2135. wilt R-2766

u

ice … circumference. [10]

2136. pull through R-2353

Y

ice … rice-seedling … walking legs. [10]

2137. metallurgy R-2654

ice … pedestal. [7]

2138. stately R-3045

ice … -times … altar. [15]

Î


:ƒ E+ 3F / 4

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_+

33

WIND_

í

2139. kite R-3105

wind … towel. [5]

½

2140. lull R-3104

wind … stop. [6]

e

2141. earlybird R-2946

wind … bone. [6]

Ð

2142. phoenix R-2934

wind … ceiling … bird. [14]

_3

SABRE_

2143. slaughter R-2528

receipt … sword … metal … sabre. [15]

G


ƒ + E3 /FF 4 S

34

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2144. moment R-3042

Þ

sheaf … tree … sabre. [8] The keyword here is the noun meaning “a brief moment.”

2145. peel off R-2912

M

broom … rice grains … saber. [10]

2146. shave R-2639

Ë

younger brother … saber. [9]

_/ BOUND UP_ 2147. aroma R-3103

Ð

bound up … spoon. [4]

2148. µexed R-2842

bound up … elbow. [4]

Q


3 / E4F S F œ

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

35

_4 CLIFF_ 2149. despondent R-2933

Ñ

cliff … wagging tongue … moon … dog. [14] This character, which carries the sense of being weighted down by the meaningless of life, calls to mind a vivid image of despair in Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra that makes it simple to remember. Walking the dark cliffs at midnight, Zarathustra hears a dog howling. He approaches, and under the light of the moon sees a shepherd lad lying on the ground with a thick, black snake hanging out of his mouth (like a long, wagging tongue, we might add). The snake had crawled in while he was asleep and grabbed on to the lad’s throat. Zarathustra tells him to bite off the head of the snake and become free of the despair that holds him in tortured captivity.

2150. wild goose R-2596

U

cliff … person … turkey. [12]

2151. counterfeit R-2595

T

wild goose … money. [19]

2152. kitchen R-2866

p

cliff … table … glue. [12]

2153. insinuate R-3055

cliff … person. [4]

B


/ 4 ESF F œ {

36

_S

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

MOUTH_

2154. scout R-2627

«

mouth … candle. [10]

2155. derision R-2578

Å

mouth … morning. [15]

2156. reprehend R-3036

f

walking legs … person … mouth. [8]

2157. whisper R-3135

Ø

mouth … three ears. [21]

2158. chatter R-2506

v

mouth … generations … tree. [12]

2159. windpipe R-2598

}

mouth … cause. [9]

2160. quarrel R-2373

mouth … splendid. [13]

X


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2161. gossip R-3147

/ 4 ESF F œ {

37

mouth … revered. [15]

2162. cough R-2768

mouth … acorn. [9]

2163. clamor R-3024

Å

mouth … proclaim. [12]

2164. throat R-2328

V

mouth … marquis. [12]

2165. saliva R-2679

³

mouth … droop. [11]

2166. bash R-2923

ð

mouth … stamp. [5]

2167. ³b R-2571

£

mouth … void. [14]

2168. peck at R-2929

mouth … sow. [10]

à


/ 4 ESF F œ {

38

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2169. curse R-2930

2

mouth … older brother. [8]

2170. barking R-2931

é

mouth … chihuahua. [7]

2171. dangle R-3056

Ä

mouth … towel. [6]

2172. chew R-3148

á

mouth … teeth. [15]

2173. within my ability R-3057

×

mouth … needle. [5]

2174. sides of the mouth R-2967

`

mouth … knot. [7]

2175. stammer R-2876

¡

mouth … beg. [6]

2176. spin a tale R-3149

mouth … new. [16]

w


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

/ 4 ESF F œ {

2177. miso R-2646

39

;

mouth … increase. [14] Miso is the fermented soybean paste commonly used in Japanese cooking as a base for soups and stews.

2178. pop song R-2459

¤

mouth … shell. [10] This character was originally used to indicate songs accompanied by the shamisen but now most commonly refers to pop songs.

2179. scold R-2924

Í

mouth … diced. [5]

2180. city walls R-3058

Ë

mouth … mosaic. [7] This is the parent character from which the primitive Vis derived.

2181. dumbfounded R-3052

²

mouth … tree. [7]

2182. ingest R-3150

mouth … eat. [12]

V


4 S EFF œ { L

40

_F

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

SOIL_

2183. clay R-2708

+

soil … straightaway. [11]

2184. authochthonous R-2569

Æ

soil … monkey. [8] In Chinese astrology and divining, this character refers to “the earthly” and stands counter to ê as the “moist” against the “dry.”

2185. piled high R-2783

À

soil … turkey. [11]

2186. dugout R-2379

¨

soil … overpowering. [17] Compare ª (FRAME 2306).

2187. blemish R-2409

X

soil … empress. [9]

2188. µat R-2554

soil … nightbreak. [8]

&


4 S EF œF { L

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

41

%

2189. wharf R-2482

soil … large city. [11]

ù

2190. stuff up R-2694

soil … true. [13]

Ô

2191. dam R-2432

soil … box … sun … woman. [12]

2

2192. railing R-2739

soil … puppet. [12]

WOMAN_

2193. suckling infant R-2968

¸

two shells … woman. [17]

2194. violate R-2928

three women. [9]

ô


4 S F EœF { L

42

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2195. jealous R-2902

4

woman … rock. [8]

2196. handmaiden R-2621

Š

woman … lowly. [11]

2197. well ³nished R-2635

woman … address. [11]

2198. harlot R-2268

³

woman … prosperous. [11]

2199. courtesan R-2755

woman … branch. [7] Take care not to confuse with harlot in the previous frame.

2200. fair R-2753

$

woman … ivy. [9] The sense here is of someone lovely to behold.

2201. niece R-3020

woman … climax. [9]

l


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

4 S F EœF { L

2202. envy R-2429

43

Ð

woman … rapidly. [13]

2203. mistress R-2305

Á

woman … demand. [17] The sense of the keyword here is the feminine form of “master.”

2204. aged woman R-3089

¨

woman … old man. [9]

2205. mother-in-law R-2657

õ

woman … old. [8]

2206. young miss R-3119

?

woman … shelf. [8]

2207. overjoyed R-2403

woman … rejoice. [15]

a


S F œ E{ LF _

44

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_{

CHILD_

2208. expecting R-3136

¬

³st … child. [5] The keyword here means “pregnant.”

2209. assiduous R-2885

child … taskmaster. [7]

_L

HOUSE_

2210. soothe R-2841

»

house … possession. [9]

2211. imply R-2724

Y

house … Talking Cricket. [12]

2212. extensive R-2613

house … by one’s side … elbow. [7]

]


œ { EL _F [ 2

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

45

»

2213. jail R-2927

house … cow. [7]

ê

2214. block up R-2926

house … celery … animal legs … soil. [13]

2215. Sung dynasty R-2925

[

house … tree. [7]

Ê

2216. venison R-3111

house … six. [7] This character is used for the meat of wild animals in general, particularly boar and deer—hence the choice of the keyword.

__

FLAG_

2217. butchering R-2740

µag … puppet. [11]

5


{ L E_F [ 2 X

46

2218. fart R-2630

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Ö

µag … compare. [7]

2219. rubbish R-2628

`

µag … candle. [10]

2220. buttocks R-3151

:

µag … baseball team. [5]

2221. frequently R-2988

Ý

µag … rice … woman. [12]

2222. corpse R-2792

|

µag … death. [9]

2223. folding screen R-2513

µag … puzzle. [9]

Û


L _ E[F 2 X ¸

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_[

47

MOUNTAIN_

2224. high-reaching R-2513

ˆ

mountain … tall. [13]

2225. rugged mountains R-2354

!

mountain … rice-seedlings … walking legs. [11]

2226. high mountain R-2287

`

mountain … ego. [10]

2227. bluffs R-2441

mountain … cliff … ivy. [11]

2228. mountaintop R-2495

mountain … jurisdiction. [17]

2229. ³t into R-2555

%

mountain … wicker basket … yawn. [12] This character is used to express ³tting one thing into another.

2230. rocky R-2364

Ø


_ [ E2 XF ¸ Z

48

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

mountain … discrimination. [13]

_2

TOWEL_

x

2231. quire R-2878

towel … fortuneteller. [8] The keyword here is a counter for 25 sheets of paper.

g

2232. banner R-3152

towel … dice. [15]

R

2233. pennant R-2756

towel … kazoo. [15]

_X 2234. cleaver R-2249

CAVE_

º


[ 2 EX ¸F Z Y

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

49

cave … wrap. [8]

2235. licensed quarters R-2451

«

cave … enclosure. [14]

©

2236. overhang R-2629

cave … compare. [7]

Ü

2237. hawk R-2597

cave … person … turkey … bird. [24]

º

2238. shire R-3059

cave … soil. [6]

2239. tomb sanctuary R-2577

ë

cave … morning. [15]

BOW_

2240. strengthen R-2830

bow … 2 ³elds … µoors & ceilings. [16] See FRAME 2509 for a similar right-side combination.

é


2 X E¸ ZF K 5

50

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2241. more and more R-2892

¡

bow … reclining … small. [8]

H

2242. loosen R-2771

bow … scorpion. [6]

2243. rice gruel R-3113

æ

rice between two bows. [12]

_Z

FINGERS_

2244. lathe R-2723

³ngers … rabbit. [11]

2245. bump into R-2318

³ngers … juvenile. [15]

2246. disguise R-2678

³ngers … part. [7]

d


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

X ¸ EZF Y K 5

2247. pillage R-2744

51

E

³ngers … capital. [11]

2248. shove R-3060

)

³ngers … elbow … dart. [10]

2249. clutch R-3025

³

³ngers … country. [11]

2250. impress R-2910

Á

³ngers … Nara. [11] The impression referred to here is like that made by a seal on wax.

2251. wrenching R-2574

è

³ngers … wish. [11]

2252. scratch R-2380

d

³ngers … crotch … insect. [11]

2253. assortment R-2358

î

³ngers … two snakes … strung together. [15]

2254. wipe R-2987

³ngers … style. [9]

/


X ¸ EZF Y K 5

52

2255. muster R-2619

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

¥

³ngers … in front. [12] The sense of the keyword here is “to assemble in an orderly fashion.”

2256. deal with R-3153

S

³ngers … separate. [10]

2257. churn up R-2417

³ngers … memorize. [15]

2258. rubbing R-3154

³ngers … learn. [14] The sense here is of rubbing out an image, as in “brass-rubbing.”

2259. press down on R-2289

J

³ngers … relax. [9]

2260. nab R-2330

³ngers … wooden leg. [10]

2261. imminent R-3015

³ngers … µood … evening. [9]

J


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

X ¸ EZF Y K 5

2262. disseminate R-2731

53

ü

³ngers … dice. [15]

2263. interpretation R-2591

¿

³ngers … mouth … ear. [12]

2264. receptable R-2337

â

³ngers … lock of hair. [6]

2265. dedicate R-2518

¼

³ngers … observance. [11]

2266. twirl R-2323

é

³ngers … sort of a thing. [15]

2267. counter for tools R-2276

×

³ngers … courts. [10] This character is for counting scissors, guns, inksticks, oars, etc.

2268. commotion R-2568

ú

³ngers … melancholy. [18]

2269. make headway R-2996

³ngers … walk. [11]

œ


X ¸ EZ YF K 5

54

2270. petting R-2608

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

C

³ngers … non. [15]

2271. sprinkle R-2970

^

³ngers … scatter. [15]

2272. outstanding R-2995

ê

³ngers … feathers … turkey. [17] The concept here is “conspicuously surpass,” or “stick out of the crowd.”

2273. spoils R-2879

Â

³ngers … broom run. [11] Take special care when writing the right side of this character. The ³rst stroke belongs to the element run and is followed by that for broom.

2274. gouge out R-2532

³ngers … guillotine. [7]

f


¸ Z EYF K 5 O

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_Y

55

STATE OF MIND_

2275. wince R-2864

ê

state of mind … gone. [8]

2276. ponder R-2787

Z

state of mind … turkey. [11]

2277. infatuation R-2487

¾

state of mind … knot … heart. [11]

2278. quickwitted R-2492

state of mind … orders. [8]

2279. considerate R-2676

state of mind … receive. [11]

2280. yearn R-2317

ƒ

state of mind … juvenile. [15]

2281. as if R-2665

state of mind … ³t. [9]

Í


Z Y EKF 5 O M

56

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2282. enlarge R-2832

u

state of mind … ashes. [9]

2283. respect for elders R-2640

Õ

state of mind … younger brother. [10]

_K WATER_ 2284. bubble up R-2405

Â

water … courageous. [12]

2285. canal R-2493

J

water … rain … orders. [16]

2286. glistening R-2793

³

water … ray. [9]

2287. bounding main R-2478

water … sun … ray. [13] The sense of the keyword is of a vast and deep body of water.

ï


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Z Y EKF 5 O M

2288. gargle R-3049

57

)

water … bundle … yawn. [14]

2289. continent R-2322

C

water … state. [9]

2290. swirling waters R-2580

µ

water … decameron. [9]

2291. seep R-2775

(

water … nonplussed. [14]

2292. rinse R-2801

¸

water … west. [9]

2293. douse R-2799

water … tree. [7]

2294. teardrops R-2820

«

water … eye. [8]

2295. gushing R-2759

water … chariot. [12]

Þ


Z Y EKF 5 O M

58

2296. grains of sand R-2452

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Ü

water … few. [7]

2297. blaspheme R-2802

water … sell. [10]

2298. lewd R-2850

water … vulture … porter. [11]

2299. roofbeam R-2900

]

water … sword … two drops … tree. [11]

2300. sediment R-2407

+

water … Mr. [16]

2301. widespread R-2443

ˆ

water … ³ngerprint. [5]

2302. old Kyoto R-2741

#

water … each. [9] This kanji originally referred to a place name in China, but in Japan was adopted to refer to Kyoto, where it still survives in the names of places and traditional establishments.


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Z Y EKF 5 O M

2303. thou R-2798

59

Ë

water … woman. [6]

2304. ³lter R-2370

º

water … deer. [14]

2305. on the verge of R-2435

ù

water … repeatedly. [19]

2306. moat R-2378

ª

water … overpowering. [17] This character, used today as an abbreviation for the country of Australia, should be learned in connection with ¨ (FRAME 2186).

2307. spray R-2535

m

water … discharge. [12]

2308. drowning R-2940

ñ

water … weak. [13] Do not confuse with ö (I.707), which is closer to the sense of founder.

2309. port R-2439

water … play music. [12]

Q


Z Y EKF 5 O M

60

2310. solitude R-2445

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

o

water … grove. [11]

2311. abounding R-2941

u

water … revelation. [10]

2312. water’s edge R-2706

Ú

water … spike. [5]

2313. large goose R-2808

£

water … craft … bird. [17]

2314. souse R-2536

/

water … pegasus. [14]

2315. brimming R-2953

u

water … bene³t. [13]

2316. cleanse R-2433

±

water … plump. [7]

2317. inundate R-3017

water … tremendously. [12]

/


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2318. immaculate R-2674

Z Y EKF 5 O M

61

|

water … receive. [11]

2319. de³le R-2826

¾

water … precious. [15]

2320. moisten R-2547

3

water … roof. [12]

2321. rough seas R-2805

À

water … dif³cult. [21]

2322. draw water R-2271

½

water … reach out. [6]

2323. river pool R-3126

ª

water … silent. [17]

2324. cumulation R-2529

I

water … detain. [13]

2325. abyss R-2952

water … golden calf … sabre. [11]

Å


Z Y EK 5F O M

62

2326. chaos R-2610

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

±

water … earthworm. [7]

2327. panR-2545

water … mediocre. [6] The sense of the keyword here is the “all” as in terms like PanAmerican. It is also the character used in mathematics for “partial” as in partial differentials.

2328. strainer R-2863

Y

water … prudence. [18]

2329. drench R-2306

ß

water … demand. [17]

2330. eddy R-3155

÷

water … determine. [11]

2331. fabrication R-3061

Ã

water … sun … soil. [9] The keyword here is meant to suggest not merely something made, but something made with an intention to deceive.


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Y KE5 OF M Q

2333. hatchet R-2814

63

2

father … axe. [8]

2334. grandpa R-2468

father … ear … city walls. [13]

_O

PACK OF WILD DOGS_

2335. sly R-2522

Î

pack of wild dogs … skeleton. [13]

2336. indecent R-2587

Í

pack of wild dogs … be apprehensive. [12]

2337. cunning R-2505

Á

pack of wild dogs … mingle. [9]

2338. racoon dog R-2600

pack of wild dogs … computer. [10]

û


K 5 EOF M Q h

64

_5

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

FATHER_

2332. cauldron R-2813

ß

father … metal. [10] Note the stroke overlap between father and metal.

2333. hatchet R-2814

2

father … axe. [8]

2334. grandpa R-2468

father … ear … city walls. [13]

_O

PACK OF WILD DOGS_

2335. sly R-2522

Î

pack of wild dogs … skeleton. [13]

2336. indecent R-2587

pack of wild dogs … be apprehensive. [12]

Í


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2337. cunning R-2505

K 5 EO MF Q h

65

Á

pack of wild dogs … mingle. [9]

2338. racoon dog R-2600

û

pack of wild dogs … computer. [10]

2339. wolf R-2603

¼

pack of wild dogs … halo. [10]

2340. µustered R-2460

B

pack of wild dogs … shell³sh. [10]

2341. pup R-2444

K

pack of wild dogs … phrase. [8]

2342. fox R-2510

!

pack of wild dogs … melon. [8]

2343. a-un R-2244

À

pack of wild dogs … white. [8] The a-un are lion-like dogs that often grace the front of temples or public buildings in Japan. Their name comes from the ³rst and last letters of the Sanskrit alphabet (transliterated in Japanese as %A) and symbolize a wholeness as in the English phrase “alpha and omega.”


5 O EMF Q h a

66

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS



2344. aim at R-2253

pack of wild dogs ‌ shelf. [8]

“

2345. lion R-2424

pack of wild dogs ‌ expert. [13]

ž

2346. baboon R-2546

pack of wild dogs ‌ dollar sign. [8]

_M

FLOWERS_

2347. tobacco R-3156

}

¾owers ‌ good. [8]

2348. jasmine R-2279

^

¾owers ‌ extremity. [8]

2349. hawthorn R-2280

¾owers ‌ pro³t. [10]

|


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

5 O EMF Q h a

2350. strawberry R-3138

67

U

µowers … mother. [8] Note that the element for mother is written in its full form, not the normal abbreviated form it usually takes when used as a primitive. To help remember this, think of the original pictographic image of the “two breasts of the mother.”

2351. bush clover R-2308

K

µowers … autumn. [12]

2352. technique [old] R-3183

å

µowers … rice-seedlings … ground … fat man … rising cloud. [18] The abbreviation in common use is © (I.421).

2353. trim R-3157

¾

µowers … pheasant. [16] The second element appears in FRAME 2584.

2354. straw raincoat R-3158

R

µowers … declining. [13]

2355. numb R-2533

µowers … committee. [11]

2356. moss

g


5 O EMF Q h a

68

R-2656

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Î

µowers … pedestal. [8]

2357. prodigal R-2450

m

µowers … hot water. [15]

2358. cover over R-2320

v

µower … shredder. [15]

2359. tendril R-2348

H

µowers … mandala. [14]

2360. lotus R-2463

¥

µowers … carry along. [13]

2361. lotus µower R-2517

9

µowers … husband. [7] Even though there is no essential difference in meaning between this kanji and those in the preceding and following frames, the character ¥ is the most common of the three.

2362. lotus blossom R-2300

é

µowers … contain. [13]

2363. orchid R-2400

0


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

5 O EMF Q h a

69

µowers … gates … east. [19]

2364. hollow reed R-2871

6

µowers … door. [7]

2365. yam R-2735

µowers … signature. [16]

2366. iris R-2267

Ý

µowers … prosperous. [11]

2367. banana R-2310

ß

µowers … char. [15]

2368. wick R-2806

T

µowers … heart. [7]

2369. buckwheat R-2351

÷

µowers … angel. [15]

2370. butterbur R-2298

M

µowers … path. [16]

2371. indigo R-2638

µowers … oversee. [18]

/


5 O EMF Q h a

70

2372. eggplant R-2687

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

R

µowers … add. [8]

2373. bullying R-2250

Q

µowers … can. [8]

2374. behind the scenes R-2404

µowers … shade. [14]

2375. wormwood R-2283

È

µower … tryst. [13]

2376. mustard R-2334

µowers … jammed in. [7]

2377. germinate R-2954

Ç

µowers … bright. [11]

2378. grape R-2680

F

µowers … bound up … dogtag. [12]

2379. grape vine R-2955

µowers … bound up … tin can. [11]


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2380. resurrect R-2962

5 O EMF Q h a

71

M

µowers … ³sh … wheat. [19]

2381. grow wild R-2730

£

µowers … dice. [15]

2382. cocklebur R-2490

µowers … orders. [8]

2383. rush mat R-2509

(

µowers … orphan. [11]

2384. darken R-3011

ƒ

µowers … crown … ceiling … sow. [13]

2385. grassy reed R-2994

ä

µowers … halberd. [ 8]

2386. plantain R-2764

*

µowers … mosaic. [7]

2387. mow R-3131

µowers … reap. [7]

2388. lid

è


5 O EMF Q h a

72

R-2984

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

µowers … gone … dish. [13]

2389. onion R-3062

ã

µowers … double knot … heart. [12] The double knot is from the extra stroke in the second primitive.

2390. revile R-2982

µowers … net … a march. [14]

2391. hollyhock R-3063

,

µowers … teepee … heaven. [12]

2392. shingling R-2589

L

µowers … mouth … ear. [12]

2393. stamen R-2822

Þ

µowers … three hearts. [15]

2394. mushroom R-2873

ì

µowers … ear. [9]

2395. sowing R-2716

Á


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

5 O EMF Q h a

73

µowers … time. [13]

2396. parsley R-2855

=

µowers … axe. [7]

2397. thatching R-3125

§

µowers … fortune-telling. [8]

2398. kudzu R-2662

Ò

µowers … siesta. [11]

2399. pale blue R-2296

x

µowers … godown. [13]

2400. straw R-3122

Õ

µowers … tall … tree. [17]

2401. turnip R-2609

G

µowers … nothingness. [15]

2402. sweet potato R-2736

˜

µowers … words … puppet. [18]

2403. quack R-2966

µowers … number. [16]

«


O M EQF h a

74

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

The keyword here refers to a medic of questionable reputation. It does not however carry the original meaning of the German term: a doctor who used water to cure.

2404. garlic R-3117

ò

µowers … two altars. [13]

2405. bracken R-3159

Ö

µowers … cliff … mountain goat … yawn. [15]

2406. grow plentiful R-2559

¦

µower … lieutenant. [14]

2407. madder red R-2992

/

µowers … west. [9]

2408. candle rush R-2398

=

µowers … perfect. [10]

2409. collector R-2829

K

µowers … ghost. [13]

2410. sedge R-2256

µowers … bureaucrat. [11]

2411. ditch reed R-2661

5


O M EQ hF a

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

75

µowers … locket. [12]

_Q

ROAD_

2412. Way R-2778

#

road … sprout. [8] The upper case indicates its meaning as a true or moral Way.

2413. track down R-3114

ø

mountain … road. [6]

2414. crawl R-3064

G

words … road. [10]

2415. detour R-2393

potato … road. [6]

2416. elude R-2561

road … shield. [12]

2417. tryst

³


M Q Eh a F Õ ½

76

R-2282

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

+

walking legs … bushes … road. [10]

2418. far off R-2315

í

condor … road. [12]

2419. remote R-2263

f

road … pup tent. [15]

2420. pressing R-2704

Ú

wealth … road. [12]

2421. until R-3160

@

beg … road. [6]

2422. modest R-2399

«

grandchild … road. [13]

2423. standstill R-2727

table … road. [10]

q


h a E F Õ ½ …

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_h

77

CITY WALLS_

2424. cultured R-3008

q

possess … town walls. [9]

2425. courtesy R-2908

å

animal horns … whiskey bottle … St. Bernard … city walls. [15]

_a

PINNACLE_

2426. chink R-2978

²

pinnacle … small … sun … small. [12]

2427. nook R-2586

pinnacle … ³eld … hairpin. [11]

i


a EÕF ½ …

78

_

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

HEART_

2428. possessed R-3041

5

ice … team of horses … heart. [16] The keyword here means “bewitched” or “enchanted” by a spirit.

2429. attract R-2747

û

young … heart. [12]

2430. without exception R-2566

Ò

animal footprints … heart. [11]

2431. instantaneously R-2488

½

knot … heart. [8]

2432. ³rstborn son R-2824

_

thing … heart. [12]

2433. in the nick of time R-2261

°

butchers … heart. [13]

2434. sensitive R-2427

¢


a EÕF ½ … z

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

79

likeness … heart. [10]

SUN_

2435. overarching R-3046

+

sun … receipt … stamp. [9] Although this character is not essentially different in connotation from l (FRAME 2449), it is used chieµy now in names.

2436. progress R-2833

H

The element for sun at the bottom is easy enough. The problem is top element, row, is an exception to the rule (I.1785) that the two “horns” at the top are eliminated only when it appears beneath its relative primitive. [10]

2437. equivocal R-2436

K

sun … love. [17]

2438. aglow R-2647

sun … turn into. [11]

8


a EÕF ½ … z

80

2439. halo R-2758

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

=

sun atop a chariot. [13] Be careful to keep this character distinct from that in the following frame, which differs only by the disposition of the elements.

2440. glitter R-2760

@

sun alongside a chariot. [13]

2441. dry weather R-2651

!

sun … clothesline. [7]

2442. clear skies R-2291

/

sun … relax. [10]

2443. morrow R-2512

7

sun … sign of the dragon. [11] To indicate that this character is now used mainly in names, we have assigned it the somewhat archaic-sounding keyword morrow.

2444. bleaching R-3128

W

sun … west. [10]

2445. obscure R-2537

sun … not yet. [9]

*


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

81

Õ E½F … z J

2446. limpid R-2477

m

sun … ray. [10]

2447. air out R-2338

X

sun … outburst. [19]

2448. dawn R-2734

sun … signature. [17]

2449. elevate R-2935

l

sun … craft … seal. [8] Although this character is not essentially different in connotation from + (FRAME 2435), be sure to keep the writing distinct.

2450. effulgent R-2804

ó

sun … king. [8]

2451. dusk R-2457

Ë

family name … sun. [8]

2452. last day of the month R-2773

sun … every. [10]

{


82

Õ E½F … z J

FLESH

2453. kidney R-2975

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

% MOON_

f

slave … crotch … µesh. [13]

2454. thigh R-2895

%

µesh … missile. [8]

2455. pus R-2331

ö

µesh … agriculture. [17]

2456. viscera R-2255

Ü

µesh … borough. [12]

2457. bladder R-2794

Ò

µesh … ray. [10]

2458. embryo R-2870

Î

µesh … negative. [9]

2459. anus R-2344

µesh … craft. [7]

Ã


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

83

Õ E½ …F z J È

2460. cowardice R-2516

(

µesh … idea. [17]

2461. knee R-2430

Ó

µesh … tree … umbrella … rice grains. [15] Compare the right side of this character with Ô (I.932).

2462. fragile R-2553

Å

µesh … dangerous. [10]

2463. rib R-2981

Å

µesh … power. [6]

2464. elbow R-2980

Õ

µesh … glue. [7]

2465. body cavity R-2888

µesh … empty. [12]

2466. gland R-2336

!

µesh … spring. [13]

2467. tumor R-2884

µesh … heavy. [13]

*


84

Õ ½ E…F z J È

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2468. dining tray R-2335

9

µesh … virtuous. [16]

ˆ

2469. armrest R-2615

µesh … by one’s side … elbow. [8]

2470. uncivilized R-2605

&

old … moon. [9] This character referred in China to foreigners, especially those to the north and south of the “civilized” peoples who controlled the meaning of the characters. See FRAME 2881 for the Japanese equivalent.

_…

TREE_

2471. maple tree R-2526

J

tree … wind. [13]

2472. pillow R-3021

tree … crown tied around leg of person. [8] Compare ¢ (I.1688).

3


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

85

Õ ½ E…F z J È

2473. purple willow R-2733

ß

tree … piggy bank. [13]

2474. Oriental elm R-2745

a

tree … capitol. [12]

2475. hazel R-2484

J

tree … bonsai … wheat. [14]

2476. comb R-2942

^

tree … node. [17]

2477. wooden hammer R-2386

ª

tree … chase. [13]

2478. mallet R-2309

Ê

tree … char. [16]

2479. ladder R-2641

Ù

tree … younger brother. [11]

2480. chair R-2542

tree … strange. [12]

_


86

Õ ½ E…F z J È

2481. persimmon R-2538

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

¥

tree … market. [9]

2482. citrus tree R-2556

$

tree … sweet. [9]

2483. girder R-3161

³

tree … going. [10]

2484. picket R-2273

o

tree … whirlwind. [8]

2485. holly R-2875

Í

tree … winter. [9]

2486. citron R-2779

Á

tree … sprout. [9]

2487. wooden bowl R-2633

×

tree … address. [12]

2488. hemlock R-3109

tree … mother. [9]

2489. spindle tree

²


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

87

Õ ½ E…F z J È

R-3107

5

tree … correct. [9]

2490. sacred Shinto tree R-3106

/

tree … gods. [13]

2491. evergreen oak R-3098

Æ

tree … strict. [16]

2492. Chinese black pine R-2692

0

tree … true. [14]

2493. Japanese oak R-2818

Ã

tree … animal horns … whisky bottle. [13]

2494. mandarin orange R-2960

¤

tree … halbard … hood … human legs … mouth. [16]

2495. Japanese cypress R-2333

Û

tree … meeting. [10] See also FRAME 2964 for old form.

2496. roost R-2391


88

Õ ½ E…F z J È

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

tree … wife. [12]

2497. nestle R-2800

°

tree … west. [10]

2498. spiny R-2447

q

tree … grow late. [11] This character refers originally to a deciduous, rough tree that grows on mountain plains. From this it gets the secondary sense of rugged or spiny.

2499. bellµower R-2519

£

tree … lodded crock. [10]

2500. temple grove R-3009

8

tree … soil. [7]

2501. grain rake R-2765

!

tree … mosaic. [8]

2502. oar R-3120

È

tree … tail. [11]

2503. wooden pestle R-2921

tree … horse. [8]

§


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2504. cane R-2408

89

Õ ½ E…F z J È

ü

tree … length. [7]

2505. sweet oak R-2784

©

tree … turkey. [12]

2506. barrel R-2539

þ

tree … revered. [16]

2507. palisade R-2920

=

tree … tome. [9]

2508. turret R-2846

ª

tree … ³sh … sun. [19]

2509. sturdy oak R-3093

Ç

tree … 2 ³elds … µoors & ceilings. [17] The type of oak tree this character refers to is clasically reputed to be good for making boats, carts, and the like. See FRAME 2240 for a similar right-side combination.

2510. wooden ladle R-2815

tree … ladle. [7]

2511. damson

ò


90

Õ ½ E…F z È ÷

R-3087

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

5

tree … child. [7]

2512. raw cotton R-2396

p

tree … white … towel. [12]

2513. escutcheon R-2560

z

tree … shield. [13]

2514. hackberry R-3130

Ð

tree … summer. [14]

2515. birch R-2372

Ù

tree … splendor. [14]

2516. lance R-2295

i

tree … godown. [14]

2517. wild mulberry R-3028

¸

tree … rock. [9]

2518. bale R-2419

Î


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

91

Õ ½ E…F z È ÷

tree … quandary. [11]

2519. loquat R-2631

Ç

tree … compare. [8]

2520. downspout R-3096

Â

tree … traf³c. [14]

2521. sled R-3065

,

tree … three furs. [16]

2522. enjoyment R-2636

æ

carrier … tree. [14]

2523. bookmark R-2653

two clotheslines … tree. [10]

2524. coconut tree R-2469

Ô

tree … ear … city walls. [12]

2525. sandalwood R-2425

A

tree … top hat … rotation … night break. [17] Compare the right side to ; (I.587).

2526. plotosid R-3006

m


92

½ E… z JF È ÷

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

tree … rain … ceiling … snare. [15] The plotosid tree is a symbol for a totally useless tree because of its rough bark, spines, and foul-smelling leaves.

2527. zelkova R-2377

´

tree … standard. [15]

2528. cryptomeria R-3110

tree … prosperous. [12]

2529. copious R-2831

ö

tree … cedar. [11]

2530. bucket R-2872

)

tree … chopseal … utilize. [11]

2531. ellipse R-2458

»

tree … pinnacle … left … µesh. [13] We have met the element to the right here before, as in · (I.629). The standard form for this character is actually /, but the abbreviation has passed into general use.

2532. star-anise

!

R-2343

tree … secrecy. [15] The star-anise, as you will guess from the primitive on the left, is a kind of tree—to be precise, a kind of Chinese evergreen that


93

… z EJF È ÷

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

belongs to the magnolia family. It is known for its aromatic oil.

_z

FUR_

y

2533. furball R-2319

fur … request. [11]

_J l

FIRE

2534. twinkle R-2729

% OVEN-FIRE_

³re … feathers … turkey. [18]

2535. watch³re R-2264

³re … pup tent. [16]

2536. torch R-2562

³re … gigantic. [9]

j


94

… z EJF È ÷ ,

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2537. kindle R-2898

e

grove … ³re. [12]

2538. moxa R-2385

¿

mummy … ³re. [7]

2539. candlelight R-2939

2

³re … net … bound up … insect. [17] Compare the right complex of elements with ê (I.835).

2540. fanning R-2402

÷

³re … fan. [14]

2541. soot R-2643

A

³re … so-and-so. [13]

2542. ³ring R-2709

¡

³re … east. [12] Firing here, as in the process for making bricks or re³ning metals.

2543. dazzling R-2856

a

³re … wand … evening … crotch … rice. [17]

2544. refulgent R-2816

³re … ladle. [7]

ó


z J EÈ ÷F , œ ‡

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

95

q

2545. branding R-2742

³re … each. [10]

Þ

2546. µames R-2828

³re … bound up … olden days. [11] Compare right elements in G(I.1315).

ã

2547. fuse metal R-2299

³re … contain. [14] This is the character for melt â (I.791), with the water replaced by ³re.

ö

2548. roast R-2616

in front … oven-³re. [13]

Â

2549. stew R-2993

tall … complete … oven-³re. [11]

_È 2550. tug

COW_


J È E÷F , œ ‡

96

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Ð

R-2909

mysterious … crown … cow. [11] Write the crown after the ³rst stroke of that for mysterious.

2551. female animal R-2947

m

cow … spoon. [6]

2552. male animal R-2948

*

cow … soil. [7]

JEWEL_

2553. precious stone R-2316

ó

jewel … condor. [13]

2554. chime R-2446

q

jewel … grove. [12]

2555. marine blue R-2530

jewel … detain. [14]

w


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2556. speckled R-2397

J È E÷F , œ ‡

97

jewel … plaid … jewel. [12]

2557. lapis lazuli R-2342

J

jewel … infant … µood. [11]

2558. tinker with R-2951

´

jewel … two hands. [7]

2559. burnish R-2365

Ý

jewel … distinction. [14]

2560. hone R-2906

ç

jewel … sow. [11]

2561. coral R-2905

b

jewel … tome. [9]

2562. coral reef R-2606

@

jewel … old … moon. [13]

2563. fortunate R-3066

jewel … mountain … comb. [13]


È ÷ E, œF ‡ ¢ Í

98

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

ƒ

2564. silicon R-2751

jewel … ivy. [10]

L

2565. jet R-2384

jewel … mummy. [7] The keyword jet refers to the dark black lignite whose susceptibility to high polish makes it popular in ornamentation (and which also gives us the phrase “jet-black”).

2566. crystal stone R-2434

À

jewel … England. [12]

O

2567. toy R-2301

jewel …beginning. [8]

2568. tinkling R-2494

jewel … orders. [9]

_,

FIELD_

2569. apprehensive


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

99

÷ , EœF ‡ ¢ Í

a

R-2588

³eld … hairpin. [9]

Ø

2570. lastly R-3067

³eld … siliage … ten. [10] The writing of this character looks more dif³cult than it is:

v w x y z Ø 2571. paddy-³eld ridge R-2749

³eld … ivy. [11]

_œ 2572. itch R-2757

sickness … sheep. [11]

2573. phlegm

SICKNESS_

_


, œ E‡ ¢F Í ½ Ë

100

R-2781

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

g

sickness … inµammation. [13]

2574. measles R-2774

N

sickness … umbrella … shape. [10]

2575. hemorrhoids R-2715

»

sickness … temple. [11]

2576. cancer R-2949

P

sickness … goods … mountain. [17]

2577. lose weight R-2382

n

sickness … monkey … crotch. [12]

2578. scar R-2705

Ð

sickness … silver. [11]

2579. paralysis R-2620

sickness … lowly. [13]

h


œ ‡ E¢ ÍF ½ Ë

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_‡

101

EYE_

2580. apple of the eye R-2890

¹

eye … moo. [11]

±

2581. dizzy R-2294

eye … mysterious. [10]

a

2582. obvious R-2262

eye … pup tent. [17]

Ê

2583. eyebrow R-2913

The µag here has an extra vertical stroke in it. Think of it as an eyebrow pencil stuck in the eye. [9]

ARROW_

2584. pheasant


‡ ¢ EÍF ½ Ë

102

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

C

R-2782

arrow … turkey. [13]

2585. carpenter’s square R-2563

M

arrow … gigantic. [10]

ROCK_

2586. crag R-2637

¢

carrier … rock. [15]

2587. grapnel R-2668

Û

rock … determined. [13] Compare this stone anchor with the metal anchor ð in 2765.

2588. blue-green R-2821

jewel … white … rock. [14]

2589. inkstone

FRAME


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

¢ Í E½F Ë ¹ C

R-2807

103

Ô

rock … to see. [12]

2590. grindstone R-2564

B

rock … calling card. [10]

2591. teacup R-2634

Ù

rock … address. [13] When a teacup is made out of wood, it is written × (see 2487).

2592. obstacle R-2945

FRAME

˜

rock … nightbreak … glue. [13] Compare the right side with “ (I.876).

2593. illustrious R-3014

Ö

rock … head. [14]

2594. rocky beach R-2303

r

rock … how much. [17]

2595. whetstone R-2369

rock … cliff … ten thousand. [10]

C


¢ Í E½ ËF ¹ C

104

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Ÿ

2596. mill R-3162

rock … turkey. [13]

_½ Ò

ALTAR_

2597. fend off R-2401

Õ

honorable … altar. [17]

2598. beseech R-3054

e

altar … longevity. [11]

2599. ancestral tablet R-2649

Ç

altar … right. [9]

2600. local god R-2567

altar … family name. [8]

2601. ancestral shrine R-2894

altar … lying down … small. [9]

á


Í ½ EË ¹F C Ë

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

105

Ä

2602. salarium R-2340

altar … broom … rice grains. [12] In the same way that Roman soliders were paid in salt (hence the word salarium) ranking functionaries in Japan’s feudal system collected their “salary” in rice.

2603. felicitation R-2325

Ü

altar … upright. [13] This kanji refers to a sign or token of congratulations.

WHEAT_

2604. balancing scales R-3094

I

wheat … lily pad. [10]

2605. millet R-3086

¨

wheat … umbrella … grains of rice. [12]

2606. bald R-2965

wheat … human legs. [7]

2607. bear fruit

˜


½ Ë E¹ CF − U

106

R-2575

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

S

wheat … wish. [13]

2608. crabgrass R-2623

Î

wheat … lowly. [13]

2609. bumper crop R-2258

$

wheat … grass skirt. [18]

2610. imperial authority R-2352

b

wheat … rice seedling … walking legs. [13]

2611. sparse R-2456

v

wheat … hope. [12]

2612. obeisant R-3004

wheat … spring … shape. [16]

ó


Ë ¹ EC −F U y

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

107

HOLE_

2613. peep R-2376

hole … protocol. [16]

2614. tight R-2520

?

hole … saw. [10]

2615. cavern R-2281

c

hole … yield. [13]

2616. drill R-2944

ù

hole … tusk. [9]

2617. kitchen stove R-3068

hole … soil … (bucket of) eels. [17]

Ý


108

¹ C E− UF y –

_C

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

VASE_

2618. longness R-3163

÷

slave … crotch … vase. [14]

2619. rustling R-2527

š

vase … wind. [14] Note that the full character for wind is used here instead of the normal primitive abbreviation. The sense of the keyword is the “sound of the wind.”

2620. outpost R-3037

d

vase … fortune-telling. [10]

2621. repose R-2247

©

vase … blue. [13]

2622. concubine R-2904

vase … woman. [8]

²


C − EUF y – J

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_−

109

CLOAK_

2623. lapel R-2860

@

cloak … now. [9]

2624. hem R-2389

cloak … reside. [13]

2625. lined kimono R-3091

G

cloak … ³t. [11]

2626. pleated skirt R-2367

$

cloak … St. Bernard … ceiling … snare. [11] This kanji describes the formal divided skirt or hakama that you might see university students wearing at graduation. For the right side, compare * (I.1244).

2627. sliding door R-2413

ù

cloak … core. [17] This actually is the kanji for fusuma, an opaque sliding paper door found in Japanese houses.


C − EUF y – J

110

_U ¤

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

BAMBOO_

2628. Chinese panpipe R-2700

r

bamboo … cell. [11]

2629. raft R-2329

t

bamboo … to fell. [12]

2630. bamboo blinds R-2642

¢

bamboo … bargain. [19]

2631. rattan box R-2797

3

bamboo … simple. [15]

2632. pole R-2652

4

bamboo … clothesline. [9]

2633. spatula R-2570

bamboo … hood … umbrella … compare. [14]

2634. foil R-2245

bamboo … overnight. [14]

S


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

C − EU yF – J

2635. wardrobe R-2254

111

k

bamboo … director. [11] The term here refers to what contains one’s robes, not the robes themselves.

2636. arrow shaft R-2617

ú

bamboo … in front. [15]

2637. ancient harp R-2410

V

bamboo … craft … mediocre. [12] This harp, an ancient relative of the present Japanese koto, had 5, 13, or 21 strings.

2638. cage R-2868

½

bamboo … dragon. [16]

2639. slender bamboo R-3164

Ù

bamboo … person … walking stick … taskmaster … tree. [17]

2640. chopsticks R-3092

c

bamboo … puppet. [14]

2641. redaction R-2420

bamboo … eyeball … St. Bernard … thread. [20]

e


− U Ey –F J g

112

2642. bamboo cane R-2847

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

È

bamboo … two. [8]

2643. winnowing fan R-2663

M

bamboo … bushel basket. [14]

2644. backpack R-2272

Ã

bamboo … reach out. [9]

2645. livraison R-2270

Š

bamboo … door … scrapbooks. [15] The French word captures better than any English word can the range of uses this character has in designating chapter, volume, part, or fascile of a classical text.

2646. should R-2711

e

bamboo … tongue. [12] The sense of the keyword here is not one of moral obligation (as we saw in ], FRAME 2105) but rather of something that is “expected” of one.

2647. winnow R-2722

bamboo … bushel basket … pelt. [19]

Ã


U y E–F J g

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_y

113

RICE_

2648. settlings R-2246

T

rice … white. [11] The keyword here refers to the sediment left in making rice saké. Its meaning is substantially the same as the character in the following frame.

2649. lees R-2260

q

rice … cadet. [17]

2650. paste R-2604

#

rice … old … moon. [15]

2651. unhulled rice R-3100

rice … blade. [9]

2652. rice bran R-2437

|

rice … ease. [17]

2653. excrement R-2986

rice … uncommon. [17]

h


U y E–F J g

114

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2654. foxtail millet R-2903

F

Old West … rice. [12]

_–

THREAD_

2655. link up R-2874

car … missile … thread. [17]

2656. twine R-2521

/

thread … meeting … scrapbooks. [14] The keyword here is mean to indicate woven cord.

2657. carpet yarn R-2851

ó

thread … ten … ³esta. [12]

2658. ties R-2259

thread …half. [11] The sense of the keyword is as in the phrase “family ties.”

î


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

U y E– JF g ¿

2659. scarlet R-2718

115

¹

thread … un-. [14]

2660. synthesis R-2825

s

thread … religion. [14]

2661. string R-2455

Þ

thread … sign of the cow. [10]

2662. chinstrap R-2614

thread … by his side … elbow. [10]

2663. summarize R-3010

!

thread … cave … computer … animal legs … earth . [21]

2664. gorgeous R-2581

B

thread … decameron. [12]

2665. embroidery R-2917

G

thread … solemn. [17]

2666. pongee R-2777

Â


y – EJ ¿F ” h

116

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

thread … sprout. [11]

2667. ornate R-2541

þ

thread … strange. [14]

2668. damask R-2355

C

thread … rice seedlings … walking legs. [14]

2669. catgut R-2292

ë

thread … mysterious. [11] The sense of the keyword is that of “strings” used for stringed instruments, which are not necessarly the intestines of cats.

2670. come apart at the seams R-2669

4

thread … determine. [14]

2671. stripe R-3123

ß

thread … tall. [16]

2672. gimp R-2326

6

thread … accept. [14] The keyword here refers to wound yarn with a hard core.

2673. gossamer R-2853

thread … few. [10]

è


– J E¿ gF ” h

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_J

117

BOAT_

º

2674. rudder R-2592

boat … house … spoon. [11]

ì

2675. gunwale R-2293

boat … mysterious. [11]

_¿

EAR_

2676. strung together R-2823

¤

ear … two cocoons … cactus. [17] The last primitive, cactus, does not appear elsewhere in this book, but is useful to learn, especially for writing old forms. It is pictographic.

2677. attentive R-2339

ear … public … heart. [14]

2678. summons

t


J ¿ EgF ” h B

118

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

³

R-3069

ear … sprout … snare. [10]

2679. addiction R-2916

5

ear … crown … human legs. [10]

2680. exclamation R-2467

œ

ear … city walls. [8] The keyword here was used classically for general exclamation.

_g

INSECT_

2681. µea R-2381

ù

crotch … two drops … insect. [10]

2682. crab R-2416

unravel … insect. [19]

2683. protein R-2950

zoo … insect. [11]

7


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

J ¿ Eg ”F h B

2684. hibernation R-3030

119

b

tenacious … insect. [17]

2685. houseµy R-3118

H

insect … eels. [15]

2686. ant R-2257

insect … righteousness. [19]

2687. bee R-2284

É

insect … walking legs … bushes. [13]

2688. wax R-2943

À

insect … owl … wind … corncob. [14] Compare the right side to _ (I.1940).

2689. shrimp R-2374

V

insect … staples …mouth … box …crotch. [15] Compare the right side with E (I.1882).

2690. octopus R-3165

î

insect … candle. [13]

2691. screw R-2919

ù


g ” Eh BF í ë

120

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

insect … accumulate. [17]

2692. cicada R-2810

ã

insect … simple. [15]

2693. frog R-2752

£

insect … ivy. [12]

2694. moth R-2288

f

insect … ego. [13]

2695. clam R-3121

y

insect … ³t. [12]

2696. leech R-3166

ó

insect … climax. [12]

2697. oyster R-2368

insect … cliff … ten thousand. [11]

¦


” h EB íF ë ³

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_”

121

NET_

2698. ruled lines R-2956

œ

net … ivy … wand. [14]

)

2699. insult R-2845

net … horse. [15]

_h

CLOTHES_

2700. stole R-2691

w

add … clothes. [11] This keyword is used for the stole of a Buddhist monk, generally in combination with the character in the following frame.

2701. monk’s sash R-2453

water … few … clothes. [13] See note in previous frame.

á


h B EíF ë ³

122

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_B THANKSGIVING_ 2702. accept humbly R-2697

È

Thanksgiving … uncommon. [17]

W

2703. incision R-2696

Thanksgiving … turkey. [14]

2704. I wonder R-2695

é

plantation … mouth. [9] The sense of the keyword is as in sentences such as “I wonder when it will arrive.” The character, however, is used now only in poetry and names.

_í 2705. counsel R-2579

words … decameron. [13]

WORDS_

í


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2706. polite R-3070

h B EíF ë ³

123

ø

words … receive. [15]

2707. vendetta R-2979

N

two turkeys … words. [23]

2708. remonstrate R-2710

@

words … east. [15]

2709. riddle R-3095

¿

words … astray. [16]

2710. verify R-2746

e

words … capital. [15]

2711. compliment R-2421

g

words … approval. [22]

2712. who? R-2786

!

words … turkey. [15]

2713. query R-2438

words … ten … ³shhook. [10]

g


h B Eí ëF ³ Š

124

2714. split up R-2531

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

¼

words … guillotine. [11]

2715. visit a shrine R-2543

¤

words … delicious. [13]

2716. give up R-2311

á

words … sovereign. [16]

2717. elucidate R-2576

&

words … complete. [13]

2718. prevarication R-2594

²

words … house … spoon. [12]

2719. familiarity R-2418

˜

words … best regards. [15]

2720. fallible R-2776

à

words … feathers … umbrella … shape. [18]

2721. beg pardon R-3167

words … home. [13]

Ô


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2722. advise R-3071

B í Eë ³F Š N

125

l

words … take. [15]

2723. proverb R-3023

î

words … lad. [16]

2724. slander R-2719

½

words … un-. [15]

2725. so-called R-2414

i

words … stomach. [17]

2726. secret agent R-2508

words … generations … tree. [17]

2727. footnote R-2761

i

words … candlestick. [12]

2728. parable R-2625

ketchup … words. [20]

H


ë ³ EŠF N© h

126

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

CAR_

¬

2729. rumble R-2972

three cars. [21]

2730. reinforce R-2681

£

car … dogtag. [14]

è

2731. spoke R-2703

car … wealth. [16] The keyword refers to the spoke of a wheel.

2732. assemble R-2590

P

car … mouth … ear. [16]

BADGER_

2733. countenance R-3002

badger … white … human legs. [14]

å


³ Š ENF © h $

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

127

ê

2734. panther R-2859

badger … ladle. [10]

SHELL_

2735. despicable R-2660

(

shell … ³esta. [13]

2736. af³x R-2877

$

shell … fortuneteller. [12]

2737. get R-3124

generation … shell. [12]

2738. graft R-2743

¬

shells … each. [13]

2739. bustling R-2511

shells … sign of the dragon. [14]

Ñ


128

Š N E©F h $ –

_N

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

WOODEN LEG_

2740. stumble R-3034

È

wooden leg … substance. [22]

2741. hoof R-2312

â

wooden leg … sovereign. [16]

2742. kick R-2362

O

wooden leg … concerning. [19]

2743. vestiges R-2548

Õ

wooden leg … blame. [18]

2744. straddle R-2366

+

wooden leg … St. Bernard … ceiling … snare. [13]

2745. kneel R-2552

wooden leg … danger [13]

Ÿ


129

N © Eh $F – !

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

WHISKY_

2746. soy sauce R-2324

è

leader … whisky bottle. [17]

2747. whey R-2840

Ú

whisky bottle … just so. [16]

2748. hooch R-2901

j

whisky bottle … glue. [10] This kanji is used for thick saké, made from various kinds of grains.

2749. ghee R-2607

E

whisky bottle … old … moon. [16]

2750. awakening R-2698

À

whisky bottle … star. [16]

2751. strong saké R-2675

whisky bottle … receive. [15]


© h E$F – ! Ê

130

_h

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

BARLEY_

t

2752. noodles R-2395

barley … mask. [16]

2753. malt R-2361

barley … bound up … rice. [15]

_$ 2754. button R-2812

METAL_

ô

metal … mouth. [11]

2755. keg R-2645

metal … portent. [14]

2756. plow R-2428

£

metal … help. [15] This is the plow whose blades were used to grill meat and which


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

© h E$F – ! Ê

131

gives us the word sukiyaki.

2757. pot R-3168

Â

metal … jawbone. [17]

2758. arrowhead R-2252

ð

metal … antique. [19]

2759. handsaw R-2388

Ó

metal … reside. [16]

2760. awl R-2785

metal … turkey. [16]

2761. key R-2327

Ý

metal … build. [17]

2762. hoe R-2307

n

metal … autumn. [17]

2763. rivet R-3102

ñ

metal … soldier. [15]

2764. tin R-2957

÷


© h E$ –F ! Ê

132

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

metal … piggy bank. [16]

2765. anchor R-2275

ð

metal … seedlings. [16]

2766. nail R-2707

æ

metal … spike. [10]

2767. javelin R-3169

¬

metal … dispatch. [21]

2768. sword’s point R-2285

Î

metal … walking legs … bushes. [15]

2769. hammer R-2387

¬

metal … chase after. [17] Compare the wooden hammer ª in FRAME 2477.

2770. carillion R-2644

é

metal … correct. [13] This character indicates a western bell, which is struck from the inside by a gong, unlike the oriental bell ë, which is struck from the outside.

2771. rust R-2248

T


h $ E– ! ÊF ¾

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

133

metal … blue. [16] Since Chinese and Japanese distinguishes blue and green differently from European languages, it is not surprising that the verdigris that occurs on copper is here indicated by the element for blue.

ê

2772. cluster R-2883

metal … heavy. [17]

š

2773. scissors R-3170

metal … St. Bernard dog … assembly line. [15] This is the character on which the element for scissors ¿ was based.

_– 2774. µash R-2985

GATES_

0

gates … person. [10]

2775. agony R-2977

gates … heart. [12]

2776. side gate R-2666


– ! EÊ ¾F z Ç

134

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

gates … ³t. [14]

M

2777. pitch dark R-2714

gates … sound. [17]

_!

WEATHER_

Ë

2778. trickle R-3171

weather … below. [11]

]

2779. haze R-2375

weather … hobby. [17]

_Ê 2780. quill R-2834

MIST_

9


! Ê E¾ zF Ç+

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

135

mist … umbrella … feathers. [16]

2781. auspices R-2803

:

mist … umbrella … Big Dipper. [14]

LEATHER_

2782. saddle R-2290

N

leather … relax. [15]

2783. whip R-2448

leather … convenience. [18]

2784. saddle straps R-2626

í

leather … candle. [16]

2785. briefcase R-3097

Ú

leather … wrap. [14]

2786. pliable R-2489

j


Ê ¾ Ez ÇF + Ö

136

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

leather … blade. [12]

2787. terminate R-2360

œ

leather … bound up … rice. [17]

_z

HEAD_

2788. immediate R-2611

´

earthworm … head. [13]

2789. overturn R-2693

&

true … head. [19]

2790. brush tip R-2999

Â

spoon … wheat … head. [16]

2791. about that time R-2422

Ã

spoon … head. [11]

2792. cheek R-2266

ê


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

137

¾ z EÇF + Ö š

scissors … head. [15]

2793. exceedingly R-2721

pelt … head. [14]

2794. accolade R-2819

public … head. [13]

2795. chin R-2475

Ã

2 mouths … ceiling … snare … head. [18]

2796. neck and throat R-2523

§

spool … head. [14] The key word here is meant to specify the anatomical neck, to distinguish it from the broader uses of the character / (I.70).


z ÇE+F Ö š

138

_7 Ç

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

FOOD_

2797. feed R-2811

´

food … ear. [14] The sense of the key word here is that of bait or feed for animals.

2798. repast R-3012

j

wand … evening … crotch … food. [16]

2799. feast R-2332

û

hometown … food. [20] The feast intended here is a banquet of food.

2800. eclipse R-2838

8

eat … insect. [14]

2801. sweets R-3090

A

food … pedestal. [13]

2802. mochi R-2514

food … puzzle. [14] Mochi is the glutinous rice the Japanese pound into cakes.

Š


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_+

z ÇE+ ÖF š Ä

139

TEAM OF HORSES_

2803. stretcher R-2690

j

add … team of horses. [15]

2804. piebald R-2998

¾

horse … simple. [19]

2805. rush R-2772

R

team of horses … scorpion. [13]

2806. cheat R-2269

Ô

team of horses … door … scrapbook. [19]

2807. tame R-2809

Ä

team of horses … stream. [13]

2808. rebuttal R-2886

^

team of horses … two sheaves. [14]

2809. gallop R-3072

team of horses … hill. [15]

Q


z Ç+ EÖF š Ä

140

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

á

2810. donkey R-3073

tesm of horses … tiger … ³eld … dish. [26]

_Ö 2811. eel R-2346

FISH_

§

³sh … mandala. [22]

2812. sea bream R-2767

Õ

³sh … circumference. [19]

2813. sardine R-3099

z

³sh … weak. [21]

2814. trout R-2540

6

³sh … revered. [23]

2815. salmon R-2750

³sh … ivy. [17]

.


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

z Ç+ EÖ šF Ä

2816. tuna R-3133

141

4

³sh … possession. [17]

2817. sweet smelt R-2880

6

³sh … fortunetelling. [16]

2818. horse mackerel R-3115

7

³sh … nonplussed. [19]

2819. cod R-3132

ü

³sh … snow. [22]

2820. mackerel R-3182

R

³sh … blue. [19]

2821. shark R-3129

U

³sh … mingle. [17]

2822. bonito R-3127

Ö

³sh … strict. [23]

2823. bullhead R-3172

³sh … autumn. [20]

É


z Ç+ Ö EšF Ä

142

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Ó

2824. alligator R-2476

³sh … 2 mouths … ceiling … snare. [20]

^

2825. crucian R-3134

³sh … adhere to. [16]

A

2826. sushi R-3173

³sh … delicious [17]

ô

2827. ³sh ³n R-3075

³sh … old man … sun. [21]

_š 2828. seagull R-2713

BIRD_

û

ward … bird. [15]

2829. roc R-2277

companion … bird. [19]

Ñ


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2830. parakeet R-3076

z Ç+ Ö š EÄF

143

¬

suckling babe … bird. [19] This character is generally used in combination with that in the following frame. See FRAME 2193 for the element to the left.

2831. parrot R-2817

`

warrior … bird. [19]

2832. cormorant R-3174

š

younger brother … bird. [18]

2833. heron R-2297

5

path … bird. [24]

2834. eagle R-2363

Ð

concerning … bird. [23]

2835. wild duck R-3077

â

push … bird. [16]

2836. kite falcon R-3074

¦

arrow … bird. [14]

2837. owl R-3044

bird … tree. [11]


CHAPTER 3

Miscellaneous Kanji The characters introduced in this chapter (107 in all) are not arranged in any particular order, except where one serves as an element for the next.

2841. Hades R-2470

d

crown … sun … six. [10] The reference here is to the underworld, the world of the dead. By way of the classic Greek association, it is also used for the planet Pluto.

2842. close the eyes R-2471

Å

eye … Hades. [15]

2843. murky R-2472

C

sun … Hades. [14]

2844. sitting in mediation R-2356

â

assembly line … soil. [7]

2845. sprain R-2357

³ngers … sitting in meditation. [10]

ä


MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2846. ³rst day of the month R-2572

145

;

mountain goat … moon. [10]

2847. go upstream R-2573

P

³rst day of the month … road. [13]

2848. drag R-2479

»

sun … under one’s arm. [6] Take particular care not to confuse this keyword with the familiar primitive element for drag 4.

2849. dribble out R-2480

¿

water … drag. [9]

2850. comet R-2891

two bushes … broom. [11]

2851. astute R-2893

Š

comet … heart. [15] Note that the second stroke on the element for broom does not pass through as it does in the character for comet. A similar change takes place in the character ¹. It would be nice if it were possible to make a rule for this kind of transformation, but the evolution of the kanji has not been consistent on this point.


146

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2852. applaud R-2686

?

drum … add. [14]

2853. evil R-2449

Ý

villain … human legs. [6]

2854. helmet R-3078

Ü

white bird between two open boxes … human legs. [11]

2855. bracing R-2857

Z

St. Bernard with two pair of sheaves on each side. [11] The sense of the keyword is of something refreshing and invigorating.

2856. depressed R-2936

¥

two sheaves in a woods … net … silver … glue. [22] The keyword here refers to the psychological state of depression.

2857. kalpa R-2865

¥

gone … muscles. [7] A kalpa is a mythical measure of time (something over 4 billion years) used in ancient India and today mainly in classic Buddhist texts.


MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2858. erection R-3079

147

õ

needle … crown … child … muscles. [9]

2859. bemoan R-2796

+

strawman … yawn. [15]

2860. palanquin R-3027

Ô

Think of this character as entertainment with a car since the only different between it and the character for entertainment is the substitution of the element for car in place of same. [17]

2861. southeast R-2359

ö

two snakes … strung together. [12] One of the directions in classical Chinese geomancy, this character is used in Japanese today chieµy in names.

2862. warped R-2897

Ë

negation … correct. [9]

2863. jade green R-3050

z

feathers … graduate. [14]

2864. blue-black R-2278

substitute … black. [16]

Ô


148

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2865. tripod R-2963

ç

This character is not hard to remember if you think of it as backto-back characters for one-sided with a sun in the middle (and necessitating a shorter vertical stroke for one-sided). [12]

2866. rocksalt R-2991

±

wand … pent up … sheave … four dots. [11]

2867. lye R-2251

á

rocksalt … awl. [19]

2868. reserved R-3139

õ

tiger … plaid. [10]

2869. swallow R-2983

à

twenty … two people back to back … mouth … oven-³re. [16]

2870. lick R-2780

°

outhouse … delicious. [14]

2871. almost R-2655

÷

bones … pedestal. [9]

2872. start R-2392

child … dish. [8]

y


149

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2873. mahjong tiles R-2622

5

one-sided … lowly. [12]

2874. remains R-2769

Ÿ

skeleton … acorn. [16]

2875. peek R-3175

ø

director … see. [12]

2876. mottled R-3080

â

tiger … form. [11]

2877. Manchu dynasty R-2483

Q

bonsai … wheat. [10]

2878. sparrow R-2858

few … turkey. [11] The last stroke of few doubles up with the ³rst stroke of turkey.

2879. peregrine falcon R-2426

z

turkey … needle. [10]

2880. shimmering R-2728

ray of light … feathers … turkey. [20]

ç


150

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2881. ebisu R-2990

V

great … bow. [6] Ebisu is a Japanization of the Ainu word enchu which means “person.” In former times, it was used to mean any of the “uncivilized” people living north of the area of present-day Tokyo.

2882. relatives R-2961

É

uncle … parade. [11]

2883. cyst R-2881

ð

needle … middle … crown … eight … celery … scarf. [19] Not how the elements for needle and middle share a common, vertical stroke in this particularly complex character.

2884. domburi R-3081

)

well … drop. [5]

2885. carefree R-2732

monkey … piggy bank. [14]

2886. circling R-2791

q

stretch … -times. [9]

2887. capital suburbs R-2304

two cocoons … ³eld … ³esta. [15]

s


MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2888. elation R-2854

151

5

ax … yawn. [8]

2889. stalwart R-2899

p

vase … sow … missile. [15]

2890. this R-3016

ˆ

bushel basket … axe. [12] This character is not substantially different from the character we identi³ed as this here  (FRAME 2043).

2891. wooden spoon R-2849

F

just so … spoon. [11] The character for spoon already learned 0 (I.444) is actually an abbreviation of this fuller character. The meanings are essentially the same.

2892. set straight R-3003

â

box … king. [6]

2893. founding R-3005

d

door … taskmaster … brush. [14] You will recognize the combination at the top here from the character } (I.1085).


152

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2894. Utamaro R-3116

C

hemp … spine. [18] This kanji was used during the Heian period to refer to oneself. It is a home-grown Japanese character whose reading ‰œ comes from combining the Chinese readings of its two elements. It is used today only for names, the most famous of which is the name of the celebrated painter of ukiyo-e paintings, Utamaro HC.

2895. conglomerate R-2882

U

upside down in a row … soil … take. [18] This character is often used for collections of books or essays; the only reason for the choice of the keyword is that the number of synonyms for “collection” has been fairly exhausted already!

2896. entreat R-3013

0

sheaf … possess. [8]

2897. symmetrically patterned R-2717

±

un- … plaid. [12]

2898. magistrate R-2887

ã

silver in the middle of … the sign of the hare. [12]

2899. ³ddle with R-2302

learn … beginning. [15]

S


MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2900. within R-2837

153

ê

compass … umbrella … two drops. [8]

2901. hackneyed R-2911

Q

St. Bernard … hair. [10]

2902. rebellion R-2658

ƒ

half … … anti-. [9]

2903. sharp point R-2827

ê

a small tip on something… large. [6]

2904. crock R-2937

À

samurai … crown … Asia. [11] Note how the second stroke in crown doubles up with the ³rst stroke of Asia.

2905. sapience R-2932

µ

wand … crown … ceiling … valley with eye (instead of mouth) … crotch. [16] In order to remember the change in the element for valley, think of the clear-seeing eye that distinguishes homo sapiens.

2906. chieftain R-2938

horns … whisky bottle. [9]

R


154

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2907. nightingale R-3000

ú

schoolhouse … bird. [16]

2908. incandescent R-2412

¹

two reds. [14]

2909. supinate R-2974

d

slave … person. [9] The somewhat archaic-sounding keyword here indicates someone streched out or lying µat.

2910. nephew R-2699

ì

cell … male. [12]

2911. gourd R-2274

æ

ballot … melon. [16]

2912. biwa R-2632

É

two jewels … this here. [12] This character is usually found with the next one, to give the biwa, a Japanese lute.

2913. lute R-2763

two jewels … mosaic. [12]

%


155

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2914. forked R-2971

Ö

crotch … drop. [3] This character, incidentally, is used in the word for “tuning fork.”

2915. rose of Sharon R-2440

u

birdhouse … sunglasses. [12]

2916. dry ³eld R-3176

j

dove … ³eld. [10]

2917. ³st R-3082

Ì

quarter … hand. [10]

2918. vegetable patch R-2684

pent in … dogtag. [10]

2919. helping hand R-2394

ð

complete … water … µoor. [5] The shape of this character is already familiar from the character % (I.1900). As we learned then, the second stroke of complete doubles up with the ³rst stroke for water.

2920. translucent R-2907

tall … crown … human legs. [9]

V


156

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2921. blood relative R-2989

ˆ

human legs surrounding cocoon … µesh. [9]

2922. transcription R-2836

E

zoo … infant … µood. [12]

2923. ointment R-2557

Š

tall … µesh. [14] Note how the element tall is compressed in order to ³t on top.

2924. pioneer R-3026

z

ghost … Big Dipper. [14]

2925. ambrosial R-2431

¢

voice … missile … incense. [20]

2926. label R-2507

ˆ

one-sided … generation … tree. [13]

2927. glimpse R-2321

shredder … eye. [17]

2928. large hill R-2481

maestro … needle. [8]

@


MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

157

This is the original character that was abbreviated to form the element we learned as pinnacle a.

2929. testicle R-2462

Á

blood … happiness. [14]

2930. sorceress R-3040

B

craft … assembly line. [7]

2931. empathetic R-2677

°

receive … taskmaster. [12]

2932. Andromeda R-2748

f

St. Bernard … ivy. [9]

2933. soar R-3048

sheep … wings. [12]

2934. beaming R-2702

white … revelation. [12]

2935. tenebrous R-3083

Ä

wheat … (slip)knot … umbrella … rice grains. [15] Take special care in writing the second element here. You might think of it as a “slipknot” (in which one stroke has slipped off).


158

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2936. bold R-2867

run … cornucopia. [10]

2937. stop short R-3029

C

This character can be kept distinct from the familiar sign of the snake L (I.2042) by noting that the ³nal stroke stops short. [3]

2938. thornbush R-3033

This character is no different in meaning from the character already learned for thorn r (I.417). The only difference in writing is the repetition of the element composed of tree and belt. (Incidentally, that element on its own [ has the same meaning of thorn, though it is far less commonly seen.) [12]

2939. crowd R-3038

´

ear … crotch … two drops … person … rag. [14] This character should not be confused with L (I.1857). Despite the similarity, it is neither an abbreviated or alternate form of it. If anything, in modern usage it is most likely to be replaced with T (I.559).

2940. resucitate R-2701

6

grow late … cell. [12]

2941. pruning R-2618

in front … dagger. [11]

å


MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2942. upbringing R-3177

159

Ò

somebody … beautiful. [16]

2943. plentiful R-2515

]

fruit … many. [14]

2944. snore R-2650

Ü

nose … dry. [17]

2945. cast a spell R-3178

exit … altar. [19]

þ


CHAPTER 4

Western Measurements The handful of characters presented in this chapter are meant to introduce you to the basic principles used in writing Western units of measurement. Contemporary Japanese has by and large discarded this way of writing, but it is not uncommon to meet these characters in historical texts.

2946. kilometer R-3101

,

rice ‌ one thousand. [9] The character y is used for meter (from the sound). Thus, a kilometer is made by adding the element for thousand.

2947. centimeter R-3108

:

rice ‌ one rin. [15] The reason that the rin or 1/1000 of a yen is added to the meter to give us centimeter is that m originally meant 1/000th, and z 1/1000th, as we see in the following frame.

2948. millimeter R-3179

V

rice ‌ fur. [10] Incidentally, the same conventions are used to create litres, centilitres, and millilitres, based on another kanji chosen for its sound: C, a, and c.


161

WESTERN MEASUREMENTS

2949. ton R-2612

«

mouth … immediate. [16] The character ´, again from the sound, represents a ton. The addition of the element of mouth to the left indicates that it is being used for its sound to and to convey a meaning other than the normal meaning of the character. This is a device commonly used in written Chinese.

2950. mile R-2601

/

mouth … one ri. [10] Although the mile is longer than the ri, the two are close enough that the addition of the mouth can indicate a foreign unit of measurement.

2951. nautical mile R-2599

¡

water … one ri. [10] Since the Japanese did not have a separate unit for measuring nautical ri, this character was used for the Western measurement of the nautical mile. The same holds true of the characters in the next two frames.

2952. inch R-3180

mouth … glue. [6]

2953. feet R-3181

mouth … shaku. [6]

c


CHAPTER 5

Phonetic Characters While the kana syllabaries have taken over most of the chores of incorporating loan words in their original sounds, a few exceptions have survived. The following group of characters are used mainly today for their sound value, rather than for their meaning. In each case, the sound is provided by a signal primitive, as will be indicated in Part Two of this volume. For now, the signal primitive (or its composite elements) have been underlined.

2954. brahman R-2544

¤

This is the sound character for the Sanskrit word brahman, and is also used to indicate the Sanskrit language as such. Its elements are grove … mediocre. [11]

2955. Shakyamuni Buddha R-2593

¼

pinnacle … house … spoon. [7] This character, originally meaning “precipitous” (roughly the same as the character of that keyword already learned Þ (I.1672), is now used chieµy for its sound.

2956. bodhisattva R-2976

O

µowers … pinnacle … products. [16] Although this character can be used as an abbreviation of bodhisattva, the full writing combines it with that in the following frame. Both of them are transliterations of Sanskrit terms.


163

PHONETIC CHARACTERS

2957. bo tree R-2896

¬

µowers … vase … mouth. [11]

2958. babble R-2415

#

mouth … Asia. [10] The sense of the keyword is that of a baby oooing and aaaing.

2959. Sanskrit ka R-2688

Z

add … road. [8] This kanji is used to represent the sound “ka” when transcribing words from Sanskrit.

2960. interrogative R-2997

º

sword … two … city walls. [7] Used classically to indicate an interrogative part of speech, this character is used chieµy now for its sound.

2961. moo R-2889

]

elbow … cow. [6] This is the character classically used for the sound that a cow makes.

These ³nal two characters, taken together, are the Chinese phonetic transliterations of the English word coffee, which is the principal form in which you are likely to meet them today. The keywords, however, are drawn from their classical meanings.


164

PHONETIC CHARACTERS

2962. jeweled hairpin R-2689

Ú

jewel … add. [9]

2963. beaded hairpin R-2720

jewel … un-. [12]

ç


CHAPTER 6

Old & Alternate Forms Earlier on, in FRAME 2352 of chapter 2, we introduced an old form of the character for technique (© ➞ å). In this chapter we pick up 37 more old and alternate forms. In some cases, the older form has never been “updated.” In others, both forms are still in use. Examples of other cases where older forms and newer abbreviations occur are given in their respective frames.

2964. Japanese cypress [old] R-3190

tree … umbrella … one … pent-in … small … sun. [11] The right side of this character looks rather more formidable than it is. The tricky part lies in the elements that have been described as “pent-in … small.” (The latter element you will remember from the element for outhouse š or candle Ü.) The combination, when it appears in other characters, is generally abbreviated to the shape of the element for sun. In any case, drawing the shape will show it to be quite natural. Here are some examples of the old form and their standard, simpler forms: OLD FORM

y U

2965. bridle’s bit R-3112

MODERN ABBREVIATION

l (I.752) … (I.1346)

f

thread … cart … thread … mouth. [22] The primitive at the top of this character is abbreviated in more common words as 8, a primitive element that was learned in vol. I (page 382). Note the following examples:


166

OLD

OLD FORM

& ALTERNATE FORMS

MODERN ABBREVIATION

ï N e

2966. abyss [old] R-3199

ˆ (I.1745) › (I.1748) Ø (I.1749)

W

On the left is the water and on the right a combination of the character for one-sided and its mirror image joined by a single stroke. Think of it as a hanging rope-bridge strung perilously across the abyss. [12] The newer form for this character is Å, which was learned above in FRAME 2325.

2967. V R-3195

4

person … ³ve. [6] This character, which originally indicates a group of 5 persons, is now used as an alternate form of the character 2, mainly in of³cial documents.

2968. X R-3194

V

person … ten. [4] As in the previous frame, this character is an alternative form for Y.

2969. ten thousand [old] R-2725

©

µower … Talking Cricket. [18] This is also used in documents, but is rather more common as a character in its own right. When it appears as a primitive forming a part of other characters, it is normally abbreciated to the form . In addition to the new character in the following frame, note the following examples:


OLD

167

& ALTERNATE FORMS

OLD FORM

* $

2970. pass through R-2726

MODERN ABBREVIATION

¦ (II.2967) „ (I.866)

L

ten thousand … road. [16] The “old” element in this character is that for road, which has an extra initial stroke. See also the following frame.

2971. tough R-2341

1

display … road. [11] Note that, as in the previous frame, the element for road has an extra stroke generally omitted in more common characters. When writing this character, it is not incorrect to use the standard form of the primitive element.

2972. lamp [old] R-3191

b

³re … ascend. [16] The primitive at the right of this character is generally, though not always, abbreviated today as a (I.165). The older form of the primitive to the right is still standard in other characters, such as ˜. (I.1704).

2973. back [old] R-2602

;

cloak … computer. [12] The transposition of the standard form : (I.399) involves moving the computer from the middle of the element for cloak to the right.


168

OLD

2974. park [alternate] R-3188

& ALTERNATE FORMS

å

µowers … park. [16] This character is used principally in proper names. The only change from the standard form Ó (I.585) is the addition of the element for µowers.

2975. shop [alternate] R-2683

š

metal … dogtag. [15] The only difference from the more common form ™ (I.1839) is that the left side here uses the element for metal. There is also a third alternative which is sometimes seen, but has been omitted here: 2.

2976. island [alternate] R-3187

T

mountain … bird. [14] The alternate form is used mainly in names. It differs from the standard form S only in the positioning of the mountain.

2977. summit [alternate] R-3196

¸

mountain … walking legs … bushes. [10] The alternate form is used mainly in names. As in the character in previous frame, the only difference from the standard form · (I.1562) is in the positioning of the mountain.

2978. boulder [old] R-3193

mountain … stern. [20] The simpli³ed character was learned as R (I.770).

N


OLD

169

& ALTERNATE FORMS

ï

2979. plains [old] R-3200

grove … soil. [11] The standard form Ÿ (I.1596) differs rather radically from this older form, which appears now in old texts and occasionally in proper names.

J

2980. Bldg. [old] R-3197

umbrella … tongue … bureaucrat. [16] The standard form of this character I (I.1478) uses the element for food on the left. Because the older form is somewhat simpler to write, it remains in use today.

P

2981. dragon [old] R-3189

vase … meat … slingshot (doubled up with a) snake … three … clothes. [16] The older form of P (I.536) was actually learned in vol. I in connection with the character for attack M (I.2025), and will appear in the following frame as well. This older form is still used widely today. In addition to the new characters in the following two frames, note the following example also already learned: OLD FORM

Þ

2982. patronage R-2922

house … dragon [old]. [19]

MODERN ABBREVIATION

Ý (I.537)

w


170

OLD

& ALTERNATE FORMS

¿

2983. deafness R-2869

dragon [old] … ear. [22]

ð

2984. longing [old] R-3198

longing … heart. [15] The only difference from the standard form of this character ò (I.92) is that the element for heart is included at the bottom.

Ñ

2985. span [old] R-3201

tile … µoor. [6] The standard form of this character Ò (I.32) is also standard when it is used as a primitive in other characters. Note the following example in a character already learned: OLD FORM

À

2986. body [old] R-2712

MODERN ABBREVIATION

f (I.620)

O

somebody … ward. [11] The standard form X (I.1248) has by and large replaced this older character today.

2987. Point [old] R-3192

6

mountain … prison. [17] Note that the abbreviated form of this character À (I.1330) moves the mountain to the bottom, a rather odd transformation as the kanji go.


OLD

171

& ALTERNATE FORMS

ç

2988. country [old] R-3186

pent-up … a. [11] The element that replaces jewel in the standard for of this character ³ (I.581) is among the new kanji learned in this book (see FRAME 2091 above).

We end this chapter with those characters in fairly common use whose elements have not been assigned newer abbreviations.

Ó

2989. shin R-2525

µesh … ceiling … µood … craft. [11] The element on the right, which will appear once more later in the character for formidable (FRAME 2990), is actually the old form for the element now written n. Aside from the character introduced in the next frame, note the following examples of old and newer forms: OLD FORM

Þ ÷

2990. formidable R-2524

MODERN ABBREVIATION

¦ (I.717) ™ (I.1360)

÷

ceiling … µood … craft … muscle. [9]

2991. stationary R-2659

bamboo … µoat. [12] The standard abbreviation one would have expected here—and which is likely to appear in of³cial lists in the years ahead—appears


172

OLD

& ALTERNATE FORMS

in the following examples of common newer forms you already know: OLD FORM

ª · ¦ t

MODERN ABBREVIATION

) (I.1286) ` (I.367) , (I.368) ( (II.2735)

ú

2992. enshrine R-3031

altar … snake. [8] The standard abbreviation for altar has generally taken over, but the character in this and the following frame are exceptions.

$

2993. exorcism R-3032

altar … chihuahua with an extra leg. [10] Think of the “³ve-legged” dog here as some kind of an evil spirit that has to be driven out, and the odd shape should be easy to remember.

Ã

2994. dither R-2737

wooden leg … renowned. [19] The old form here is the element puppet which forms part of the primitive for renowned here. The difference is the addition of a ³nal drop. This has generally disappeared, as in the examples: OLD FORM

Ñ Ó Õ Ô

MODERN ABBREVIATION

2 (I.2192) ’ (I.1263) ‘ (II.2448) c (II.2640)


OLD

173

& ALTERNATE FORMS

V

2995. longevity [old] R-3185

lidded crock … broken crown … craft … µoor … mouth … glue. [14] The newer form 3 (I.1565) tends to dominate today when it is used as a primitive. Note the following example: OLD FORM

Ð

2996. hesitate R-3053

MODERN ABBREVIATION

k (I.717)

Ç

wooden leg … longevity. [14]

2997. glossary R-3084

ˆ

The primitive of this character is actually an old form of broom `. The remaining elements are: crown … fruit. [13]

2998. bean jam R-2345

¸

food … mandala. [20] It is only a matter of time before this character takes the standard abbreviation for food on the left. Meantime, it will alert you to the older style of writing, which still shows up in rather complicated characters that use the food primitive.

2999. retch R-3184

¹

mouth … ward. [14] The standard abbreviation of the element to the right can be seen from the following examples:


174

OLD

OLD FORM

7 [ u

& ALTERNATE FORMS

MODERN ABBREVIATION

J (I.1696) õ (I.1698) ö (I.1699)

×

3000. snapping turtle R-3088

shredder … eels [old form]. [25] The change in the ³rst three strokes of the element for shredder is a familiar one found often in older forms. I leave it to you to combine the pieces for the old form of eels. Learning stroke order will help considerably:

‘’ “ ” • – — ˜ ™ š › œ The older form of the primitive we learned as eels is rather more dif³cult. You will ³nd it in older forms of several familiar character, just as the following: OLD FORM

V V

MODERN ABBREVIATION

Å (I.1377) H (II.2685)


PART TWO

READING


CHAPTER 7

Old Pure Groups The ³rst group of readings center on what were called in Remembering the Kanji II “Pure Groups.” Each character that belongs to a pure group contains a signal primitive which prescribes a given on-yomi for that character and all others in the group with it. The number to the far right of the top line set in bold type indicates the frame number in which the writing of the kanji was introduced. In almost all cases this refers to a frame in Part One of the present volume. The number under the character in each frame is preceded by an “R-” to indicate that it refers to a reading frame. These numbers begin where volume II left off. Unlike volume II, the frames also include not only on-yomi but kun-yomi as well. In some cases, the “assigned” readings are almost never used, or used only for names. Because the number of special readings for names is virtually limitless, only the 274 characters approved by the Ministry of Education are supplied with on-yomi for use in names. For further information about the layout of the frames, see page 491.

We begin with groups whose signal primitives were already introduced in volume II The signal primitive, its pronunciation, and characters belonging to the same appear in a separate frame at the head of each section. The number under the characters in the group frames refers to the frame in volume II. which introduced the reading (hence the “R-” preceding it.) Where a number is missing, the single primitive in question was learned only as a primitive element, not as a kanji.


178

OLD PURE GROUPS

R

×·

R-89

Q

W

O

U

L

R-90

R-91

R-92

R-93

R-94

À R-

2244

×· À

Y‰

S R-

2245

2246

lion-dog

×· S

´ûÙ·

T R-

2343

2634 gold leaf

×·

2648

qT

ū׷

lees; dregs

T

Q`

lees

Á é ·

²

¬

Â

¾

ù

R-78

R-80

R-81

R-82

R-83

R-84

R-79

© R-

2247

é ©³

é»·

a country ruled in peace

© © ©

u} “` “`^

used in names used in names used in names

T R-

2248

2621

é

2771

èT

ä«Ã©

protection against rust

T

[z

rust


179

OLD PURE GROUPS

± ã« Ã

Á

»

Å

Ï

R-95

R-97

R-98

R-99

R-100

R-96

º R-

ã«

2249

=

²

R-105

ºs

ã«Éï«

R-

2250

7

S

H

I

R-107

R-108

R-109

² ²»·

harshness; severity

QŒš Qk

J_Œš J˜gk

to bully be irritated

R-131

à

Þ

Î

Ä

R-132

R-133

R-134

R-135

á 2251

2373

Ý ¹û ¿

R-

kitchen knife

R-106

Q

2234

¹û Íá

Ã˹û

2867 soap

= δ ï ë ] é ì -157 -158 -159 -160 -161 R

R

R

ð R-

2252

R

R

δ kð ð

é©Î´

Q}˜

2758 whistle of an arrow arrowhead


180

OLD PURE GROUPS

¬

Å

R-661

L

H

I

J

O

R-148

R-149

R-150

R-151

R-152

 R-

Å

2253

s

¿

R-122

°o

ź´à©

sniper; marksman

L

t˜L

take aim

Ÿ

¨

p

u

R-123

R-124

R-125

R-126

k R-

¿ %Á

2254

$

Ý

R-69

2255

¿´û

gold put in box

3k

ÇûÁ

cabinet

,

6

A

7

R-70

R-71

R-72

R-73

Ý Ür%hš

ö ²û 5 R-127

2635

k

Ü R-

2344

R-128

2456

|rPhš to catch on; “click”

&

I

R-129

R-130

²û ”B

²û¹

2410 Sugawara family

Note how the family is referred to by using the on-yomi of the ³rst character of their full name. Note also the unusual kun-yomi in the name Sugawara. The standard reading is: R-

2256

`X

sedge


181

OLD PURE GROUPS

µ

R-74

ˆ

R-75

R-76

R-77

— R-

2257

µ —i

µ½û

formic acid

H™

ant

+ Àï« ÷

R-101

&

ö

(

R-102

R-103

R-104

$

R-

2258

Àï«%Óï« $ñ

À﫽©

bumper crop

$š $Q $ $

Šuš •fQ P[‹ Šuš

bear fruit; fructify fruitful used in names used in names

} ×û | R-166

R-167

{

R-168

R-169

î R-

2259

2686

×û%Øû

2609

2658

«î îSŠ

´ë×û ØûÅ«»«

leggings; gaiters adhesive plaster (for wounds)

î îV

Saq kqV

bands; ties; shackles be attached


182

OLD PURE GROUPS

g Å« j R-174

R-175

}

k

R-176

R-177

q R-

Å«

2260

Ö

î

qT

ū׷

R-

´

³

²

R-179

R-180

R-181

î

2261

Ð

îî

more and more severe

°

J—J—

increasingly

òï« W

Z

`

R-240

R-241

a 2262

òï«

2263

2582

ga

é©òï«

clear; patent

a˜Q a a

HS˜Q HS HS˜

evident; obvious used in names used in names

f R-

2433

°/

R-239

R-

dregs

R-178

°

2649

òï«

2419

òï«−û

distant; remote

fQ

všQ

far off in the distance


183

OLD PURE GROUPS

’ R-

2264

òï« ’ãuJ ò﫺ûuy

wild³re; prairie ³re

’ ’U

watchfire to burn

¿ ´ï« ç R-290

QQ™z “U

ò

í

R-291

R-292

Û R-

2265

´ï« –Û

µ´ï«

ê R-

2266

2267

2268

2792

´ï«ÄÌ

eloquence

ê

†P

cheek

R-308

Æ R-309

¿ï«

2366

ÝÞ

¿ï«Þ

iris

Ý

H“Œ

used in names

³ R-

chivalry

êâ

Ý R-

2107

´ï«

Ä ¿ï« − R-580

2535

¿ï« ³(

¿ï«Ý

2198 harlot


184

OLD PURE GROUPS

ó

àû ‹ R-203

R-204

R-205

Ô R-

2269

àû Ô’

àûµ

deception

Ôš Ô`

Qfš g‰`

swindle; cheat; misrepresent to deceive; trick

Š R-

2270

àû 2Š

´ ´í« µ R-185

R-186

2271

Ä R-187

´í«

2272

´í«Á©

drawing water

½‹

U‹

draw water

´í« Ã

: »« W R-221

PJ

h

R-222

R-223

o R-

2273

2322

½v

à R-

2645

Part One

Äûâû

½ R-

2806

2644 creel

»«

2484

o?

»«¿í«

ancient Chinese capital

o

UJ

picket


185

OLD PURE GROUPS

ç Úï« å R-206

R-207

ã R-208

æ R-

2274

Úï« æ3 æ æ

Úï«Çû y[Z |U„

ï Ûï« ì R-278

R-279

2275

ä Ûï«%ã«

ðà

Û﫽

chain cable; hawser

ð

JQ™

anchor; killick

Ó Î© ß R-212

R-213

2276

2765

Ò R-214

× R-

bottle gourd gourd; calabash gourd; calabash

R-280

ð R-

2911

Ω%Éï« ×XÓ

Ω¿ûÇ©

volunteer corps

×U

sU

pull out

2267

¿ ã« ¹ R-354

R-355

Ñ R-

2277

ã« Ñ Ñ Ñ

PPo™ o‘ •S

2829 phoenix; large mythical bird used in names used in names


186

OLD PURE GROUPS

Ö Ç© Ð R-269

R-270

Ï R-271

Ô R-

Ç©

2278

ÔÁ

ǩé

blackish blue

Ô

‰•aŠ

used in names

= æÌ ? R-284

R-285

; R-286

^ R-

æÌ % æ

2279

2

ò

R-236

^|P

æÌò²

6

9

R-237

R-238

| R-

2864

2280

jasmine

ò ^|P

2348

æÌò²

2349 jasmine

a ·Ì b R-302

R-303

c R-

2281

·Ì Rc

³û·Ì

2615 cave; rocky cavern


187

OLD PURE GROUPS

ã«

+ R-

Ä

·

R-352

R-353

ã«

2282

+^

ã«Éë·

face; encounter

+Nš +L

‹QNš HL

go to meet to encounter

È R-

ã«

2283

ã«ñ©

legendary Chinese Isle of Eternal Youth

È

—‘T

mugwort

ã«

2284

ã«ä«

honeycomb; beehive

É

vh

bee

ã«

2285

a

³

R-338

ÇÎ

õûå«

2286

` R-

2287

2768 line of argument

i R-339

_ R-

2687

ÉÛ

Î R-

2375

Èü

É R-

2417

³

2110

_5

³Äû

suddenly; abruptly

_Q

r¡Q

sudden

³ Ø`

½³

2226 town near Kyoto


188

OLD PURE GROUPS

f R-

2288

³ f

³

2694 moth

H §û L R-314

J R-

2289

N R-

2290

R-315

§û J#

§ûæ

2291

massage; masseur

§û

2782

N+

§ûØ

pommel; sidehorse

N

saddle

/

R-

2259

§û

2442

§ûÀï

at ease; comfort

/J /˜Q / / /

PdJ “`˜Q [g vš “`

tardy; lslow at ease used in names used in names used in names

é ºû æ R-528

R-529

ë R-

2292

ºû

2669

5ëÁ:

²ûºû³·Èû orchestra

ë ë

Jo kš

string (on a violin, etc.) used in names


189

OLD PURE GROUPS

ì R-

ºû

2293

ìp

ºûÅ«

± R-

2675 porthole

ºû

2294

2581

±Î

ºû÷·

bewilderment

±ŒU ±^J

UšŒU ‰}^J

feel dizzy dizzy; dazzled

V Å« S R-472

R-473

i R-

Å«

2295

in

Å«ÀíÌ

spearsmanship

i

“™

spear; lance

x R-

Å«

2296

õ

R-448

5 R-

2516

2297

2399

xR

ū׷

pale; ashen

xJ x

HPJ ^Xš

pale blue used in names

° R-449

õ

2833

5–

õ«

heron wings

5

[T

heron


190

OLD PURE GROUPS

M R-

2298

õ M

|S

2370 bog rhubarb; coltsfoot

Ù ð« â R-478

R-479

ã R-

2299

ð« ãÙ

ð«ÃÌ

welding

ãQ` ãWš

oQ` oWš

melt (metals) be melted (metals)

é R-

2300

2547

ð«%±« 9é

Ýð«

lotus; cotton rose

é

v`

lotus

2362

â ³û V R-298

R-299

O R-

2301

³û OS

³û¸

toys

O}

‘mHd}

toy with

S R-

2302

2567

³û

2899

SI

³ûç

savor; appreciate

S}

‘mHd}

toy with


191

OLD PURE GROUPS

e

´

R-300

r R-

2303

n R-301

´ r

Jd

s R-

2304

2594 rocky beach

´ Cs

´û´

2887 region around Kyoto–Osaka

7 Àí 0 R-366

R-367

Á R-

2305

Àí Á

k‰

ß R-

2306

2203 wife

Àí ß/ ß›š

_”^” s›š

2329 dead drunk become wet; be impassioned

E ¿í« A R-482

R-483

n R-

2307

¿í« n

K R-

2308

2762 hoe

¿í« K

vT

2351 Japanese bush clover


192

OLD PURE GROUPS

Ð ¿ï« Õ R-512

R-513

Ê R-

2309

¿ï« Ê&

¿ï«Ý

woodcutter; lumberjack

Ê Êš

SY™ Yš

woodcutter cut wood

ß R-

2310

2478

¿ï« *ß

Ø¿ï«

2367 Bashõ (haiku poet)

РΩ Þ R-462

R-463

á R-

2311

Ω%Ç© á? vá

Ω²û ¿Ç©

clear vision 4 Noble Truths of Buddhism

ጚ

HS˜Œš

give up; abandon

â R-

2312

Ω Ω¹©

U-shaped

â

yaŒ

hoof

R-412

B 413

/ 2313

2741

â†

Ù ´û 0

R-

2716

´û

2116

´û¿ï«

few; little; meagre

/Qr

¡aQr

a few


193

OLD PURE GROUPS

„ R-

2314

´û%»û „û

´û½©

Dutch trefoil; wild celery

`Š›

violet

ù ð« ë R-474

Ü R-475

í R-

2315

ð«

2316

2418

í0

ð«×©

worship from a distance

íQr

všQr

far off; in the distance

ó R-

2099

ð«

2553

óW

ð«³û

beautiful face

ó

f‰

beautiful stone

‡ Ñ« R-1571

ƒ R-

2317

Ñ« % ¿ï« ƒ1

Ñ«¹©

yearning; hankering

ƒ›š

HYR›š

aspire for; be drawn to

„ R-

2318

Ñ« % Ы%¿í

2280

2245

„À

Ñ«´í«

billiards

„… „U

¿íê· kU

log used to strike a bell strike against


194

OLD PURE GROUPS

¼ ´í« º R-230

R-231

À R-232

y R-

´í«

2319

¹©

y{

´í«¿

ball; type of chrysanthemum

y

‰™

ball

q

s

R-344

R-345

v R-

2320

à©

2321

2358

ìv

¿ëà©

cover; shelter

vL vJ

PPL U˜J

to cover; to conceal dark; hidden

„ R-

2533

áÌ „Ø

á˹û

2927 glance; a peek at

? ¿í« S R-257

R-259

C

R-

2322

¿í«

2289

2ØC

¼È©¿í«

the 5 continents

C C C

` ^‰ Ur

sandbar; sandbank island used in names


195

OLD PURE GROUPS

5 Õû ê R-440

R-441

é R-

2323

Õû

2266

é–

Õû¿

silk throwing

éš é

ytš —™

twist; tweak a twist; ply

µ ¿ï« ± R-514

R-515

è R-

2324

¿ï« è±

¿ï«î

2746 soy sauce

Ì Î© Ê R-312

R-313

Ü

R-

2325

Ω

2603

ÜÖ

Ω¿ï«

propitious

Ü^J ÜJ Ü Ü Ü Ü

fg^J [J¡J fg [h kV —^

upright happy used in names used in names used in names used for names


196

OLD PURE GROUPS

1 Àí 4 R-364

R-365

6 R-

2326

Àí

2672

|6

©ûÀí

ribbon (of an of³cial seal)

6 6

y‘ UŠy‘

cord braided cord

É ¹û Á R-406

R-407

Ý R-

2327

¹û

2761

Ý¡

¹ûØû

keyboard; clavier

Ý

QT

key

J »« K R-416

R-417

V R-

2328

»«

2164

VwÝ

»«Ð«−û

laryngitis

V

up

throat

q ØÌ u R-316

R-317

t R-

2329

ØÌ t

JQg

2629 raft


197

OLD PURE GROUPS

˜ Å· Œ R-336

R-337

• R-

2330

Å·

2260

¢•

ãÅ·

capture; apprehension

•Nš

o˜Nš

catch; grab hold of

÷ Ö« ò R-444

R-445

ö R-

2331

Ö«

2455

²Ö«

pyosis; turning to pus

ö‹

L‹

to fester

ø ´ï« ú R-430

R-431

û R-

2332

´ï« ûÖ

´ï«−û

2799 banquet

l ²© … R-382

R-383

Û R-

2333

²© Û

yuS

2495 Japanese cypress


198

OLD PURE GROUPS

k ²© ƒ R-380

† R-

2334

R-381

²© % ¹ a† †{M

Àû²© ¹¿k}

rubbish poppy seed

†{ †

Q˜^ HUf

mustard dirt; trash

2376

3 Äû 8 R-486

R-487

9 R-

2335

Äû 9

Äû

2468 small dining table on tray

ñ Ãû û R-502

R-503

! R-

2336

Ãû 2C!

ÄûòÌÃû

2466 prostate

á Ç· è R-458

R-459

â R-

2337

Ç· âl

Ç·×Ì

2264 religious mendicancy


199

OLD PURE GROUPS

Ü Ø· Z R-318

R-319

X R-

Ø·

2338

Ø·õ

2447 exposure

p Å« r R-306

R-307

t

R-

Å«

2339

õ·

tg

Å«é©

wisdom; sagacity

t t t t t t

HS HS˜ [o [o^ o^ oS

used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names

Æ

k

R-296

R-297

Ä

R-

2340

2677

õ·

2602

°Ä

ã«õ·

stipend; salary

Ä Ä Ä Ä

h o^ oŠ —^

used in names used in names used in names used in names


200

OLD PURE GROUPS

Í Î© Ý R-460

R-461

1 R-

Ω

2341

#1

ÝΩ

insubordination

1^J

fU‰^J

stalwart

òí« H

L

496

497

J R-

òí«

2342

O

çÌ

R-534

òí«´í«

2343

çÌ !

R-115

^SŠ

Japanese star anise

k

s

}

Ÿ

_

R-117

R-118

R-119

R-120

R-121

»« Ö

2344

2532

R-116

à R-

the Loochoo islands

P

^ »« O R-114

2557

R-535

! R-

2971

»«êû

2459 anus

NB: When this group was introduced in volume II, it was noted that the primitive element must occupy a prominent place in order to serve as a signal primitive.


201

OLD PURE GROUPS

We conclude this chapter with three pure groups that use kanji which appeared in volume II only as primitives. This is indicated by an arrow pointing downards (➔) where the number for volume II would otherwise be.

R æû E ➔

R-434

G R-435

¸ R-

2345

§ R-

2346

æû ¸w

æûÀí«

2347

§

LqT

2348

R¼ø

æûÈñ

2349

2100 mandala 2359

æû−û

spreading; diffusion

H

vine; tendril

R-293

ó

Ÿ

R-294

R-295

Ü R-

eel

æû

å ´ï« ï ➔

2811

æû

H R-

steamed bun (Chinese)

æû

R R-

2998

´ï« TÜ

²´ï«

2120 overseas Chinese


202

OLD PURE GROUPS

å R-

2350

´ï« å…

´ï«ä·

tall tree

åJ å å

fQJ fQ fQ^

tall used in names used in names

÷ R-

2351

2104

´ï« ÷_

dw

2369 buckwheat noodles


CHAPTER 8

New Pure Groups This chapter introduces new primitive groups, based on signal primitives that were not introduced as such in volume II. As before, a small frame will be set at the head of each group to indicate the signal primitive, reading, and kanji from volume II that belong to this group. In most cases, the reading of the kanji that will serve here as a signal primitive has already learned, and in that case the reference to the frame in volume II where the reading was introduced will appear under the signal primitive. As in the previous chapter, an arrow (âž”) below a signal primitive will indicate that it is in fact a kanji introduced in this volume. Where there is no arrow or frame number, the signal primitive has not been learned as a kanji. For further information on the layout of the frames, see page 491.

We may begin with groups based on kanji whose principal onyomi has already been learned. Since the majority of the signal primitives have already been included in volume II, most of these groups will be small, often with only one new reading to learn.


204

NEW PURE GROUPS

òï« h R-1946

b R-

òï«%õ«

2352

[b

½ûòï«

mountain ridge

b b b

Qp Ja fQ

corner used in names used in names

Y R-

òï«

2353

R-

ò﫳

excel; surpass

YV

^uV

endure; bear

òï«

2354

C R-

!]

òï«Å«

¾

high and overtowering

2356

2668

Clj

òï«ÒûÉï« city in Kagawa Prefecture

C

H“

used in names

ã R-574

â R-

2225

òï«%òû

2355

â

2136

Yj

!

2610

¾

2844

â7

¾Äû

Zen meditation

âš

`¡š

sit


205

NEW PURE GROUPS

ä R-

¾

2357

èä

Õû¾

2845 sprain

ö Ãû * ➔

R-1052

î R-

Ãû

2358

îT

Ãû¿í«

anthology

î}

N˜}

pick out; select

ö R-

2253

Åû

2359

´·

2861

öR

Åû©

southeast direction

ö ö ö

fkŠ •U —^

southeast (dragon-snake) used in names used in names

› R-555

œ R-

2360

´· œ“

´·êû

interrogation of a criminal

œ œV œ

‰™ kV Šk

ball; used in names to follow; used in names used in names

− R-

2361

2787

´·

2753

−Ñ

´·¿Ì

shed for storing rice malt

YL_

malted rice


206

NEW PURE GROUPS

= ¿í« R-1689

O R-

¿í«

2362

¿í«´í«

football

to kick

Ð R-

¿í«

2363

Ú

2742

Ð

¡^

2834 eagle

½

R-1815

Ø R-

½

2364

Ø`

½³

Ý R-

2230 town near Kyoto

½

2365

½

2559

Ý/

½½

shining white (of stones)

ÝU

ŠRU

to polish (stones)

* R-1977

+ R-

2366

»%²

2744

+ûï

»Ãû´ï«

overpass

+V

‰fV

straddle


207

NEW PURE GROUPS

$ R-

»

2367

ô©

$

vQ‰

2626 hakama skirt

„ R-2067

¦ R-

2368

ô© ¦

QS

C R-

2369

2697 oyster

ô© C CU CV

o ŠRU oV

2595 grindstone to polish whet; sharpen

Ä õ· R-2229

º

R-

2370

õ· º,

õ·¿í

³ltering saké

º º` ºU

Y^ Y` `U

a ³lter to strain; ³lter make paper

à R-

2371

2304

õ·

2839

½ûõ·

foot of a mountain

Ã

|‘o

foothills


208

NEW PURE GROUPS

T

²

R-1151

Ù R-

²

2372

X R-

Ù2

²¿ï·

birchbark type torch

Ù

Q (¥) w

birch

²

2373

E

2515

ÅX

¹û²

2160 quarrel

²

R-1817

V R-

²

2374

] R-

Nz

shrimp

²

2375

y

V

2689

2779

ß]

−û²

smoke and mist; scenic views

]‹ ]

Q`‹ Q`Š

be hazy; grow dim haze; mist

´

R-826

› R-

2376

´

2613

›F

´É

perceive; grasp

›L ›

LQRL LQRJ

peep; spy on a guess; an inquiry


209

NEW PURE GROUPS

´ R-

´

2377

´ ´

W“S kS

2527 Zelkova tree Zelkova tree

« ¼« R-1883

ª R-

¼«

2378

ª?

¼«¿í«

Australia

ª

†™

moat

¨ R-

2306

¼«

2379

Å«

2186

èW¨

ä«·«¼«

air-raid shelter

¨

†™

ditch; trench

„ R-1993

d R-

2380

Å« d_

Å«ð«

itching

dU

QU

to scratch

ù R-

2381

2252

Å«

2681

ù|

Å«´

rise early

ù

µea


210

NEW PURE GROUPS

Å«

a R-1670

n R-

2382

Å« nX

Å«¿û

slender body; thin build

nWš nbš

YWš “bš

be sunken; be hollow lose weight

9 R-

2383

2577

Å«

2068

s9

©ËÅ«

one ship

9

|t

ship

± ´í« R-1638

L R-

2384

´í« L L

f‰ y[

¿ R-

2385

2565 jewel; used in names used in names

´í« ¿

´í«

2538 moxa cautery

« Ì© R-1642

ª R-

2386

Ì©

2477

ֻ

ÎËÌ©

iron hammer

ª

kh

hammer


211

NEW PURE GROUPS

¬ R-

2387

Ì© ÷¬

ÎËÌ©

2769 iron hammer

Ê ´ï R-1220

Ó R-

2388

´ï Ó©!

´ï¿Àï«

indentation; saw-toothed

Ó

uYT™

a saw

— R-

2389

2759

´ï —

`d

2624 hem

ë é R-1903

¢ R-

2390

é ¢ã

é−û

weirdly beautiful

¢J

`ZJ

tremendous; awesome

− R-

2391

2133

é

2496

|−

ѫé

co-habitation

−‹

`‹

live; dwell


212

NEW PURE GROUPS

y ê« { ➔

R-1730

y R-

ê«

2392

6

«

2872

y{

ê«¿

Mencius

y y

fW^ v_Œ

used in names used in names

” R-30

— R-

«

2393

—n

2415

«²©

detour

ðo

À Àï«¿ï«

Chancellor

ð‹ ð ð

``‹ `W f`U

go forwards; advance used in names used in names

Àï« % R-1964

ð R-

2394

s éû R-1098

t R-

2395

éû t{

éûó©

2752 noodles


213

NEW PURE GROUPS

I

éû

q R-1871

p R-

éû

2396

2512

pP

éû²

raw cotton

p

¡f

cotton

×û Œ R-1750

† R-

×û

2397

2556

ƒò†

ê«»×û

infant’s “Mongolian spot”

‰g˜

spots; patches; streaks

õ ²û R-989

= R-

²û

2398

2408

²ûÀ

with a smile

=

JV[

kind of rush; used in names

§ Åû R-874

2.2.

« R-

2399

Åû

2422

Ù«

¹ûÅû

humility

«š

ƒ™Ugš

to be humble


214

NEW PURE GROUPS

ñû

+ R-1935

0

ñû 0¿

R-

ñû³·

2363 studying Western science in the Dutch language

2400

: µï R-1950

Õ R-

µï

2401

2597

èÕ

䫵ï

defense

ÕV

|bV

ward off

í Ãû R-1660

÷ R-

Ãû

2402

]

2540

÷{

ÃûÑ«

agitation; demagoguery

÷š ÷mš

HPš Pgmš

fan the µames incite; instigate

´

R-1859

a R-

2403

´

2207

a‹

´µ

frolicking

a^J a^‹ a

L›^J fu^‹ —^

happy rejoice; enjoy used in names


215

NEW PURE GROUPS

‹ ©û R-1931

‰ R-

©û

2404

2374

k‰

õ·©û

shady nook

QX

shade; shadow

¹ î« R-1790

 R-

î« %ð«

2405

Ú

Âm

î«¿íÌ

gushing out

ÂU

¡U

gush up

2284

ð«

R-2219

Ö R-

2406

ð«

2128

Öo

ð«à©

mercenary soldier

ÖL

“oL

to employ

* Ïû R-2046

+ R-

2407

Ïû

2300

+g

Ïûßû

starch

+ +‹

P™ —p‹

dregs; sediment stagnate


216

NEW PURE GROUPS

ï Àï« R-961

ü R-

2408

Àï«

2504

ü&

À﫾©

µogging; caning

ü

kN

cane; walking stick

U »« R-1857

X R-

2409

»«%·

2187

Xa [X

»«Àû è·

dirt; ³lth immaculate; unde³led

X

HQ

stain

V É· S ➔

R-1617

V

É· V2

R-

É·Äû

2637 old name for northwest part of Fukuoka prefecture

2410

k ¾û l ➔

k R-

2411

2010

¾û

2092

k/

¾û¿í

decapitation

cut down; behead


217

NEW PURE GROUPS

¹ ²· © ➔

2215

¹ R-

²·

2412

¹/

²Ë²·

2908 splendid; distinguished

ï ±« R-2132

ù R-

±«

2413

f

ù

|`‰

2627 sliding door or screen

©

R-1809

i R-

©

2414

!

iL i¡›

2725

to say

JL J¡›

reason; grounds

§

R-1818

# R-

2415

§ #5

§Äû

2958 µabbergasted


218

NEW PURE GROUPS

m ²© R-1572

‡ R-

²©

2416

2682

‡‘

²©»«

walking sideways

Qr

crab

· ²· R-1849

− R-

²· %»«

2417

Š

−(

²·ñû

2257

disturbance; turbulence

µ

R-1828

˜ R-

2418

µ

2719

»«µ

friendship; amity

˜Š ˜

—^Š —^

goodwill; friendly relations used in names

Å »û R-1673

Î R-

2419

»û

2518

α

»ûå«

packing; crating

Î

Y™

a bale; package


219

NEW PURE GROUPS

d ½û R-1669

e R-

½û

2420

‹e

2641 compilation; editing

àû½û

h ½û R-1740

g R-

½û

2421

2711

gËH

½ûÛ²

hymn; song of praise

gNš

ffNš

give praise to

z ¹© R-1756

à R-

¹©

2422

à Ã

Yœ Zœ

2791 around; about time; about

¿

R-1568

Ú R-

2423

¿ Ú}

^u}

2129 recall; reminisce


220

NEW PURE GROUPS

¿

R-1819

“ R-

2424

¿ “{

¿¿

2345 lion

? Çû ; R-718

A R-

2425

Èû % Çû AB ¸A

Èû² »·Çû

parishoner of a temple ebony

A

‰•Š

spindle tree

2525

z Àíû } ➔

1761

z R-

2426

Àíû % ¿íû z z

v“}[ v“

2879

peregrine falcon used in names

Ø Àï R-1845

¢

Àï

2434

Ȣ

î«Àï

pardon; forgiveness

¢` ¢ ¢

•š` fg^ u™

sanction; pardon used in names used in names


221

NEW PURE GROUPS

R-

¢ ¢ ¢

2427

yœ^ •S ^u}

used in names used in names used in names

š Àï R-1558

£ R-

Àï

2428

2756

£¢

Àïôû

small hand scoop

£

`S

a plow; spade

Õ ¿Ì R-1923

2.2.

Ð R-

¿Ì

2429

2202

Ð4

¿ËÐ

jealousy; envy

Ћ Ћ

dt‹ tf‹

be jealous to envy

¿Ì Ô R-1907

Ó R-

2430

¿Ì

2461

Ó4

¿Ë²

at one’s knees or feet

Ó

y]

knee; lap


222

NEW PURE GROUPS

¡ ´ï« R-2095

¢

R-

´ï«%¹©

2431

−û

¢ ¢š ¢ ¢ ¢

QP™ QPš Q QPš S—

2925

a fragrance; used in names smell fragrant used in names used in names used in names

Ö R-1723

Ô R-

−û

2432

°

Ç

R-19

ÔÎ

−ûΩ

dam; weir

Ô

bS

dam; sluice

½ R-1780

± R-

2433

2191

Ç%Ç© [ܱ

Þ½Ç

2316

neglect to call on or write to

Ä −© R-827

À R-

2434

−© À{

−©Y

2566 Eiko (woman’s name)


223

NEW PURE GROUPS

ü Úû R-1944

ù R-

Úû

2435

2305

ù‘!Ç Úû¿Àï«Ç©

in a state near death

( §© R-1096

K R-

§©

2436

K*

§©æ©

2437 vague; ambiguous

d »« R-1149

| R-

»«

2437

Àû

2652

q|

Å«»«

chaff and bran; poverty

|

sQ

rice bran

h R-1569

g R-

2438

Àû

2713

g“

Àûêû

interrogation

gtš

fatš

to question


224

NEW PURE GROUPS

Y Å« R-1990

Q R-

Å«

2439

Q

Šqo

2309 harbor

u ¿íû s ➔

R-1585

u

R-

¿íû

2440

³©

u u u u u

‹UX S— yo^ Šk —^

2915 rose of Sharon; althea used in names used in names used in names used in names

— R-1385

” R-

2441

³©

2227

?”

Èû³©

precipice

RW

cliff; bluff

In the following groups, note that the signal primitive must stand in a dominant position—alone and to the right.


225

NEW PURE GROUPS

í

ä·

ð R-2210

í R-

ä·

2442

í`š

ä·`š

tell fortunes

íL

L˜qL

to tell one’s fortune

×û

ˆ R-

×û

2443

I

2103

ˆ,

×ûñû

2301 inundation; µood

·

R-1573

K R-

2444

·

2341

úK

Îû¸

long-nosed goblin

K

Js

small dog

n òû R-1674

o R-

2445

òû oú!

òûÙÃû

lymph gland

o^J

[z^J

lonely

q R-

2446

2310

òû q”

òû«

2554 Taoist temple


226

NEW PURE GROUPS

There are several new groups formed by picking up characters that were formerly part of pure or mixed groups. We take up these next.

n »« z R-863

R-864

q R-

2447

»«%´ï« qê £q

»«Å· ´´ï«

2498

stoppage; blockage Chinese bellµower

“ áû R-865

— R-

2448

áû

2783

î—

´ï«áû

teacher’s rod

‹h

whip

à ´ï« ô R-866

R-867

Ý

R-

2449

´ï«

2853

Ý!

´ï«Àï«

criminal offence

Ý›š

Pd›š

to fear

This character was part of a semi-pure group in volume II; but can best be learned here as a new group.


227

NEW PURE GROUPS

_

Ы

R-1373

m

R-

Ы

2450

2357

me

ЫÀû

debauchee; libertine

mWš

oœWš

be bewitched; be captivated

This character was part of a mixed group in volume II, but can best be learned here as a new group.

» ²· R-1913

« R-

²·

2451

Ü

2235

Ê«

·

licensed quarters

«

Uš¡

licensed quarters

½

Ü R-

2452

½ [ܱ

Þ½Ç

neglect to call or write

Ü

`q

sand

á R-

2453

2296

½ wá

¹½

2701 monk’s surplice


228

NEW PURE GROUPS

Ï

ò

? R-868

8 R-

ò

2454

w8

óò

2048 lapis lazuli

œ Éí« R-663

Þ R-

Éí«

2455

d

2661

ÞÄ

Éí«Ç©

a band

Þ

y‘

string

´

R-820

v R-

2456

´%¹

2611

vV vÀ

´×· ¹«

dilute rare; uncommon

v

‰›

rare

È »û R-916

Ë R-

2457

»û Ëx

»ûÁ©

2451 coma


229

NEW PURE GROUPS

·

È

R-898

» R-

È »Ò

2458

È−û

2531 ellipse

Š Ø©%ש R-584

-

¤ R-

2459

Ø©%ש ¤g

Ø©½û

B R-

2460

song praising Buddhist virtues

Ø© ¼B

2178

õ«Ø©

2340 panic

a »« R-1696

L R-

2461

»« LJ

[J¡J

Á R-

2462

2119 happy

»« ÁK

»«³û

2929 testicles


230

NEW PURE GROUPS

¦ ôû R-1672

¥ R-

2463

ôû

2360

¥Í

ôû»û

lotus root

¥ ¥

vh` v`

lotus lotus

We conclude this chapter with entirely new pure groups—that is, those for whom neither the signal primitive nor any member of the group was introduced in volume II. The number of these groups is small and should not cause much dif³culty. Naturally, here the signal primitives stand alone in their small frames.

M Á« ➔

M R-

2464

Á« ‚M

×ûÁ«

‹ R-

2465

2466

rumination

Á«

2086

‹G§

Á«Éé

geotropism

‹U

P‘‹U

head towards

ΠR-

2084

Á« %Á Œ

yq

chick

2085


231

NEW PURE GROUPS

œ

ì

œ R-

2467

ì œM

ìÅ

Jesus (old form)

œ

Q

question mark

› R-

2468

ì › ›

_J __

Ô R-

2469

2680

2334 old man old man; grandpa

ì

2524

Ô{

ì¿

palm tree

Ô

“^

palm tree

d é© ➔

d R-

2470

é©%çï« d÷«

驱«Ã©

Pluto (the planet)

d2

çï«ò

providence; divine favor

Å R-

2471

é© Å`

é©Å«

C R-

2472

2841

2842 meditation

é© Cú

é©Îû

2843 Hades; underworld


232

NEW PURE GROUPS

¹ À%Ó ➔

¹

R-

2473

º R-

2474

À%Ó

2074

¹û Àñ© À5À¹ ÀÕûã«Ó

since then “let it be” (Buddhist term)

¹ ¹ ¹

only; in that manner thou used in names

^Q q¥_ hQ^ À

³º

»·À

2075 State Seal

s ³·

à R-

2475

³· ÿ

³Ë»Ì

jawbone

Ã

HZ

jaw; chin

Ó R-

2476

2795

³· Ó

2824 alligator

¡r

m »« ➔

m R-

2477

»« m m m

HS HS˜ mš

2446 used in names used in names used in names


233

NEW PURE GROUPS

ï

»« ï ï

R-

2478

yœ yœ^

2287 used in names used in names

Note that the character ù does not have a kun-yomi and has therefore not been included in this group.

» −© ➔

» R-

−©

2479

»M=

−©»«Èû

tracer bullet

U »U

U yU

to pull

¿ R-

−© %ÃÌ

2480

@

2848

º¿

õ«−©

leak; disclosure

¿›

‘›

to leak

2849

Ý

@ R-

2481

Ý c@Ö µÝ¹û

% R-

2482

2928 prefecture in central Japan

Ý %w

ÝЫ

2189 wharf; pier; quay


234

NEW PURE GROUPS

Q ¿û ➔

Q R-

¿û

2483

¿ûÈ©

Ch’in Dynasty (255-206 BCE)

Q

vf

used in family names

J R-

¿û

2484

W

J J J

v^wŠ v™ vš

hazel tree used in names used in names

2485

³©

2486

2077

‹ø

³©Ãû

triumphal return

‹ ‹˜V ‹ ‹

QhpS “¡˜V oS —^

used in names victory cry ease; be mitigated used in names

œ R-

2475

³©

R-

2877

³© œ

2076 suit of armor

—œJ

½ »Ì ➔

¾ R-

2487

»Ì Á¾

»«»Ì

2277 rapture; ecstasy


235

NEW PURE GROUPS

½ R-

2488

»Ì

2431

½5

»ÌÄû

suddenly

½h

fh‰h

all of a sudden

` Àû R-2199

j R-

2489

Àû

2786

ÀûÇ©

ligament; fascia

j

Lk‡

quiver


CHAPTER 9

Semi-Pure Groups

The semi-pure groups, it will be recalled from volume II, are groups of on-yomi based on a common signal primitive—but with a single exception. Strictly speaking, the addition of secondary and tertiary readings would do away with most semi-pure groups. But the classification is a useful one, and it is worth the strain to preserve it. We begin here with semi-pure groups already learned, and conclude the chapter with a number of new groupings.

| ô© ƒ R-685

R-686

ΠR-687

“ òï« i R-689

‰ R-

2490

ô© ‰ë‰

ô©ã·Éï«

} R-

2491

2492

2382 town in Kumamoto Prefecture

ô© }h

ô©Àû

† R-

R-690

2112 minstrel; court musician

ô© †Ó †J † †

ô©ò [oJ [o^ [o

2278 clever wise used in names used in names


237

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

J R-

ô©

2493

J

ŠP

‡ R-

2494

òû

ô©Y

Reiko (woman’s name)

‡ ‡

HS˜ f‰

used in names used in names

2496

½ûô©

peak

Št

peak; summit

Note that this character does not—as you would otherwise expect—follow the reading of the lower element, but keeps the reading of the signal primitive.

t R-1980

òû pi

òû½û

u R-

2497

2498

2052 phosphoric acid

òû

2054

òûÆ·

³sh; ³nned family

u u

LœY YW

³sh scales ³sh scales

v R-

2228

[…

p R-

2568

‡{

ô©

2495

a

water canal

ô©%òï«

R-

2285

òû ¹v

´òû

2053 giraffe


238

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

œ

ôû &œ

R-

§©ôû

¢ ¿íû p ½ -2074 R

2500

× ¿íû

2501

¿íû´ï

µat refusal

qš qNš q q

P¡š PNš fQ fQ^

to be completed to complete used in names used in names

¿íû yÏ

²©¿íû

t R-

2502

2503

2059 repentance

¿íû t^

¿íû»«

v

R-

2061

Ï R-

take pity

R-2023

q

R-

pity; compassion

œ›‹ H¡›‹

2499

2051

2062 completion of construction

¿íû

2060

v+

¿íûé

µeet steed

v v v

fQ^ o^ v“^

used in names used in names used in names


239

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

H »« p R-671

R-672

P

R-673

R-674

ƒ ²· º R-675

I

»« C±I¨l

R-

2504

2505

»«É

crafty

ÁJ

ašJ

cunning; sly

è

ð«

R-1839

v

Éï«

2506

Éï«Éï«

long-winded

^’„š

to chatter

Éï«

2507

ÝÉï«

” »

R-836

è”

mark; symbol; code

ù R-837

ä«Éï«

2509

counter-espionage

R-838

» (

2726

«

²

( R-

2926

Éï«

2508

ö

2158

v/

ˆ

R-

2337

ÁJ

R-1885

R-

one of Japan’s “new religions”

»«

Éï« ’

R-

2109

òË¿ï«»«Ã©²©

Á R-

R-676

Y‘

2383 water oat; matting rush


240

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

! R-

2510

» !û

»ò

foxes and badgers

!

Skt

fox

ó ¿û ] R-730

R-731

A

F

R-732

R-733

Ñ R-

2511

2512

Ñ“Q rT“Q Ñ¡L rT¡L

2443 morning star

7 7 7

H^f HS oS

tomorrow used in names used in names

p Ûû ! R-930

R-931

à©%Ûï« Û” ÛK

à©Å· Ûï«Þ

Š 2514

lively; cheerful; bustling µourish

¿ûé©

Û

R-

2739

7g

R-929

2513

R-735

¿û

‹ à© n

R-

@ Àï· 9 R-734

¿û

7 R-

2342

2223

bate one’s breath Japanese folding screen

à©

2802

öŠ

Ãûá©

rice cracker

Š

‘h

rice cake


241

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

F

²

R-760

W

U

R-761

R-762

ñ

] R-

²

2515

]^J

[ ±· $ ➚

R-854

Pzfg^J

&

©

R-855

Ý

R-824

[

0 R-825

±·Ûï«

´

2517

2460 cowardice; timidity

y R-826

9 R-

abundant

±·

2516

&

2943

R-856

( R-

ú R-763

Ý

2361

Ýð«

cotton rose

9

v`

lotus

´ ã« ° ä« ß R-797

R-798

R-799

¼ R-

2518

ã«

2265

¼³

ã«À

holding up; present

¼Xš

[[Xš

to offer


242

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

Ÿ ´Ì ¥ ¹Ì º R-878

R-879

R-880

£ R-

¹Ì%´Ì

2519

£q

¼ ½· 6 R-691

? R-

´Ë»«%´»« Chinese bellµower

:

n

9

R-642

R-693

R-694

ß R-695

òû

´ï«½·

constriction

?‹ ?‹

`‡‹ k‡‹

constrict to close up

l

s õû Ç R-900

/ 2521

2614

ò?

R-899

R-

½

½·

2520

Ö

2499

R-901

òû

2656

òûºû

Imperial edict (China)

/ /

Jo P

satin cloth; used in names used in names

¿ »Ì Ñ ²Ì R-422

R-423

Î R-

2522

²Ì

2335

ÁÎ

»«²Ì

cunning

J ÎJ

J ašJ

sly


243

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

Û

¹©

§ R-

2523

¦

Ÿ

R-720

R-721

R-722

§{T

¹©Ñ«çë·

carotid artery

§

Uz

neck

¹© ÷u ÷J

2524

¹©Å« k—J

2525

2990 hardy plants sturdy

Note that the primitive to the right is the old form of Û. Another example appears in the following frame.

Ó R-

R-724

¹© 2796

÷ R-

‡ ²© s R-723

¹©

2989

Ó¿

¹©»Ì

shinbone

Ó Ó

`t vT

shins leg

The following groups did not exist in volume II, but can now be formed as semi-pure groups, using characters already known as signal primitives.

K Ý« R-1070

J R-

2526

Ý«

2471

J{¡

Ý«¿»«

galbanum (bitter gum resin)

J

QNn

maple tree


244

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

š R-

½Ì šZ

2527

½ËÅ«

2619 gallant; dashing

Î òí« K ä« æ -1691 -1137 R

R

G

òí« GÍ

R-

òí«ã«

R-

2529

òí«

2530

2324

%I

Àï«òí«

distillation

IŒš

fŒš

store up

w R-

name of an Early HanDynatsy emperor

2528

I

2143

òí«%ó wÀ

òí«´í«

Loochoo Islands

w8

óò

lapis lazuli

2555

‰ ¹Ì · ²© r R-1602

R-1602

¼ R-

2531

¹Ì ¼ƒ

¹ÌáÌ

f R-

2532

2714 parting; farewell

¹Ì

2274

fm

¹Ë¿íÌ

gouging out

NVš

gouge out


245

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

W

©

R-1706

g R-

2533

© gi

©¿í·

withering; atrophy

gNš g›š gzš

qNš ^P›š ^qzš

wither; droop droop; be downcast droop; wither

È

R-

2534

÷ ÷Àû

name ancient Chinese used to refer to the Japanese

È È È È

Qa ‰` ^a “‰o

used in names used in names used in names Ancient Japan

n ×Ì

ש

/ R-1554

m 2535

×Ì mâ

Þ ²û ? R-752

×ÌñÌ

ð R-753

2536

2307 sprightly; lively

) ¹û%»û Ï R-754

/ R-

2106

È^

R-1543

R-

2355

R-755*

²û /v

²ûÁ©

2314 sprinking; irrigation


246

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

J

ç

R-756

I R-757

K æ© ) R-758

R-759

* R-

æ©

2537

}

¿

R-848

T*

¸æ©

R-850

¿

2538

¥

QS

Åû

2539

þ

6 ´

R-218

6

cask; keg

‰`

b

R-219

R-220

þ R-

2506

Åû

2540

`

persimmon

R-2181

þ

R-

2481

Àíû †

¨ Åû R-1720

R-

stupidity; ignorance

y ש 7 R-849

¥ R-

2445

2541

2814 trout

´

2667

þ’

´ô©

beautiful

þ

H“

used in names


247

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

_ R-

©

2542

Š

¿

R-287

_{

©Á

š

R-288

R-289

¤ R-

2543

2480 chair

¹© ‹¤

Æ«¹©

2715 attainments; scholarship

þ ×û „ R-342

R-343

¤ R-

2544

äû%×û ¤B

äû¼

‰ R-

2545

×û¿ûõû

R-2015

pantheism

¾

Ú

R-1643

¾ 2546

2327

Note that all the characters allow for both readings. The divison indicates only “primary“ reading.

X ÝÌ Z

R-

Sanskrit

×û%äû ‰PÇ

2954

Ú ¾/

ÚÚ

2346 baboon


248

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

% ±·

3 R-

2547

2

§·

R-1820

R-1873

§· 3 3

Hk Hk^

2320 used in names used in names

The following group contains a final character that was classified in volume II as having no on-yomi. The secondary reading has, however, been added here to be complete.

Ò Ã´ Î R-764

R-764

Ð ½© å R-765

R-641

Õ R-

2548

ñ ²û

¿íô

2743 handwriting specimen

Æ

¹û

R-2000

À 2549

· R-767

ô

R-1791

R-

¿

¹û

2108

ÀÆ

¹ûÇ©

fatigue; weariness

À‹

L‹

be untiring

# µï« $ ¿ï« Ï


249

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

R-2179

R-1681

# R-

拮

2550

# # #

] Ø· Y ➔

R-703

fQ fQ^ •fQ

©

v

¥

§

R-697

R-698

R-699

R-700

] R-

R-701

1

ä

R-702

¦ R-696

Ø·

2551

[

used in names used in names used in names

1 æ· 2 R-702

2095

2105

Ø·È©

immense; colossal

]›

qQ›

must not

´

R-1154

Ÿ R-

2552

´ Ÿâ

´¾

fall to one’s knees down

ŸU

y]‰aU

kneel down

Å R-

2553

2745

ĩ ŧ

* Çû 6

ĩé

( Éí« d

2462 brittleness; frailty


250

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

R-715

R-716

R-717

& R-

R-719

Çû

2554

r&

à©Çû

2188 even; µat

1 ²û Ñ R-1909

R-1895

% R-

²û

2555

æ%

´ûÆ«³û

inlaying with gold

%Œš

vŒš

to inlay; set in; throw into

$ R-

2229

²û

2556

P$

ç²û

2482 mandarin orange

The following groups were introduced as pure groups in volume II, but the addition of new characters makes them now semi-pure.

¢

»«

R-414

Š R-

2557

{ R-415

»« îSŠ ØûÅ«»«

2923 adhesive plaster (for wounds)


251

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

ˆ R-

Á«

2558

Y

©

R-358

used in names used in names

fQ^ fQ

] R-359

¦ R-

ˆ ˆ

2224

«Ì

2559

¦5

«ÌÄû

2406 growing luxuriantly

ƒ Àíû x R-374

R-375

z R-

Àíû

2560

z

fm

³ R-

´ï

R-224

³Â

ÐûÀ

Ì

Ò

R-225

R-226

j R-

shield; escutcheon

Ðû

2561

Ë

2513

2562

2416 excuse; subterfuge

´ï %» jJ

´ï²

signal ³re

j

u™

used in names

2536


252

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

M R-

·

2563

M†

¨ Ω È R-153

·¹©

R-

Ö

Ñ

ä

R-155

R-156

¿

2564

ô ½© ï ➔

R-242

oJ^

û

í

R-243

R-244

ô

R-

2565

¿

R-914

2090

ô9

½©×©

baton of command

ôš ô ô ô

oš H“ Lt Yo

take hold of used in names used in names used in names

É¿Ì

2567

2430 have full knowledge of

µ

R-915

• R-

grindstone; whetstone

¿Ì

2566

2590

½©

Ò R-

rectangle

R-154

B

2585

µ •Ó

µ±û

2600 licenced quarters in Kyoto


253

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

¾ î« ¸ R-480

R-481

ú R-

Àï«

2568

ú(

M ¿û P R-144

R-145

Àï«ñû

;

R

R-146

R-147

Æ R-

Ú

R-346

ÆÉ

»ûÀ·

2570

à©

2571

2633

U†

¿Ëâ©

bamboo slat used to alert drowsy meditators

ƒ˜

spatula

Ð ´ï

R-

earth’s axis (ancient China)

»

R-1941

£

2184

R-347

† R-

riot; commotion

»û

2569

²

2268

R-2082

´ï

2167

£í

´ïºû

lie; falsehood

£

Ld

lie; falsehood


254

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

; ½·

Å

; R-

2572

= R-2019

½· ;K

½·Ý«

north wind

; ; ;

kJfh v_Œ ‘o

³rst day of the month used in names used in names

P R-

2573

2846

Å P‘

Å»«

2847 go against the stream

ç Õû R-1114

è R-

2574

Õû èä

Õû¾

S

R-

2575

2251 sprain

Àû

2607

Sl

ÀûÀí·

fully ripened

S S S S

o^ Šuš q™ qš

used in names used in names used in names used in names

In the following group, the signal primative must stand alone and to the right. We have seen in other cases as well how certain primitives, in order to serve as a signal primitive, must be in a dominant position.


255

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

6 Äû

Ãû

R-989

ï R-1759

& R-

2576

Ãû &A

Ãû½·

2717 search; exploration

† Éï« ‡ R-330

R-331

ë R-

2577

Ûï« ë}

Ûï«Ñ«

Å R-

2578

2239 court; ministry

Éï«

2155

Å´

Éï«õ«

mockery; ridicule

Åš

H]Wš

to make fun of

y Àíû { R-372

R-373

í R-

2579

Àíû%¿íû ¤í

¿Àíû

consultation; inferring

íš í

vQš ‰Yo

consult used in names

µ R-

2580

¿íû%Àíû µÁ

ÀíûΩ

weeping silently

µ

‰Yo

used in names

2705

2290


256

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

B R-

2581

¹û

2664

¹ûñû

dazzling; gorgeous; gaudy

B

H“

used in names

Finally, there are a small number of entirely new semi-pure groups, composed only of kanji learned in this volume.

Õ §û%−û ➔

I R-

2582

Õ R-

2583

Ù R-

2584

§û IÑ

§û¿Ì

hermit’s cell

I

JP™

hermitage

−û

2585

2055

q”Õ/ ´Å·−û−û gasp for breath; huff and puff −û

2057

Ùv

−ûâ©

cover; obscuration

ÙL

PPL

to cover

, R-

2056

−û ,

P›

2058 me


257

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

a

©

i R-

2586

÷© ƒi

²©÷©

Í R-

2587

a R-

2588

2427 neighborhood; vicinity

֩

2336

ÍP

÷©¾Ì

indecency; lewdness

͘

Šg˜

loose

© ai

©¿í·

2569 wince; µinch

¿í« ➔

L R-

2589

¿í« LU

|U

P R-

2590

2591

to thatch; shingle

¿í« PÆ

¿í«õ·

¿ R-

2392

compilation; editing

î« ¿0

î«×©

2732

2263 bowing with arms folded


258

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

»

È

Àë

í R-2235

º R-

2592

È ºs

Èòû

steering wheel; helm

º

Q_

rudder; helm

¼ R-

2593

È [¼

ÞËÈ

² R-

2594

2674

2955 Buddha

Ç ²U

H]‹U

2718 dupe; deceive

U ³û%ð« ➔

T R-

2595

³û T‹

³ûÆ«

U R-

2596

2597

counterfeit

³û U‘

³û»«

Ü R-

2151

2150 side by side like µying geese

ð« Ü

fQ

2237 hawk


259

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

ƒ ©û „ ±û 0 R-905

R-906

} R-

R-907

©û

2598

2159

}V

©û»«

throat

}

up

throat

The following group was not learned as a pure group in volume II, but if its signal primitive is made to stand alone and on the right, it is convenient to make the group now.

=

ò

R-1160

¡ R-

2599

G R-590

7 ò%òï« ( R-963

ò X¡

½ûò

û R-

2600

2601

2602

three nautical miles 2338

»ò

foxes and badgers

û

fsS

badger-dog

ò

2950

2/

¼ò

³ve miles

/

æ©ó

mile

; R-

2951

ò

/ R-

R-47

ò

2973

;s

òéû

back side

;

behind (old form)


260

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

d òï«

µ

¹

R-890

R-891

õ«

R-892

¼ R-

õ«

2603

&

»

¼«

õ«Ã©

Sirius; Dog Star

ÁJ

Y`J

sly; cunning

þ R-1216

# R-

2604

»

2605

»Ð

makeshift

#

u™

paste; glue

»%¼%« &º

»¿ï«

pepper

&& &(

¼æ

«õû

sesame suspicious-looking

& &

Nz` y[

barbarians used in names

@ R-

2606

¼%» b@

½û¼

E R-

2607

2650

#3

&

R-

2339

2562 coral

¼ ÚEI

È©¼ç

2470

2749 zest for life


261

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

The following group was learned as a pure group in volume II, but the primary reading of the signal primitive makes it better to reclassify it as a semi-pure group.

[

è%Þ

R-324

C R-

Þ

2608

Þð«

care; tending

Cnš

qnš

to stroke; pet

G R-

Þ

2609

¬

Ðû

R-2188

2610

Þ¾Ì

unpolished; crude

G

Q}

turnip

„ Àíû ¸ R-1991

R-2071

Ðû ϱ

»ûÐû

´ R-

2611

2612

2326 chaos; confusion

Ðû ´J

ÐûÉ

« R-

2401

GP

± R-

2270

2788 ready wit

Ðû «

Ðû

2949 a ton


262

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

»«

î«

Í R-1918

]

R-

2613

»«

2212

»«È©

vast; extensive

] ] ]

Hk yœ yœ^

used in names used in names used in names

»«

2662

k‚s” ×Ë»«©É« “everything under one roof” R-

2614

‚ ‚

yœ yœ^

ˆ R-

2615

used in names used in names

»«

2469

»»«

right hand man

ˆ

y_

elbow

It happens occasionally, as in the following group, that the signal primitive forms an exception to the reading it takes in other characters in which it appears.

2 Äû R-1012

ö R-

2616

Ãû

2548

öŠ

Ãûá©

rice cracker

öš

to roast


263

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

ú R-

2617

Ãû ú–

Ãû¿ï

message attached to an arrow

ú

arrow

å R-

2618

Ãû åÏ

ÃûΩ

¥ R-

2619

2636

2941 pruning

Ãû ¥Nš

dœNš

2255 to assemble; muster


CHAPTER 10

Mixed Groups The 162 kanji treated in this chapter make up the most dif³cult of the signal-primitive-based groups. Let us begin by recalling the three classes of “mixed groups” introduced in volume II: GROUP A includes groups with two readings. As distinct from the “semi-pure” groups, there must be at least 2 kanji for each reading. GROUP B is made up of groups with only two exceptions to the standard reading of the signal primitive, which must apply to at least 3 kanji. GROUP C is made up of miscellaneous groups where it is still useful to see a signal primitive with a standard reading, but which has exceptions other than those that apply to Groups A and B. Naturally, with the addition of so many new kanji in this volume, several of the groups from volume II will change classi³cation. What is more, once we have left the con³nes of the readings assinged for “general use,” the number of secondary and tertiary on-yomi increases dramatically, making the distinction between Group A and Group B less useful. Accordingly, the two groups have been combined in the present volume. For further information on the layout of the frames, see the opening remarks to chapter 7 and the full diagram on page 491.


_GROUPS ¦

Ú

R-348

2620

· Ú

2621

æÚ

paralysis

h›š

^z›š

go numb

Ú GŠ

ÑÚ

2622

ש%Ù© ç5

¿ï«×©

medallion

5

Ù©

mah-jong tiles

Î R-

2623

ש ש¿

legend; ³ction

Î

yN

barnyard grass

R-851

}

Ú

R-852

{ 2624

2873

2608

Ît

ë à´ |

R-

2196 servants

5 R-

2579

&h

Š R-

A & B_

R-349

h R-

265

GROUPS A & B

MIXED GROUPS

¿ R-853

à´

2117

à´¹û

prejudice

{‹

yR‹

be biased against


266

GROUPS A & B

H R-

Ú

2625

Úî

metaphor

HNš

foNš

compare; liken to

R-726

Ô

´ ½· 7

R-727

R-728

í 2626

í

[“

2627

Ú

R-346

«w

¿ï«²©

`

2629

2630

2219 waste; rubbish

− R-347

Ú

2236

©

Ú¼

aegis; protection

©L ©

QwL y[^

protect; grant sanctuary eaves; canopy

Ö R-

2154 patrol; guard

Ua

© R-

a sheath

ÃÌ

2628

²

2784

¿ï«

` R-

R-729

¿ï«

« R-

2728

Ü ¿ï« Ì R-725

R-

MIXED GROUPS

Ú

2218

½Ö

ã«Ú

breaking wind

Ö

ƒ

passed gas


Ç R-

2631

Û Ç!

Û÷

É R-

2632

É%

R-780

Ø R-781

2634

= ÷û Ú -783

2635

R

÷û ×

÷û

2487 wooden bowl

÷û [Ù

Éë÷û

‡ R-

2912 lute

R-782

Ù R-

loquat

Û÷

× 2633

2519

Û

Æ −û ä

R-

267

GROUPS A & B

MIXED GROUPS

2591 teacup

−û ‡(

−û´ï·

2197 euphemistic

“ ×û … Øû ¡ -801 -802

R-800

R

R

æ R-

2636

×û Ãæ

Õ×û

¢ R-

2637

2522 nirvana

Øû

2586

¢Í

ØûÀë·

huge rock

¢

boulder


268

GROUPS A & B

2 ²û ; R-748

R-749

C ñû , R-750

R-751

/ R-

2638

ñû ³ñû

temple for Buddhist training

/

HJ

indigo

R-1416

Ï

Ô Î© Ô R-544

Ë R-

2639

2640

2641

2146

Ëp

Ω×Ì

tonsure; cutting off the hair

Ëš

to shave

Ω

2283

Õˆ

ΩÀíû

obedience

Õ Õ Õ Õ

o‘ —^ “` “`^

used in names used in names used in names used in names

Ù R-

R-544

Ω

Õ

R-

2371

8/

Ô È© Ù R-544

MIXED GROUPS

Ω

2479

‰Ù

²©Î©

step; threshold; guide

Ù

v^Z

ladder


 ôû š à ¹û  ➚ -1202 -1203 R

R-1199

R

¢ R-

269

GROUPS A & B

MIXED GROUPS

Ù R-1200

È ºû È R-1201

R-1201

ôû

2642

2630

Öôû

shop-entrance curtain

¢

`g›

bamboo blind

Þ ä« ä Ø© = R-806

R-807

R-808

A R-

Ø©

2643

Ø©−û

soot and smoke

A

``

soot

± ¿ï« © R-1204

R-1205

ã

Ò Ã© ±

R-1208

R-1209

é R-

R-1204

©

ª

¦

R-1205

R-1206

R-1207

¿ï«

2644

2770

é1

¿ï«»

a bell and drum

é

Qt

bell clapper

t Éï« – R-1168

R-1169

Š

R-1170

R-1171

Ы

Y

s

R-1172

R-1173

Éï«

2645

—{

B

]

R-

2541

Å«

Éï«¿

R

2755 saké holder

Š Æ« †

Š


270

GROUPS A & B

Å

R-1188

R-1188

R-1193

MIXED GROUPS

R-1191

R-1192

R-1193

B R-1190

; R-

2646

Å çÅ

I;

R-1175

R-1177

8 R-

2647

fermented bean paste

ô é ¨

¨ Àï« µ R-1174

2177

R-1174

µ

¼

R-1175

R-1176

Àï« 8˜Q 8

HS˜Q HS˜

2438 clear used in names

“ î«%«%î R-1754

· R-

2648

« % î % î« ú·

Îûî«

divine favor; providence

· ·U

`W f`U

used in names aid; assist

Ç

R-

2649

2126

î«

2599

ÇÙ

î«ÚÌ

secretary; amanuensis

Ç Ç Ç Ç Ç

[h `W f`U h ‰`

used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names


ø ²û ù R-1270

R-1269

î

*

R-1271

R-1272

Ü R-

2650

2651

2652

2653

snoring voice

Ü

JzS

snoring

²û ²û³©

drought damage

!

yn™

drought

²û

2654

²ûЫ

top of a pole

4

[P

pole

²û †

R-1265

^P™

2655

2523 bookmark

Ì À%É ¸ R-1266

¿

x

R-1267

R-1268

ì v™

Ыì

÷ R-

2632

4w

™ R-

2441

!“

× Ç© Æ R-1264

R-1275

2944

²ûé

† R-

R-1274

ܹ

4 R-

: ¹û Û ³û M R-1273

²û

! R-

271

GROUPS A & B

MIXED GROUPS

2137 training; cultivation

Ç© ÷p

†o¥p

2871 almost


272

GROUPS A & B

Î R-

Ç©

2656

ò

»

R-1215

ÃûÇ©

mosses

Î }Î

YW u™

moss seaweed

ü

û

R-1218

R-1217

·

Ê R-1220

stopgap; makeshift

õ õ

^”Lo ^”LoŒ

mother-in-law mother-in-law

R-1233

Š

+

R-1235

R-1236

R-1237

R-1238

‚ àû ‘

²

R-1240

R-1235

R-1234

ãû % ×û

2902

äƒ

èãû

rebellion; insurrection

ƒU

d‹U

disobey

7 Ãû ò

R-1259

, R-1260

) ½û ` ¾û m R-1261

” 2659

š Øû ‡ R-1239

6 ãû ‚ R-1241

ƒ 2658

2205

»Å·

R-1234

R-

´ï

õ”

‚ ×û * R-1234

R-

N R-1219

»

2657

Çû

2356

ðÎ

õ R-

MIXED GROUPS

R-1262

Ãû “”

ÛûÃû

R-1263

2991 letter paper


( R-

Ãû

2660

ä

©

5 R-

´Ãû

high and low (social rank)

(^J

J“^J

lowly; humble

e −© Å ²û H

j

T

R-1221

R-1222

R-1223

5 5

R-1210

H^ —^

2411 reeds reeds

R-1212

R-1213

R-1214

²Ì

2662

´

2663

²ËЫ

confrontation; discord

Ò

Ua

kudzu; arrowroot

i

l

_

k

R-1253

R-1254

R-1255

R-1256

µ

¼

R-1257

´

A R-1258

2643

ÃM

×´

winnowing fan

M

Š

winnow; winnowing fan

¹ 2664

2398

Òn

M

R-

R-1225

Ð −Ì Œ ¹© Í

Ó R-1211

Ò

R-

R-1224

©

2661

¤

2735

{(

© ²Ì Ì

R-

273

GROUPS A & B

MIXED GROUPS

´ ¹v

´òû

2840 giraffe


274

GROUPS A & B

§ »«

2665

ÍY

²Ë»«

shape; form

Í‘

HfQ‘

as if

»«

2666

b

³

R-784

) R-

2667

°›

Ç©»«

R-786

)N )Nš

[N [Nš

R-360

2669

2134 intelligent; bright be clear; serene

Àï« Ï

) R-361

Ω

2587

ÛQG

Ω׷É

anchorage; mooring

Û

JQ™

anchor

4 R-

father of the Imperial adviser

R-787

Û 2668

2776

»%¼

Ï Î©

2281

e Àì î

h R-785

R-360

R-

R-1813

»«%²Ë

› R-

B

¿í«%Àî«

R-1074

Í R-

§

³Ì%¼«

MIXED GROUPS

Çû

2670

&4

×Çû

failure; bankruptcy

4zš

†Yœzš

unravel


Â

¿

˜

§

R-522

R-523

 R-

2670

Û R-

2671

¿

2672

¿³û

this shore (this world)

Â

Y›

this one

½© Û

^w

2673

2044 brushwood

½©

2045

ô÷

À﫽©

fort; citadel

÷

o™n

fort; forti³cations

Ô R-

2043

ÂM

÷ R-

275

GROUPS A & B

MIXED GROUPS

½

2046

Ôú

½½©

triµing; trivial

ÔQ Ô^

J[[Q `Y^

slightly small amount

Ø ´ï« R-1828

|

R-

2674

Àíû

2318

|

Àíû¿û

pure and immaculate heart

| | | | | |

Hk Hk^ HS S— S—^ ‰Yo

used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names


276

GROUPS A & B

R-

2675

Àíû

2676

Àíû²

re³nement; sublimation

‡J ‡ ‡

HkJ Hk Hk^

warm; cordial used in names used in names

Àíû%Ðû −J − −

HkJ Hk^ ‰Yo

°

R-

2677

Ðû»«

simplicity; naivete

° ° ° ° ° °

Hk^ Hk kš u} P[‹ ko‹

used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names

i R-1248

R-1251

j äû ! R-1250

Þû%Þ _

R-1252

d 2678

used in names

R-1249

Úû%Ûû ú ×û ™

R-

2931

°R

R-1247

R-1246

Ýû dz

2279

warm; cordial used in names used in names

Ðû

_ Ýû g R-1246

2751

‡5

− R-

MIXED GROUPS

ÝûÅ«

2246 get-up; disguise


s Á© x R-736

R-737

ƒ î« Ì R-738

R-739

³ R-

277

GROUPS A & B

MIXED GROUPS

È

2679

³È

È−´

2165 saliva; sputum

_GROUP C_ ¡

ã

¢

ª

œ

R-61

R-62

R-63

R-64

F R-

2680

2681

F‰

ÞÑ«

2682

2378 grape; grapevine

ã%Ý

2730

£Õ

ã½

assistant; counselor

£ £U

`W f`U

used in names to help; assist

¡ R-

Þ R-650

Þ%ã

£ R-

Ý

ã ¡ ¡

yœ^ v_Œ

2097 used in names used in names


278

GROUP C

š R-

ã

2683

ãÑ«

šŠ

› R-

²

R-788

›–

G R-789

2685

2686

R R-

2687

Z R-

2688

2689

ridges in ³elds

R-790

²%³

2115

²È

8/

³ñû

song in praise of the Buddha (gatha) temple; monastery

8

oT

nursing

²

2852

²Ö«

approval; appreciation

?} ? ?

—œY} —^ yœ

rejoice used in names used in names

² R({)

q`

2372 eggplant

² öZ

¿ë²

Ú R-

2918

g

³

? R-

paved road

㹩

8 R-

2975

ã

2684

;

MIXED GROUPS

2959 Shakyamuni the Buddha

² Úç

»2Ú2

2962 coffee


MIXED GROUPS

j R-

2690

²%³

2691

2803

²¼

palanquin; litter

ëj

¿ë³

imperial carriage

w R-

279

GROUP C

¹ wá

2700 monk’s surplice

¹½

O ¿û E Éû ¥ R-923

R-924

R-925

0 R-

2692

Îû 0

‰S

& R-

2693

2694

&=

ÎûæÌ

ù¢

R-742

details; full account

Îûå

ü

2190 ³ll up; compensate for

þ Ãû ü

R-740

R-741

é

2695

2789

Îû

B ½© ð

R-

Chinese black pine

Îû

ù R-

2492

R-743

½©

2704

²©½©

shout of delight

é é é é é

Q Qq hQ v_Œ “

question mark; used in names indeed; used in names used in names used in names used in names


280

GROUP C

W R-

2696

ÃÌ

2697

ÃÌÄû

distinct; sharp

sever; cut

Ç© ™È

Éï«È©

´ é%¿ï« ¥ R-1281

R-

1282

§ R-1283

2698

ì R-

2699

« é ³ ½û c

2700

2701

R-1285

2750

·À#

²·Ã©¾©

stimulant; drug

À‰`

[‰`

to wake someone

é ì

PJ

2910 nephew

¿ï«

2628

r1

¿ï«»

µutes and drums

r

^–Lu|N

13- or 19-reed pan µute

6 R-

R-1286

é

r R-

2702 accept; receive

R-1284

À R-

2703

W5

È R-

MIXED GROUPS

Å

2940

Åé

resuscitation; rebirth

—ŠRNš

revive; resucitate


MIXED GROUPS

281

GROUP C

² »· µ Æ« ‹ R-926

R-927

R-928

– R-

»«

2702

ï

Ý·

–©

»«¿

pearly-white teeth

– –

HS˜ yœ^

used in names used in names

S

O

Q

R-745

R-746

R-747

è R-

) R-748

2703

2731

èâ

Ý·¿ë

radiation (of heat, light, etc.)

è

spoke of a wheel

ÚÌ Úê

ÚËÅ·

R-1396

µû F

Ç©

R-1400

É ºû ï R-1397

R-1398

Q ³û Q R-1399

R-1399

Ñ R-1401

Ð 2705

2420 dropping out of the picture after a failure

2704

ß »û Í

R-

Ý Ý·

Ú R-

2934

»û

2578

ÐÔ

Ȟ̫

traces; vestiges

Ð

Ho

scar


282

GROUP C

s Ω à Éï« s R-1458

Ы

R-1464

a

È

R-1463

R-1458

2706

2707

2708

ΩÃû

beach line

Ú Ú

qT[ ŠT¡

beach waterside

Ω ūΩ

book-binding

æ

UT

nail

R-1323

0

É

R-1324

2709

E R-1321

N Éï·%À´ Ÿ R-1322

R-1325

¿ï· +

R-1328

vr

§

Ы

R-1329

¡ R-

2766

X ôû £ ➚

R-1462

2312

Úû

+ R-

z Éï r R-1461

Ω

Ÿ ¿ï· 1 R-1325

™ R-1460

¸

æ R-

‰ R-1459

R-1465

Ú R-

MIXED GROUPS

2183 clay

X R-1326

L Éû ¦ R-1327

R-1330

ôû

2542

¡é

ôû³

brick

¡š

temper; soften


MIXED GROUPS

@ R-

²û

2710

²ûºû

admonition

@Œš

J[Œš

remonstrate

R-1500

Î ÄÌ â R-1501

²Ì

2711

R-

·

R-1470

e

va

P ±« õ R-1471

R-1472

O 2712

2713

2646 expectation; should

ö Á« Š R-1473

R-1474

·

2986

¾O

õ«·

old bones; advanced age

O

Q˜g

body

û R-

R-1503

R-1505

e

R-

Ê

÷

R-1502

 ¹© ‹ R-1504

J

2708

â ²Ì Ï À

283

GROUP C

±« û

Q‘Œ

2828 seagull


284

GROUP C

3 §û K ©û ‘ ➚

R-1301

R-1299

3 ±û 3 R-1300

M R-

À

R-1433

Ы

f

»

ò﫧û

court (national) mourning

M MJ

“Š U˜J

darkness dark; shadowy

³

¬

´

R-1434

R-1435

R-1436

2715

Ú

R-1432

R-1438

з

R-1440

»

À

2575 hemorrhoids

ÁU ÁNš Á

« R-1430

‰U LNš ‰S

¬ ש , R-1431

2717

2395 to sow to plant used in names

R-1426

± R-

¡ Ç© Å R-1437

À

2716

À

¿

À

Á R-

2777

eM

R-1439

R-

R-1300

§û

2714

±

MIXED GROUPS

8 R-1427

1 ¾© & R-1428

R-1430

Ú

2897

±ë‰

ÚQ¡Éï«

town in Shimane Prefecture

± ´x±

H“

JSRJ

used in names reason for living


MIXED GROUPS

¹ R-

Ú

2718

ÚZJ

red (gold) carp

¹ ¹

HQ HW

red red; crimson

Ú

2719

Úä«

slander; calumny

½š

d^š

accuse; slander

ש%Ú

2720

µ

Ú

R-1418

Ø

2724

½4

ç R-

2659

¹G

½ R-

285

GROUP C

Úç

»2Ú2

2963

coffee

¼

ª

´

°

R-1419

R-1420

R-1421

R-1422

×

&

#

R-1423

R-1424

( R-1425

• R-

2721

× ‡•

àûÙ

partiality; favoritism

•š

`Y}š

exceedingly; extremely

à R-

2722

2793

× ÃM

×´

2647 winnowing fan


286

GROUP C

œ Øû

v áû ”

©Ì

R-949

R-1868

› R-

2723

Øû²

eulogy; dirge

›U

yU

grind (meat)

Z

[

R-777

R-778

Y 2724

allegory; fable

Ω

2969

Óæû

20,000 (old form)

æ©

2726

Ы

R-1441

q R-1441

¢L

2727

2970

»«æ©

lofty; noble

d

y

:

w

R-1442

R-1443

R-1444

R-1445

Ð

:

w

R-1444

R-1445

w ã« Ì Éï« ˜ Çû 1 R-1445

R-1446

q R-

2211

¸«÷

L

Â

R-779

æû

2725

q

T

¸ ¸«

©

R-

2244

›H

R-776

R-

R-952

Øû

2 ¸« X

R-

MIXED GROUPS

R-1447

R-1448

Ы%Â

2423

qK

Ыòí«

stayover; sojourn

q{}

¿¿

city near Kamakura


MIXED GROUPS

ð«

Þ ì· ¨ Ç· æ R-976

R-2076

ç R-

2728

2729

çU ç ç

QR“U HS˜ mš

™U ™

Ÿ Øû%×û

2731

2534 shine brightly used in names

” R-2152

Øû £º

Øû¿ï«

ü R-

shine; sparkle used in names used in names

QR“U mš

£ 2730

2880

ð«

R-948

R-

R-2208

ð«

™ R-

287

GROUP C

2381 red pepper

×

2262

ü)

׿í

sowing; planting

üU

‰U

to sow


288

GROUP C

,

ð«

î R-1370

Û Éï« ‘ R-1371

MIXED GROUPS

Ы

R-1372

_ R-1373

Àï« õ ¿ï« ¥ R-1374

R-1375

R-

Éï«

2732

H…

òí«Éï«

µuent (in speaking)

… … … … … …

Jfš Qp qR u} ‰[ Šk

used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names

ß R-

2885

ð«

2733

2473

ß‹

ð«À

toothpick

ß ß

“` “qT

used in names willow

In the following group, take note of certain similarities that seem to create “pure” groups within an otherwise mixed group by the addition of a second element.

Œ ¿ï • ➚

Éï

R-1362

Œ

R-1363

R-1364

R-629

q

o

R-1365

R-1366

R-1367

Ð

” ¿ë é R-1367

@

=

R-1368

R-1369

R-1360

Ì

@ R-1368

¿ï ‘M

¿ï»«

æ R-1361

2448 ³rst light of dawn


MIXED GROUPS

R-

2734

‘ ‘

HW‡u HS˜

— R-

2735

2736

2737

²û¿ï

sweet potato

J‘

potato

¿ï

2738

²û¿ï

sweet potato

˜

J‘

potato

Éï ÇÃ

Éí«Éï

2739

2740

hesitation; warning 2118

„2

Éïò

pro³ts; earnings

„W „Wš

‘LW ‘LWš

pro³ts make a pro³t

Ð H2

§ûÑ

5 R-

2994

Éï

2 R-

2402

„ R-

2365

1—

à R-

dawn; daybreak used in names

¿ï

˜ R-

289

GROUP C

2192 feeling of relief

Ð

2217

ÐÀï«

slaughterhouse

†|š

defeat


290

GROUP C

ª ñ· $ ➚

R-1355

òë· F

%

& ²· ª

R-1356

R-1357

R-1351

R-1359

2741

2742

#_

ñ·Éí«

2743

2302 in Kyoto

ñ·

2545

q|

ñ·©û

branding; stigma

qU

U “U

to burn

¬ R-

ª R-1354

ñ·

q R-

¼ R-1353

R-1354

# R-

° R-1352

 ´ë· ª

³·

R-1358

MIXED GROUPS

õ ̬

÷©õ

2738 bribe

In the following group, the primitive must stand alone and on the right to qualify as a signal primitive.

Ù òï« ^ ´ï«%¹© Ù º© « ➚

R-2177

R-938

E R-

2744

òë·

2745

2247

òë·ÈÌ

pillage; looting

EŒš

Q`Œš

to plunder; loot

a R-

R-1917

òï« a a

‹UuS U˜

2474 gray starling used in names


MIXED GROUPS

e R-

òï«

2746

ò﫧û

court (national) mourning

e e

‰Yo [o^

used in names used in names

ø Àë·

ÀëË´

provocation

ûU

yU

to attract; solicit

R-1386

: ³© š

²

R-1388

— R-1385

R-1389

f 2748

¹© f

– 2749

$ R-

R-1384

š Ý«%ã« I R-1384

R-

2429

û|

‚ ¹© ” R-1387

R-

R-1760

Àë·

2747

²©

’ È· ë

з

R-2190

û

2710

eM

R-1962

R-

291

GROUP C

2750

2932 used in names

¹© – –

Hc Lt

2571 ridge between rice ³elds ridge; furrow

¹© $

[W

2815 salmon


292

GROUP C

ƒ R-

¹©

2751

ƒK

¹©Å

§

2752

$ R-

¿

R-1402

£¹

§Ã©

raucous voice

£

QNš

a frog

$^J

LkU^J

R-1403

R-1404

µ

Z R-

2754

2755

2200 beautiful

ΠR-1405

´

c R-1406

µ%´

2122

Z© HEZ

µº© ²Þ´

arts; handicrafts Kabuki

Z Z

¡T U›

used in names used in names

‰ R-

2693

§©

2753

2564 silicon

£ R-

MIXED GROUPS

µ ‰·

µõ«

2199 brothel

This next group of charcters, you may recall, was given special attention in volume II because of the overlap of readings. Having come this far already, it is no doubt clear to you that this exception has become rather the rule in volume III.


MIXED GROUPS

3 ¿ï· 4

ô Æ R-932

R-934

R-933

R R-

ð«

R-1449

´¿

µag; banner; one’s position

R

u‡™

a banner; a streamer

á

à

ï

R-1450

R-1451

R-1452

R-1456

å R-1455

Ë

2757

´

2758

Ì«ð«

itching; interest

_J

Q•J

ichy

g R-1520

‚ ¸û t «û ± R-1521

R-1522

R-1523

«û

2439

±=

ºû«û

vertigo; dizziness

= =` =Wš

Q[ ‡Q` ‡Wš

halo shade off; blur fade; grow dim

Þ 2759

2572

−_