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* TEL AVIV AKTIV A public call for Open Processes and Temporary Use in the city of Tel Aviv - Jaffa, Israel.

Master’s Thesis by Anne Groß

Architektur.Studium.Generale, BTU Cottbus + Davi Azrieli School of Architecture, TAU V. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dagmar Jäger + Prof. Ayala Ronel

summer term 2012

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<h2>Open-Source Urbanismus</h2>

<p class=“article-detail-author“> on V <a href=“/home/archiv/autor/46,678,1,0.html“>studio urban catalyst</a>

</p>

<div class=“mod mod-text“> Vom Inselurbanismus zur Urbanit&auml;t der Zwischenr&auml;ume<!-- <br /> --> </div> <div class=“mod mod-text“>

<p> <!-- (image) --><!-- <br /> --><!-- <br /> --><!-- (image) --><!-- <br /> --></p><p><!-- <br /> -->Ehemalige Industrieareale, aufgegebene Bahnfl&auml;chen und Flugh&auml;fen, Baul&uuml;cken, ungenutzte Gewerbegebiete, leer stehende Wohnquartiere und &ouml;ffentliche Einrichtungen. &Uuml;ber Jahre und Jahrzehnte stehen in St&auml;dten Geb&auml;ude leer, fallen gro&szlig;e Fl&auml;chen brach. Sie bilden scheinbar funktionslose Zonen aus, die sich in einem &Uuml;bergangsstadium zwischen aufgegebener Nutzung und neuer Planung befinden. Klassische Stadtplanung und marktwirtschaftliche Verwertung versagen an diesen Orten. Planungs&auml;mter und Eigent&uuml;mer hoffen verzweifelt auf Investoren, dabei besitzen diese Areale oft ein wichtiges urbanes Potenzial: Ungeplant entfalten sich in diesen marginalisierten Zonen neue Aktivit&auml;ten. Abseits herk&ouml;mmlicher gesellschaftlicher Regeln entwickelt sich hier eine enorme Vielfalt an tempor&auml;ren Nutzungen: von Gem&uuml;seanbau, Tierhaltung, Freizeit und Sport &uuml;ber soziale Initiativen und Dienstleistungen, Alternativ-, Jugend- und Popkultur, Kunst- und Musikszene, Nightlife bis hin zu Migranten&ouml;konomien, Handel und Gewerbe, Erfindern und Start-up-Unternehmern.<!-- <br /> -->Obgleich sie fast ohne Geldmittel auskommen, sind sie zentrale Standorte f&uuml;r die Kulturproduktion der jeweiligen Stadt.<!-- <br /> -->Ob Kunst- oder Clubszene in Berlin, die &sbquo;Kabelfactory&lsquo; oder das &sbquo;Magazinii&lsquo; in Helsinki, der &sbquo;Kulturpark Ost in M&uuml;nchen&lsquo;, das &sbquo;KDAG-Gel&auml;nde&lsquo; oder das &sbquo;Flex&lsquo; in Wien &ndash; sp&auml;testens der Blick in einen Reisef&uuml;hrer offenbart, dass diese Orte f&uuml;r die Urbanit&auml;t einer Stadt oft eine &auml;hnlich wichtige Rolle spielen wie klassische Kulturinstitutionen. In ihrem EU-Forschungsprojekt &bdquo;Tempor&auml;re Nutzungen&ldquo;, deren Ergebnisse demn&auml;chst in einer Publikation vorgestellt werden, hat Urban Catalyst das Potenzial solcher Aktivit&auml;ten und deren Beitrag zur Urbanit&auml;t eines Standortes untersucht und damit die zeitliche Dimension von Planung wieder in die Debatte eingef&uuml;hrt.<br / </div>


A3 *TEL AVIV AKTIV is an open source document. Mainly all images belong to the author and are free for public use. This document is created in A3 but feel free to print A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 colour, black+white ... or use it digital as presentations... It is made to be USED as a guide and it is open to be extended in any way.


* TEL AVIV AKTIV Content

*

PREFACE Cultural Transfer Berlin - Tel Aviv *BERLIN AKTIV - Cultural Background

4 5

CHAPTER 1 - THEORY

MAY I INTRODUCE: 1 Atlas 9 Typologies 9 Colonies

HOW DOES IT LOOK LIKE?

OPEN SOURCE HOW DOES IT WORK? IDEA - What is going to be achieved?

10 11 12 20 30

CHAPTER 2 - 9 SOURCES

3

*OLD + NEW CENTRAL BUS STATION_Neve Sha’anan Social conflicts and community work: The Garden Library - a case study

34

*ATARIM SQUARE_Beach front

44

*DIZENGOFF SQUARE_White City

59

*’CENTRAL PARK’_Nahalat Binyamin

70

*SHUK HA’ALIYA_Florentin

86

*TEL AVIV SOUTH_Railway Station

100

*SUNHOTEL_Bat Yam

112

*DOLPHINARIUM_Menashiya Urban Pioneers

122

*FINAL CALL

133


* TEL AVIV AKTIV 1 Preface

Cultural Transfer Berlin-Tel Aviv The author’s background - coming from Berlin, Germany being lucky to have studied in Germany and Japan as well as joining a unique international Master’s Program [Architektur.Studium.Generale] that aims to train future architects as generalists in interdisciplinary teams by touring through Europe and beyond - brought her to Israel and made her work with Tel Aviv. An amazing 6 week workshop in November 2011 at TAU positively confused her by dealing with the separation of space between Tel Aviv and Jaffa - the former Arabian neighbourhood Menashiya. Driven by its complex[c]ity Tel Aviv called her attention and now she’s calling Tel Aviv:

WAKE UP! The transformation of built is THE key topic in the European context and a new thrilling task in architecture. Reuse and temporary uses are a tool to develop action strategies for a sustainable developing city: filling ‘time gaps’.2 European cities like Leipzig, Basel, Amsterdam or Berlin are publishing projects about temporary use as an urban development strategy whereas in Tel Aviv such alternative urban developments are still missing or arise slowly. A few ‘Urban Pioneers’ were sighted but not enough: The Spaceship [Hayarkon 70], Bat Yam Biennale and its 72 hours Urban Action, the Garden Library in Levinsky Park, temporary public events like ‘Tahana Leshana’ at the Old Central Bus Station, tours through the ‘Dark Neighbourhoods’ of the White City, spontaneous architecture like the temporary tent city at Rotschild Blvd., the Revolution of Love occupying public places... Those are the ones scratching on the surface. What are the needs of a city? How to develop the city of today? What are the needs of this post-industrial ‘European city’ in the Middle East? How about participation and voice? Who decides? The city council? The architect? The Generic? Who is the city? THE CITIZENS! It’s time for citizens to be active! It’s time for Tel Aviv to be active! *TEL

AVIV AKTIV

Since alternative planning3 processes are successful in Berlin and get supported by the Senate for Urban Development the author is sharing her knowledge in order to encourage Tel Aviv to RETHINK! Her work is a public call for Open Processes and Temporary Use to everyone in the city. Chapter 1 - THEORY introduces Open-Source Urbanism and what planners can learn from programmers.4 It is intended that the thinking of the built environment in this allegory helps to appreciate it. Chapter 2 - 9 SOURCES is a practical contribution: releasing 9 Source Codes of the city of Tel Aviv, giving knowledge about 9 different abandoned buildings and typologies in different neighbourhoods 5 All in one it is a manual made for use, for Tel Avivians. A book that collects, offers, guides, helps, confuses, supports ideas and knowledge.

AN ATLAS!

First the author gives an insight into her creative environment, Berlin. The following remarks deal with the topic of Temporary Use and the so far developed ‘Theory’ behind it.

1 The title itself seems German but due to the internationality of the city’s name it actually is a combination of English [International] and German. Even the word ‘aktiv’ can be derived from different languages and makes the title a play on words. German also because of the ‘BerlinTouch’ which the project wants to transmit. The ‘*’ right now is my personal symbol for the birth of the project and the point in which the idea got clear enough to write it down. 2012-05-25

2 Studio Urban Catalyst: ‘Strategies for temporary uses – potential for development of urban residual areas in European metropolises’, 2003, p.5, www.templace.com / www.urban­catalyst.net 3 ALTERNATIVE PLANNING in the case of this work means the opposit of traditional tools in formal planning such as zoning plans and master plans - spatial plans to describe envisioned final form of urban development, ibidem: p. 16 4 Senator for Urban Development + Studio UC: ‘Urban Pioneers, Temporary Use and Urban Development in Berlin’, Jovis, 2007, p.105 §2 (headline) 5 http://www.wordnetweb.princeton.edu/, by Princeton University, from 01.07.2012 NEIGHBOURHOOD: (noun. location) an area within a city or town that has some distinctive features (especially forming a community) 4


*BERLIN AKTIV Cultural background A motivation for Tel Avivians: Preface in the brochure ‘Urban Pioneers’ by former Senator for Urban Development (2004-2011) Ingeborg Junge-Reyer, 2007

‘Temporary use has already become a magical term: on the one hand, for those many creative minds who, in a world ruled by profit maxim, are trying nevertheless, to create spaces that reflect and nurture their vision of the future; and on the other, for urban planners to whom it represents a chance for urban development, albeit one to which they must first grow accustomed - for planners tend not to have to deal with matters of a temporary nature. Ultimately, it is a chance also for property owners. The undiscovered district, the dead end on the urban landscape, the blind spot in public perception might all in fact be set in motion, brought to the light of day by (temporary) use. Berlin is a laboratory for the business of temporary use. Berlin has space. Numerous disused, unbuilt and unplanned spaces, some of them very large, are a physical reflection of the city’s history and structural upheaval: abandoned railway tracks, wasteland in former industrial zones, vacant building plots in 19th century residential districts, the remains of the former no-man’s land along the length of the Wall and the gaping sites of demolished housing estates. [...] Reintegrating such spaces in the city, creating paths between them, reconnecting disparate urban spaces is something that projects by ‘urban pioneers’ can actively promote. Some of these properties have no market value; non that could be realised in the short term. They are nevertheless not so much a problem as a challenge and a chance. Experimentation, the search for new forms of reanimating and appropriating space is the common thread between numerous temporary projects, the nature and quality of which vary enormously. [...] There are projects that, although originally intended to be of limited duration, put down roots in one location, grow, develop and become professional. They thus contribute to a location’s long-term, sustainable development. [...] Yet it is the pioneering spirit of such projects that we can detect first and foremost. Urban pioneers aim to draw on the richness of everyday experiences: this variety, these differences and contrasts are today elements of urbanism. The huge chance for urban development currently lies in such vacant spaces becoming a living part of the constantly changing city. [...] Vacant sites and disused premises are not a constraint but a prerequisite of restructuring. They are the spaces of the future: a training ground and experimental zone for the future city. They are part of the city’s wealth. [...]

5


*BERLIN AKTIV Cultural background Convincing examples: Besides huge industrial areas Berlin offers pioneering projects in all directions: distinct typologies, districts and schales. Have a look at the following overview!

*’BIERPINSEL’ Streetart XXL, Steglitz

.built: 1972-1976 mega structure by Ralf Schüler + Ursulina Schüler-Witte .was: Restaurant, Discotheque .closed: 2002 .now: 2010 [open air] gallery, café, bar .initiated by: Christoph Tornow, Daniel Grau and Benjamin Link founded the Vicious Gallery .transformation: 2010, 1 tower, 2000l paint, 3 curators, 4 artists, 2000m², 6 weeks + Subway Station Schlossstraße [U9] .contact/ images: www.turmkunst.de, anna@turmkunst.de

*’MARTKHALLE IX’, Kreuzberg

.built: 1891 .was: market hall .neglected: 1977- 2003 demise started with discounter chain ALDI .now: 2011-10-01 reopening as a traditional market hall for everyone ‘Halle für Alle’, cooperation with community gardens .initiated by: neighbourhood initiative .transformation: 2009 Project group ‘Markthalle Neun’ .contact/ images: www.markthalle9.de

*’ARENA’ Badeschiff, Treptow

.built: 1927 by arch. Frnaz Ahrens, refugee camp after WW2 .was: omnibus factory 7000m² .closed: 1993 after reunion .transformation: 1995 Group ‘ART Kombinat’, cultural use --> cultural microcosm .now: since 2005 floating pool in the river Spree/ sauna in winter, beach bar/ event location as one part of the whole Arena Complex .initiated by: event promoters, Kulturarena Veranstaltungs-GmbH

*’INA Kindergarten’, Kreuzberg

.built: ? .was: Multistory Car Park .neglected: never in adequate use .now: Kindergarten since 1986 .initiated by: IBA 1977-87 .transformation: 1984 arch. Frohwein/ Spangenberg, Berlin, Architecture Award in 1985

*’TEMPELHOF’, Tempelhof-Schöneberg

.built: 1923-1927, 1930’s massive reconstruction by NS regime .was: Tempelhof City Airport .closed: 2008 .now: event space since 2009, Berlin’s larges public park ‘TEMPELHOFER FELD’ since 2010 .will be: IBA 20201

6

1

IBA - INTERNATIONALE BAUAUSTELLUNG (international building exhibition) is a German instrument in regional and urban planning. It intends to set social, cultural and ecological impulsesin order to develop a respective region that lacks urban or landscape change. The first IBA was initiated in Darmstadt in 1901.


*BERLIN AKTIV Cultural Background ‘Theory’ of Temporary Use - The Basics The Berlin based research project Urban Catalyst1 has investigated the potential of temporary uses as a motor of urban change in different European cities such as Berlin, Amsterdam, Helsinki, Naples and Vienna. The sites represent a spectrum of diverse conditions in which temporary use can act as an urban catalyst. They define Temporary Use as ‘A time gap - a moment of standstill between the collapse of a previous use and the beginning of new commercial development’ as well as ‘a period of no formal use which follows the end of a previous use period.’2 This absence of an ‘ordinary use’ offers a ‘breeding ground’ for cultural and subcultural uses like art exhibitions, concerts, clubs or cheap working space and studios for young Start-Ups. Normally temporary users are not the owners but urban players that act deliberately and follow certain visions: Claiming vacant space, minimum of investment, specific vacant sites attract specific temporary uses following precise spatial criteria such as retreat, exposure or niche.3 Urban Catalyst defines different typologies that make it easier for newcomers to get an overview about possibilities and existing facts: 2. Who are temporary users?4 Start-ups

new businesses, inventors, patent holders etc. with the long term aim of full re-integration in urban economy

Migrants

persons that are temporarily not integrated in stable social network or employment structures

System refugees

deliberate, i.e. ideologically motivated withdrawal into alternative universe

Drop-outs

light criminal offenders, homeless people, illegal immigrants etc.

Part time activists having a regular position and income in the society, but wanting to enrich their live with experiences outside established orders 3. How users do use a site?5 Stand-In Temporary uses do not have any lasting effect on the location, but only use the vacant space for their time available Impulse Temporary use gives an impulse for the future development of the site by establishing new programs Example: Berlin Club WMF Consolidation Temporary use establishes itself at a location and is transformed to a permanent use. Example: Berlin Club Tresor, Arena as a concert hall/ event location. Coexistence Temporary use continues to exist (in a smaller size) even after establishment of a formal permanent site at the location. Example: Flea market and Yaam Club at Arena Berlin. Parasite

Temporary use is developed in dependence of existing permanent uses and takes advantage of existing potentials and availability of space. Example: Market at Berlin Ostbahnhof

Subversion

Temporary use is interrupting an existing permanent use (institution) by squatting as a political action. Even so this occupation is normally of a very limited time period, it effects the squatted institution and results in change of the institution. In the situation of the squatting different uses than normal are established at the location, e.g. housing in an university or factory. Example: Squatting of Factory Alactel in Berlin-Neukölln, Squatting of Universities

Pioneer The temporary use is the first ‘urban’ use of the site, establishing a way of settlement, which might become permanent. Examples: Building of World Expo’s which have intended to be temporary but became permanent Displacement

A permanent institution is displaced for a limited period of time and during this time established in an improvised way as a temporary use. Example: Displacement of railway station at Berlin Ostbahnhof in year 2000

1 URBAN CATALYST: An interdisciplinary platform for research, projects, public interventions, conferences, exhibitions and publications that developed from a European research project of the same name, which explored strategies for temporary use in residual urban areas (2001-2003, TU-Berlin) and was founded in 2003 by Philipp Misselwitz, Philipp Oswalt and Klaus Overmeyer. www.urban­catalyst.net 2 STUDIO URBAN CATALYST: ‘Strategies for temporary uses – potential for development of urban residual areas in European metropolises’, 2003, p.5, www.templace.com / www.urban­catalyst.net 3 ibidem p. 4 4 ibidem p. 10 5 ibidem p. 14 f. 7


*BERLIN AKTIV Cultural Background â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Theoryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of Temporary Use - The Basics

4. Most common context typologies and recommended tools:1 context 1:

empty building

Tools: feasibility study, formalisation of temporary use initiative, participatory exhibition, Citycat

context 2: post-industrial area Tools: stakeholder management, Competition, breeding fund, temporary management plan, agency awaiting future for temporary use development context 3: area with existing Tools: conflict management, liability assurances, strategic development plan temporary uses context 4:

city in decline

Tool: round table for temporary use [Zwischennutzungsfond]

5. Relationship between temporary users and site2 In the research process, several contrasting sets of relationships were defined: 1. temporary users who do not have a specific relationship towards the site. They just look for an affordable location, but do not have a specific interest in the urban context, being autonomous (e.g. start up as Berlin: Unit) 2. temporary users who are interested mostly in the internal context of the location. They look for location in order to via synergy to increase their competition advantage or to be part of the social network. They have strong interaction with the other temporary users on site but not to the further urban context 3. temporary users who choose there location in a strategic position inside the overall city, meaning good access by public transportation (and car) as well as centrality of the location, e.g. club scene (e.g. Maria/ Ostgut at Berlin-Ostbahnhof) 4. temporary users who have a strong interaction with the local community (e.g. Berlin-RAW-tempel eV, Berlin-Bad Ly) and look for locations which are well integrated into the urban fabric of the local community. This can overlap with type b, as in the case of Kabelwerke Vienna.

1 2 8

ibidem p. 17-20 ibidem p. 13


CHAPTER 1 - THEORY

9


*MAY I INTRODUCE 1 Atlas 9 Typologies 9 Colonies

*TEL AVIV AKTIV is a public call for Open Processes and Temporary Use in the city of Tel Aviv - Jaffa, Israel. *TEL AVIV AKTIV is an atlas:

A database/ / a thematic atlas1 or reference book that introduces 9 [Mega]structures - remarkable public buildings of different typologies in different urban contexts in the city of Tel Aviv-Jaffa and beyond. They all have in common to be neglected, deserted or abandoned.

SIMPLY UNUSED URBAN SOURCES!

*TEL AVIV AKTIV the method: It is an urban analysis based on intensive itineraries in May 2012. A documentation of the status quo of each building. On every plot everything found can be important and the mirror of its respective neighbourhood: A print organizes ALL photographs taken during the stay in Tev Aviv [3500 images]. The aim is a full collection of ALL taken pictures in order to see which are the most important details that caught the attention when I was on site. It freezes one status of change into a huge amount of images. Some of them are beautiful others dont and sometimes only a sequence makes sense when it creates a panoramic view or it shows movement. The evaluation took place back in Germany.

*TEL AVIV AKTIV contains more than just a portrait of abandoned places:

It dissects each source and reveals its elements: structural, functional, visible, invisible. It tends to bring the buildings back into peoples mind by disclosing their potential for activity. No healing or leading back to the prior state. An unclouded representation of each building in a schematic way as well as an unusual point of view help to focus on qualities that are hidden by garbage and dislike nowadays.

*TEL AVIV AKTIV wants to attract interest! Interest in the idea of alternative planning:

OPEN SOURCE URBANISM in order to provoke a self-regulating development on the sites. OPEN + BOTTOM UP processes in contrast to common city development procedures or ‘tabula rasa planning’.2

*TEL AVIV AKTIV is inspired by: + ‘Urban Pioneers - Temporary Use and Urban Development in Berlin’ a brochure by Studio Urban Catalyst + the Senator for Urban Development, Berlin, 2007, Jovis:

If on vacant plots the implementation of classical city planning reaches their limits, space pioneers show new perspectives. Enriched by the documentation of over 40 project examples from Berlin, the book provides a series of essays and interviews with a comprehensive insight into the current discourse and develops new models of action for urban development through temporary use.3

+ ‘Atlas Activ St. Etienne’ by LIA (Laboratory for integrative Architecture, TU Berlin)+ LUA (MIT, Cambridge, USA), 2006-20084 The ‘active atlas’ is a method of analysis and documentation of the neglected and denied industrial heritage in the region of Saint-Etienne, France. It uses the atlas as

a precise document easy to understand. It is made for everyone. Phase 1: a schematic representation of single buildings in two scales + a catalog of data, photographs. Phase 2: a portrait of the spatial context + an analysis of the region as a whole.

+ ‘urbs! (Urban NURBS) growing and develop Units’ by Jose de la Peña with his workshop result in WS 04-Wroclaw 2012

*TEL AVIV AKTIV is paving the way!

The atlas is a pre-amplifier. The initial boost to provoke ATLAS ACTIVISM!

1 http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/, by Philip M. Parker, from 28.06.2012 THEMATIC ATLAS: a book of maps devoted to a specific topic, subject, or theme, usually including text, illustrations, and other graphic material explaining their meaning and significance (examples: The Atlas of Endangered Species). 2 Urban Pioneers, Temporary Use and Urban Development in Berlin, Senat for Urban Development, Jovis, 2007, p. 106 §2 TABULA RASA PLANNING: planning which stipulates the complete demolition of existing stock. 3 Amazon.com 4 http://www.lia.tu-berlin.de/sites/research-atlas/r-atlas-intro.htm 10


* HOW DOES IT LOOK LIKE? 1 ATLAS 9 TYPOLOGIES 9 COLONIES

-02 – Old Central Bus Station -01 – New Central Bus Station 00 – The Garden Library

[Neve Sha’anan_TLV South] [Neve Sha’anan_TLV South] [Neve Sha’anan]

01 – Atarim Square 02 – Dizengoff Square 03 – ‘Central Park’ 04 – Shuk Ha’aliya 05 – Tel Aviv South 06 – Sun Hotel

[Beachfront] [White City] [Nachalat Binyamin] [Florentin] [Shapira|Kiryat Shalom|HaTikva_TLV South] [Bat Yam]

07 – Dolphinarium

Public Square Multi Storey Car Park Market Hall Railway Station Hotel

Theme Park [Menashiya] ‘Galim’ Surf School ‘Clara’ Club every Friday’s Drummers Community

xx - Find more!

2nd

1st

3rd

LOCATION

PROFILE

11

Multi Purpose Structure

Aerial Photo Photograph 3D orientation

Profile Photo DWG 1:5000 Description Personal story

4th

ELEMENTS

Source Code Elements Elements II Potential

PERSPECTIVE

Neighbourhood 1 icon idea WAKE UP CALL!


* TEL AVIV AKTIV OPEN SOURCE ‘Open-source methods have been used by software developers for decades: a self-regulating development where anyone interested can access all information pertaining to previous attempted solutions, and also has the right to use, test and further develop the original version of the programme distributed. […] The programmer is effective in an environment in which hierarchical and social mechanisms of control have ceded to individual self-regulatory forms of organisation. An optimal result is striven for by drawing on free exchange of information, collective creativity and mutual cooperation.’1 It is comparable with online services like Wikipedia, Youtube or the recent cooperation of the image library service of Yad Vashem, Jerusalem with Google. An open source service where people from all over the wolrd get access in order to contribute.

OPEN-SOURCE-METHOD:

Software has been developed by a programmer!

Regardless all copyrights the programmer publishes the source code online!

individual programmer USA

individual programmer CHN

individual programmer GER

individual programmer JP

dia e p i _Wik utube _Yo em sh a V _Yad

individual programmer IND

In a colaborative process a perfect version of the programm is created by: _exchange of information _collective creativity _mutual cooperation ...

HOW ABOUT OPEN-SOURCE-URBANISM?

1 Urban Pioneers, Temporary Use and Urban Development in Berlin, Senat for Urban Development, Jovis, 2007, p.105 §1 Open Source: A main principle and practice of open-source software development is peer production by bartering and collaboration, with the end-product, source-material, „blueprints“, and documentation available at no cost to the public. Wikipedia.org 12


Image: Bartholl, Aram/ Dead drops; www.urbanshit.de, ‘Blog für StreetArt und urbane Kultur’, posted by rk on 4/12/12 as Berlin, Forschung, Theorie, Veranstaltung

Image: Saatchi & Saatchi Simko, outdoor campaign for Groupe E, a Swiss provider for electricity, Creative Director: Olivier Girard, Art Director: Gabriel Mauron, Fred Doms

HOW ABOUT OPEN-SOURCE-URBANISM? In a colaborative process a perfect version of a neighbourhood/ community could be created by: _exchange of information _collective creativity _mutual cooperation

13


* SOURCE THE CITYCODE SOURCE TLVCODE

14


* 9 SOURCES

15


*1

* 9 SOURCES *2

*7

*3

*-1

*4 *0 *-2

*5

16

*6


*ATARIM SQUARE - Multi-Purpose Structure

.built: 1971-1975, Yaakov Rechter public square, shopping mall, hotel: 200 businesses, amphitheatre, club, parking, gas station, covered highway, restaurants, duty free shops .neglected: 1979 .now: hotel + parking lot + occasional use

*DIZENGOFF SQUARE - Public Square

* 9 TYPOLOGIES

.built: 1934, urban plan: Sir Patrick Geddes (roundabout), arch. Genia Averbuch .redesign: 1978, Zvi Lissar, elevated .fountain: 1986, Yaakov Agam .now: avoided + neglected

own photographs

*DOLPHINARIUM - Under Water Theme Park

.built: 1981, Nachum Zolotov Dolphinarium, Aquarium, shopping mall, restaurant .connector: Tel Aviv + Jaffa via Menashiya, Beach .closed: 1985 .now: abandoned + temporary use

*CENTRAL PARK - Multistory Parking lot gas station, car park .now: regular use + non-place

*OLD CENTRAL BUS STATION

.built: 1941-1942 main bus service, taxi station, commerce centre, underground passageways .neglected since 1993 .closed + partly destructed: 2009 .now: ruin, home to homeless

*SHUK HAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ALIYA - Market Hall

.built: 1938 .closed: 1981 .now: neglected, graffiti covered + garbage dump

*NEW CENTRAL BUS STATION

.built: 1967-1993, Ram Karmi .7th floor: 1998 shopping mall, main bus service .neglected since 1998 .now: bus station + home to homeless + temporary use, ca. 30% unused

*TLV SOUTH - Railway Station

.built: 1967-68, Nachum Zolotov main train station in the south .closed: 1993 .now: occasional use by Israel Railways + temporary use of surrounding

*SUN HOTEL - Bat Yam

.built: 1973 hotel, beach, tennis, restaurant, roof terrace .closed and cored: 2005|2007 .now: neglected since 7 years .destruction: 2012 17


* 9 OPEN SOURCES Plug-in-City 2?, Socket City!

18


[Sunshine: 300 d/y] [Rain: 7 d/y]

What is the power of a SOCKET?

MARINA HOTEL

HERODS

CARLTON

Imagine an abandoned place would have 1 place to plug in!

The base is each building + the needs of its respective neighbourhood

City defined by citizens The architect as an organizer 19


Image: Godin, Seth (2000): Unleashing the Idea Virus, p.42, www.ideavirus.com:

* HOW DOES IT WORK? Like a ...

SNEEZE!

20


COLONIZE!

21


TRIGGER!

22


USER!

23


TRIGGER: What if there was 1 socket ... an open source.

24


one day: A SNEEZER1 ...

25

1 Godin, Seth (2000): Unleashing the Ideavirus, www.ideavirus.com, by Do You Zoom, Inc., p.37 The Heart Of The Ideavirus: Sneezers -- Definition: SNEEZER Some people are more likely to tell their friends about a great new idea. These people are at the heart of the ideavirus. Identifying and courting sneezers is a key success factor for ideamerchants.


another day ...

26


day x ...

27


day y ... activity implemented! the virus infected...the building is the source!

28


Marina Sea

School

Ben Gurion Blvd.

Municipality Archiyon

Dizengoff Street Gordons Beach

* 9 SOURCES Infection

Kikar Rabin

Dizengoff Square Spaceship Golda Compund

Dizengoff Center

Azrieli Center

Habima Sea Drummers Beach

Jemenite Quater Shuk Ha‘Carmel Nahalat Binyamin

Hassan Beq Mosque

Shalom Tower

C.C. Park Neve Tzedek

Menashiya Florentin

Levinsky Street Garden Library

Levinsky Park

Neve Sha‘anan

Old Jaffa

Hatikva

Jaffa

Shapira

Kiryat Shalom

Jaffa South ?

Bat Yam Beach Bat Yam

29


* TEL AVIV AKTIV IDEA - What’s going to bo achieved?

Work + Community Activism

_A fair development of productive and creative activities _Horizontal interchanging _City attractor 1. CULTURAL IDENTIFICATION 2. SENSE OF COMMUNITY [Neighbourhood] 3. COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE

RESULT: Decision-making!

Ability to negotiate!

Ability to fight! 1

Initiated by one -- developed by others -- Bottom Up! Temporary? Who knows? The city of Tel Aviv changes constantly!

1

30

Chart: De la Peña, José: ‘urbs! (Urban NURBS) growing and develop Units’, Workshopresult Workshop 04 - Wroclaw, ASG Class 01, May 2011


* PLUGIN CITY_learning from Archigram, 1961 What do we know about plugs...

ase b g Aviv is change! in el _T n n a a pl eds s d_Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s learn from the 60s! a n e e e g n n a rn _cha talyst fo ing and on! _ Develop! e ov _M n a _a c a begin h _wit BLE

A Z I M

TEL

? V I AV

O T S U

+C

_large scale network structure containing access ways and essential services _into this network are placed units within a grid which cover all needs _ These units are planned for obsolescence: .Bathroom, kitchen, living room floor - 3 years

.Living rooms and bed rooms - 5-8 years .Location of housing units - 15 years .Media use sales space and shop are 6 months .Shopping locations are 3-6 years .Work places, computers etc are 4 years .Car silos and roads are 20 years.

.The mean mega structure is 40 years

_The overall flexible and impermanent form reflects the needs and collective will of the inhabitants. _Customizable: you can plug in any type of space...

31


How to design a socket?

The socket as an open source = an ATTRACTOR for community! Photograph: open TV spaces for the community of Neve Shaâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;anan neighbourhood by Yonatan H. Mishal, CTLV, 19/06/2012

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CHAPTER 2 - 9 SOURCES

33


*1

*2

*7 *3 *-1

* OLD + NEW CENTRAL BUS STATION_Neve Shaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;anan_a case study

*4

*0 *-2

Aerial view by GIS i-view, Tel Aviv Municipality

*5

*6

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* OLD + NEW CENTRAL BUS STATION_Neve Sha’anan_Social conflicts and community work - a case study. Flickr: Alex Atlas

‘With its elegant Bauhaus villas, art galleries and chic sidewalk cafes, Tel Aviv’s Sderot Rothschild epitomizes the spirit and

culture of the White City. It’s almost impossible to imagine that, just a few streets east, a completely different world exists. Rehov Salomon is Sderot Rothschild’s antithesis, a place where the bright symbols of mainstream Tel Aviv life are cruelly inverted. [...] City taxis and prostitutes cruise for customers past market stalls where tattered Christmas decorations still flap in the breeze. [...] This is Neve Sha‘anan. [...] Yet Naveh Sha’anan’s population is far more diverse and complex than just foreign workers who can’t afford to live anywhere else and refugees who can’t afford to live anywhere. [...] There are also the neighbourhood’s “veteran” residents, native Israelis who grew up here and cannot or do not want to move elsewhere. And recently, Naveh Sha’anan and other southern neighbourhoods have started to be home to a new population – younger Israelis from other parts of the city, drawn here by cheap accommodation and the colourful mix of people. [...]’1 1 35

Paraszczuk, Joanna: ‚Lure of the South‘, article in: The Jerusalem Post, Israeli‘s best-selling English daily newspaper. http://www.jpost.com/Features/InThespotlight/Article.aspx?id=217416, last updated: 21/04/2011, 20:43, p1; § 1, 2, 5-8


* OLD + NEW CENTRAL BUS STATION_Neve Sha’anan_Social conflicts and community work - a case study Urban context, fabric

The Garden Library _ ‘For the Migrant Communities and Neighbourhoods of South Tel Aviv’1 _a resonance body of the neighbourhood Neve Sha’anan _a result of adjacent Old and New Central Bus station

1 36

http://www.thegardenlibrary.org/about.htm, by ARTEAM, official homepage, 07/02/2012


* OLD CENTRAL BUS STATION_PROFILE own photographs

Neighbourhood: Neve Sha’anan, Levinsky Park Address: Salomon Str.| Ha’Galil Str.| Ha’Shomron Str. Plot size: 8000 m², Structure (remaining): 2 Floors , arch. Nahum Salkind and Joseph Wittkower Function: inactive station, ruin, informal use Initiated by: Arc. Roy Fabian + ‘Shvil Hahalav’ artist group Where exactly?: The Old Central Bus Station was planned and built at Salomon Street [1] bordering the northwest of working-class neighbourhood Neve Sha‘anan in the south of Tel Aviv in the late 1930s. That time buses used to park and pass that area frequently because of nearby Moshavot Square [2], a main transportation junction of Allenby Str. and Begin Str./ Jaffa Road. Today the neighbourhood is a major transportation hub, with both the new [3] and old TLV Central Bus Stations. Many foreign workers live or work in here. Its centre is Neve Sha‘anan Street [4] which hosts the main market. Levinsky park [5] is the social heart of the neighbourhood. Why this place?: The area is home to outcasts of the city especially the old bus station is a hot spot for drug addicts and prostitutes. The city wants to get rid of it but seems unable to handle it. A local artist and architecture group started working WITH the area, WITH the people living there: Roy Fabian member of ‘Shvil Hahalav’ (Milky Way) ‘[...] which over the past year has created a very nontraditional social and artistic project in the unlikely venue of Rehov Salomon’s old central bus station. “We wanted to create a link between art and the community” [...] “The municipality wants to do something here, but because it’s a very problematic area, nobody could figure out what exactly. The Old Central Bus Station is public land, so it needs to be used for the public. One idea was that the City Hall transforms it into a public square, but people thought that wouldn’t work” [...] “So we decided to do something different – create an art space for the people who live and work here, from business owners, street traders and refugees to local office workers.” Within a one day trial they could use the plot as public space and implemented community functions: “[...] including a bike repair station, an urban garden, a clinic, an Eritrean food stall, and a photography studio where people could have their pictures taken. Then we invited the public in.” The aim of the event was to reduce the sense of alienation between the various populations in Naveh Sha’anan.[...]’ 1 The potential: This case study serves as an example for social community work and can be used as an example for activation in other places. Whenever, Wherever. 1

37

Paraszczuk, Joanna: ‚Lure of the South‘, article in: The Jerusalem Post, Israeli‘s best-selling English daily newspaper, http://www.jpost.com/Features/InThespotlight/Article.aspx?id=217416, last updated: 21/04/2011, 20:43, p.1, § 12-18

Rothschild Blvd.

2

1

5

4

3

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* OLD CENTRAL BUS STATION Happenings Tahana Leshana (Station for a Year) event 2010, 1 day trial photographs by arch. Roy Fabian

everyday life own photographs

38


*NEW CENTRAL BUS STATION_PROFILE photograph: Wikipedia.org Neighbourhood: Address: Plot size: Structure: Function:

Neve Sha’anan Levinsky Str. 108 40 000 m², 230 000 m² total floor area 6 floors, 7th floor 1998, arch. Ram Karmi, 1967-1993 TLV Central Bus Station,Mall, ca. 30% neglected

The sad story: ‘Tel Aviv‘s central bus station was supposed to be a great promise of the city, a vibrant and bustling shopping centre and a source of business prosperity. Instead, the complex became neglected and a monstrous magnet for junkies and prostitutes, its merchants were bankrupt and the public afraid to walk around freely. Now, with enormous debts of 284 million [NIS] and occupancy of only 64% of stores, is about to close.‘1 Where exactly: Adjacent to Levinsky Park [1] on the opposite side of Levinsky Street you‘ll find the second largest bus station in the world (since 2010 the largest is located in New Delhi, India) TLV Central Bus Station. In 1993, 26 years after the construction started, the opening of the ‘White Elephant‘ was the peak of its utopia: 10 000 passengers should pass it every day and be the source of lively trade and a giant employment structure for hundreds of business owners who have bought several stores. The neighbourhood itself was expected to become a lively pedestrian mall.2 Instead, the mega-structure caused a dramatic shift in the social structure and obliteration of its neighbourhood. Beginning of its decline: As planned, by the architect, each of the 6 floors offered both bus terminal and shopping area: lower floors, level 1-3, were dedicated to urban lines upper floors, level 4-6, to national buses. In 1998 the management decided to move bus lines from level 1+2 to the newly opened 7th floor. This was the death blow for hundreds of businesses which got totally isolated from any kind of visitor. The neglect infected also other stores on level 5 and parts of level 3. Now the central bus station is declared as the largest commercial cemetery in the city.3 Furthermore, in addition to save maintenance costs the management decided to close light wells in the roof that supplied lower floors with daylight. That gave them the name: ‘The dungeons of Tel Aviv’.4 The potential: “As important as the building is, there is no real plan for it” as[municipal engineer Hezi] Berkovich said.5 Because of its heavily-fortified nuclear bomb shelter, in level 0, it will be impossible to remove the building which makes it an object for eternity. Thus it embodies a challenge in planning but permanence like a fortress dedicate to RETHINK! Creative non-commercial temporary functions exist already: Community kindergarden, studios, a museum... 1 2 3 4 5

Toussia-Cohen, Michael: ‚Lowest Place in Tel Aviv: the sad story of the new central bus station‘, Article in: Maariv - English daily and newspaper, http://www.nrg.co.il/online/16/ART2/328/669.html, last updated: 21/01/2012, 11:11, p.1, § 1, in Hebrew [translation by googleTrans] 07/02/2012 Ibid. § 1-3, in Hebrew [translation by goolgeTrans] 07/02/2012 Ibid. § 1-3, in Hebrew [translation by goolgeTrans] 07/02/2012 Mishal, Yonatan H. + arch. Riba, Naam: ‘The dungeons of Tel Aviv’, Tour during the open house event ‘Houses from within’, Tel Aviv, May 2012 Hartman, Ben: ‘Plan lays out future vision for Tel Aviv’, article in: The Jerusalem Post, Israeli‘s best-selling English daily newspaper, http://www.jpost.com/NationalNews/Article.aspx?id=264423, last updated: 04/02/2012, 04:32, p.1, § 7, 07/02/2012

Image: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tel_Aviv_Central_Bus_Station 39

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* NEW CENTRAL BUS STATION Happenings ‘Houses from within’ Tour ‘The Dungeons of TLV: Level 0-2 +5 of the NCBS’ entrance level 3

Level 5 temporary use Yiddish museum kindergarten studios little gallery hairdresser

Level 2+1: empty shopping booths

Level 0: nuclear bomb shelter worker’s rooms

everyday life

40

level 3: entrance + shopping


* GARDEN LIBRARY_PROFILE own photographs Neighbourhood: Address: Plot size: Structure: Function: Initiated by:

Neve Sha’anan, Levinsky Park Levinski Str. 93 100 m², park: ca 17 000 m² 2 Bookshelves, attached to Bunker, arch. Yoav Meiri, 2009 Multilingual Library ARTEAM, art collective

‘The Garden Library for Refugees and Migrant Workers was founded in 2009 as a social-artistic urban community project by ARTEAM, an interdisciplinary art collective.’1 Where exactly: ‘The library is located in the Lewinski Park [1], by the Tel Aviv central bus station [2].2 [...] this is the place migrant workers congregate[...] It was important for us that the library come to the people, that those who maintain illegal immigrant status will come without fear, that the library would not have a closed door or a guard at the entrance who would check and ask questions. Its public space includes the entire park.’3 Why a library: ‘Because we see the right to a book as a fundamental human right. Because, as alluded to in the opening quote by S.Y. Agnon, a book provides both escape and shelter, a home, an identity, and a mother tongue. It has no walls or door. It is comprised of two bookcases, which are supported by the walls of a public shelter located in the heart of the park. The taller structure contains books for the adult readers. [...] Across from it is a shorter – children’s height – cabinet. The doors to the small cabinet swing down to form a parquet floor for the children to sit on and review the books. A high, permanent canopy stretches above the two structures, which provides shelter from the sun and rain, protects the books and the visitors, and establishes a space for browsing, reading and social meetings.’4 The Books: ‘The library contains approximately 3,500 books in Mandarin Chinese, Amharic, Thai, Tagalog, Arabic, French, Spanish, Nepalese, Bengali, Hindi, Turkish, Romanian, Sinhala, Tigrinya, and English. The children’s cabinet also holds books in Hebrew. The book lists were compiled after consulting with native speakers of each represented language.’5 The potential: This last case study shows the first successful permanent social intervention. It is the starting point for this work and shall encourage others to RETHINK and DARE. Personal Story of Neve Sha’anan: In that three distinct places I heard the same sentence: ‘Lo letsalem!’ (No photo!) The camera was an intruder in different incidents: 1. At the New Bus Station it was the security guards demanding it forcefully for security reasons. 2. At the Old Bus Station it was rage of those who call it their home and didn’t want to be the zoo, of course. 3. The Garden Library confronted me directly with the diversity of our cultures when a little African boy facing my camera changed his expression immediately into horror. With his 7 years he talked and walked like an adult concerned about his little sister I could have been photographed by me. He demanded to see every single image. I felt like an ignorant idiot...

1 2 3 4 5

41

ARTEAM : ‘The Garden Library’, http://www.thegardenlibrary.org/about.htm, official homepage, PDF for download, p.2, §1 02/07/2012 Ibid.: p.2, §2, 02/07/2012 Ibid.: p.3, §2, 02/07/2012 Ibid.: p.2, §2, 02/07/2012 Ibid.: p.3f., §2, 02/07/2012

1

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NG I T R STA

! T N I PO


* GARDEN LIBRARY_ all photographs + drawings by arch. Yoav Meiri Happenings

Cast of Ballet in Lewinsky Garden an original Garden Library production

42


* NEVE SHA’ANAN own photographs

The base is each building + the needs of its respective neighbourhood

WORKING TRAVELING SHOPPING PLAYING IMMIGRANTS|REFUGIES AGING

43

COMMUNITY


*1

*2

*7 *3 *-1

* ATARIM SQUARE_Northern Beach front

*4

*0 *-2

Aerial view by GIS i-view, Tel Aviv Municipality

*5

*6

BOX

ING

44

Q.

IM S

TAR

A AT


* ATARIM SQUARE_Northern Beach front own photograph

U O NY

CA

45

E E S

? E M


* ATARIM SQUARE Urban context, fabric

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* ATARIM SQUARE_Profile own photograph, DWG: TAU Neighbourhood: Address: Plot size: Structure: Function:

Marina, Northern Beach front Eliezer Peri Street 155-169 (Hayarkon Street) 14 000 m², square: ca 5000 m² 5 floors mixed use, public square, 3 floors hotel + roof, arch. Yaakov Rechter, 1971-75 Hotel + mixed use complex + public square fragmented ownership

Where exactly?: Atarim Square, or Namir Square, is the northern of 2 built obstacles along the beach promenade of Tel Aviv. It is an important connector between city and beach front with its Marina [1]. It has 3 main entrances: BenGurion-Blvd. [East] [2], Gordon Beach[South] [3] and Ha‘Azma‘ut Garden [North] [4]. Furthermore it is main access to 3 hotels (Marina, Carlton, Herods). It used to be public square, shopping mall and hotel. It contains spaces for 200 businesses, outdoor amphitheatre, club, parking, gas station, covered highway [5] and restaurants. Why this place?: After the New Central Bus Station Atarim Square is the second largest mega-structure that faces neglect in the city of Tel Aviv but solid as a rock. Despite its huge appearance it is not visible for its environment. Right after its inauguration back in the 1970’s the structure was a success. Unfortunately it didn‘t last long: in the late 1970’s the trend was reversed by criminals taking over shops or gambling clubs in lower levels. Shops closed and residents or tourists stayed foot away. Since the square is owned privately by dozens of property owners its maintenance suffers. The potential: 1. The movement! People have to pass it every day. They do it quickly without anything that stops them. 2. A key area of former shops, now boxes to be filled with any kind of bits and bobs, with small sizes of approximately 20 m² each and with daylight conditions. To date this area is occasionally used for offices, studios or living! It is free accessible and frequented every day. RETHINK and WAKE UP!

[4]

[1]

[2] [5] [3]

Personal story: While documenting the elements of the shops inside the Marina Hotel (the key area) I met someone that lived in one of the booths. He ensured me to be the owner of the whole property and was very proud of the booth he poorly lived in and how he upgraded it with shower and toilet. He was dreaming of turning the whole into affordable living for his friends or temporary accommodation for students. He didn’t get the permission yet... 1:5000 when *TEL AVIV AKTIV is printed on A3

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* ATARIM SQUARE Source Code

AA

A

92 m

30 m

A

47 m 135 m

48

45 m


MARINA HOTEL

HERODS

CARLTON

* ATARIM SQUARE Source Code

49


* ATARIM SQUARE Elements

SKY LIGHT MARINA HOTEL

CIRCULATION|WC

OFFICE

CARLTON

+-0 RESTAURANT ‘PANORAMA‘

EMPTY SHOPS

HERODS

+-0 CLUB ‘COLOSSEUM‘

-1

PANORAMA HOTEL + EMPTY SHOPS -3

PARKING + EMPTY SHOPS -2

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TOPSEA SURF SCHOOL + EMPTY SHOPS


* ATARIM SQUARE Elements + Vacancy [key area] + Movement

SKY LIGHT MARINA HOTEL

CIRCULATION|WC

OFFICE

CARLTON

+-0 RESTAURANT ‘PANORAMA‘

EMPTY SHOPS

HERODS

+-0 CLUB ‘COLOSSEUM‘

-1

PANORAMA HOTEL + EMPTY SHOPS -3

PARKING + EMPTY SHOPS -2

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TOPSEA SURF SCHOOL + EMPTY SHOPS


* ATARIM SQUARE Elements II INSIDE ACTIVITY

PLANTS SKY LIGHT MARINA HOTEL

STREET ART

CIRCULATION|WC

OFFICE

CARLTON

+-0 RESTAURANT ‘PANORAMA‘

EMPTY SHOPS

HERODS

+-0 CLUB ‘COLOSSEUM‘

LIGHT -1

PANORAMA HOTEL + EMPTY SHOPS -3

STYLE

PARKING + EMPTY SHOPS -2

TOPSEA SURF SCHOOL + EMPTY SHOPS

OUTSIDE ACTIVITY

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* ATARIM SQUARE Elements II Street art

Plants growing on the skylight

Light inside -1 access to square +/- 0 â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;key areaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; skylight above key area

Brutalism

Outside activity occasional shops restaurants surf school 2 clubs hotel beach/ Marina/ City Pool Inside activity [key area] storage [hotel] seminar room 5 offices living [no photo]

53


* ATARIM SQUARE Potential Inside activity [key area] selection

54


* ATARIM SQUARE Potential Inside activity [key area] selection

55

?


* ATARIM SQUARE Potential Inside activity [key area] selection

...

56

?


* NORTHERN BEACH FRONT own photographs

The base is each building + the needs of its respective neighbourhood

CONNECTOR

LEISURE

CITY

MARINA HOTEL BEACH PROMENADE BEN GURION BLVD. HANGING OUT PLAYING

57

CROSSING SLEEPING

LIVING


* NORTHERN BEACH FRONT own photographs

BOX

ING

AT

RIM

ATA

SQ.

T N O R F H C A E B N

R E H T R O N ! P U E K A W

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*1

*2

*7 *3 *-1

* DIZENGOFF SQUARE_White City

*4

*0 *-2

Aerial view by GIS i-view, Tel Aviv Municipality

*5

*6

CAN

59

OPY


* DIZENGOFF SQUARE_White City own photograph

E K TA

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! E M


* DIZENGOFF SQUARE Urban context, fabric

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* DIZENGOFF SQUARE_Profile Own photographs, DWG: TAU Neighbourhood: Address: Plot size: Structure: Function:

White City Dizengoff Str./ Pinsker Str./ Reines Str. 8000 m², square: 2200 m² elevated square, arch. Zvi Lissar, 1978 public square, municipality owned

Where exactly?: Its location is in the middle of the ‘White City’ surrounded by beautiful modernist houses of the 1930s. It used to be a roundabout but was turned into an elevated public square resulting from the growing demand in automobiles during the 1970s. It is a knot between Dizengoff Str. [1] (leading to Ben-Gurion Blvd. N + Dizengoff Center S), Pinsker Str. [2] (leading to Bograshov Str.) and Reines Str. [3] (leading to Frishman Str.). Why this place?: ‘Dizengoff Square, steaming hot at noon yesterday. One homeless man is asleep on a concrete bench in a partly shady corner. A second homeless man awakes. Dozens of residents crisscross the square at a brisk pace without giving a thought to its rundown appearance. Most of the cement benches are adorned with ugly and blatant graffiti, rife with spelling mistakes.‘1 It is one of the city’s main sqaures and the municipality turns it into a denied space: “The intention is to restore it to its glory days” Tel Aviv’s municipal engineer, Hezi Berkovich, explained.2 The potential: 1. It‘s uniqueness. It is a brutal gesture in the heart of the white Bauhaus fabric. It is lacking shade what makes it almost impossible to stay during a hot summer day. 2. Its surrounding! Beautiful shops in the ground floors of beautiful houses circle the square together with greenery a cinema, market space and shade in the middle of the residential area. Some of the shops are getting affected by the neglect of the square!

[3] [1]

[2]

Personal story: Temporary use! Two haggard looking man sitting on a concrete bench, smiling... “Do you like music? We’re selling our music, it’s great!” Market on the Square!

1 2

62

Hai, Yigal: ‘Turn back time and retrieve Dizengoff Square’, http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/turn-back-time-and-retrieve-dizengoff- square-1.227463, HAARETZ - online newspaper, 08/17/2007, p.1, §1, 02/07/2012 Ibid: p.1, §4, 02/07/2012

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* DIZENGOFF SQUARE Source Code

MARKET AREA

MARKET AREA

A

A GREENING

AA

48,90 m

107 m

63


* DIZENGOFF SQUARE Source Code

LIVING ABOVE SHOPS

64


* DIZENGOFF SQUARE Elements

65


* DIZENGOFF SQUARE Elements II

STREET ART [?]

GREENING

ACTIVITY

STYLE

66


* DIZENGOFF SQUARE Elements II, own photographs Activity stay antique market closed fountain

Bauhaus

Street art [?]

Greening

67


* WHITE CITY own photographs

The base is each building + the needs of its respective neighbourhood

68


* WHITE CITY own photographs

CAN

OPY

Y T I C E IT UP! H W KE WA

69


*1

*2

*7 *3 *-1

* ‘CENTRAL PARK’ MULTISTORY CAR PARK_Nahalat Binyamin|Gruzenberg Street

*4

*0 *-2

Aerial view by GIS i-view, Tel Aviv Municipality

*5

CLIMBING

*6

70


* ‘CENTRAL PARK’ MULTISTORY CAR PARK_Nahalat Binyamin|Gruzenberg Street own photograph

! E E R F I‘M

71


* ‘CENTRAL PARK’ MULTISTORY CAR PARK_Nahalat Binyamin|Gruzenberg Street Urban contex, fabric

72


* ‘CENTRAL PARK’ MULTISTORY CAR PARK_Profile own photographs, DWG: TAU Neighbourhood: Address: Plot size: Structure: Function:

Neve Tzedek, Shuk Ha‘Carmel, Nahalat Binyamin Gruzenberg Str. 16/ Nahalat Binyamin 26 1993 m², 7 Floors + Roof Multistory Car Park + Gas Station

Where exactly?: The ‘Central Park’ building is close to the historic centre of Tel Aviv. Nearby you’ll find famous Rothschild Blvd., the first high rise building of Israel ‘Shalom Tower’ [1965], the first Jewish neighbourhood of Jaffa: Neve Tsedek [19th ct], Shuk Ha’Carmel as well as Nahalat Binyamin Art & Craft Market (Tue + Fri) whose area offers a network of pedestrian streets, filled with tailoring stores and a creative neighbourhood. Why this building?: Because of its location: It is an alien substance that cuts through its close neighbourhood affecting at least 6 houses on 3 different streets: Nahalat Binyamin [1], Gruzenbergstreet [2] + Kalisher Street [3]. All of them are in direct contact with this non-place that ‘houses’ strangers everyday and that will have a look into your room or on your roof terrace...

[1] [2]

LOOK BACK! It is a stacked single-purpose-surface: a multistory public parking lot why not a multistory public space?

[3]

The potential: 1. Its constantly changing pattern of cars in the inside makes it never look the same and it is never completely occupied. That offers occasional free space and therefore room for spontaneous interventions! RETHINK and USE! 2. Its repetition of floors and the similar floorplan of its skeleton structure offer a base for diverse interventions. Each floor with almost the same conditions. 3. The view! The higher you climb the more you can see the sea, Tel Aviv, Neve Tzedek, Menashiya...CLIMB!

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52

m 17

* ‘CENTRAL PARK’ MULTISTORY CAR PARK Source Code

m

24 m

74


* ‘CENTRAL PARK’ MULTISTORY CAR PARK Source Code

Gas Station

75


* ‘CENTRAL PARK’ MULTISTORY CAR PARK Source Code

adjecent buildings, neighbors, dwelling + office

Ramp, double helix

76


* ‘CENTRAL PARK’ MULTISTORY CAR PARK Elements

8 Repetitive floors of parking, constantly changing skeleton

77


* ‘CENTRAL PARK’ MULTISTORY CAR PARK Potential

8 Repetitive floors of parking, constantly changing skeleton

adjecent roofs, neighbors, dwelling

78


* ‘CENTRAL PARK’ MULTISTORY CAR PARK Elements II

8 Repetitive floors of parking, constantly changing skeleton

VIEW

adjecent roofs, neighbors, dwelling

FACILITIES

NEIGHBORS

ACTIVITY 79


* ‘CENTRAL PARK’ MULTISTORY CAR PARK_Nahalat Binyamin|Gruzenberg Street Elements II, own photographs Activity traffic

View Shalom Tower Sea + Dolphinarium Neve Tsedek

Neighbors

Facilities Elevator WC Gas station

Room for extend

80


81


* ‘CENTRAL PARK’ MULTISTORY CAR PARK_Nahalat Binyamin|Gruzenberg Street City Centre, Flickr: ACTIVESTILLS, by activestills.org

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* ‘CENTRAL PARK’ MULTISTORY CAR PARK_Nahalat Binyamin|Gruzenberg Street City Centre, Flickr: ACTIVESTILLS, by activestills.org 1

Do something with that near Dizengoff Square, remind the world that he exists!

1 83

activestills.org is an IsraelPalestine based Photo Collective


* NAHALAT BINYAMIN own photographs

The base is each building + the needs of its respective neighbourhood

84


* NAHALAT BINYAMIN

CLIMBING

own photographs

A Y IN

N I M

B T A L ! A P H NA KE U A W

85


*1

*2

*7 *3 *-1

* SHUK HA’ALIYA_Florentin

*4

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Aerial view by GIS i-view, Tel Aviv Municipality

*5

*6

PILLAR

86

SAINTS


* SHUK HA’ALIYA own photographs

E K TA

87

! E M


* SHUK HA’ALIYA Urban context, fabric

88


* SHUK HA’ALIYA_Profile own photographs, DWG: TAU Neighbourhood: Address: Plot size: Structure: Function: Ownership:

Florentin Ha’Aliya Str. 27/ Wolfsohn Str. 43 3100 m² 1 floor, 2600 m², 1938 closed market hall, closed 1981 Municipality of TLV

Where exactly?: ‘In the southern side of the city you can find Florentine Neighbourhood, with its captivating combination of Industrial and residential, young and old, trendy and poor. It has a very characteristic urban fabric: blocks with inner courtyards. It is meant to be charming but unable to overcome financial and social difficulties. It was established by immigrants mainly from Greece and Turkey, especially from Saloniki intended for the community of newcomers but soon inhabitants left the neighbourhood for areas further north. These days the neighbourhood and its surrounding area is inhabited by many of Tel Aviv’s foreign workers, young students and long time residents. The area is poor, and no matter how the municipality tries to improve the living conditions and the atmosphere, by redoing the area’s infrastructures or trying to promote educational activities, the neighbourhood is still rundown. During the day though, it is a busy and vibrant place where people flock to, buying furniture and fabrics, or visiting the excellent Levinsky Market. A few years back, Florentine was really expected to flourish, after a very successful television series chose the neighbourhood as its location. Since then, Florentine has established its reputation as a cool place, trendy and modish, loved by the young, bohemian and reckless. Many students and artists have set up shop here, enjoying the inspiring atmosphere and cheap prices.’1 Why this place?: Its beautiful and historic market hall ‘Shuk Ha’aliya’ dates back to the 30’s and belongs to the Bauhaus heritage of the city of Tel Aviv. The area is lacking public space and the social climate is shifting. More and more students come to the neighbourhood due to cheap rents in bad living conditions. Plans specify a subsidized housing development project next to the site including the refurbishment of the market hall. ‘Three residential buildings will be constructed: two buildings of 11 floors each and one of 8 floors containing a total of 147 apartments of 85 square meters each. Of these apartments, approximately 30% will be designated as affordable housing for young people’ [...] ‘These new plans for Shuk Ha’aliya include a public garden, a swimming pool, plus three floors for culture, education and community projects.’ 2 1 Tel Aviv Guide: http://www.telavivguide.net/Attractions/Neighborhoods/Florentine_Neighborhood_20051127217/ 2 Paraszczuk, Joanna: ‘Here comes the neighbourhood. Tel Aviv unveils new subsidized development’, Jerusalem Post, http://www.jpost.com/ LocalIsrael/TelAvivAndCenter/Article.aspx?id=186174, 2010-08-27, used: 2012-06-06

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9,90 m

5,89 m

68,11 m

* SHUK HA’ALIYA Source Code

33 m

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* SHUK HA’ALIYA Source Code

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* SHUK HA’ALIYA Elements

ROOF WITH SKYLIGHTS

GATE

BARRED WINDOWS

ADDITIONAL KIOSKS, SELLING CARPETS

GATES + COVERED PACKAGING AREA

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* SHUK HA’ALIYA Potential

ROOF WITH SKYLIGHTS

GATE

BARRED WINDOWS

ADDITIONAL KIOSKS, SELLING CARPETS

GATES + COVERED PACKAGING AREA

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* SHUK HA’ALIYA Elements II

STYLE

ROOF WITH SKYLIGHTS

STREET ART GATE

BARRED WINDOWS

PLANTS

ADDITIONAL KIOSKS, SELLING CARPETS

LIGHT

GATES + COVERED PACKAGING AREA

OUTSIDE ACTIVITY

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* SHUK HAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ALIYA Elements II, own photographs Street art in + outside

Plants sparemint

Light inside

Outside activity

Garbage

Bauhaus

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* SHUK HA’ALIYA own photograph

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* SHUK HA’ALIYA Open Source Urbanism

...

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* FLORENTIN

own photographs

The base is each building + the needs of its respective neighbourhood

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* FLORENTIN

own photographs

PILLAR

SAINTS

IN T N E ! R P FLO KE U WA

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* TLV SOUTH RAILWAY STATION_Shapira, Hatikva, Kiryat Shalom

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Aerial view by GIS i-view, Tel Aviv Municipality

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TLV SOUTH TRIANGLE

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* TLV SOUTH RAILWAY STATION_Shapira, Hatikva, Kiryat Shalom

Image: Amir, Tula: ‘The man who taimed concrete’ (Hebrew), 2011, Monograph about Arch. Nahum Zolotov

! E R E H I‘M

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* TLV SOUTH RAILWAY STATION Urban context, fabric

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* TLV SOUTH RAILWAY STATION_Profile Own photograph, DWG: TAU Neighbourhood: Address: Plot size: Structure: Function: Ownership: Contact:

TLV South: Shapira, Kiryat Shalom, Ha Tikva H1/ H2/ H20/ Route 461 ca. 40 000 m² including railway tracks 1 floor, covered platforms, Arch. Nahum Zolotov 1967-1968 former TLV South Railway Station, Israel Railways Yonatan H. Mishal (Tel Aviv South Tours) +972 [0] 52 9564960 art@ctlv.org.il

[1]

Where exactly: The former railway station has a very special location: It’s out! Outside the municipality boundaries. Cut off by three highways leading the whole country into the city of Tel Aviv-Jaffa. The train station has disappeared in the ‘Bermuda Triangle’ of Tel Aviv! It lies adjacent to 3 south-suburban neighbourhoods: Shapira [1], Kiryat Shalom [2] and HaTikva [3]. Why this place + its potential: It is a beautiful double-curved-exposed-concrete structure by Arch. Nahum Zolotov! Old railway tracks from 1917 as well as wagons and an entire locomotive remain there. A treasure to be preserved.Due to its location along with its cultural significance this building could arise to a hot spot, center or representative for community of the South of Tel Aviv. A location that stands for integration and tolerance on the edge of the city linking the southern neighbourhoods together and back to the city! Personal story: An artist from Shapira, Yonatan H. Mishal showed me that precious place while meeting him because of the New Central Bus Station. Why did I meet him? Yonatan and his fellow student Itay Sarag started South Tel Aviv Tours, an informal initiative that organizes guided tours of Neve Sha’anan and the neighboring Shapira neighbourhood: ‘We want to create something different from ordinary Tel Aviv tours...’ Rather than having a guide talk about local history and landmarks, South Tel Aviv Tours invite local residents to talk about their lives and communities. ‘We want to give people a more complete picture of the neighborhood ... So we let them speak with people who actually live here. We show ordinary people and their everyday lives. We also talk about the history of the neighborhoods and of the various communities living here [...] We want people to know that not all south Tel Aviv residents are prostitutes or drug addicts. There is a wider community here, and we all live together. [...]’ 1 1 Paraszczuk, Joanna: ‘Lur of the South’, http://www.jpost.com/Features/InThespotlight/Article.aspx?id=217416, The Jerusalem Post, 04/21/2011, p.1, §26 ff, 02/07/2012

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9,24 m

209 m

* TEL AVIV SOUTH RAILWAY STATION Source Code

57,88 m

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* TEL AVIV SOUTH RAILWAY STATION Source Code

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* TEL AVIV SOUTH RAILWAY STATION Elements

DOUBLE CURVED, EXPOSED CONCRETE

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* TEL AVIV SOUTH RAILWAY STATION Elements

BARRED WINDOWS

DOUBLE CURVED, EXPOSED CONCRETE

BRITISH RAILS, 1917

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STREETART

* TEL AVIV SOUTH RAILWAY STATION Elements II

ACTIVITY

BARRED WINDOWS

DOUBLE CURVED, EXPOSED CONCRETE

STYLE + STRUCTURE

PLANTS

INDUSTRIAL DETAILS BRITISH RAILS, 1917

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* TEL AVIV SOUTH RAILWAY STATION Elements II, own photographs Streetart outside

Industrial details british rails from 1917 machines/ engines old wagons swich

In + outside activity bus depot railway education center [upcoming] living

Brutalism

Plants surrounded by fields growing platforms little vegetable gardens [bus drivers]

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* TLV SOUTH Google Maps

The base is each building + the needs of its respective neighbourhood

TLV SOUTH TRIANGLE

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* TLV SOUTH

own photographs

H T U ! O S P V U L E T K WA

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* SUN HOTEL_Bat Yam

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Aerial view by flashearth.com, based on Bing Maps

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* SUN HOTEL_Bat Yam own photographs

COME U

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* SUN HOTEL_Bat Yam Urban context, fabric

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* SUN HOTEL_Profile own photographs Neighbourhood: Address: Structure: Function: Ownership: Contact:

Bat Yam [city] Ben Gurion Street/ Tayelet Beach Promenade 11 Floors + Roof + Roof Top structure, 1973 beach hotel, ruin, skeleton Private ownership: Doron Ben Moshe sundoron@barak.net.il +972 [0] 54 345 4145

Where exactly: The former Sun Hotel is locate at the very end of Bat Yam’s beach promenade the second last hotel in line. It was built in 1973, changed ownership several times and finally was closed in 2005 after service and comfort received numerous harsh critiques in online holiday forums.1 The city of Bat Yam, 15-minutes south of Tel Aviv on the coast, has the densest residential population in Israel. Most of its residents live in modern housing projects that were built in the fifties for new immigrants. The city has become something of an urban laboratory for creative ideas by hosting hte Bat-Yam Biennale: Urban Action. It focuses on planning and redesigning the urban environment. Why this place: Its enormous skeleton is a unique appearance no matter where you approach it from. Very known by the bigest graffity of Israel by ‘BROKENFINGAZ CRU’ The potential: 1. Its brutal openness. 2. Its unique view across the sea and until Jaffa. 3. Its reflective and creative atmosphere. Personal story: I got to know the owner by coincidence. When I tried to sneak in a car stopped next to me close to throwing me out...it was the owner and in the end he gave me a guided tour through the first 2 floors of the ruin.

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Tripadvisor: ‘Stay Away!’, 01/22/2005, ‘The hotel from hell’, 05/16/2005, ‘Not four star, fraud star’, 05/21/2005, in: http://www.tripadvisor.de/Hotel_Re view-g297740-d310222-Reviews-Bat_Yam_Howard_Johnson_Sun_Hotel-Bat_Yam.html, 03/07/2012

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* SUN HOTEL_BAT YAM Source Code

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* SUN HOTEL_BAT YAM Source Code

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* SUN HOTEL_BAT YAM Elements

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* SUN HOTEL_BAT YAM Potential

enormous graffiti

9 Repetitive floor, skeleton

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* SUN HOTEL_BAT YAM Elements II

STREETART

enormous graffiti

VIEW

9 Repetitive floor, skeleton

STRUCTURE

ACTIVITY

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* SUN HOTEL_BAT YAM Elements II Street art

Structure

View from ground floor..

Activity

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* SUN HOTEL_BAT YAM INACTIVE !

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* DOLPHINARIUM_Menashiya

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Aerial view by GIS i-view, Tel Aviv Municipality

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* DOLPHINARIUM_Menashiya own photograph

I AM

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* DOLPHINARIUM Urban context, fabric

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* DOLPHINARIUM_Profile own photograph, DWG: TAU

Neighbourhood: Menashiya, Southern Beach front Address: Kaufmann Str. 1 Plot size: 20 000 m², building covered 6700 m² 1-2 floors + underground(unknown), Structure: Arch. Nahum Zolotov, 1981 Function: abandoned Dolphinarium, temporary uses, Ownership: private ownership: Josef Buchmann www.buchmann.com Contact: mais@buchmann.com +49 [0] 69 60509631 (Germany) TEMPORARY USE: Galim Surf School, ‘Clara’ dance club, musicians, homeless Where exactly?: The plot on which the Dolphinarium was placed in the mid 1970’s belongs to the most wanted plots in the country nowadays! It was located intentionally on the edge to Jaffa’s former district Menashiya - ‘a neighbourhood that was buried under the grassy hills of the Charles Clore Park’1 [...] ‘deserted in 1948 and demolished in the 60’s [...].’2 ‘The location between Tel Aviv and Jaffa was a further attraction for both Israelis and foreign tourists.’3 Why this place?:Tel Aviv’s building regulations (TAMA) defined a 200m wide boundary along the shore line and prohibited construction next to the sea in order to preserve the leisure area and building security. This makes the Dolphinarium and Atarim Square the only 2 obstacles along the beach front of the city. Every single fact about the building gives it cultural significance: its architect, Nahum Zolotov ‘The man who tamed concrete’4 and who also built the first living high rise typology with integrated supermarket in Israel (Benyehuda Str. 80, TLV); its place concerning history as well as all the happenings in and around it like a horrible suicide bombing from 2001. All these memories good or bad should keep preserved and not erased but the municipality whishes to demolish it... The potential: Existing temporary uses! Since its shutdown people tried to use its structure for different kinds of purposes: Musical stage, place for weddings and bar mizwars, reestablished dolphinarium, several discotheques, a surf school, homeless people ‘building’ houses in it... Today Galim Surf School and the dace club CLARA are using it as their facility. Its location on the sea offers huge advantages for both of these functions. Since 2001 a huge drummer’s community meets behind the building every Friday after sunset. They play and dance and invite everyone who plays music and dances for peace. Personal story: In May I’ve spent almost every day at Galim surf school. I got in touch with the owner Shlomi Eini and all his surfer kids. He brought me into the building and could offer me a tour on the roof an outstanding experience and the base for a design proposal ... find more in VOL. 2 *DOLPHINARIUM AKTIV 1 Dvir, Noam: ‘Tel Aviv postpones demolition of abandoned Dolphinarium’, http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/features/tel-aviv-postpones-demolitionof-abandoned-dolphinarium-1.417263, 03/08/2012, p.1, §5, used: 07/2012 2 Ronel, Ayala: ‘Between Tel-Aviv and Jaffa’, Description of workshop task WS 07 Tel Aviv-Jaffa , 10/2011, p.2, §2 3 Dvir, Noam: ‘Tel Aviv postpones demolition of abandoned Dolphinarium’, http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/features/tel-aviv-postpones-demolitionof-abandoned-dolphinarium-1.417263, 03/08/2012, p.1, §5, used: 07/2012 4 Amir, Tula: ‘The man who taimed concrete’ (Hebrew), 2011, Titel

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150 m

* DOLPHINARIUM_Menashiya Source Code

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* DOLPHINARIUM_Menashiya Source Code

Sea

Water puriďŹ cation system Aquarium

Aquarium

CLARA Dance Club

Galim Surf School

Dolphine pool + Tribune

Parking lot

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* DOLPHINARIUM_Menashiya Elements Booth structures

Platform with wooden decking

Partition walls

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* DOLPHINARIUM_Menashiya Elements II Booth structures

SURROUNDING

Platform with wooden decking

Partition walls

ACTIVITY

STREET ART

PLANTS

STYLE + STRUCTURE

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* DOLPHINARIUM_Menashiya Elements II, own photographs Street art The whole building can be perceived as one continues wall entirely covered with street art

Surroundings Mediterranean Sea Charles Clore Park Beach + Promenade Hassan Beq Mosque

Activity Galim Surf School Clara Dance Club Fridayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Drummers informal living

Late Modernism rough exposed concrete

Plants Palm trees and bushes over taking the area

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ENTER THE

* TEL AVIV AKTIV_DEFINE YOUR CITY!

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DOLPHINARIUM


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* FINAL CALL_DEFINE YOUR CITY!

MANIPULATE! SPREAD! SEND! PRINT! SHARE! GIVE! TAKE! STICK ON A WALL! PRINT MORE! USE! BE HAPPY! TALK! MAKE AWARE! DARE! ACTIVATE! USE! TEACH! OCCUPY! COLONIZE! GO! STAY! TELL! ASK! WHO? WHOEVER! ARCHITECTS! CITIZENS! MOTHERS! GRANDFATHERS! IMMIGRANTS! ARABS! JEWS!

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*TEL AVIV AKTIV - Atlas  

A Public Call for Open Processes and Temporary Use in the city of Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Israel Master's Thesis in Architecture, 2012 Architektur....