Page 1

remembering the kanji ii


Introduction As the title suggests, the present book has been prepared as a companion volume to Remembering the Kanji: A Complete Course on How Not to Forget the Meaning and Writing of Japanese Characters. It presumes that the material covered in the ³rst book has already been mastered and concentrates exclusively on the pronunciation of the Japanese characters. Those who approached the study of the kanji in a different manner may ³nd what is in these pages of some use, but it has not been designed with them in mind. As I explained in the Introduction to the former volume, if it is the student’s goal to acquire pro³ciency in using the Japanese writing system, the entire set of “general-use characters” (øä+°) need to be learned. To insist on studying them in the order of importance or frequency generally followed in Japanese schools is pointless if some other order is more effective as a means to that ³nal goal. A moment’s reµection on the matter is enough to dispose of the common bias that the methods employed by those who come to Japanese as a foreign language should mirror the methods used by the Japanese themselves to learn how to read and write. Accumulated experience and education—and in most cases an energetic impatience with one’s own ignorance— distinguish the older student too radically from Japanese school children to permit basic study habits to be taken over with only cosmetic changes. A clearer focus on the destination should help the older student chart a course more suited to his or her time, resources, and learning abilities—and not just run harder and faster around the same track. Perhaps the single greatest obstacle to taking full advantage of one’s privileged position as an adult foreigner is a healthy fear of imposing alien systems on Japanese language structures. But to impose a system on ways of learning a language does not necessarily mean to impose a system on the language itself. To miss this distinction is to risk condemning oneself to the worst sorts of inef³ciency for the worst sorts of reasons. Obviously the simplest way to learn Japanese is as the Japanese themselves do: by constant repetition, without interference, in a closed cultural environment. Applied to the kanji, this involves drilling and drilling and drilling until the forms and sounds become habitual. The simplest way, alas, is also the most time-consuming and frustrating. By adding a bit of organized complexity to


2

introduction

one’s study investments, the same level of pro³ciency can be gained in a fraction of the time. This was demonstrated in the ³rst volume as far as the meaning and writing of the characters are concerned. By isolating these skills and abstracting from any relationship they have to the rest of the language, a ³rm foundation was laid for the next step, the assignation of sounds or “readings” to the individual characters. That is the subject of this book. The earlier volume was described as a “complete course”; the present volume is offered as a “guide.” The differences between the two books are as important as the similarities. While both books are intended to be self-taught and allow individual readers to progress at their own pace, the former traced out a path step by step, in a clearly de³ned order. Here, however, the material is presented in such a way that it may be followed frame by frame or may be rearranged freely to suit the particular student’s needs. The reason is that the readings of the kanji do not allow for any more than a discontinuous systematization: blocks of repeating patterns and clusters of unpatterned material organized under a variety of rubrics. In fact, the only thing ironclad about the method is the assumption that the student already knows what the characters mean and how they are written. Without that knowledge, the systematization becomes all but opaque. In any event, it is important to gain some understanding of how the book as a whole is laid out before deciding how best to make use of it. The book falls into two parts of wildly disproportionate length. The ³rst ten chapters cover the Chinese or on readings (3œŠ); the last chapter, the Japanese or kun readings (rœŠ). This should not give the impression that the on readings themselves are so much more dif³cult than the kun readings, but only that their systematization requires much more attention. What is more, the method followed in Chapter 11 is closer to that followed in Vol. i and can thus be treated in relatively short shrift. One of the chief reasons for frustration with the Chinese readings is not that there are so many kanji to read, but that there are so few readings to go around, creating a massive confusion of homonyms to the uninitiated. No sooner does one attempt to establish a set of rules to rein in this phenomenon than exceptions begin to nibble away at one’s principles like termites until the entire construction begins to look like a colossal waste of effort. True enough, there are exceptions. A lot of them. But there is also a great deal of consistency which can be sifted out and structured for the learning. The principal aim of the ³rst ten chapters is to isolate these patterns of consistency and use them to the fullest, holding brute memory at bay as long as possible. To this end I have introduced what are called “signal primitives. By this I mean primitive elements within the written form which signal a particular Chinese reading. Since most of these primitive forms were already assigned a meaning


introduction

3

in the ³rst book, the strategy should come as a welcome relief and carry you well over one-third of your way through the on readings. Whatever readings fall outside the compass of this method are introduced through a variety of devices of uneven dif³culty, each assigned its own chapter. Chapter 1 presents 56 kanji which form the parent-kanji for the forms of the hiragana and katakana syllabaries and whose readings are directly related to the modern kana sounds. 49 of them are Chinese readings, 7 are Japanese. Chapter 2 covers a large group of characters belonging to “pure groups” in which the presence of a given signal primitive entails a uniform sound. Chapter 3 presents the small group of kanji whose readings are not homonyms and may therefore be learned in conjunction with a particular character. Chapter 4, conversely, lists characters with no on reading. Chapter 5 returns to the signal primitives, this time gathering together those groups in which a signal primitive entails a uniform sound—but with a single exception to the pattern. These are called “semi-pure” groups. Chapter 6 brings together readings drawn from everyday words, all or nearly all of which should have been learned during the course of a general introduction to Japanese conversation. Allowing for occasional slight shifts of meaning from those assigned the kanji in the ³rst volume, the only work that remains to be done is to see how Japanese puts the pieces together to create new meanings. Chapter 7 returns one ³nal time to the use of signal primitives, picking up what characters can still make use of the device and subdividing them into three classes of “mixed-groups” where a given primitive elements can signal two or more different sounds. Chapters 8 and 9 follow the pattern of Chapter 6, except that the compounds will be less familiar and require learning some new vocabulary. The only thing these kanji have in common is that they do not belong to any natural phonetic group. The most useful compounds are presented in Chapter 8. The generally less useful compounds of Chapter 9 are all introduced with explanatory comments. Chapter 10 is a wastepaper basket into which I have thrown the remaining readings: uncommon, rare, or generally restricted to proper names. All the kanji from Chapters 1 through 10 are arranged in a frame of uniform design (see FIgure 1 on the following page). Taken together, they cover the entire range of on readings established as standard by Japan’s Ministry of Education. Five indexes have been added to facilitate reference and review. Index 1 lists all the signal primitives, arranged according to number of strokes, and the frame in which they ³rst appear. Index 2 presents a listing of all the kanji treated in this and the former volume, arranged according to the number of


4

introduction

strokes. Index 3 lists, in syllabic order, all the on readings, their respective kanji, and the number of their respective frames. Index 4 lists all the kun readings and their respective kanji. Together these two indexes constitute a complete dictionary of readings for the general-use kanji. Index 5 follows the frame sequence of the ³rst book, giving the kun readings and the frame(s) in which the on reading is introduced in this book. The frames have been arranged to facilitate reviewing: if you block out everything to the right of the compound used as an example, the student is able to run a simple self-test from time to time. For more thoroughgoing review, the µashcards that were prepared according to the design given in Chapter 5 of the ³rst volume can be completed, with the aid of the Indexes. A complete explanation is provided in Chapter 11.

frame number

Chinese reading

1965

þ

exemplary compound

internal cross-reference

äû

342

ƒJ‡¥

commonplace; ordinary

pronunciation of compound

cross-reference to Vol. i

62

meaning of compound

figure 1

Although the principles that govern the structure of this book will become clearer as the student grows more familiar with the content, there are a few points that seem worthy of mention at the outset. They represent both the courtesies I paid my own memory in learning to read Japanese and the pitfalls I watched fellow students fall into following other methods. As time goes on, you may or may not choose to follow them, but at least you should know what they are. First, relating one compound to another by means of similarities of sound is to be avoided at any cost. It merely clutters the mind with useless information. The fact that the two svllables sensei can mean teacher (å´) or astrology (ç«) or despotism (é£) or oath (è½), depending on the kanji assigned to them, may come as such a surprise that you are tempted to make some use of the coincidence. Resist the temptation. Second, it is best not to try to learn on and kun readings at the same time for the same character. The idea of “conquering” a character in its entirety will be supported by nearly every textbook on the kanji you pick up, but is nearly


introduction

5

as mistaken as trying to lead to write and read the kanji at the same time. Once you have learned the general-use characters, you will have a much better base from which to learn the meaning, writing, and readings of new characters en bloc as you meet them. Until then, cling to the Caesarean principle of “divide and conquer.” Third, with few exceptions, it seems preferable to learn the several possible Chinese readings of a given character as they come up, in isolation from one another. When second or third readings appear, reference to earlier frames will inform you of the fact. You will no doubt notice that the quickest way to complete the information on your µashcards is to rush to Index 5 and start ³lling them in. If you do, you might end up with a tidy set of cards that are no longer of any use for review, or else ³nd yourself reviewing what you haven’t yet studied. In either case, you would be sidestepping the entire method on which this book is based. Be sure to read the instructions on pages 297–8 before doing anything with your cards. Fourth, certain Japanese sounds undergo phonetic alterations when set alongside other sounds. For example, sû, Ìû, Xû, are read ippon, nihon, sambon, the syllable hon being like a chameleon that changes to suit its environment. Some of these alterations are regional, some standard. In any case, they are best learned by trial-and-error rather than by a set of rules that are more complex than they are worth. Fifth, a word about Chinese compounds (lB, _”UZ). With a grain of salt, one might compare the blend of Japanese (kun) and Chinese (on) words to the blend of Anglo-Saxon and Latin-Greek words in English. Generally, our words of Anglo-Saxon root are richer in meaning, vaguer, and more evocative than those of Latin-Greek root, which tend to precision and clarity. For instance, the word “glass” can suggest a whole range of possible images and meanings, but as soon as we substitute its Latin equivalent, “vitrine,” we have narrowed it down to a more concrete meaning. The presence of Chinese words (generally a compound of two or more on readings) in Japanese performs a similar narrowing, specifying function, while the native Japanese words reverberate wider and deeper meanings. In the same way that we combine Anglo-Saxon words with Latin-Greek words (for example, in the term “³berglass”), Japanese will occasionally mix on and kun readings in the same compound. As a rule, I have avoided these in the exemplary compounds. The order of preference in choosing examples was roughly as follows: 1. a compound that includes a reading appearing in a previous frame; 2. a compound in ordinary use; 3. a compound that uses a reading to appear soon after the frame in question; 4. the most common or instructive compound;


6

introduction

5. a name of a person or place; 6. rare or archaic compounds. The student is encouraged to substitute familiar compounds at any time for the examples I have chosen. Sixth, the use of signal primitives demands the same rigor applied to primitive elements in Vol. i. Where a single jot or tittle of difference is present, the element is excluded. Additional attention will have to be paid to the position of the primitive, which was not important in the earlier book. Seventh, I would register a plea against trying to begin with the two volumes of Remembering the Kanji at the same time. I wash my hands (or as Japanese would have it, my feet) of all responsibility for the results. That having been said, there is no reason that these pages cannot be used in conjunction with a set of graded readers. I would only advise that you begin this after having worked your way through Chapters 2 and 5. The bene³t of such an approach is that it enables you to take full advantage of the grammatical and vocabulary drills that such readers provide. At the same time, the commonly heard advice about learning charactcrs “in context” is one that is not as sensible as it sounds. Even if I learn the English word “troglodytic” in sentences such as “I can trace my ancestors back to the troglodytic age” or “There’s a family of troglodytes in my tool shed,” the word still needs to be learned in the ³rst place. New Japanese vocabulary falls on the foreign ear with much the same impact-totally unrelated to anything we already know. The bene³t of a context is that it enables one to drill a number of words and assimilate something of how they relate to one another grammatically and connotatively. Context de³nes the ³ner nuances that usage and tradition have af³xed to the kanji, but the compounds themselves still need to be learned. For this reason, students who wish systematically to make their way through this book frame by frame need not trouble themselves over the absence of context provided they do not abandon all reading practice in the process. Eighth and ³nally, a vigorous warning against the use of rõmaji in learning to read Japanese kanji. Get the idea out of your mind that the Roman alphabet is a “crutch” to help you hobble along until you master the hiragana and katakana syllabaries. It is nothing of the kind. It is rather a slow and sel³nµicted amputation that will leave you crippled for the rest of your Japanesereading years. Not only does the Roman alphabet inµict quirks on your pronunciation, it cultivates a systematic bias against the kana that gets harder and harder to uproot. Be patient with the kana, and never write Roman letters underneath them. The stricter you are in expelling all rõmaji from your study of Japanese words, the quicker you will ³nd that Roman letters become an obstacle to reading and writing, which they are for the Japanese and should be for anyone learning the language.


introduction

7

The manuscript of this book was completed in December of 1977 and privately circulated in the spring of the following year under the title Adventures in Kanji-Land ii: A Guide to Reading Japanese Characters. I decided to issue it in a new edition at this time because of the many letters I received from those who had found pro³t in the ³rst volume of Remembering the Kanji and were anxious to know how further to systematize their study of the kanji. It is my hope that these pages will go some way towards answering that request. It only remains for me to express my thanks to Sasabe Midori Õ/Hk, Ito Akiko QnØ{, and Sasaki Hirofumi Õ/…Nk, who worked zealously to prepare the indexes and set the Chinese characters, and to the Japan Publications Trading Company for their continued interest and support. James W. Heisig Nagoya, Japan 25 October 1986


CONTENTS PREFACE by Tanya Sienko

5

INTRODUCTION

7 PART ONE:

1 2 3 4 5 6

New Primitives & Kanji Primitives Major Primitive Elements Miscellaneous Kanji Western Measurements Phonetic Characters Old & Alternate Forms PART TWO:

7 8 9 10 11 12 13

WRITING 15 28 144 160 162 165

READING

Old Pure Groups New Pure Groups Semi-Pure Groups Mixed Groups A Potpourri of Readings Kanji with Japanese Readings Only Readings of Old & Alternate Forms

14 Supplementary Kanji

177 203 236 264 299 344 355 359

INDEXES

1 INDEX 2 INDEX 3 INDEX 4 INDEX

Number of Strokes Keywords and Primitive Meanings Readings Primitive Elements

371 389 418 487

Layout of Frames for Part One Layout of Frames for Part Two

490 491

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

493


Preface Tanya Sienko

WHEN I FIRST contacted Dr. Heisig with a proposal to add a third volume to Remembering the Kanji, I somehow left the impression that it was my rather esoteric needs as a scientist that left me hankering for more kanji than the 2,042 I had learned with his method. Actually, it was not the technical prose of Yukawa and Tomonaga on ³eld theory that were causing me my biggest headaches but ordinary Japanese novels. Having read mystery novels to polish my reading in other languages, I was disappointed to ³nd that the “essential” or “general-use” characters were simply not enough to gain entry into the Japanese thriller. After just a few chapters, my maiden voyage ended on the rocks. So much for “basic literacy,” I thought to myself. And so was born the idea for this book. During the time of the American Occupation, the Japanese writing system underwent a complete overhaul, which saw the number of Chinese characters to be learned during the years of compulsory education reduced to a bare minimum of 1,850. The idea was to simplify the system and facilitate literacy by removing rarely used kanji from circulation. What the reformers did not count on in their long-range plan was the resistance of the general public to the disappearance of many kanji customarily used for names. Families reacted by continuing to name their children with “traditional” names, but the government refused to register the kanji. This resulted in the bizarre situation where a number of Japanese were growing up legally nameless. In 1951 the Ministry of Education grudgingly backed down and approved another 92 “legal” characters for names, followed by another 28 in 1976. In 1981 the number of “general-use” kanji was increased in 1,945 and in 1990 the


6

PREFACE

kanji approved for use in names was increased to 284. This is the situation at present. Of course, there were still numerous kanji outside the list that continued to be used in place names, or that appeared in books published before the educational reforms and were impractical to update. Over the past twenty years many of these exiled characters have migrated back into daily use. Advertisers often prefer the compactness and precision of older kanji to their phonetic equivalents. Increasing competition has induced universities to include more and more “unof³cial” kanji in their entrance examinations. And popular novelists, as always, cling tenaciously to their cache of little-known glyphs as a mark of the trade. Finally, the ubiquitous word processor has turned the distinction between what is “allowed” and what is “disallowed” into something of an anachronism. For the foreign student who has landed in this mess, there have been only two alternatives: either you adhere to the of³cial list, or you stumble about blindly trying to improve your knowledge as best you can. The idea behind the present book was to offer a third choice: supplementary kanji to lay a solid basis for contemporary Japanese. In addition to the method of selection explained in Dr. Heisig’s introduction, I myself checked the ³nal list against Edward Daub, et al., Comprehending Technical Japanese (University of Wisconsin Press, 1975), which used frequency lists to determine the 500 kanji most used in technical writings. With the exception of characters speci³c to one ³eld, this list is represented in the pages that follow. Of the many people who assisted me in this project, I would like particularly to thank Ronald D. Mabbitt for help in the cross-referencing and for his many useful suggestions on the structure of the book; and Kanda Yumiko P,ÆË{ for checking some of the more obscure compounds.


Introduction THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHER William James once wrote that a great idea goes through three stages on its way to acceptance. First, it is dismissed as nonsense. Then it is acknowledged as true, but insigni³cant. Finally, it is seen to be important, but not really anything new. Time and again history con³rms the wisdom of James’s observation, but it also reminds us that the very same bias that resists the invasion of novelty also serves to swat away many a µea-brained idea buzzing about for attention. In this connection, I must admit I am of two minds about Remembering the Kanji and its companion volumes. I have always had the sense that there was something µea-brained about the whole project. Its reception by students of the Japanese language across the world has been as much a surprise to me as to the publishers, the Japan Publications Trading Company. We had expected no more than a short buzz, followed by a ³rm whack into oblivion. From the start I was convinced that if there was anything important in the method, it surely was nothing new. All I had done, after all, was to put some semblance of order into what students of the kanji had always done: trick their minds into making easily forgettable shapes more memorable. The sales of the books, as well as scores of letters from readers, has convinced me that this is in fact the case. On the one hand, the method seems to have proved itself a natural one suited to large number of students motivated to study the kanji on their own. On the other, it remains virtually useless for classroom instruction. This is hardly surprising, since it aims to do something the classroom cannot do, namely to tap the imagination of the individual at the individual’s own learning pace. To the native speaker of Japanese trained in the traditional school system and trying to teach the Japanese writing system to those whose primary education was outside of the “kanji curtain,” it can only appear a distracting gimmick. For one who does not know from experience the question behind the method, the answer—even if it works—makes no sense. Whatever the merits of


8

INTRODUCTION

Remembering the Kanji as a learning tool, then, its demerits as a teaching tool are beyond redemption. This is probably for the best. To force the expectations of the textbook on the method would probably only end up frustrating everyone—teachers and students. The saving grace of the books is that they are simply too µea-brained to run the circuit of “course work.” Letters from readers have combined expressions of gratitude with more good ideas for improvements than I could ever assimilate into subsequent editions. The misprints that had slipped in along the way, thanks again to alert readers, have been periodically corrected in later printings. For the rest I have let the books stand as they are, reckoning that their unpolished edges encourage the very kind of participation that makes them work in the ³rst place. The one most common request that has haunted me over the years has been for a supplementary volume that would pick up some of the more useful kanji outside the lists propagated as standard by Japan’s Ministry of Education. The request always seemed reasonable enough. When I myself had worked through the of³cial list of kanji, I was left with much the same feeling: learning to write the characters is so simple—now if there were some list that could guide me into learning more of them…. The only solution I could see was to learn new characters as they showed up in reading. Unfortunately, I kept no records, and could only reply to readers that they, too, let their particular reading habits guide their acquisition of new kanji. But I always knew it was not quite the right answer to an important question. Then, about a year and a half ago, Tanya Sienko, a theoretical physicist from the United States employed at Japan’s National Institute of Science and Technology Policy, persuaded me that something concrete could be done. Her idea was for a volume that would aim at raising pro³ciency to the level of 3,000 kanji, based on the methods of volumes I and II of Remembering the Kanji. The present book is the result of our combined efforts. The initial decision to aim at a list of 3,000 characters was not based on any established measure of “upper-level pro³ciency,” but simply out of the need for some parameters within which to begin working. As the selecting of new characters progressed, the decision justi³ed itself and was left to stand. The choice of which kanji to include and which to leave out was far from simple. In 1990 the Ministry of Education published a revised list of characters for use in names, 284 in all. Kanji from this list that had


9

INTRODUCTION

not been covered in volumes I and II were added ³rst, together with all their readings. The next step was to consult a list of 3,505 characters published in 1963 by the National Japanese Language Research Institute.1 Since 1956 the Institute had been issuing periodic reports of research on the frequency with which kanji appeared in various ³elds of study. Based on some 90 academic and popular journals, a team of scholars turned up 3,328 characters, to which the Institute added another 177. Although the list was not based on the Ministry of Education’s list of general-use kanji (øä+°), it includes all the kanji found in the latter (latest revision, 1977) but, as you might suspect, does not include all the characters from the Ministry’s 1990 revised list for use in names. In any case, all new kanji in the list with a frequency of more than 9 were selected. The following chart shows the breakdown of the frequency and the overlay of kanji used for names. The darkened areas represent the ³rst two groups of kanji checked for inclusion in the present volume:

} 3,505 °

The next problem was how to sift through the remaining kanji to reach a total of 3,000. The solution consisted in overlaying a completely new system of classi³cation that has taken the world of Chinese characters by storm since the time of the frequency studies. 1978 marks a watershed in the story of the kanji and in the compilation of frequency lists. It was in that year that the Japanese writing system was converted into computer code, opening the way to the use of the personal computer in Japan. There was never any question that 1

AêÖP£GY)uäBä°B C³C³BÓÁ‹³²D 22 (1963).


10

INTRODUCTION

Japan would march enthusiastically to the drum of the computer revolution. But to do so, some way had ³rst to be found around the obvious impossibility of squeezing the Japanese writing system into the 7-bit character codes that make up the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) character sets. In response to the challenge, the Japan Industrial Standard or JIS was born. From the outset the JIS classi³cation has never wanted for critics, but the complaints were largely mufµed by the sheer thrill of having a simple tool to manipulate the Chinese characters. In the early stages, a ³rst list of less than 3,000 kanji (JIS-12) was installed as standard in personal computers and printers, while a second list of over 4,000 kanji (JIS-2) was sold separately. Writers and specialists grumbled about characters that had been left out of JIS-1 and relegated to the “second-class” status of JIS-2. By the end of the 1980s, both character sets had been adjusted and are now installed as standard in most computer equipment.3 The kanji that had been left out of both lists were another matter. Nearly all word-processing programs have included utilities for creating ‘° or “excluded characters.” Eventually a third set, the JIS-supplement, was devised. To date, it covers an additional 5,801 kanji. This supplement is not yet standard in personal computers and printers, though newer dictionaries include the code numbers that have been assigned.4 In the near future it is reasonable to expect that they, too, will become standard equipment. The control of language, which has been an important cultural weapon in the arsenal of modern governments for the past four centuries and more, has brought political complications to the computerization of the kanji in Japan, often masquerading in the robes of scholarly objectivity. Indeed, the more voracious the popular appetite for computer access to kanji becomes, the more these issues come to the fore. The Ministry of Education, for example, which seems to have felt slighted by 2 JIS-1 includes basic Roman, Greek, and Cyrillic characters, as well as a handful of general-use typesetting symbols. 3 Meantime, the early 1990s saw the arrival of Unicode, a workable worldwide standard, based on 16-bit code, that would cover all writing and symbol systems. By that time the Japanese JIS had already become a permanent ³xture, and adjustments were made to assign it a place in the Unicode structure that would not conµict with Korean and Chinese. 4 For an example of the most up-to-date kanji dictionary, which was relied on heavily for the production of this book, see: à, ±%y[¨°Áq CØ+BnD (Tokyo: Taishðkan, 1992).


INTRODUCTION

11

the designers of the new computer standards, still make no mention of the JIS ’s existence in their of³cial lists of general-use characters. Meantime, efforts by the Ministry to regulate the number of kanji in general use have been undercut by the very computers they use to compose and print their regulations. There is no reason to think that the situation will change in the years to come.5 Most important for our purposes here, the wealth of characters seems to have retarded research into standards of “upper-level pro³ciency.” After its latest revision in 1990, the tripartite JIS list now contains a whopping 12,156 characters but does nothing to address the problem of frequency of use. A simple, if time-consuming, procedure was followed in making the selection of the remaining characters for this volume. First, all kanji that appeared less than 9 times in the National Japanese Language Research Institute list and which also appeared in JIS-1 were included. The selection was then rounded off with a few characters that fell outside these borders but which, from personal judgment, we thought it best to include. Graphically, the ³nal results look like this:

5 For a fuller account of these conflicts, see special issues of C^rQD dealing with +°o»ûÜí2Ç[Kanji and the computer], 1/2 (1990), and J‰+°uy°5¤“L [Rethinking the standardization of the kanji at present], 4/2 (1993).


12

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 14 is intended to reµect the authors’ dissatisfaction with the unavoidable arbitrariness in the selection process. It opens with a list of 7 kanji (3001–3007) deliberately excluded from the selection process: 5 of them from the list of names and 2 from JIS-2 that seem worth learning. Space is left for you to record additional characters that you feel belong to “upper-level pro³ciency.” In future editions, we hope to be able to add to this list of 7, but that will depend on signi³cant numbers of readers sending in their lists for us to compare. Parts One and Two follow, respectively, the methods of volumes I and II of Remembering the Kanji. The layout of the frames has changed somewhat, but a full graphic description is included at the end of the book, after the Indexes. The choice of sample words for on-yomi readings has been made with an eye to providing useful vocabulary wherever possible, but here, too, there was some arbitrariness. In the course of assigning readings to the kanji, a shelf of dictionaries based on the JIS lists was consulted and compared, only to ³nd inconsistencies at every turn. Given the ease with which computerized data can be accessed, one would expect at least an overall accuracy in indexing and cross-referencing. This was not the case. To compensate for this, Index 3 errs on the side of excess, including more readings than are mentioned in the frames of Part Two. The only exception was made for names: only those readings in the Ministry of Education’s updated list are contained in the index. Otherwise, all four indexes cover all the kanji and readings contained in the three volumes of the Remembering the Kanji series. . James W. Heisig Nagoya


PART ONE

WRITING


CHAPTER 1

New Primitives & Kanji Primitives _NEW PRIMITIVES_ We begin our journey to 3,000 kanji with the addition of a few new primitive elements to those already included in volume I. They have been included only if they appear frequently enough in the kanji in general to be useful, or if at least three instances appear in this volume. Each new element is followed by the new characters in which it appears. After this, all the primitives in this volume will already be familiar to you. If you get stuck, consult the comprehensive list in Index 4 at the end of this volume.

2043. this here R-2670

Â

footprint … spoon. [6]

2044. brushwood R-2671

Û

this here … tree. [10]

2045. fort R-2672

this here … stone. [11]

÷


16

NEW PRIMITIVES

2046. whit R-2673

Ô

this here … two. [8]

2047. beard R-3140

Ñ

hair … shape … this here. [16]

* sheik

Ï

top hat … villain … belt … elbow. [10] This element is already familiar from the character ? (I.1492). The reason the part for elbow requires 3 strokes instead of the usual 2 is that the combination of elements l is actually a radical classically de³ned as having 5 strokes.

2048. crystal R-2454

8

jewel … sheik. [15] This is one of the seven classical stones of China.

2049. fowl R-2843

9

umbrella … sheik. [12]

2050. apple R-2844

?

tree … fowl. [16]

* shoeshine rice … sunglasses. [12]

m


17

NEW PRIMITIVES

This combination of elements has already been learned from the character t (I.1311). The assignation of the primitive meaning is almost entirely arbitrary.

2051. sympathize with R-2499

œ

state of mind … shoeshine. [15]

2052. phosphorus R-2496

p

³re … shoeshine. [16]

2053. camelopard R-2498

v

deer … shoeshine. [23] The keyword here refers to a motley-colored mythical creature from China with the body of a deer, the tail of a cow, and the crest and claws of a bird.

2054. scaled R-2497

u

³sh … shoeshine. [23] The “scales” referred to here are the kind found on ³sh, dragons, and so forth.

2055. encompassing R-2583

Õ

St. Bernard … eel. [8] The sense of the keyword is of something that is expansive and covers over everything. When used as a primitive, this will take the meaning of a dachshund. Think here of a particularly large and l-o-n-g one to combine the qualities of the eel and the St. Bernard.


18

NEW PRIMITIVES

2056. hermitage R-2582

I

cave … dachshund. [11]

2057. shrouded R-2584

Ù

³ngers … dachshund. [11] The sense of the keyword does not refer to an actually funeral “shroud,” but only to the sense of being covered over or concealed.

2058. myself R-2585

,

person … dachshund. [10] The keyword refers to a very familiar way of referring to oneself, usually restricted to men.

* streetwalker

¢

We learned this combination earlier in the character p (I.1014) as composed of the elements person … license … walking legs. The primitive meaning covers the sense of one “walking around licentiously.” [7]

2059. make amends R-2501

Ï

state of mind … streetwalker. [10]

2060. steed R-2503

team of horses … streetwalker. [17]

v


19

NEW PRIMITIVES

2061. steep R-2500

q

mountain … streetwalker. [10]

2062. complete a job R-2502

t

vase … streetwalker. [12]

2063. mortar R-2973

¡

back-to-back staples. [6] The mortar referred to here is a stone or wooden basin used for grinding with a pestle. As a primitive element it keeps the same meaning.

2064. father-in-law R-3085

+

mortar … male. [13]

2065. mouse R-2964

Q

mortar … two plows … four drops … hook. [13]

2066. bore R-3039

ß

standing in a row upside down … mortar and walking stick … missile … metal. [28] The sense of the keyword is boring a hole into something.

2067. break R-3043

mortar … soil … missile. [13]

8


20

NEW PRIMITIVES

2068. small craft R-2383

9

boat … mortar … walking stick … crotch. [15]

* I Ching

p

The appearance of this element looks enough like one of the combinations used in the Chinese Book of Changes, the I Ching, to give us a meaning for this element. Note that there is always something that comes between the two halves to keep them apart. [4]

2069. rhinoceros R-3018

õ

flag … I Ching … walking stick … cow. [12]

2070. lunar month R-3007

Q

white dove … I Ching … needle. [11]

2071. spinal column R-2915

Ñ

I Ching … umbrella … flesh. [10]

* stitching

o

This element is actually a character in its own right, a pictograph of something that has been stitched. [8]

2072. rice-³eld footpath R-3141

Æ

³eld … stitching. [13] The character learned for paddy-ridge in volume ‘ (I.1204) and that for paddy-³eld ridge –, which we will meet in FRAME 2571,


21

NEW PRIMITIVES

both mean the “ridges” that run between rice paddies. The character introduced here refers directly to the ridge that is used as a walking path.

2073. mend R-2918

»

thread … stitching. [14]

2074. let it be R-2473

¹

spike … eight … belt … stitching. [14] Note that the writing of element for spike is interrupted by the element eight. This character—among whose older usages was as a polite form of addressing someone—is now used chiefly in names, except for the famous Buddhist expression that will be introduced when its reading comes up in Part Two.

2075. imperial seal R-2474

º

let it be … jewel. [19]

* hill of beans

W

This element (actually a rather rare character in its own right) is made up of exactly what it says: a hill of beans. [10]

2076. suit of armor R-2486

œ

metal … hill of beans. [18]

2077. triumph R-2485

hill of beans … wind. [12]


22

NEW PRIMITIVES

* sapling

_

drop … St. Bernard. [4] This element is easily confused with the shape of the character ú in such kanji as þ (I.634) and in the element å(I, PAGE 155). It meaning comes from the rather rare kanji on which it is based.

2078. bewitched R-2862

Ø

woman … sapling. [7]

2079. irrigate R-2861

ó

water … sapling. [7]

2080. quaff R-2914

µ

sapling … mouth. [7]

* green onion

{

un- … floor. [9]

2081. leek R-3142

Ú

flowers … green onion. [12]

2082. lottery R-2835

Ã

bamboo … assembly line … ³esta … green onion. [23] The character can also replace assembly line and ³esta with Thanksgiving: Ä. This alternate form is less common, however.


23

NEW PRIMITIVES

2083. penitential R-3047

H

state of mind … green onion. [20] As in the previous frame, assembly line and ³esta can be replace with Thanksgiving: I, though again less commonly.

2084. hay R-3047

M

Think of this element as showing two ricks of dried hay lying on top of each other. The element for bound up is familiar. The 3stroked piece being bound up appeared in the primitive for mountain goat Ã. Think of the goat burying his “missing” horns in the hay to pick them up and toss them.[10]

2085. chick R-2466

Œ

hay … turkey. [18]

2086. scurry R-2465

run … hay. [17] The sense of this keyword is the way someone in kimono runs, taking short steps quickly.

2087. understandably R-3001

chihuahua with one human leg. [4] The sense of the keyword is that something “stands to reason.”

2088. training R-3001

wheat … chihuahua with one human leg … delicious. [15]


24

KANJI PRIMITIVES

2089. immense R-3035

G

cliff … chihuahua with one human leg … shape. [9]

_NEW KANJI FROM OLD PRIMITIVES_ We close this ³rst chapter with a handful of kanji that were already learned as primitive elements but not as kanji in their own right. The only thing you will have to learn now is their keyword meaning, which does not in each case accord with the meaning they have been assigned as primitive elements. Try to relate the two meanings together if this causes confusion.

2090. grab R-2565

ô

vulture … tree. [8] We already met this combination in the characters ï, û, and í (1.733, 734, 1714).

2091. a R-3143

E

mouth … floor … ³esta. [8] This character is roughly equivalent to the inde³nite article a in English or to the phrase a certain… It appears as a primitive in the characters o and Î (I.356, 614).


25

KANJI PRIMITIVES

2092. chop off R-2411

k

car … axe. [11] You may recall that this character already appeared as a combination of primitives in the character l (I.1134).

2093. rabbit R-2839

0

drop of … day on its side … human legs … drop of. [8] The older form from which the rabbit primitive was derived is actually −, but the abbreviation in this frame has, with the support of its listing in the ³rst JIS list, come to take over. Note that the primitive for rabbit q (I, P. 421) differs again from both of these by lacking the ³nal stroke. To distinguish the ³rst drop of from the last, you might think of the rabbit’s long ears and short tail.

2094. est R-2770

˜

This is the element we learned as scorpion. We give the Latin word est as a keyword to stress the “classical” µavor of the character, which appears today chieµy in names. [3]

2095. lofty R-2550

#

This was the primitive element we learned as strawman. [8]

2096. comma-design R-2762

ú

The primitive meaning learned in vol. I, mosaic, is close to the meaning of the original character here, which is the shape of a “comma” used in heraldic designs, the most familiar of which has 3 “commas” swirling around each other. (If it is any help in remembering the character, one older meanings is an “elephant-eating snake.”) [4]


26

KANJI PRIMITIVES

2097. offspring R-2682

¡

Thie character, none other than the element we learned as dogtag, is a nickname for a male child and is now chieµy used in personal names. [7]

2098. critters R-3144

Ð

Conveniently, the original kanji of the element we learned as zoo means a counter for animals in general. [5]

2099. violet R-2314

The element we learned as meaning cabbage comes from the kanji meaning for a violet. The addition of the 4th stroke appears in older forms of kanji that use this element also. Here you may think of it as a “purple cabbage” hanging on an overhead tressel of violets to recall the difference. [11]

2100. mandala R-2347

R

Since this character is most familiarly used in transcribing the Sanskrit word mandala, we shall allow its primitive meaning to stand as the keyword for the kanji also. [11]

2101. towel R-3019

2

If we allow the full range of original meanings for the English word towel, which includes cleaning cloths, covering cloths and strips of cloth used in clothing, we can keep the primitive meaning for the keyword here. [3]


27

KANJI PRIMITIVES

2102. quote R-2848

°

The primitive we learned as rising cloud is actually a kanji used to indicate someone’s spoken words. [4]

2103. augury R-2442

í

The primitive meaning of wand is not far from the sense of the original kanji here. [2]

2104. heaven-high R-2350

å

This character was learned as the primitive angel. [12]

2105. shalt R-2551

]

The keyword here is meant to suggest the “Thou shalt” and “Thou shalt not of the commandments. [10]


CHAPTER 2

Major Primitive Elements The kanji treated in this chapter comprise the bulk of PART ONE of this book, some 734 characters in all. Each character is entered under its principal primitive element, and the elements themselves are arranged in their dictionary order.

_: 2106. Yamato R-2534

PERSON_

È

person … committee. [10]

2107. chivalry R-2265

Û

person … scissors. [8]

2108. fed up R-2549

À

person … scroll. [11]

2109. comely R-2504

person … mingle. [8]

I


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

E:F ƒ + 3 / 4

2110. abrupt R-2286

29

_

person … ego. [9]

2111. work a ³eld R-2789

µ

person … ³eld. [7]

2112. minstrel R-2491

}

person … orders. [7]

2113. animal offspring R-2795

o

person … child. [5]

2114. foe R-2788

²

person … nine. [4]

2115. look after R-2685

8

person … add. [7]

2116. triµe R-2313

/

person … cabbage. [12]

2117. biased R-2624

person … ketchup. [15]

{


E:F ƒ + 3 / 4

30

2118. make a pro³t R-2738

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

person … various. [17] If it helps, you can also read the primitives as believe … puppet.

2119. bliss R-2461

L

person … happiness. [10]

2120. emigrant R-2349

Ü

person … angel. [14]

2121. partner R-2790

Q

person … spine. [9]

2122. performing artist R-2754

Z

person … branch. [6]

2123. integrity R-2969

ë

person … mouth … µood. [8]

2124. mate R-3022

H

person … tool. [10]

2125. as is R-3145

person … exhaust. [8]

A


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

E:F ƒ + 3 / 4

2126. adjutant R-2648

31

·

person … right. [7]

2127. fork in a road R-3146

9

person … mouth … heaven. [9]

2128. hire R-2406

Ö

person … commonplace. [13]

2129. memorial R-2423

Ú

person … think. [11]

2130. dried meat R-2852

Ô

person … walking stick … taskmaster … meat. [11]

2131. my son R-3051

m

person … graduate. [10]

2132. make do R-3137

}

person … happenstance. [11] The keyword combines the meanings of the character for make 6 (I.1142) and ` do (I.1918).


: EƒF + 3 / 4

32

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

ICE_

2133. nifty R-2390

¢

ice … wife. [10]

2134. sharp R-2667

)

ice … tusk. [7] The sense of this keyword is broad enough to include “bright,” “clear,” and “on one’s toes.”

2135. wilt R-2766

u

ice … circumference. [10]

2136. pull through R-2353

Y

ice … rice-seedling … walking legs. [10]

2137. metallurgy R-2654

ice … pedestal. [7]

2138. stately R-3045

ice … -times … altar. [15]

Î


:ƒ E+ 3F / 4

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_+

33

WIND_

í

2139. kite R-3105

wind … towel. [5]

½

2140. lull R-3104

wind … stop. [6]

e

2141. earlybird R-2946

wind … bone. [6]

Ð

2142. phoenix R-2934

wind … ceiling … bird. [14]

_3

SABRE_

2143. slaughter R-2528

receipt … sword … metal … sabre. [15]

G


ƒ + E3 /FF 4 S

34

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2144. moment R-3042

Þ

sheaf … tree … sabre. [8] The keyword here is the noun meaning “a brief moment.”

2145. peel off R-2912

M

broom … rice grains … saber. [10]

2146. shave R-2639

Ë

younger brother … saber. [9]

_/ BOUND UP_ 2147. aroma R-3103

Ð

bound up … spoon. [4]

2148. µexed R-2842

bound up … elbow. [4]

Q


3 / E4F S F œ

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

35

_4 CLIFF_ 2149. despondent R-2933

Ñ

cliff … wagging tongue … moon … dog. [14] This character, which carries the sense of being weighted down by the meaningless of life, calls to mind a vivid image of despair in Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra that makes it simple to remember. Walking the dark cliffs at midnight, Zarathustra hears a dog howling. He approaches, and under the light of the moon sees a shepherd lad lying on the ground with a thick, black snake hanging out of his mouth (like a long, wagging tongue, we might add). The snake had crawled in while he was asleep and grabbed on to the lad’s throat. Zarathustra tells him to bite off the head of the snake and become free of the despair that holds him in tortured captivity.

2150. wild goose R-2596

U

cliff … person … turkey. [12]

2151. counterfeit R-2595

T

wild goose … money. [19]

2152. kitchen R-2866

p

cliff … table … glue. [12]

2153. insinuate R-3055

cliff … person. [4]

B


/ 4 ESF F œ {

36

_S

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

MOUTH_

2154. scout R-2627

«

mouth … candle. [10]

2155. derision R-2578

Å

mouth … morning. [15]

2156. reprehend R-3036

f

walking legs … person … mouth. [8]

2157. whisper R-3135

Ø

mouth … three ears. [21]

2158. chatter R-2506

v

mouth … generations … tree. [12]

2159. windpipe R-2598

}

mouth … cause. [9]

2160. quarrel R-2373

mouth … splendid. [13]

X


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2161. gossip R-3147

/ 4 ESF F œ {

37

mouth … revered. [15]

2162. cough R-2768

mouth … acorn. [9]

2163. clamor R-3024

Å

mouth … proclaim. [12]

2164. throat R-2328

V

mouth … marquis. [12]

2165. saliva R-2679

³

mouth … droop. [11]

2166. bash R-2923

ð

mouth … stamp. [5]

2167. ³b R-2571

£

mouth … void. [14]

2168. peck at R-2929

mouth … sow. [10]

à


/ 4 ESF F œ {

38

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2169. curse R-2930

2

mouth … older brother. [8]

2170. barking R-2931

é

mouth … chihuahua. [7]

2171. dangle R-3056

Ä

mouth … towel. [6]

2172. chew R-3148

á

mouth … teeth. [15]

2173. within my ability R-3057

×

mouth … needle. [5]

2174. sides of the mouth R-2967

`

mouth … knot. [7]

2175. stammer R-2876

¡

mouth … beg. [6]

2176. spin a tale R-3149

mouth … new. [16]

w


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

/ 4 ESF F œ {

2177. miso R-2646

39

;

mouth … increase. [14] Miso is the fermented soybean paste commonly used in Japanese cooking as a base for soups and stews.

2178. pop song R-2459

¤

mouth … shell. [10] This character was originally used to indicate songs accompanied by the shamisen but now most commonly refers to pop songs.

2179. scold R-2924

Í

mouth … diced. [5]

2180. city walls R-3058

Ë

mouth … mosaic. [7] This is the parent character from which the primitive Vis derived.

2181. dumbfounded R-3052

²

mouth … tree. [7]

2182. ingest R-3150

mouth … eat. [12]

V


4 S EFF œ { L

40

_F

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

SOIL_

2183. clay R-2708

+

soil … straightaway. [11]

2184. authochthonous R-2569

Æ

soil … monkey. [8] In Chinese astrology and divining, this character refers to “the earthly” and stands counter to ê as the “moist” against the “dry.”

2185. piled high R-2783

À

soil … turkey. [11]

2186. dugout R-2379

¨

soil … overpowering. [17] Compare ª (FRAME 2306).

2187. blemish R-2409

X

soil … empress. [9]

2188. µat R-2554

soil … nightbreak. [8]

&


4 S EF œF { L

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

41

%

2189. wharf R-2482

soil … large city. [11]

ù

2190. stuff up R-2694

soil … true. [13]

Ô

2191. dam R-2432

soil … box … sun … woman. [12]

2

2192. railing R-2739

soil … puppet. [12]

WOMAN_

2193. suckling infant R-2968

¸

two shells … woman. [17]

2194. violate R-2928

three women. [9]

ô


4 S F EœF { L

42

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2195. jealous R-2902

4

woman … rock. [8]

2196. handmaiden R-2621

Š

woman … lowly. [11]

2197. well ³nished R-2635

woman … address. [11]

2198. harlot R-2268

³

woman … prosperous. [11]

2199. courtesan R-2755

woman … branch. [7] Take care not to confuse with harlot in the previous frame.

2200. fair R-2753

$

woman … ivy. [9] The sense here is of someone lovely to behold.

2201. niece R-3020

woman … climax. [9]

l


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

4 S F EœF { L

2202. envy R-2429

43

Ð

woman … rapidly. [13]

2203. mistress R-2305

Á

woman … demand. [17] The sense of the keyword here is the feminine form of “master.”

2204. aged woman R-3089

¨

woman … old man. [9]

2205. mother-in-law R-2657

õ

woman … old. [8]

2206. young miss R-3119

?

woman … shelf. [8]

2207. overjoyed R-2403

woman … rejoice. [15]

a


S F œ E{ LF _

44

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_{

CHILD_

2208. expecting R-3136

¬

³st … child. [5] The keyword here means “pregnant.”

2209. assiduous R-2885

child … taskmaster. [7]

_L

HOUSE_

2210. soothe R-2841

»

house … possession. [9]

2211. imply R-2724

Y

house … Talking Cricket. [12]

2212. extensive R-2613

house … by one’s side … elbow. [7]

]


œ { EL _F [ 2

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

45

»

2213. jail R-2927

house … cow. [7]

ê

2214. block up R-2926

house … celery … animal legs … soil. [13]

2215. Sung dynasty R-2925

[

house … tree. [7]

Ê

2216. venison R-3111

house … six. [7] This character is used for the meat of wild animals in general, particularly boar and deer—hence the choice of the keyword.

__

FLAG_

2217. butchering R-2740

µag … puppet. [11]

5


{ L E_F [ 2 X

46

2218. fart R-2630

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Ö

µag … compare. [7]

2219. rubbish R-2628

`

µag … candle. [10]

2220. buttocks R-3151

:

µag … baseball team. [5]

2221. frequently R-2988

Ý

µag … rice … woman. [12]

2222. corpse R-2792

|

µag … death. [9]

2223. folding screen R-2513

µag … puzzle. [9]

Û


L _ E[F 2 X ¸

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_[

47

MOUNTAIN_

2224. high-reaching R-2513

ˆ

mountain … tall. [13]

2225. rugged mountains R-2354

!

mountain … rice-seedlings … walking legs. [11]

2226. high mountain R-2287

`

mountain … ego. [10]

2227. bluffs R-2441

mountain … cliff … ivy. [11]

2228. mountaintop R-2495

mountain … jurisdiction. [17]

2229. ³t into R-2555

%

mountain … wicker basket … yawn. [12] This character is used to express ³tting one thing into another.

2230. rocky R-2364

Ø


_ [ E2 XF ¸ Z

48

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

mountain … discrimination. [13]

_2

TOWEL_

x

2231. quire R-2878

towel … fortuneteller. [8] The keyword here is a counter for 25 sheets of paper.

g

2232. banner R-3152

towel … dice. [15]

R

2233. pennant R-2756

towel … kazoo. [15]

_X 2234. cleaver R-2249

CAVE_

º


[ 2 EX ¸F Z Y

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

49

cave … wrap. [8]

2235. licensed quarters R-2451

«

cave … enclosure. [14]

©

2236. overhang R-2629

cave … compare. [7]

Ü

2237. hawk R-2597

cave … person … turkey … bird. [24]

º

2238. shire R-3059

cave … soil. [6]

2239. tomb sanctuary R-2577

ë

cave … morning. [15]

BOW_

2240. strengthen R-2830

bow … 2 ³elds … µoors & ceilings. [16] See FRAME 2509 for a similar right-side combination.

é


2 X E¸ ZF K 5

50

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2241. more and more R-2892

¡

bow … reclining … small. [8]

H

2242. loosen R-2771

bow … scorpion. [6]

2243. rice gruel R-3113

æ

rice between two bows. [12]

_Z

FINGERS_

2244. lathe R-2723

³ngers … rabbit. [11]

2245. bump into R-2318

³ngers … juvenile. [15]

2246. disguise R-2678

³ngers … part. [7]

d


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

X ¸ EZF Y K 5

2247. pillage R-2744

51

E

³ngers … capital. [11]

2248. shove R-3060

)

³ngers … elbow … dart. [10]

2249. clutch R-3025

³

³ngers … country. [11]

2250. impress R-2910

Á

³ngers … Nara. [11] The impression referred to here is like that made by a seal on wax.

2251. wrenching R-2574

è

³ngers … wish. [11]

2252. scratch R-2380

d

³ngers … crotch … insect. [11]

2253. assortment R-2358

î

³ngers … two snakes … strung together. [15]

2254. wipe R-2987

³ngers … style. [9]

/


X ¸ EZF Y K 5

52

2255. muster R-2619

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

¥

³ngers … in front. [12] The sense of the keyword here is “to assemble in an orderly fashion.”

2256. deal with R-3153

S

³ngers … separate. [10]

2257. churn up R-2417

³ngers … memorize. [15]

2258. rubbing R-3154

³ngers … learn. [14] The sense here is of rubbing out an image, as in “brass-rubbing.”

2259. press down on R-2289

J

³ngers … relax. [9]

2260. nab R-2330

³ngers … wooden leg. [10]

2261. imminent R-3015

³ngers … µood … evening. [9]

J


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

X ¸ EZF Y K 5

2262. disseminate R-2731

53

ü

³ngers … dice. [15]

2263. interpretation R-2591

¿

³ngers … mouth … ear. [12]

2264. receptable R-2337

â

³ngers … lock of hair. [6]

2265. dedicate R-2518

¼

³ngers … observance. [11]

2266. twirl R-2323

é

³ngers … sort of a thing. [15]

2267. counter for tools R-2276

×

³ngers … courts. [10] This character is for counting scissors, guns, inksticks, oars, etc.

2268. commotion R-2568

ú

³ngers … melancholy. [18]

2269. make headway R-2996

³ngers … walk. [11]

œ


X ¸ EZ YF K 5

54

2270. petting R-2608

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

C

³ngers … non. [15]

2271. sprinkle R-2970

^

³ngers … scatter. [15]

2272. outstanding R-2995

ê

³ngers … feathers … turkey. [17] The concept here is “conspicuously surpass,” or “stick out of the crowd.”

2273. spoils R-2879

Â

³ngers … broom run. [11] Take special care when writing the right side of this character. The ³rst stroke belongs to the element run and is followed by that for broom.

2274. gouge out R-2532

³ngers … guillotine. [7]

f


¸ Z EYF K 5 O

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_Y

55

STATE OF MIND_

2275. wince R-2864

ê

state of mind … gone. [8]

2276. ponder R-2787

Z

state of mind … turkey. [11]

2277. infatuation R-2487

¾

state of mind … knot … heart. [11]

2278. quickwitted R-2492

state of mind … orders. [8]

2279. considerate R-2676

state of mind … receive. [11]

2280. yearn R-2317

ƒ

state of mind … juvenile. [15]

2281. as if R-2665

state of mind … ³t. [9]

Í


Z Y EKF 5 O M

56

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2282. enlarge R-2832

u

state of mind … ashes. [9]

2283. respect for elders R-2640

Õ

state of mind … younger brother. [10]

_K WATER_ 2284. bubble up R-2405

Â

water … courageous. [12]

2285. canal R-2493

J

water … rain … orders. [16]

2286. glistening R-2793

³

water … ray. [9]

2287. bounding main R-2478

water … sun … ray. [13] The sense of the keyword is of a vast and deep body of water.

ï


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Z Y EKF 5 O M

2288. gargle R-3049

57

)

water … bundle … yawn. [14]

2289. continent R-2322

C

water … state. [9]

2290. swirling waters R-2580

µ

water … decameron. [9]

2291. seep R-2775

(

water … nonplussed. [14]

2292. rinse R-2801

¸

water … west. [9]

2293. douse R-2799

water … tree. [7]

2294. teardrops R-2820

«

water … eye. [8]

2295. gushing R-2759

water … chariot. [12]

Þ


Z Y EKF 5 O M

58

2296. grains of sand R-2452

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Ü

water … few. [7]

2297. blaspheme R-2802

water … sell. [10]

2298. lewd R-2850

water … vulture … porter. [11]

2299. roofbeam R-2900

]

water … sword … two drops … tree. [11]

2300. sediment R-2407

+

water … Mr. [16]

2301. widespread R-2443

ˆ

water … ³ngerprint. [5]

2302. old Kyoto R-2741

#

water … each. [9] This kanji originally referred to a place name in China, but in Japan was adopted to refer to Kyoto, where it still survives in the names of places and traditional establishments.


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Z Y EKF 5 O M

2303. thou R-2798

59

Ë

water … woman. [6]

2304. ³lter R-2370

º

water … deer. [14]

2305. on the verge of R-2435

ù

water … repeatedly. [19]

2306. moat R-2378

ª

water … overpowering. [17] This character, used today as an abbreviation for the country of Australia, should be learned in connection with ¨ (FRAME 2186).

2307. spray R-2535

m

water … discharge. [12]

2308. drowning R-2940

ñ

water … weak. [13] Do not confuse with ö (I.707), which is closer to the sense of founder.

2309. port R-2439

water … play music. [12]

Q


Z Y EKF 5 O M

60

2310. solitude R-2445

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

o

water … grove. [11]

2311. abounding R-2941

u

water … revelation. [10]

2312. water’s edge R-2706

Ú

water … spike. [5]

2313. large goose R-2808

£

water … craft … bird. [17]

2314. souse R-2536

/

water … pegasus. [14]

2315. brimming R-2953

u

water … bene³t. [13]

2316. cleanse R-2433

±

water … plump. [7]

2317. inundate R-3017

water … tremendously. [12]

/


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2318. immaculate R-2674

Z Y EKF 5 O M

61

|

water … receive. [11]

2319. de³le R-2826

¾

water … precious. [15]

2320. moisten R-2547

3

water … roof. [12]

2321. rough seas R-2805

À

water … dif³cult. [21]

2322. draw water R-2271

½

water … reach out. [6]

2323. river pool R-3126

ª

water … silent. [17]

2324. cumulation R-2529

I

water … detain. [13]

2325. abyss R-2952

water … golden calf … sabre. [11]

Å


Z Y EK 5F O M

62

2326. chaos R-2610

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

±

water … earthworm. [7]

2327. panR-2545

water … mediocre. [6] The sense of the keyword here is the “all” as in terms like PanAmerican. It is also the character used in mathematics for “partial” as in partial differentials.

2328. strainer R-2863

Y

water … prudence. [18]

2329. drench R-2306

ß

water … demand. [17]

2330. eddy R-3155

÷

water … determine. [11]

2331. fabrication R-3061

Ã

water … sun … soil. [9] The keyword here is meant to suggest not merely something made, but something made with an intention to deceive.


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Y KE5 OF M Q

2333. hatchet R-2814

63

2

father … axe. [8]

2334. grandpa R-2468

father … ear … city walls. [13]

_O

PACK OF WILD DOGS_

2335. sly R-2522

Î

pack of wild dogs … skeleton. [13]

2336. indecent R-2587

Í

pack of wild dogs … be apprehensive. [12]

2337. cunning R-2505

Á

pack of wild dogs … mingle. [9]

2338. racoon dog R-2600

pack of wild dogs … computer. [10]

û


K 5 EOF M Q h

64

_5

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

FATHER_

2332. cauldron R-2813

ß

father … metal. [10] Note the stroke overlap between father and metal.

2333. hatchet R-2814

2

father … axe. [8]

2334. grandpa R-2468

father … ear … city walls. [13]

_O

PACK OF WILD DOGS_

2335. sly R-2522

Î

pack of wild dogs … skeleton. [13]

2336. indecent R-2587

pack of wild dogs … be apprehensive. [12]

Í


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2337. cunning R-2505

K 5 EO MF Q h

65

Á

pack of wild dogs … mingle. [9]

2338. racoon dog R-2600

û

pack of wild dogs … computer. [10]

2339. wolf R-2603

¼

pack of wild dogs … halo. [10]

2340. µustered R-2460

B

pack of wild dogs … shell³sh. [10]

2341. pup R-2444

K

pack of wild dogs … phrase. [8]

2342. fox R-2510

!

pack of wild dogs … melon. [8]

2343. a-un R-2244

À

pack of wild dogs … white. [8] The a-un are lion-like dogs that often grace the front of temples or public buildings in Japan. Their name comes from the ³rst and last letters of the Sanskrit alphabet (transliterated in Japanese as %A) and symbolize a wholeness as in the English phrase “alpha and omega.”


5 O EMF Q h a

66

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS



2344. aim at R-2253

pack of wild dogs ‌ shelf. [8]

“

2345. lion R-2424

pack of wild dogs ‌ expert. [13]

ž

2346. baboon R-2546

pack of wild dogs ‌ dollar sign. [8]

_M

FLOWERS_

2347. tobacco R-3156

}

¾owers ‌ good. [8]

2348. jasmine R-2279

^

¾owers ‌ extremity. [8]

2349. hawthorn R-2280

¾owers ‌ pro³t. [10]

|


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

5 O EMF Q h a

2350. strawberry R-3138

67

U

µowers … mother. [8] Note that the element for mother is written in its full form, not the normal abbreviated form it usually takes when used as a primitive. To help remember this, think of the original pictographic image of the “two breasts of the mother.”

2351. bush clover R-2308

K

µowers … autumn. [12]

2352. technique [old] R-3183

å

µowers … rice-seedlings … ground … fat man … rising cloud. [18] The abbreviation in common use is © (I.421).

2353. trim R-3157

¾

µowers … pheasant. [16] The second element appears in FRAME 2584.

2354. straw raincoat R-3158

R

µowers … declining. [13]

2355. numb R-2533

µowers … committee. [11]

2356. moss

g


5 O EMF Q h a

68

R-2656

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Î

µowers … pedestal. [8]

2357. prodigal R-2450

m

µowers … hot water. [15]

2358. cover over R-2320

v

µower … shredder. [15]

2359. tendril R-2348

H

µowers … mandala. [14]

2360. lotus R-2463

¥

µowers … carry along. [13]

2361. lotus µower R-2517

9

µowers … husband. [7] Even though there is no essential difference in meaning between this kanji and those in the preceding and following frames, the character ¥ is the most common of the three.

2362. lotus blossom R-2300

é

µowers … contain. [13]

2363. orchid R-2400

0


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

5 O EMF Q h a

69

µowers … gates … east. [19]

2364. hollow reed R-2871

6

µowers … door. [7]

2365. yam R-2735

µowers … signature. [16]

2366. iris R-2267

Ý

µowers … prosperous. [11]

2367. banana R-2310

ß

µowers … char. [15]

2368. wick R-2806

T

µowers … heart. [7]

2369. buckwheat R-2351

÷

µowers … angel. [15]

2370. butterbur R-2298

M

µowers … path. [16]

2371. indigo R-2638

µowers … oversee. [18]

/


5 O EMF Q h a

70

2372. eggplant R-2687

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

R

µowers … add. [8]

2373. bullying R-2250

Q

µowers … can. [8]

2374. behind the scenes R-2404

µowers … shade. [14]

2375. wormwood R-2283

È

µower … tryst. [13]

2376. mustard R-2334

µowers … jammed in. [7]

2377. germinate R-2954

Ç

µowers … bright. [11]

2378. grape R-2680

F

µowers … bound up … dogtag. [12]

2379. grape vine R-2955

µowers … bound up … tin can. [11]


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2380. resurrect R-2962

5 O EMF Q h a

71

M

µowers … ³sh … wheat. [19]

2381. grow wild R-2730

£

µowers … dice. [15]

2382. cocklebur R-2490

µowers … orders. [8]

2383. rush mat R-2509

(

µowers … orphan. [11]

2384. darken R-3011

ƒ

µowers … crown … ceiling … sow. [13]

2385. grassy reed R-2994

ä

µowers … halberd. [ 8]

2386. plantain R-2764

*

µowers … mosaic. [7]

2387. mow R-3131

µowers … reap. [7]

2388. lid

è


5 O EMF Q h a

72

R-2984

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

µowers … gone … dish. [13]

2389. onion R-3062

ã

µowers … double knot … heart. [12] The double knot is from the extra stroke in the second primitive.

2390. revile R-2982

µowers … net … a march. [14]

2391. hollyhock R-3063

,

µowers … teepee … heaven. [12]

2392. shingling R-2589

L

µowers … mouth … ear. [12]

2393. stamen R-2822

Þ

µowers … three hearts. [15]

2394. mushroom R-2873

ì

µowers … ear. [9]

2395. sowing R-2716

Á


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

5 O EMF Q h a

73

µowers … time. [13]

2396. parsley R-2855

=

µowers … axe. [7]

2397. thatching R-3125

§

µowers … fortune-telling. [8]

2398. kudzu R-2662

Ò

µowers … siesta. [11]

2399. pale blue R-2296

x

µowers … godown. [13]

2400. straw R-3122

Õ

µowers … tall … tree. [17]

2401. turnip R-2609

G

µowers … nothingness. [15]

2402. sweet potato R-2736

˜

µowers … words … puppet. [18]

2403. quack R-2966

µowers … number. [16]

«


O M EQF h a

74

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

The keyword here refers to a medic of questionable reputation. It does not however carry the original meaning of the German term: a doctor who used water to cure.

2404. garlic R-3117

ò

µowers … two altars. [13]

2405. bracken R-3159

Ö

µowers … cliff … mountain goat … yawn. [15]

2406. grow plentiful R-2559

¦

µower … lieutenant. [14]

2407. madder red R-2992

/

µowers … west. [9]

2408. candle rush R-2398

=

µowers … perfect. [10]

2409. collector R-2829

K

µowers … ghost. [13]

2410. sedge R-2256

µowers … bureaucrat. [11]

2411. ditch reed R-2661

5


O M EQ hF a

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

75

µowers … locket. [12]

_Q

ROAD_

2412. Way R-2778

#

road … sprout. [8] The upper case indicates its meaning as a true or moral Way.

2413. track down R-3114

ø

mountain … road. [6]

2414. crawl R-3064

G

words … road. [10]

2415. detour R-2393

potato … road. [6]

2416. elude R-2561

road … shield. [12]

2417. tryst

³


M Q Eh a F Õ ½

76

R-2282

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

+

walking legs … bushes … road. [10]

2418. far off R-2315

í

condor … road. [12]

2419. remote R-2263

f

road … pup tent. [15]

2420. pressing R-2704

Ú

wealth … road. [12]

2421. until R-3160

@

beg … road. [6]

2422. modest R-2399

«

grandchild … road. [13]

2423. standstill R-2727

table … road. [10]

q


h a E F Õ ½ …

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_h

77

CITY WALLS_

2424. cultured R-3008

q

possess … town walls. [9]

2425. courtesy R-2908

å

animal horns … whiskey bottle … St. Bernard … city walls. [15]

_a

PINNACLE_

2426. chink R-2978

²

pinnacle … small … sun … small. [12]

2427. nook R-2586

pinnacle … ³eld … hairpin. [11]

i


a EÕF ½ …

78

_

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

HEART_

2428. possessed R-3041

5

ice … team of horses … heart. [16] The keyword here means “bewitched” or “enchanted” by a spirit.

2429. attract R-2747

û

young … heart. [12]

2430. without exception R-2566

Ò

animal footprints … heart. [11]

2431. instantaneously R-2488

½

knot … heart. [8]

2432. ³rstborn son R-2824

_

thing … heart. [12]

2433. in the nick of time R-2261

°

butchers … heart. [13]

2434. sensitive R-2427

¢


a EÕF ½ … z

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

79

likeness … heart. [10]

SUN_

2435. overarching R-3046

+

sun … receipt … stamp. [9] Although this character is not essentially different in connotation from l (FRAME 2449), it is used chieµy now in names.

2436. progress R-2833

H

The element for sun at the bottom is easy enough. The problem is top element, row, is an exception to the rule (I.1785) that the two “horns” at the top are eliminated only when it appears beneath its relative primitive. [10]

2437. equivocal R-2436

K

sun … love. [17]

2438. aglow R-2647

sun … turn into. [11]

8


a EÕF ½ … z

80

2439. halo R-2758

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

=

sun atop a chariot. [13] Be careful to keep this character distinct from that in the following frame, which differs only by the disposition of the elements.

2440. glitter R-2760

@

sun alongside a chariot. [13]

2441. dry weather R-2651

!

sun … clothesline. [7]

2442. clear skies R-2291

/

sun … relax. [10]

2443. morrow R-2512

7

sun … sign of the dragon. [11] To indicate that this character is now used mainly in names, we have assigned it the somewhat archaic-sounding keyword morrow.

2444. bleaching R-3128

W

sun … west. [10]

2445. obscure R-2537

sun … not yet. [9]

*


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

81

Õ E½F … z J

2446. limpid R-2477

m

sun … ray. [10]

2447. air out R-2338

X

sun … outburst. [19]

2448. dawn R-2734

sun … signature. [17]

2449. elevate R-2935

l

sun … craft … seal. [8] Although this character is not essentially different in connotation from + (FRAME 2435), be sure to keep the writing distinct.

2450. effulgent R-2804

ó

sun … king. [8]

2451. dusk R-2457

Ë

family name … sun. [8]

2452. last day of the month R-2773

sun … every. [10]

{


82

Õ E½F … z J

FLESH

2453. kidney R-2975

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

% MOON_

f

slave … crotch … µesh. [13]

2454. thigh R-2895

%

µesh … missile. [8]

2455. pus R-2331

ö

µesh … agriculture. [17]

2456. viscera R-2255

Ü

µesh … borough. [12]

2457. bladder R-2794

Ò

µesh … ray. [10]

2458. embryo R-2870

Î

µesh … negative. [9]

2459. anus R-2344

µesh … craft. [7]

Ã


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

83

Õ E½ …F z J È

2460. cowardice R-2516

(

µesh … idea. [17]

2461. knee R-2430

Ó

µesh … tree … umbrella … rice grains. [15] Compare the right side of this character with Ô (I.932).

2462. fragile R-2553

Å

µesh … dangerous. [10]

2463. rib R-2981

Å

µesh … power. [6]

2464. elbow R-2980

Õ

µesh … glue. [7]

2465. body cavity R-2888

µesh … empty. [12]

2466. gland R-2336

!

µesh … spring. [13]

2467. tumor R-2884

µesh … heavy. [13]

*


84

Õ ½ E…F z J È

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2468. dining tray R-2335

9

µesh … virtuous. [16]

ˆ

2469. armrest R-2615

µesh … by one’s side … elbow. [8]

2470. uncivilized R-2605

&

old … moon. [9] This character referred in China to foreigners, especially those to the north and south of the “civilized” peoples who controlled the meaning of the characters. See FRAME 2881 for the Japanese equivalent.

_…

TREE_

2471. maple tree R-2526

J

tree … wind. [13]

2472. pillow R-3021

tree … crown tied around leg of person. [8] Compare ¢ (I.1688).

3


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

85

Õ ½ E…F z J È

2473. purple willow R-2733

ß

tree … piggy bank. [13]

2474. Oriental elm R-2745

a

tree … capitol. [12]

2475. hazel R-2484

J

tree … bonsai … wheat. [14]

2476. comb R-2942

^

tree … node. [17]

2477. wooden hammer R-2386

ª

tree … chase. [13]

2478. mallet R-2309

Ê

tree … char. [16]

2479. ladder R-2641

Ù

tree … younger brother. [11]

2480. chair R-2542

tree … strange. [12]

_


86

Õ ½ E…F z J È

2481. persimmon R-2538

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

¥

tree … market. [9]

2482. citrus tree R-2556

$

tree … sweet. [9]

2483. girder R-3161

³

tree … going. [10]

2484. picket R-2273

o

tree … whirlwind. [8]

2485. holly R-2875

Í

tree … winter. [9]

2486. citron R-2779

Á

tree … sprout. [9]

2487. wooden bowl R-2633

×

tree … address. [12]

2488. hemlock R-3109

tree … mother. [9]

2489. spindle tree

²


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

87

Õ ½ E…F z J È

R-3107

5

tree … correct. [9]

2490. sacred Shinto tree R-3106

/

tree … gods. [13]

2491. evergreen oak R-3098

Æ

tree … strict. [16]

2492. Chinese black pine R-2692

0

tree … true. [14]

2493. Japanese oak R-2818

Ã

tree … animal horns … whisky bottle. [13]

2494. mandarin orange R-2960

¤

tree … halbard … hood … human legs … mouth. [16]

2495. Japanese cypress R-2333

Û

tree … meeting. [10] See also FRAME 2964 for old form.

2496. roost R-2391


88

Õ ½ E…F z J È

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

tree … wife. [12]

2497. nestle R-2800

°

tree … west. [10]

2498. spiny R-2447

q

tree … grow late. [11] This character refers originally to a deciduous, rough tree that grows on mountain plains. From this it gets the secondary sense of rugged or spiny.

2499. bellµower R-2519

£

tree … lodded crock. [10]

2500. temple grove R-3009

8

tree … soil. [7]

2501. grain rake R-2765

!

tree … mosaic. [8]

2502. oar R-3120

È

tree … tail. [11]

2503. wooden pestle R-2921

tree … horse. [8]

§


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2504. cane R-2408

89

Õ ½ E…F z J È

ü

tree … length. [7]

2505. sweet oak R-2784

©

tree … turkey. [12]

2506. barrel R-2539

þ

tree … revered. [16]

2507. palisade R-2920

=

tree … tome. [9]

2508. turret R-2846

ª

tree … ³sh … sun. [19]

2509. sturdy oak R-3093

Ç

tree … 2 ³elds … µoors & ceilings. [17] The type of oak tree this character refers to is clasically reputed to be good for making boats, carts, and the like. See FRAME 2240 for a similar right-side combination.

2510. wooden ladle R-2815

tree … ladle. [7]

2511. damson

ò


90

Õ ½ E…F z È ÷

R-3087

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

5

tree … child. [7]

2512. raw cotton R-2396

p

tree … white … towel. [12]

2513. escutcheon R-2560

z

tree … shield. [13]

2514. hackberry R-3130

Ð

tree … summer. [14]

2515. birch R-2372

Ù

tree … splendor. [14]

2516. lance R-2295

i

tree … godown. [14]

2517. wild mulberry R-3028

¸

tree … rock. [9]

2518. bale R-2419

Î


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

91

Õ ½ E…F z È ÷

tree … quandary. [11]

2519. loquat R-2631

Ç

tree … compare. [8]

2520. downspout R-3096

Â

tree … traf³c. [14]

2521. sled R-3065

,

tree … three furs. [16]

2522. enjoyment R-2636

æ

carrier … tree. [14]

2523. bookmark R-2653

two clotheslines … tree. [10]

2524. coconut tree R-2469

Ô

tree … ear … city walls. [12]

2525. sandalwood R-2425

A

tree … top hat … rotation … night break. [17] Compare the right side to ; (I.587).

2526. plotosid R-3006

m


92

½ E… z JF È ÷

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

tree … rain … ceiling … snare. [15] The plotosid tree is a symbol for a totally useless tree because of its rough bark, spines, and foul-smelling leaves.

2527. zelkova R-2377

´

tree … standard. [15]

2528. cryptomeria R-3110

tree … prosperous. [12]

2529. copious R-2831

ö

tree … cedar. [11]

2530. bucket R-2872

)

tree … chopseal … utilize. [11]

2531. ellipse R-2458

»

tree … pinnacle … left … µesh. [13] We have met the element to the right here before, as in · (I.629). The standard form for this character is actually /, but the abbreviation has passed into general use.

2532. star-anise

!

R-2343

tree … secrecy. [15] The star-anise, as you will guess from the primitive on the left, is a kind of tree—to be precise, a kind of Chinese evergreen that


93

… z EJF È ÷

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

belongs to the magnolia family. It is known for its aromatic oil.

_z

FUR_

y

2533. furball R-2319

fur … request. [11]

_J l

FIRE

2534. twinkle R-2729

% OVEN-FIRE_

³re … feathers … turkey. [18]

2535. watch³re R-2264

³re … pup tent. [16]

2536. torch R-2562

³re … gigantic. [9]

j


94

… z EJF È ÷ ,

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2537. kindle R-2898

e

grove … ³re. [12]

2538. moxa R-2385

¿

mummy … ³re. [7]

2539. candlelight R-2939

2

³re … net … bound up … insect. [17] Compare the right complex of elements with ê (I.835).

2540. fanning R-2402

÷

³re … fan. [14]

2541. soot R-2643

A

³re … so-and-so. [13]

2542. ³ring R-2709

¡

³re … east. [12] Firing here, as in the process for making bricks or re³ning metals.

2543. dazzling R-2856

a

³re … wand … evening … crotch … rice. [17]

2544. refulgent R-2816

³re … ladle. [7]

ó


z J EÈ ÷F , œ ‡

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

95

q

2545. branding R-2742

³re … each. [10]

Þ

2546. µames R-2828

³re … bound up … olden days. [11] Compare right elements in G(I.1315).

ã

2547. fuse metal R-2299

³re … contain. [14] This is the character for melt â (I.791), with the water replaced by ³re.

ö

2548. roast R-2616

in front … oven-³re. [13]

Â

2549. stew R-2993

tall … complete … oven-³re. [11]

_È 2550. tug

COW_


J È E÷F , œ ‡

96

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Ð

R-2909

mysterious … crown … cow. [11] Write the crown after the ³rst stroke of that for mysterious.

2551. female animal R-2947

m

cow … spoon. [6]

2552. male animal R-2948

*

cow … soil. [7]

JEWEL_

2553. precious stone R-2316

ó

jewel … condor. [13]

2554. chime R-2446

q

jewel … grove. [12]

2555. marine blue R-2530

jewel … detain. [14]

w


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2556. speckled R-2397

J È E÷F , œ ‡

97

jewel … plaid … jewel. [12]

2557. lapis lazuli R-2342

J

jewel … infant … µood. [11]

2558. tinker with R-2951

´

jewel … two hands. [7]

2559. burnish R-2365

Ý

jewel … distinction. [14]

2560. hone R-2906

ç

jewel … sow. [11]

2561. coral R-2905

b

jewel … tome. [9]

2562. coral reef R-2606

@

jewel … old … moon. [13]

2563. fortunate R-3066

jewel … mountain … comb. [13]


È ÷ E, œF ‡ ¢ Í

98

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

ƒ

2564. silicon R-2751

jewel … ivy. [10]

L

2565. jet R-2384

jewel … mummy. [7] The keyword jet refers to the dark black lignite whose susceptibility to high polish makes it popular in ornamentation (and which also gives us the phrase “jet-black”).

2566. crystal stone R-2434

À

jewel … England. [12]

O

2567. toy R-2301

jewel …beginning. [8]

2568. tinkling R-2494

jewel … orders. [9]

_,

FIELD_

2569. apprehensive


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

99

÷ , EœF ‡ ¢ Í

a

R-2588

³eld … hairpin. [9]

Ø

2570. lastly R-3067

³eld … siliage … ten. [10] The writing of this character looks more dif³cult than it is:

v w x y z Ø 2571. paddy-³eld ridge R-2749

³eld … ivy. [11]

_œ 2572. itch R-2757

sickness … sheep. [11]

2573. phlegm

SICKNESS_

_


, œ E‡ ¢F Í ½ Ë

100

R-2781

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

g

sickness … inµammation. [13]

2574. measles R-2774

N

sickness … umbrella … shape. [10]

2575. hemorrhoids R-2715

»

sickness … temple. [11]

2576. cancer R-2949

P

sickness … goods … mountain. [17]

2577. lose weight R-2382

n

sickness … monkey … crotch. [12]

2578. scar R-2705

Ð

sickness … silver. [11]

2579. paralysis R-2620

sickness … lowly. [13]

h


œ ‡ E¢ ÍF ½ Ë

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_‡

101

EYE_

2580. apple of the eye R-2890

¹

eye … moo. [11]

±

2581. dizzy R-2294

eye … mysterious. [10]

a

2582. obvious R-2262

eye … pup tent. [17]

Ê

2583. eyebrow R-2913

The µag here has an extra vertical stroke in it. Think of it as an eyebrow pencil stuck in the eye. [9]

ARROW_

2584. pheasant


‡ ¢ EÍF ½ Ë

102

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

C

R-2782

arrow … turkey. [13]

2585. carpenter’s square R-2563

M

arrow … gigantic. [10]

ROCK_

2586. crag R-2637

¢

carrier … rock. [15]

2587. grapnel R-2668

Û

rock … determined. [13] Compare this stone anchor with the metal anchor ð in 2765.

2588. blue-green R-2821

jewel … white … rock. [14]

2589. inkstone

FRAME


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

¢ Í E½F Ë ¹ C

R-2807

103

Ô

rock … to see. [12]

2590. grindstone R-2564

B

rock … calling card. [10]

2591. teacup R-2634

Ù

rock … address. [13] When a teacup is made out of wood, it is written × (see 2487).

2592. obstacle R-2945

FRAME

˜

rock … nightbreak … glue. [13] Compare the right side with “ (I.876).

2593. illustrious R-3014

Ö

rock … head. [14]

2594. rocky beach R-2303

r

rock … how much. [17]

2595. whetstone R-2369

rock … cliff … ten thousand. [10]

C


¢ Í E½ ËF ¹ C

104

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Ÿ

2596. mill R-3162

rock … turkey. [13]

_½ Ò

ALTAR_

2597. fend off R-2401

Õ

honorable … altar. [17]

2598. beseech R-3054

e

altar … longevity. [11]

2599. ancestral tablet R-2649

Ç

altar … right. [9]

2600. local god R-2567

altar … family name. [8]

2601. ancestral shrine R-2894

altar … lying down … small. [9]

á


Í ½ EË ¹F C Ë

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

105

Ä

2602. salarium R-2340

altar … broom … rice grains. [12] In the same way that Roman soliders were paid in salt (hence the word salarium) ranking functionaries in Japan’s feudal system collected their “salary” in rice.

2603. felicitation R-2325

Ü

altar … upright. [13] This kanji refers to a sign or token of congratulations.

WHEAT_

2604. balancing scales R-3094

I

wheat … lily pad. [10]

2605. millet R-3086

¨

wheat … umbrella … grains of rice. [12]

2606. bald R-2965

wheat … human legs. [7]

2607. bear fruit

˜


½ Ë E¹ CF − U

106

R-2575

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

S

wheat … wish. [13]

2608. crabgrass R-2623

Î

wheat … lowly. [13]

2609. bumper crop R-2258

$

wheat … grass skirt. [18]

2610. imperial authority R-2352

b

wheat … rice seedling … walking legs. [13]

2611. sparse R-2456

v

wheat … hope. [12]

2612. obeisant R-3004

wheat … spring … shape. [16]

ó


Ë ¹ EC −F U y

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

107

HOLE_

2613. peep R-2376

hole … protocol. [16]

2614. tight R-2520

?

hole … saw. [10]

2615. cavern R-2281

c

hole … yield. [13]

2616. drill R-2944

ù

hole … tusk. [9]

2617. kitchen stove R-3068

hole … soil … (bucket of) eels. [17]

Ý


108

¹ C E− UF y –

_C

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

VASE_

2618. longness R-3163

÷

slave … crotch … vase. [14]

2619. rustling R-2527

š

vase … wind. [14] Note that the full character for wind is used here instead of the normal primitive abbreviation. The sense of the keyword is the “sound of the wind.”

2620. outpost R-3037

d

vase … fortune-telling. [10]

2621. repose R-2247

©

vase … blue. [13]

2622. concubine R-2904

vase … woman. [8]

²


C − EUF y – J

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_−

109

CLOAK_

2623. lapel R-2860

@

cloak … now. [9]

2624. hem R-2389

cloak … reside. [13]

2625. lined kimono R-3091

G

cloak … ³t. [11]

2626. pleated skirt R-2367

$

cloak … St. Bernard … ceiling … snare. [11] This kanji describes the formal divided skirt or hakama that you might see university students wearing at graduation. For the right side, compare * (I.1244).

2627. sliding door R-2413

ù

cloak … core. [17] This actually is the kanji for fusuma, an opaque sliding paper door found in Japanese houses.


C − EUF y – J

110

_U ¤

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

BAMBOO_

2628. Chinese panpipe R-2700

r

bamboo … cell. [11]

2629. raft R-2329

t

bamboo … to fell. [12]

2630. bamboo blinds R-2642

¢

bamboo … bargain. [19]

2631. rattan box R-2797

3

bamboo … simple. [15]

2632. pole R-2652

4

bamboo … clothesline. [9]

2633. spatula R-2570

bamboo … hood … umbrella … compare. [14]

2634. foil R-2245

bamboo … overnight. [14]

S


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

C − EU yF – J

2635. wardrobe R-2254

111

k

bamboo … director. [11] The term here refers to what contains one’s robes, not the robes themselves.

2636. arrow shaft R-2617

ú

bamboo … in front. [15]

2637. ancient harp R-2410

V

bamboo … craft … mediocre. [12] This harp, an ancient relative of the present Japanese koto, had 5, 13, or 21 strings.

2638. cage R-2868

½

bamboo … dragon. [16]

2639. slender bamboo R-3164

Ù

bamboo … person … walking stick … taskmaster … tree. [17]

2640. chopsticks R-3092

c

bamboo … puppet. [14]

2641. redaction R-2420

bamboo … eyeball … St. Bernard … thread. [20]

e


− U Ey –F J g

112

2642. bamboo cane R-2847

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

È

bamboo … two. [8]

2643. winnowing fan R-2663

M

bamboo … bushel basket. [14]

2644. backpack R-2272

Ã

bamboo … reach out. [9]

2645. livraison R-2270

Š

bamboo … door … scrapbooks. [15] The French word captures better than any English word can the range of uses this character has in designating chapter, volume, part, or fascile of a classical text.

2646. should R-2711

e

bamboo … tongue. [12] The sense of the keyword here is not one of moral obligation (as we saw in ], FRAME 2105) but rather of something that is “expected” of one.

2647. winnow R-2722

bamboo … bushel basket … pelt. [19]

Ã


U y E–F J g

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_y

113

RICE_

2648. settlings R-2246

T

rice … white. [11] The keyword here refers to the sediment left in making rice saké. Its meaning is substantially the same as the character in the following frame.

2649. lees R-2260

q

rice … cadet. [17]

2650. paste R-2604

#

rice … old … moon. [15]

2651. unhulled rice R-3100

rice … blade. [9]

2652. rice bran R-2437

|

rice … ease. [17]

2653. excrement R-2986

rice … uncommon. [17]

h


U y E–F J g

114

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2654. foxtail millet R-2903

F

Old West … rice. [12]

_–

THREAD_

2655. link up R-2874

car … missile … thread. [17]

2656. twine R-2521

/

thread … meeting … scrapbooks. [14] The keyword here is mean to indicate woven cord.

2657. carpet yarn R-2851

ó

thread … ten … ³esta. [12]

2658. ties R-2259

thread …half. [11] The sense of the keyword is as in the phrase “family ties.”

î


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

U y E– JF g ¿

2659. scarlet R-2718

115

¹

thread … un-. [14]

2660. synthesis R-2825

s

thread … religion. [14]

2661. string R-2455

Þ

thread … sign of the cow. [10]

2662. chinstrap R-2614

thread … by his side … elbow. [10]

2663. summarize R-3010

!

thread … cave … computer … animal legs … earth . [21]

2664. gorgeous R-2581

B

thread … decameron. [12]

2665. embroidery R-2917

G

thread … solemn. [17]

2666. pongee R-2777

Â


y – EJ ¿F ” h

116

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

thread … sprout. [11]

2667. ornate R-2541

þ

thread … strange. [14]

2668. damask R-2355

C

thread … rice seedlings … walking legs. [14]

2669. catgut R-2292

ë

thread … mysterious. [11] The sense of the keyword is that of “strings” used for stringed instruments, which are not necessarly the intestines of cats.

2670. come apart at the seams R-2669

4

thread … determine. [14]

2671. stripe R-3123

ß

thread … tall. [16]

2672. gimp R-2326

6

thread … accept. [14] The keyword here refers to wound yarn with a hard core.

2673. gossamer R-2853

thread … few. [10]

è


– J E¿ gF ” h

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_J

117

BOAT_

º

2674. rudder R-2592

boat … house … spoon. [11]

ì

2675. gunwale R-2293

boat … mysterious. [11]

_¿

EAR_

2676. strung together R-2823

¤

ear … two cocoons … cactus. [17] The last primitive, cactus, does not appear elsewhere in this book, but is useful to learn, especially for writing old forms. It is pictographic.

2677. attentive R-2339

ear … public … heart. [14]

2678. summons

t


J ¿ EgF ” h B

118

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

³

R-3069

ear … sprout … snare. [10]

2679. addiction R-2916

5

ear … crown … human legs. [10]

2680. exclamation R-2467

œ

ear … city walls. [8] The keyword here was used classically for general exclamation.

_g

INSECT_

2681. µea R-2381

ù

crotch … two drops … insect. [10]

2682. crab R-2416

unravel … insect. [19]

2683. protein R-2950

zoo … insect. [11]

7


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

J ¿ Eg ”F h B

2684. hibernation R-3030

119

b

tenacious … insect. [17]

2685. houseµy R-3118

H

insect … eels. [15]

2686. ant R-2257

insect … righteousness. [19]

2687. bee R-2284

É

insect … walking legs … bushes. [13]

2688. wax R-2943

À

insect … owl … wind … corncob. [14] Compare the right side to _ (I.1940).

2689. shrimp R-2374

V

insect … staples …mouth … box …crotch. [15] Compare the right side with E (I.1882).

2690. octopus R-3165

î

insect … candle. [13]

2691. screw R-2919

ù


g ” Eh BF í ë

120

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

insect … accumulate. [17]

2692. cicada R-2810

ã

insect … simple. [15]

2693. frog R-2752

£

insect … ivy. [12]

2694. moth R-2288

f

insect … ego. [13]

2695. clam R-3121

y

insect … ³t. [12]

2696. leech R-3166

ó

insect … climax. [12]

2697. oyster R-2368

insect … cliff … ten thousand. [11]

¦


” h EB íF ë ³

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_”

121

NET_

2698. ruled lines R-2956

œ

net … ivy … wand. [14]

)

2699. insult R-2845

net … horse. [15]

_h

CLOTHES_

2700. stole R-2691

w

add … clothes. [11] This keyword is used for the stole of a Buddhist monk, generally in combination with the character in the following frame.

2701. monk’s sash R-2453

water … few … clothes. [13] See note in previous frame.

á


h B EíF ë ³

122

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_B THANKSGIVING_ 2702. accept humbly R-2697

È

Thanksgiving … uncommon. [17]

W

2703. incision R-2696

Thanksgiving … turkey. [14]

2704. I wonder R-2695

é

plantation … mouth. [9] The sense of the keyword is as in sentences such as “I wonder when it will arrive.” The character, however, is used now only in poetry and names.

_í 2705. counsel R-2579

words … decameron. [13]

WORDS_

í


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2706. polite R-3070

h B EíF ë ³

123

ø

words … receive. [15]

2707. vendetta R-2979

N

two turkeys … words. [23]

2708. remonstrate R-2710

@

words … east. [15]

2709. riddle R-3095

¿

words … astray. [16]

2710. verify R-2746

e

words … capital. [15]

2711. compliment R-2421

g

words … approval. [22]

2712. who? R-2786

!

words … turkey. [15]

2713. query R-2438

words … ten … ³shhook. [10]

g


h B Eí ëF ³ Š

124

2714. split up R-2531

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

¼

words … guillotine. [11]

2715. visit a shrine R-2543

¤

words … delicious. [13]

2716. give up R-2311

á

words … sovereign. [16]

2717. elucidate R-2576

&

words … complete. [13]

2718. prevarication R-2594

²

words … house … spoon. [12]

2719. familiarity R-2418

˜

words … best regards. [15]

2720. fallible R-2776

à

words … feathers … umbrella … shape. [18]

2721. beg pardon R-3167

words … home. [13]

Ô


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2722. advise R-3071

B í Eë ³F Š N

125

l

words … take. [15]

2723. proverb R-3023

î

words … lad. [16]

2724. slander R-2719

½

words … un-. [15]

2725. so-called R-2414

i

words … stomach. [17]

2726. secret agent R-2508

words … generations … tree. [17]

2727. footnote R-2761

i

words … candlestick. [12]

2728. parable R-2625

ketchup … words. [20]

H


ë ³ EŠF N© h

126

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

CAR_

¬

2729. rumble R-2972

three cars. [21]

2730. reinforce R-2681

£

car … dogtag. [14]

è

2731. spoke R-2703

car … wealth. [16] The keyword refers to the spoke of a wheel.

2732. assemble R-2590

P

car … mouth … ear. [16]

BADGER_

2733. countenance R-3002

badger … white … human legs. [14]

å


³ Š ENF © h $

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

127

ê

2734. panther R-2859

badger … ladle. [10]

SHELL_

2735. despicable R-2660

(

shell … ³esta. [13]

2736. af³x R-2877

$

shell … fortuneteller. [12]

2737. get R-3124

generation … shell. [12]

2738. graft R-2743

¬

shells … each. [13]

2739. bustling R-2511

shells … sign of the dragon. [14]

Ñ


128

Š N E©F h $ –

_N

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

WOODEN LEG_

2740. stumble R-3034

È

wooden leg … substance. [22]

2741. hoof R-2312

â

wooden leg … sovereign. [16]

2742. kick R-2362

O

wooden leg … concerning. [19]

2743. vestiges R-2548

Õ

wooden leg … blame. [18]

2744. straddle R-2366

+

wooden leg … St. Bernard … ceiling … snare. [13]

2745. kneel R-2552

wooden leg … danger [13]

Ÿ


129

N © Eh $F – !

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

WHISKY_

2746. soy sauce R-2324

è

leader … whisky bottle. [17]

2747. whey R-2840

Ú

whisky bottle … just so. [16]

2748. hooch R-2901

j

whisky bottle … glue. [10] This kanji is used for thick saké, made from various kinds of grains.

2749. ghee R-2607

E

whisky bottle … old … moon. [16]

2750. awakening R-2698

À

whisky bottle … star. [16]

2751. strong saké R-2675

whisky bottle … receive. [15]


© h E$F – ! Ê

130

_h

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

BARLEY_

t

2752. noodles R-2395

barley … mask. [16]

2753. malt R-2361

barley … bound up … rice. [15]

_$ 2754. button R-2812

METAL_

ô

metal … mouth. [11]

2755. keg R-2645

metal … portent. [14]

2756. plow R-2428

£

metal … help. [15] This is the plow whose blades were used to grill meat and which


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

© h E$F – ! Ê

131

gives us the word sukiyaki.

2757. pot R-3168

Â

metal … jawbone. [17]

2758. arrowhead R-2252

ð

metal … antique. [19]

2759. handsaw R-2388

Ó

metal … reside. [16]

2760. awl R-2785

metal … turkey. [16]

2761. key R-2327

Ý

metal … build. [17]

2762. hoe R-2307

n

metal … autumn. [17]

2763. rivet R-3102

ñ

metal … soldier. [15]

2764. tin R-2957

÷


© h E$ –F ! Ê

132

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

metal … piggy bank. [16]

2765. anchor R-2275

ð

metal … seedlings. [16]

2766. nail R-2707

æ

metal … spike. [10]

2767. javelin R-3169

¬

metal … dispatch. [21]

2768. sword’s point R-2285

Î

metal … walking legs … bushes. [15]

2769. hammer R-2387

¬

metal … chase after. [17] Compare the wooden hammer ª in FRAME 2477.

2770. carillion R-2644

é

metal … correct. [13] This character indicates a western bell, which is struck from the inside by a gong, unlike the oriental bell ë, which is struck from the outside.

2771. rust R-2248

T


h $ E– ! ÊF ¾

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

133

metal … blue. [16] Since Chinese and Japanese distinguishes blue and green differently from European languages, it is not surprising that the verdigris that occurs on copper is here indicated by the element for blue.

ê

2772. cluster R-2883

metal … heavy. [17]

š

2773. scissors R-3170

metal … St. Bernard dog … assembly line. [15] This is the character on which the element for scissors ¿ was based.

_– 2774. µash R-2985

GATES_

0

gates … person. [10]

2775. agony R-2977

gates … heart. [12]

2776. side gate R-2666


– ! EÊ ¾F z Ç

134

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

gates … ³t. [14]

M

2777. pitch dark R-2714

gates … sound. [17]

_!

WEATHER_

Ë

2778. trickle R-3171

weather … below. [11]

]

2779. haze R-2375

weather … hobby. [17]

_Ê 2780. quill R-2834

MIST_

9


! Ê E¾ zF Ç+

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

135

mist … umbrella … feathers. [16]

2781. auspices R-2803

:

mist … umbrella … Big Dipper. [14]

LEATHER_

2782. saddle R-2290

N

leather … relax. [15]

2783. whip R-2448

leather … convenience. [18]

2784. saddle straps R-2626

í

leather … candle. [16]

2785. briefcase R-3097

Ú

leather … wrap. [14]

2786. pliable R-2489

j


Ê ¾ Ez ÇF + Ö

136

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

leather … blade. [12]

2787. terminate R-2360

œ

leather … bound up … rice. [17]

_z

HEAD_

2788. immediate R-2611

´

earthworm … head. [13]

2789. overturn R-2693

&

true … head. [19]

2790. brush tip R-2999

Â

spoon … wheat … head. [16]

2791. about that time R-2422

Ã

spoon … head. [11]

2792. cheek R-2266

ê


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

137

¾ z EÇF + Ö š

scissors … head. [15]

2793. exceedingly R-2721

pelt … head. [14]

2794. accolade R-2819

public … head. [13]

2795. chin R-2475

Ã

2 mouths … ceiling … snare … head. [18]

2796. neck and throat R-2523

§

spool … head. [14] The key word here is meant to specify the anatomical neck, to distinguish it from the broader uses of the character / (I.70).


z ÇE+F Ö š

138

_7 Ç

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

FOOD_

2797. feed R-2811

´

food … ear. [14] The sense of the key word here is that of bait or feed for animals.

2798. repast R-3012

j

wand … evening … crotch … food. [16]

2799. feast R-2332

û

hometown … food. [20] The feast intended here is a banquet of food.

2800. eclipse R-2838

8

eat … insect. [14]

2801. sweets R-3090

A

food … pedestal. [13]

2802. mochi R-2514

food … puzzle. [14] Mochi is the glutinous rice the Japanese pound into cakes.

Š


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

_+

z ÇE+ ÖF š Ä

139

TEAM OF HORSES_

2803. stretcher R-2690

j

add … team of horses. [15]

2804. piebald R-2998

¾

horse … simple. [19]

2805. rush R-2772

R

team of horses … scorpion. [13]

2806. cheat R-2269

Ô

team of horses … door … scrapbook. [19]

2807. tame R-2809

Ä

team of horses … stream. [13]

2808. rebuttal R-2886

^

team of horses … two sheaves. [14]

2809. gallop R-3072

team of horses … hill. [15]

Q


z Ç+ EÖF š Ä

140

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

á

2810. donkey R-3073

tesm of horses … tiger … ³eld … dish. [26]

_Ö 2811. eel R-2346

FISH_

§

³sh … mandala. [22]

2812. sea bream R-2767

Õ

³sh … circumference. [19]

2813. sardine R-3099

z

³sh … weak. [21]

2814. trout R-2540

6

³sh … revered. [23]

2815. salmon R-2750

³sh … ivy. [17]

.


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

z Ç+ EÖ šF Ä

2816. tuna R-3133

141

4

³sh … possession. [17]

2817. sweet smelt R-2880

6

³sh … fortunetelling. [16]

2818. horse mackerel R-3115

7

³sh … nonplussed. [19]

2819. cod R-3132

ü

³sh … snow. [22]

2820. mackerel R-3182

R

³sh … blue. [19]

2821. shark R-3129

U

³sh … mingle. [17]

2822. bonito R-3127

Ö

³sh … strict. [23]

2823. bullhead R-3172

³sh … autumn. [20]

É


z Ç+ Ö EšF Ä

142

MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

Ó

2824. alligator R-2476

³sh … 2 mouths … ceiling … snare. [20]

^

2825. crucian R-3134

³sh … adhere to. [16]

A

2826. sushi R-3173

³sh … delicious [17]

ô

2827. ³sh ³n R-3075

³sh … old man … sun. [21]

_š 2828. seagull R-2713

BIRD_

û

ward … bird. [15]

2829. roc R-2277

companion … bird. [19]

Ñ


MAJOR PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

2830. parakeet R-3076

z Ç+ Ö š EÄF

143

¬

suckling babe … bird. [19] This character is generally used in combination with that in the following frame. See FRAME 2193 for the element to the left.

2831. parrot R-2817

`

warrior … bird. [19]

2832. cormorant R-3174

š

younger brother … bird. [18]

2833. heron R-2297

5

path … bird. [24]

2834. eagle R-2363

Ð

concerning … bird. [23]

2835. wild duck R-3077

â

push … bird. [16]

2836. kite falcon R-3074

¦

arrow … bird. [14]

2837. owl R-3044

bird … tree. [11]


CHAPTER 3

Miscellaneous Kanji The characters introduced in this chapter (107 in all) are not arranged in any particular order, except where one serves as an element for the next.

2841. Hades R-2470

d

crown … sun … six. [10] The reference here is to the underworld, the world of the dead. By way of the classic Greek association, it is also used for the planet Pluto.

2842. close the eyes R-2471

Å

eye … Hades. [15]

2843. murky R-2472

C

sun … Hades. [14]

2844. sitting in mediation R-2356

â

assembly line … soil. [7]

2845. sprain R-2357

³ngers … sitting in meditation. [10]

ä


MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2846. ³rst day of the month R-2572

145

;

mountain goat … moon. [10]

2847. go upstream R-2573

P

³rst day of the month … road. [13]

2848. drag R-2479

»

sun … under one’s arm. [6] Take particular care not to confuse this keyword with the familiar primitive element for drag 4.

2849. dribble out R-2480

¿

water … drag. [9]

2850. comet R-2891

two bushes … broom. [11]

2851. astute R-2893

Š

comet … heart. [15] Note that the second stroke on the element for broom does not pass through as it does in the character for comet. A similar change takes place in the character ¹. It would be nice if it were possible to make a rule for this kind of transformation, but the evolution of the kanji has not been consistent on this point.


146

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2852. applaud R-2686

?

drum … add. [14]

2853. evil R-2449

Ý

villain … human legs. [6]

2854. helmet R-3078

Ü

white bird between two open boxes … human legs. [11]

2855. bracing R-2857

Z

St. Bernard with two pair of sheaves on each side. [11] The sense of the keyword is of something refreshing and invigorating.

2856. depressed R-2936

¥

two sheaves in a woods … net … silver … glue. [22] The keyword here refers to the psychological state of depression.

2857. kalpa R-2865

¥

gone … muscles. [7] A kalpa is a mythical measure of time (something over 4 billion years) used in ancient India and today mainly in classic Buddhist texts.


MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2858. erection R-3079

147

õ

needle … crown … child … muscles. [9]

2859. bemoan R-2796

+

strawman … yawn. [15]

2860. palanquin R-3027

Ô

Think of this character as entertainment with a car since the only different between it and the character for entertainment is the substitution of the element for car in place of same. [17]

2861. southeast R-2359

ö

two snakes … strung together. [12] One of the directions in classical Chinese geomancy, this character is used in Japanese today chieµy in names.

2862. warped R-2897

Ë

negation … correct. [9]

2863. jade green R-3050

z

feathers … graduate. [14]

2864. blue-black R-2278

substitute … black. [16]

Ô


148

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2865. tripod R-2963

ç

This character is not hard to remember if you think of it as backto-back characters for one-sided with a sun in the middle (and necessitating a shorter vertical stroke for one-sided). [12]

2866. rocksalt R-2991

±

wand … pent up … sheave … four dots. [11]

2867. lye R-2251

á

rocksalt … awl. [19]

2868. reserved R-3139

õ

tiger … plaid. [10]

2869. swallow R-2983

à

twenty … two people back to back … mouth … oven-³re. [16]

2870. lick R-2780

°

outhouse … delicious. [14]

2871. almost R-2655

÷

bones … pedestal. [9]

2872. start R-2392

child … dish. [8]

y


149

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2873. mahjong tiles R-2622

5

one-sided … lowly. [12]

2874. remains R-2769

Ÿ

skeleton … acorn. [16]

2875. peek R-3175

ø

director … see. [12]

2876. mottled R-3080

â

tiger … form. [11]

2877. Manchu dynasty R-2483

Q

bonsai … wheat. [10]

2878. sparrow R-2858

few … turkey. [11] The last stroke of few doubles up with the ³rst stroke of turkey.

2879. peregrine falcon R-2426

z

turkey … needle. [10]

2880. shimmering R-2728

ray of light … feathers … turkey. [20]

ç


150

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2881. ebisu R-2990

V

great … bow. [6] Ebisu is a Japanization of the Ainu word enchu which means “person.” In former times, it was used to mean any of the “uncivilized” people living north of the area of present-day Tokyo.

2882. relatives R-2961

É

uncle … parade. [11]

2883. cyst R-2881

ð

needle … middle … crown … eight … celery … scarf. [19] Not how the elements for needle and middle share a common, vertical stroke in this particularly complex character.

2884. domburi R-3081

)

well … drop. [5]

2885. carefree R-2732

monkey … piggy bank. [14]

2886. circling R-2791

q

stretch … -times. [9]

2887. capital suburbs R-2304

two cocoons … ³eld … ³esta. [15]

s


MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2888. elation R-2854

151

5

ax … yawn. [8]

2889. stalwart R-2899

p

vase … sow … missile. [15]

2890. this R-3016

ˆ

bushel basket … axe. [12] This character is not substantially different from the character we identi³ed as this here  (FRAME 2043).

2891. wooden spoon R-2849

F

just so … spoon. [11] The character for spoon already learned 0 (I.444) is actually an abbreviation of this fuller character. The meanings are essentially the same.

2892. set straight R-3003

â

box … king. [6]

2893. founding R-3005

d

door … taskmaster … brush. [14] You will recognize the combination at the top here from the character } (I.1085).


152

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2894. Utamaro R-3116

C

hemp … spine. [18] This kanji was used during the Heian period to refer to oneself. It is a home-grown Japanese character whose reading ‰œ comes from combining the Chinese readings of its two elements. It is used today only for names, the most famous of which is the name of the celebrated painter of ukiyo-e paintings, Utamaro HC.

2895. conglomerate R-2882

U

upside down in a row … soil … take. [18] This character is often used for collections of books or essays; the only reason for the choice of the keyword is that the number of synonyms for “collection” has been fairly exhausted already!

2896. entreat R-3013

0

sheaf … possess. [8]

2897. symmetrically patterned R-2717

±

un- … plaid. [12]

2898. magistrate R-2887

ã

silver in the middle of … the sign of the hare. [12]

2899. ³ddle with R-2302

learn … beginning. [15]

S


MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2900. within R-2837

153

ê

compass … umbrella … two drops. [8]

2901. hackneyed R-2911

Q

St. Bernard … hair. [10]

2902. rebellion R-2658

ƒ

half … … anti-. [9]

2903. sharp point R-2827

ê

a small tip on something… large. [6]

2904. crock R-2937

À

samurai … crown … Asia. [11] Note how the second stroke in crown doubles up with the ³rst stroke of Asia.

2905. sapience R-2932

µ

wand … crown … ceiling … valley with eye (instead of mouth) … crotch. [16] In order to remember the change in the element for valley, think of the clear-seeing eye that distinguishes homo sapiens.

2906. chieftain R-2938

horns … whisky bottle. [9]

R


154

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2907. nightingale R-3000

ú

schoolhouse … bird. [16]

2908. incandescent R-2412

¹

two reds. [14]

2909. supinate R-2974

d

slave … person. [9] The somewhat archaic-sounding keyword here indicates someone streched out or lying µat.

2910. nephew R-2699

ì

cell … male. [12]

2911. gourd R-2274

æ

ballot … melon. [16]

2912. biwa R-2632

É

two jewels … this here. [12] This character is usually found with the next one, to give the biwa, a Japanese lute.

2913. lute R-2763

two jewels … mosaic. [12]

%


155

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2914. forked R-2971

Ö

crotch … drop. [3] This character, incidentally, is used in the word for “tuning fork.”

2915. rose of Sharon R-2440

u

birdhouse … sunglasses. [12]

2916. dry ³eld R-3176

j

dove … ³eld. [10]

2917. ³st R-3082

Ì

quarter … hand. [10]

2918. vegetable patch R-2684

pent in … dogtag. [10]

2919. helping hand R-2394

ð

complete … water … µoor. [5] The shape of this character is already familiar from the character % (I.1900). As we learned then, the second stroke of complete doubles up with the ³rst stroke for water.

2920. translucent R-2907

tall … crown … human legs. [9]

V


156

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2921. blood relative R-2989

ˆ

human legs surrounding cocoon … µesh. [9]

2922. transcription R-2836

E

zoo … infant … µood. [12]

2923. ointment R-2557

Š

tall … µesh. [14] Note how the element tall is compressed in order to ³t on top.

2924. pioneer R-3026

z

ghost … Big Dipper. [14]

2925. ambrosial R-2431

¢

voice … missile … incense. [20]

2926. label R-2507

ˆ

one-sided … generation … tree. [13]

2927. glimpse R-2321

shredder … eye. [17]

2928. large hill R-2481

maestro … needle. [8]

@


MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

157

This is the original character that was abbreviated to form the element we learned as pinnacle a.

2929. testicle R-2462

Á

blood … happiness. [14]

2930. sorceress R-3040

B

craft … assembly line. [7]

2931. empathetic R-2677

°

receive … taskmaster. [12]

2932. Andromeda R-2748

f

St. Bernard … ivy. [9]

2933. soar R-3048

sheep … wings. [12]

2934. beaming R-2702

white … revelation. [12]

2935. tenebrous R-3083

Ä

wheat … (slip)knot … umbrella … rice grains. [15] Take special care in writing the second element here. You might think of it as a “slipknot” (in which one stroke has slipped off).


158

MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2936. bold R-2867

run … cornucopia. [10]

2937. stop short R-3029

C

This character can be kept distinct from the familiar sign of the snake L (I.2042) by noting that the ³nal stroke stops short. [3]

2938. thornbush R-3033

This character is no different in meaning from the character already learned for thorn r (I.417). The only difference in writing is the repetition of the element composed of tree and belt. (Incidentally, that element on its own [ has the same meaning of thorn, though it is far less commonly seen.) [12]

2939. crowd R-3038

´

ear … crotch … two drops … person … rag. [14] This character should not be confused with L (I.1857). Despite the similarity, it is neither an abbreviated or alternate form of it. If anything, in modern usage it is most likely to be replaced with T (I.559).

2940. resucitate R-2701

6

grow late … cell. [12]

2941. pruning R-2618

in front … dagger. [11]

å


MISCELLANEOUS KANJI

2942. upbringing R-3177

159

Ò

somebody … beautiful. [16]

2943. plentiful R-2515

]

fruit … many. [14]

2944. snore R-2650

Ü

nose … dry. [17]

2945. cast a spell R-3178

exit … altar. [19]

þ


CHAPTER 4

Western Measurements The handful of characters presented in this chapter are meant to introduce you to the basic principles used in writing Western units of measurement. Contemporary Japanese has by and large discarded this way of writing, but it is not uncommon to meet these characters in historical texts.

2946. kilometer R-3101

,

rice ‌ one thousand. [9] The character y is used for meter (from the sound). Thus, a kilometer is made by adding the element for thousand.

2947. centimeter R-3108

:

rice ‌ one rin. [15] The reason that the rin or 1/1000 of a yen is added to the meter to give us centimeter is that m originally meant 1/000th, and z 1/1000th, as we see in the following frame.

2948. millimeter R-3179

V

rice ‌ fur. [10] Incidentally, the same conventions are used to create litres, centilitres, and millilitres, based on another kanji chosen for its sound: C, a, and c.


161

WESTERN MEASUREMENTS

2949. ton R-2612

«

mouth … immediate. [16] The character ´, again from the sound, represents a ton. The addition of the element of mouth to the left indicates that it is being used for its sound to and to convey a meaning other than the normal meaning of the character. This is a device commonly used in written Chinese.

2950. mile R-2601

/

mouth … one ri. [10] Although the mile is longer than the ri, the two are close enough that the addition of the mouth can indicate a foreign unit of measurement.

2951. nautical mile R-2599

¡

water … one ri. [10] Since the Japanese did not have a separate unit for measuring nautical ri, this character was used for the Western measurement of the nautical mile. The same holds true of the characters in the next two frames.

2952. inch R-3180

mouth … glue. [6]

2953. feet R-3181

mouth … shaku. [6]

c


CHAPTER 5

Phonetic Characters While the kana syllabaries have taken over most of the chores of incorporating loan words in their original sounds, a few exceptions have survived. The following group of characters are used mainly today for their sound value, rather than for their meaning. In each case, the sound is provided by a signal primitive, as will be indicated in Part Two of this volume. For now, the signal primitive (or its composite elements) have been underlined.

2954. brahman R-2544

¤

This is the sound character for the Sanskrit word brahman, and is also used to indicate the Sanskrit language as such. Its elements are grove … mediocre. [11]

2955. Shakyamuni Buddha R-2593

¼

pinnacle … house … spoon. [7] This character, originally meaning “precipitous” (roughly the same as the character of that keyword already learned Þ (I.1672), is now used chieµy for its sound.

2956. bodhisattva R-2976

O

µowers … pinnacle … products. [16] Although this character can be used as an abbreviation of bodhisattva, the full writing combines it with that in the following frame. Both of them are transliterations of Sanskrit terms.


163

PHONETIC CHARACTERS

2957. bo tree R-2896

¬

µowers … vase … mouth. [11]

2958. babble R-2415

#

mouth … Asia. [10] The sense of the keyword is that of a baby oooing and aaaing.

2959. Sanskrit ka R-2688

Z

add … road. [8] This kanji is used to represent the sound “ka” when transcribing words from Sanskrit.

2960. interrogative R-2997

º

sword … two … city walls. [7] Used classically to indicate an interrogative part of speech, this character is used chieµy now for its sound.

2961. moo R-2889

]

elbow … cow. [6] This is the character classically used for the sound that a cow makes.

These ³nal two characters, taken together, are the Chinese phonetic transliterations of the English word coffee, which is the principal form in which you are likely to meet them today. The keywords, however, are drawn from their classical meanings.


164

PHONETIC CHARACTERS

2962. jeweled hairpin R-2689

Ú

jewel … add. [9]

2963. beaded hairpin R-2720

jewel … un-. [12]

ç


CHAPTER 6

Old & Alternate Forms Earlier on, in FRAME 2352 of chapter 2, we introduced an old form of the character for technique (© ➞ å). In this chapter we pick up 37 more old and alternate forms. In some cases, the older form has never been “updated.” In others, both forms are still in use. Examples of other cases where older forms and newer abbreviations occur are given in their respective frames.

2964. Japanese cypress [old] R-3190

tree … umbrella … one … pent-in … small … sun. [11] The right side of this character looks rather more formidable than it is. The tricky part lies in the elements that have been described as “pent-in … small.” (The latter element you will remember from the element for outhouse š or candle Ü.) The combination, when it appears in other characters, is generally abbreviated to the shape of the element for sun. In any case, drawing the shape will show it to be quite natural. Here are some examples of the old form and their standard, simpler forms: OLD FORM

y U

2965. bridle’s bit R-3112

MODERN ABBREVIATION

l (I.752) … (I.1346)

f

thread … cart … thread … mouth. [22] The primitive at the top of this character is abbreviated in more common words as 8, a primitive element that was learned in vol. I (page 382). Note the following examples:


166

OLD

OLD FORM

& ALTERNATE FORMS

MODERN ABBREVIATION

ï N e

2966. abyss [old] R-3199

ˆ (I.1745) › (I.1748) Ø (I.1749)

W

On the left is the water and on the right a combination of the character for one-sided and its mirror image joined by a single stroke. Think of it as a hanging rope-bridge strung perilously across the abyss. [12] The newer form for this character is Å, which was learned above in FRAME 2325.

2967. V R-3195

4

person … ³ve. [6] This character, which originally indicates a group of 5 persons, is now used as an alternate form of the character 2, mainly in of³cial documents.

2968. X R-3194

V

person … ten. [4] As in the previous frame, this character is an alternative form for Y.

2969. ten thousand [old] R-2725

©

µower … Talking Cricket. [18] This is also used in documents, but is rather more common as a character in its own right. When it appears as a primitive forming a part of other characters, it is normally abbreciated to the form . In addition to the new character in the following frame, note the following examples:


OLD

167

& ALTERNATE FORMS

OLD FORM

* $

2970. pass through R-2726

MODERN ABBREVIATION

¦ (II.2967) „ (I.866)

L

ten thousand … road. [16] The “old” element in this character is that for road, which has an extra initial stroke. See also the following frame.

2971. tough R-2341

1

display … road. [11] Note that, as in the previous frame, the element for road has an extra stroke generally omitted in more common characters. When writing this character, it is not incorrect to use the standard form of the primitive element.

2972. lamp [old] R-3191

b

³re … ascend. [16] The primitive at the right of this character is generally, though not always, abbreviated today as a (I.165). The older form of the primitive to the right is still standard in other characters, such as ˜. (I.1704).

2973. back [old] R-2602

;

cloak … computer. [12] The transposition of the standard form : (I.399) involves moving the computer from the middle of the element for cloak to the right.


168

OLD

2974. park [alternate] R-3188

& ALTERNATE FORMS

å

µowers … park. [16] This character is used principally in proper names. The only change from the standard form Ó (I.585) is the addition of the element for µowers.

2975. shop [alternate] R-2683

š

metal … dogtag. [15] The only difference from the more common form ™ (I.1839) is that the left side here uses the element for metal. There is also a third alternative which is sometimes seen, but has been omitted here: 2.

2976. island [alternate] R-3187

T

mountain … bird. [14] The alternate form is used mainly in names. It differs from the standard form S only in the positioning of the mountain.

2977. summit [alternate] R-3196

¸

mountain … walking legs … bushes. [10] The alternate form is used mainly in names. As in the character in previous frame, the only difference from the standard form · (I.1562) is in the positioning of the mountain.

2978. boulder [old] R-3193

mountain … stern. [20] The simpli³ed character was learned as R (I.770).

N


OLD

169

& ALTERNATE FORMS

ï

2979. plains [old] R-3200

grove … soil. [11] The standard form Ÿ (I.1596) differs rather radically from this older form, which appears now in old texts and occasionally in proper names.

J

2980. Bldg. [old] R-3197

umbrella … tongue … bureaucrat. [16] The standard form of this character I (I.1478) uses the element for food on the left. Because the older form is somewhat simpler to write, it remains in use today.

P

2981. dragon [old] R-3189

vase … meat … slingshot (doubled up with a) snake … three … clothes. [16] The older form of P (I.536) was actually learned in vol. I in connection with the character for attack M (I.2025), and will appear in the following frame as well. This older form is still used widely today. In addition to the new characters in the following two frames, note the following example also already learned: OLD FORM

Þ

2982. patronage R-2922

house … dragon [old]. [19]

MODERN ABBREVIATION

Ý (I.537)

w


170

OLD

& ALTERNATE FORMS

¿

2983. deafness R-2869

dragon [old] … ear. [22]

ð

2984. longing [old] R-3198

longing … heart. [15] The only difference from the standard form of this character ò (I.92) is that the element for heart is included at the bottom.

Ñ

2985. span [old] R-3201

tile … µoor. [6] The standard form of this character Ò (I.32) is also standard when it is used as a primitive in other characters. Note the following example in a character already learned: OLD FORM

À

2986. body [old] R-2712

MODERN ABBREVIATION

f (I.620)

O

somebody … ward. [11] The standard form X (I.1248) has by and large replaced this older character today.

2987. Point [old] R-3192

6

mountain … prison. [17] Note that the abbreviated form of this character À (I.1330) moves the mountain to the bottom, a rather odd transformation as the kanji go.


OLD

171

& ALTERNATE FORMS

ç

2988. country [old] R-3186

pent-up … a. [11] The element that replaces jewel in the standard for of this character ³ (I.581) is among the new kanji learned in this book (see FRAME 2091 above).

We end this chapter with those characters in fairly common use whose elements have not been assigned newer abbreviations.

Ó

2989. shin R-2525

µesh … ceiling … µood … craft. [11] The element on the right, which will appear once more later in the character for formidable (FRAME 2990), is actually the old form for the element now written n. Aside from the character introduced in the next frame, note the following examples of old and newer forms: OLD FORM

Þ ÷

2990. formidable R-2524

MODERN ABBREVIATION

¦ (I.717) ™ (I.1360)

÷

ceiling … µood … craft … muscle. [9]

2991. stationary R-2659

bamboo … µoat. [12] The standard abbreviation one would have expected here—and which is likely to appear in of³cial lists in the years ahead—appears


172

OLD

& ALTERNATE FORMS

in the following examples of common newer forms you already know: OLD FORM

ª · ¦ t

MODERN ABBREVIATION

) (I.1286) ` (I.367) , (I.368) ( (II.2735)

ú

2992. enshrine R-3031

altar … snake. [8] The standard abbreviation for altar has generally taken over, but the character in this and the following frame are exceptions.

$

2993. exorcism R-3032

altar … chihuahua with an extra leg. [10] Think of the “³ve-legged” dog here as some kind of an evil spirit that has to be driven out, and the odd shape should be easy to remember.

Ã

2994. dither R-2737

wooden leg … renowned. [19] The old form here is the element puppet which forms part of the primitive for renowned here. The difference is the addition of a ³nal drop. This has generally disappeared, as in the examples: OLD FORM

Ñ Ó Õ Ô

MODERN ABBREVIATION

2 (I.2192) ’ (I.1263) ‘ (II.2448) c (II.2640)


OLD

173

& ALTERNATE FORMS

V

2995. longevity [old] R-3185

lidded crock … broken crown … craft … µoor … mouth … glue. [14] The newer form 3 (I.1565) tends to dominate today when it is used as a primitive. Note the following example: OLD FORM

Ð

2996. hesitate R-3053

MODERN ABBREVIATION

k (I.717)

Ç

wooden leg … longevity. [14]

2997. glossary R-3084

ˆ

The primitive of this character is actually an old form of broom `. The remaining elements are: crown … fruit. [13]

2998. bean jam R-2345

¸

food … mandala. [20] It is only a matter of time before this character takes the standard abbreviation for food on the left. Meantime, it will alert you to the older style of writing, which still shows up in rather complicated characters that use the food primitive.

2999. retch R-3184

¹

mouth … ward. [14] The standard abbreviation of the element to the right can be seen from the following examples:


174

OLD

OLD FORM

7 [ u

& ALTERNATE FORMS

MODERN ABBREVIATION

J (I.1696) õ (I.1698) ö (I.1699)

×

3000. snapping turtle R-3088

shredder … eels [old form]. [25] The change in the ³rst three strokes of the element for shredder is a familiar one found often in older forms. I leave it to you to combine the pieces for the old form of eels. Learning stroke order will help considerably:

‘’ “ ” • – — ˜ ™ š › œ The older form of the primitive we learned as eels is rather more dif³cult. You will ³nd it in older forms of several familiar character, just as the following: OLD FORM

V V

MODERN ABBREVIATION

Å (I.1377) H (II.2685)


PART TWO

READING


CHAPTER 7

Old Pure Groups The ³rst group of readings center on what were called in Remembering the Kanji II “Pure Groups.” Each character that belongs to a pure group contains a signal primitive which prescribes a given on-yomi for that character and all others in the group with it. The number to the far right of the top line set in bold type indicates the frame number in which the writing of the kanji was introduced. In almost all cases this refers to a frame in Part One of the present volume. The number under the character in each frame is preceded by an “R-” to indicate that it refers to a reading frame. These numbers begin where volume II left off. Unlike volume II, the frames also include not only on-yomi but kun-yomi as well. In some cases, the “assigned” readings are almost never used, or used only for names. Because the number of special readings for names is virtually limitless, only the 274 characters approved by the Ministry of Education are supplied with on-yomi for use in names. For further information about the layout of the frames, see page 491.

We begin with groups whose signal primitives were already introduced in volume II The signal primitive, its pronunciation, and characters belonging to the same appear in a separate frame at the head of each section. The number under the characters in the group frames refers to the frame in volume II. which introduced the reading (hence the “R-” preceding it.) Where a number is missing, the single primitive in question was learned only as a primitive element, not as a kanji.


178

OLD PURE GROUPS

R

×·

R-89

Q

W

O

U

L

R-90

R-91

R-92

R-93

R-94

À R-

2244

×· À

Y‰

S R-

2245

2246

lion-dog

×· S

´ûÙ·

T R-

2343

2634 gold leaf

×·

2648

qT

ū׷

lees; dregs

T

Q`

lees

Á é ·

²

¬

Â

¾

ù

R-78

R-80

R-81

R-82

R-83

R-84

R-79

© R-

2247

é ©³

é»·

a country ruled in peace

© © ©

u} “` “`^

used in names used in names used in names

T R-

2248

2621

é

2771

èT

ä«Ã©

protection against rust

T

[z

rust


179

OLD PURE GROUPS

± ã« Ã

Á

»

Å

Ï

R-95

R-97

R-98

R-99

R-100

R-96

º R-

ã«

2249

=

²

R-105

ºs

ã«Éï«

R-

2250

7

S

H

I

R-107

R-108

R-109

² ²»·

harshness; severity

QŒš Qk

J_Œš J˜gk

to bully be irritated

R-131

à

Þ

Î

Ä

R-132

R-133

R-134

R-135

á 2251

2373

Ý ¹û ¿

R-

kitchen knife

R-106

Q

2234

¹û Íá

Ã˹û

2867 soap

= δ ï ë ] é ì -157 -158 -159 -160 -161 R

R

R

ð R-

2252

R

R

δ kð ð

é©Î´

Q}˜

2758 whistle of an arrow arrowhead


180

OLD PURE GROUPS

¬

Å

R-661

L

H

I

J

O

R-148

R-149

R-150

R-151

R-152

 R-

Å

2253

s

¿

R-122

°o

ź´à©

sniper; marksman

L

t˜L

take aim

Ÿ

¨

p

u

R-123

R-124

R-125

R-126

k R-

¿ %Á

2254

$

Ý

R-69

2255

¿´û

gold put in box

3k

ÇûÁ

cabinet

,

6

A

7

R-70

R-71

R-72

R-73

Ý Ür%hš

ö ²û 5 R-127

2635

k

Ü R-

2344

R-128

2456

|rPhš to catch on; “click”

&

I

R-129

R-130

²û ”B

²û¹

2410 Sugawara family

Note how the family is referred to by using the on-yomi of the ³rst character of their full name. Note also the unusual kun-yomi in the name Sugawara. The standard reading is: R-

2256

`X

sedge


181

OLD PURE GROUPS

µ

R-74

ˆ

R-75

R-76

R-77

— R-

2257

µ —i

µ½û

formic acid

H™

ant

+ Àï« ÷

R-101

&

ö

(

R-102

R-103

R-104

$

R-

2258

Àï«%Óï« $ñ

À﫽©

bumper crop

$š $Q $ $

Šuš •fQ P[‹ Šuš

bear fruit; fructify fruitful used in names used in names

} ×û | R-166

R-167

{

R-168

R-169

î R-

2259

2686

×û%Øû

2609

2658

«î îSŠ

´ë×û ØûÅ«»«

leggings; gaiters adhesive plaster (for wounds)

î îV

Saq kqV

bands; ties; shackles be attached


182

OLD PURE GROUPS

g Å« j R-174

R-175

}

k

R-176

R-177

q R-

Å«

2260

Ö

î

qT

ū׷

R-

´

³

²

R-179

R-180

R-181

î

2261

Ð

îî

more and more severe

°

J—J—

increasingly

òï« W

Z

`

R-240

R-241

a 2262

òï«

2263

2582

ga

é©òï«

clear; patent

a˜Q a a

HS˜Q HS HS˜

evident; obvious used in names used in names

f R-

2433

°/

R-239

R-

dregs

R-178

°

2649

òï«

2419

òï«−û

distant; remote

fQ

všQ

far off in the distance


183

OLD PURE GROUPS

’ R-

2264

òï« ’ãuJ ò﫺ûuy

wild³re; prairie ³re

’ ’U

watchfire to burn

¿ ´ï« ç R-290

QQ™z “U

ò

í

R-291

R-292

Û R-

2265

´ï« –Û

µ´ï«

ê R-

2266

2267

2268

2792

´ï«ÄÌ

eloquence

ê

†P

cheek

R-308

Æ R-309

¿ï«

2366

ÝÞ

¿ï«Þ

iris

Ý

H“Œ

used in names

³ R-

chivalry

êâ

Ý R-

2107

´ï«

Ä ¿ï« − R-580

2535

¿ï« ³(

¿ï«Ý

2198 harlot


184

OLD PURE GROUPS

ó

àû ‹ R-203

R-204

R-205

Ô R-

2269

àû Ô’

àûµ

deception

Ôš Ô`

Qfš g‰`

swindle; cheat; misrepresent to deceive; trick

Š R-

2270

àû 2Š

´ ´í« µ R-185

R-186

2271

Ä R-187

´í«

2272

´í«Á©

drawing water

½‹

U‹

draw water

´í« Ã

: »« W R-221

PJ

h

R-222

R-223

o R-

2273

2322

½v

à R-

2645

Part One

Äûâû

½ R-

2806

2644 creel

»«

2484

o?

»«¿í«

ancient Chinese capital

o

UJ

picket


185

OLD PURE GROUPS

ç Úï« å R-206

R-207

ã R-208

æ R-

2274

Úï« æ3 æ æ

Úï«Çû y[Z |U„

ï Ûï« ì R-278

R-279

2275

ä Ûï«%ã«

ðà

Û﫽

chain cable; hawser

ð

JQ™

anchor; killick

Ó Î© ß R-212

R-213

2276

2765

Ò R-214

× R-

bottle gourd gourd; calabash gourd; calabash

R-280

ð R-

2911

Ω%Éï« ×XÓ

Ω¿ûÇ©

volunteer corps

×U

sU

pull out

2267

¿ ã« ¹ R-354

R-355

Ñ R-

2277

ã« Ñ Ñ Ñ

PPo™ o‘ •S

2829 phoenix; large mythical bird used in names used in names


186

OLD PURE GROUPS

Ö Ç© Ð R-269

R-270

Ï R-271

Ô R-

Ç©

2278

ÔÁ

ǩé

blackish blue

Ô

‰•aŠ

used in names

= æÌ ? R-284

R-285

; R-286

^ R-

æÌ % æ

2279

2

ò

R-236

^|P

æÌò²

6

9

R-237

R-238

| R-

2864

2280

jasmine

ò ^|P

2348

æÌò²

2349 jasmine

a ·Ì b R-302

R-303

c R-

2281

·Ì Rc

³û·Ì

2615 cave; rocky cavern


187

OLD PURE GROUPS

ã«

+ R-

Ä

·

R-352

R-353

ã«

2282

+^

ã«Éë·

face; encounter

+Nš +L

‹QNš HL

go to meet to encounter

È R-

ã«

2283

ã«ñ©

legendary Chinese Isle of Eternal Youth

È

—‘T

mugwort

ã«

2284

ã«ä«

honeycomb; beehive

É

vh

bee

ã«

2285

a

³

R-338

ÇÎ

õûå«

2286

` R-

2287

2768 line of argument

i R-339

_ R-

2687

ÉÛ

Î R-

2375

Èü

É R-

2417

³

2110

_5

³Äû

suddenly; abruptly

_Q

r¡Q

sudden

³ Ø`

½³

2226 town near Kyoto


188

OLD PURE GROUPS

f R-

2288

³ f

³

2694 moth

H §û L R-314

J R-

2289

N R-

2290

R-315

§û J#

§ûæ

2291

massage; masseur

§û

2782

N+

§ûØ

pommel; sidehorse

N

saddle

/

R-

2259

§û

2442

§ûÀï

at ease; comfort

/J /˜Q / / /

PdJ “`˜Q [g vš “`

tardy; lslow at ease used in names used in names used in names

é ºû æ R-528

R-529

ë R-

2292

ºû

2669

5ëÁ:

²ûºû³·Èû orchestra

ë ë

Jo kš

string (on a violin, etc.) used in names


189

OLD PURE GROUPS

ì R-

ºû

2293

ìp

ºûÅ«

± R-

2675 porthole

ºû

2294

2581

±Î

ºû÷·

bewilderment

±ŒU ±^J

UšŒU ‰}^J

feel dizzy dizzy; dazzled

V Å« S R-472

R-473

i R-

Å«

2295

in

Å«ÀíÌ

spearsmanship

i

“™

spear; lance

x R-

Å«

2296

õ

R-448

5 R-

2516

2297

2399

xR

ū׷

pale; ashen

xJ x

HPJ ^Xš

pale blue used in names

° R-449

õ

2833

5–

õ«

heron wings

5

[T

heron


190

OLD PURE GROUPS

M R-

2298

õ M

|S

2370 bog rhubarb; coltsfoot

Ù ð« â R-478

R-479

ã R-

2299

ð« ãÙ

ð«ÃÌ

welding

ãQ` ãWš

oQ` oWš

melt (metals) be melted (metals)

é R-

2300

2547

ð«%±« 9é

Ýð«

lotus; cotton rose

é

v`

lotus

2362

â ³û V R-298

R-299

O R-

2301

³û OS

³û¸

toys

O}

‘mHd}

toy with

S R-

2302

2567

³û

2899

SI

³ûç

savor; appreciate

S}

‘mHd}

toy with


191

OLD PURE GROUPS

e

´

R-300

r R-

2303

n R-301

´ r

Jd

s R-

2304

2594 rocky beach

´ Cs

´û´

2887 region around Kyoto–Osaka

7 Àí 0 R-366

R-367

Á R-

2305

Àí Á

k‰

ß R-

2306

2203 wife

Àí ß/ ß›š

_”^” s›š

2329 dead drunk become wet; be impassioned

E ¿í« A R-482

R-483

n R-

2307

¿í« n

K R-

2308

2762 hoe

¿í« K

vT

2351 Japanese bush clover


192

OLD PURE GROUPS

Ð ¿ï« Õ R-512

R-513

Ê R-

2309

¿ï« Ê&

¿ï«Ý

woodcutter; lumberjack

Ê Êš

SY™ Yš

woodcutter cut wood

ß R-

2310

2478

¿ï« *ß

Ø¿ï«

2367 Bashõ (haiku poet)

РΩ Þ R-462

R-463

á R-

2311

Ω%Ç© á? vá

Ω²û ¿Ç©

clear vision 4 Noble Truths of Buddhism

ጚ

HS˜Œš

give up; abandon

â R-

2312

Ω Ω¹©

U-shaped

â

yaŒ

hoof

R-412

B 413

/ 2313

2741

â†

Ù ´û 0

R-

2716

´û

2116

´û¿ï«

few; little; meagre

/Qr

¡aQr

a few


193

OLD PURE GROUPS

„ R-

2314

´û%»û „û

´û½©

Dutch trefoil; wild celery

`Š›

violet

ù ð« ë R-474

Ü R-475

í R-

2315

ð«

2316

2418

í0

ð«×©

worship from a distance

íQr

všQr

far off; in the distance

ó R-

2099

ð«

2553

óW

ð«³û

beautiful face

ó

f‰

beautiful stone

‡ Ñ« R-1571

ƒ R-

2317

Ñ« % ¿ï« ƒ1

Ñ«¹©

yearning; hankering

ƒ›š

HYR›š

aspire for; be drawn to

„ R-

2318

Ñ« % Ы%¿í

2280

2245

„À

Ñ«´í«

billiards

„… „U

¿íê· kU

log used to strike a bell strike against


194

OLD PURE GROUPS

¼ ´í« º R-230

R-231

À R-232

y R-

´í«

2319

¹©

y{

´í«¿

ball; type of chrysanthemum

y

‰™

ball

q

s

R-344

R-345

v R-

2320

à©

2321

2358

ìv

¿ëà©

cover; shelter

vL vJ

PPL U˜J

to cover; to conceal dark; hidden

„ R-

2533

áÌ „Ø

á˹û

2927 glance; a peek at

? ¿í« S R-257

R-259

C

R-

2322

¿í«

2289

2ØC

¼È©¿í«

the 5 continents

C C C

` ^‰ Ur

sandbar; sandbank island used in names


195

OLD PURE GROUPS

5 Õû ê R-440

R-441

é R-

2323

Õû

2266

é–

Õû¿

silk throwing

éš é

ytš —™

twist; tweak a twist; ply

µ ¿ï« ± R-514

R-515

è R-

2324

¿ï« è±

¿ï«î

2746 soy sauce

Ì Î© Ê R-312

R-313

Ü

R-

2325

Ω

2603

ÜÖ

Ω¿ï«

propitious

Ü^J ÜJ Ü Ü Ü Ü

fg^J [J¡J fg [h kV —^

upright happy used in names used in names used in names used for names


196

OLD PURE GROUPS

1 Àí 4 R-364

R-365

6 R-

2326

Àí

2672

|6

©ûÀí

ribbon (of an of³cial seal)

6 6

y‘ UŠy‘

cord braided cord

É ¹û Á R-406

R-407

Ý R-

2327

¹û

2761

Ý¡

¹ûØû

keyboard; clavier

Ý

QT

key

J »« K R-416

R-417

V R-

2328

»«

2164

VwÝ

»«Ð«−û

laryngitis

V

up

throat

q ØÌ u R-316

R-317

t R-

2329

ØÌ t

JQg

2629 raft


197

OLD PURE GROUPS

˜ Å· Œ R-336

R-337

• R-

2330

Å·

2260

¢•

ãÅ·

capture; apprehension

•Nš

o˜Nš

catch; grab hold of

÷ Ö« ò R-444

R-445

ö R-

2331

Ö«

2455

²Ö«

pyosis; turning to pus

ö‹

L‹

to fester

ø ´ï« ú R-430

R-431

û R-

2332

´ï« ûÖ

´ï«−û

2799 banquet

l ²© … R-382

R-383

Û R-

2333

²© Û

yuS

2495 Japanese cypress


198

OLD PURE GROUPS

k ²© ƒ R-380

† R-

2334

R-381

²© % ¹ a† †{M

Àû²© ¹¿k}

rubbish poppy seed

†{ †

Q˜^ HUf

mustard dirt; trash

2376

3 Äû 8 R-486

R-487

9 R-

2335

Äû 9

Äû

2468 small dining table on tray

ñ Ãû û R-502

R-503

! R-

2336

Ãû 2C!

ÄûòÌÃû

2466 prostate

á Ç· è R-458

R-459

â R-

2337

Ç· âl

Ç·×Ì

2264 religious mendicancy


199

OLD PURE GROUPS

Ü Ø· Z R-318

R-319

X R-

Ø·

2338

Ø·õ

2447 exposure

p Å« r R-306

R-307

t

R-

Å«

2339

õ·

tg

Å«é©

wisdom; sagacity

t t t t t t

HS HS˜ [o [o^ o^ oS

used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names

Æ

k

R-296

R-297

Ä

R-

2340

2677

õ·

2602

°Ä

ã«õ·

stipend; salary

Ä Ä Ä Ä

h o^ oŠ —^

used in names used in names used in names used in names


200

OLD PURE GROUPS

Í Î© Ý R-460

R-461

1 R-

Ω

2341

#1

ÝΩ

insubordination

1^J

fU‰^J

stalwart

òí« H

L

496

497

J R-

òí«

2342

O

çÌ

R-534

òí«´í«

2343

çÌ !

R-115

^SŠ

Japanese star anise

k

s

}

Ÿ

_

R-117

R-118

R-119

R-120

R-121

»« Ö

2344

2532

R-116

à R-

the Loochoo islands

P

^ »« O R-114

2557

R-535

! R-

2971

»«êû

2459 anus

NB: When this group was introduced in volume II, it was noted that the primitive element must occupy a prominent place in order to serve as a signal primitive.


201

OLD PURE GROUPS

We conclude this chapter with three pure groups that use kanji which appeared in volume II only as primitives. This is indicated by an arrow pointing downards (➔) where the number for volume II would otherwise be.

R æû E ➔

R-434

G R-435

¸ R-

2345

§ R-

2346

æû ¸w

æûÀí«

2347

§

LqT

2348

R¼ø

æûÈñ

2349

2100 mandala 2359

æû−û

spreading; diffusion

H

vine; tendril

R-293

ó

Ÿ

R-294

R-295

Ü R-

eel

æû

å ´ï« ï ➔

2811

æû

H R-

steamed bun (Chinese)

æû

R R-

2998

´ï« TÜ

²´ï«

2120 overseas Chinese


202

OLD PURE GROUPS

å R-

2350

´ï« å…

´ï«ä·

tall tree

åJ å å

fQJ fQ fQ^

tall used in names used in names

÷ R-

2351

2104

´ï« ÷_

dw

2369 buckwheat noodles


CHAPTER 8

New Pure Groups This chapter introduces new primitive groups, based on signal primitives that were not introduced as such in volume II. As before, a small frame will be set at the head of each group to indicate the signal primitive, reading, and kanji from volume II that belong to this group. In most cases, the reading of the kanji that will serve here as a signal primitive has already learned, and in that case the reference to the frame in volume II where the reading was introduced will appear under the signal primitive. As in the previous chapter, an arrow (âž”) below a signal primitive will indicate that it is in fact a kanji introduced in this volume. Where there is no arrow or frame number, the signal primitive has not been learned as a kanji. For further information on the layout of the frames, see page 491.

We may begin with groups based on kanji whose principal onyomi has already been learned. Since the majority of the signal primitives have already been included in volume II, most of these groups will be small, often with only one new reading to learn.


204

NEW PURE GROUPS

òï« h R-1946

b R-

òï«%õ«

2352

[b

½ûòï«

mountain ridge

b b b

Qp Ja fQ

corner used in names used in names

Y R-

òï«

2353

R-

ò﫳

excel; surpass

YV

^uV

endure; bear

òï«

2354

C R-

!]

òï«Å«

¾

high and overtowering

2356

2668

Clj

òï«ÒûÉï« city in Kagawa Prefecture

C

H“

used in names

ã R-574

â R-

2225

òï«%òû

2355

â

2136

Yj

!

2610

¾

2844

â7

¾Äû

Zen meditation

âš

`¡š

sit


205

NEW PURE GROUPS

ä R-

¾

2357

èä

Õû¾

2845 sprain

ö Ãû * ➔

R-1052

î R-

Ãû

2358

îT

Ãû¿í«

anthology

î}

N˜}

pick out; select

ö R-

2253

Åû

2359

´·

2861

öR

Åû©

southeast direction

ö ö ö

fkŠ •U —^

southeast (dragon-snake) used in names used in names

› R-555

œ R-

2360

´· œ“

´·êû

interrogation of a criminal

œ œV œ

‰™ kV Šk

ball; used in names to follow; used in names used in names

− R-

2361

2787

´·

2753

−Ñ

´·¿Ì

shed for storing rice malt

YL_

malted rice


206

NEW PURE GROUPS

= ¿í« R-1689

O R-

¿í«

2362

¿í«´í«

football

to kick

Ð R-

¿í«

2363

Ú

2742

Ð

¡^

2834 eagle

½

R-1815

Ø R-

½

2364

Ø`

½³

Ý R-

2230 town near Kyoto

½

2365

½

2559

Ý/

½½

shining white (of stones)

ÝU

ŠRU

to polish (stones)

* R-1977

+ R-

2366

»%²

2744

+ûï

»Ãû´ï«

overpass

+V

‰fV

straddle


207

NEW PURE GROUPS

$ R-

»

2367

ô©

$

vQ‰

2626 hakama skirt

„ R-2067

¦ R-

2368

ô© ¦

QS

C R-

2369

2697 oyster

ô© C CU CV

o ŠRU oV

2595 grindstone to polish whet; sharpen

Ä õ· R-2229

º

R-

2370

õ· º,

õ·¿í

³ltering saké

º º` ºU

Y^ Y` `U

a ³lter to strain; ³lter make paper

à R-

2371

2304

õ·

2839

½ûõ·

foot of a mountain

Ã

|‘o

foothills


208

NEW PURE GROUPS

T

²

R-1151

Ù R-

²

2372

X R-

Ù2

²¿ï·

birchbark type torch

Ù

Q (¥) w

birch

²

2373

E

2515

ÅX

¹û²

2160 quarrel

²

R-1817

V R-

²

2374

] R-

Nz

shrimp

²

2375

y

V

2689

2779

ß]

−û²

smoke and mist; scenic views

]‹ ]

Q`‹ Q`Š

be hazy; grow dim haze; mist

´

R-826

› R-

2376

´

2613

›F

´É

perceive; grasp

›L ›

LQRL LQRJ

peep; spy on a guess; an inquiry


209

NEW PURE GROUPS

´ R-

´

2377

´ ´

W“S kS

2527 Zelkova tree Zelkova tree

« ¼« R-1883

ª R-

¼«

2378

ª?

¼«¿í«

Australia

ª

†™

moat

¨ R-

2306

¼«

2379

Å«

2186

èW¨

ä«·«¼«

air-raid shelter

¨

†™

ditch; trench

„ R-1993

d R-

2380

Å« d_

Å«ð«

itching

dU

QU

to scratch

ù R-

2381

2252

Å«

2681

ù|

Å«´

rise early

ù

µea


210

NEW PURE GROUPS

Å«

a R-1670

n R-

2382

Å« nX

Å«¿û

slender body; thin build

nWš nbš

YWš “bš

be sunken; be hollow lose weight

9 R-

2383

2577

Å«

2068

s9

©ËÅ«

one ship

9

|t

ship

± ´í« R-1638

L R-

2384

´í« L L

f‰ y[

¿ R-

2385

2565 jewel; used in names used in names

´í« ¿

´í«

2538 moxa cautery

« Ì© R-1642

ª R-

2386

Ì©

2477

ֻ

ÎËÌ©

iron hammer

ª

kh

hammer


211

NEW PURE GROUPS

¬ R-

2387

Ì© ÷¬

ÎËÌ©

2769 iron hammer

Ê ´ï R-1220

Ó R-

2388

´ï Ó©!

´ï¿Àï«

indentation; saw-toothed

Ó

uYT™

a saw

— R-

2389

2759

´ï —

`d

2624 hem

ë é R-1903

¢ R-

2390

é ¢ã

é−û

weirdly beautiful

¢J

`ZJ

tremendous; awesome

− R-

2391

2133

é

2496

|−

ѫé

co-habitation

−‹

`‹

live; dwell


212

NEW PURE GROUPS

y ê« { ➔

R-1730

y R-

ê«

2392

6

«

2872

y{

ê«¿

Mencius

y y

fW^ v_Œ

used in names used in names

” R-30

— R-

«

2393

—n

2415

«²©

detour

ðo

À Àï«¿ï«

Chancellor

ð‹ ð ð

``‹ `W f`U

go forwards; advance used in names used in names

Àï« % R-1964

ð R-

2394

s éû R-1098

t R-

2395

éû t{

éûó©

2752 noodles


213

NEW PURE GROUPS

I

éû

q R-1871

p R-

éû

2396

2512

pP

éû²

raw cotton

p

¡f

cotton

×û Œ R-1750

† R-

×û

2397

2556

ƒò†

ê«»×û

infant’s “Mongolian spot”

‰g˜

spots; patches; streaks

õ ²û R-989

= R-

²û

2398

2408

²ûÀ

with a smile

=

JV[

kind of rush; used in names

§ Åû R-874

2.2.

« R-

2399

Åû

2422

Ù«

¹ûÅû

humility

«š

ƒ™Ugš

to be humble


214

NEW PURE GROUPS

ñû

+ R-1935

0

ñû 0¿

R-

ñû³·

2363 studying Western science in the Dutch language

2400

: µï R-1950

Õ R-

µï

2401

2597

èÕ

䫵ï

defense

ÕV

|bV

ward off

í Ãû R-1660

÷ R-

Ãû

2402

]

2540

÷{

ÃûÑ«

agitation; demagoguery

÷š ÷mš

HPš Pgmš

fan the µames incite; instigate

´

R-1859

a R-

2403

´

2207

a‹

´µ

frolicking

a^J a^‹ a

L›^J fu^‹ —^

happy rejoice; enjoy used in names


215

NEW PURE GROUPS

‹ ©û R-1931

‰ R-

©û

2404

2374

k‰

õ·©û

shady nook

QX

shade; shadow

¹ î« R-1790

 R-

î« %ð«

2405

Ú

Âm

î«¿íÌ

gushing out

ÂU

¡U

gush up

2284

ð«

R-2219

Ö R-

2406

ð«

2128

Öo

ð«à©

mercenary soldier

ÖL

“oL

to employ

* Ïû R-2046

+ R-

2407

Ïû

2300

+g

Ïûßû

starch

+ +‹

P™ —p‹

dregs; sediment stagnate


216

NEW PURE GROUPS

ï Àï« R-961

ü R-

2408

Àï«

2504

ü&

À﫾©

µogging; caning

ü

kN

cane; walking stick

U »« R-1857

X R-

2409

»«%·

2187

Xa [X

»«Àû è·

dirt; ³lth immaculate; unde³led

X

HQ

stain

V É· S ➔

R-1617

V

É· V2

R-

É·Äû

2637 old name for northwest part of Fukuoka prefecture

2410

k ¾û l ➔

k R-

2411

2010

¾û

2092

k/

¾û¿í

decapitation

cut down; behead


217

NEW PURE GROUPS

¹ ²· © ➔

2215

¹ R-

²·

2412

¹/

²Ë²·

2908 splendid; distinguished

ï ±« R-2132

ù R-

±«

2413

f

ù

|`‰

2627 sliding door or screen

©

R-1809

i R-

©

2414

!

iL i¡›

2725

to say

JL J¡›

reason; grounds

§

R-1818

# R-

2415

§ #5

§Äû

2958 µabbergasted


218

NEW PURE GROUPS

m ²© R-1572

‡ R-

²©

2416

2682

‡‘

²©»«

walking sideways

Qr

crab

· ²· R-1849

− R-

²· %»«

2417

Š

−(

²·ñû

2257

disturbance; turbulence

µ

R-1828

˜ R-

2418

µ

2719

»«µ

friendship; amity

˜Š ˜

—^Š —^

goodwill; friendly relations used in names

Å »û R-1673

Î R-

2419

»û

2518

α

»ûå«

packing; crating

Î

Y™

a bale; package


219

NEW PURE GROUPS

d ½û R-1669

e R-

½û

2420

‹e

2641 compilation; editing

àû½û

h ½û R-1740

g R-

½û

2421

2711

gËH

½ûÛ²

hymn; song of praise

gNš

ffNš

give praise to

z ¹© R-1756

à R-

¹©

2422

à Ã

Yœ Zœ

2791 around; about time; about

¿

R-1568

Ú R-

2423

¿ Ú}

^u}

2129 recall; reminisce


220

NEW PURE GROUPS

¿

R-1819

“ R-

2424

¿ “{

¿¿

2345 lion

? Çû ; R-718

A R-

2425

Èû % Çû AB ¸A

Èû² »·Çû

parishoner of a temple ebony

A

‰•Š

spindle tree

2525

z Àíû } ➔

1761

z R-

2426

Àíû % ¿íû z z

v“}[ v“

2879

peregrine falcon used in names

Ø Àï R-1845

¢

Àï

2434

Ȣ

î«Àï

pardon; forgiveness

¢` ¢ ¢

•š` fg^ u™

sanction; pardon used in names used in names


221

NEW PURE GROUPS

R-

¢ ¢ ¢

2427

yœ^ •S ^u}

used in names used in names used in names

š Àï R-1558

£ R-

Àï

2428

2756

£¢

Àïôû

small hand scoop

£

`S

a plow; spade

Õ ¿Ì R-1923

2.2.

Ð R-

¿Ì

2429

2202

Ð4

¿ËÐ

jealousy; envy

Ћ Ћ

dt‹ tf‹

be jealous to envy

¿Ì Ô R-1907

Ó R-

2430

¿Ì

2461

Ó4

¿Ë²

at one’s knees or feet

Ó

y]

knee; lap


222

NEW PURE GROUPS

¡ ´ï« R-2095

¢

R-

´ï«%¹©

2431

−û

¢ ¢š ¢ ¢ ¢

QP™ QPš Q QPš S—

2925

a fragrance; used in names smell fragrant used in names used in names used in names

Ö R-1723

Ô R-

−û

2432

°

Ç

R-19

ÔÎ

−ûΩ

dam; weir

Ô

bS

dam; sluice

½ R-1780

± R-

2433

2191

Ç%Ç© [ܱ

Þ½Ç

2316

neglect to call on or write to

Ä −© R-827

À R-

2434

−© À{

−©Y

2566 Eiko (woman’s name)


223

NEW PURE GROUPS

ü Úû R-1944

ù R-

Úû

2435

2305

ù‘!Ç Úû¿Àï«Ç©

in a state near death

( §© R-1096

K R-

§©

2436

K*

§©æ©

2437 vague; ambiguous

d »« R-1149

| R-

»«

2437

Àû

2652

q|

Å«»«

chaff and bran; poverty

|

sQ

rice bran

h R-1569

g R-

2438

Àû

2713

g“

Àûêû

interrogation

gtš

fatš

to question


224

NEW PURE GROUPS

Y Å« R-1990

Q R-

Å«

2439

Q

Šqo

2309 harbor

u ¿íû s ➔

R-1585

u

R-

¿íû

2440

³©

u u u u u

‹UX S— yo^ Šk —^

2915 rose of Sharon; althea used in names used in names used in names used in names

— R-1385

” R-

2441

³©

2227

?”

Èû³©

precipice

RW

cliff; bluff

In the following groups, note that the signal primitive must stand in a dominant position—alone and to the right.


225

NEW PURE GROUPS

í

ä·

ð R-2210

í R-

ä·

2442

í`š

ä·`š

tell fortunes

íL

L˜qL

to tell one’s fortune

×û

ˆ R-

×û

2443

I

2103

ˆ,

×ûñû

2301 inundation; µood

·

R-1573

K R-

2444

·

2341

úK

Îû¸

long-nosed goblin

K

Js

small dog

n òû R-1674

o R-

2445

òû oú!

òûÙÃû

lymph gland

o^J

[z^J

lonely

q R-

2446

2310

òû q”

òû«

2554 Taoist temple


226

NEW PURE GROUPS

There are several new groups formed by picking up characters that were formerly part of pure or mixed groups. We take up these next.

n »« z R-863

R-864

q R-

2447

»«%´ï« qê £q

»«Å· ´´ï«

2498

stoppage; blockage Chinese bellµower

“ áû R-865

— R-

2448

áû

2783

î—

´ï«áû

teacher’s rod

‹h

whip

à ´ï« ô R-866

R-867

Ý

R-

2449

´ï«

2853

Ý!

´ï«Àï«

criminal offence

Ý›š

Pd›š

to fear

This character was part of a semi-pure group in volume II; but can best be learned here as a new group.


227

NEW PURE GROUPS

_

Ы

R-1373

m

R-

Ы

2450

2357

me

ЫÀû

debauchee; libertine

mWš

oœWš

be bewitched; be captivated

This character was part of a mixed group in volume II, but can best be learned here as a new group.

» ²· R-1913

« R-

²·

2451

Ü

2235

Ê«

·

licensed quarters

«

Uš¡

licensed quarters

½

Ü R-

2452

½ [ܱ

Þ½Ç

neglect to call or write

Ü

`q

sand

á R-

2453

2296

½ wá

¹½

2701 monk’s surplice


228

NEW PURE GROUPS

Ï

ò

? R-868

8 R-

ò

2454

w8

óò

2048 lapis lazuli

œ Éí« R-663

Þ R-

Éí«

2455

d

2661

ÞÄ

Éí«Ç©

a band

Þ

y‘

string

´

R-820

v R-

2456

´%¹

2611

vV vÀ

´×· ¹«

dilute rare; uncommon

v

‰›

rare

È »û R-916

Ë R-

2457

»û Ëx

»ûÁ©

2451 coma


229

NEW PURE GROUPS

·

È

R-898

» R-

È »Ò

2458

È−û

2531 ellipse

Š Ø©%ש R-584

-

¤ R-

2459

Ø©%ש ¤g

Ø©½û

B R-

2460

song praising Buddhist virtues

Ø© ¼B

2178

õ«Ø©

2340 panic

a »« R-1696

L R-

2461

»« LJ

[J¡J

Á R-

2462

2119 happy

»« ÁK

»«³û

2929 testicles


230

NEW PURE GROUPS

¦ ôû R-1672

¥ R-

2463

ôû

2360

¥Í

ôû»û

lotus root

¥ ¥

vh` v`

lotus lotus

We conclude this chapter with entirely new pure groups—that is, those for whom neither the signal primitive nor any member of the group was introduced in volume II. The number of these groups is small and should not cause much dif³culty. Naturally, here the signal primitives stand alone in their small frames.

M Á« ➔

M R-

2464

Á« ‚M

×ûÁ«

‹ R-

2465

2466

rumination

Á«

2086

‹G§

Á«Éé

geotropism

‹U

P‘‹U

head towards

ΠR-

2084

Á« %Á Œ

yq

chick

2085


231

NEW PURE GROUPS

œ

ì

œ R-

2467

ì œM

ìÅ

Jesus (old form)

œ

Q

question mark

› R-

2468

ì › ›

_J __

Ô R-

2469

2680

2334 old man old man; grandpa

ì

2524

Ô{

ì¿

palm tree

Ô

“^

palm tree

d é© ➔

d R-

2470

é©%çï« d÷«

驱«Ã©

Pluto (the planet)

d2

çï«ò

providence; divine favor

Å R-

2471

é© Å`

é©Å«

C R-

2472

2841

2842 meditation

é© Cú

é©Îû

2843 Hades; underworld


232

NEW PURE GROUPS

¹ À%Ó ➔

¹

R-

2473

º R-

2474

À%Ó

2074

¹û Àñ© À5À¹ ÀÕûã«Ó

since then “let it be” (Buddhist term)

¹ ¹ ¹

only; in that manner thou used in names

^Q q¥_ hQ^ À

³º

»·À

2075 State Seal

s ³·

à R-

2475

³· ÿ

³Ë»Ì

jawbone

Ã

HZ

jaw; chin

Ó R-

2476

2795

³· Ó

2824 alligator

¡r

m »« ➔

m R-

2477

»« m m m

HS HS˜ mš

2446 used in names used in names used in names


233

NEW PURE GROUPS

ï

»« ï ï

R-

2478

yœ yœ^

2287 used in names used in names

Note that the character ù does not have a kun-yomi and has therefore not been included in this group.

» −© ➔

» R-

−©

2479

»M=

−©»«Èû

tracer bullet

U »U

U yU

to pull

¿ R-

−© %ÃÌ

2480

@

2848

º¿

õ«−©

leak; disclosure

¿›

‘›

to leak

2849

Ý

@ R-

2481

Ý c@Ö µÝ¹û

% R-

2482

2928 prefecture in central Japan

Ý %w

ÝЫ

2189 wharf; pier; quay


234

NEW PURE GROUPS

Q ¿û ➔

Q R-

¿û

2483

¿ûÈ©

Ch’in Dynasty (255-206 BCE)

Q

vf

used in family names

J R-

¿û

2484

W

J J J

v^wŠ v™ vš

hazel tree used in names used in names

2485

³©

2486

2077

‹ø

³©Ãû

triumphal return

‹ ‹˜V ‹ ‹

QhpS “¡˜V oS —^

used in names victory cry ease; be mitigated used in names

œ R-

2475

³©

R-

2877

³© œ

2076 suit of armor

—œJ

½ »Ì ➔

¾ R-

2487

»Ì Á¾

»«»Ì

2277 rapture; ecstasy


235

NEW PURE GROUPS

½ R-

2488

»Ì

2431

½5

»ÌÄû

suddenly

½h

fh‰h

all of a sudden

` Àû R-2199

j R-

2489

Àû

2786

ÀûÇ©

ligament; fascia

j

Lk‡

quiver


CHAPTER 9

Semi-Pure Groups

The semi-pure groups, it will be recalled from volume II, are groups of on-yomi based on a common signal primitive—but with a single exception. Strictly speaking, the addition of secondary and tertiary readings would do away with most semi-pure groups. But the classification is a useful one, and it is worth the strain to preserve it. We begin here with semi-pure groups already learned, and conclude the chapter with a number of new groupings.

| ô© ƒ R-685

R-686

ΠR-687

“ òï« i R-689

‰ R-

2490

ô© ‰ë‰

ô©ã·Éï«

} R-

2491

2492

2382 town in Kumamoto Prefecture

ô© }h

ô©Àû

† R-

R-690

2112 minstrel; court musician

ô© †Ó †J † †

ô©ò [oJ [o^ [o

2278 clever wise used in names used in names


237

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

J R-

ô©

2493

J

ŠP

‡ R-

2494

òû

ô©Y

Reiko (woman’s name)

‡ ‡

HS˜ f‰

used in names used in names

2496

½ûô©

peak

Št

peak; summit

Note that this character does not—as you would otherwise expect—follow the reading of the lower element, but keeps the reading of the signal primitive.

t R-1980

òû pi

òû½û

u R-

2497

2498

2052 phosphoric acid

òû

2054

òûÆ·

³sh; ³nned family

u u

LœY YW

³sh scales ³sh scales

v R-

2228

[…

p R-

2568

‡{

ô©

2495

a

water canal

ô©%òï«

R-

2285

òû ¹v

´òû

2053 giraffe


238

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

œ

ôû &œ

R-

§©ôû

¢ ¿íû p ½ -2074 R

2500

× ¿íû

2501

¿íû´ï

µat refusal

qš qNš q q

P¡š PNš fQ fQ^

to be completed to complete used in names used in names

¿íû yÏ

²©¿íû

t R-

2502

2503

2059 repentance

¿íû t^

¿íû»«

v

R-

2061

Ï R-

take pity

R-2023

q

R-

pity; compassion

œ›‹ H¡›‹

2499

2051

2062 completion of construction

¿íû

2060

v+

¿íûé

µeet steed

v v v

fQ^ o^ v“^

used in names used in names used in names


239

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

H »« p R-671

R-672

P

R-673

R-674

ƒ ²· º R-675

I

»« C±I¨l

R-

2504

2505

»«É

crafty

ÁJ

ašJ

cunning; sly

è

ð«

R-1839

v

Éï«

2506

Éï«Éï«

long-winded

^’„š

to chatter

Éï«

2507

ÝÉï«

” »

R-836

è”

mark; symbol; code

ù R-837

ä«Éï«

2509

counter-espionage

R-838

» (

2726

«

²

( R-

2926

Éï«

2508

ö

2158

v/

ˆ

R-

2337

ÁJ

R-1885

R-

one of Japan’s “new religions”

»«

Éï« ’

R-

2109

òË¿ï«»«Ã©²©

Á R-

R-676

Y‘

2383 water oat; matting rush


240

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

! R-

2510

» !û

»ò

foxes and badgers

!

Skt

fox

ó ¿û ] R-730

R-731

A

F

R-732

R-733

Ñ R-

2511

2512

Ñ“Q rT“Q Ñ¡L rT¡L

2443 morning star

7 7 7

H^f HS oS

tomorrow used in names used in names

p Ûû ! R-930

R-931

à©%Ûï« Û” ÛK

à©Å· Ûï«Þ

Š 2514

lively; cheerful; bustling µourish

¿ûé©

Û

R-

2739

7g

R-929

2513

R-735

¿û

‹ à© n

R-

@ Àï· 9 R-734

¿û

7 R-

2342

2223

bate one’s breath Japanese folding screen

à©

2802

öŠ

Ãûá©

rice cracker

Š

‘h

rice cake


241

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

F

²

R-760

W

U

R-761

R-762

ñ

] R-

²

2515

]^J

[ ±· $ ➚

R-854

Pzfg^J

&

©

R-855

Ý

R-824

[

0 R-825

±·Ûï«

´

2517

2460 cowardice; timidity

y R-826

9 R-

abundant

±·

2516

&

2943

R-856

( R-

ú R-763

Ý

2361

Ýð«

cotton rose

9

v`

lotus

´ ã« ° ä« ß R-797

R-798

R-799

¼ R-

2518

ã«

2265

¼³

ã«À

holding up; present

¼Xš

[[Xš

to offer


242

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

Ÿ ´Ì ¥ ¹Ì º R-878

R-879

R-880

£ R-

¹Ì%´Ì

2519

£q

¼ ½· 6 R-691

? R-

´Ë»«%´»« Chinese bellµower

:

n

9

R-642

R-693

R-694

ß R-695

òû

´ï«½·

constriction

?‹ ?‹

`‡‹ k‡‹

constrict to close up

l

s õû Ç R-900

/ 2521

2614

ò?

R-899

R-

½

½·

2520

Ö

2499

R-901

òû

2656

òûºû

Imperial edict (China)

/ /

Jo P

satin cloth; used in names used in names

¿ »Ì Ñ ²Ì R-422

R-423

Î R-

2522

²Ì

2335

ÁÎ

»«²Ì

cunning

J ÎJ

J ašJ

sly


243

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

Û

¹©

§ R-

2523

¦

Ÿ

R-720

R-721

R-722

§{T

¹©Ñ«çë·

carotid artery

§

Uz

neck

¹© ÷u ÷J

2524

¹©Å« k—J

2525

2990 hardy plants sturdy

Note that the primitive to the right is the old form of Û. Another example appears in the following frame.

Ó R-

R-724

¹© 2796

÷ R-

‡ ²© s R-723

¹©

2989

Ó¿

¹©»Ì

shinbone

Ó Ó

`t vT

shins leg

The following groups did not exist in volume II, but can now be formed as semi-pure groups, using characters already known as signal primitives.

K Ý« R-1070

J R-

2526

Ý«

2471

J{¡

Ý«¿»«

galbanum (bitter gum resin)

J

QNn

maple tree


244

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

š R-

½Ì šZ

2527

½ËÅ«

2619 gallant; dashing

Î òí« K ä« æ -1691 -1137 R

R

G

òí« GÍ

R-

òí«ã«

R-

2529

òí«

2530

2324

%I

Àï«òí«

distillation

IŒš

fŒš

store up

w R-

name of an Early HanDynatsy emperor

2528

I

2143

òí«%ó wÀ

òí«´í«

Loochoo Islands

w8

óò

lapis lazuli

2555

‰ ¹Ì · ²© r R-1602

R-1602

¼ R-

2531

¹Ì ¼ƒ

¹ÌáÌ

f R-

2532

2714 parting; farewell

¹Ì

2274

fm

¹Ë¿íÌ

gouging out

NVš

gouge out


245

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

W

©

R-1706

g R-

2533

© gi

©¿í·

withering; atrophy

gNš g›š gzš

qNš ^P›š ^qzš

wither; droop droop; be downcast droop; wither

È

R-

2534

÷ ÷Àû

name ancient Chinese used to refer to the Japanese

È È È È

Qa ‰` ^a “‰o

used in names used in names used in names Ancient Japan

n ×Ì

ש

/ R-1554

m 2535

×Ì mâ

Þ ²û ? R-752

×ÌñÌ

ð R-753

2536

2307 sprightly; lively

) ¹û%»û Ï R-754

/ R-

2106

È^

R-1543

R-

2355

R-755*

²û /v

²ûÁ©

2314 sprinking; irrigation


246

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

J

ç

R-756

I R-757

K æ© ) R-758

R-759

* R-

æ©

2537

}

¿

R-848

T*

¸æ©

R-850

¿

2538

¥

QS

Åû

2539

þ

6 ´

R-218

6

cask; keg

‰`

b

R-219

R-220

þ R-

2506

Åû

2540

`

persimmon

R-2181

þ

R-

2481

Àíû †

¨ Åû R-1720

R-

stupidity; ignorance

y ש 7 R-849

¥ R-

2445

2541

2814 trout

´

2667

þ’

´ô©

beautiful

þ

H“

used in names


247

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

_ R-

©

2542

Š

¿

R-287

_{

©Á

š

R-288

R-289

¤ R-

2543

2480 chair

¹© ‹¤

Æ«¹©

2715 attainments; scholarship

þ ×û „ R-342

R-343

¤ R-

2544

äû%×û ¤B

äû¼

‰ R-

2545

×û¿ûõû

R-2015

pantheism

¾

Ú

R-1643

¾ 2546

2327

Note that all the characters allow for both readings. The divison indicates only “primary“ reading.

X ÝÌ Z

R-

Sanskrit

×û%äû ‰PÇ

2954

Ú ¾/

ÚÚ

2346 baboon


248

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

% ±·

3 R-

2547

2

§·

R-1820

R-1873

§· 3 3

Hk Hk^

2320 used in names used in names

The following group contains a final character that was classified in volume II as having no on-yomi. The secondary reading has, however, been added here to be complete.

Ò Ã´ Î R-764

R-764

Ð ½© å R-765

R-641

Õ R-

2548

ñ ²û

¿íô

2743 handwriting specimen

Æ

¹û

R-2000

À 2549

· R-767

ô

R-1791

R-

¿

¹û

2108

ÀÆ

¹ûÇ©

fatigue; weariness

À‹

L‹

be untiring

# µï« $ ¿ï« Ï


249

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

R-2179

R-1681

# R-

拮

2550

# # #

] Ø· Y ➔

R-703

fQ fQ^ •fQ

©

v

¥

§

R-697

R-698

R-699

R-700

] R-

R-701

1

ä

R-702

¦ R-696

Ø·

2551

[

used in names used in names used in names

1 æ· 2 R-702

2095

2105

Ø·È©

immense; colossal

]›

qQ›

must not

´

R-1154

Ÿ R-

2552

´ Ÿâ

´¾

fall to one’s knees down

ŸU

y]‰aU

kneel down

Å R-

2553

2745

ĩ ŧ

* Çû 6

ĩé

( Éí« d

2462 brittleness; frailty


250

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

R-715

R-716

R-717

& R-

R-719

Çû

2554

r&

à©Çû

2188 even; µat

1 ²û Ñ R-1909

R-1895

% R-

²û

2555

æ%

´ûÆ«³û

inlaying with gold

%Œš

vŒš

to inlay; set in; throw into

$ R-

2229

²û

2556

P$

ç²û

2482 mandarin orange

The following groups were introduced as pure groups in volume II, but the addition of new characters makes them now semi-pure.

¢

»«

R-414

Š R-

2557

{ R-415

»« îSŠ ØûÅ«»«

2923 adhesive plaster (for wounds)


251

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

ˆ R-

Á«

2558

Y

©

R-358

used in names used in names

fQ^ fQ

] R-359

¦ R-

ˆ ˆ

2224

«Ì

2559

¦5

«ÌÄû

2406 growing luxuriantly

ƒ Àíû x R-374

R-375

z R-

Àíû

2560

z

fm

³ R-

´ï

R-224

³Â

ÐûÀ

Ì

Ò

R-225

R-226

j R-

shield; escutcheon

Ðû

2561

Ë

2513

2562

2416 excuse; subterfuge

´ï %» jJ

´ï²

signal ³re

j

u™

used in names

2536


252

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

M R-

·

2563

M†

¨ Ω È R-153

·¹©

R-

Ö

Ñ

ä

R-155

R-156

¿

2564

ô ½© ï ➔

R-242

oJ^

û

í

R-243

R-244

ô

R-

2565

¿

R-914

2090

ô9

½©×©

baton of command

ôš ô ô ô

oš H“ Lt Yo

take hold of used in names used in names used in names

É¿Ì

2567

2430 have full knowledge of

µ

R-915

• R-

grindstone; whetstone

¿Ì

2566

2590

½©

Ò R-

rectangle

R-154

B

2585

µ •Ó

µ±û

2600 licenced quarters in Kyoto


253

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

¾ î« ¸ R-480

R-481

ú R-

Àï«

2568

ú(

M ¿û P R-144

R-145

Àï«ñû

;

R

R-146

R-147

Æ R-

Ú

R-346

ÆÉ

»ûÀ·

2570

à©

2571

2633

U†

¿Ëâ©

bamboo slat used to alert drowsy meditators

ƒ˜

spatula

Ð ´ï

R-

earth’s axis (ancient China)

»

R-1941

£

2184

R-347

† R-

riot; commotion

»û

2569

²

2268

R-2082

´ï

2167

£í

´ïºû

lie; falsehood

£

Ld

lie; falsehood


254

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

; ½·

Å

; R-

2572

= R-2019

½· ;K

½·Ý«

north wind

; ; ;

kJfh v_Œ ‘o

³rst day of the month used in names used in names

P R-

2573

2846

Å P‘

Å»«

2847 go against the stream

ç Õû R-1114

è R-

2574

Õû èä

Õû¾

S

R-

2575

2251 sprain

Àû

2607

Sl

ÀûÀí·

fully ripened

S S S S

o^ Šuš q™ qš

used in names used in names used in names used in names

In the following group, the signal primative must stand alone and to the right. We have seen in other cases as well how certain primitives, in order to serve as a signal primitive, must be in a dominant position.


255

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

6 Äû

Ãû

R-989

ï R-1759

& R-

2576

Ãû &A

Ãû½·

2717 search; exploration

† Éï« ‡ R-330

R-331

ë R-

2577

Ûï« ë}

Ûï«Ñ«

Å R-

2578

2239 court; ministry

Éï«

2155

Å´

Éï«õ«

mockery; ridicule

Åš

H]Wš

to make fun of

y Àíû { R-372

R-373

í R-

2579

Àíû%¿íû ¤í

¿Àíû

consultation; inferring

íš í

vQš ‰Yo

consult used in names

µ R-

2580

¿íû%Àíû µÁ

ÀíûΩ

weeping silently

µ

‰Yo

used in names

2705

2290


256

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

B R-

2581

¹û

2664

¹ûñû

dazzling; gorgeous; gaudy

B

H“

used in names

Finally, there are a small number of entirely new semi-pure groups, composed only of kanji learned in this volume.

Õ §û%−û ➔

I R-

2582

Õ R-

2583

Ù R-

2584

§û IÑ

§û¿Ì

hermit’s cell

I

JP™

hermitage

−û

2585

2055

q”Õ/ ´Å·−û−û gasp for breath; huff and puff −û

2057

Ùv

−ûâ©

cover; obscuration

ÙL

PPL

to cover

, R-

2056

−û ,

P›

2058 me


257

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

a

©

i R-

2586

÷© ƒi

²©÷©

Í R-

2587

a R-

2588

2427 neighborhood; vicinity

֩

2336

ÍP

÷©¾Ì

indecency; lewdness

͘

Šg˜

loose

© ai

©¿í·

2569 wince; µinch

¿í« ➔

L R-

2589

¿í« LU

|U

P R-

2590

2591

to thatch; shingle

¿í« PÆ

¿í«õ·

¿ R-

2392

compilation; editing

î« ¿0

î«×©

2732

2263 bowing with arms folded


258

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

»

È

Àë

í R-2235

º R-

2592

È ºs

Èòû

steering wheel; helm

º

Q_

rudder; helm

¼ R-

2593

È [¼

ÞËÈ

² R-

2594

2674

2955 Buddha

Ç ²U

H]‹U

2718 dupe; deceive

U ³û%ð« ➔

T R-

2595

³û T‹

³ûÆ«

U R-

2596

2597

counterfeit

³û U‘

³û»«

Ü R-

2151

2150 side by side like µying geese

ð« Ü

fQ

2237 hawk


259

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

ƒ ©û „ ±û 0 R-905

R-906

} R-

R-907

©û

2598

2159

}V

©û»«

throat

}

up

throat

The following group was not learned as a pure group in volume II, but if its signal primitive is made to stand alone and on the right, it is convenient to make the group now.

=

ò

R-1160

¡ R-

2599

G R-590

7 ò%òï« ( R-963

ò X¡

½ûò

û R-

2600

2601

2602

three nautical miles 2338

»ò

foxes and badgers

û

fsS

badger-dog

ò

2950

2/

¼ò

³ve miles

/

æ©ó

mile

; R-

2951

ò

/ R-

R-47

ò

2973

;s

òéû

back side

;

behind (old form)


260

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

d òï«

µ

¹

R-890

R-891

õ«

R-892

¼ R-

õ«

2603

&

»

¼«

õ«Ã©

Sirius; Dog Star

ÁJ

Y`J

sly; cunning

þ R-1216

# R-

2604

»

2605

»Ð

makeshift

#

u™

paste; glue

»%¼%« &º

»¿ï«

pepper

&& &(

¼æ

«õû

sesame suspicious-looking

& &

Nz` y[

barbarians used in names

@ R-

2606

¼%» b@

½û¼

E R-

2607

2650

#3

&

R-

2339

2562 coral

¼ ÚEI

È©¼ç

2470

2749 zest for life


261

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

The following group was learned as a pure group in volume II, but the primary reading of the signal primitive makes it better to reclassify it as a semi-pure group.

[

è%Þ

R-324

C R-

Þ

2608

Þð«

care; tending

Cnš

qnš

to stroke; pet

G R-

Þ

2609

¬

Ðû

R-2188

2610

Þ¾Ì

unpolished; crude

G

Q}

turnip

„ Àíû ¸ R-1991

R-2071

Ðû ϱ

»ûÐû

´ R-

2611

2612

2326 chaos; confusion

Ðû ´J

ÐûÉ

« R-

2401

GP

± R-

2270

2788 ready wit

Ðû «

Ðû

2949 a ton


262

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

»«

î«

Í R-1918

]

R-

2613

»«

2212

»«È©

vast; extensive

] ] ]

Hk yœ yœ^

used in names used in names used in names

»«

2662

k‚s” ×Ë»«©É« “everything under one roof” R-

2614

‚ ‚

yœ yœ^

ˆ R-

2615

used in names used in names

»«

2469

»»«

right hand man

ˆ

y_

elbow

It happens occasionally, as in the following group, that the signal primitive forms an exception to the reading it takes in other characters in which it appears.

2 Äû R-1012

ö R-

2616

Ãû

2548

öŠ

Ãûá©

rice cracker

öš

to roast


263

SEMI-PURE GROUPS

ú R-

2617

Ãû ú–

Ãû¿ï

message attached to an arrow

ú

arrow

å R-

2618

Ãû åÏ

ÃûΩ

¥ R-

2619

2636

2941 pruning

Ãû ¥Nš

dœNš

2255 to assemble; muster


CHAPTER 10

Mixed Groups The 162 kanji treated in this chapter make up the most dif³cult of the signal-primitive-based groups. Let us begin by recalling the three classes of “mixed groups” introduced in volume II: GROUP A includes groups with two readings. As distinct from the “semi-pure” groups, there must be at least 2 kanji for each reading. GROUP B is made up of groups with only two exceptions to the standard reading of the signal primitive, which must apply to at least 3 kanji. GROUP C is made up of miscellaneous groups where it is still useful to see a signal primitive with a standard reading, but which has exceptions other than those that apply to Groups A and B. Naturally, with the addition of so many new kanji in this volume, several of the groups from volume II will change classi³cation. What is more, once we have left the con³nes of the readings assinged for “general use,” the number of secondary and tertiary on-yomi increases dramatically, making the distinction between Group A and Group B less useful. Accordingly, the two groups have been combined in the present volume. For further information on the layout of the frames, see the opening remarks to chapter 7 and the full diagram on page 491.


_GROUPS ¦

Ú

R-348

2620

· Ú

2621

æÚ

paralysis

h›š

^z›š

go numb

Ú GŠ

ÑÚ

2622

ש%Ù© ç5

¿ï«×©

medallion

5

Ù©

mah-jong tiles

Î R-

2623

ש ש¿

legend; ³ction

Î

yN

barnyard grass

R-851

}

Ú

R-852

{ 2624

2873

2608

Ît

ë à´ |

R-

2196 servants

5 R-

2579

&h

Š R-

A & B_

R-349

h R-

265

GROUPS A & B

MIXED GROUPS

¿ R-853

à´

2117

à´¹û

prejudice

{‹

yR‹

be biased against


266

GROUPS A & B

H R-

Ú

2625

Úî

metaphor

HNš

foNš

compare; liken to

R-726

Ô

´ ½· 7

R-727

R-728

í 2626

í

[“

2627

Ú

R-346

«w

¿ï«²©

`

2629

2630

2219 waste; rubbish

− R-347

Ú

2236

©

Ú¼

aegis; protection

©L ©

QwL y[^

protect; grant sanctuary eaves; canopy

Ö R-

2154 patrol; guard

Ua

© R-

a sheath

ÃÌ

2628

²

2784

¿ï«

` R-

R-729

¿ï«

« R-

2728

Ü ¿ï« Ì R-725

R-

MIXED GROUPS

Ú

2218

½Ö

ã«Ú

breaking wind

Ö

ƒ

passed gas


Ç R-

2631

Û Ç!

Û÷

É R-

2632

É%

R-780

Ø R-781

2634

= ÷û Ú -783

2635

R

÷û ×

÷û

2487 wooden bowl

÷û [Ù

Éë÷û

‡ R-

2912 lute

R-782

Ù R-

loquat

Û÷

× 2633

2519

Û

Æ −û ä

R-

267

GROUPS A & B

MIXED GROUPS

2591 teacup

−û ‡(

−û´ï·

2197 euphemistic

“ ×û … Øû ¡ -801 -802

R-800

R

R

æ R-

2636

×û Ãæ

Õ×û

¢ R-

2637

2522 nirvana

Øû

2586

¢Í

ØûÀë·

huge rock

¢

boulder


268

GROUPS A & B

2 ²û ; R-748

R-749

C ñû , R-750

R-751

/ R-

2638

ñû ³ñû

temple for Buddhist training

/

HJ

indigo

R-1416

Ï

Ô Î© Ô R-544

Ë R-

2639

2640

2641

2146

Ëp

Ω×Ì

tonsure; cutting off the hair

Ëš

to shave

Ω

2283

Õˆ

ΩÀíû

obedience

Õ Õ Õ Õ

o‘ —^ “` “`^

used in names used in names used in names used in names

Ù R-

R-544

Ω

Õ

R-

2371

8/

Ô È© Ù R-544

MIXED GROUPS

Ω

2479

‰Ù

²©Î©

step; threshold; guide

Ù

v^Z

ladder


 ôû š à ¹û  ➚ -1202 -1203 R

R-1199

R

¢ R-

269

GROUPS A & B

MIXED GROUPS

Ù R-1200

È ºû È R-1201

R-1201

ôû

2642

2630

Öôû

shop-entrance curtain

¢

`g›

bamboo blind

Þ ä« ä Ø© = R-806

R-807

R-808

A R-

Ø©

2643

Ø©−û

soot and smoke

A

``

soot

± ¿ï« © R-1204

R-1205

ã

Ò Ã© ±

R-1208

R-1209

é R-

R-1204

©

ª

¦

R-1205

R-1206

R-1207

¿ï«

2644

2770

é1

¿ï«»

a bell and drum

é

Qt

bell clapper

t Éï« – R-1168

R-1169

Š

R-1170

R-1171

Ы

Y

s

R-1172

R-1173

Éï«

2645

—{

B

]

R-

2541

Å«

Éï«¿

R

2755 saké holder

Š Æ« †

Š


270

GROUPS A & B

Å

R-1188

R-1188

R-1193

MIXED GROUPS

R-1191

R-1192

R-1193

B R-1190

; R-

2646

Å çÅ

I;

R-1175

R-1177

8 R-

2647

fermented bean paste

ô é ¨

¨ Àï« µ R-1174

2177

R-1174

µ

¼

R-1175

R-1176

Àï« 8˜Q 8

HS˜Q HS˜

2438 clear used in names

“ î«%«%î R-1754

· R-

2648

« % î % î« ú·

Îûî«

divine favor; providence

· ·U

`W f`U

used in names aid; assist

Ç

R-

2649

2126

î«

2599

ÇÙ

î«ÚÌ

secretary; amanuensis

Ç Ç Ç Ç Ç

[h `W f`U h ‰`

used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names


ø ²û ù R-1270

R-1269

î

*

R-1271

R-1272

Ü R-

2650

2651

2652

2653

snoring voice

Ü

JzS

snoring

²û ²û³©

drought damage

!

yn™

drought

²û

2654

²ûЫ

top of a pole

4

[P

pole

²û †

R-1265

^P™

2655

2523 bookmark

Ì À%É ¸ R-1266

¿

x

R-1267

R-1268

ì v™

Ыì

÷ R-

2632

4w

™ R-

2441

!“

× Ç© Æ R-1264

R-1275

2944

²ûé

† R-

R-1274

ܹ

4 R-

: ¹û Û ³û M R-1273

²û

! R-

271

GROUPS A & B

MIXED GROUPS

2137 training; cultivation

Ç© ÷p

†o¥p

2871 almost


272

GROUPS A & B

Î R-

Ç©

2656

ò

»

R-1215

ÃûÇ©

mosses

Î }Î

YW u™

moss seaweed

ü

û

R-1218

R-1217

·

Ê R-1220

stopgap; makeshift

õ õ

^”Lo ^”LoŒ

mother-in-law mother-in-law

R-1233

Š

+

R-1235

R-1236

R-1237

R-1238

‚ àû ‘

²

R-1240

R-1235

R-1234

ãû % ×û

2902

äƒ

èãû

rebellion; insurrection

ƒU

d‹U

disobey

7 Ãû ò

R-1259

, R-1260

) ½û ` ¾û m R-1261

” 2659

š Øû ‡ R-1239

6 ãû ‚ R-1241

ƒ 2658

2205

»Å·

R-1234

R-

´ï

õ”

‚ ×û * R-1234

R-

N R-1219

»

2657

Çû

2356

ðÎ

õ R-

MIXED GROUPS

R-1262

Ãû “”

ÛûÃû

R-1263

2991 letter paper


( R-

Ãû

2660

ä

©

5 R-

´Ãû

high and low (social rank)

(^J

J“^J

lowly; humble

e −© Å ²û H

j

T

R-1221

R-1222

R-1223

5 5

R-1210

H^ —^

2411 reeds reeds

R-1212

R-1213

R-1214

²Ì

2662

´

2663

²ËЫ

confrontation; discord

Ò

Ua

kudzu; arrowroot

i

l

_

k

R-1253

R-1254

R-1255

R-1256

µ

¼

R-1257

´

A R-1258

2643

ÃM

×´

winnowing fan

M

Š

winnow; winnowing fan

¹ 2664

2398

Òn

M

R-

R-1225

Ð −Ì Œ ¹© Í

Ó R-1211

Ò

R-

R-1224

©

2661

¤

2735

{(

© ²Ì Ì

R-

273

GROUPS A & B

MIXED GROUPS

´ ¹v

´òû

2840 giraffe


274

GROUPS A & B

§ »«

2665

ÍY

²Ë»«

shape; form

Í‘

HfQ‘

as if

»«

2666

b

³

R-784

) R-

2667

°›

Ç©»«

R-786

)N )Nš

[N [Nš

R-360

2669

2134 intelligent; bright be clear; serene

Àï« Ï

) R-361

Ω

2587

ÛQG

Ω׷É

anchorage; mooring

Û

JQ™

anchor

4 R-

father of the Imperial adviser

R-787

Û 2668

2776

»%¼

Ï Î©

2281

e Àì î

h R-785

R-360

R-

R-1813

»«%²Ë

› R-

B

¿í«%Àî«

R-1074

Í R-

§

³Ì%¼«

MIXED GROUPS

Çû

2670

&4

×Çû

failure; bankruptcy

4zš

†Yœzš

unravel


Â

¿

˜

§

R-522

R-523

 R-

2670

Û R-

2671

¿

2672

¿³û

this shore (this world)

Â

Y›

this one

½© Û

^w

2673

2044 brushwood

½©

2045

ô÷

À﫽©

fort; citadel

÷

o™n

fort; forti³cations

Ô R-

2043

ÂM

÷ R-

275

GROUPS A & B

MIXED GROUPS

½

2046

Ôú

½½©

triµing; trivial

ÔQ Ô^

J[[Q `Y^

slightly small amount

Ø ´ï« R-1828

|

R-

2674

Àíû

2318

|

Àíû¿û

pure and immaculate heart

| | | | | |

Hk Hk^ HS S— S—^ ‰Yo

used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names


276

GROUPS A & B

R-

2675

Àíû

2676

Àíû²

re³nement; sublimation

‡J ‡ ‡

HkJ Hk Hk^

warm; cordial used in names used in names

Àíû%Ðû −J − −

HkJ Hk^ ‰Yo

°

R-

2677

Ðû»«

simplicity; naivete

° ° ° ° ° °

Hk^ Hk kš u} P[‹ ko‹

used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names

i R-1248

R-1251

j äû ! R-1250

Þû%Þ _

R-1252

d 2678

used in names

R-1249

Úû%Ûû ú ×û ™

R-

2931

°R

R-1247

R-1246

Ýû dz

2279

warm; cordial used in names used in names

Ðû

_ Ýû g R-1246

2751

‡5

− R-

MIXED GROUPS

ÝûÅ«

2246 get-up; disguise


s Á© x R-736

R-737

ƒ î« Ì R-738

R-739

³ R-

277

GROUPS A & B

MIXED GROUPS

È

2679

³È

È−´

2165 saliva; sputum

_GROUP C_ ¡

ã

¢

ª

œ

R-61

R-62

R-63

R-64

F R-

2680

2681

F‰

ÞÑ«

2682

2378 grape; grapevine

ã%Ý

2730

£Õ

ã½

assistant; counselor

£ £U

`W f`U

used in names to help; assist

¡ R-

Þ R-650

Þ%ã

£ R-

Ý

ã ¡ ¡

yœ^ v_Œ

2097 used in names used in names


278

GROUP C

š R-

ã

2683

ãÑ«

šŠ

› R-

²

R-788

›–

G R-789

2685

2686

R R-

2687

Z R-

2688

2689

ridges in ³elds

R-790

²%³

2115

²È

8/

³ñû

song in praise of the Buddha (gatha) temple; monastery

8

oT

nursing

²

2852

²Ö«

approval; appreciation

?} ? ?

—œY} —^ yœ

rejoice used in names used in names

² R({)

q`

2372 eggplant

² öZ

¿ë²

Ú R-

2918

g

³

? R-

paved road

㹩

8 R-

2975

ã

2684

;

MIXED GROUPS

2959 Shakyamuni the Buddha

² Úç

»2Ú2

2962 coffee


MIXED GROUPS

j R-

2690

²%³

2691

2803

²¼

palanquin; litter

ëj

¿ë³

imperial carriage

w R-

279

GROUP C

¹ wá

2700 monk’s surplice

¹½

O ¿û E Éû ¥ R-923

R-924

R-925

0 R-

2692

Îû 0

‰S

& R-

2693

2694

&=

ÎûæÌ

ù¢

R-742

details; full account

Îûå

ü

2190 ³ll up; compensate for

þ Ãû ü

R-740

R-741

é

2695

2789

Îû

B ½© ð

R-

Chinese black pine

Îû

ù R-

2492

R-743

½©

2704

²©½©

shout of delight

é é é é é

Q Qq hQ v_Œ “

question mark; used in names indeed; used in names used in names used in names used in names


280

GROUP C

W R-

2696

ÃÌ

2697

ÃÌÄû

distinct; sharp

sever; cut

Ç© ™È

Éï«È©

´ é%¿ï« ¥ R-1281

R-

1282

§ R-1283

2698

ì R-

2699

« é ³ ½û c

2700

2701

R-1285

2750

·À#

²·Ã©¾©

stimulant; drug

À‰`

[‰`

to wake someone

é ì

PJ

2910 nephew

¿ï«

2628

r1

¿ï«»

µutes and drums

r

^–Lu|N

13- or 19-reed pan µute

6 R-

R-1286

é

r R-

2702 accept; receive

R-1284

À R-

2703

W5

È R-

MIXED GROUPS

Å

2940

Åé

resuscitation; rebirth

—ŠRNš

revive; resucitate


MIXED GROUPS

281

GROUP C

² »· µ Æ« ‹ R-926

R-927

R-928

– R-

»«

2702

ï

Ý·

–©

»«¿

pearly-white teeth

– –

HS˜ yœ^

used in names used in names

S

O

Q

R-745

R-746

R-747

è R-

) R-748

2703

2731

èâ

Ý·¿ë

radiation (of heat, light, etc.)

è

spoke of a wheel

ÚÌ Úê

ÚËÅ·

R-1396

µû F

Ç©

R-1400

É ºû ï R-1397

R-1398

Q ³û Q R-1399

R-1399

Ñ R-1401

Ð 2705

2420 dropping out of the picture after a failure

2704

ß »û Í

R-

Ý Ý·

Ú R-

2934

»û

2578

ÐÔ

Ȟ̫

traces; vestiges

Ð

Ho

scar


282

GROUP C

s Ω à Éï« s R-1458

Ы

R-1464

a

È

R-1463

R-1458

2706

2707

2708

ΩÃû

beach line

Ú Ú

qT[ ŠT¡

beach waterside

Ω ūΩ

book-binding

æ

UT

nail

R-1323

0

É

R-1324

2709

E R-1321

N Éï·%À´ Ÿ R-1322

R-1325

¿ï· +

R-1328

vr

§

Ы

R-1329

¡ R-

2766

X ôû £ ➚

R-1462

2312

Úû

+ R-

z Éï r R-1461

Ω

Ÿ ¿ï· 1 R-1325

™ R-1460

¸

æ R-

‰ R-1459

R-1465

Ú R-

MIXED GROUPS

2183 clay

X R-1326

L Éû ¦ R-1327

R-1330

ôû

2542

¡é

ôû³

brick

¡š

temper; soften


MIXED GROUPS

@ R-

²û

2710

²ûºû

admonition

@Œš

J[Œš

remonstrate

R-1500

Î ÄÌ â R-1501

²Ì

2711

R-

·

R-1470

e

va

P ±« õ R-1471

R-1472

O 2712

2713

2646 expectation; should

ö Á« Š R-1473

R-1474

·

2986

¾O

õ«·

old bones; advanced age

O

Q˜g

body

û R-

R-1503

R-1505

e

R-

Ê

÷

R-1502

 ¹© ‹ R-1504

J

2708

â ²Ì Ï À

283

GROUP C

±« û

Q‘Œ

2828 seagull


284

GROUP C

3 §û K ©û ‘ ➚

R-1301

R-1299

3 ±û 3 R-1300

M R-

À

R-1433

Ы

f

»

ò﫧û

court (national) mourning

M MJ

“Š U˜J

darkness dark; shadowy

³

¬

´

R-1434

R-1435

R-1436

2715

Ú

R-1432

R-1438

з

R-1440

»

À

2575 hemorrhoids

ÁU ÁNš Á

« R-1430

‰U LNš ‰S

¬ ש , R-1431

2717

2395 to sow to plant used in names

R-1426

± R-

¡ Ç© Å R-1437

À

2716

À

¿

À

Á R-

2777

eM

R-1439

R-

R-1300

§û

2714

±

MIXED GROUPS

8 R-1427

1 ¾© & R-1428

R-1430

Ú

2897

±ë‰

ÚQ¡Éï«

town in Shimane Prefecture

± ´x±

H“

JSRJ

used in names reason for living


MIXED GROUPS

¹ R-

Ú

2718

ÚZJ

red (gold) carp

¹ ¹

HQ HW

red red; crimson

Ú

2719

Úä«

slander; calumny

½š

d^š

accuse; slander

ש%Ú

2720

µ

Ú

R-1418

Ø

2724

½4

ç R-

2659

¹G

½ R-

285

GROUP C

Úç

»2Ú2

2963

coffee

¼

ª

´

°

R-1419

R-1420

R-1421

R-1422

×

&

#

R-1423

R-1424

( R-1425

• R-

2721

× ‡•

àûÙ

partiality; favoritism

•š

`Y}š

exceedingly; extremely

à R-

2722

2793

× ÃM

×´

2647 winnowing fan


286

GROUP C

œ Øû

v áû ”

©Ì

R-949

R-1868

› R-

2723

Øû²

eulogy; dirge

›U

yU

grind (meat)

Z

[

R-777

R-778

Y 2724

allegory; fable

Ω

2969

Óæû

20,000 (old form)

æ©

2726

Ы

R-1441

q R-1441

¢L

2727

2970

»«æ©

lofty; noble

d

y

:

w

R-1442

R-1443

R-1444

R-1445

Ð

:

w

R-1444

R-1445

w ã« Ì Éï« ˜ Çû 1 R-1445

R-1446

q R-

2211

¸«÷

L

Â

R-779

æû

2725

q

T

¸ ¸«

©

R-

2244

›H

R-776

R-

R-952

Øû

2 ¸« X

R-

MIXED GROUPS

R-1447

R-1448

Ы%Â

2423

qK

Ыòí«

stayover; sojourn

q{}

¿¿

city near Kamakura


MIXED GROUPS

ð«

Þ ì· ¨ Ç· æ R-976

R-2076

ç R-

2728

2729

çU ç ç

QR“U HS˜ mš

™U ™

Ÿ Øû%×û

2731

2534 shine brightly used in names

” R-2152

Øû £º

Øû¿ï«

ü R-

shine; sparkle used in names used in names

QR“U mš

£ 2730

2880

ð«

R-948

R-

R-2208

ð«

™ R-

287

GROUP C

2381 red pepper

×

2262

ü)

׿í

sowing; planting

üU

‰U

to sow


288

GROUP C

,

ð«

î R-1370

Û Éï« ‘ R-1371

MIXED GROUPS

Ы

R-1372

_ R-1373

Àï« õ ¿ï« ¥ R-1374

R-1375

R-

Éï«

2732

H…

òí«Éï«

µuent (in speaking)

… … … … … …

Jfš Qp qR u} ‰[ Šk

used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names

ß R-

2885

ð«

2733

2473

ß‹

ð«À

toothpick

ß ß

“` “qT

used in names willow

In the following group, take note of certain similarities that seem to create “pure” groups within an otherwise mixed group by the addition of a second element.

Œ ¿ï • ➚

Éï

R-1362

Œ

R-1363

R-1364

R-629

q

o

R-1365

R-1366

R-1367

Ð

” ¿ë é R-1367

@

=

R-1368

R-1369

R-1360

Ì

@ R-1368

¿ï ‘M

¿ï»«

æ R-1361

2448 ³rst light of dawn


MIXED GROUPS

R-

2734

‘ ‘

HW‡u HS˜

— R-

2735

2736

2737

²û¿ï

sweet potato

J‘

potato

¿ï

2738

²û¿ï

sweet potato

˜

J‘

potato

Éï ÇÃ

Éí«Éï

2739

2740

hesitation; warning 2118

„2

Éïò

pro³ts; earnings

„W „Wš

‘LW ‘LWš

pro³ts make a pro³t

Ð H2

§ûÑ

5 R-

2994

Éï

2 R-

2402

„ R-

2365

1—

à R-

dawn; daybreak used in names

¿ï

˜ R-

289

GROUP C

2192 feeling of relief

Ð

2217

ÐÀï«

slaughterhouse

†|š

defeat


290

GROUP C

ª ñ· $ ➚

R-1355

òë· F

%

& ²· ª

R-1356

R-1357

R-1351

R-1359

2741

2742

#_

ñ·Éí«

2743

2302 in Kyoto

ñ·

2545

q|

ñ·©û

branding; stigma

qU

U “U

to burn

¬ R-

ª R-1354

ñ·

q R-

¼ R-1353

R-1354

# R-

° R-1352

 ´ë· ª

³·

R-1358

MIXED GROUPS

õ ̬

÷©õ

2738 bribe

In the following group, the primitive must stand alone and on the right to qualify as a signal primitive.

Ù òï« ^ ´ï«%¹© Ù º© « ➚

R-2177

R-938

E R-

2744

òë·

2745

2247

òë·ÈÌ

pillage; looting

EŒš

Q`Œš

to plunder; loot

a R-

R-1917

òï« a a

‹UuS U˜

2474 gray starling used in names


MIXED GROUPS

e R-

òï«

2746

ò﫧û

court (national) mourning

e e

‰Yo [o^

used in names used in names

ø Àë·

ÀëË´

provocation

ûU

yU

to attract; solicit

R-1386

: ³© š

²

R-1388

— R-1385

R-1389

f 2748

¹© f

– 2749

$ R-

R-1384

š Ý«%ã« I R-1384

R-

2429

û|

‚ ¹© ” R-1387

R-

R-1760

Àë·

2747

²©

’ È· ë

з

R-2190

û

2710

eM

R-1962

R-

291

GROUP C

2750

2932 used in names

¹© – –

Hc Lt

2571 ridge between rice ³elds ridge; furrow

¹© $

[W

2815 salmon


292

GROUP C

ƒ R-

¹©

2751

ƒK

¹©Å

§

2752

$ R-

¿

R-1402

£¹

§Ã©

raucous voice

£

QNš

a frog

$^J

LkU^J

R-1403

R-1404

µ

Z R-

2754

2755

2200 beautiful

ΠR-1405

´

c R-1406

µ%´

2122

Z© HEZ

µº© ²Þ´

arts; handicrafts Kabuki

Z Z

¡T U›

used in names used in names

‰ R-

2693

§©

2753

2564 silicon

£ R-

MIXED GROUPS

µ ‰·

µõ«

2199 brothel

This next group of charcters, you may recall, was given special attention in volume II because of the overlap of readings. Having come this far already, it is no doubt clear to you that this exception has become rather the rule in volume III.


MIXED GROUPS

3 ¿ï· 4

ô Æ R-932

R-934

R-933

R R-

ð«

R-1449

´¿

µag; banner; one’s position

R

u‡™

a banner; a streamer

á

à

ï

R-1450

R-1451

R-1452

R-1456

å R-1455

Ë

2757

´

2758

Ì«ð«

itching; interest

_J

Q•J

ichy

g R-1520

‚ ¸û t «û ± R-1521

R-1522

R-1523

«û

2439

±=

ºû«û

vertigo; dizziness

= =` =Wš

Q[ ‡Q` ‡Wš

halo shade off; blur fade; grow dim

Þ 2759

2572

−_

=

R-

R-1454

ð«

R-

å ¿ï« Ö R-1453

R-1457

_

t

2233

iR

Ãû 1 ç%Û

R-

3 R-934

¿

2756

æ

293

GROUP C

»û Þúˆ

»ûÎûµ

2295 astrolabe


294

GROUP C

@

R-

´

2760

@S @˜` @ @ @

ü Éí« f ➚

R-1331

Àí« W

QR“S m˜` yQ™ HS˜ mš

e ð R-1337

2761

×

û R-2083

Éí«¿ë·

Ú

2762

×

2764

2096

oú!

òûÙÃû

lymph glands

ú ú

La o‘N

a swirl used in names

× É%

Û÷

* R-

annotate

»

% 2763

2727

R-1618

ú

R-

ü R-1335

Éí«

R-

a glow to glow ray of light used in names used in names

R-1333

i ú

2440

l ¿í%Á

R-1332

±«

R-1336

R-

MIXED GROUPS

Japanese lute

Ø *ß

Ø¿ï«

2913

2386 Bashõ (haiku poet); banana


MIXED GROUPS

! R-

2765

÷ Ç!

: Éï« “ ➚

R-1531

Û÷

} ¿í« : R-1532

2766

R-1533

2767

Éï«ñ·

withering; decline

u‹

^‡‹

wither

Éï« Õ

R-1535

fJ

2768

Ÿ R-

2769

2812 sea bream

Œ ²· ± »· ± R-1536

’ R-

2135

u%

n ³© › R-640

Q R-1534

Éï«

Õ R-

2501 loquat

u R-

295

GROUP C

R-1537

R-1538

³©

2162

’³

³©È

cough and spittle

bS

cough

³© |Ÿ

¿³©

2874 corpse


296

GROUP C

˜

É

G

K

R-1287

R-1288

À

˜ R-

2770

q™ H™ ‰f

˜ ˜ ˜

2771

R-1291

2094 to the amount of (on receipts) used in names used in names

2242

H7

ɲû

relaxation; slakening

H| H‹ H‹

¿Éï« fš‹ •š‹

tightening and loosening to lacken slacken

R{ Rbš

, ²© } ➚

R-1302

ÉÅ« vbš

t æ© , Ø© ? R-1303

R-1304

R-1305

R-1307

{ 2773

2805 treat; hospitality run; gallop

B Ûû þ ×û R-1306

R-

R-1289

É

2772

Þ

¬

‰ Ç

¿%Ã

É%¿

R R-

G R-1288

ì

H

R-

MIXED GROUPS

R-1308

²©

2452

{_

²©Àí«

obscurity; ambiguity

ŠdQ

last day of the month


MIXED GROUPS

¿û ➚

W Éû £ R-1636

R-1940

N R-

¿û

2774

æ¿û

&N

( R-

2775

2776

¿û¿íÌ

percolation; exuding

(‹ (š

r_‹ ^Šš

spread; blot to blot

[à§

R-1347

¿í« £

δ

R-1350

èÛí«Ã©

c

î

R-1348

2777

Â

Æ

±

R-14

R-1346

À·

2666 pongee

δ

2412

}#

¹©Î´

teach; guide

#

Šh

used in names

î Á({)

É R-1349

R-14

k‹T

Á 2779

infallibility

Éí«

# 2778

2720

î î« Æ R-2147

Â

R-

2291

Ûí«

R-

measles

(m

Æ Éí« a

R-

2574

¿û

à R-

297

GROUP C

îÂ

2486 citron


298

GROUP C

¿ï« á R-1338

Ñ«

}

ç

¦

R-1339

R-1340

R-1342

R-1344

°

¿ï« Ø°ø

R-

Á Àï« ø R-1341

J

Ы

R-1343

MIXED GROUPS

È©À﫽©

2780

2870 festival of thanks following enthronment of an emperor

Ý Çû , −û Ý Èû 7 ➚

R-1887

R-2029

g R-

2781

R-994

Çû »g

¹ËÇû

2573 bloody phlegm


CHAPTER 11

A Potpourri of Readings _ INTUITION FROM _ _DOMINANT PRIMITIVE_ We begin this hodge-podge of readings with a group of kanji whoseon-yomi you should be able to guess by “intuition” from the dominant primitive, even though there are too many exceptions to allow us to make a group as such.

C R-

2782

É C({)

S_

À R-

2783

2784

pheasant

Ç©

2185

ÀÎR

ǩô³û

rocks piled up high

ÀJ

LafQJ

be piled up high

©

R-

2584

Á©%Ì© ©¿

Ì©»Ì

vertebra

© © ©ì

^J kh ^JfW

chinquapin used in names kind of mushroom

2505


300

DOMINANT PRIMITIVE

‚ R-

2785

Á©

2786

Z R-

2787

Á©¹©

pyramid-shaped

S™

a gimlet; a drill

Á©

2788

Á©²

Who goes there?

!

g›

who

©%î©%î©

2789

©©

sound expressing assent

ZŠš Z Z

P‘¥Šš Y› fg

consider; reµect this (classical) used in names

´í«

2790

´í«Î´

bitter enemy

²

Hg

enemy; enimity

Ïû

2791

2111

µ6

Ïû½·

farming

µ

kUg

new ³eld

òï {Q

×ûòï

q R-

2114

²ë

Q R-

2276

ZZ

µ R-

2712

!7

² R-

2760

‚†

! R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

2121 companion; associate

²©

2886

q$

²©Ãû

barge; cargo vessel

‰¡š

go around


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

| R-

2792

DOMINANT PRIMITIVE

¿

2222

¿³©

corpse; remains

| |

^Qwt Qwt

corpse; remains corpse; remains

³ R-

2793

2286

³/

»«»«

Ò R-

2794

o R-

2795

2796

æÒ

ä«»«

2797

2798

2799

2113 circumstances

Çû

2859

+b¿

Çû©¿ï«

Notes Lamenting Differences (famous work by the noted Buddhist reformer, Shinran)

+U

qXU

grief; lamentation

Çû 3k

ÇûÁ

2631 cabinet

Àï Ë

q¥_

™ R-

urinary bladder

¿½©

Ë R-

2457

¿

3 R-

rough; crude

»«

+

R-

301

2303 thou

ê· ™ô

ê·ð·

2293 bathing


302

DOMINANT PRIMITIVE

° R-

2800

é ° °‹

` `‹

¸ R-

2801

2802

: R-

2803

ó R-

2804

¸õ ¸b

2805

à•

ä«Ð·

2806

2807

blasphemy

§ËÃû

2781 good of³ces; services

±«

2450

óµ

±«Ã©

µourishing; prospering

ó¥ ó

[Q¥ HS˜

µourishing; prospering used in names

Çû À

qg

2321 open sea

¿û ÄT

Ç©¿û

Ô R-

2297

§Ì :ø

2292

free-thinking; unconventional cleaning

з

T R-

nest roost; dwell

¿ëÈÌ ½©Å«

À R-

2497

¿ë % ½©

• R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

2368 sash padding

¹û

2589

Ы¹û

Chinese ink slab

Ô

`a™

inkstone


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

DOMINANT PRIMITIVE

£ R-

2808

»«

R-

2809

»«u

(family name)

£ £

PPo™ yœ

giant swan used in names

Àíû

2810

Àíûð«

tame; domesticate

Ä›š

q›š

get used to

Ãû ã

´ R-

2811

2812

2813

2814

2797

¿ï·À

diet

´ ´

N N[

bait animal feed

»« ô

äÇû

2754 button

Ý

2332

ß[

ݾû

Pusan (Korean city)

ß

Q‰

iron pot; kettle

2 R-

cicada

ß R-

2692

À

ô R-

2807

Äï

ã R-

2313

£Ÿ

Ä

303

Ý

2333

Í2

ôÝ

stone axe

2

Pu

axe


304

DOMINANT PRIMITIVE

ò R-

2815

ó R-

2816

¿ë· ò{

¿ë·¿

2817

2818

2819

2544

¿ë·ÕÌ

incandescent heat

óU

“U

to burn

è ¬`

±«è

2831 parrot

î« Ã

† R-

dipper; ladle

óå

à R-

2510

¿ë·

` R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

2493 Japanese oak

¿ï«

2794

†H

¿ï«²

song of praise

†Nš †Œš

ffNš †Œš

sing the praises of to praise

_INTUITION FROM MEANING_ The on-yomi for this next group of kanji can be guessed at from their meaning. That is, the reading of another, more common character of the same meaning supplies the reading. To help you, the character of related meaning is given in each frame.


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

«

➙y

2820

«

➙|

R-

R-

2821

Þ

used in names used in names

➙†

¤Ó

_

➙r

2824

s

➙r

2826

© ¿Â©

2393 pistil

ôû ôûÇ©

2676 regiment

Å« Å«¾©

2432 side dish

Å«

2660

Å«¼«

comprehensive; synthetic

s„š s

`„š P[

to rule; control used in names

➙p

²©

¾n

²©éÌ

destruction; demolition

¾›š

k}›š

destroy

¾ R-

2588

HP Šp™

2823

2825

à´

‚ ‚

➙¦

R-

tear

Blue Cliff Records (classic Zen kõan collection)

¤

R-

qŠg

2294

à´³ûõ·

§Þ

R-

ó©

‚NÄ

2822

R-

305

MEANING

2319


306

MEANING

ê

➙å

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

Ãû

2903

êw

ÃûЫ

pinnacle; spire; steeple

2827

êš

oRš

come to a point

Þ

➙Ý

R-

−û

2546

²−û

³re; blaze

2828

Þ Þ

†uP †‹˜

µames µames

K

➙T

2829

KTB

é

➙è

2830

Àé

ö

➙û

R-

R-

R-

R-

2831

´ï« À´ï«

2240 strenuous effort

Úû

2529 splendid form

ö ö ö

HS HS˜ H“

used in names used in names used in names

2832

uP

H

➙Z

2833

collector

ÛûÛû

➙ r%n

R-

¿í«¿í«²

2409

ö/

u R-

¿í«

H‹ H H H

²© ²©Ý·

2282 recovery

¿û ``‹ HS Ur •S

2436 to advance used in names used in names used in names


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

9

➙6

²û

2780

²ûä·

writing brush and ink

2834

9

“‰p™

copper pheasant

Ã

➙*

R-

R-

2835

E R-

à Ã

Ãû U_ Qao™

➙–

2836

307

MEANING

2082 drawing of lots tally

Å%¿ï

2922

@E

²ûÅ

written advice to the throne

EJ

LoJ

distant; alienated

_UNCLASSIFIED READINGS_ The on yomi for this next group can be guessed at from their meaning. That is, the reading of another, more common character of the same meaning supplies the reading. To help you, the character will often be supplied in each frame.

ê

R-

2837

± êJm ê ê ê

PJm HH LN P

2900 in; at Ah! (exclamation) used in names used in names

The reading of this character was learned in volume II as the root character for the hiragana P.


308

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

8 R-

2838

¿ï·

2839

ºË¿ï·

lunar eclipse

8‹

‹^w‹

be worm eaten

Ð

2840

Ðr²·

anyhow; in any case

0

L[T

rabbit

È© ÚEI

È©¼ç

»

R-

2841

2842

2843

2844

2210

î«Àï

indulgence; pardon

»Œš »` » »

qgŒš •š` `W Šœ

soothe; pacify forgive used in names used in names

»« Q9

»«Ø©

2148 slope; gradient

´û

2049

9`

´ûÀí«

birds and beasts

9

o™

bird

? R-

zest for life

Ȣ

9 R-

2747

î«

Q R-

2093

0r¸

Ú R-

2800

½8

0 R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

¼ %´û n?

òû¼

apple

2050


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

) R-

2845

Ø

R-

2846

È R-

2847

° R-

2848

F R-

2849

‡ R-

2850

ØЫ

denunciation; abuse

uu^š

verbally abuse

õ

2851

õ²©

oars

ª

“V˜

turret; tower

À· úÈ

ÎûÀ·

2852

2642 India; a foreign land

«û °/

«û«û

2102 etc., etc.

¿%Ú F

[_

2891 spoon

©û ‡(

©ûñû

2298 debauchery; lewdness

Àí« ó|

Àí«Çû

Ô R-

2508

ªA

ó R-

2699

)I

ª

2657 carpet

¿í« ÔŒš Ô

P[Œš P[‹

309

2130 cultivate; pursue used in names


310

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

è R-

2853

½ % ¿ë Vè

×·½

gauze; gossamer

è

L`Ts

light silk

5 R-

2854

´û

2855

´û´ûÄû

joyfully

5 5

“`^ —^

used in names used in names

a R-

2856

´û =

b™

R-

2857

2858

2859

2543

½ûÄû

brilliance; radiance

a˜Q

HS˜Q

clear

Å«

2855

Zr

Å«²©

refreshing

Z“Q Z

[¡“Q [“

refreshing; bracing used in names

Àë·

2878

Z–

·Àë·

peacock; peahen

`aŒ

sparrow

ê R-

parsley

a5

– R-

2396

½û

Z

Úï« êˆ

Úï«àû

2673

2888

5/5

= R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

2734 sudden change


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

@ R-

2860

´û

R-

2861

²©´û

open collar

@

N™

collar

ð· óG

ð·É

Ø R-

2862

2863

2864

2865

fairy

Ø^J

H“^J

dubious; ³shy

õ Y[

õ²

2866

ꛚ

2867

³ltering

Pd›š

2275 to fear

¼« ¥J

¼«²

2857 world-destroying ³re

Â%Éí« p{ pÛ

¿ Éí«ä«

‘ R-

2328

´ï«

p R-

2078

ð«Àï

¥ R-

fertile land

؜

ê R-

2079

ð«

Y R-

2623

ˆ@

ó

fW fW^

2152

miniature shrine kitchen; galley

´íª ‘ ‘

311

2936 used in names used in names


312

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

½ R-

2868

õ«

2869

©ûõ«

pillbox

½Œš ½

YŒš QZ

to load; ³ll up cage

õ« ¿¿p

õ«³Ë»«

Î R-

2870

6 R-

2871

2872

Îe

ש³

2873

2874

2875

germ; embryo bud 2364

õΩ

shoreline with reeds

6

H^

reed

Ы )

PW

2530 bucket

Àï« ì

fW

2394 mushroom

¹©

2655

›K

¹©òí«

mooring

›V

kqV

fasten; tie

Í R-

2458

› R-

school for the deaf

õ

ì R-

2983

ש

) R-

2638

¿ R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

¿í« Í

yJ˜T

2485 holly tree


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

¡ R-

2876

´Ì

R-

2877

´Ì±û

stammering

¡š

p‘š

stammer; stutter

2878

Éï«ð«

pasting; af³xing

to stick; paste Éï«

Àx

ã«Éï«

x

Éï«

Â

R-

2879

R-

2880

2881

2231 copy book printed from old calligraphy masters’ works notebook

¿ï«

2273

‡

¿ï«¹©

short cut

ÂJ Â Â Â Â

v“J [o^ o^ ‰[š Qk

fast used in names used in names used in names used in names

Ïû

H•

ð R-

2736

Éï«

x R-

2175

¡3

$

313

2817 sweet smelt

Ö«

2883

ÇûÖ«

gallbladder

ð

|Uœ

pouch; bag


314

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

U R-

2882

Å«

2883

Å«¿ï

anthology; collection

U

U[‹˜

clump of bushes; thicket

¿ï«

2884

‡ R-

2885

¿ï«Óí«Ã´ stalactites

ꉚ

Hk‰š

2886

2887

¿íÉï«

swelling; boil

*›š

v›š

become swollen

¿

2888

2209

‡/

¿¿

assiduously

‡Œš

koŒš

work diligently

Ø· ‚^

×ûØ·

2808 refutation

¹©%´ï« ãf Šnã

¹©ñ Á«´´ï«

‰ R-

2467

ã R-

gather together

¿í

^ R-

2772

êÖÍ

* R-

2895

U–

ê R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

2898

high court of³cials cardinal (Catholic)

»«%·« S‰

»«·«

oral (medicine)

‰ ‰

Q˜ Q˜g

empty; hollow body

2465


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

] R-

2889

è%ä«

2890

¿ë²èÓ

Shakyamuni the Buddha

]‡š

‹[‡š

covet; greed for

ä«

2891

Å«ä«

one’s eyes

¹

yoŠ

pupil of the eye

Á©

2892

Á©Ã©

comet

‡ ‡

†LS [o^

comet used in names

Û%ç

2893

Ûã« ç½

stopgap; temporizing Catholic mass

¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡

J“ “ ¡fš y[ yœ ‰` Šk

all the more; increasingly used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names

¹© ŠQ

¹©³û

á R-

2894

2241

¡Ä ¡^

Š R-

2850

‡«

¡

R-

2580

‡ R-

2961

öZ]Í

¹ R-

315

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

2851 keen eye

Õ áŠ

Õµ

2601 ritual Shinto priest


316

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

% R-

2895

»

2896

»»«

second self; right-hand helper

% %

‰f ‘‘

crotch; groin thigh; femur

ä ¬Ø

äÈ©

Ë R-

2897

2899

2862

÷©´ï·

distortion; falsi³cation

Ë‹

•R‹

warp; get distorted

Ýû

eU eU

2537

Ýû¿ï»«Àí burning Chinese classics and burying Confucian scholars alive kindle; build a ³re to burn

fU “U

p

R-

enlightenment (bodhi)

Ë(

e–h0

2898

2957

֩

e

R-

2454

¬ R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

´

2889

p5

´Äû

dauntless; resolute

p p p p p p p

k—^ Qf fW^ [g‹ fQ fW o^

used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

] R-

2900

òï«

R-

2901

Ыòï«

pillar; chief support

]

v™

beam; girder

Éí« Ïj

¿ï«Éí«

4 R-

2902

F R-

2903

2904

b R-

2905

2906

low-class saké 2195

Ð4

¿ËÐ

jealousy; envy

4‹ 4U

tf‹ “U

be jealous; envy burn with jealousy

Æ· FM

Æ·òí«

2654 millet seeds

¿ï«

2622

²T

¿ï«Ý·

child by a concubine

²

ŒQW

concubine; mistress

½û b@

½û¼

ç R-

2748

Ð

² R-

2299

[]

j

317

2561 coral

Ç·

2560

ç$

Ç·æ

diligent application

ç ç

H“ fQ

used in names used in names


318

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

V

R-

2907

òï« V V V V V V

HS˜ HS `W Qk ‰Yo f`U

å R-

2908

2909

åb

2910

2911

У

¹ûé

2912

2913

2550 check; restraint

Á|

ÒÌ©û

af³xing a seal to

Á` Á

P` o^

press down used in names

Ы øQ

Àï«Ð«

2250

2901 conventional

×·

2145

Mºn

׷éÀíÌ taxidermy

MV

vV

Ê R-

courtesy; civility

ÒÌ%Ò

M R-

2425

¹û

Q R-

used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names

ΩÉï«

Á R-

2920

Ω

Ð R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

to peel off

Û

2583

ªÊ

òí«Û

crescent eyebrows

Ê

‰•

eyebrows


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

µ R-

2914

Ñû

2915

à©Ñû

annexation; absorption

µ‹

u‹

to drink

ô ц

ô©

5 R-

2916

2917

2918

2919

= R-

2920

2921

aestheticism 2665

rG

¿¿í«

embroidery

G

sJo™

crewelwork

Ω

2073

ÎûΩ

interspersion

»_š »š

o_š klš

bind; stitch to spell (words)

ñ ùø†

ñÃû¹©

2691 spiral-shaped; helical

½· = =

o™n ^R˜Š

§ R-

2679

¿í«

ù R-

spinal cord

5Ëü– ÇûÛ¿íµ

» R-

2071

Çû

G R-

2080

Ñ R-

319

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

2507 fortress weir

¿ï §

St

2503 pestle


320

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

w R-

2922

Éï« 0w

±ûÉï«

ð R-

2923

Í R-

2924

2925

2926

2927

kowtow

ðU

ffU

to beat on

¿Ì

2928

2179

ÍÒ

¿Ëô

reproof; reproach

Íš

^Qš

to scold

Å« [†

Å«Éï«

2215 Sung dynasty

Å·%½© wê èê

à©Å· 䫽©

blockade barricade

êV ê

|[V o™n

to block up fortress

õ«

2214

2213

»%

õ«ì

prison; jail

»

yo“

prison

ô R-

2166

»«Ð«

» R-

grace; divine favor

ðw

ê

R-

2982

»«

[ R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

²û

2194

ô°

²ûÌ«

adultery

ô^J

Q^‰^J

boisterous


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

à R-

2929

Ç· à‹ àU

kJw‹ ffU

2 R-

2930

R-

2931

µ

R-

2932

Ñ R-

2933

2934

to peck at to beat on 2169

2k

Àíêû

curse; spell

2L

uœL

to curse

Ø© éNš

†Nš

2170 to bark

−©

2905

µJ

−©É

wisdom; intellect

µ˜Q µ µ µ µ µ µ

HS˜Q HS˜ [o^ fg oPš o^ ‰[

clear used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names

−û

2149

Ñ›

−ûé

pessimism; world-weariness

ÑSš ÑL

HSš JoL

be fed up loathe

Ð R-

2168

Àí

é

321

ã«

2142

ÐäP

ã«Ãû²

balsam; touch-me-not

Ð Ð

PPo™ fQ

great swan used in names


322

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

l

R-

2935

»«

2936

»«Äû

elated; triumphant

l l l

fQ^ HS˜ fQ

used in names used in names used in names

«Ì ¾¥

î««Ì

À R-

2937

2938

2939

2940

2904

Ñ«»

copper boiler

À

k‡

pot

¿í«

2906

¿í«Éï«

chief; chieftain

R R

P[ Q^˜

chief; head head

¿ï·

2539

2M

¿ïË»«

candlepower

2

o‘^z

torch

ñ R-

melancholy; depression

‹À

2 R-

2856

»

R R-

2449

l5

¥ R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

Ï´

2308

ñ(

Ï´§©

dotage; infatuation

ñ›š

P‡›š

to sink; drown

u

»«

2311

u5

»«Äû

expansive; broadminded

u

yœ^

used in names


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

R-

2941

u u

yœ •fQ

^ R-

2942

2943

2944

¿ËÜ

lined up close together

^

U^

comb

õ« À2

õ«Å·

2945

2946

2947

drill press

ùk

LRk

to bore; drill

³©

2948

2592

˜{

³©¿

insulator

˜Xš

[‰fXš

to obstruct

¿í· er eJ

kor v“J

2141 early in the morning early

Úû

2551

m+

ÚûØ

a mare

m

Œ`

female

* R-

2616

Ãû»«´

m R-

candle

ùZn

e R-

2688

Ãû

˜ R-

2476

ù R-

used in names used in names

¿Ì

À R-

323

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

ä

2552

*#

äÇû

tree peony

*

P`

male


324

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

P R-

2949

³û 7P

ש³û

7 R-

2950

2951

7RÖ

2952

u R-

2953

2954

2955

protein 2558

Þõ«

ridicule

´}

‘mHd}

to toy with

−û

2325

ÅÑ

−ûΩ

bottom of the abyss

Å

|h

deep pool

©Ì

2315

©Ë¹Ì

internal hemorrhage

u›š

H|›š

to overµow

ã«

2377

Çe

㫳

germination; sprout

Ç` Ç ÇNš Ç Ç

S]` ŒwN ‘Nš ‘N H

show signs of bud burst into bloom used in names used in names

‰ R-

2683

õ«

Ç

R-

lung cancer

ÇûÙ·¿Ì

Å R-

2576

Çû

´ R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

Ñ« F‰

ÞÑ«

2379 grapes


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

œ R-

2956

÷ R-

2957

¹© œ—

¹©¿

R-

2958

2959

2960

a priest’s staff

÷

`a

tin

Àû

2961

Àû²©

dust; garbage

a

h™

dust

¹©

2962

¹©»

practice; training

—Nš

Q¥RNš

to ponder

´Ì

2963

2494

$¤{

²û´Ìó©

citrus fruits

¤

fhwq

mandarin orange

ô VÉ

¿ûô

2882 relatives

Å M´

Åé

ç R-

2088

—ò

M R-

2838

a†

É R-

2764

¿ë·Àï«

¤ R-

lined paper

֟

— R-

2698

¿ë·

a

325

2380 revival; resurrection

Ω

2865

ç

ΩÈû

tripartite talks

ç

QqN

tripod


326

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

Q R-

2964

Å Q

taŠ

˜ R-

2965

2966

2967

¸ R-

2968

rat 2606

˜w

зЫ

baldness; bald head

˜ ˜

vX Q‹œ

bald short hair of a child

Å«%Á «

“}

` R-

2065

з

« R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

2403

thicket

Ýû Ù`

ÃËßû

2174 kiss

−© ¸−

−©À

ë

2193 infant

²û

2123

ë/#/ ²û²û³·³· outspoken

R-

2969

^ R-

2970

ëJ ë ë ë ë

k—J HS˜ fg^ qP “`

used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names

½Ì%½û ^v

½ûÁ©

watering; sprinkling

^U

‰U

to scatter

2271


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

Ö R-

2971

½%¿ë

2972

¡ R-

2973

d

2914

3Ö šÖ

±û½ ì¿ë

tuning fork she-devil

Ö

‰f

fork; crotch

¬ R-

327

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

¼«

2729

¬3

¼«±û

deafening roar

¬U

opœU

to roar; rumble

´í«

2063

õ¡

ÈË´í«

dislocation

¡

L`

mortar

³

2909

‘Wdã µï«Àí«³¾ the 4 cardinal Buddhist activities: walking, stopping, sitting, lying

R-

2974

d`

|`

f R-

2975

O R-

2976

Àû fˆ

ÀûÆ«

2977

2453 kidney

½Ì O#—

½ÌæJ‘

” R-

lie prostrate

2956 sweet potato

êû

2775

Ӈ

êûÄÌ

faint; fall in convulsions

”Nš

‘gNš

be in agony


328

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

² R-

2978

º´

2979

²ûº´

gap; opening; crevice

² ²

`S y‰

chink; crack chink; time

¿í«

2980

Ý·¿í«

revenge

N

Hg

foe

Éí« Õ

y_

Å R-

2981

2982

à R-

2983

™ 2984

R-

2464 elbow

õ·

2463

Å¿

õË»Ì

ribs

Å

Hw˜

ribs

… R-

2707

PN

Õ R-

2426

N R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

áÌ

2390

¦…

¹©áÌ

derision

…‹

[X`‹

to deride

−û

2869

àÅR

−ûÛÝ·

swallow-tailed coat

à

kwŒ

swallow

³©

2388

ú™

Îû³©

canopy

™ ™L

|f PPL

lid to cover over


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

0 R-

2985

Ãû

R-

2986

Ãû»«

µash of light

0U

y˜ŒU

to µash; fulgurate

Ýû

2987

Ý R-

2988

Ýûáû

excrement

h

Ud

dung

¿ï·

2989

ÝË¿ï·

sweep away; wipe out

/L /U

sVL |U

wipe off wipe

ó

2990

2221

ݵ

óÀ

in succession

Ý

^w^w

frequently

©û

2921

»«©û

descendant

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ

ft Qa kT kV

issue; offspring used in names used in names used in names

V R-

2254

Y/

ˆ

R-

2653

h“

/ R-

2774

0M

h

329

©

2881

XV

Ы©

eastern barbarians

V

Nz`

barbarian


330

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

± R-

2991

/ R-

2992

õ

2993

õ²·

capture

±

^P

rock salt

Ãû /

HQt

2994

ËÂ

2996

2997

2385

䫱·

thatched cottage

ä ä

Q“ h

miscanthus reed used in names

δ ØËδ

2272 select; choose

ê¥nš sS¥nš

excel; surpass

Éï·

2269

¿ûÉï·

progress; advance

œš

vQpš

to progress

º R-

cooking

ä%

œ R-

2549

ä«

2995

madder; red dye

²Ëå«

ê R-

2407

ã«

ä R-

2866

±³

 R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

Ò

2960

ÈûÒ

master; husband

º

o‘

used in names


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

¾ R-

2998

 R-

2999

ú R-

3000

È Á¾

ÚÈ

3001

3002

ú

3003

3004

3005

Japanese bush warbler 2087

‹]

î«ÞÌ

something superior

‹‘

‘jo‘

reasonable; of course

ä« 6å

Äûä«

2733 overview; full picture

´ï« â â â

f`U ‰[ fg^

2892 used in names used in names used in names

ä· ó/

ä·ä·

d R-

2907

î«

ó R-

gain recognition

LVJ`

â R-

2790

±«

å R-

area in Gifu Prefecture

−©ÈÌ

‹ R-

2804

−© Âõ

2612 quiet; dutiful

Éï« d d d

v_Πo^ vk

331

2893 used in names used in names used in names


332

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

m R-

3006

Q R-

3007

q

R-

3008

Éï mÞs

Éïä©É

3009

Q

[kS

3010

q q q q q

j R-

3012

2424 used in names used in names used in names used in names used in names

Ð

2500

8’

ÐÀ

saké maker

8 8š

‘™ o_š

woods to close

Îû

2663

!q

Îûéû

involvement; entanglement

!¡š !L

‰k¡š ‰oL

coil around; follow about attire oneself

ê« }ƒü– ¹©ê«¿íµ

3011

2070 5th lunar month; rainy season

H“ Q QP™ QPš |Š

ƒ R-

game played with one die

©·

! R-

2526

»«

8 R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

ƒš

YL‹š

2384 Enlightenment (European) be subjected to; suffer loss

½û Jj

Žû

2798 plain meal


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

0 R-

3013

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

»«

R-

3014

J R-

3015

ˆ R-

3016

¿í»«

food and drink

0

[Qq

tidbits; relish

ô

3017

ô³·

erudite scholar

Ö Ö Ö

Šh Škš yœ

used in names used in names used in names

½Ì )J

§©½Ì

3018

3019

greetings; salutations 2890

ˆƒ

¿²©

this world; this ³eld

ˆ

Yu

this

Çû

2317

/5

ÇûÄû

overµowing

/Nš

ffNš

³ll up

½©%é õ …õ

½© ê·Ã©

2 R-

2261

¿

õ R-

2593

Ö¿

/ R-

2896

,0

Ö

333

2069

rhinoceros devilwood tree

´û

2101

+2

Ý´û

rag; cloth

2

vw

width; breadth; range


334

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

l R-

3020

ÎÌ

3021

ÎËÅû

grand-neice

l

ŒJ

neice

3022

Éûô

pillow and bed

3

‰U˜

pillow

· HÁH

·ñÞ

î R-

3023

3024

3025

z

club 2723

šî

Æ·ºû

common saying

î

Yo¡]

maxim; proverb

¹û

2163

ÅX

¹û²

a quarrel

Å^J Å^J

Q‰z`^J “Q‰^J

noisy noisy

³ R-

2124

ºû

Å R-

2472

Éû

H R-

2201

3 R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

²· ³‹ ³Š

kQ‹ kQŠ

2249 grab; grasp a handful

²©

2924

/z

¿í²©

ringleader

z z z

[SRW Q^˜ J[P

vanguard chief; leader used in names


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

R-

3026

z z

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

J[‹ ko‹

Ô R-

3027

R-

3028

3029

ðõû

public opinion

Ô

Y^

palanquin; bier

¿ë ¸

kX

3030

Cr C‹ C

3031

3032

3033

already; yet stop; quit used in names

ÉË´ï

2684 staying indoors

¿

2992

øú

½©¿

religious service

úš

‰kš

worship; enshrine

ÝÌ

2993

@$

¿í«ÝÌ

Shinto puri³cation

$L

v˜L

purify; exorcise

− R-

2937

ÉÌ

$ R-

box tree

`nr “‹ Š

ú R-

2517

©

b R-

2860

ÔÇ

C R-

used in names used in names

ð

¸

335

´ï·

2938

¡−

¹©´ï·

thorns; brambles

oX

thorns


336

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

È R-

3034

É

3035

ÎûÉ

fall head-over-heels

ÈU

k‰aU

stumble

ä«

3036

ä«È©

enormous

GSJ

PPSJ

large

´í«

3037

´í«²©

admonition; a warning

fŒš f

oRŒš oR

rebuke; criticize; challenge fault; blame

Çû

3038

à©Çû

impedimenta

dk

fk

come to a stop

Àí«%Àí ´%

¿í«ñ·

colony

´‰š

Hk‰š

gather

ß R-

3039

½·

3040

2939

2066

ùß

Ãû½·

sorting; delving into

ß

chisel

B R-

2620

od

´ R-

2156

fw

d R-

2089

f R-

2740

G R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

Ý

2930

Bn

ÝÀíÌ

shamanism

B

ŠY

Shinto priestess


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

5

Úï« 5S

R-

3041

Úï«©

Þ R-

3042

3043

é©½Ì ÃÌÒ

3044

R-

3045

´Åû

damage; injury

8›š

Y‡›š

be broken

´ï«

3046

´ï«¿í

decapitation

|UœL

an owl

òû

3047

2138

Î/

òûòû

intense

Î^J ÎJ

Sz^J [‹J

severe cold

ä« +

H R-

2837

—/

+ R-

2067

Î

`wš

2435 the Pleiades

½û%¾û Ht

2144

famous temple an instant; a moment

´

— R-

be possessed obsess; possess

½Ì%ÃÌ

8 R-

2428 possession (by a spirit)

5Q›š kQ›š 5U kU

eÞ Þº

337

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

½ûº%¾ûº

2083

confession; repentance


338

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

™ R-

3048

¿ï«

3049

¿ï«²

µy; cover

™š

QWš

µy; soar

Å«

3050

qkŒÅ«Ã´ Natsume Sõseki (novelist)

)U )V

UhddV ``V

3051

z

Šp™

3052

m

3053

3054

2131 one’s own son

ä« %ã« ²5 %²

ä«Äû §ã

amazement idiot; fool

²›š

HS›š

be astonished

Éí« ÇÃ

Éí«Éï

e R-

used in names

bR›

Ç R-

2863

½©

² R-

rinse one’s moutht rinse out

Á©

m R-

2288

@‡)Í

z R-

2933

™&

) R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

2181

2996 vacillation; hesitation

Ы

2598

te

´Ð«

prayer

Juš

to pray


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

B R-

3055

Å·

R-

3056

Å·Þû

learn by hearsay

BQ

†uQ

faint; indistinct

Éï« Ä™ Äš

k™ kš

× R-

3057

3058

×L ×L ×

3059

) R-

3060

hanging strap to hang; suspend

QqL QuL “`

2173 be able; be realized used in names used in names

î«

2180

Ë^

î«Àû

townsfolk

Ë Ë Ë Ë

‹˜ Ur [o^ `Š

town used in names used in names used in names

º R-

2171

´ï«

Ë

R-

2153

Bl

Ä

¿ï«

2238

º%

¿ï«ì

squire

º º

fJ˜ ‰[

used in names used in names

§© )J

§©½Ì

339

2248 greetings; salutations


340

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

à R-

3061

Õ Ãæ

Õ×û

ã R-

3062

, R-

3063

3064

ã

3065

3066

, ,

3067

onion

HPJ ‰‘š

2391 hollyhock; mallow used for names

¿ë

2414

G“

¿ë×û

such; of this kind

GL

vL

to crawl

é%Ä©%¿ï« ,

d™

2521

sled

©

2563

…Ö

©¿ï«

good omen

… …

Ša f‰

water used in names

Ø R-

2389

´

… R-

nirvana

tT

, R-

2331

Å«

G R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

ÚÌ

2570

Ø‚

ÚË´ï«

in the ³nal analysis

Ør Ø¡š

kJr P¡š

in the end to end


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

Ý R-

3068

³ R-

3069

Å« V V V

Q‰p Q‰ ƒjkJ

3070

3071

3072

summons; invitation

³`

Œ`

to call; summons

Àíû

3073

ÀíûÀíû

repeatedly; patiently

øœ ø ø ø

t¥Zœ Hk^ o‘ ‰Yo

polite used in names used in names used in names

Á%¿í

3074

2722

Á÷

area in Nagano Prefecture

vQš

to confer; consult

· QWš

QWš

2809 to set off

õ á+

õØ

¦ R-

2706

ø/

á R-

2678

¿ï«à©

Q R-

furnace; oven stove hearth

À³

l R-

2617

à©

ø

R-

341

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

2810 donkey

−û ¦

o(¥)z

2836 falcon kite


342

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

ô R-

3075

´ ô

y›

¬ R-

3076

3077

¬`

3078

â

Q‘

3079

3080

3081

2854 helmet

äÌ

2858

õ|

äË´

erection

õš

PYš

to occur; arise

Úï« â â â â

HS˜ H“ fW^ k—^

) R-

duck

Q}o

â R-

2835

Ð%Ы Ü

2876 used in names used in names used in names used in names

é )

p¥}™

Ì

2830

parrot

±«

õ R-

³n

±«è

Ü R-

2827

±«%ð«

â R-

A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

2884 rice bowl

¹û

2917

Ìc

¹ûÀí«

hand gun

Ì

Y}^

³st


A POTPOURRI OF READINGS

R-

3082

Ì Ì

UNCLASSIFIED READINGS

fQ^ ko‹

Ä R-

3083

R-

3084

3085

ô©é©

dawn

ÄJ ÄJ

PPJ fŠ

a covering used in names

©

3086

¼©

glossary

ˆ ˆŒš

v™taŠ HkŒš

hedgehog to gather together

´í« +

^”Lo

3087

¨

3088

father-in-law

Sz

2665

(Chinese) millet ò

2511

54

ò²

under a plum; conspicuous

5

`‘‘

Japanese plum

× R-

2064

¿ï

5 R-

2997

¨ R-

2935

Äg

+ R-

used in names used in names

ô©

ˆ

343

áÌ

3000

×x

áË»«

turtle shell

×

`jˆ¥

snapping turtle


CHAPTER 12

Kanji with Japanese Readings Only We conclude with a chapter that brings together all the characters learned in this volume that do not have an assigned onyomi or whose on-yomi are too rare to bother with. In cases where the reading is based on a foreign word or an original Chinese reading, the reading is set in katakana.

¨ R-

3089

A R-

3090

G R-

3091

2204

¨

Lw

aged woman 2801

A

candy; rice jelly 2625

G

H¡b

lined kimono

c R-

3092

2640

c

v^

chopsticks

Ç R-

3093

2509

Ç

Q^

oak


345

KANJI WITH JAPANESE READINGS ONLY

I R-

3094

2604

I

vQ™

balances; scales

¿ R-

3095

2709

¿

qe

riddle; hint

 R-

3096

2520

 Â

y oJ

gutter; downspout; aqueduct gutter; downspout; aqueduct

Ú R-

3097

2785

Ú

Qw¥

suitcase; briefcase

Æ R-

3098

z R-

3099

2491

Æ

Q^

oak 2813

z

J¡^

sardine 2651

‘ R-

3100

‘Š

unhulled rice

, R-

3101

2946

,

´õé2Ðó

kilometer

ñ R-

3102

2763

ñ

z–L

rivet; tack; thumbnail


346

KANJI WITH JAPANESE READINGS ONLY

Ð R-

3103

2147

ÐL ÐJ

rPL rPJ

to smell something a smell; a stink

½ R-

3104

2140

½ ½V

qT qV

a lull; a calm become calm; die down

í R-

3105

/ R-

3106

2139

í

fY

kite 2490

/

[QS

sacred Shinto tree 2489

5 R-

3107

5

‰[S

spindle tree

: R-

3108

2947

:

ÃûÉé2Ðó centimeter

² R-

3109

2488

² ²

kR oR

hemlock; hemlock spruce hemlock; hemlock spruce

“ R-

3110

Ê R-

3111

2528

`T

Japanese cedar 2216

Ê

^^

meat


347

KANJI WITH JAPANESE READINGS ONLY

f R-

3112

2965

f

Uk¡

horse’s bit

æ R-

3113

2243

æ

Q•

rice gruel

ø R-

3114

7 R-

3115

2413

øš

fpš

pursue a course 2818

7

H_

horse mackerel 2894

C R-

3116

C

‰œ

used in personal names

ò R-

3117

2404

ò Øò

yš r¥rU

garlic garlic

H R-

3118

? R-

3119

2685

H

vN

µy 2206

? ?

Ht tN[¥

older sister Miss

È R-

3120

2502

È

Q_

oar; shaft


348

KANJI WITH JAPANESE READINGS ONLY

y R-

3121

2695

y

v‰V™

clam

Õ R-

3122

ß R-

3123

2400

Õ

¡˜

straw 2671

ß

^‰

stripe 2737

’ R-

3124

’L ’

‘˜L ‘˜J

get; receive; accept tip; gratuity

§ R-

3125

2397

§

o‰

rush matting

ª R-

3126

2323

ª

pool (in a river)

Ö R-

3127

W R-

3128

U R-

3129

2822

Ö

QkP

bonito 2444

W` W

[˜` [˜^

bleach; re³ne; air (out) bleaching; bleached cotton 2821

U

shark


349

KANJI WITH JAPANESE READINGS ONLY

Ð R-

3130

2514

Ð

NuS

thackberry; lotus tree

è R-

3131

2387

èš

mow (grass)

ü R-

3132

2819

ü

cod³sh 2816

4 R-

3133

4

‰Vœ

tunny; tuna

^ R-

3134

2825

^

|q

carp

Ø R-

3135

2157

ØU

[[“U

to whisper

¬ R-

3136

2208

¬‹

v˜‹

to conceive; get pregnant 2132

} R-

3137

}`

q`

to cause to happen

U R-

3138

2350

U

JhZ

strawberry


350

KANJI WITH JAPANESE READINGS ONLY

Ô R-

3139

2868

Ô

ÓÀí«

twenty

Ñ R-

3140

2047

Ñ

yX

beard; moustache

Æ R-

3141

2072

Æ

q¡m

path between rice paddies

Ú R-

3142

E R-

3143

2081

Ú

garlic chives 2091

some one; a particular

Ð R-

3144

2098

Ð

yS

counter for animals 2125

A R-

3145

A

‰‰

as is; as one likes 2127

9 R-

3146

− R-

3147

9

‰f

crotch; thigh; fork in a road 2161

L¡[

rumour; gossip


351

KANJI WITH JAPANESE READINGS ONLY

á R-

3148

2172

á‹

Q‹

to chew; to bite

w R-

3149

2176

w

vq^

talk; story; tale

V R-

3150

2182

VL V˜L

UL U˜L

eat; drink; receive a blow eat; drink; receive a blow

: R-

3151

2220

:

^™

buttocks; hips

g R-

3152

S R-

3153

2232

g

vf

2256

SS SU

[wS [wU

™ R-

3154

3155

dealing; selling to handle; deal with 2258

™š

make a rubbing; imprint 2330

÷ R-

pennant; banner

÷ ÷‹

—p

—p‹

pool (in a river); backwater stagnate


352

KANJI WITH JAPANESE READINGS ONLY

} R-

3156

2347

}

fwY

tobacco

¾ R-

3157

2353

¾

qV

mow down 2354

R R-

3158

R

Šu

straw raincoat

Ö R-

3159

2405

Ö

¡˜z

bracken; fernbrake 2421

@ R-

3160

@

‰n

up until; by

³ R-

3161

Ÿ R-

3162

2483

³

Wf

beam; girder; 2596

Ÿ

L`

pedal-operated mortar

÷ R-

3163

Ù R-

3164

2618

÷

fm

vertical; upright 2639

Ù

^u

type of small bamboo


353

KANJI WITH JAPANESE READINGS ONLY

î R-

3165

2690

î

fY

octopus

ó R-

3166

2696

ó

leech

Ô R-

3167

2721

Ôz Ôzš

¡z

¡zš

excuse; apology apologize; make an excuse

 R-

3168

2757

Â

q„

cooking pot; kettle 2767

¬ R-

3169

¬

“™

spear; lance

š R-

3170

Ë R-

3171

2773

š

v[Š

scissors 2778

Ë

^aU

droplet; trickle

É R-

3172

2823

É

Q_Q

bullhead

A R-

3173

2826

A

`^

sushi


354

KANJI WITH JAPANESE READINGS ONLY

š R-

3174

2832

š

L

cormorant

ø R-

3175

2875

øL øS øU

LQRL

ueS ueU

spy on a peep; a glimpse to peep; to peek

j R-

3176

2916

j

vfW

³eld; farm 2942

Ò R-

3177

Ò

^kW

teaching manners

þ R-

3178

2945

þš

ffš

put a curse on; haunt 2948

V R-

3179

’ R-

3180

V V

çò

çòé2Ðó

millimeter millimeter 2952

©ûÉ

inch

c R-

3181

R R-

3182

2953

c

ݨ2Ð

feet 2820

R

[w

mackerel


CHAPTER 13

Readings of Old & Alternate Forms The readings of the old and alternate forms of kanji learned in chapter 6 keep the same readings as their simpli³ed forms. For the sake of completeness, all readings that have not appeared in the foregoing chapters of Part Two given are recorded here. Note that two of these characters (N and 4) have been assigned “of³cial” readings for use in names.

å R-

3183

º© kå

Þûº©

the literary arts

å

¡]

skill; performance

¹ R-

3184

±«

3185

±«Ð

nausea

¹U

vU

to spit up

Àí%¿í« ˜V

Éï«Àí

longevity

V

Yo}S

felicitations

ç R-

3186

2999

¹1

V R-

2352

»·

2995

2988

çB

»Ë²

nation; state

ç

Ur

country


356

OLD

T R-

3187

Ы

3188

P

ôËЫ

archipelago

T

^‰

island

−û

2974

»«−û

public park

å

du

park; garden

òí«%òï«

ò﫧ûÀ

3189

anticlimax Temple of the Reclining Dragon (famous for its rock garden)

… R-

2964

➙ see FRAME R-2333

3190

b R-

3191

Ы

3192

2972

Ыȩ

lighthouse

b b` b

HQ™ o‘` y

bright light set alight torch; ³re

6 R-

2981

PwíÅ òí«Ð«ÈÛ good start, bad ³nish; PH±

R-

2976

–T

å R-

& ALTERNATE FORMS

³·

2987

[6

½û³·

mountains and peaks

6

fW

peak; point


357

& ALTERNATE FORMS

OLD

N

R-

3193

³û âN

ð«³û

molten lava

N N N N

J¡ J¡P Šh Št

rock; used in names used in names used in names used in names

V R-

3194

Àí«%ÀíË 4V V(

¼Àí« ÀíËÎû

4 R-

3195

3196

3197

¼Àí«

³fty

4

squadron; used for names

ã«

3198

2977

¸™

ã«Éï«

top of a peak

¸

Št

mountain summit

²û

2980

o–J

пï²û

library

J

“Qf

manor

ð R-

2967

4V

J R-

2968

³fty ten points

¼

¸ R-

2978

ð·

2984

ðÝ

ð·ä«

craving; appetite

ð`š ð^J

†j`š †^J

to desire welcome; wished for


358

OLD

W R-

−û

3200

ì

3201

2979

ï

ì¿û

wild; undomesticated

ï

u

³eld

Ñ R-

2966

➙ see FRAME R-2952

3199

ï R-

& ALTERNATE FORMS

»«

2985

Ñ™

¡f™

crossing

Ñš

¡fš

to cross over


INDEX 1

NUMBER OF STROKES Index 1 includes all the kanji covered in volumes I, II, and III, arranged according to number of strokes and radical. Page references are to the frame in which the kanji was first introduced. To locate the reading frame for kanji from volume I, use Index 5 in volume II. Frames in Part One and Part Three of this volume are already cross-referenced to Part Two.

í : U

1_ s +

1

Ì s Ì G ì ^ × k M j 0 Y

7 91 2 9 686 951 779 8 83 858 444 10

696 97

3_

71

2_

2103

4 ø î X ï  Ò î ˜ K ± ´ æ Ó þ

50 1648 681 3 691 64 1246 1214 2094 44 1016 688 40 485 62

` ð î Ö F ¸ ÷ L C S w F Ï Ø · œ { š [ ë ^ 2

84

4_

68 49 2914 462 1231 525 2042 2937 11 319 150 109 107 105 98 95 45 768 127 76 2101

÷ b 2 3 ú # & ’ # © ¬ Ò z œ 9 ° â k

255 1904 5 757 428 1217 838 1828 637 42 2033 1215 1913 2040 1510 2102 59 1725

¾ Â k Ä 5 ² V _ [ N 5 _ ò Ò # » Q Ð ‰ — ² J

490 6 250 1587 1008 2114 2968 988 964 784 1274 781 300 1811 2038 1019 2148 2147 1049 1027 447 1696


372

Ï † ‹ º Œ ‚ £ B { T Ð 5 ç à ú × _ Ñ ° ¸ Z ñ … { å Ô  ú 7 4 Õ Q ½ J v … µ

INDEX

1695 711 2087 704

à ‰ È m

727 1212 245 1806

370 722

5_

1415 2153 765 697 1593 568 1488 1490 2096 85 39 238 120 106 96 1070 1232 1233 1862 1190 595 1076 1177 1125 12 578 13 161 130 195 466

= é * › ± Í m r = J P ½ Ð « ° R s Ç Ë ½ é } ü C | n o ä ¬

93 1031 256 28 379 113 1020 1484 217 216 1028 132 2098 1877 1329 37 1863 35 856 1086 1383 412 266 431 1401 960 2113 986 961

Ö $ } î á Õ G ä í í ¢ ª ; I ± “ ò Ù + ç 9 × – ^ Ï ´ ¢ W ¬ × Í ð | ¦ t ï v

1005 1000 1202 1740 1247 2034 1826 1181 2139 33 34 86 867 65 530 78 16 77 405 48 152 744 742 1225 845 1555 1220 1834 2208 2173 2179 2166 103 1242 692 53 4

8 É ‘ ‰ K G ¹ : Í e m O _ î × b z ™ ¸ Y ^ Ú ˆ ‹ Á ¹ Œ × Ê x M * Æ ä M û )

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

1018 750 111 297 427 702 1316 2220

ˆ 1 , µ V ‡ ë ª

1087 1757 14 802 1447 15 445 101

1054

6_

1234 767 863 1241 1650 1378 739 591 2041 653 738 140 2312 2301 1414 780 279 284 635 1138 1113 1117 30 1105 131 212 211 2884

V ç ‘ › ¿ » ß 3 X Ñ Ò » T U À â Î h n H X x l Y §

2881 1815 815 753 818 1602 38 693 1168 2985 32 1448 183 1861 36 41 355 396 1519 1275 761 487 752 375 253


INDEX

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

6 Q 6 Z ³ þ ¾ 4 ` ) Û q N Ý ? | Ò e ½ µ t y Š â ¨ $ ¦ À ‚ ] ð 8 q $ æ , [

263 1161 966 2122 965 1701 959 2967 956 963 1003 994 962 2853 128 180 1022 2141 2140 471 235 67 455 2892 1693 685 684 79 168 2961 2919 1965 1885 221 1036 458 1416

5 m 4 ’ ¡ µ ä Ä 1 ƒ n : Ÿ ‚ ± G − e ª M ê c — Y Ø ¨ H ” ° ! á e H „ – º y

1753 1154 27 2952 2175 689 1508 2171 151 583 586 582 320 155 158 515 108 112 291 119 2903 1153 862 99 100 527 190 1656 185 186 1916 1071 2242 406 1333 2238 1655

373

Ü Å ‘ æ Ú ; â ½ ë * s à K Ë ‰ — … ø h @ X » ( f h Å a h » ð  – m å | ß {

1216 353 873 547 618 690 2264 2322 1245 1651

† ¾ ¨ U y – ¡ J g ¾

1252 1251 361 937 919 573 2063 1868 517 3006

139 110

7_

516 2303 2327 2415 285 2413 280 2421 321 2848 1172 26 66 2463 165 210 1243 207 2043 812 2551 248 1425 1795 679

× ! ¼ 7 n 3 – q © § ¡ û B d a ˜ X µ o − S L â

3001 1809 934 17 694 1565 1664 1440 1427 1218 2097 1884 2930 1468 640 1391 1248 2080 1331 58 848 1588 2844

Ñ R 7 8 Õ 6 p « W ; ¿ ñ µ È L { · } ú Ô ) ™ ƒ | ƒ l ó „ ¸ d E r ` é c ] 6

1657 955 1012 2115 952 1142 1864 1029 954 1118 957 953 2111 1831 967 1203 2126 2112 788 1240 2134 2137 1404 1205 90 1694 2008 866 1812 1489 1589 467 2174 2170 2953 603 1897


374

˜ Í ² Ë ¨ U Å o t ƒ ¹ Ó {  1 W * Ö © ¥ ¿ û Ü ‰ " Ü × U Ø ‡ õ Á ] Ê [ » &

INDEX

1279 262 2181 2180 24 1807 579 1180 457 600 1896 1743 384 323 160 306 723 492 1395 2857 2538 298 114 2199 865 507 491 123 2078 2209 187 1320 2212 2216 2215 2213 1066

Ù Å Ö y f c ó k ñ Ÿ » © Ó 6 P † è = © T * 9 Æ p “ ¤ ) r Œ h ¿ Û ã V û s −

1053 1915 2218 528 599 772 167 330 607 1594 592 2236 508 2364 1009 2376 2387 2396 421 2368 2386 2361 493 1162 1462 884 1422 1642 712 648 647 1130 1074 706 1752 705 649

0 d ñ f ! r · Ü ± å ¢ ± ö ó ™ ñ + è º C ª ‘ ! Ý Ù w Œ Á ! : Õ Ã ó O 5 % ò

839 2246 1700 2274 138 1886 1641 2296 2316 1072 1888 2326 707 2079 2293 260 1294 1302 2960 1129 1702 725 239 597 596 676 1081 1726 2441 1649 2464

ü ’ ª 8 µ * ² Í † [ _ L ´ ç C ‰ Ø š Š • & ˜ 2 Y ° ± ( í Š ë =

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

2504 1713 208 2500 728 2552 247 1848 1711 1253 1533 2565 2558 1092 859 92 57 1782 404 902 914 2606 906 1496 104 860 72 335 54 286 173

2459 2544

8_

203 2511 683 2510

c ë

1170 1889

ª X ` À s 0 @ . p Œ Ø Ù P ¢ | š à f S 9 : ë Ú Û I q ¬ B n ‚ X # A þ : ø ±

1156 504 1902 1330 1582 2093 2928 377 759 1523 308 312 1276 1025 486 1037 316 1400 971 1603 970 2123 1796 2107 2109 990 976 989 1030 972 3002 2095 2125 1961 317 1827 1521


INDEX

H r £ Þ á Ÿ d ß Z ¾ o 0 ó 2 I ô ³ a Æ & ¿ f Õ ` ¹ ú ¹ ? õ x y ¥ 4 ) y = ö

375

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

1069 417 418 2144 872 73 718 51 1720 1901 1972 2896 1485 2169 219 580 581 1505 2184 2188 1486 2156 2055 126 1094 1196 184 2206 2205 747 413 1557 2195 220 2872 1417 1271

Š W × ; a Ï £ µ Ê a ¥ æ ¡ M R N x Ñ ü , º × Ä ä Q R e ä N Ÿ ø Î § ï w ‰ U

1783 1317 1572 1100 1109 382 1319 257 1063 1060 1110 1386 2241 1653 770 1115 2231 1833 588 1002 2234 392 1741 1419 2373 2372 1905 2385 225 715 223 2356 2397 234 360 2382 2350

^ } ð ‡ ¦ ª u s ê § / † ò x ¬ Ì Í i À Ø ä ( c Ö 0 O ° » ; ¾ Û I ¾ ð ¸ Ë f

2348 2347 880 882 881 883 1785 716 2275 1558 623 2278 1114 656 740 857 669 654 650 769 651 668 1106 1832 1564 652 805 645 644 136 795 146 432 145 746 137 267

è # Q ³ Z À Á ? ± « K ! À ' ¾ % O ¼ A o ä ö W # Z ½ b ç E × ‹ Û Ã 5 ê ½ ^

1055 803 147 636 1237 751 533 218 1107 2294 2341 2342 2343 2344 2346 1295 1780 2955 1303 1524 1841 847 282 2412 2959 2431 602 1590 2091 1077 1127 1078 1729 2888 2900 496 1051

ó F l Ì Ã Ä g % ˆ ™ » R ¿ â Ý w « § o ‹ Ç Š Ì ! 3 ‡ Ç + 3 n Ï õ ‡ Ô Ÿ ö Ë

2450 1121 2449 448 43 25 20 2454 2469 714 1756 1399 19 494 162 468 1080 2503 2484 713 785 1697 1126 2501 1219 724 2519 332 2472 196 200 1699 374 2046 371 1698 2451


376

ô 1 Ö 2 Š ] ñ Ë ) é Á š è O t • ” í S F ú W u É ² î ¿ ´ È þ k à 5 ˜ – ˜ À

INDEX

2090

9_

735 729 2333 1213 1050 329 1184 1990 1256 1534 1531 1546 2567 1128 2600 1091 69 74 1223 2992 913 912 897 2622 1906 324 1573 2642 819 755 1206 269 1920 1616 422 1632

é h › z s Ë ˆ 3 b ƒ ñ t ¦ & Ç Ð Ò ˆ V › 7 _ y J p = ? Œ š “ ˜ 9 Q

46 1891 1667 60 1892 2862 2921 638 1675 1853 1585 1270 1511 401 311 435 1716 1745 2920 1660 1472 2110 1392 1639 1014 969 1148 1280 968 991 997 2127 2121

` R ƒ ! ì t K z ÷ 7 Ë Ç õ Ì ( R m G Æ ¹ ¹ ; } ’ 1 õ é ¤ X ô I f Ó $ $ „ ¨

1918 2906 2902 1449 304 301 524 474 2990 118 2146 1613 2858 55 169 125 178 2089 745 1407 1146 63 2159 2162 2018 23 2704 154 2187 362 156 2932 124 1928 2200 584 2204

ô l ö ª Ñ Ý è ù » % | d Ê Û ù ç 0 Œ ¼ E q É / x Œ u v ì [ 9 Å A / 2 t u Í

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

2194 2201 1879 294 754 1322 188 2616 2210 1058 2222 1075 2583 2223 1878 1265 771 773 1380 1194 2886 391 2407 472 488 224 322 2394 252 1379 879 874 70 290 625 2282 2281

f É J Î í © J … ³ B / „ ¿ } Ï t C þ ò ó § … $ á # ³ µ ¸ Ã ò & › Á Ú ï q –

620 1460 2259 661 1267 1255 2261 659 660 667 2254 658 2849 461 143 1799 2289 1155 369 249 328 181 1855 549 2302 2286 2290 2292 2331 1266 243 522 2337 2962 1466 2424 1844


INDEX

− | Ñ « s i Ø H © ‰ º : Å ¡ « à * + Ì 6 7 Å Î i j Û G ô ¥ $ ü = o e ² ¸ Ÿ

377

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

1959 2016 1465 1268 283 924 1420 703 381 1045 1742 1140 87 388 1556 18 2445 2435 748 31 414 531 2458 166 2536 1781 869 509 2481 2482 206 2507 209 268 2488 2517 514

P Í t 5 ª Á ÷ B „ ³ ¾ „ ¬ … b £ ‡ h P H á Ç Þ a f ƒ „ É n y ñ Ö ] Ó Þ ö @

199 2485 1021 2489 1421 2486 2871 1859 449 1559 1893 680 1998 1549 2561 1723 2568 1089 1119 1779 2601 2599 1759 2569 29 251 605 1689 1705 261 133 513 1226 675 117 116 2623

G ¡ E î 3 X û & 6 ¼ r Y 4 à , ‘ w Ä Å } ¥ Ë Â œ I Ó ê ñ d Á £ à ’ ? } d /

1179

Á

1887

911 900

10 _

899 479 364 333 2470 446 326 1568 1571 2632 2644 2946 2651 1354 1353 1509 1355 1362 548 1164 2680 122 520 1604 1207 1768 1851 337 339 88 386 288 2909 1397

@ f H • … ‚ ¢ { Ÿ T › V Ñ , H ¿ ñ K L ï @ E I , : á − ° l È m ø

296 523 2436 1944 2019 1269 307 1890 1017 1384 1748 1630 2071 2058 2124 1674 973 1640 2119 1186 1722 978 980 1633 992 1547 979 1574 1821 2106 2131 786

o d w ¢ u L Y õ Ä ¤ # M Õ M ’ A O ã 9 @ ô ù ” # ¤ × « / à ‚ › ( Q 8 A Ü c

1230 2841 560 2133 2135 506 2136 871 1671 1964 1730 2145 478 2084 1692 1365 75 134 2009 2013 2004 2681 1975 2958 2178 766 2154 2950 2168 56 2918 179 2901 1898 2012 849 1471


378

§ L Ö B “ · ì ? Ù ´ ` û ú ` q · ¸ ” ø ã Ç Ò N # S T = ] | õ j – Z ¡ 6 K Ê

INDEX

1393 214 191 541 1551 1033 1499 2614 790 189 2219 1925 1236 2226 2061 1562 2977 81 589 1024 1193 590 1157 242 1013 1581 2408 2105 2349 2868 1481 327 877 1659 878 1423 1881

 ; Ì ; Õ ñ Ï ) ä S F a c • × š ò œ ª ¡ u , Ì K • ø 4 ô H y ¹ û B ¼ Š G œ

1597 2846 619 622 2283 1935 2059 2248 2845 2256 2011 1120 1116 2260 2267 3007 1131 1836 1837 2951 2311 1428 144 1149 2297 1332 730 789 764 1082 1470 2338 2340 2339 1304 1315 1308

¤ i x u ¿ ‹ ™ X ° ã ? t ¦ + q G µ 0 ë ˆ ¢ í þ S m W ´ { / ô š Å ¡ ˆ T Í Ò

1658 1305 1310 1843 1132 281 1669 539 1408 1858 1661 915 287 2417 2423 2414 731 606 613 612 2434 1079 459 1048 2446 2444 159 2452 2442 1491 456 2462 2027 182 1856 870 2457

q m ð Û ° ± Û £ + ” ³ p Í C ` ° ï Y = ? k Û † m % { ˜ N ß – ì K ƒ ( Œ Ö ‘

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

2545 698 358 2044 292 1520 222 2499 204 198 2483 1278 1461 1932 367 2497 264 236 3003 460 1609 2495 2523 808 810 809 814 1493 2332 246 1803 1532 2564 258 1229 1088 1204

Ø Õ Ò N ´ í j X ± M B & Ã C $ þ £ ¼ × I Y I ¸ O d J Q Ê Ä Ù y g V [ ‚ — è

2570 1686 1685 2574 1688 1682 2916 1835 2581 2585 2590 806 532 2595 2993 2945 1108 807 905 1778 903 2604 904 536 2620 797 2877 1570 415 938 925 920 2948 1178 2662 1829 2673


INDEX

„ ó Þ i á • Ú … ‚ 5 I ” O ‹ “ ^ Ì µ Î z r g è o ê ( | ‘ â Û õ j 9 S [ æ 0

379

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

1494 1356 2661 1358 1357

Æ z ƒ + ¿

699 2879 1475 1978 1288

1727

11 _

554 1808 1914 2679 823 610 756 1870 1871 1728 2917 1469 1938 529 341 2713 1917 340 2734 682 526 2936 1249 1652 1429 2748 1436 1948 274 2766 2774

Z g { Ð c ¬ Â Ý B › ‡ X Á Ú ‘ Ï É Ê ‡ } Ô À B ú } ] w ó

2855 1173 1676 2550 1560 439 2549 489 1737 2244 1919 1955 974 2129 975 1006 977 981 1823 2132 2130 2108 501 782 1710 1451 2700 1586

O à ± œ † Ì − ³ µ ç À o 3 + À ; % ø 2 _ Î – h È ³ ( ‡ Š b ù f p Z ¨ O Y 5

89 2791 2866 2269 534 454 21 2165 556 2988 2904 356 153 2183 2185 477 2189 1062 2192 1767 1506 2878 1927 1830 2198 1151 2197 2196 192 720 995 749 1321 2006 775 1095 2217

è | ” 2 ‡ ¹ ! y ø I d Ä “ & Ú g U › ? ( û Ý ” q Ô ¬ Ç „ Ò å j ‡ n “ ! Z ¾

1235 1921 2227 778 1101 774 2225 1922 1849 2056 1159 1999 1191 593 1182 2355 1122 927 918 2383 734 2366 2410 1258 1517 2957 2377 2099 2398 2941 1733 2850 1525 876 1032 2276 2277

] ù È U − Ù Ä b Œ j ï ã 4  u ‘ Ù @ b d ) ³ Á è 1 ì ¼ E ‡ È — Ð • Ï ò _ g

1721 1537 1187 621 2279 2057 674 1061 673 1318 733 655 736 2273 663 1064 672 1188 1152 2252 1327 2249 2250 2251 1634 670 2265 2247 2298 1038 157 451 840 450 1731 1738 721


380

| ’ Í L ² , þ ( ÷ ^ o Å ] ä { _ o ‹ Þ ¦ v F @ N h i » @ H Ì v Q Z Ò ‰ 1 1

INDEX

2318 1263 372 1328 1539 164 634 804 2330 313 2310 2325 440 244 1456 1940 1262 1592 1672 1301 1966 1299 1513 1561 1518 2427 1842 1846 1845 1847 1973 318 561 1160 2379 2971 1810

ú ½ } º î ù å ø Ÿ F R 7 8 « õ ² õ Ó Þ ¤ ï 6 ] 8 ) | È G q Î È Ù ö — ÷ ² A

604 958 1085 936 1254 1732 1662 1046 1222 2891 2100 2443 2438 1396 498 538 1934 2989 2546 2954 2979 907 2299 1498 2530 677 2502 2625 2498 2518 201 2479 2529 2837 2045 710 102

y í ü y Ð â ø Ò À ê ç 7 J œ e b – F z 7 Ð » _ Ü Q Q Š ¹ Y $ c Ø µ É ¢ ø }

2533 1714 1750 841 1993 2876 1102 1541 935 259 2560 265 2557 1093 2598 1797 2571 293 1364 2683 2578 2575 2572 2854 2070 1467 237 2580 1227 2626 898 433 1457 2882 518 799 798

Å E k Ù î 6 r J ? ë T M ™ ë Ñ ú F Û R L Â î H õ ì $ º U í ¦ ç ï Ñ ¼ â Ü Ë

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

939 940 2635 1239 1111 1001 2628 1777 1136 921 2648 922 1360 2669 1758 1363 1352 1359 1361 1776 2666 2658 574 575 2675

§ ò 2 • Y ä O k % É } Ò ö ¸ Ÿ Å ô w “ Ë à ê ™ Ö š

1073 792 331 726 1010 1744 2986 2092 420 470 1435 2430 1908 174 1596 273 2754 1623 1617 2778 1143 463 94 171 1941

1874 2674

12 _

1869 519 2697 1606 1769 569 2714 787 708 495

− 6 ï å ø = ¤ 9

2938 2940 928 2104 2875 1969 1747 2049


INDEX

Y T Ä Ô / Ë S W N Í U p [ æ ò ¢ V Å V v Æ ] ü Ô ó õ ± Î O p ³ = Ý b í Y )

381

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

1026 1643 1183 1015 2116 1553 1631 1926 47 743 2150 2152 1775 1976 1042 1550 2182 2163 2164 2158 1208 1445 397 2191 1770 545 1039 390 254 1056 1507 1761 1950 395 1526 2211 193

õ Ý › ö æ = ‹ * % ˆ Ÿ Q Ø e / ³ , 5 0 û w W Ú ã K F L ¥ è % c m š : x P ã

2069 2221 1953 2861 2243 1931 2077 777 2229 129 82 407 408 1381 1706 1852 2391 2411 1577 2429 816 2966 2081 2389 2351 2378 2392 861 228 299 1145 1718 890 1398 1854 875 2898

¨ 3 g · − 2 Ú ! g ¥ Ø W ¿ Û Ü 3 ¢ 1 ç þ v · Ó — / 9 _ m F Q Â Ø Þ Ä Í ‰ [

1439 1786 624 629 628 1059 1951 1043 662 2255 665 646 2263 664 1967 2320 1292 1452 366 148 1800 1388 1788 149 2317 1195 546 2307 1169 2309 2284 1749 2295 1438 2336 1309 1958

„ ´ Ó î ± [ Z | ò Q Š ’ Ê Ú ³ í z _ Î / ¬ # ’ _ ° $ “ è Œ Æ ¬ œ g ‰ § Œ Ú

1298 1314 1306 1300 303 1293 1956 540 552 1067 277 1824 1047 2420 2416 2418 398 2432 614 1083 1638 826 334 1189 2931 1201 314 821 1260 22 1538 1974 177 2465 1209 1923 1418

Ü Ï ¡ I e _ & l ) Î 0 “ − ù © [ ß a p × ( ’ © 1 ™ u 5 É æ 5 À 7 % † É q ç

2456 1200 2542 197 2537 2480 1272 1763 1903 1673 205 2528 2496 202 2505 505 1575 2474 2512 2487 1097 1762 1171 811 813 2915 2873 842 1257 241 2566 1591 2913 2556 2912 2554 2963


382

Ä ì # x E F − d 9 n : – C ç 1 J Ô z Ô L ¢ È ; v ¨ Ä Ý t ‡ · · Á : @ V f g

INDEX

2602 2910 1784 1734 2922 1668 1690 1684 1687 2577 1703 2934 831 2865 1442 1224 2589 695 115 763 1840 793 2973 2611 2605 895 894 2062 436 1034 325 801 941 948 2637 945 947

h e t Ù Ú B … Æ º ƒ á j $ ó ˜ 3 ^ ™ £ y ó L F k ˆ Æ ß Ÿ ã ä W N ² i é r $

944 2646 2629 943 923 2664 1346 1349 1351 1348 1754 1347 1350 2657 1375 1035 555 2933 2693 2695 2696 1857 2654 1765 2890 345 1141 1865 380 342 1724

g { Ð ¾ æ ’ Î • Ò ¦ É n Ÿ Ç ¸ 6 ˆ ƒ E ” T Ð h ² j « ± † š † j

868 1771 1007 1238 1424 2737 387 385 1281 717 1112 1434 1909 853 1495 3004 1622 1620 1625 2775 559 557 1907 423 2028 1635 2897 1474 1473 52 2786

1139 2718

13 _

2727 1487 194 2736

m :

758 399

° z ´ å æ ¥ R z Ö Ò — v X % u Ó þ é o ù 1 ¤ ì A È Ð ÷ c ê B Ø ˆ ù š ™ Þ Á

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

2433 1011 999 1544 987 996 982 1678 2128 1615 719 1946 2160 1579 1867 585 359 1458 2024 2190 1444 1515 1929 542 1598 2202 226 2615 2214 1150 2230 2224 410 1601 2388 1838 2395

K % x W ò ¦ 1 R Z ƒ È é ¥ s ˆ Æ ² ö = • E ‘ 9 Ú © … u Ñ + è w á } Ë Ý ñ 3

2409 1900 2399 1385 2404 231 409 2354 305 2384 2375 2362 2360 1163 2997 889 1389 2548 1960 1483 630 687 1324 1739 666 1873 2315 1289 1578 142 1819 2701 564 416 537 2308 1663


INDEX

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

Y n â I ï á “ Î ½ ² j æ Ü P « ± A û T A ` ‰ K E Ñ @ h = @ » * ! ‘ T ß A ˜

230 365 791 2324 2287 403 2345 2335 1312 2426 1644 402 1773 2847 2422 732 2801 615 1957 901 609 929 480 1882 170 1949 1450 2439 2440 1605 2467 2466 544 464 1612 2541 163

8 Á / z » ½ à J ß · È ª Ô ñ * 8 ( › ˆ U T @ … ó L 7 Ü S Æ L g h œ & • N x

1098 1735 2490 2513 2531 1569 2493 2471 2473 930 1614 2477 2524 512 1805 2067 737 2334 2926 1995 1991 2562 2563 2553 1291 1930 2603 1090 2072 1683 2573 2579 2698 1636 1259 832 1583

383

ò C Ÿ ˜ Û Ù Ó — ú M Î S b [ G © % Þ š Õ ¡ – þ ¸ ³ Q + Â ß f î É ÷ Ì A Ó m

1514 2584 2596 2592 2587 2591 453 2624 1124 896 2608 2607 2610 608 1502 2621 1792 1464 1370 1368 1345 641 553 825 2678 2065 2064 1497 1876 2694 2690 2687 2014 1443 1766 1939 1814

6 › ¥ ¤ * ¡ ¢ å ¼ & Ê Ô í œ ¬ Ì ( ¥ ¤ + Ô ) – − Ÿ º S & f ç ˜ é ÷ l Š / !

1813 1522 343 2715 1244 346 354 550 363 2717 344 2721 2705 357

Œ ¨ , Ï ù e V ´ ™ Õ † R Ä ð

1402 1866 1477 1480 1654 1894 61 2788 783 1595 2794 2805 2807 864

2738 80

14 _

2735 473 1004 2744 1746 1286 1284 1282 2745 1277 1432 1433 2453 794 741 2770 846 271 1406 535 425

¹ Ó Š « k Ü … ì W Ð ” Ñ ” • h º P £ *

2074 2021 2923 543 309 2120 1977 1794 1707 2142 1410 2149 213 376 2003 419 562 2167 1954


384

k ¹ ; ? V W æ † ] ô C g I â P ] T « a 7 ‰ ¦ º … § © H ¦ ‚ ” ü ‡ E ™ ½ é Ü

INDEX

1942 2999 2177 2852 2995 2703 484 502 2943 566 617 1323 1103 834 776 1065 2976 2235 2838 1023 2374 2406 1945 2390 633 232 2359 2836 887 885 627 626 829 2258 1133 657 2007

Ô º Ô 4 k · ì å G º / ( ) ¹ Œ ! ì ì ï } Ç d i … C 2 ÷ ã æ Ð – Ù r J i 0 v

172 2304 932 1135 1175 1545 442 1607 830 1068 2314 2291 2288 338 1313 1296 1297 1192 441 1174 2005 2893 1764 2885 2843 233 2540 2547 2522 2514 1482 2515 1818 2475 2516 2492 229

à Â H § ´ Ý ‚ w • r ¼ Ö · U w ) ½ 2 š ° á O 5 d S † M ” c · C d „ 6 ” r s

933 2520 469 563 917 2559 2588 2555 2793 833 1390 2593 1512 465 910 1679 1715 1167 2619 2870 800 2029 1273 946 2634 2633 2643 2991 2640 1535 2668 1341 1963 2672 1344 1366 2660

4 » ¹ q } k £ þ / z t ´ Ì À Á B C £ ß œ Þ É å Ñ ¹ ì £ — µ i î ÷ F c , / —

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

2670 2073 2659 1367 1373 1371 1343 2667 2656 2863 2677 2939 678 2688 2929 347 1899 601 499 348 598 916

‹ j ¼ F › u l 7 Â : Ú i § ´ 8 Š Ë P ½ ^ p z

272 275 1624 2017 2776 1619 1626 1165 1540 2781 2785 1405 2796 2797 2800 2802 1984 1983 1986 2808 1924 2924

2733 2739

15 _

2908 1409 2730 1430 1431 1437 175 2618 1459 762 368 270 2755

¾ o l Ê ™ $ ˆ { Î j ¬

616 1677 310 998 1839 983 984 2117 2138 2803 1997


INDEX

G E − á a Å ^ b å w ‚ a Ÿ Â C û å Z 4 g R s ‰ ë # ÷ ß ‰ m £ G v Ö Þ à ó ƒ

385

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

2143 1774 2161 2172 1197 2155 121 1198 1516 3005 302 2207 430 1326 1910 511 1325 1708 1057 2232 2233 2887 2001 2239 639 2369 2367 850 2357 2381 2401 2358 2405 2393 1680 886 2280

c œ K ^ î ô „ é ü ï C − Ê ¸ ‚ ˜ õ ‡ ¾ ¨ å † * + ‚ f k ] Š ð ° ë 1 ¹ Ü Ó ô

1199 2051 822 2271 2253 760 2245 2266 2262 1793 2270 2257 2039 1548 1627 1704 844 141 2319 1307 2425 2031 1804 1610 278 2419 1772 1096 2851 2984 709 443 1883 1712 1801 2461 1751

Ï j m ´ ã ! + p ‹ 8 R − 8 ) º Å ´ N — { ¤ Ä ç ú 3 a – Š # : â 7 û Þ Å ‹ ï

571 1176 2526 2527 1608 2533 2859 2889 1994 1992 1996 2753 2048 2699 2032 2842 567 893 2088 892 909 2935 796 2636 2631 942 1413 2645 2650 2947 1372 1952 1339 1340 1377 1825 1479

S ¡ ¢ 9 V ã ’ H Í W ˜ ™ l ¾ ë ! 8 ° “ ½ e Ç ø @ ¦ E = = h Ö + r l s ‡ † 2

2899 1872 2586 2068 2689 2692 521 2685 452 1123 2719 1261 2722 1536 351 2712 393 350 349 2724 2710 1820 2706

; Ç £ k ñ š Î š Ï ] ‘ 8 i N ê Q R l K û ) q s

1374 500 2756 1566 2763 2975 2768 2773 1618 2010 1791 1637 1476 2782 2792 2809 1979 1982 2023 2828 570 1040 1041

2708

16 _

1052 476 378 1264 843 1137 820 1287 1134 1822 2751 240 1453

ª J 0 Ô ! ’ « w p ö

1670 2980 1166 2864 1412 1337 2949 2176 400 1529


386

; ‹ f ` ÷ › Ê | é $ å q U % ¾ V M ¦ O — « Å ’ & v þ e Ý ± ê + ò J ³ t B ¿

INDEX

587 2036 565 1933 1530 2613 1554 1500 2240 594 2974 1681 1503 2000 2353 227 2370 1736 2956 2365 2403 1646 891 632 828 631 671 1387 497 835 2300 2015 2285 701 1311 837 1501

L ‹ 5 · 9 ã b ê p ’ à Æ n ¤ ï ? 5 Ê þ , ö µ t 2 Î ó V P ú Ù S ™ ½ i e ß a

2970 611 2428 424 2468 1719 2972 510 2052 2535 2869 2491 1382 2494 429 2050 1446 2478 2506 2521 1426 2905 2752 1147 1543 2612 1504 2981 2907 2639 950 1988 2638 1158 1645 2671 1338

[ Ä æ i î ¤ ” á ä ³ ë ¿ w Ç Ú â Ò P ´ è E À Ú j Ó 3 š B T ÷ ) ‚ ƒ ð § Æ I

1376 1563 2911 2725 2723 475 2726 2716 1760 352

9 í Â þ Ÿ Ñ Î ´ ^ â

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

2780 2784 2790 1665 2874 2047 1044 2817 2825 2835

1968 2709

17 _

1441 1971 852 2741 2942 2732 289 2731 2749 2750 2747 2798 2759 411 1962 1185 2771 2764 383 2760 1584 2765 2030 1144 1478

¦ ¸ „ © È ¨ ä Á Ý … 6 Õ ‘ L ê £ ª æ ª ß è Ê K

985 993 2118 2026 2702 2186 1936 2203 2617 2228 2987 2400 1411 1104 2272 2313 2306 577 2323 2329 2746 1970 2437

‘ ( p ö a 2 l Ç A ^ “ ô “ Ô 0 P ` † a ó r Õ ù Õ | q h G i Ð ü ö ‹ ¤ ù b B

2448 2460 1211 2455 2543 2539 215 2509 2525 2476 1403 1463 643 2860 836 2576 1709 437 2582 1221 2594 558 2627 2597 2652 2649 2653 2665 1336 1542 1790 1798 827 2676 2691 2684 1576


INDEX

Ù “ ê ¸ • ‹ Ô › U 1 n Ý ê 9 …  ¬ M ] ƒ H œ ü v ¼ U 1 4 A „ Ü

1600 1816 1250 2193 1817 2086 1552 2655 2020 855 2762 2761 2772 1860 2964 2757 2769 2777 2779 426 1647 2787 373 2060 2815 2821 551 2816 2826 2927 2944

18 _ ð Œ

387

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

2883 2085

C n Ê ” B å / © ˜ ú , Y ƒ Þ ™ Û } ² s G š A $ U 6 c 3 8 4 V à Š Õ ü r œ à

2894 1210 1580 1912 1880 2352 2371 2969 2402 2268 1454 2328 888 576 2534 389

à ¥ y ? — Â Ã W ß { „ à „ G µ ?

1937 276 1629 1492 2783 295 2795 1717 1789 931 1981 1980 1985 176 908 572

1691 2037

19 _

817 394 2832 1099 2609 2895 1621 926 1334 1335 824 1611 2720 503 2743 1911 854 2076 1599

º ’ T w ¥ M y 0 œ 7 ù X ˆ Ñ Z à ª

2075 2002 2151 2982 336 2380 2035 2363 1666

ø Ã « ¢ l — þ ã ‡ Æ : O Ã ù ð _ ‘ X & ¾ Ô † « R Õ ¨ ` á ¹

1342 2647 949 2630 1369 2686 1895 1755 2682 482 1787 2742 2994 483 2758 1228 481 2789

1802 2839 2508

ç N ú û

1989 1628 434 2641 1567 642 700 1528 2728 1527 438 2998 2823 2824 2925

2806 1290 315 2820 2812 1947 2831 2867 2840

851 2829

1394

21 _

2804

20 _

2447

2083

135

2818 2305

H Ë x + Þ e Ï ™ ¿ & H ( ë ¸ É Ó ¢

2880 2978 1850 2799

Ø z % À ! ; ¨ Ç ¬ ¬ ° 0 Æ ô

2157 2813 2022 2321 2663 1875 1285 2996 2729 2767 1283 1084 1943 2827


388

INDEX

22 _ ü ¥ f g È § ü M ¿

1987 2856 2965 2711 2740 2811 2819 2025 2983

23 _ Ã C N Ö 6 u Ð v

2082 1455

1: NUMBER OF STROKES

24 _ Ü 5

2237

26 _ á

2707 2822 2054 2834 2053

28 _

25 _

2814

×

2810

2833

3000

ß ¬

2066 2830


INDEX 2

KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS Words without kanji and set in italics are primitive meanings. The accompanying number refers to the page number in volume I or III. All other numbers refer to frame numbers.

A a a-un abacus abandon abbreviation abdomen abet abide by ability abolish abounding about that time above above-stated abrupt abundant abuse abyss abyss [old] accept accept humbly accidentally accolade

_ E 2091 À 2343 I.322

m F T Ú † ô / u Ã î › _ È s Å W 1 È X †

758 293 464 1951 2031 2004 1706 2311 2791 49 1522 2110 793 1041 2325 2966 735 2702 1955 2794

accompany accomplished accumulate accusation accustomed achievement acid acknowledge acorn acquiesce acupuncturist add addiction address adhere adjusted adjutant admirable admonish adore adroit advance advise aerosol can affair af³nity af³x af³xed

Z 877 ò 552 z 1364 N 1139 ü 627 O 863 i 1437 Þ 598 I.345

¾ 1901 ; 5 = $ Ã · T ¥ ‡ _ Z l ¾ â $ A

I.31 867 2679 1417 1000 1729 2126 1643 336 1101 1241 561 2722 I.126 959 1372 2736 1303

afµicted Africa again age aged woman aggression aglow agony agreement agriculture aid aim at air out

ú % ç “ ¨ k 8 ” ‡ ÷ 0  X F „ h Ó X ÷ ‰

604 1295 1815 1403 2204 330 2438 2775 374 2014 839 2344 2447

alienate 1668 449 all 1450 alliance 2824 alligator 761 allot 2871 almost alms 1045 I.273 altar W 1385 amass Ý 489 ambition ¢ 2925 ambrosial H 1779 ancestor ancestral shrine á 2601 ancestral tablet Ç 2599 ð 2765 anchor


390

ancient harp Andromeda and then angel angle angling angry animal animal legs animal offspring animal sacri³ce animal tracks annexed ant antiantique anus anxiety apologize appear appellation applaud apple apple apple of the eye apply apprehend apprehensive approve apricot apron arc ardent argument arm arm armor armpit armrest army aroma

INDEX

V 2637 f 2932 ¾ 3006 I.155

¸ 1812 Å 273 H 703 ` 1933 I.33

o 2113 ³ 1559 I.410

þ 634 — 2686 ‚ 722 Ã ˜ ê ß × ? ? ¹ ñ Ò a h O ù ˜ Ç Ú x Í ˆ t Ð

I.157 2459 163 1250 1789 905 2852 I.382 2050 2580 607 1160 2569 843 203 I.151 1878 814 1820 I.212 1418 1113 870 2469 301 2147

aroused arrest arrival arrow arrow shaft arrowhead art arti³cial artisan as if as is ascend ashes Asia assault assemble assembly line assets assiduous assistant association assortment assurance astray astringent astute atmosphere attack attend attentive attire attitude attract attractive audience augment augury auspices auspicious authochthonous authority

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

c 1199 i 654 k 755 I.134

ú 2636 ð 2758 n 1525 ¨ Í A : ‚ ! ö P ¥ ‡ Õ L î ´ i _ Š j M n t z Ç û Ÿ Í 1 í : Ö Æ Ï

I.44 1693 2281 2125 1703 168 1809 1698 2732 I.262 473 2209 952 1776 2253 567 924 1738 2851 2028 2025 960 2677 398 2005 2429 430 452 811 2103 2781 1088 2184 571

E 900 À 2750 ’ 334

autumn awakening awe awl awl axe axis

I.370

‚ 2760 4 1125 É 1112

B babble baboon back back [old] backpack bad badge bag baggage bake balancing scales bald bale ball ballot bamboo bamboo blinds bamboo cane bamboo grass bamboo hat banana banner banner banquet barbarian bargain barking barley baron

_ # ¾ : ; Ã 1 Ø á S Ï I ˜ Î À ç U ¢ È E Å ß g Ö ¤ š é _ ô

2958 2346 399 2973 2644 1810 433 1547 1013 1200 2604 2606 2518 935 1606 937 2630 2642 940 939 2367 I.267 2232 191 1747 1601 2170 1533 1463


INDEX

391

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

barracks barrel bartending baseball (team) bases bash basin bathe bay beach beaded hairpin beaming bean jam beans bear bear fruit beard beat beautiful woman beauty beckon becoming bed bee before beforehand beg beg pardon beginning beguile behind behind the scenes bell bellµower belong below belt bemoan bend bene³t

¬ 2033 þ 2506 õ 1429 x ð ! ô ª M ç – ¸ q h S Ñ ° Ý Ë À « » É å Ð F Ô â Î 9

I.17 1734 2166 1449 789 1837 1653 2963 2934 2998 1440 2003 2607 2047 709 1950 548 650 1029 592 2687 248 1593 462 2721 59 614 1379

‰ 2374 ë 438 £ 2499 › 1953 4 50 I.152

+ 2859 ( 1172 Ê 1881

benevolence bequeath beseech best regards bestow bewitched biased Big Dipper bin birch bird birdhouse biwa black black ink bladder blade blame blaspheme Bldg. Bldg. [old] bleaching blemish blessing blind bliss block up blood blood relative blossom blow blue blue-black blue-green bluffs bo tree boar board boast boat bodhisattva

” k e Š Ò Ø { 7 ` Ù š É ¸ î Ò ` Ò • I J W X S | L ê » ˆ 1 r Á Ô ‚ ” ¬ o W * J O

885 1772 2598 1783 1246 2078 2117 1177 1902 2515 1941 I.219 2912 174 175 2457 84 1541 2297 1478 2980 2444 2187 1090 486 2119 2214 1448 2921 2018 467 1534 2864 2588 2227 2957 1262 646 1244 1868 2956

body body cavity body [old] boil boisterous bold bomb bond bone bonito bonsai book bookmark boom bore borough borrow bosom both bottom bough boulder boulder [old] boulevard boulevard bound up boundary bounding main bountiful bow bowl bowstring box box boy bracing bracken brahman brain brains branch

¿ ‰ O æ „ ‘ Z å Ö û † µ ß , ï ô X Ñ ‹ R N š æ ï Ì ¸ l æ a Ö Z Ö ¤ õ †

957 2465 2986 1257 1985 2936 1802 1544 I.331 2822 I.352 211 2523 1457 2066 1002 1186 1491 1168 1833 713 770 2978 I.241 890 I.34 484 2287 1443 1231 271 1386 I.373 942 492 2855 2405 2954 1934 I.19 711


392

branch off branding brandish break breasts breath breed brew briar bribe bridegroom bridge bridle’s bit briefcase bright brimming bring up broaden brocade broom brown brush brush tip brush-stroke brushwood bubble up bubbles bucket buckle buckwheat bud Buddha Buddhist priest Buddhist temple build building blocks bull’s eye bullet bullhead bullying bulrush

INDEX

c 772 q 2545 g 662 8 2067 I.52

” ñ ( x Ì b ï f Ú g u p ¬ 3 Ó Â c Û Â Á ) ÷ e [ R ± É í = É Q Þ

610 329 1527 472 80 395 429 2965 2785 20 2315 759 740 411 I.283 453 I.128 2790 1170 2044 2284 533 2530 I.151 2369 1905 964 982 158 391 I.296 69 1931 2823 2373 1838

bump into bumper crop bundle bungling burdensome bureau bureaucrat burglar burn burnish bury bush clover bushel basket bushes business bustle bustling busy but of course butcher butchering butterbur butterµy buttocks button buy by means of by one’s side bystander

C cabbage cactus cadet cage calamity calculate calendar

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

„ $ – Ø ½ & ö œ ê Ý ( K

2245 2609 1664 769 1986 1066 1271 357 510 2559 179 2351 I.385 I.351 1792 1196 2739 618 145 I.117 2217 2370 521 2220 2754 831 1028 I.44 1015

% ú Ñ Ú ð 5 M ’ : ô C P Ô

_ I.354 III.116

g 1173 ½ 2638 L 1291 d 946 ” 213

calf, golden call call on calling card calm camellia camelopard camp camphor tree can canal cancer candle candle rush candlelight candlestick candy cane cane cannon canopy cap cape capital capital suburbs capsize captive captured car carefree carillion carp carpenter’s square carpet yarn carrier carry cart carve cash cast a spell

I.429

ó 1485 Ë 495 2 ½ v i È = J P = 2 U ü Ã ù Ø 3 Ù s V T 8 ë … é G

I.397 1147 1569 2053 1305 1614 93 2285 2576 I.57 2408 2539 I.107 1122 I.26 2504 532 410 408 153 312 2887 1611 1991 1018 286 2885 2770 176

M 2585 ó 2657 “ 1871 ± 303 I.116

} 1710 q 1040 þ 2945


INDEX

393

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

casting castle cat catalpa catch catgut cauldron cause cave cavern caverns cavity cedar ceiling celebrate celery cell censure center centimeter cereal cereals ceremony chafe chain chain chair challenge change chant chaos chapter char character charcoal chariot chase chastise chatter cheat check-up

k ô ä 8 œ ë ß ƒ c Z ’ h

Œ î : ´ ˆ # à _ „ 5 − ± W Ð ° 0 « o v Ô W

1566 362 244 1498 1836 2669 2332 583 I.196 2615 I.291 96 1713 I.15 1089 I.346 I.350 1523 1740 2947 I.244 917 984 639 I.34 1937 2480 658 1008 21 2326 1123 557 185 771 I.120 1268 340 2158 2806 1724

cheek cheer cheerful cherry tree chess piece chestnut chew chic chick chicken chief chieftain chihuahua child chime chin Chinese black pine Chinese panpipe chink chinstrap chirp chivalry choose chop chop off chop-seal chopsticks Christmas tree chronicle chrysanthemum churn up cicada circle circling circumference circumspect citron citrus tree city walls city walls

ê w r C l k á y Œ ¨ L R

2792 3005 1642 1932 1763 1609 2172 925 2085 1947 967 2906 I.98 { 95 q 2554 Ã 2795

0 r ² ‚ k Û ã Ì k c w › − ã Ò q : 6 Á $ Ë

2492 2628 2426 2662 1942 2107 1074 1126 2092 I.325 2640 I.352 1354 927 2257 2692 1811 2886 317 3004 2486 2482 I.398 2180

clam clam clamor clan clap class claw clay clean cleanse clear (the land) clear skies clear up cleaver cleverness cliff climate climax clique cloak clock clod close the eyes closed clothes hanger clothesline clothing clothing cloud cloudy weather cluster clutch cocoach coarse cocklebur coconut tree cocoon cocoon cod code

y Å ” O Ä Ã + þ ± ä / ¬ º þ K › u

o Å w

R ² · ê ³ á — J ‰ Ô B ü ø

I.36 2695 2163 1912 652 1353 727 2183 1155 2316 651 2442 1538 2234 459 I.54 1640 753 1619 I.147 I.356 2024 2842 1623 I.402 I.366 I.147 1399 423 424 2772 2249 872 719 1777 2382 2524 I.321 1880 2819 1827


394

cof³n coin cold collapse collar colleague collector collide color coloring column column comb comb come come apart at the seams come in comely comet comma-design commander commandment commence committee commoner commonplace commotion companion company compare compass compensation compilation complete complete a job compliment computer comrade concave conceal

INDEX

& , í G A W K à 5 í

1272 368 1526 1315 1099 1707 2409 1680 1753 1714 I.241 + 1628 I.286 ^ 2476 û 1884

4 2670 I ‡ ú t w x W “ Ú ú ¿ ç ² E ‹ U t g 8 í Œ

I.226 2109 2850 2096 1270 676 747 913 1191 1182 2268 19 1092 447 I.170 476 1825 97 2062 2711 I.74 1637 33 1313

concentrated concept concerning concubine concurrently condolences condone condor confer confront Confucian confused congeal conglomerate congratulations conjecture connection consent consider considerate consign consolation consort conspire constancy constitution consult with consume consummate contact contain contend continent continue contraption contrast control convenience convex conveyor cook

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

ò ` = ² Â { X › h 0 B ! U g u F ë † − è ] { ä f Ê ¤ ¢ | 6 Ù m C ¡ | º Ô “ ¢ … w

2015 609 1969 2622 1597 1233 3002 I.420 1660 648 1166 1185 1412 2895 868 663 2017 351 1252 2279 1917 1096 1203 1760 620 1554 475 1550 540 1813 790 1154 2289 1345 677 1277 1552 991 34 1873 468

cooking-³re cool copious copper copy coral coral reef cord core cormorant corner cornerstone cornstalk cornucopia corpse correct corridor cosmetics cottage cotton cough counsel countenance counter for tools counterfeit country country [old] county courage courtesan courtesy courts courtyard cover over cow cowardice cowl crab crabgrass craft crag

ƒ ö ‹ á b @ A ï š [ G

| ± ³ Ú à q ’ í å × T ³ ç u ¹ ‰ å Ó Ò v È ( ‡ Î ^ ¢

I.71 1404 2529 272 1247 2561 2562 1365 928 2832 1958 394 I.353 I.343 2222 379 1852 923 316 1367 2162 2705 2733 2267 2151 581 2988 1843 1407 2199 2425 508 590 2358 245 2460 I.77 2682 2608 76 2586


INDEX

395

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

cram school cramped crane crash crawl

create creek crime crimson criticism critters crock crossing crotch crow crowd crowded crown crown crucian crude cruel crumble cry cryptomeria crystal crystal stone cultivate cultured cumulation cunning cupfuls current curriculum curse curtain cut cylinder cyst

k ò Æ ¨ G ‹ s ‹ } − Ð À ¹ • ´ Á ì ^ ð µ ¹ ¾ “ 8 À ; q I Á 3 H • 2 1 × h ð

309 1266 1943 1307

D

_

2414

281 139 1414 1355 649 2098 2904 279 I.213 1944 2939 780 I.120 304 2825 207 1431 774 432 2528 2048 2566 477 2424 2324 2337 1219 764 376 2169 409 85 944 2883

dachshund dagger dainty dairy products dam damage damask damp damson dance dangerous dangle daring darken darkness darning dart daughter dawn day daybreak daytime dazzling deafness deal with death decameron decay deceased deceit decide decline decorate decrease dedicate deep

III.17

ú & Ô © C Ó 5 E [ Ä # ƒ K 8 ¢ c ‘ Õ $ d a ¿ S ‘ y » Ó ’ · { , ‚ ¼ L

I.46 1363 1433 2191 666 2668 1788 2511 1774 1416 2171 826 2384 480 1335 1220 1471 2448 12 1201 1075 2543 2983 2256 815 67 1243 485 1762 1641 1890 1477 1914 2265 1328

deer defeat defense defer de³le degenerate degrees deliberation delicate delicious delight deliver deluge delusion demand demolition den departed department deposit depressed depression derision descend descendants design desk despicable despondent destitution destroy detach detailed detain determine detour deviate devil dew diagonal diameter

Ä ; Å & ¾ ´ E ™ Æ Š ) ¥ t x 7 p … ¿ 7 Õ ¥ g Å œ Ì t h ( Ñ Ò n ? å K Ï — v

1999 63 1646 1528 2319 1314 1194 642 889 455 570 1110 1799 487 1165 400 181 1132 1179 1595 2856 1323 2155 1308 448 1021 210 2735 2149 1215 365 1492 550 1423 382 2415 1973 I.171 ° 1283 å 1662 ‡ 882


396

diamond diarrhea diced difference dif³cult dig dike dilate diligence dilute dining tray direction director dirty disaster discard discharge discipline disclose disconcerted discontinue discreet discriminating discuss disguise dish dislike dispatch display dispose disseminate dissolve distant distinction distract distress distribute disturb ditch ditch reed dither

INDEX

Ô 1517 9 1687 I.17

j Ê b Î Œ 0 V 9 ¾ s ë ó ã n @ } g á B Æ * d V È Ü Í ‰ ü Î æ Ú i A 9 × ø 5 Ã

1644 1580 1061 390 1923 1577 227 2468 490 1863 1245 167 655 1705 1722 1085 624 1754 1576 482 350 2246 1447 1598 1773 262 297 2262 1044 402 554 1358 901 1436 491 1062 2411 2994

divide divining rod dizzy do doctor document dog dog-tag dollar sign domburi domesticate don donkey door dormitory dose doth double double back doubt douse downspout Dr. draft drag drag dragon dragon [old] drama draw near draw water dreadful dream drench

dribble out dried meat drift drill drink drip drive

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

Õ ± ` l £ Ñ

) ¨ ^ á ú Z # O : ” ™ Â N { » O P ¬ b ½ / Z ß ¿ Ô å ù † ì P

478 I.31 2581 1918 1694 601 238 I.398 I.299 2884 1866 555 2810 1076 1708 1730 756 992 I.163 1410 2293 2520 47 892 I.400 2848 536 2981 1997 192 2322 623 305 2329

2849 2130 1607 2616 1474 442 1983

droop drop of drought drown drowning drowsy drum drum drunk dry dry ³eld dry weather ducks, migrating dugout dull dumbfounded duplicate dusk dust duty dwell dwindle dye

E each eagle ear ear (of a plant) early earlybird earnings earthworm ease east easy eat eaves

s 1582 I.26

ê 463 ö 707 ñ 2308 x 1583 1 } ø j ! ¨ ¸ ² U Ë a ¤ W ç ô

I.332 1444 1435 1648 2916 2441 I.417 2186 1495 2181 465 2451 2838 884 954 366 509

_ ª 291 Ð 2834 ¿ 818 ¤ 909 f 26 e 2141 N 893 d X ^ 7 ”

I.340 1159 504 1051 1472 1656


INDEX

397

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

ebisu echo eclipse ecstasy eddy edge eel eel effulgent egg eggplant ego eight elation elbow elbow elder brother elder sister elect electricity elementary elephant elevate ellipse elucidate elude embarrass embrace embroidery embryo emigrant eminent emotion empathetic emperor employ employee empress empty emulate enclosure

V ú 8 Ì ÷ 2 § ó ) R a k 5 Õ | y * / K æ l » & ³ 9 » G Î Ü ß û ° y / ‚ U W − »

2881 1850 2800 619 2330 1167 I.183 2811 2450 1422 2372 640 8 2888 I.220 2464 103 413 1804 535 1532 1976 2449 2531 2717 2416 2009 645 2665 2458 2120 51 615 2931 261 1083 56 1861 1317 979 1842

encompassing encounter encourage encroach end endure enemy England engrave enjoyment enlarge enlightenment enroll enshrine enter entertain entice entrails entreat entrust entwine envious environs envy epidemic equal equestrian equilibrium equip equivocal erect erection erupt escape escort escutcheon Esq est establishment esteem etc.

Õ } „ ? F Ý ë Ä ± æ u ; Ï ú × ö É ˆ 0 * $ þ Œ Ð É Ï „ ’ Ä K G õ a s | z à ˜ Ü ¹ f

2055 1174 866 1148 1352 597 443 1741 1521 2522 2282 622 1567 2992 779 1426 916 851 2896 1954 1350 553 284 2202 1689 1695 1981 891 1183 2437 869 2858 1197 283 2016 2513 933 2094 708 184 945

eternity ethics Europe evade evaluate even evening eventide evergreen oak every everywhere evidence evil exam examination example exceedingly excel excellent exchange exclamation exclude excrement excuse exertion exhaust exhausted exhibit exhort exist exit exorcism expand expecting expense expert explanation exploits expose exquisite extensive

½ l õ ¿ é r Ï Ã Æ , ’ ã Ý p Î ‚ • > : É œ ¤ h o ” e ´ ¦ ± $ m $ ; ¬ ¾ ‚ ö Ð ° U ]

132 1821 1699 1501 1487 1484 109 110 2491 458 1824 380 2853 1278 1673 972 2793 914 970 842 2680 1658 2653 1972 1975 1071 1688 1301 732 685 767 2993 1118 2208 1238 1269 1908 1542 805 123 2212


398

INDEX

Ý Ì ¿ = ‡

extent extinguish extract extremity eye eye-dropper eyeball eyeball eyebrow

894 144 647 217 15 I.27 I.19 Q 1467 Ê 2583

F fabricate fabrication face face-up faction failure fair faith fall fallible falsehood familiarity family crest family name fan fanning far off fare farm fart fascination fasten fat fat man fate father father-in-law

_ S Ã W þ $ 2 $ = % à ‡ ˜ • ’ í ÷ í ¤ i Ö K Î š

950 2331 1717 1701 1855 331 2200 969 299 2720 1919 2719 1727 1828 1079 2540 2418 1004 166 2218 2023 661 456 I.29 f 1400 5 1274 + 2064

fathom favor fear feast feathers fed up fee feed feelings feet felicitation fell female animal feminine fence fenceposts fend off fermentation fertilizer fervent few ³b ³ber ³ddle with ³erce ³esta ³ght ³gure ³le ³lial piety ³lter ³nger ³ngerprint ³ngers ³nish ³re ³replace ³ring ³rst day of the month ³rst time

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

— ˆ ë û – À [ ´ ù c Ü q m § p Õ — » ™ ¸ £ d S { y z – [ º …

ò J ¡

149 612 613 2799 573 2108 1178 2797 1537 2953 2603 994 2551 563 1056 I.379 2597 1430 1756 1988 106 2167 1341 2899 1456 I.135 1629 474 812 1253 2304 659 I.327 I.205 1731 161 I.71 2542

; 2846 Š 404

³rstborn son ³sh ³sh ³n ³shguts ³shhook ³shing ³st ³st ³t ³t into ³ve µag µames µash µat µats µavor µea µedgling µesh µexed µip µoat µoating µock µood µoor µour µourish µower µower µower pot µuid µustered µute µy focus foe fog foil fold

_ 2432 Ö 171 ô 2827 + 71 Ô Ì § % 2 Þ 0 & Û I ù

Q ü 4 s

g ¼ P ! È B î Á Ó ² _ S Û

I.42 172 I.211 2917 253 2229 5 I.268 2546 2774 2188 1652 219 2681 I.218 I.19 2148 1911 I.139 730 1163 I.60 I.15 920 326 I.90 1009 1032 1038 2340 1111 1887 124 2114 1228 2634 1130


INDEX

399

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

folding screen follow fond food foolish foot of a mountain footgear foothold footnote footprint forces ford forehead forest forge forget fork in a road forked formerly formidable fort fortunate fortune-telling foster founding four fowl fox foxtail millet fragile fragrant frame freight frequently fresh friend frog frolic from front door

Û 2223 „ 1298 Y 99 I.336

T 1957 Ã 2839 4 1057 Í 669 i 2727 ¤ Í Â I 9 Ù 9 Ö B ÷ ÷ … ç ï d v 9 ! F Å q Ï Y Ý 1 º £ ‹ ì ¬

I.140 1515 372 295 197 1860 596 2127 2914 501 2990 2045 2563 48 1479 2893 4 2049 2342 2654 2462 1681 200 1010 2221

551 704 2693 1994 686 1638

frost frozen frugal fruit fuel full fundamentals funnel fur furball furrow furthermore fuse metal

G gain gall bladder gallop gamble game-hunting garden gargle garlic garment gates gather gauze general generation genesis genie genius gentle gentleman genuine germ germinate get

ƒ L ¿ F U F _ z y Ÿ Ä ã

426 506 1674 1121 1503 1169 1767 I.394 1913 2533 1017 1438 2547

_ “ 6 Q = _ ä ) ò h – T ø r › S î µ w „ ? Ç ’

876 31 2809 1264 1940 1419 2288 2404 396 1616 559 1342 1366 28 1631 I.210 681 728 319 1494 918 2377 2737

ghee ghost gigantic gimp giraffe girder gist give give up gland glass cover glimpse glistening glitter glossary glossy glue gnats Go go in go upstream go-between godown gods going gold golden calf gone good good luck goods goodwill gorge gorgeous go smoothly gossamer gossip gouge out gourd government of³ce

E … Ë 6 ¹ ³ + 6 á !

É d Ÿ õ ( ç B × è − f æ

2749 2019 856 2672 2840 2483 820 1897 2716 2466 I.77 2927 2286 2440 2997 1755 I.30 I.181 1766 I.226 2847 956 1630 1119 873 269 I.429 750 1468 320 23 1097 1265 2664 3001 2673 2161 2274 2911

z

591

„ ³ @ ˆ ã

A P ` V P ‘ F


400

grab grace graceful gracious grade gradually graduate graft grain rake grains grains of rice grains of sand grandchild grandpa grant grape grape vine grapnel grasp grass grass skirt grassy reed grate grave graveyard greatness green green onion grind grindstone grip grope ground ground groundbreaking group grove grow late grow plentiful grow up grow wild

INDEX

ô 0 g h B ¡ ¢ ¬ ! M Ü § › ¦ F ‰ Û û u ä L ¦ ´ k $ B 2 ) G Ç : n n ¦ £

2090 606 721 1907 1859 1659 1025 2738 2501 922 I.248 2296 1393 2334 1052 2378 2379 2587 1752 224 I.346 2385 1104 231 I.92 999 1371 III.8 594 2590 1059 1327 I.67 515 1971 582 196 694 2406 I.347 2381

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

Ø ! I ª ‚

grudge guard guess guest guidance guillotine guilt gulf gully gun gunwale gushing gutter guy

& Ø c ì Þ w G

H hackberry hackneyed Hades haiku hair hair of the head hairpin halberd half halo halo halt hammer hand handle handmaiden handsaw hang hanging scroll happenstance happiness harbor

1420 186 1103 294 278 I.365 1636 1749 I.228 762 2675 2295 1819 702

_ Ð Q d , p ^ } = É ¬ # ; Š Ó Ä Q û a v

2514 2901 2841 1633 I.413 1924 I.412 1225 1202 I.336 2439 977 2769 637 690 2196 2759 674 407 333 1505 1800

hard up harden harlot harm harmony harp harvest hatchet hate haven hawk hawser hawthorn hay haystack haze hazel he head head headland heal healing healthy hear hearing heart hearth hearth heat heaven-high heavens heavy hedge hegemony Heights heir helmet helmet help helping hand

 ô ³ “ É 7 µ 2 ‡ § Ü „ | M ] J ª w N ` ² Á l C P « å å ú b ¤ þ + u Ü š ð

1326 580 2198 1551 897 1591 908 2333 626 328 2237 1963 2349 2084 I.292 2779 2475 883 I.37 1441 1115 1709 2037 974 1626 1910 595 I.71 1080 1516 2104 428 1675 154 1895 1294 1867 I.77 2854 1782 2919


INDEX

401

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

hem hemlock hemorrhoids hemp hermit hermitage heron hesitate hibernation hide high mountain high-reaching highness hill hill of beans hillock hinder hinge hire history hit hoarse hoe hoist hold hole hollow reed holly hollyhock holy home home country home town homecoming hone honey honorable hooch hood hoof hook

— ² » & ä I 5 Ç b ’ ` ˆ x ° ± ì Š Ö t c Ì n Û ³ ¹ 6 Í , ¸ á Í ø o ç P : j â

2624 2488 2575 593 986 2056 2833 2996 2684 1692 2226 2224 1310 1329 III.7 1039 1297 1697 2128 692 1153 454 2762 664 660 1316 2364 2485 2391 825 1916 1848 1849 1230 2560 776 1398 2748 I.77 2741 I.42

hop hope horizon horizontal horns horse horse horse chestnut horse mackerel hot water house house houseµy how many however hug human legs humanity humility hump hundred hundred million hungry hunt hurry husband husk

I I I (one) I Ching I wonder ice icicle idea II ill

– d — e

+ Ÿ 7 _ B H e ñ Ý _ E N ß $ ƒ & ¹ & ²

1284 1489 157 1645 I.35 I.191 1978 514 2818 546 I.79 541 2685 1381 953 1387 I.34 988 630 1561 38 983 1475 243 1146 838 710

_ 7 t é ä [ Î í

17 457 III.6 2704 I.154 131 608 355 1682

illuminate illustrious imitation immaculate immature immediate immense immersed imminent impart imperial authority imperial edict imperial order imperial seal imply impress in in a row, upside down in front in the nick of time incandescent incense inch incision include income increase increase incur indecent indications indigo individual infancy infant infatuation inferiority inµammation

Ñ Ö v | M ´ G K J 4

170 2593 229 2318 896 2788 2089 1149 2261 736

b ä › º Y Á _

2610 342 1667 2075 2211 2250 39 I.389

2

290

° ¹ ¡ ’ W L 9

2433 2908 911 2952 2703 1588 1510 I.172 502 807 2336 887 2371 973 1378 I.223 2277 862 162

† ¼ Í ‚ / ñ × ¾ — Ý


402

inµation ingest inherit inkstone inmost inn inquire inscription insect insert inside insinuate inspection Inst. instant instantaneously instead instruction insult integrity intelligent intention interintercept interchange interment interpretation interrogative interval interview intestines intimate intimidate introduce intuition inundate invariably inverted investigate iris iron

INDEX

x V š Ô h f c j g c » B œ Š “ ½ © r ) ë Ú ƒ o ì ! w ¿ º \ Z ‘ ò X Û ï / × − Û Ý ÷

1989 2182 1370 2589 1891 995 1145 275 517 1116 1019 2153 1093 1304 1462 2431 1395 341 2699 2123 852 600 209 1192 1043 816 2263 2960 1620 1956 544 1514 364 1359 1769 2317 635 1959 1781 2366 846

irrigate island island [alternate] isolate Italy itch item ivy

J jade green jail jail cell jammed in Japanese cypress Japanese cypress [old] Japanese Judastree Japanese oak jasmine javelin jawbone jealous jet jewel jeweled hairpin join journey jubilation judgment jump junior jurisdiction just so juvenile

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

ó S T ½ Q _ O

2079 1948 2976 1312 1161 2572 2029 I.69

_ z » k Û

2863 2213 I.363 250 2495

2964

” Ã ^ ¬

198 2493 2348 2767 I.308 2195 2565 256 2962 1030 880 2001 1205 1409 878 1405 388 436

4 L * Ú n ð ‰ | ì 6 i ¡ ‡

K kalpa kazoo keg ketchup key key kick kidnap kidney kill kiln kilometer kindle king kitchen kitchen stove kite kite falcon knee kneel knot know Korea kudzu

L label labor lack lacquer lad ladder ladle

_ ¥ —

Ý O x f N å , e ÷ p Ý í ¦ Ó Ÿ F H Ò

2857 I.168 2755 I.341 I.364 2761 2742 656 2453 1493 1325 2946 2537 255 2152 2617 2139 2836 2461 2745 I.268 1223 1647 2398

_ ˆ ± µ Ô Ò Ù ð

2926 860 466 932 1716 2479 68


INDEX

403

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

lady lagoon laid waste lake lament lamp lamp [old] lance land lap lapel lapis lazuli large large goose large hill lass last day of the month lastly lathe laugh laundry lazy lead (metal) leader leaf leak lean leap learn leather lecture leech leek lees left leg legitimate wife leisure lend length

( Ê Œ þ U a b i @ @ J Ø £ @ ÷

1151 2039 488 148 621 165 2972 2516 1513 I.125 2623 2557 107 2313 2928 1530

{ Ø › Ù æ · ç µ è º z ¨ H ¾ “ ó Ú q Ù ˜ ] E Ð ï

2452 2570 2244 938 577 629 794 731 228 1068 1011 1285 574 1893 1816 2696 2081 2649 77 1279 440 1625 1007 691

lengthen let it be level levy lewd license licensed quarters lick lid lidded crock lie lie down life lightly lightning-bug likeness limb limit limpid line line lineage lined kimono linen liner link up lion lips listen little livelihood lively liver livestock livraison load local god location lock lock of hair locket

| ¹ 1 = ‡ { « ° ™ ß B ´ ¦ ¢ Ø ™ ï m û ˜ G + U › “ @ ‹ · © Ï : T Š þ • õ )

1921 2074 160 378 2298 765 2235 2870 2388 I.124 1141 1150 1555 717 518 100 714 1466 2446 I.241 1339 1391 2625 405 1869 2655 2345 2013 827 105 232 143 1649 1384 2645 359 2600 545 383 I.411 I.365

lofty logic loins loneliness long long time long-distance longevity longevity [old] longing longing [old] longness look after look back look to loose loosen loquat lord lose lose weight lot lottery lotus lotus blossom lotus µower love lovely lower lowly loyalty lucidity lull lumber lunar month lunatic lungs lute luxuriant lye

# 7 » ù ˜ ± Ò 3 V ò ð ÷ 8 0 r G H Ç ü Ï n ö Ã ¥ é 9 ( ’ È ¦ b ˜ ½ % Q ñ 7 % ’ á

2095 265 1605 720 1920 1016 1281 1565 2995 792 2984 2618 2115 1084 854 830 2242 2519 266 845 2577 1529 2082 2360 2362 2361 737 2002 1831 1511 602 1704 2140 683 2070 260 414 2913 1337 2867


404

INDEX

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

2552

M mackerel madder red made in maestro magic rod magistrate magnet mahjong tiles mail mailbox majestic plural make make a deal make a pro³t make amends

2494

_ R / º

ã ¼ 5 Ì ¡ 6 ¬ „ Ï

2820 2407 419 I.305 I.31 2898 1390 2873 1847 I.327 2027 1142 439 2118

mallet

Ê

2478

mandate

malt

2753

mane

mama

ª

101

}

make headway

œ

e

maneuver

671

Á 801

2877

2132

3007

I.413

manipulate

Manchu dynasty Q

2059

make do

š

mandala

I.234

mannerism

}

1691

mandala

R

2100

many

108

map

o

1180

maple tree

J

2269

mandarin orange ¤ male

C

male animal

*

859


INDEX

405

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

march marine blue market marketing marquis marriage marrow marry into marsh martyrdom masculine mask masses mate matrimony matter mausoleum me meadow meal measles measurement measuring box measuring cup meat mechanism mediator medicine mediocre meeting meeting melancholy mellow melodious melon melt membrane memorial memorize menacing

w } • J È † A Ë { Í s L H „ ª h ì ã š N š © Ò n = ¦ þ l ¾ l µ « â 2 Ú · ©

2471 I.138 2555 412 726 1639 1830 1290 542 137 809 743 1892 1857 2124 584 1156 1518 1794 134 1473 2574 45 42 I.289 1022 1382 1761 1736 62 I.103 752 616 310 1469 1877 791 233 2129 325 2026

mend

»

mending mention o mercy ² merit P meritorious deed o metal metallurgy ™ method À metropolis @ mid-air a migrating ducks mile / military of³cer Y milk Ö mill Ÿ millet ¨ millimeter V mimeograph p mimic ‘ mineral ˜ mingle H minstrel } mirror mirror ù miscellaneous P miso ; miss W missile mist mistake C mistress Á mix Ï moat ª mochi Š model = modest « moisten 3 mold „ moment Þ money

2073 I.143 1524 1389 1276 1677 I.108 2137 751 1846 1109 I.417 2950 1095 729 2596 2605 2948 1211 1411 741 1275 2112 I.168 483 562 2177 1926 I.214 I.32 1899 2203 450 2306 2802 1960 2422 2320 680 2144 I.45

monk monk’s sash á monkey monkey á monme — month ½ moo ] moon mop more and more ¡ moreover Õ morning † morrow 7 mortar ¡ mosaic mosquito ^ moss Î moth f mother-in-law õ mottled â Mount þ mountain [ mountain goat mountain peak Œ mountain stream • mountaintop … mourning f mouse Q mouth S move { mow è moxa ¿ Mr * mud è mulberry m murky C muscle muscle : mushroom ì music Á musical score :

I.77 2701 I.278 403 1027 13 2961 I.18 I.286 2241 2034 52 2443 2063 I.383 1728 2356 2694 2205 2876 1961 768 I.419 773 840 2228 599 2065 11 1676 2387 2538 1805 1055 698 2843 I.239 941 2394 1735 1787


406

INDEX

† ¥ 3

mustard muster mutually muzzle my son myself mysterious

m , é

N nab nail nail naked name Nara national µag nativity nautical mile navigate navy blue near neck neck and throat need needle needle negate negative neglect neighboring nephew nest nestle netting new newborn babe next nickname

2376 2255 757 I.166 2131 2058 1383

_ • æ ú e ¹ i 8 ¡ ‹ Ñ C / § ê [ § # Æ t ì h ° } G − µ ¦

2260 I.49 2766 1124 112 1094 1764 393 2951 1870 1758 1129 70 2796 1604 I.18 274 1218 1217 745 1311 2910 1927 2497 1373 1502 58 471 1242

niece nifty night nightbreak nightfall nightingale nine nitrate No. node Noh chanting nonplused noodles nook noon north nose nose not not yet notebook nothingness nourishing now nucleus numb number nun

O oak oaken tub oar obeisance obeisant obese obey obscure

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

l ¢ š * œ ú G Ô Ù Þ ë Z t i 5 ë Ì ‰ J y [ · Ä ± g ‰ Í

2201 2133 1037 30 1974 2907 9 115 1239 1464 1968 1720 2752 2427 568 445 I.27 678 1049 216 1922 1775 1388 1587 1520 2355 929 1054

_ P

199 I.387

È F ó â ˆ *

2502 1299 2612 494 129 2445

observance ´ obstacle ˜ obvious a occasion ! occupation · ocean á octopus î of î offering Ò of³cer 3 offspring ¡ oil ± ointment Š old ò old boy p old Kyoto # old man ¾ Old West old woman ( olden times Ç on the verge of ù once upon a time Ë one s one-sided ‰ oneself À onion ã only ï ooze ³ open ˆ open sea ! or again : orchid 0 orders | organize ª Oriental elm a ornate þ orphan ö other ¬ ought m outburst Ü outhouse

1573 2592 2582 1296 1034 549 2690 1214 1615 693 2097 1107 2923 16 1162 2302 1251 I.359 804 35 2305 1184 1 1212 36 2389 53 636 1622 138 696 2363 1401 1670 2474 2667 1879 961 1718 1801 I.229


INDEX

407

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

outline – outlook ? outpost d outside ‘ outskirts – outstanding ê outstretched hands oven-³re overall j overarching + overcome ° overdo [ overµow , overgrown w overhang © overjoyed a overnight Q overpowering « oversee 2 overthrow I overturn & owl owl — oyster oyster ¦

P

1482 572 2620 111 1844 2272 I.211 I.71 1347 2435 104 1293 1454 360 2236 2207 147 543 1453 980 2789 I.414 2837 I.35 2697

_

pack of wild dogs packed ¥ paddy-³eld ridge – paddy-ridge ‘ page z pagoda O pain − paint 3 painting of a deer pair T palanquin Ô

I.98 343 2571 1204 60 254 1690 1663 I.426 697 2860

pale blue palisade panpanther paper paper punch parable parade parade µoat paragraph parakeet paralysis parasol tree parcel post parch pardon parent park park [alternate] parrot parsley part part of speech part of the body partial particularly partition partner party pass through paste patent path pathetic patrol patronage pattern paulownia pavilion pay pay respects

x = ‰ ê — H

Ÿ ¬ h = ã l ä V Ó å ` = _ Ÿ ‡ % ™ Q J L # ½ − & … w – + Ç Y p

2399 2507 2327 2734 1829 I.314 2728 I.137 I.139 82 2830 2579 3003 1858 215 1744 1504 585 2974 2831 2396 781 1865 I.19 1823 810 783 2121 797 2970 2650 1715 1282 401 285 2982 1413 204 311 738 1864

peaceful peach tree pear tree pearl peck at pedestal peek peel off peep Pegasus pelt penal penalty penetrate penitential pennant pent in people peregrine falcon perfect performance performing artist perfume period perish permanence permit persimmon person person in charge persuade perusal petition petting phantasm pheasant philosophy phlegm phoenix phosphorus phrase

Ê Y 6 ( à × ø M › µ ƒ r ó H R W z õ Ü Z Æ k ½ Ñ ¥ ^ y ð 1 X C å C ò g Ð p I

1570 236 907 258 2168 744 2875 2145 2613 I.191 802 888 833 886 2083 2233 I.194 1834 2879 187 2007 2122 493 1765 I.169 958 569 2481 951 1392 864 855 135 2270 1862 2584 1131 2573 2142 2052 65


408

pick pick up picket pickling picture piebald pierce pig-iron pigeon piggy bank piglets piled high pillage pillar pillow pinch pine tree pining pinnacle pioneer pipe pit pitch dark pity place place on the head placement placenta plaid plains plains [old] plan plane plank plant plantain plantation play play music pleasure

INDEX

ï B o · … ¾ A / v

À E e 3 é Ç § z 5 W M È ‹ ™ N Å Ÿ ï L 7 ‡ 0 * ð Ê Y −

733 667 2484 1545 1346 2804 102 270 1946 I.186 I.185 2185 2247 268 2472 657 785 633 I.309 2924 1273 306 2777 1187 1127 94 832 531 I.379 1596 2979 214 118 724 205 2386 358 1047 1571 628

pleated skirt pledge plentiful pliable plot plotosid plow plow pluck plug plug up plum plump pocket podium poem Point Point [old] pointed poison pole pole poles polish polite politics pond ponder pongee pony pop song pork port portable portent porter possess possessed post posture pot

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

$ … ] j £ m £ c ï Z ? ° v ; ¡ À 6 Ç š 4 ) Ó ø © K Z Â R ¤ ² Q ‘ t À 5 4 r Â

2626 1549 2943 2786 337 2526 I.264 2756 1106 264 1321 460 120 828 587 346 1330 2987 500 1531 I.82 2632 1903 675 2706 381 516 2276 2666 1979 2178 538 2309 687 235 I.173 79 2428 824 1818 2757

potato potato pottery pour poverty power pox practice praise pray precious precious stone precipitous preface prefecture pregnancy present presents press down on pressing pressure prevarication previously price princess printing printing block prison private prize proceed proclaim prodigal products pro³t progress prohibition prolong promise promontory -proof

y v f ú j d £ Ê t { ó Þ Ÿ Ö Ü ê Š J Ú 9 ² j E Ü H Š ¹ • ç ? è m c 2 H 8 × ¥ 2 Â

I.367 1655 1966 267 782 858 1684 1343 998 1128 1771 2553 1672 1594 513 507 259 503 2259 2420 152 2718 1481 978 849 1069 1213 338 902 796 386 188 2357 1560 906 2436 1098 392 1362 778 1164


INDEX

409

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

property ( proportion Ë propose Ø prosperous Ä prostrated N protect ˜ protein 7 proverb î provisions c prudence R pruning å public N public chamber } publish î pull … pull through Y punish { pup K pup tent pupil † puppet pure ² puri³cation ù purple ˜ purple willow ß purse pursue X pus ö push ò put in put up (a notice) Œ puzzle

Q quack quaff quake quandary

682 1553 665 25 962 997 2683 2723 926 1996 2941 784 798 1650 1232 2136 679 2341 I.376 437 I.303 1539 1732 1375 2473 I.386 539 2455 1114 I.226 673 I.264

_ « µ ] Å

2403 2080 2010 579

g X

quantity quarrel quarter quasiqueen query question quick quickwitted quiet quill quire quit quiver quote

w ¨ g “ ™ † Â 9 x º °

R rabbit rabbit racoon dog radiance raft rag railing rain rainbow raise rake range rank rapidly rapids rare rather ratio rattan box raw cotton ray

177 2160 I.294 560 527 2713 1617 1669 2278 1540 2780 2231 2032 I.135 2102

_ 0 û ‚ t 2 ˜ Ó Î o R Õ œ £ â B 3 p M

I.421 2093 2338 302 2629 I.268 2192 422 520 1938 I.284 356 955 1686 1666 1723 834 1737 2631 2512 119

rereach out read reality reap rebellion rebuke rebuttal receipt receive receptable recess recitation reclining recollection recommend record recreation recruit rectify red red pepper redaction reed reef re³ned reµect reformation refreshing refulgent regiment register regret regularity reign reinforce reject rejoice relatives relax reliant

Œ ´ œ × ç ƒ ³ ^ Ø â ‹ Æ & % Æ 8 ¥ ó Ó e # Õ · º y ^ ó Ó « É Y ¸ £ Ê ] É H S

1081 688 348 1572 1488 2902 352 2808 I.328 308 2264 611 345 I.162 632 2000 1144 1898 861 1221 1743 I.341 2641 242 558 1535 1742 528 313 2544 1306 949 1460 903 746 2730 1138 1445 2882 190 971


410 religion ; remainder m remains Ÿ remonstrate @ remorse þ remote f remove ô rend & renowned q reparation ¦ repast j repay S repeatedly ü repel Ì repent t report ³ repose © reprehend f repress ñ repudiate 1 reputation Ó request ¼ research Á resemblance Ü reserved õ reside Ê residence ä resign  resin resist Ö respect ì respect for elders Õ responsibility Û rest ³ restore P resucitate 6 resurrect M retainer S retch ¹ retreat Ñ return ‘

INDEX

1100 808 2874 2708 631 2419 760 806 1258 985 2798 1432 373 857 625 1507 2621 2156 1700 1634 1939 934 1320 114 2868 1063 1841 1497 I.345 1832 1803 2283 1003 965 875 2940 2380 848 2999 1465 725

revelation revered review revile revise revolve rhinoceros rhyme rhythm ri rib rice rice bran rice ³eld rice gruel rice plant rice-³eld footpath rice-seedling riddle ride ridgepole ridicule right righteousness rin ring rinse riot rise up rising cloud rising sun risk ritual river river pool rivet road road-way roast rob

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

² ¨ Ï … à % õ ‘ A = Å y | , æ w

247 1439 1618 2390 339 420 2069 481 874 173 2463 919 2652 14 2243 910

Æ

2072 I.343 2709 1585 505 829 78 641 178 836 2292 72 43 I.152 27 18 1102 146 2323 2763 I.114 277 2548 566

¿ ñ [ E “ – m 0 ¸ ( Ã 4 à ø I ª ñ Š ö ô

robust roc rocksalt rocky rocky beach rod romance roof roofbeam room roost root roots rope rose of Sharon rot rotation rough seas round rouse route row rowboat rowing rub rubbing rubbish rudder rue rugged mountains rule ruled lines rumble rumor run run alongside rush rush mat rust rust-colored

X Ñ ± Ø r ß › % ] Ñ − Í

u 7 ø À K | ? u ß k ; ™ ` º •

321 2829 2866 2230 2594 1575 1748 1058 2299 754 2496 1461 I.277 I.34 2915 1023 1046 2321 44 526 1661 1785 1876 1175 644 2258 2219 2674 1483

! ’ œ ¬ ß { Û R ( T #

2225 88 2698 2729 499 384 795 2805 2383 2771 2038


INDEX

411

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

š }

rustling rut

S sabre sabre sack sacred Shinto tree sacri³ce sad saddle saddle straps safeguard sagacious sail saké salad salarium salary saliva salmon salt salute salvation same samurai sand sandalwood sandwiched Sanskrit ka sapience sapling sardine sash sated savings saw

2619 288

_ Ä Ï / “ « N í — p „ , Ä Æ ³  é ˆ º | Þ A í Z µ z Ä Ï r

I.46 1671 1006

2490 643 1635 2782 2784 700 1014 406 1428 I.290 2602 1349 2165 2815 1458 1087 936 180 I.125 117 2525 1267 2959 2905 III.8 2813 415 1480 194 I.282

say sayeth scaffold scaled scales scar scarecrow scarf scarlet scatter scenery scepter scheme school house scissors scissors scold scorn scorpion scout scrapbook scratch screw screwdriver scribe scroll scurry sea sea bream seacoast seagull seal search seasons seat seaweed seclude second secrecy secret secret agent

í Q ` u Ð

¹ _ “ @ š Í B « d ù z ñ ‹ } Õ ø û I a u Ç y ¼ î O ¸ ”

335 578 367 2054 I.368 2578 I.354 I.147 2659 1189 314 I.104 948 I.127 I.304 2773 2179 989 I.179 2154 I.395 2252 2691 I.290 529 1207 2086 461 2812 1332 2828 156 1120 912 1193 2035 1380 899 775 904 2726

section sedge sediment seduce see seedling seep seethe seize self self-effacing sell semisend back sensitive sentence separate sequential set set aside set free set straight settlement settlings seven severance sew sex shade shadow shake shaku shaku hachi Shakyamuni Buddha shallow shalt sham shame shape shape

H ” + ª Ø ï ( Z ³ ÷ Ù › } B ¢ k ƒ x ‘ @ ½ â ó T Ì ? Ä § ‹ ¹ F ñ

1845 2410 2300 86 57 234 2291 1237 701 525 1600 323 564 837 2434 1725 90 1854 1064 1188 496 2892 1356 2648 7 1136 1563 1558 1592 1712 2011 1070 I.271

¼ ò ] 6 I

2955 369 2105 966 823 I.377 1711


412

sketch skids skill skin skirt skunk slacken slander slap slaughter slave slave sled 2521sleep sleeve slender slender bamboo sliding door slingshot slip out slippery slope slow sly small small bell small craft smash smoke snake snake snapping turtle snapshot snare snore snow so-and-so so-called soar sociable soft

INDEX

ì « Œ 8 á 7 ½ ï G ‹ , X £ ü Ù ù s Ñ * Q Î Š 9 ö ß í × K Ü à Þ i ™ Ê É

670 1396 712 1992 800 I.421 1952 2724 1793 2143 I.237 2036 1835 1108 1790 2639 2627 I.301 705 1289 723 1067 2335 I.53 1406 2068 116 1612 I.182 519 3000 822 I.300 2944 1143 1759 2725 2933 1970 470

soil soldier solely solemn solicit solitude solution somebody someone son song soot soothe sorceress sort sort of thing soul sound soup source souse south southeast sovereign sow sowing soy sauce span span [old] spare time spark sparkle sparkler sparrow sparse spatula speaketh spear special specialty species

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

F o µ j ¾ o g X é Á H A » B { 5 Ó 3 ^ è / Ç ö Ð Á è Ò Ñ E Æ – v † M – é )

150 1331 556 1733 1536 2310 947 1248 1256 1851 469 2541 2210 2930 931 241 2021 479 140 142 2314 1613 2861 435 I.184 2395 2746 32 2985 1882 I.57 22 I.380 2878 2611 2633 1117 I.298 246 46 1679

specimen speckled speech sphere spicy spike spin a tale spinal column spindle spindle tree spine spinning spiny spirit spirits spit splash splendor split split up spoils spoke sponsor spool spoon spot sprain spray spread spring springtime sprinkle sprout spy squad square jewel squat squeeze St. Bernard dog stab stagnate

C † Æ Y w Ñ ƒ 5 ¨ á q q ‘ 1 ? T ™ ¼  è æ 0 ( ä m 1 ñ r ^ Ê Œ ‚ ã 9 £ Ë

1455 2556 I.130 1208 1496 I.49 2176 2071 1584 2489 24 1357 2498 1885 1791 151 218 1581 813 2714 2273 2731 987 I.216 444 169 2845 2307 1883 133 1568 2271 I.276 981 1229 155 1024 1324 I.54 1319 416


INDEX

413

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

stalk stalwart stamen stammer stamp stamp stand up standard standstill staple gun staples star star-anise stare start starve state state of mind stately station stationary statue stature status status quo steadily steal stealth steam steed steel steep step stern stew sticky stiff stimulate stinking stipend stirred up

Ÿ p Þ ¡ | C y q

« ! Š y i ? Î Ë ” … 6 ° ! 4 ] Ý % v š q r ä  ë z Œ I ° f

715 2889 2393 2175 I.324 1425 431 841 2423 I.401 I.329 1556 2532 237 2872 1476 128 I.197 2138 1984 2991 1977 446 292 239 1135 1451 1322 1900 2060 1962 2061 1287 1936 2549 921 695 1280 122 1574 565

stitching stocks stole stomach stone stop stop short stop-over store storehouse storey storm straddle straightaway strainer strand strange strangle stratum straw straw raincoat straw rope strawberry strawman stream street streetwalker strengthen stretch stretcher strict strike string stripe strong strong saké strung together strung together stubborn study stuff up

Û w f Í Œ C l ü ‰ ‰ * + Ÿ Y ’ ` ƒ ] Õ R Å U ë s é j Ç ¸ Þ ß è ‡ ¤ V ¿ ù

II.8 222 2700 29 113 370 2937 1982 588 850 1309 777 2744 73 2328 1263 126 1348 1065 2400 2354 1377 2350 I.293 127 91 III.4 2240 I.145 2803 853 653 2661 2671 1235 2751 I.391 2676 61 324 2190

È stumble L stupid ¤ sturdy Ç sturdy oak Å style ¦ subjugate õ submerge Ú submit • subscription Ö substance Ö substitute µ suck ¸ suckling infant â sue N suffering i sugar œ suit of armor ï suitable sulfur L Œ sultry ! summarize summer @ · summit summit [alternate] ¸ summons ³ sunµower Sung dynasty [ sunglasses î sunshine superµuous ò ì superintend d supinate supplement ¢ ¦ suppose è surface surname ¥ Î surpass surplus ó surround U A sushi Ë suspend

2740 1683 1964 2509 353 881 844 1796 1817 1137 1005 689 2193 787 225 1158 2076 441 763 1260 2663 296 1562 2977 2678 I.23 2215 I.233 1300 300 1499 2909 1840 684 1546 1557 387 1586 1807 2826 1394


414

INDEX

suspicious swallow swamp sweat sweep sweet sweet oak sweet potato sweet smelt sweets swell swift swim swing swirling waters sword sword’s point symmetrically patterned sympathize with symptoms synthesis system sðtra

T T’ang tag tail tail feathers tailor take take along tale Talking Cricket tall tame tariff

s à å * b 1 © ˜ ­ A ã h ¾ Ü µ M Î

716 2869 1072 1651 1152 1757 2505 2402 2817 2801 1719 280 136 1967 2290 83 2768

± œ Ò s £ ™

2897 2051 1685 2660 418 1360

_ N M Å ü þ ¦ Ê ¢ Ä I

1157 212 1915 I.412 397 819 287 344 I.418 307 2807 1778

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

task Y taskmaster Û tassel # tatami mat Ä tax [ tea î teach Ù teacup team of horses « teardrops y tears © technique technique [old] å teenager teepee § tempering 8 temple grove l temporarily × tempt ten Y £ ten thousand ten thousand [old] © tenacious Î ] tender tenderness ¸ H tendril Ä tenebrous tense ; œ terminate ¢ test testicle Á h texture Thanksgiving thatching § õ the following R thick % thigh , thin thing ] think „ third class m

1227 I.128 1078 1784 895 252 1254 2591 I.423 2294 1082 421 2352 I.53 I.375 2030 2500 1134 766 10 64 2969 1506 1226 993 2359 2935 1374 2787 354 2929 66 I.136 2397 575 125 2454 164 1050 605 1020

thirst this this here thong thorn thornbush thou thousand thread threaten three throat throw thunder thwart ticket tide tie tied up ties tiger tiger tight tighten tile till timber-trees time -times tin tin can tinker with tinkling tobacco together toil token tolerant tomb tomb sanctuary tombstone

Ð ˆ Â ” r − Ë æ – õ X V V ! O Ã ‡ º î ) ? Þ é … 5 ´ n ÷ 8 ´ ‡ } ß ¡ 6 ÷ b ë ·

451 2890 2043 1344 417 2938 2303 40 1333 871 3 2164 706 425 1780 1206 141 1351 I.34 2658 I.424 1990 2614 1340 1031 1808 1446 159 586 2764 1965 2558 2568 2347 1795 865 1001 226 1198 2239 1512


INDEX

415

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

tome ton tongue tongue wagging too much tool tool tooth tophat topic torch tortoise torture touch tough towel towel tower town toy track down tracks trade traf³c training tranquilize transcend transcription transfer transit transition translate translucent transmit transparent transport tray tread treasure tree tree-trunk

G « â Ñ S © Û j † © Ù 1 2 ¼ ª O ø Ô æ ° — ¥ • E ö 9 + § V ) t ´ ¡ ) µ … ù

1826 2949 41 I.18 1657 I.43 74 1171 I.121 389 2536 534 1255 672 2971 I.149 2101 1624 208 2567 2413 1746 1424 1408 2088 276 385 2922 847 1195 1610 1073 2920 963 915 289 1872 1286 257 195 1654

treetops tremendously tribe tribute trickle triµe trim trip tripod triumph trouble trout true trunk truss trust tryst tug tumor tuna tune turf turkey turkey-coop turn turn into turnip turret turtle tusk twenty twig twine twinkle twirl twist two two hands two-mat area tyrannize

È d Ÿ ” Ë / ¾ S ç ‹ ñ 6 O ˆ [ þ + Ð * 4 “ Ü Ÿ ¨ G ª b Ô û / ™ é Å Ì ¿ ¬

201 1768 1222 81 2778 2116 2353 1048 2865 2077 1935 2814 75 182 1376 1665 2417 2550 2467 2816 349 1216 I.188 I.190 1909 361 2401 2508 I.97 1904 1190 298 2656 2534 2266 1509 2 I.209 1486 1998

U ugly umbrella umbrella uncivilized uncle uncommon unde³led understandably undertake undress uneasiness unfold unhulled rice universal unlucky unravel until unusual upbringing upright upside down, in a row urge urine use usual Utamaro utensil utilize utmost

_ U Y À & d b ¸ ‹ Y õ U û ‘ 3 £ m @ ˆ Ò Ì

2020 I.102 1026 1632 2470 718 1797 1548 2087 375 498 1995 1925 2651 1786 1415 1814 2421 1745 2942 55 I.389

W Ù q ø C ^ ä è

282 1053 990 799 2894 121 1181 821


416

INDEX

V

_

V 4 Y vague valentine ú valley 9 value – valve r vapor ™ various vase e vast j vat û vegetable › vegetable patch vehicle vein T N vendetta venerable old man ø venison Ê à veri³cation verify e $ vermilion E versify vertical a Æ vessels Õ vestiges vicarious Ú O vice§ victory vie Þ v villa ‰ village villain à vine º n vinegar ô violate violent ±

2967 230 I.197 788 1603 742 1886 1261 I.156 1234 1176 734 2918 I.116 1856 2707 786 2216 1980 2710 221 1589 1338 699 2743 1739 89 1209 434 322 92 1490 1945 1434 2194 497

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

„ û 3 Á Ü ¤ ¹ ê Ð Î ½ š

violet VIP virtuous vis-a-vis viscera visit a shrine voice voiced void volume vow vulgar vulture

W wagging tongue wagon wait waiter waitress walk walking legs walking stick wall wall wand wandering war ward ward off wardrobe warehouse warm warmth warped warrior warship wash

2099 511 1035 1726 2456 2715 1896 835 1993 1543 1133 968 I.218

_ I.18 I.116

Å ¬ Ÿ

| ¹ ì J è k ø 1 @ Ë ¹ ; ó

879 976 I.337 371 I.117 I.26 I.221 1500 I.31 1470 1929 1696 1302 2635 589 1452 1949 2862 377 1875 249

watch over watch³re watchtower water water-lily water’s edge waterfall waves wax Way weak wealth wealth weather weave wee hours week weekday welcome welfare well well ³nished west wet whale wharf what wheat wheel wherefore whetstone whey whip whirlpool whirlwind whiskey bottle whisper whit white white bird who?

3 ’ · v Ú Ý # À # ú ) 3 ´ Q Þ ª ” m ‡ » ‚ « % 7 s Æ C Ú — ¢

Ø Ô R !

638 2535 930 130 I.339 2312 537 803 2688 2412 1236 I.48 193 I.153 1334 189 318 576 1702 1091 1806 2197 1602 1627 315 2189 1012 I.244 1822 1105 2595 2747 2783 1292 I.122 I.330 2157 2046 37 I.27 2712


INDEX

417

2: KEYWORDS & PRIMITIVE MEANINGS

whole wholesale wick wicked wicker basket wide widespread widow wife wild dogs wild duck wild goose wild mulberry willow wilt wince wind wind winding window windpipe wing wings wink winnow winnowing fan winter wipe wisdom wish wistaria witch with child withdraw wither

6 / T î b ˆ C ë â U ¸ ª u ê K l p } ö s à M K / J ç n % A j ü

263 1397 2368 1906 I.384 739 2301 617 1889 I.98 2835 2150 2517 1421 2135 2275 I.34 524 1369 749 2159 1798 I.192 817 2647 2643 427 2254 1224 1590 1210 2022 2012 1318 206

ê within within my ability × without exception Ò ó withstand ¼ wolf œ woman Ì womb ü wonder × wooden bowl wooden hammer ª ò wooden ladle wooden leg wooden pestle § wooden pole wooden spoon F wool word B words z work work a ³eld µ ƒ world È wormwood worship 0 ¥ wound ± wrap wrenching è ] wretched write – Ù writing brush

X X

2900 2173 2430 1770 2339 98 748 1987 2487 2477 2510 I.307 2503 I.82 2891 I.188 347 I.130 1678 2111 251 2375 1564 996 530 2251 1721 327 943

_ V

2968

Y yam Yamato yarn yawn year year-end yearn yell yellow yesterday yield yonder young young miss younger brother younger sister

Z zelkova Zen zero zoo

_ — È

æ ñ ƒ ò ü : a T ø ? Ô )

2365 2106 I.323 I.164 1036 512 2280 1042 1750 1140 1060 183 223 2206 1240 220

_ ´ 7 Œ

2527 1930 1402 I.146


INDEX 3

READINGS Index 3 includes all the standard readings for all the kanji treated in volumes I and III. The full range of readings for names is not, however, covered here. Katakana is used for on-yomi and hiragana for kun-yomi; okurigana are set in bold type. References are to the frame in which the kanji was first introduced.

Nš HN HP

H_ §

§©

HJ

HJUh HJg L HL

m HNm

! # g % £ $ & ( ) K + o / 0  + l Z § } # ‡

1809 2958 1323 1295 2693

HPJ HPT™ V HPV HPš HQ

2200 401 737 2248 2437 2417 209 2371 444 1620 2417 752 1956

J HQJ HQRt HQZ HQ^ HRf HQkS L HRqL HQt Q™ HQ

253 1174 826 374

Rš HR

û Á x ‚ , = þ ÷ / X $ Ó ¹ ¹ ‹ ¸ ã Ö $ • / b g î Û l

2799 1534 2399 2588

šJ HQš HS

2391 3003 1701 2540 2407 2187 221 1743 2659

L HSqL

2908 272 2193 380 513 1201 1817 2407 2972 20 49 664 2449

HS˜

Î x g 4 À m E Ä * ö e – ¬ • æ 4 À Š l m ¹ Ä z t * J

1938 1989 20 27 2566 2446 900 25 30 2529 2710 2934 439 726 1424 27 2566 2851 2449 2446 2074 25 2863 2677 30 1224


INDEX

˜Q HS˜

Œš HS˜Œ Sš HS ›š HS› §·

HUf HVtš HW

HW‡u Wš HW

HXš

HZ

419

3: READINGS

† ± ö V ‡ – g í Ä Å V m * Ø Æ ½ a a ß á Ñ Ï ² 1 2 3 † À * ¹ $ ‘ ˆ W g Î Û h Ã

437 2897

›š HYR› H[

2529 2920 2568 2934 20 69 25

H] J H[J š H]Wš L H]qL H[y U H]‹U

87 2920 2446

“Q H]“

2467 433

H^

22 1715 2582 2543 1789

H_

2716 2149

H^f

1480 2181 1810 1059 2320 2376 2108 30

¡L H_¡ HaWš Ha‰ Ha‰“ Ha[ Hb Hc

2659 221 2448

š Hbš HdzŒ

1622 1317 20 1938

} Hd} Hg HfJ

664 648 2795

L HfL Nš HfN

ƒ † & ° ò Å Å 4 ’ ß ² 1 Ý 5 6 « ˜ Ð 7 I * 7 I Õ X Ç 8 * – ‘ Ð ‰ ³ Ê ² 9 E ô Ò

2280

‘ HfQ‘

52 593

QJ HffQ

185 369 2155 1509 27 1762

Hf‰ ^J Hf˜^ ™ Hf™ š Hfš Hk

1141 2718 551 2559 2411 2364

§Ì

1396 1279

J HkJ

2098 2818 219 30 2443 219 1595 504 311

L HkQL Hk^

1498 1651 2571 1204 557

‰š Hk‰

2199 2198 1047 2114 1603 978 2004 1246

Œš HkŒ

Í = 1 @ w G Œ c 3 ] K | − ° 9 : R Œ ™ å | − Œ ° ; 3 | ‡ − ° T ¿ ´ ê T K ˆ P e

2281 1417 1452 1949 1441 1502 284 1153 2320 2212 2409 2318 2279 2931 152 2781 125 1260 1988 1516 2318 2279 1260 2931 690 2320 2318 2751 2279 2931 559 2263 2939 2772 559 2409 2997 2732 2641


420 Hm mš Hm Ho

HokT Hq

pš Hqp Hr Ht HtZ U HwU Hw˜ ›š Hw› zbš Hz zš Hz qJ H}q H}˜

›š H|› H‰

J H‰J ^ H‰t^

H‰Š š H‰š HŠ

INDEX

= X c 9 Ð Ô Õ ] ¹ Z W B | Ì ? y ? Ü Å Ü ô ô [ š ± â Š u ú Í ˜ 1 : 3 ’ Õ Ñ } ø

1417 761

‹ H‹ HŒ

1153 1379 2578 1746

H“

2743 440 1316 96 306 989 103 448

LJ H“L

2206 413

^J H“^

2206 1801 2463 1801

š H“kš h H“‰h

789 789 1416

š H“‰š

456 1107 494 2923 2315

H• ‹ H•‹ J H˜J

428 1054

L H˜L

422 1757 317 1786 1824

Œ H˜Q_Œ

2055 1657 1373 1342

H˜^ ˜` H˜ a H˜a

‹ A ˜ ú i B C ç ± • â ½ þ [ ÷ s Ø ` e [ C ê C ê à ! Ÿ Œ J ó ™ ¸ / æ Ð ˜ * Œ À

1825 2801 422 428 1158 2664 2668 2560 2897 1727 2876 1715 2667 1416 2871 716 2078 126 671 1293 1899 1250 1899 1250 2720 2817 371 488 1777 249 2293 92 2314 577 1593 741 777 488 1632

3: READINGS

m â f H˜f G H˜fQ ó Œš H˜fŒ y Ï H˜o C H˜¡` q è ›š ê H˜¡› è H™ — ˜ Hš E š Hš $ À ¦ v HšJv E U HšU Ÿ ›š H› Œ G H¡ F Á ? J H¡J , H¡b G bš H¡b § ¡bš H¡ n á ^J g H¡fg^ mš H¡m g › H¡› & ›‹ H¡› œ & §û H I J K L L H˜dL

1154 787 1502 2544 528 2059 2595 1258 1546 259 1546 2686 2094 2091 685 79 684 2091 371 488 2401 2654 533 218 164 2625 253 1030 872 624 624 401 2051 401 190 2056 2259 480 214


INDEX

421

3: READINGS

H¥a

M N O / ‘ O

2777 2782 203 2442 873 203

J_ J

©

m n o = 5 P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ ] ^ _ ` a b c d e f g h

1806 1519 1262

L JL

2408 2411 1028 1161 955 971 1643 1807

JN Nš JN JPL JP™ JR Q` JQ

2881 913 364 1095

JQah JQg JQ™

2276 608 1096

š JQš JS

1051 2480 1918 2569

©´ J JSPJ

1797 898 1341

š JSpPš Sš JS

1645 29 2355 396

U JU

i j k l µ C ˆ È _ A ¦ 4 i ° í B ² L I y ´ Ï ! t Û ð H y ” q o ¤ X c Ï ´ e ‘ ¿

2725

©·

1644 1772 1694

JU[

556 2937 2997

JW JWrN

2106 2480 2801

L JYL J[P

2406 2816

J J[T—J

2725 2102 335 541 2037 763 2056 2532 1555 143

Q J[[Q L J]qL ‰^J J[‰ J[‹ Œš J[Œ J^ J^aN J^}Š J_Œš

425 2629 2587 2765 703 925 610 1885 356

J_š J` JaŠ JbS Jd ^J JdR^ JdV Jf

1515 364 1199

J JfJ U JgU

143 1555

` Jf`

1381 873 1132

Jfa˜ JfgS

p q æ t ì K ³ “ ‹ o O ¸ ` Ô É ¹ ¹ @ Í G · Q ¬ ´ _ ñ Ô r Ú ¹ ‡ Š − » Ý O ´ 6 ™

759 2424 2243 301 1929 516 1559 643 611 1677 863 1548 2219 2046 916 1407 1407 2708 113 394 1512 2373 1998 2558 2480 133 2191 2594 618 1146 724 1213 1690 645 1387 756 289 878 94


422 & È ™ ‹ Jf‹ U − Œš JfŒ ¥ š Jfš › k @ ° š Jf¡š ± Jh } ©É s t v JhZ U ^J q Jh_š^ Jk 4 ©Ì u v s ^‹ JkU^ ² k Jkk 2 š Jk¡š ‡ ß Jo ë – / L JoL Ñ JoVh ” ^J Jo^ ( ‹ Joq‹ · ‹ Jp‹ „ Jq w § Js K Ñ JsJ ê Jt w U JfgU

INDEX

2789 2702 94

Ju^^ Juh š Juš

621 1690

Jw˜

996 753 755 2421 292 860

Jw™ JzS Jzk J‰ Œš J‰^Œ

412

1 457 1973 2350 1258

g J‰g ‰¡^J J‰ ‹ J‹ J‘

2967 2315 1973 1

J‘Lo J“

1389 5 1919

^J J“^

1141 2669 1333

^‹ J“^ “` J“

2656 2149 1344 737 1034

J—J— k J˜gk š Jš

658 910 1218 2341 238 463 910

›š J›

o f t e x − Ù Ü Ë Ä w › ¥ J f f y — ˜ ) Ñ È ¡ ( ¦ ¦ ² l ` ° Q Ê â ö k ê × ™ ×

1262 1400 1128 2598 472

Jœ š Jœpš Jœ™ J¡

2938 1053 2944 2862 1587 676 1667 336 216

L J¡L J¡P U J¡U J¡^ J¡“ ¥“ J¡¥ ©û

599 599 1655 2365 2402 220 2149 1598 2241 2735 1511 1511 2037 1694 1709 2433 2373

©ûÉ

3: READINGS

Ù 5 í « N R ¢ h N Q z c ð { | } ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ ‘ ¨ 3 ’

790 1753 1714 1080 2978 770 2586 1089 2978 578 2813 2615 145 765 1425 2159 56 583 584 1232 1474 2298 2921 2374 1304 1592 1313 481 2006 479 2952

1063 1249

L_

2548 1566 1604

L

779 2137 779

«

™ š “ ”

2041 2832 78 1656


INDEX

423

3: READINGS

• – — ˜ š · Ç À y & LN î Nš LN i ƒ 0 ð LP Ö L LQRL › p ø ” k LRk ù ß Q} LQ 4 Qš LQ 1 U LU 4 LVJ` ú ¡š ¾ LWf‰¡ Wš LW 1 ¾ Ø Q` LZQ { LZU { m L[T 0 L^ œ È L_ ’ L^P à ‡

1944

L L^qL

573 2415 422

œ L^œ L`

2832 2126 2599 79 1655 2470

La J L`J L`Ts J LafQJ Œš LaŒ

49 1476 1475 205

˜V L`˜ Ld Lf

358 171 2613 1864 2875 2726 2616

LfJ L LfL L LfRL LfX Lh

2066 730

k Lk

735 730 2907 1901 735 1536 308 1676 1676

«Ì

2357 2093

^J LkU^

2040 245 1828 110 141

` Lk`

Ï W 9 Ÿ ¡ ¢ V è À ( ù V £ ¤ ¡ H ë ë ” Ö » ; ° â ¸ o ö ¦ − © ï ¥ ¦ Ë $ ‡ á + ¿

845 1926 1379 2596

Nš LjfN

2063 1292 227

Lk‡ š Lkš

2673 2185 179 2190 227 2167

Lk¡ Ln Lmq J LoJ

2178 346 469 1968 1968 1410 191

` LqR` LqT Lq_ š Lqš Lt

1019 2973 709 1249 653 340

Lw L LwL L} L L„qL L‰

1698 881

J L‰J

649 1255 1793 2856 2406

L‰“ L‰š L‰›š LŠ

548 2200

‹ L‹

2197 1247 1610 647

º c p N â j á º c ^ Ú × F — E Œ § Ÿ E – Ÿ ¨ ô c ë + 5 _ Š Ë ( ´ } ö À c ö ´ ?

1742 898 1211 1139 787 2786 1247 1742 898 121 1418 744 1668 2415 2922 1280 2811 82 1589 2571 1017 2204 566 1560 351 1978 568 1241 455 1984 179 1555 461 2455 2108 1560 2455 1555 460


424 Œš LŒ ‘›š L‘ ^J L“L“^ L L“‰L L˜

L L˜qL ‹ L˜‹

Œ^J L˜Œ ‹ L˜“‹ L™ š Lš L LšPL Lš^ ‹ Lš‹ ^J Lš¡^ L›J Nš L›N ^J L›^ ›š L› LœY L¡[ «û

INDEX

( ( ì ’ ª : Þ ç í Ø É þ É þ «  “ ‚ ß Ô ‚ ’ A ¾ A ¾ a l u − ° ± ² = © 1

−´

179 179

N_

1803 334 1837

N

399 1838 48 2103

1420 1460 631 1460 553 1877 323 876 1627 2329 932 1627

−©

2002 901 616 901 616 2207 310 2054 2161 2102 303 423 2439 421 1452

U NRU

´ s t ‹ c … Š l n h S q ˆ ¾ Å p µ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Â Ä Å Æ Ç c ì …

2797 139 1021 713 1170 1346 2851

š NVš N[ Ng −É

752 586

−Ì

396 971 2886 612 2319 1646 400 2905

NuS Nz Nz`

1034 2193 1712 1742 2848 326

‹ N‹ N“Š J N˜J } N˜}

132 136 2849

N™

2566 2790 1741

š Nš

1646 345 500 1170 670 1346

−û

3: READINGS

^ È É Ê Ë ¤ § f ´ ‹ Í Ï } Ì Í Î Ï Q Ð V V & ¤ Ù É T î * ã @ A G ³ “ = Ñ Ò Ó Ô

1051 1038 1689 1881 1984 884 1073 2274 2797 713 452 1618 2159 619 452 387 1618 578 2514 2689 2881 2470 1747 938 1689 1643 2253 1804 1074 2623 1099 2625 701 876 1417 2149 1811 585 2191


INDEX

425

3: READINGS

Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á â ã ä å æ ç é , ¦ Ý W ‡ Å } ¤

2055

±

191 392 1420 2057

PJ

1951 795 2007 162

m PJm Jš PJ L PL

2546 1612 2869

±«

403 1372 1755 1419 2974 402 794 1458 2058 2836 1950 2966 2197 2325 2159 154

P_ P

% ” Å È · : Í

1295 1344 1915 2502 105

PLT PL‹

1398 743

Nš PN

• ê ë 1 ì Ã ê ¾ « ; X í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú û ü â C Ü ¹ ¬ Ë ð y í ` ¬ F

1944

J PPJ

2900 1245 1810

L PPL

2910 2644 2900 1251 1268 63 539 33 1740 928 880 607

PPQŠ SJ PPS b PPb PPlk PPo™

1114 2450 1751 1699 1698

t PP‹t PP“W PQ

255 786 2627 2907

` PQ`

2828 1750 2835 1932 2237 2999 2830 2180 880 261

‹ PR‹ PS PT PSm PSq L PTqL Sš PS U PU

1079 2831 2830 1352

±·

− “ L Ù ™ V v © Õ ¼ 1 ¼ Ø þ Ã £ Ð Ñ – N þ ° @ @ ? ‹ à 0 ! # š ø ¢ | ï @ N ‰ $

108 1191 1857 2057 2388 1611 2358 2236 2055 807 409 2339 107 1701 532 2313 2142 2829 1482 784 1961 1329 2928 1513 1148 1414 18 1564 138 242 3007 786 1840 526 928 1188 832 297 983


426

š PUš ›š PU› PW ` PY` Q PZdQ š PYfš

L PYqL š PYš

P[ Nš P[N [Nš P[

J P[qJ P[‰š P[‹

Œš P[Œ

INDEX

% & ( | Š Q 9 ) j | ö ä Æ · E ‘ H õ ö ˜ R ò ñ 9 J × 9 Q _ ° ì Ô ¸ @ ó 9 w Ô P

1058 632

P^ P_

2460 2016 503 1067 1379 2530

^J P^ Nš P^N Wš P_W ^‹ P^ ` P`

1176 526 1426 1936 745 629 829

J PdJ

873 703 2858 1426 1920

L PdL › Pd› ›š Pd›

2906 1114 1700 152 2259 1378 1510 1161 2432

œ^J Pdœ ¡š Pd¡ mš Pgm “Q Pg“

2931 686 2130 746 1722

±É Ph š PhJš hš Ph

1356 1510 1354 2130 2732

±Ì Pjo

# L d È î ê È ò * u Á Í 9 ä Q / œ M U a Ý ê / ë U ë î ÷ 2 µ Î % G ´ ¨ % Œ + &

2958

3: READINGS

Po

967 718 1187 1254 2275 1187 1114

PoLo ` PpQ` PoY PoY—‘T ›š Po^J› ` Pp`

2552 663 2250 743 152 651

›š Poa› ™ Pp™ š Poš š Ppš

1067 2442 1974 2025 1995 2569 2853

Nš PoœN U PpœU _ Pq_ Pr Prz Pu

2275 623 613 1995 613 1254 2540

PuPu Pu› Pz Nš PzN ^J Pzfg^ Q` Pz“Q

1147 728

zš Pz

387 299

Nš P‡N

1315 1314 1307 299

›š P‡› PŠ P‘

1402 71 838

J P‘J L P‘L

3 ¨ Ô õ C ¦ G X © õ Ë ì — ¨ ì { ü | … p 2 4 ª ÷ Ä ê ] ¥ õ @ Ä · & ñ S ü s b „

479 24 1240 871 859 2406 1315 364 2026 871 495 1409 862 1285 1409 1890 1987 180 2019 2052 2333 1125 291 525 415 2275 2943 2857 871 2623 415 325 632 2308 848 266 1892 1675 605


INDEX

427

3: READINGS

` ç Z & P‘m è s P‘‹S + U P‘‹U ‹ ? P‘™ ƒ P‘¥xQš R P‘¥Šš Z P“ V V P—V ¾ d P—d þ z P—z ´ } P—} ´ Ò P™ Û + ™š P™ œ š Pš 3 Û ‰ Ê P› , Q PœQ T L Pœ^ / ` Pœ` / ´ Q PœdQ F ` P¡` â ¡š P¡ F U ¢ Ø t P¥ :

609

±û

1590 2276 632 1546 1892 820 2086 386 1584 1996

P¥q

2276

Ø ä 0 1 2 3 ¤ æ ‰ Œ œ (

1420 1419 606 1452 1147 479 154 402 2374 1313 98 1151

1504 136

Q_

62 688 688

Q

1160 1130 2300 1308 1334 1130 297 1063 2058 1957 1683 1397 1397 1314 1668 2844 1352 97 1025 2570 2062 1398

²

q ^ ¡ é Ä Õ œ ¢ « 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; = ? @ A B C

2424 1728 911 2704 1999 12 2680 1292 1877 50 1008 966 1012 2115 1603 970 867 93 2852 296 542 541 617

³

C E F G H I J L N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ ] Ù e ] Ú Ä w + * j  _ ` a b c d

1179 1882 1121 869 469 146 161 1291 893 2029 1009 2373 2372 1013 1581 1122 2689 1123 2160 1010 2959 1293 2779 2515 1894 2943 2962 674 2700 2744 1244 2803 2757 2110 2226 640 1904 1170 2909


428

QJ ²©

INDEX

e f g h i j é 8 Q Š n k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Ÿ

1905 2694 868 1907 1476 2803 1031 2115 2373 54 1519 250 752 1814

³©

586 2024 400 2886 1642 716 625 2282 828 676 656 528 2924 2452 677 461 168 251 449 1346

QJY ²©ò L QL

2376 2682 1622

` QN`

1309 2874

jm QNj

¾ Û ¥ Ä ‹ š ™ › œ —  … œ n ‹ Œ ‘ ’ “ ” • – — ˜ ™ š › œ Ÿ ç è f ¡ ¨ C H ‘ o ©

2319 2495

QNn Šš QN™Š

1110 674 2077

QNš Nš QN

890 2388 1522 2698

š QNš

2088 2815 2964 2076 1519 2077

¥_š QN¥ QP ™ QP™

1523 111 2162 1551

QPš

2227 1483 1482 157 2592

QQNš Xš QQX QRŠ

2388 890

U QR“U

1522 2076 2874 1488 2387

QQ™

523 2951 1866

QR™ Qš QQ

831 1275 725 1230 1395

š QQš

3: READINGS

J 0 Ó £ ! É Ö ˆ o ‘ P B ‡ W q ¢ ¡ q q ¢ q » Œ ù C ‚ @ Þ ™ ç y Ä j Ä ˆ G Ë y Ö

2471 1084 124 2693 1043 842 1005 1745 1230 725 875 837 374 1717 2424 2925 911 1681 2424 2925 1681 645 673 483 1455 302 2440 576 2534 2880 1392 674 2536 674 2890 869 1394 1392 513


INDEX

¡š QQ¡

QS

QT QS‘u š QTš U QU

²·

429

3: READINGS

i y F ¤ ¥ ¦ 2 Ý Q x ï c µ – d ì ˆ c © ª « ¬ − ° ± ² ³ ´ µ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ³ Æ

654 1392

³·

2017 154 2481 2697 2192 2761 2148

` QU`

2231 1466 1170 466

›š QU› QW QX

327 2252 670 2890 1170 2026

RW QWv^ Wš QW

291 2235 740 2257 292 1520 710 701 567 908 325 1812 2908

š QXš QZ L QYL kWš QYk ‹ QY‹ Q[

1277 1842 1624 1312 1893 2249 1943

Q] qš Q[q tš Q[t

ª ¿ À Â Ã Ó 6 Á ’ Œ Œ = ‰ ‹ ¹ “ ” ` G Ä P Q µ Ë = ™ ‹ ½ Ô è U Å Y ˆ = K b b Q

294 324 1330 295

š Q]š Q^

2795 2824

Q_

2987 1735 1692 1313 1313 1264 2374

Q_Q V Q^V J Q^YJ ‰š Q^Y‰ ^J Q^‰^ Q^˜

1592 1712 314 2227 367 869 674 1983

Q^¡ Q^¡n ` Q` Q`

2809 466

Qa

1394 1264

Q Q`Q

2933 1592 2638 2721 1917

Qao™ Q`Š ‹ Q`‹ Œš Q`Œ

1807 939

Qb

1026 2224 2439 524

Qc V QbV Nš QeN

1675 1675 2901

Qf

z x , Æ Ç È º É w Ú a ô R y [ z w P 9 Ð T q ‰ ‚ ¼ Æ Ã ] ] E ¿ p | K N ‰ d Ê „

1364 1734 1477 2491 2509 2502 2674 2823 468 852 2569 2194 2906 2872 505 2924 1441 199 2468 1007 2648 2649 929 56 1380 889 2082 2779 2779 2247 647 1278 677 524 893 929 946 2039 680


430

J QfJ

QfS q QfUq Qf^œ Qfh

š Qfoš Qfq Qf‰™ U Qf‹U Œš QfŒ š Qf—š š Qfš

Qf¡˜ ²É Qh QhpS k Qk

INDEX

× ‰ ¾ † v Ç ô z Ê õ ¤ ² ë V á † ! æ å æ M o z B ô ‡ • B Ô x ( Ô Ò Ó 6 ‹ Õ ° §

1077 1212

²Ì

490 1711 229 853 580 695 1580 2868 1964 2114 443 61 2601 1711 239 1976 2733 1976 83 2024

³Ë ³Ì QkP V QkV m Qkm Qk˜ Qm Qp

1011 2153 580 1823 2793 347

Qq

2806 656

L QqL

350 1015 2398 453

QqN ^J Qq^

878 2077

^‹ Qq^

2034 104 1209

nš Qqn QqŒ

Â Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô e Î “ § ½ Ö ( B ” c ¸ ‚ … – b š é = × ï á ç & « & « Y ê

2273 1553 454 2281 661 143 451 1289 2398 453 1552 2646 2335 1551 253 13 2822 668 501 198 926 1812 155 2885 1616 2610 1601 2704 269 2173 441 872 2865 401 1635 401 1635 1571 1604

3: READINGS

: × ‡ à 3 = é ë tš Qt  u Qu ª Qw Ù L QwL © Qwt | ¥ Qw¥ Ú Q} Û G Q}o Ü x Q}˜ ð š Q}š ¼ Q„ | Q‰ Ý Þ ß à å R‰ Þ Nš Q‰N r Q‰p Ý ^J Å Q‰z`^ QŠ — P p î QŠq™ ! ‹ Q‹ á Q‹œ ˜ QŒ † a Qq˜a Qr Qt

1649 635 2682 1599 411 269 2770 438 1597 883 2515 2236 2222 1557 2785 222 2401 2854 1113 2758 807 1500 2617 1838 2332 1599 1325 1838 1818 2617 2163 1829 1119 1924 49 425 2172 2606 534


INDEX

431

3: READINGS

Q‘ ` Q‘` Q‘Œ Q“ Q• J Q•J L Q—L Q˜

R˜ J Q˜J Q˜^ Q˜` ˜` Q˜ Q˜g

Q˜q^ ‰š Q˜‰ ‹ Q˜‹ Q™

™š Q™ š Qš

J QšJ Q› ›š Q› “Q Qœ“

! â ( û ä æ _ ° ² N W ‰ + H t Y † • ü ¿ O ‰ ¹ $ $ 6 U & _ ï ç è Q & P ¦ ª ü ¦

1032

2835 1527 2828 2385 2243 2572

Q` Q¡Q U Q¡U

1408 710 1157 1317 2465 1578 1647

¡` Q¡ Q¡a Q¡bŠ Q¡˜ ¡š Q¡

1021 1496 2376 1944 206 957 2986 2465 1094 1350 1350 966 2150 243 1940 1186 1488 2387 2809 243 1983 717 883 206 717

²û

I ¾ ë ‘ µ ê Ð ê l H £ z é ! É Ö ˆ z ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú û ü þ !

146 1893 127 975 802 463 451 463 215 1275 2693 2863 1031 1043 842 1005 1745 2863 463 2123 304 1526 1650 1769 864 1207 1042 1770 2194 187 1271 226 1648 1654 604 615 627 631 1043

# $ & ( ) * + / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; = ? @ A B C  E F G H I J x ” ` % ! Ü

826 2482 1272 1097 570 1651 1578 2314 836 1757 1453 638 2632 1273 1621 1952 1965 2780 1649 1875 2408 572 2708 102 837 1455 1620 1625 2017 1315 1647 1478 2980 1113 2410 1902 2229 2441 2944


432

Q¥ ³û

Nš Q¥RN

Šš Q¥RŠ Q¥sS ^J Q¥w^ Q¥‹™

INDEX

K Ò ] † Í : / @ T P K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X â N ‘ = † L ï — C ï Æ ì –

44 32

S_

603 2523 1461

S

2781 2656 2708 2151 1119 44 1588 1653 2978 2567 2576 1467 770 2899 2151 2150 61 1717 135 59 2978 1717 2408 1252 214 1769 2088 1455 264 493 304 742

´

ü 5 … ´ , r › Y Z [ ] ^ _ ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u

1750 1446 195 1555 2391 2594 2613 375 2122 1416 1445 121 1767 126 2207 192 772 1489 1381 599 662 210 1764 1481 1765 1763 758 1382 1230 2889 1885 1886 2887 1128 912

µ

3: READINGS

v w y z { | } ‚ ƒ „ … † ÷ 3 ´ Ü ô M 8 @ þ Ÿ ¹ h ‰ • z y à 2 @ Ÿ þ w , Z ‡ ˆ ‰

2611 1354 841 529 1771 526 288 302 1475 1981 2019 534 525 153 2527 849 2827 2643 2067 2440 2667 2745 2840 66 2199 2600 529 841 2791 778 2440 2745 2667 3005 2391 2122 1919 984 2199


INDEX

Nš SN SS–L U SU

´·

SY™ S[S S]^ ` S]` S]v^ ‹ S]‹ S^ S_ Sa U SaU Saq

433

3: READINGS

Š ‹ Œ ‘ ’ “ ” • – — ˜ ™ c f p Ì £ P ‹ l 2 › œ − Ê U ¨ t t Ç x ‰ ± M C ¥ S S î

1783 1994 712 1411 1762 643

L SdL Sf Nš SfN J SfqJ š Sfš ´É

1410 2600 641 2686 2719 642 772 2694 2889

´Ì

144 2499 1276 827 1626 906 927 2787

Skt

2753 2478 1861 527 235

Ss St SuL SuY

235 2377 1310 1309 1521

Suo Sw Sz ^J Sz^

1653 2584 996 1631 950 2658

Þ ë 9 ë û Ÿ ¤ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ F ! F Ÿ ¡ @ ¢ ¥ ¤ Õ ! Õ § : ì ? + b ¨ ä µ p ÷ N J y

434 445 1860

Œš SŒ S‘

1245 1884

´ë

320 2494

´ë·

320 2175 1550 2499

µë·

2494 343 462 2342 462 320 2175 2421 1550 343 2494 1368 2342 1368 2503 1140 2394 918 71 1904 2605 1936 1431 1162 255 784 1639 261

´í«

ã · : 6 8 « © ª « ³ ¬ − ¡ ° ± ² ³ ´ µ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç G L v

2898 1641 1649 31 2115 1396 1395 294 1396 2249 1998 1959 2063 1329 1016 2114 965 688 689 1033 1231 1146 936 1243 934 2322 432 2538 935 1320 1326 2644 1353 1509 1349 35 9 2565 1946


434

µí« S— ´ï

µï

J S—J ´ï«

INDEX

f y + ‘ Ú ¢ È Ã £ É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ð Ñ Ò Ó — j ‘ Ô Õ Ö : ² O ¢ Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á

2156 2532 2064 2936 2081 2925 245 110 2167 750 1063 856 857 669 1938 1993 569 1281 2759 2624 2536 1064 172 2597 171 1398 1539 203 2925 308 312 1796 2107 2120 2853 434 1795 1490 872

â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú û ü | ™ q ¡ ê Í Ÿ — × ¥ × I

2892 2898 1508 2104 484 1265 1235 2240

拮

2275 613 1803 1267 1254 429 145 260 1266 1221 1491 871 1426

´ï·

2369 1849 483 1850 2799 1987

µï· S—^

103 1360

Œš S—Œ

2498 911 2792

L S˜L S™

870 430 2837 2173 2857 3001 2109

S™T^ š Sš

3: READINGS

ç Á ³ Í ’ v , þ ! # $ % ‘ × { † Û ¢ å ÷ 4 & ( ) − * ‚ | þ ² È + ‚ _ j ” k × ^

1265 2337 2483 870 334 2158 2521 1701 1412 2095 1201 1792 873 2173 679 1711 2107 518 2104 2369 27 1066 1172 1903 2938 256 155 2318 1155 1539 1598 204 2760 1228 2028 2227 2092 85 555


INDEX

435

3: READINGS

W , q å S› 2 ™ ´õé2Ðó , S¡ ! ‰š S¡‰  Š S¡Š ) Œš S¡Œ Á )  ´û / 0 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 : ; = ? @ A B C = ? „ Ä † 6 µû E F

/

2703

2116

2946 994

U_

2941 2101 813

·

2946 1296 1326 1903 1320 1903 1326 2116 1577 160 2101 411 1125 2888 1591 1098 2049 941 1374 2396 918 2623 1099 1576 1129 269 2050 2099 1587 534 3004 1589 1459

¸

H I J K L M N O P Q R X } ” v G ± S ^ ¸ Q Z O ð Ý ¿ Ú ) î ‘ S T U ²

2124 65 1696

J UJ UJ Jš UJ

2341 2565

L UL

2585 225 2986

·« ¸«

1983 2809 1979 2187 1355 81 1946 9 1016 11 76 1231 2148 96

US UT š UUš š UVš U[ J U[J U[‹˜ U[™ š U[š U^

863 2166 2853 2538 1796 1990 2723 2936

U_ U U_U š U^Waš U_˜ š U_š U` Ua

74 1957 1995 2114

` Ua` U`uS U`™

e ¼ H Y [ V o t H V 7 W X Y Z [ · Ÿ æ Î õ u I U à 7 ] ^ Ã ä ^ « f È Ò ` ¹ È ¦

1234 934 2124 2211 1958 2182 2484 625 2083 2182 1472 1317 1955 2211 1956 1958 1033 715 2766 661 844 224 122 2895 1937 1023 603 2476 2082 2845 2476 315 2274 1614 2398 2219 774 1614 1736


436 ›š Ua› Ub Ud Ug U UgU [J Ug[ Ug‘u š Ugš Ug¥ Uh Uhzš hš Uh Uk ·Ì

` UkRN` V UkœV Uk¡ J UpJ Ur

š Uwš Uz U‡ ‹ U‡‹ U‰

UŠ `š UŠ`

INDEX

¹ } h 5 ö 4 U 4 œ ¾ S @ » e 4 a b c ø V ÷ f ø ³ Í ç Ë 9 § / g í g % h i 4 L Ò

774

‹ U‹

1691 2653 1273

U‘

116 50

š U‘š

1122 50 1308 959

^J U“^ ‹ U“‹ U˜

11 2013 1243 1894 1057 1060

U˜J J U˜J

1061 2615 1062 1611 226 2965 2706 581 1848 2988 2180 1436 2796 70

˜L U˜ ˜` U˜ „š U˜„ ‰` U˜‰ ‹ U˜‹ ¸ñè U™

1323 33

U™“

1323 1295

š Uš

2003 2427 2967 1776 1246

L UšL ^J Uš^ Uš‰ Uš¡

½ õ L õ ² · * t t N V ‰ , ø R K Ë d { C Å M K V © ² { ± é k l p º l û ñ N ë «

2322 1429

U›

1776 1429 423

U›qJ ›š U›

424 2445

625 625

J UœJ

2782 1630 850

UœRt U¡

1002 589 955

Nš U¡N ^J U¡^

480 2451 2841 2452 2843 2842

mš U¡gm ¡š U¡¡ ·û

2777 2437 2182 232 447 2452

¸û

2581 1031

3: READINGS

» 6 œ } © 6 ¸ é ¸ Ä ÷ m n ; å W y · Y ; o p q r t u s t u

1842 1897 1974 1355 232 1897 174 1383 174 2935 846 698 2762 867 550 913 925 1535 375 867 1677 1162 1681 341 301 1843 1163 301 1843

1609 1369

W_

2152 2234 1369 1884 260 225 286 2235

W ¹

z T v w ‚ ”

1913 1581 2611 2700 155 198


INDEX

º

¹©

437

3: READINGS

5 6 q † B Ú Ä 4 ˜ b ‘ @ m Ù ] ¢ ã y z { } ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ ‘ ’ “ ” • – —

1008 966 1885 2376 541 2962 674 50 2592 1904 111 296 1814 2515 2779 2925 2898 1392 1011 679 1085 155

º©

2564 680 1549 1711

›š WR›

882 612

º´

2001 2851 611 673 687 334

` W` š Waš

314 198

Wf

840 2571 2088

Wg‘u ¹Ì

˜ ™ š › œ Ÿ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ à  ÷ f Ó | Ù æ © ª « ¤ ë • ¬ ° ± ² − Ì 7 î ³ ™ ` ´

1391 1360 1370 2655 2698 715 518 337 2715 336 717 2796 1947 2791 2815 2990 2932

`š WŠ` W‹™ š W‹š W‘u š Wš ^J W¡^

2989 103 312 484 421 1702 315 2715 1245 2297 1997 709 497 2426 1959 144 118 1650 2483 2388 1933 999

¹û

µ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ z f £ Ö Ï ß ß ` O Þ ¼ ` q N B à ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Î

466 1641 1548 1316 1351 1448 2714 60 2274 2499 2405 1618 1612 1612 1933 2742 1672 2955 2226 2061 2978 2664 1599 959 1674 2108 974 1597 1206 1671 2163 1208 853 1598 391 1554 1394 2917 1673


438

ºû

INDEX

Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á B õ X ô ì  @ 6 ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î

ï Ò â Ø G Q Ô V U È B à ±

571 2550 238 1615 675 2589 1368 513 1077 57 1600 852 1652

1466 1716 59 57 2414 1467 2589 61 2150 1598 837 1980 2581

1773 2761

Y_

1672 1789 1980

Y

2867 1880 2868 1248 2194 2675 1620 2708 1621 134 1936 1862 1386 366 142 1383 259 2669 2675 335 2723

»

{ − · g ü ½ O Ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú û ü þ !

95 58 105 920 1750 2638 2029 1993 973 16 1485 580 2205 1879 525 589 1878 1076 333 206 148 2342

¼

3: READINGS

# $ % & ( ) * + / 0 1 ) À j É Í @ E & 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; ? @ A B C f E ) U !

2650 2626 2454 2470 2383 1990 1244 2744 1083 1084 1444 2134 2904 2536 750 669 2562 2749 2470 5 757 2967 568 1897 17 1898 1379 1398 622 2050 2562 1766 347 1899 700 2749 2134 1861 2342


INDEX

YJ J YJ L YJtRL L YL

»«

439

3: READINGS

= À k # G › F ò “ F ¾ › O þ − Í ö H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ ] ^

3003 2904 1765 2650 176 1748 462 2015 1191 462 1536 1748 203 1961 2257 2281 1426 1275 2109 1639 1640 2119 119 784 863 1276 2148 125 11 183 1861 2164 306 2187 99 96 1253 2212 76

_ a b d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ‚ ƒ „ … ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ

1241 1505 739 1159 1234 620 624 648 654 1318 330 2449 2446 694 2484 1278 2498 1818 139 1799 2311 1800 1819 1113 261 695 892 2652 1355 2662 1348 1963 1808 374 2469 2465 2923 1870 488

’ “ ” • – — ˜ š › œ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ 0 Q ð Ó ô N ‚ Ñ Ò ³ ï Á – Á Ã Ò ‹ ¦ : ð þ ‘ â × ²

891 1816 81 1817 1844 1430 741 1962 2776 1308 82 911 307 2313 2896 2070 2166 520 2754 1115 1914 2985 32 2286 2287 2337 2934 2929 2459 2457 2087 1242 2220 2166 1701 873 2892 3001 247


440

¼«

YL_

INDEX

ê K ˆ 9 ³ ° ³ y ¿ – ˜ º ù ï — á ß U Õ û ¬ ø ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ l è z % á é − $

2275 2341

w^J YLw YL„

2469 1379

š YL‹š

2286 292

YN

2483 2695

Nš YN

2263 2934 741

YP™

1277 410

š YPš

2287 1430 2172

R` YR »·

2671 2821 2400 2799 2729 1849 1964 2857 1242 253 2186

V YV ¼·

1255 2306

YW

543 2729 2449 1235 695 1792

Wš YW Xš YX Nš YZN k YYuk YYœ

2172 2240 2753 2482

YYœ]^ Šš YYœŠ J YYœ—J

¡ / w ¼ ƒ ¹ » Î • » ä u L ) Ð ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¸ ú ç Í k ) ¹ Î u n Ð L G B [ ƒ ¢ r

911

Y^

70 1441 807

` Y`

2384 1896 1756 387 385 1756 131 1843

J Y`J YaN »É N YfN Nš YfN

506 2134 557

š Yg¡š »Ì

104 1521 247 581 917

Yo

1431 174 788 2988 113

YoZoU

1175 1903 338

^ Zo^

2356 2054 2577 557

qš Yoq r Yor Yow

506 9

Yo}S

595 608 600 354 1642

V Yo†V Yp‘ Yo¡] Yo¡™

3: READINGS

º » Ô º • Y Î Á È L g ñ g i F ½ ¾ ¿ c 7 ª % í b Ò e A Ø ø b % Ÿ Â 3 V V ÷ î 7

2304 1605 2860 2304 385 2328 387 2337 201 1104 947 607 947 654 462 2431 2277 1288 2615 1591 1156 810 335 1797 2430 1071 2125 100 223 1797 810 1865 1497 1565 2995 2995 2618 2723 265


INDEX

š Yo¡š Yq Yu

‹ Yu‹ ‹ Yw‹ Y}^ ZƒJ k Y‡k ›š Y‡›

Y‰ Y‰Js QJ Y‰Q š Y‰š ZŠ YŠh ‹ Y‹ YŒ Œš YŒ Y‘ š Y‘š Y“^ Y“` Y—Š ˜^Œš Y˜ ˜` Y˜ Y™ ™š Y™ š Yš Y›

441

3: READINGS

? g  ¡ ˆ Y Ì Ì q 8 u 8 Œ R À À ú Å a ‡ Á y Á ( ½ » » ” ƒ ! ƒ Î ƒ ! Ê Z  ¡ ï

1136 920 2043 388 2890 99 857 2917

› Y› Yœ Rš YœR ` Yœ`

1040 2067 2315 2067

} Yœ} Yœ‘ J Y¡J

1402 1979 2343

` Y¡`

2343 1363

»û

579 2838 882 780 919 780 2383 2638 1756 1756 213 888 1412 888 2518 888 1412 2478 2276 2043 388 53

¼û

˜ Q ˆ ™ î à % N G % h ë / ¤ p 8 Ò Ä Å Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ó Þ = É „ 5 ‹ Œ

í 0 Þ Ï ä

2094 1161 2890 1261 1214

335 1577 2295 571 1936

2791 420

[_

1493 2143 420

½

396 613 623 1964 400 2067 1615 1587 579 2184 1971 1830 1460 1970 2451 448 1461 2518 450 2578

¾

1758 2021 2295 269 391 2099 2888 713 370

½©

Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 6 è ç [ } R â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë

2046 952 2914 766 2230 77 554 1781 2296 2559 117 1141 1937 2701 1142 2673 1815 252 2132 2354 2844 1024 2845 1544 987 1815 821 2704 2214 1889


442

¾©

J [J¡J

INDEX

ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú û ü þ ! Û » Ã m ¸ × W Ú − R ( # $ % & ( L a ” Ö

1499 1714 681 733 358 512 1731 167 2090

N [N ]N š [NTš Nš [N [P [Q

2069 116 2045 1102 1732

[R [QJ

1363 734 397 359 1296 2044

Nš [QN [QS [‰ [Q[ ` [R`

1602 1729 2131

[QaS [Qq

2292 85 2444 2129 2496 2354

š [Qu‡š ˜L [Q˜ š [Qš Rš [R ¥ [Q¥

682 1730 685 683

[S

1636 682 2119 1505 1091 1088

[T [SRW U [U

Ä Ü S ) î ì ) 4 * + − , § æ ƒ o ¼ / − a ) 3 Ö 0 P − µ 4 ó µ Ä N 1 2 3 å 5 z 1

2602 2603 1090 2134

½·

681 1192 2134 2632 723 1294 1959 1428 1558 484 251 356 326

[U˜ š [Vš

2490 1959

[W

1120 1327 1219

‹ [X`‹ } [W}

171 2896

Wš [W

2847 1959 1457 50 2450

Xš [X [[ Nš [[N Xš [[X

1457 25 1561 2018

U [[“U [_ ` [`

778 153 248 2833 2924 2018

Wš [aW L [dL [g

3: READINGS

™ Ì Ë 6 9 : ; = ? @ A B n ß G C ) a  , … ä ¦ ¿ ™ Ø E † ¼ Ò Ø F Ú r c … 4 É Ü

813 1126 1553 1142 1324 1140 2846 2507 2614 948 1365 1185 1434 2066 1826 1932 1327 1120 2815 1428 2390 1508 1242 1501 813 665 940 711 2265 1615 2157 2891 554 417 1116 659 736 916 2603


INDEX

Œš [gŒ ½É [h ½Ì

¾Ì [kS [o

J [oJ

[o^

` [o` š [oš [w

443

3: READINGS

Ï O a G H I J K L M N O ^ Þ š P Q ø Š J = } † † ò þ J t Š µ Š t J } † ³ H ; R

382

U [wU

2956 1505

[z

1826 1069

^J [z^

1103 2261 822 1104

[‰ ` [‰` Xš [‰fX

212 1493 2956

J [‹J [‹˜J

2271 2144 2619

[Œ Œš [Œ

562 2070 1849

[“

2851 1224

173 2112 2278 2278 1131 459

[˜J ^ [˜^ ` [˜` r [˜r [š

1224 2677 2851 2905

š [š ›š ]› [¡

2851 2677 1224 2112 2278

R^J [¡R V [¡V “Q [¡“ š [¡š

352 2728 622 2820

½û

ü S T ù ù o à À × ˜ í ¬ w U · ƒ À ) í V n ! W W n á M É ‹ å Q X „ Z ì 6 X Y Z

397 2256 2771 720 720 2310 933 2750 491 2592 1526 976 319 2821 325 1404 2750 2134 2784

¾û

1447 694 2501 2444

[ ] ^ _ ` a b c d e f g h i j ’ k î ] k l m H

768 1721 2271 1189 367 2543 2561 1560 946 2641 523 2711 843 1437 2798 1713 2092 2253 1721 2092 1134 808 2083

2444 694

^_

403 1117 750 1994 1072 2070 2160 1985 2855 1297 1813 3 1026 1720

¿

8 x ¥ Â F n o p q r s t

1498 472 2481 2043 2891 960 2113 1864 990 417 1863 692


444

INDEX

u v w x y z { | } ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‘ ’ “ ” • – — ˜ ™ š › œ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨

1867 4 319 747 413 474 95 2222 412 1269 600 605 659 711 2209 2890 1045 455 815 1828 2345 1091 902 1333 1829 1375 714 456 753 1093 1865 346 354 601 475 473 1052 563 1866

À

© Ú Ü k ï H B î L ¢ R ú ½ µ À W A Á Â · ´ ª « ¬ − ° ± ² ³ ´ µ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¿

1171 2129 1216 2635 53 2242 2590 1214 2042 1220 2233 2992 1086 471 36 2444 2801 2395

b ^H¡b ^J Xš ^JfX Jš ^J ^P

1497 1545 2797 1156 1029 976

^P™ ›š ^P› ^Q

58 185 158 1389 660

^Qwt ^R˜Š ™ ^Q™ š ^Qš

159 471

¿´

1388 746 2074 2075 2575 1390 1086 818

^S À´

3: READINGS

À Á Â G n Í ¾ Î x ¤ F R · a © ¬ è é Ã ‡ ± † g ¹ Ä | = 5 Í ’ Å Æ 3 5 / , 4 1 Ÿ

36 2395 1497 515 960 1054 3006 355 472 1658 2891 2805 1545 1505 2505 1998 1235 1458 110 141 2866 2523 2355 2074 1999 2222 2507 241 2179 2952 353 482 1334 1753 2254 1477 824 1883 73


INDEX

445

3: READINGS

^SŠ ™r ^S™ U ^U

À·

^X Xš ^X

^^

__ __J Q ^aQ ^aU ‹ ^a‹ Œš ^aŒ

^f L ^fL L ^fRL

^J ^f^ š ^ffš

7 + ! Î ü 1 + ‰ È É Ê ™ ™ ’ w Ä Ê o “ › › Â ª Ë ì ¢ ¥ ¢ Â 4 â § Z { ˆ „ V ì I

1472

¿É

2183 2533

¿Ì

2518 373 1883 405 1045 2642 1112 2216 2041 2041 1337 360 1999 2216 1262

ÀÌ ^kW ^o “Q ^o“

2345 2334

^q

2334 1540 2323 2778 442 1888 276 1888

“Q ^q“ s ^s ^u V ^uV z ^uz } ^u}

1540 50

^w

41 633 877 809 129 1298 1504 442 2324

^w^w U ^w˜U š ^wš ^z ›š ^z› J ^}J ^„ ‹ ^‡‹

Ì Ö ^ Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö Ó × Ò Ù g ‡ õ C Ä j ‘ Ù Y Ú Ú Ý Û Ü Ý l [ 4 h _ Þ u

7

š ^‡š

1137 2476

^‰

2179 1506 845 2202

‰š ^‰ Šš ^Š

754 2430 1788 932

` ^Œ`

1686 1137

Œš ^Œ

2461 1572 2942 1053 721 2197

š ^Œš ^‘ ^‘„

23 1179 1353 2786 815 2639 2136 2129 2129 597 2044 1216 2221 1134 1376 2816 2579 1738 2393 2135

¿ë

ƒ 9 ß S T Þ ô ( ³ K ½ Í ƒ ç Þ w Ó ƒ ì ‹ / Ö Ü à á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì G ¸ Ô

1348 1324 2671 1948 2976 1340 509 2291 636 1149 1086 262 1348 48 1340 1623 1788 426 1794 2036 1397 2914 2296 316 1247 1249 655 1744 1662 1257 1092 2673 1256 1250 286 1192 2414 2292 2046


446

Àë

¿ë·

Àë·

š ^’„š ¿í

INDEX

? Þ í î ç ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ Ë Í Ó – ø ù ú û – # ^ v Û ü þ ! # $ % & ( ) * + ,

2206 117 519 1906 1092 1186 68 1070 2510

Àí

2544 1463 1429 1908 2764 1184 113 1743 2878 223 720 1236 2429 2878 2412 555 2158 222 266 819 186 637 221 810 243 258 1679 2467 820 1428

¿í«

/ l m „ @ L ÷ É 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Á ß V ´ † Z ( = ÷ Ð n Î 8 9 : ; = ? @ A B C b

70 2722 1718 2245 1722 1857 2618 2823 1116 735 2169 1565 736 1446 2672 1165 2203 2329 2995 2939 2794 877 258 1969 2618 2834 2762 1506 1018 1510 317 1100 1969 128 1722 901 667 2289 914

Àí«

3: READINGS

E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U h ˆ £ K L Ð ´ Ô ‡ Í V W X Y Z ] ^ _ ` a b c

900 1352 2665 574 122 1868 2409 1857 2025 2707 2742 2732 318 2906 1432 559 2020 1089 2224 1108 2351 2392 2834 2939 2130 1101 2485 2968 954 761 10 877 1226 140 1738 1933 1338 1675 762


INDEX

^”Lo ^”LoŒ ¿í·

Àí· ¿íÌ ÀíÌ ¿íû

Àíû

447

3: READINGS

ó B Þ H õ + õ d e f g h i j æ O k l m n o p q r s t u v y z Ï µ Ä í ‡ ø B w x

2657 667 2661 574 2205 2064 2205 718 2141 995 721 1089 1336 1733 2243 2742 309 310 767 1525 1524 1014 2061 1568 817 2062 2915 2060 67 2879 2059 2290 2807 2705 2751 2706 2664 560 1854

¿ï

y z { | } ‚ ƒ „ † ‡ ˆ − Ä z µ í ø … z § ¨ ‰ Š ‹ Œ ‘ ’ “ ” • – — ˜ ™ E Õ Ð U ¢

67 2513 809 2318 564 1627

Àï

1853 1494 2031 2751 129 2279 2807 2879 2290 2705 2706 285 2879 2503 2605 297 404 1127 1260 2448 1263 1191 1344 1259 327 2365 2402 1261 2922 2034 2098 2344 2434

¿ï«

ï Q ™ £ T š › œ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ Ë Ø — ˜ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ − ° ± ² ³ ´ µ · ¸ ¹ º » ½ ¾

2979 2065 1261 2756 2771 1782 1660 98 1594 1659 2434 2756 1658 2303 100 2365 2402 996 985 1209 1693 42 86 2154 439 21 2870 732 2622 2198 189 731 105 106 184 2238 592 1715 1901


448

INDEX

¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È Ê Ë Ì Í Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý ß à á â ã ä å ç è é

647 650 801 2273 43 25 87 22 785 201 2478 137 144 372 1200 557 170 1685 124 115 558 1088 905 433 938 923 1359 114 2366 2367 1680 800 787 380 342 550 796 2746 2770

Àï«

ê ë ì í ¥ ± ² · o z ƒ r ™ † î m ´ ð ¹ § Á © « 1 ñ v Z I æ ì è ™ i a Ù ° î ï ð

2772 438 1297 2784 1557 379 1539 1535 209 398 2280 2628 2933 2794 49 1806 1555 2919 1896 1558 1534 381 1556 2018 1585 322 877 2604 1976 2910 228 2258 2516 942 2639 2870 49 691 2919

¿ï·

3: READINGS

ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú û ü þ ! # $ % & ( ) µ Â ì x Ï Å ² Ù ¨ c 8 š ˆ R * + , / 0

1585 300 1586 362 545 1529 1530 799 1537 2268 298 2504 1155 239 1784 2609 1900 1528 1527 383 1457 1540 2394 2231 382 1377 710 2639 361 1471 2438 3007 2926 2820 1954 2183 1477 2254 205


INDEX

Àï· ˜b ^˜ b ^˜b „š ^˜„

^™ ^™eU Wš ^™eW

^š š ^š

^š^

` ^š`

^š„ ›š _› ^œ

449

3: READINGS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 V 9 F ³ “ Û Î : Ñ © Ñ Û ^ F Æ È | Ø ‚ ã à z • £ Æ Æ : ã Ð ô R

811

J ^œJ

2539 1334 824 1753 1813 1472 2800 2182 2009 1223 1507 349 1781 1673 2220 1465 1395 1465 2223 140 1223 482 1038 1425 433 887 1608 1980 529 1259 601 1144 482 1787 1608 557 362 37

^œTs ¿û

R – ß ; 7 = ? A B C B E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U W X Y Z [ ] ¾ ó § Ñ 0

37 2934 2671 1118 118 969 1148

^¥ Àû

2012 1150 1910 595 630 2011 1502 2436 197 2475 1149 1328 1117 2574 75 1119 2877 1361

^¥R™

848

7 ( d @ V ± S _ ` a c d e f g h i j S ^ ó A P Q * !

2443 2291 1768 2013 1504 1520 848 988 84 2838 1145 1768 1071 2453 2713 280 1305 2786 2607 951 2008 2125 1119 2877 1805 2532

2368 1503

`_

1724 1248 1496

`

561 274 2010 1536 2008 328 2739 2492

Á

? C n h ° i k l m

128 2289 1434 1927 2497 1437 2635 2722 1718


450

Â

J `J Á©

INDEX

° K Æ { ü s ! 3 M ‰ Œ o p q 8 q ª 2 ? w i r s t u v w x y z { | } ‚ ƒ ! ¤ ‡ m

2497 1532 1943 95

©

266 1863 186 1565 2084

L `L Á«

929 2085 1180 2152 2423 2500 1440

`N

1156 2169 1661 1441 1437 467

Nš `N Q` `Q `Rf `S

1582 1270 663 130 468

`T

1583 925 2863

Tš `T U `U

1890 540 1435 2760

`V L `UL

1584 2712 909

qJ `Uq

2850 767

›š `V›

þ © † Þ „ … † µ ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ M = u v ‘ t z ² Y £ — n ’ “ [ º Y t Ÿ º â º ¸ C ¸

2945 2505 1290 2393 1298 2563

`W

1290 689 1101 2224 929 1697 2086 2085 2084 217 912 1966

`X Wš `W J `ZJ ^ `Y^

1064 915 474 2426 99 2756 2755

Z` `Z š `Y}š “Q `Y“ ‰_J `[‰ `^ `_

2762 1713 2528 1293 2304

`` `a

99 915 73

V ``V

936 2892 936 106 617 993

^J `a^ ‹ ``‹

3: READINGS

ß p ´ § v ð ¡ £ · Ç V Ô š Õ ” t ¢ ¸ Ô [ • Á ¢ A : û T û A è ÷ Š ) à ^ † ð H Z

51 1014 999 1209 2060 2919 2097 2730 2126 2599 2920 2130 1782 952 2410 915 2133 106 2046 1293 2793 974 2133 2826 941 298 1856 1339 2541 2673 2764 1406 2288 1143 313 534 2919 2436 561


INDEX

451

3: READINGS

‹ `a‹ `aŒ Œš ``Œ

`a™ `d `g‰ `fš `g› ›š `f› `jˆ¥ r `nr mš `m

`q š `qpš h `q¡h

`t `wš `„ m `„m

„š `„

š `„š ‹ `‡‹ ‰L `‰

# ^ – ð % Z ± Ô — K / ¢ / × j C m ã ö Ü Þ Ô ì “ ’ = Ó + n 6 r þ Þ j r s Ñ ? W

2412 313

‰` `‰ `Š

2878 864 2000 561 732 2589 2624

“Q `Š“ `Š› ‹ `‹

2023 1706 2630 1706 3000 1481 2937

`‘‘ `™ š `š

758 655 1908 2296 117

J ašJ

172 686 1462 88

J `špJ ›š `› ¡š `¡

1969 2989 2435

Áû

ò [ ò 0 î i ™ „ ò W ˜ − ° 5 ™ H L ™ ; # Á Î Ç L â ã ‘ š

1731 1958 1731 771 175 2427 1669 2099 1731 954 1704 2496 2497 2511 2258 1069 1104 2258 644 639 2337 2335 500 1104 2844 1024 1064 45

1525 263

b_

1366 62 2295

b

1347 1366 2660 1289

Ã

2614 954

Ä

œ Ÿ 6 Ñ ‰ › ¡

1666 1017 446 2071 1045 28 388

bJ é

Ñ ì ñ ò õ T ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ − ° ± ² ³ ´ µ · ¸ ¹ º ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã b © )

2071 2910 512 1731 2069 2771 2133 418 1515 1557 881 1558 361 381 1670 1556 1538 2496 2497 379 1539 1559 1555 1457 1535 825 1896 419 363 1133 1536 1132 2750 1534 1540 1729 395 2621 2884


452

Ä©

bR› bS

ô

INDEX

8 m › » Ó þ Å ’ é , R Ä Å ß m Ô ’ F Ã Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö Ï ` ñ

2438 1806 28 1602 124

ÃÉ ÃÌ

1155 2462 2737 2770 2521 2820 895 2462 499 2131 2191 2162 2017 110 699

ÄÌ

1193 1187 2882 1138 1184

cr ‰š bw‰ J b‰J

1126 113

š b‰š

1543 1567 1542 2071 1541

bŠ Œš bŒ

1743 1746 2743 2593 109 2219 1070

b™ bš Äõ b¥ Ãû

r ï ù Þ × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à Þ W ¿ ` N á â å , ò ò ? W J ) Ú ã k Ò = Þ Œ ! ã ä

417 1186 720 1464 85 769 672 1739 1130 708 1322 1464 499 1143 2144 2703 2849 2219 1493 1754 41 1516 368 1266 1266 2614 282 2261 2248 2420 2692 330 1541 2396 434 1402 2466 2692 986

3: READINGS

å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú û ü þ ! $ % & ( ) * + , / 0 1 å ” Ã

248 40 48 188 46 2903 127 1929 1079 2253 264 133 369 249 509 844 2548 2540 1046 2616 2636 1339 1790 553 2466 1874 2000 2717 2735 1286 1804 1610 368 270 2774 551 2941 2991 2082


INDEX

453

3: READINGS

[ — Ò ] § / ¥ 9 H Ã Äû ã 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ( ê ÃûÉ : ÃûÉé2Ðó:

768 1027 32 603 2397 2407 2255 2468 2083 2082 2692 290 1035 1135 241 263 1930 1335 2468 2735 510 2947 2947

d_ Å

; = @ B U E F G H I J K

L dL

2177 1960 1188 501 2344 2922 1668 394 1779 1778 1777 1532

Å«

L M N O P Q 6 ` Û þ O Ý m ; º B R S T U V W X Y Z [ ] _ ` a b c d e f g h i j

1776 2380 1139 1780 2847 2065 2940 609 795 634 89 2617 698 1100 2238 501 982 1631 697 2895 1630 1926 321 1571 2855 2215 1065 2432 609 1120 1152 1116 2252 671 26 1173 1927 2516 1176

Æ«

k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ƒ „ Š Ã ã ù Q « ) 9 ; ¿ È Ý ; š a 7 l æ

1175 215 1154 2577 209 749 2649 1366 2660 2677 224 322 816 2399 2035 398 384 2016 1174 426 1985 503 727 2389 2681 2309 2403 2288 2068 690 647 201 537 2177 2619 942 2818 1369 1976


454

dLœL Nš dN V dV Å·

Æ·

dY qL dYq

tš dYt š d^š

INDEX

… † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ g P k j K þ N 2 Œ ‘ ’ “ ” • – — ˜ ™ B ê F š › œ Ÿ ¡ Ñ © “ œ © ½

1977 502

V ddV

626 851 850 503 281 1173

` dduQ` r deœr k dgk mš dgm ÅÌ

562 1175 1176 1640 634 1493

dn do Nš dqN

2539 1280 975 88

‹ dt‹ du

1462 610 2260

dw

1664 149 1279 1669

‰š d‰ U d‹U

2153 2214 2654

Œš dŒ d˜

968 1953 357 1222

˜` d˜ d™ š dš

1345 1833 666 1551 357 666 2724

d›R^ dœJ L dœL Nš dœN Åû

À / f × â p p t ¢ m B £ ‘ Ú Ä S Ð Ó ä å ÷ ‘ Ô ô 6 ƒ ô W a ‚ , Ë ‚ Þ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ §

1632 2314 267 766 2844 759 759 1270 1025

Æû

3: READINGS

¨ © ª « ö þ 6 − ¦

1439 666 208 2422 2861 2506 2814 2161 684

2131 1737

f_

1108 111 1796

f

1183 74

Ç

2202 585 1419 2974 2369 975 1015 509 446

È

2902 509 1317 1109 722 2521 2146 722 1759 2255 2255 2255 684 1393

fJ

, # ¬ − ± ² ° ¼ º ¾ ³ í ³ ´ µ · ¸ º » ¼ ½ ¾ Ë ² º Õ

14 637 961 108 2316 2718 120 2955 2674 2804 2165 519 2165 1314 728 629 653 2674 2531 2955 1986 2804 2778 2718 2960 2812


INDEX

Ç©

fJ È©

455

3: READINGS

Ø ° Ö × ¿ À Á Â Ä Å Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó ± Ð Ù Ô ¾ Ô ÷ Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ô Õ

107 120 1005 744 957 2185

fJ˜

1726 1164 415 879

˜Xš fJ˜ fN Nš fN

745 2005 2702 842 1570

` fP` ›š fP› fQ

416 748 2356 1006 1007 1465

J fQJ

1160 1306 2316 435 2479 2864 2353 2864

J fRJ fQ^

2871 2812 1005 744 107 1239 2747 389

fQkS fQpu

1240 2283

‰š fQ‰

¹ ì » Ô š r & V U ó á Â I I ¢ å l q ˆ Ü ¢ l # q ‡ N å 3 å # [ l q v ˆ ) · ¼ ¢

1094

` fR“`

686 1019

fQ˜

2864 2832 1484 2188

fS fST fU

2881 123

Ç·

1770 1754 1164 980 980 307 2104 2449 2061 2224 2237 307

gU È·

2449 2095

fVJ

2061 1101 1561 2104

^J fU‰^ fUŠ

757 2104 2095

Nš fU¡N

1253 2449 2061 2060 2224 383 930 1624 307

fW

… Ç µ ( Ý U w e ß à E á â ã ä å æ ç è » ê ë { Ï l 1 _ ^ ¨ W T r „ À p ) ï ì U

1808 1971 257 682 537 1503 468 2537 51 2168 1194 1916 2264 1074 651 1072 577 2560 1917 645 835 351 931 1695 1821 2971 1241 76 1693 1385 1384 194 2118 1330 2889 1990 691 2394 937


456

fW^

fY Q f^Q f` fa g` Qš f`Q f`U

Wš f`W

Nš fa[N ¡š fa[¡ tš fat

fg

INDEX

È y 6 ‘ p b y { ³ ‘ í î ´ ˜ Æ m š ð £ · Ç š k ð Õ 0 · Ç Ú £ h ‘ ‘ c g Ë Q Z {

2642 2872 2987 2936 2889 377

Nš ffN

2872 1456 2286 2936

L ffQL

2139 2690 567 1279

ffS U ffU ^ fg^

1943 767 1782

^J fg^

2919 2730 2126

` fg`

2599 1782 250 2919 952 839 2126 2599

hr fgh ffŠ ‹ ff‹ L fg—L

1951 2730 843

š ffš fh

687 687 1145 2713 495

ÇÉ fhwq h fh‰h fk

1161 2276 765

k fk

â ï • Ü µ g × † / ì y ð ð â ñ Ü ± Ì Ü Å ± â à Ö Ÿ # # å ‰ þ Ö J ò ¤ ½ O ó P ü

2892 53 2600 2603 556 2711 905 2794 2317

ÇÌ ÈÌ

1929 1629 2166

fj^ } fjo}

2166 2892 953

fkŠ fm

2603 379 55 2603 1509 379 2892

fmJ^ š fm‰kš

339 1137

mš fm

73 1784 1784

Nš foN

1607 2327 2945 1137

fp™ fpš fq

2980 552 2494 2431

fqZYœ fqk‘u fr

536 2008 2981 397

fsS ft

3: READINGS

? C É n d á W ò ô õ ò { ¨ ö a z ƒ ÷ I J · ´ Ò É C 5 ‚ H ø ø ù ü Á ´ ú • û ˆ )

1136 431 391 1705 2620 1754 2703 552 566 498 552 1771 1439 2861 1338 2513 1853 2618 1478 2980 1512 1573 1615 391 431 1446 972 2728 2413 2413 202 588 801 917 788 840 2338 2921 1679


INDEX

457

3: READINGS

^J fu^ ^‹ fu^

‹ fu‹

‘^J fu‘ fw fwY fz „š f„ f‰

L f‰L

f‰S f‰Z f‰^J ` g‰` f‰“ f‰™ š g‰š š f‰¡š fŠ f‹œ

Á Ö 8 Á a þ * 5 þ – } E S 7 j À * ‚ ( … = ‚ ‡ ‘ ó Æ ¦ ÷ 0 ) 7 Ó Ô ë I † ¦ W ¬

1735 191

fŒ ` fŒ`

1898 1735 2207

L fŒ˜L Œš fŒ

1665 1954 2428 1665 1664 2347 1194 1048

k f‘k “` f“ ™ f—™ š f—š f˜ f˜J

1472 2798 935 256 155 258 2563 1931 2588 2568 1791 2553 1349 1052 2764 836 1422 2683 2021 2806 2239 2324 240 1052 1834 2033

˜` f˜ ™š f™ fš ‹ fš‹ f› g› ›š f› ›š f¡‹› f¡˜ Çû

` ¢ à Ã ó r I ˜ á “ þ ü æ ¡ s ˜ þ H ! ! s ‹ á ñ # $ % & ( ) * + , / 0 1 2 3 4

1918f 354 1980 2994 1221 194 2324 997 1754 991 1665 2819

Èû

2522 1872 1582 1279 2506 2242 2712 2712 1582 1994

5 6 7 8 9 ; A ¾ À g d : ñ À ; = ? @ A B C (

2679 31 2683 393 1860 587 2525 2804 2321 2573 2620 582 953 2321 587 1931 1136 1949 2525 1859 859 350

1547 953

h_

2038 1928 1579

h

2188 668 1327 30 2859 164 2317 771 1442 1167 2631 2670

É

ä » æ Ö ¸ E F G H I J K L

2385 1448 40 729 746 978 1223 515 2242 823 1224 516 1683


458

[J hJ[ hN hQ

J hQJ L hQL L hRL lU hQl hR“ hQ˜ š hTš É·

hh hiš ‰š hi‰ ‹ hi‹ ›š hi› ÉÌ

‹ hq‹

INDEX

M N O Q R Ö È C · ü J é ¹ ò C ½ h j C ä j … È S T U V W X Ö 5 & i i i Y Z b ƒ

896 832

Éë Éë·

756 1067 2805

Éí Éí«

1137 2740 2584 105 1790 1224 2704 2074 1514 1129 1133 1450 1644 1129 2385 858 1549 2642 950 1384 937 2637

Éï

1385 539 729 1274 1433 1336 1336 1336 903 1321 2684 583

Éï«

[ ] ^ œ œ ! p _ b ` a b c d e f g h i j k l Â Õ Þ Ç ” m c o q r „ à ˜ Õ s t u

252 440 555 2040 2040 138 2152 39 2684 956 1109 602 1106 1075 268 267 517 1891 2727 2748 1566 1982 2666 2464 2661 2996 1344 2526 2640 1262 1258 194 2118 2994 1704 2812 91 235 2135

3: READINGS

v w x y z b × æ ç { | } ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ ‘ ’ “ ” • – — ˜ ™ š ± º Ä Å $ d

2158 2982 2231 1922 591 1675 2267 2766 2560 1233 1921 1710 887 888 658 2885 52 141 2926 92 237 827 1923 544 521 349 2726 385 1284 2755 1920 94 1941 1039 1945 2171 273 2736 2893


INDEX

459

3: READINGS

Éï·

˜` h˜ h™ š hš Éû

Å › œ Ÿ _ a _ ¡ ¢ Ç / ù £ ¤ ¥ ¦ ½ 3

2155 1667 2269 73 1189 2838 1189 2027 1888

Ì©

Nš kJN kJfh n kJn

r kJr

§ ° @ À Á ¨ © ª « ¬ ¾ ¾ ; Ÿ › Ù |

kN kQ kR

311 2317

L kQL

2190 1723 1004

Nš kQN kQ[

276 1301 1569 2472

k_ k Ì

‹ kJw‹ “` kJ“ Ì«

š kQ[pš 328 1408 1846 2185 1726

‰Nš kQ‰ kQŠ ‹ kQ‹ ›š kQ›

1307 2505 2477 1268

¡` kQ¡ kS

2769 2319

kT

1238 2846 1594 1660 1239 540

Sš kS U kU

Ø U à ¾ − ° ü ± ² Ÿ Ü q n s 3 ö ì g Z 4 s ì Á œ ³ ³ ´ ± s Ü ½ ´ ˆ µ š e = à ^

2570 97 2168 1238 1690 1408 2504 1039

V kV

2488 1909 1773 990 960 1863 693 1271 1499

kUN

1173 1708 824

U` kU

1863 1499 801

kUg L kVqL

1836 2249

š kUš

2249 1688 860 1041 1773 13 2527

L kUœL kW kX Wš kW

2921 471 1370 1071 1969 1680 555

Xš kX kZ‘™ k_ kf

„ £ $ 5 A $ › ˆ µ ! f Û u š Ù † h ß L e Ò µ ¦ E 6 S ‹ º 8 A ¸ · $ ( = ² { ¹ º

2245 1319 1000 2428 1303 2736 1953 2921 471 1809 267 1359 1867 1370 672 2794 210 51 214 1071 2430 2111 985 476 1142 1631 281 419 1335 1303 2517 1545 1000 169 1969 247 2452 279 1945


460 Nš kfN J kfqJ kh

L khQL kk U klU ‹ kk^‹

kkŠ klŠ ‹ kk‹ š klš L kpL r kor Œš koŒ

kq V kqV

kt

ku š kuš

INDEX

) Ø ª F G Æ © ö ¬ ; h ¡ B ù E j 6 Î 1 ± » T e 0 k Y ‡ ” „ d › ˜ î M ø f Ú ¸ ¥

963 769 2477 150 515 2184 2505 1529 2769

kw kwS kw[ kwŒ k} ` k}` š k}š ›š k}› k‡

477 944 1345 1576

k‡t ‹ k‡‹ k‰

1732 630 1733 3004

U k‰aU ˜Q k‰z˜

390 1444 530

‰š k‰ kŠ

2073 559

‹ k‹

2141 1577 865 1227 2209

k‹T V k‹V

1975 1963 1341 2655 1391 2658 2585 799 620 1182 1812 861

kŒ fJ kŒf Œš kŒ ‘š k‘ k“ k• J k—J

³ ½ ö à M ¾ Å ¾ ¿ À & ? ë Á ( È C á ¥ & ‹ ƒ Î é å Â á Â Ð Ã ƒ ¥ Î ã ° è ÷ ¤ «

2165 1569 1798

k—^

2869 922 2319 2842

J k˜J qš k˜q

2319 1486 2904

U k˜sU

1066 2614

tš k˜t

1889 2203 1151 2740 1910

k™

2716 343

1636 1414 1584

š kš

1543 657 2941 2666 1357

kšT ` kš` ›š k› k¡‘u

3: READINGS

p é p ‘ s Y ¦ – ¤ A ç – ¦ ¦ ¤ ø Ä Å æ Æ H Ä Å Ä Ä ¦ o

2889 2240 2889 2936 1892 1496 287 812 2676 102 2963 812 287 1301 2676 1342 2171 273 1386 1943 2359 2171 273 1671 2171 287 1331

2666 1542

m_

727 1404 343 1543 1755 1283 1235 2990 1964 543

m Ω

# » s ¿ Ô Õ š )

637 2073 91 957 1240 2283 3007 383


INDEX

ϩ δ

461

3: READINGS

Ú ¾ š Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á â ã ä å æ ç 1 è á #

2747 2353 2832 311 1831 977 981 2146 55 262 390 382

Ï´ nY ÎÌ

435 1833 590 508 2283 1832 2267 665 2479 2312

ÏÌ muy˜ m˜

2587 2603

˜` m˜

894 1340

1876 339 2716 2741 1858 1841 2425 2766 2865 2971 1055 2601 242

š nš ›š m› Îû

é ê ë ì í î ï ð # ñ ¢ » Æ ò ó ô ö ÷ l à Á ± Þ Ñ ™ 4 À m – m Ñ ø ø ) µ ÷ * 0 ù

657 2272 443 442 69 1111 441 2758 2412 2308

Ïû

34 2073 2072 1131 886 760 847 846

ú û ü þ ! $ % & ( ! ! / µ ) * + , /

428 1925 588 634 2663 2736 420 2789 169 2817 2663 535 2111 963 1805 2300 14 535

2201 2331

o_

801 158 2144

o

170 2534 27 2566 2446 2934 767 170 1827 2413 963 2111 2330 1805 2492 2190

Ð

ú B C Y Ü 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 = ?

1076 2590 2595 10 2854 2093 151 2192 1663 2195 2217 878 1177 2500 1195 1264 1661


462

Ñ

oJ oL

Ы

Ñ«

INDEX

@ F o : k E F G H Â C “ “ g Ë ¤ ) Ü 7 ’ + ó Ü Š − ‰ w „ Â Å + q : I J K L M N

1846 150 1180 1703 865 1194 150 702 703 2520 2595 1617 1617 2713 495 475 2530 2854 1177 2952 204 1356 2854 277 1690 2379 910 2245 2520 2155 204 2423 1703 980 797 427 506 83 1157

O Q S T U V W X Y [ ] _ a b c d e f g h i j k m n o p q r s t v w x y † + n z

254 2901 1948 2976 621 706 646 504 236 505 1451 546 165 2972 1153

oLX J oLoJ

1684 2598 945 947

oP J oPJ š oPš

944 1158 1347 755 2357

oR

1210 340

Q` oQ

1211 1440

Œš oRŒ

1287 283 915

š oRš oS

1966 1441 1989 1629

oT oU

437 204 1210 1678

з

3: READINGS

{ | } ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ { ¨ Y æ … ° ó t Ò C ² â ã f ‹ ê ´ ó š 8 m ß â ö ’

1676 180 798 278 2280 2245 181 437 436 182 2379 277 272 773 1771 1439 10 402 2885 1408 886 915 32 1179 2488 791 2547 2156 2087 2903 159 2008 45 2115 1814 499 791 1908 1692


INDEX

oV Ñ·

oX Wš oW

Xš oX oY oYœ ]` o] o^

_š o_ oh ÐÌ

463

3: READINGS

“ ” • – — ˜ ™ È œ Ó š › œ − â m ã Î | » ø ‰ ‹ w ñ “ q v t æ d ¡ S 2 Õ » w Ÿ ¢

876 885 2297 246 719 2606

V okV U opU Wš opW š opYPš L oouL

1988 2642 348 675

Nš oouN ‰š op‰

1531 522 348 2938

U opœU Nš oqN

791 1814 2547 1044 540

oq™ ou pu ow™

592 799 297 1127

oz oz˜ o}

1623 512 1403 2061 2060 2677 1036

^J o‡^ o‡d o‰ o‰` ‰š o‰

2893 2097 2607 906 1686 2073

oŠ r oŠr L o‹˜L Œš oŒ

1623 514 34

o‘

£ A ¥ ¥ Ë Ã “ ª ª q É l ¬ − × t * * y ù ¦ ¬ – Á ™ Ò Š § 7 Œ Q K ) ´ { Œ Q K Ú

1319 542 1110 1110 416 1729 349 1670 1670 2423

o‘N

977 1982 2729 21 905 1311

o‘R˜ o‘^z

1805 1805 1922 410 2836 1638 1284

` o‘` L o‘qL r o‘r š p‘š o— o˜

1887 2933

˜Nš o˜

1215 1697 2397 1177 370

¡›š o˜¡ o™

147 1423 193 2788 1233

o™Y o™n

370 147 1423 1796

U o™ueU

ß 4 J ¨ º º ¿ Q W ú ¿ º ¨ ú 8 a b b { H ¡ Ì ) ¨ œ • Î Ò 8 9 ¨ š © R ÷ = x ê ô

1795 2967 1224 2006 2960 704 19 2121 1707 2096 19 704 24 2096 1637 165 2972 2972 1203 2124 2175 1443 1990 2006 1836 2260 1506 1160 1018 2049 1947 1941 1427 1996 2045 2507 1734 2214 760


464

INDEX

ï K Î þ Ú ] ô œ ª è m « : ¬ − ° ± ² ³ ´ µ · ¸ )

š oš

oœ pœ Wš oœW Ðû

Ñû

p¥}™

733 822 1506 819 1739 1451 2090 1836 2323 1055 2357 2949 582 2033 2279 2931 2326 538 2416 2788 2080 424 1495 2884

q_ q Ò

J qJ Ò© qJR^œ qN

û e ¹ º Ç Ó [ » ì … ï

734 112 1094 2960 1613 485 1775 1019 686 2390 234

g ¹ Ä ` qP` ¸ Ÿ š qPš Ÿ qQ _ ` h qR … © ¨ Ô J qRJ ½ ˜ ` qR` H w qQw } î qQ‰ J Œš qRŒ Š › qQ› ] ‰ ›š qR› H qT ½ ¾ qT[ ’ Ú U qU ¾ k V qV ½ ¾ Œš qV[Œ ] š qVš ö ï Q¡^J % qXQ U qXU % + • Xš qX V Nš qN qP

2355 184 1438 746 73 73 39 956 1891 2885 1427 24 2130 132 1920 764 1202 1740 797 237 2105 1049 764 2140 2353 1263 2312 432 1942 2140 2353 1096 1698 1793 1579 1579 2859 1483 706

3: READINGS

É É ù 6 R } ¨ ` ‹ qa‹ è qe ¿ Nš qe˜N w ‘ qg À á qgŒš » qk @ ÒÌ Á Q^J v qkQ nš qn C qp f qq Ì ¬ Ð U ) Œ qqŒ å qr 7 ¹ º qrR^ Þ q„  — q‰ ´ Wš q‰W Æ q‰a ! Q^J ã q‰ŒQ Ø Ÿ q‰™ ç ‹ qZ‹ “Q qZ“ W q[W q^ q` ` q`

897 897 1537 907 2372 2132 361 1918 1055 2709 560 1411 2321 549 2210 296 2250 828 2270 945 7 1998 1993 1995 1990 1662 1012 1094 2960 1759 2757 2755 1555 745 2817 1755 2078 430 794


INDEX

465

3: READINGS

qŠg ˜Q qŒ˜ Œš qŒ ‹ q“‹ q˜ L q˜L ˜` q˜

} q˜} q™ š qš q› ›š q› q¡

q¡m Òû

q¥ q¥_

q¥e

# u ¹ y « Ñ ° ñ Ã H − Ä ü k u ˜ ¨ k Ä Ë ü Ä Å ï A Æ Ç È É Ê 7 Ë ¾ ¹ º &

‡ Ü Õ ( ¸ ø ú ] Ö × Ô Ø œ Ù Ú « æ Ü Â Ò _ ¨ ^ _ S Û Ü Ý Þ

803 1785

r_

1470 1082 2294

r

1289 2870

Ó

1935 2493 574 979 2807 627 1942 1785 2094 361

rJ rN Nš rN J rPJ

1942 2807

L rPL

2303 627 2807 1377 234 1365

J rRJ “Q rT“ š rTš ¡J rT¡ Ó·

2072 1613 1614 470 1580 1012

J rUJ ^Š rU^ rU‹ Xš rX š rZš

2303 3006

r^

2074 2960 2470

r_ r^S ‹ r_‹ r_”L rb

S # ¹ Î − _ Ì Í Î G ³ æ Ð I I Ð N Ñ 2 Ñ Ò Ê ‡ ‡ ‡ s ê Þ » ù Ó 3 ( Ô T

1013

bš rb ÓÉ L rqL J r}J

2038 2074 355

Óí«

58 988 2 1054s

Óï

355 1502 1559 1257

Óï« r˜ š rš

2147 122 122 2147 225 2739 1059

r¡ Q r¡Q r¡o™ Óû

2739 1022 2216 626 626 626

1919 114 12 668 1495 223 1236 1226 729 779 1190 100 98 1053 2081 1029 1257 114 2549 590 2110 1947 951 988 2607 1003 507 597 598

283 835 2295

s_

1602 2691 520 411 2291 1190 2151

Ô sJo™ sL sQ ¥nš sS¥

G G Ä | ê s

702 2665 1563 2652 2272 705


466 U sU

V sV L sVL s[ s^ ‹ s`‹ sf su s‰ š sš ›š s›

INDEX

s c × / õ s / q ü ] Ý ¸ + Ë 3 ß

705 1106

ÕÌ

2267 2254 498 705 2254 1040

š twš J t‹J š t‹š L t˜L š tš

266 1451 1322 2998

Õû

405 137 1663 2329

t_ t

Õ Õ© tN L tRL Q` tQ tT L tT˜L tY t_ š t_š taŠ ‹ tf‹

Í E … { 3 á Ã â ? X d B ã ± ä ù è Q Ð

1461

t¥Zœ

978 2228 95

_š t¥_

4 å Ã ë X X U B ¡ £ § ! 5 æ ç è é ê ë S Ê â ø ç

2195 1516 2331 921 1835 1835 2344 1150 1343

š uYš

2030 2817

bš ub

241 1036 1590 2251

ueS U ueU

2266 510 921

‹ ue‹

2607 1970 834

uh up

2706 1590

u_

2331

uS uT uYT™ ` uY`

2542

479 2601

›š uR›

š uu^š w` uw zš uz

834 2206

u

135 1489 1150 2389 860 244 2691 2251 2065 2202

Ö«

ì î ï Ÿ ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö

686 1214

u}

2979 1596 2883 1935 2015 1356 2004 1934 2455

„š u„

3: READINGS

÷ s v ³ Û î Ó m k k m þ ñ ½ ø ¤ ø › Ý r 9 } V ) ; × ; û … Z { _ … ¨ © µ Ô † o

2014 283 1973 2416 1652 899 2759 808 1772 1772 808 359 1585 1986 2875 1658 2875 2613 489 854 1379 2159 2164 2699 1118 392 1118 1925 2885 2276 765 2432 2885 2006 2621 2290 2130 2794 1524


INDEX

u‡™ š u‡š

uŠ ‹ u‹

u™

š uš

L uœL

467

3: READINGS

× › è û ¦ Ü R Ã : x ù ß † µ ¢ M # ’ { Å ø À A ˆ – Ê þ ñ è W j „ 2

392 1660 188 1925 1301 2007 2233 43 1703 1989 2681 2066 1474 2080 1550 2585

© `

w Ø

2650 88 679 353 1827 751

[¥ wH[ vJ

874 984 1413 1554 359 1585 188 646 2803 1981 2169

v_ v

×

1171 84

ש

è – • ú û ü þ ! # $ % & Ã * õ ( ) * + $ ( ‚ G u , / 0 1 2 5 6 7 8 9 Î ç Î Š é

228 573 2793 2096

Ø©

1752 2262 1895 2501 803 1855 2913 806 2647 2386 545 804 2699 2386 1978 594 804 168 2414 2282

Ù© Jš vJ L vL vN Nš vN

1633 1706 1564

vQ

1634 331 2873 446 414 1637 1436 2608 2963 2458 54 2170

R` vR Q` wQ š vQpš vRt vQ‰ vQ™ š vQš

3 B ¬ ¤ : ; = ? A B C  E F é Š U ¬ L 5 × G H º ´ ¼ ¦ b M 5 œ š $ I £ ¤ o — ä

1219 2340 2957 2178 992 477 1761 460 2541 2340 831 323 476 1299 2170 54 2350 2957 2970 2873 779 2414 2685 1742 1555 326 231 1198 2145 1008 2269 1962 2626 2604 337 475 1180 149 1760


468

vT vU

×·

V vV Ø·

INDEX

g c à [ F é Ï l ™ K Ó ù b 1 4 ¹ õ À L þ M N O P Q R S T U V W M X Y Z [ ] ^ _

177 1170 339 1178 293 1487 571 2722

‹ vVU‹ vX ^J vX^

642 2351 2989 2616 1152 151

‰` vX‰ ‹ vX‹ Wš wW vY

1057 2999 1699

} vY}

2343 967 1895

v]‰ ‹ v[‹

2145 47

v^

652 199 147 37 2634 2648 1869 227 282 2145 2447

v_ v^Q b v_b v^Z v^fŒ v^wŠ ‰š v_‰ v_‹ Œ v_Œ

230 1802 1376 2105 2808 1533

Œš v_Œ

Ü N 1 å 2 p ˜ ± ˜ ¬ „ „ 5 ` a k ± … ç š í ï 2 c I N = Ù Š J x d é Š d ¡ y î x

1801 47 409 2733 233 759 2606 497 814 1997 866 866 1008 1902 942 2635 303 1873 1265 2773 1267 429 1167 2640 823 2574 1931 2479 2196 2475 747 2893 2704 404 2893 2097 2872 681 747

3: READINGS

d e { ú _š v_ I v` 9 é ¥ va e aQ^J I va Œš 9 vaQ^Œ ` va` ‘ ‹ va‹ = bš vb R cš vc Z vf i n Q g i j 2 R vg h 8 vgQ ú vfR^˜ þ vfW i j › f` vf F vf˜U z vh É × Ù ×É k l ØÉ r vh` é v^˜ š v^š

2893 268 384 1196 823 2361 2362 2360 2646 823 2009 111 1931 2805 1802 1764 1382 2877 2232 166 2916 1167 2233 66 1992 1124 1895 166 2916 2918 1121 1678 2687 2487 2591 8 271 833 2362


INDEX

Š l m n p s À “ ØÌ q r s t u = ^ $ m vm F — vo v vow % vq P T Ì Ä vq^ w Ê ` vq` ½ ? Ê k vqk ½ n g ^ J vqvg d vq}[ Ä ›š vq› ? ½ vr + vt – tš vt – vv ª vk ×Ì

469

3: READINGS

404

vw

271 2307 1705 1924 705 751 1871 994

ww ‹ vw‹ U v}U š v„š v‰ v‰V™ ‰š v‰

833 705 2629

vŒš v“

1619 217

J v“J

2348 2993 1121 157 1946 2189

v“^

1009 1581

v“}[

678 1741 2176

344 496

L v˜L

1492 344 496 1705

v˜Q˜ ˜` v˜ ‹ v˜‹

1768 1741 1492 496 2183

v˜¡f

573 1284 101

v™

2 Q ( O Ó ¬ ø y ù % % z f f ™ e h ú Â v n z n z ã T Y $ Å ¬ ¬ Ü Ì Î A Ü ‘ ˆ J

2101 407 804 1780 124

v™taŠ š vš

976 1332 2695

Q všQ

2190 2229 2229

v›‘u ›š v›

2879 26 26

×û

1669 2141 280 1196 2273 2060 196 2879 196 2879 134 464 738 2993 531 1538 2208 507 748 2458 2012 2456 544 851 2475

[ ] y ˆ r | $ í f * * ¬ Œ * + ‡ ¤ g ¢ £ ’ ü ü { | } ‚ ƒ „ … † ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ ‘ ‘ “

274 2299 1922 2997 1568 1921 2736 2418 2419 2467 2467 1538 1923 723 1294 724 2954 2232 2586 2381 1337 1911 2262 1203 1205 1202 722 2902 406 1873 2556 2301 2327 1213 1414 1229 1204 1204 1871


470

Øû

INDEX

” • – ˜ ™ š þ æ î { | ‡ › œ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ‡ î H ¸ ©

1912 726 1413 163 783 1473 62 2522 2658 1203 1205 724 2244 1974 1909 1872 2586 2381 1747 64 2658 2359 2998 2969

y_ y

Ú

J a b Õ Â Ã Û î … ä F

161 165 2972 12 2520 2647 2495 1300 2964 131 2891

Û

¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ − ° ± ² ³ ´ µ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á 0 Š Ö ¾ ç h H É { Ä Å Æ Ç É

1511 1218 527 2236 883 1635 1638 649 805 2897 447 636 1688

nš yJn yJ˜T yN Nš yN Nš yQN yR^ yR‹ yQ™

802 1512 904 2659

yS

2032 1756 807

Ú´ Jš ySJ

2724 1238 1501 1632 1887

ySRNš ‰š yS^‰ U yU

444 2196 2218 2346 2963 2579 2728 2912 2117 1183 1915 889 2519 2912

J yUJ yX Wš yW yY y[

3: READINGS

Ê Ë Ì ¡ È b Í Î ƒ j X { M @ w Þ Ï Ð Ð B t µ V ; … » Ð û = › c R Ú Ó È Ñ … Ò +

2583 548 678 2241 2502 914 2485 2608 1404 1318 504 2117 119 2440 3005 576 1695 2098 2098 1737 1270 731 2689 1374 1232 2848 2550 2429 1931 2244 1106 2100 1951 2759 1831 2047 1232 1716 204


INDEX

471

3: READINGS

y] V y[V y[Z y[^

^J y[^ U y]‰aU y^ y_ y^P y^’U y_™ ‹ ya‹ Q ydQ ‹ yd‹ yg yfJ ` yf` yg™ ÚÌ

ÛÌ ykT yk_ yk_[š ylŒ yn™

î ¡ Ó æ æ † © ¡ ³ ± ¡ Ÿ Ô ˆ Õ è ò ¸ Ë O õ ™ Â Û K Ù ³ Ï × Ø Ù Ú P & æ J Æ â !

1214

yo

2241 2461 2243 2911 534

J ypJ yoN ^J yo^

2236 2241 1852

k yok

1016 2241 2745

yoŠ

1517 2469

yo“

2464 2746 2510 825 2862

™ yo™ yq yqf š ytš

775 844 2258

yuN yuS

295 389 1149 77

yuo yy S yzS

636 1695 635

U yzU y‰

2570 943 2420

776 1272 547

Œš yŒ y‘

216 2184

Úë·

2741 2441

Ûë·

^ s _ µ $ f 1 à s t Æ † ¹ » ¹ › Œ î è é m Û … s ¾ ‘ ú ú E ² E Ü Ý ¸ Þ 6 ß P R

951 1 988 1431 1928

“` y“ Úí« Ûí« Úï«

945 160 1729 1 457 699 437 2580 2213 338 522 2085 1300 2251 2266

z–L Ûï«

1020 2495 2964 91 2346 481 1850 1850 1882 2426 1625 849

Úï· y˜

1950 904 2661 2672 38 199 37

U y˜U

W ƒ â à O á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê 5 o ¿ ñ ä ë ì í î ï ð Û r Ú ñ Ú r # + ˆ ° û } 1

1749 1404 2876 2720 652 1547 2876 1608 131 1607 2911 1606 1546 1487 2734 2428 1331 1486 2763 244 2239 670 1682 899 234 2765 2223 1484 2785 2763 2420 1484 2412 332 1622 805 1925 1085 1634


472

Wš y˜W U y˜ŒU yš

š yšRNš

y› yœ

J yœJ

L yœL Rš yœR yœ^ ‹ yœ‹

Œš yœŒ

INDEX

Ç ˆ 0 ø d ò ó ü à ê ô œ ? ] e u ‚ c Ò b e ] u u N ÷ ï w B ˆ ] e u ‚ N Ò ³ e b

1971 1622

Úû

2774 1648 1075 2404 2696 1911 2647 2275

Ûû

2827 2040 2852 2212

¬ õ ö ø ù ú û ü m ú þ ! ü “

740 23 2529 1332 2305 782 511 373 2551 782 459 1032 373 991

1234 2311

Þ

|_

2662 1145 1716 739 1234 2212 2282 2311 47 226 2287 3005 667 2301 2212 1234 2311 2662 47 32 2286 1234 739

| Ý

† Þ ß # $ % & ( ) + , / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2556 1838 2332 1217 1000 2189 838 1151 193 405 1002 623 839

ݨ2Рݫ

1883 2333 1786 730 1274 1001 1023 1992

Þ« |N

3: READINGS

9 : ; = ? @ A Ÿ ¡ £ B Ü K ¢ š B C b E F G H ´ # B Ÿ [ Þ ` c I J K & @ ) Ð î r

2361 1787 63 378 386 2928 1303 371 2097 2730 2930 2456 524 1840 2975 989 2270 377 1774 2378 2401 1845 1573 1217 2930 371 1775 1838 2831 2953 156 2471 524 838 2928 193 2142 1111 2628


INDEX

473

3: READINGS

Nš |N

J |QJ |S |S¥ U |U

Ý·

|U„ ‹ |U‹ ˜‹ |U˜ ›š |U› |Uœ |UœL Wš |W

|[

Rš |[R V |[V

1 † £ L M 2 / r L a N O P Q R S T U V è æ L ã ã Œ Ï ð — n 5 ¾ _ r ¨ Û Z ê Z ¥

811 502 2381

|^ |_ ` |`

1328 2370 2101

|`‰ V |bV

2254 467 2392

bš |b |f

1197 962 89

|g

875 407 1399 1090 464 465 1611 2731

}f z |ffz

2911 1588 1719

k |fk

1719 1923 1006

|h

2883 2837 694 2679 1251 2432

}h ÝÌ

1366 2006 1078 1321

ÞÌ

2214 1321 2856

|n J |oJ

Þ n d N ù Õ è N ™ T Ì M Š ç 6 ˆ 5 6 ² ç X P Ì Î X â W Å Y Ä † Y Z [ $ [ ] Ù °

1464 1210

|oYœ |q

2909 962 2627 2597

|qwf |t

1302 962 2388 697 2

‰Nš |‰ |Š

212 1213 1606 1001 2926

‹ |‹

2873 1621 538 1815 1168

|‘o “` |“ |• š |š

875 2

J |šJ

355 1168 1372 2966

šL |š L |šL

2325 903 2602 2556 738 1237 964 2993 964 1050 943 120

Nš |šN ` |š` ›š |› Ýû

v ^ J $ ì J $ ‹ 9 r k G t – Ï r ) à 1 K œ F ò Ç û F f g ] ] ò 6 _ ` a b c d e

828 2825 1868 1874 2675 1868 1874 1870 2068 1287 1725 1826 692 327 1567 1287 1286 2839 811 427 1308 2011 16 35 333 2011 565 662 2010 2010 16 1813 781 2174 1197 1198 1199 2246 2537


474

Þû

INDEX

f g h i j _ k l

565 920 2653 1358 2028 781 1725

‹ ƒY‹ ^ „^ mš ƒgm àÌ

1626

áÌ

ƒ_ ƒ „ ƒJ à©

á© â2À à´

Ö Œ H p m n o p q r s t u v w x † Š Û ³ ¿ í ! y V z {

2218 284 1845 1056

ƒjkJ „r ƒz ƒ“

1020 1030 1331 1056 1040

ƒ˜ ƒ™ š ƒ™Ugš š ƒš

1484 1041 1021 1785

àû

2358 1623 1310 2633 2802 2223 2678 1486 1682 1032 919 1447 60 2117

áû

| } ‚ í = ½ „ × ƒ „ … × Ý } í Ö Ñ † â « ™ ç ‚ • ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ ‘ ’ Ô “ ” – t —

3: READINGS

1500 1691

†_

2588 33 93

1312 2927 3000

ã

90 2927 2390 3000 2617 1355 519 492 754 2633 1372 2422 1360

ä

366 1914 376 1823 1745 1212 2645 1825 284 725 1824 2806 991 1975 742 2752 2783

ã«

„ ¤ J ª Þ ˜ ™ š › œ Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ 5 Ÿ * ¥ ¦ § © ª « ¬ v w ¨ ] + ù I − ° ± ²

406 909 161 1837 1838 997 1839 2975 2918 1836 371 2097 1840 2730 1274 1017 2552 861 231 633 232 101 949 2957 229 360 2204 2105 2417 202 156 979 1574 530 2181


INDEX

ä«

475

3: READINGS

³ ´ µ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ ™ ä ² Ç Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö

1507 1573 257 1562 2977 774 2234 645 2265 496 490 19 751 533 2549 532 1563 531 493 2377 2375 2687 998 495 1443 1848 2768 1480 2142

†LS š †L‹š Nš †N †P

2829 2041

†Q

2385 2181 2377 1215 485 1015 478 492

˜Q †R˜ ã· ä·

× Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á â ã ä å æ è x G + ¹ ] * Ÿ ƒ ‡ w é ê ð ¬ ‘ µ ë ì í î ï ð

491 408 596 618 1078 1801

Wš ‡W

489 1759 1575 18 1357 494 1719 1760 2733 1424 1302 487 2089 2435 2580 2961

†Y ‡Y š †Yš zš †Yœz †[S †^ ^J †^ š †_š ` †` J †dJ [›š †g[ †fš äÇû ãÌ äÌ

2552 1017 2384 2850

äË `š †j`

816 2170 2792 207 961 111 1469 445 1794 2103

†p †oT †oW †oWV[ ` †pY` †o™ p †o¥p †t †uP

175 1793 207

Q †uQ š †|š

ñ ò ó … ‡ ¾ = ^ í * 4 Â « ò ù ø ú î ¢ ô n õ ö Ö Ö ò ð Ý 8 [ ¬ ‰ ‘ ÷ ¿ Ý Þ B 5

329 1514 2612 195 15 2277 2439 1225 33 1244 2670 2790 1556 792 2616 1648 1363 2658 518 2754 1705 2858 707 492 492 792 2984 894 1965 964 2957 1045 1204 2871 1288 162 2546 2153 2217


476 › †‰› †‹˜ Œš †Œ

†˜ †™ š †š ›š †› †œ zš †œz ‡` †œ‡ ãû

äû

INDEX

Ó Þ Ê † h ç g … ª ø b } ¾ ù Ó n n ƒ ú û ü ‚ õ ˜ þ ! ¤

1939 2546 998 2794 843 796 2711 181 2306 1062 1061 1710 2277 410 485 365 365 2902 1196 211 1911 722 23 163 62 1449 2954

‰_ ‰

æ

O ‡ +  # $ % &

75 15 1978 1620 639 594 2022 593

^ E ( ) * + , L y U L ‰JqL ¬ Ì š ‰Jš ¤ Z æ©ó / L ‰L E ‰N 2 ‰RS ” ` ‰Q` Û bš ‰Qb Û è L ‰QqL Ì Rš ‰R ( ‰S ñ Á U ñ 0 ˜¡^J i ‰T˜ ›š ‰T› i U ‰U ñ ^ Á ü æ· 1 2 ‰V[ M ‰U˜ 3 ‰Vœ 4 ‰J æ©

2348

Wš ‰W

1774 179 220 2445 332

Xš ‰X ‰Z ‰ZYœ ‰Yo

458 2970 919 2350 2738 80 2715 1720 2950

r ‰Yor

1774 290 1912

‰Y‘ ‰[

1003 1003 1917 80 1172 1207 2395

‰[S ‰[Z r ‰[r

1503 329 2492

š ‰[š

1358 1358 1207 2271

J ‰_qJ _š ‰_

2395 2262 409 233

¡š ‰_¡ ‰`

2084 2472 2816

‰`

3: READINGS

; 2 ( § b { ¼ V e µ = O − ( µ e ( { â Ä 5 e 5 Ü ñ µ ç § ° Ú 2 Ï P B H Ê † © 6

63 331 1172 1393 602 765 363 2920 2710 2290 969 75 2279 1097 2290 2710 2383 765 2892 25 2489 2710 2489 2296 607 731 2865 1209 2433 852 2169 450 562 1185 1275 1881 502 42 2814


INDEX

477

3: READINGS

a ‰a J ‰aJ ^J ‰a^ cš ‰c ‰f

g ‰g V ‰fV U ‰ffU ‰g˜ ‰h ‰k k ‰k æÌ

U ‰jfU L`š ‰joL ™ ‰k™ ‰k™Zo š ‰kš ¡š ‰k¡ ‰n ‰o ‰p L ‰oL L ‰pL ‰qY

å Ø ú # Ï % Ö 9 : ˜ f J + s † š ‰ Ç m Å 7 ; = ? ^ 6 õ ø ú © ú ø ! @ í p ! Î Q

248 769 782 1730 450 2454 2914 2127 696 2094

} ‰q} ›š ‰sQ› U ‰tU š ‰tš ^J ‰}^ ‰‡œ^ ‰‰ Nš ‰ŠN ‰Œ š ‰‘š

2932 216 2744 817

‰•

2556 890 92 785 1718

‰•aŠ ‰•Š L ‰—L ‰™

879 1165 644 217

‰š J ‰šJ

218 2348 263

‰›

187 1102 2992

‰œ ‰œLp

381 2992 1102

™ ‰¡™ š ‰¡š

2663 2421 69 749 2663 614 1467

æû

¿ o À − ± å A Í q , f ! Å Ê B Ô A i œ y × K Ò K : v d C ª û : n q § ‡ E F G H

R © ¸

324 1972 650

2100 2969 2998

979 2581

Š_

1862 2125 452

Š

1440 2391 700 186 1646 2583

ç

1880 2864 2525 924 2787 2532 2487 44

Nš ŠN ŠP U ŠRU

1811 44 582 2611 1489 2894 294

ŠQp ŠS ŠT ŠT¡

511 317 586 2886 2811 64

ŠY ŠYo ŠYou™

829 1169 830 2359

š ŠZ‘š Š[P Š[S

× X L M X O I J K ¡ Ë Æ Ø J ç $ C Ý Ð ù “ ’ Ú — ù B ¨ ä › A e N

1572 1248 2042 2643 3 2986 219 216 2023 2241 548 889 57 2285 2560 594 2595 2559 435 1654 78 1263 2312 157 2305 2930 1439 342 1667 2012 671 1115


478 Š[[T J Š_QJ Œ Š_Œ Ša ŠaLŠ ˜ ŠaQ˜ Šb

Še f` Šf ` Šg` ˜ Šg˜ hš Šh

›š Šg›

Šh

U ŠhzU Šhš Šk çÌ

ŠkT

V ŠkV

INDEX

h 1 ] v … þ À ü ™ š w • F − Í ‡ x Í G , ( ‡ , ? Š − # l ‚ X F X O P ! I Ä = ”

1518 1442 1721 130 2563 148 36 588 1839 2975 1819 2297 1169 2257 2336 2298 487 2336 830 1454 72 2298 1454 1661 277 1282 2412 1821 278 761 1169 3 775 776 2533 1778 895 378 81

X Þ z ‚ k Šq „ Šq^Z ö Šqo v Q ŠqŠ Ç Šq‘o è J ŠrUJ U Št N · ¸ … Šu R š Šuš × $ © S ŠŠ ¿ J ŠŒ—J I Š“ · çë· T Š“Y @ Ù s “Q h Š“z“ çï« U d g e ä f ä çò V çòé2Ðó V š Šš 3 k Šjk Œš ŠoŒ Šp™

3 598 2863 2588 1371 449 1879

çû

1800

3: READINGS

? Ø œ W 2 1 W X

572 57 1093 1724 1453 855 1834 1835

2309 1613

‹_

142 2020 2978

è

1562 2977 2228 2354 1572 2609 1427 2607 818

QL ‹Q

2109 1033 1856 1846 312 2887

Nš ‹QN ‹Q^ ‹T ‹TY U ‹U

1907 123 2841

Jš ‹UJ

20 112 2385 1400 244

‹UX ‹Uœ ‹Y

2948 2948 638

J ‹ZJ

ä Y Z [ ] ^ _ ` b T Á ª Ë _ t T M a ³ S N u Ÿ b ì Q µ

1760 1227 305 1775 2961 1225 1228 2831 377 183 1726 1702 1184 1533 2752 183 2145 2474 1507 1432 2707 2915 2874 395 2910 2373 1431


INDEX

‹YL š ‹[‡š ‹^ ‹ ‹^w‹ œ ‹^œ ‹^œ

‹` ^J ‹aQ^ } ‹`} ‹`Œ ‹g ‹h ‹k k ‹jk ‰_J ‹k‰ ‹kŠ ^J ‹q^ ‹t

‹˜

Rš ‹˜R ‹˜[S ‹˜` ‹› ›š ‹› ‹œ

479

3: READINGS

T ] g 8 â § = Ç % Ê º Þ c ÷ ò — @ ò Â ò ò Ð ! ô Š [ ; ( ª † Ë s ¥ ˜ % s s % Ñ

183 2961

Œ_

517 2800 834

Œ

2397 2408 1193 1900 1580 1351 1340

` ŒH¡` ŒJ é©

1471 1530 300 2783 948 1514 6 1514 1514 1993 138 1491 455 505

ŒQW ‹ ŒV‹ ŒU˜ š ŒVš

1100 2460 208 2556 2180 1163 2856 1375

Œ^ ` Œ`

1900 1163 1163

Œ`

1900 754

^J Œa˜^

e Q ‡ œ § ë l d e f g h i j k C Å ¿ ² ˆ | … ™ q “ Q ø : š ª ³ ‚ m § £

1905

éÌ š Œoš ŒwN éû

1467 15 98 563

` n È Ç o p q s t

126 365 1830 2377 1972 2512 1367 1892 2752

1889 2201

‘_

2841 112 1400

20 1450 924

ê

275 1942 2843 2842

ê«

2709 2622 612 486 285 2933 2886 1871 318 1046

W ‘LW Wš ‘LW

2781 1473

` ‘L`

86 2678 887 2551

nš ‘Ln ‘N Nš ‘N

563 1723

‘Q[

á W y v w ª * x y z { | } ‚ ƒ Ó „ Ü „ M } ¤ Ç ê Ç d

800 1926 2035 229 360 101 2552 487 2872 1913 1456 486 1373 1914 2384 485 2118 708 2118 1117 1085 2715 2377 510 2377 1684


480 ê·

š ‘Vš ^Uv ‘^ ‘`d Nš ‘gN ‘h êÉ Jš ‘hJ k ‘k êÌ m ‘jm ‘ ‘jo‘ ˜ ‘jx˜ } ‘mHd} ‘o

‘oJ lU ‘ol Œš ‘oŒ

š ‘pš ‘u

INDEX

… † ‡ ™ ñ ò õ ø á ” m Š ‰ ä Ú ³ ] P è ‹ é O ´ _ â K û ã ¥ Ö _ _ ¼ Ò A 7 Œ é

195 240 15 2293

‘uJŠ ‘Š ‘‘

329 1514 844 223 800 2775 1718 2802

“` ‘“ ` ‘—P` ‘˜J L ‘˜L ˜` ‘˜ ‘™

1049 1181 1182 660

š ‘š

1050 1028 821

›š ‘›

2087

] ù ‘ % Y ß ê æ ’ ’ º I 8 ö ! ¿ µ º º ¿

1050

™ T Å ™ “ ” • – k l —

1261

1732 2651 2454 236 38 510 987 2737 2737 1068 197 2500 2529 186 2849 1457 1068

‘œ

2558 1767 59 1532

J ‘œJ ‘œ‘œ êû

211 134 473 1137 1767 1767

‘¥Œ

934

“Jo “Jw “Qf

1068 2849

46 2567

ì

697

^J “Q‰^ “Q˜ U “U

2462 1261 1617 2775 1727 1616

ì·

1725 1626 1027

“_

32 1365 1165 1081 1256

% é ú

1058 2704 2636

“V˜ Wš “W ^J “[^

3: READINGS

¡ ¢ è k ú œ B ï ˜ ™ š › œ Ÿ Ô ¿ ` I J Å 8 Ÿ Ð ó 4 q e ’ É £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ Ê ª Ï ^

2241 1220 2731 8 788 2680 541 2979 2094 2137 1037 2334 2680 1596 2524 2538 84 1478 2980 2163 1637 1222 2202 2544 2195 2545 2537 2535 1689 1415 884 1362 1736 1073 1285 1881 2508 1200 1051


INDEX

481

3: READINGS

“^ “^S L “^qL “^œ “`

J “`J

“`^

‹ “`‹ ˜Q “`˜ aš “`¥a bš “b “k “jY k “jk “p L “oL

š “pš “qT “r “} š “}š ›š “}›

¸ Ô ä ï ç Õ º © H ^ Ê d ( â © 5 Õ © ³ / © n G G k f / Ö ¤ à f ª ß š « & 2 & s

993 2524

“‰ “‰J

1841 1479 1092

“‰o “Š

2283 2960

‹ “‹

2621 190 1051

Œš “Œ

1570 1159

“™

2735 834 2621

š “š ˜QJ “¡˜

2888 2283

˜V “¡˜

[ í Õ È M C Œ Õ í  C i ¬ Ü ] É É

768 1682 1686 2106 2777 2843 370 1686 1682 1497 2937 2516 2767 1773 1226 470 897

2621 965

•_

2442 2621 2577 702

• î

702 8 995 1083 2128 1004 316 995 1421

î©

2473 456 2403

•L

806 331 806 1041

î«

_ − ° ± ² ³ ´ · Æ Ê Z k µ º Ï h © Ã

546 628 2433 1107 2037 352 289 2126 1105 1047 2276

•N •Q ‹ •R‹ •S

1772 556 1351 109 2003 1427 2493

U •U

‹ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ä Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î û : “ X Ã û » Ë à î ‘ ¿ î ð ¦ ï

2087 2126 993 1407 704 2210 1380 958 616 2263 79 2486 2284 1438 1105 2599 793 916 1047 2180 1847 743 1044 333 696 78 3002 2493 333 592 2862 1143 1214 873 1132 1214 880 881 441


482

•X [}š •[ •a `š •` š •aš

Q •fQ

tš •gt •z •Š •Œ ˜V •˜ J •šJ ` •š`

‹ •š‹ ›š •›

INDEX

L r Ü Á Ü & 7 « u $ Ì È W … ¸ ù Z Ü 7 Ñ » ¢ Ù ä H Ü

2970 1967 2486 1967 1528 1930 2422 2311 2609 1443 793 913 659 1231 1878 305 1967 1952 569 2210 2434 790 1744 2242 1967

—_ —

ð

› v š Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ

—J

1886

28 4 1037 1593 1657 1246 1939 2860 1595

L —L ð«

´ 3 d Ÿ : – ? ˜ e } » Ü Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ™

189 1035 1468 320 970 641 2852 2719 2710 1435 1605 2237 2128 1378 2078

U —L“U U —U

790 1182

ð·

664 1967 1387 576 2473 933 549 791

—Y

2547 1181

—Y^‰

1325 547 2880 228

` —Z` ›š —Z› —^

2362 1604 1968 1409 2418 1300 1479 2534

—^Š

3: READINGS

ó _ ¬ Y ¹ À Â H Â ú ¸ Ü ¬ 4 ° ô ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ( ô e î ô ë ë 5 Q { ã Æ 6 ? Ÿ 5

2553 2572 2208 1418 1407 2566 2284 2685 2790 2907 2193 2237 2830 1135 104 2004 2984 1700 792 2079 789 575 1798 2460 1751 1645 1906 2194 1245 1245 2411 1161 765 1755 1105 2364 2852 320 2888


INDEX

483

3: READINGS

bš —b PL —dP —k —p ‹ —p‹ } —} š —ŠRNš ‹ —‹ —Œ —‘T —™ š —š

—œJ } —œY}

” Ä ó Ü î ± Ò Æ Ä ? ˜ b Y z Ú v ÷ + ÷ ó ò M 6 Æ œ A È é ƒ b é š S Í Y œ Ì ] ‰

198 25 2008 2603 1214 2897

^J —œ^ —œa

1716 1105

J —¡J

2602 2852

—¥

5 g ? ) Š © ‡ ú “ v

2888 868

™_

2852 570 1783

ò

2969 64 1236 1403 4

2719 192

˜_

2211 398 923

ñ

4 2330 2300

ñ©

2330 1485 1042 2380 2940 345

ñ·

348 542 2375 2266 583 192 2266 1037 971 669 2211 2076 619 1445 2001

ñû

ø ù ú œ û þ ! ˆ Ä Á # $ % & q ( ) * + , / 0 1

1342 2691 1124 1666 1884 1665 425 1087 2935 1735 2302 1350

ò´ ò· òÉ òÌ

299 1433 2545 72

òë·

1422 777 1628 1454 2371 2363 855

òí«

¡ G û / 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; = ? | m j @ A k A B C F E ” Å ª G H I J K

2951 176 2338 2950 906 693 1057 2511 907 265 2048 1687 399 2973 173 1492 2349 178 858 1513 874 1609 874 1737 431 293 2247 213 939 1421 2143 764 2324 2557 1423


484

òï

òï«

INDEX

L M N O P w C Q R S T ¨ C Ô Ô U V W X Y Z [ ] ^ _ ` a b c d e f g h i … † ‡ ‘

763 922 1561 536 2981 2555

òï·

431 2121

òû

1996 1048 1991 24 2668 172 1517 97 2920 1707 1168 2136 1708

! ’ | E a k j l m n o p q r s t u v Š Î /

2225 2535 1401 2247 2474 1371 858 1821 178 196 2310 2052 2554 854 1822 1311 2054 2053 1406 2138 2656

ô´

1178 2299

š_

313

ôÌ

1940 1709

ó

2582 2610 926 1468

ó©

2710 2419 177 1518

Ý w H J x y z { «

2221 2555 764 2557 1734 1082 1364 931 2294

1405 2228

›_

2278 2568 1791

ô©

¦

2697

ôû

3: READINGS

C Œ | } ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ ‘ ’ “ J Ä y ” • – — ˜ ™ à š › œ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ §

2595 1081 1401 2112 972 1404 866 2228 2278 2568 1087 2382 1406 2036 1402 1791 2002 1403 2285 2935 1082 213 376 812 862 814 813 1599 1601 1748 2051 2542 2630 1343 2676 2360 287 2030


INDEX

485

3: READINGS

Ä Å Æ @ k Ç

œ_ õ

õ«

õ·

6 5 M ¨ ª « ¬ − ° Y á ± Q c ° ± ³ ´ µ · ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Ý ™ º Ä Â Ã

2364 2833

õû

2602 2463 1144 1513 1371 1820

2370 24

¡_

2508 1080 2738

¡

1282 1283 2328 2810

÷

2866 2121 926 1283 860 1852 2558

֩

1469 930 1470 1068 2213

¡R J ¡QJ

2339 2638 1251 2983 2688

Q` ¡Q k ¡Qk Qš ¡Q ›š ¡Q›

1851 537 2258 2304

¡S Nš ¡S‰N ¡U

1999 6 2839

÷·

7 s a 0 g ! % È É Ê £ i Ë Ì Í a ø M Z – _ ƒ ¼ Í – Z Â Ï Î

17 1822 640 836 1323 2501 2913 2106 897 344 2693 2427 2862 80 2336 640 223 896 1237 742 781 90 2714 870 742 1237 2284 200 614

E § _ Œ ™ Õ ¡] Œ % Z © ¡]PT } o ¡]o Ç J ¡]¡J L ó ¡^ Ð Q ¡aQ / Qr ¡aQ î L ¡a˜L ú ˜ ¡^J ˜ ¡a˜¡ ¡` ˜ ¡a˜¡ ›š ¡`› Ù ¡f p q ¡fU^ • ¡f^ • ` ¡f` 9 ¡gh } ¡f™ Ñ š ¡fš 9 Ñ Ò o ¡ ‹ Í ¡r Ó ¡z Ô ^J ¡z^ Ô ¡W Wš ¡W

2091 1073 781 1229 783 478 712 1792 2122 421 2112 2005 1291 167 2834 2116 681 604 163 163 163 596 2512 1367 902 902 1195 288 2985 1195 2985 32 2484 2241 1870 372 2824 2721 2721


486 zš ¡z U ¡ŒU ¡˜ L ¡˜L ¡˜z ¡˜„

INDEX

Ô ò Õ { Ù Ö ‡

2721 1042 2400 892 938 2405 436

² Ë 6 Ë 1 à J Á ¡šR^YJ ¡˜¡ ¡™ ¡™| š ¡š ¡š

2622

¡›

1553 1001 1553 1810 1490 2337

÷û

3: READINGS

a 7 ¡ × Ø Ù Ú

640 17 2027 2487 1749 2591 1418


INDEX 4

PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS Index Four includes all the primitive elements of volumes I and III, escept for elements originally introduced as kanji in their own right. References are to the volume and page number where the element was ³rst introduced.

1_ ! # $ % & ´

I.26 I.26 I.42 I.264 I.402 I.43

2_ ( ) * + , / 0 1 2 3

I.31 I.33 I.34 I.34 I.34 I.34 I.35 I.44 I.44 I.46

4 5 6 ‚ F 7 ƒ ™ E 9 : ; = ? @ A B C D E “ „ Š

Z

I.54

3_

I.77 I.102 I.120 I.121 I.152 I.154 I.162 I.212 I.220 I.253 I.287 I.298 I.300 I.301 I.339 I.343 I.364 I.373 I.379 I.327 I.324 I.400

G d I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y

I.43 I.54 I.61 I.61 I.61 I.79 I.90 I.97 I.98 I.103 I.114 I.117 I.134

I.205 I.209

[ ] ^ _ ` a b c d e f g h i H

I.210 I.221 I.241 I.268 I.283 I.309 I.321 I.328 I.343 I.353 I.367 I.377 I.398 I.411 I.414

I.145 I.149

4_

I.179 I.194 I.196 I.197

k l

I.52 I.71


488

m o p q r s t v w x y z { | } 2 Ò $ % ˆ â R ¦ É 4 W « ô _ Ñ í È p

INDEX

I.82

u

III.22

I.122

5_

I.128 I.135 I.135 I.147 I.152 I.173 I.197 I.209 I.214 I.218 I.223 I.231 I.262 I.268 I.273 I.284 I.284 I.286 I.290 I.303 I.314 I.329 I.340 I.347 I.351 I.351 I.365 I.380 I.383 I.412 III.20

” ã Î ) Ü • ; æ − á ’ û * Û I Ë Â ¼ è ò < ¡ Æ ß ˜ S Z õ

I.19 I.306 I.328 I.122

D 8 œ Ä / ¨ & :

I.355 I.369 I.372 I.386 I.395 I.397

4: PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

0 1 Ã ª n Í

I.382 I.387 I.419 I.424 I.429 I.432

I.412

7_

I.413

I.127

6_

I.137 I.143 I.146 I.147 I.151 I.151 I.183 I.185 I.216 I.228 I.244 I.248 I.282 I.292 I.299 I.299 I.375 I.327 I.334 I.337 I.343 I.345 I.352

G Å Ÿ B – 7 # § Ì ¼ ¤ ‹

I.124

I.267

F b ¿ ? ß Õ C ü

I.286

I.128 I.128 I.136 I.138 I.139 I.147 I.186 I.219 I.241 I.250

9 ² @ ö 6 , N Y A U ³ O ¢

I.264

I.294 I.304 I.305 I.334 I.336 I.352 I.359

I.171 I.184 I.188 I.218 I.233 I.291 I.307 I.398 I.410 I.413 I.421 I.426 III.18

8_ Ê 5 ! © é · š

I.32 I.62 I.153 I.160 I.166 I.188 I.229


INDEX

I.266

µ

I.285

Ø

I.293

Ç Ý Q

I.336 I.370 I.385 I.389

o

III.20

ñ ( … å L H £ ù {

9_ ï ÷

489

4: PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

I.48 I.117

I.163 I.186 I.308 I.332 I.341 I.417 I.418

I.191

I.354

I.394 III.16

Á

III.21

I.155 I.168

11 _ = ¸ Þ

I.234

12 _

I.365

Ð

III.22

I.92

T

I.354

I.420

10 _ ê

à Ù ¾ ä ° Ï W

I.376

13 _

I.157 I.168 I.191

ë +

I.341 I.346


PART TWO

STROKES KEYWORD

§

[BOLD TYPE REFERS TO KEYWORD, ITALICS TO PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS]

EXPLANATORY NOTE

KANJI

VOLUME AND FRAME NUMBER

CROSS-REFERENCE TO

The key word here is meant to specify the anatomical neck, to distinguish it from the broader uses of the character / (I.70).

spool … head. [14]

R-2523

2796. neck and throat

PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS

FRAME NR.

[C’TD. FROM VOL. I]

FRAME NUMBER

NUMBER OF

490 LAYOUT OF FRAMES FOR PART ONE


2624

{ R-

[CT’D. FROM VOL. II]

FRAME NUMBER

KANJI

ë à·

rœ AND MEANING [ALL KUN-YOMI ARE GIVEN IN HIRAGANA]

➂ ➚ UNDER SIGNAL PRIMITIVE INDICATES PRIMARY READING TO THE RIGHT

III

① R-# UNDER SIGNAL PRIMITIVE INDICATES FRAME IN VOL. II ② ➔UNDER SIGNAL PRIMITIVE INDICATES SIGNAL PRIMITIVE INCLUDED AS KANJI IN VOL.

lB AND MEANING

be biased against

R yQ‹

{‹

SAMPLE

prejudice

à´¹û

2117

GIVEN IN KATAKANA]

à´

R-853

R-852

R-851

PART ONE FRAME NR.

3œ [ALL ON-YOMI ARE

3œ AND KANJI FROM VOL. II [NUMBER OF VOL. II FRAME BELOW]

¿

SECONDARY

}

|

SIGNAL PRIMITIVE AND ITS PRIMARY

3œ OF THE SIGNAL PRIMITIVE

KANJI FROM VOL. II THAT HAVE THE PRIMARY

LAYOUT OF FRAMES FOR PART TWO

491

Remembering Kanji II  

r e m e m b e r i n g t h e k a n j i i i Introduction 2 introduction introduction 3 exemplary compound pronunciation of compound meaning of...

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