Degree Project: Design for DIalogue

Page 1

DEGREE PROJECT Design for Dialogue Sponsor : Eklavya Foundation, Bhopal

Volume : 1 of 1 STUDENT : ANKITA THAKUR PROGRAMME : Masters of Design (M. Des.)



The Evaluation Jury recommends ANKITA THAKUR for the

Degree of the National Institute of Design IN VISUAL COMMUNICATION DESIGN (GRAPHIC DESIGN)

herewith, for the project titled "DESIGN FOR DIALOGUE" on fulfilling the further requirements by*

Chairman Members :

Jury Grade : *Subsequent remarks regarding fulfilling the requirements : This Project has been completed in ________________ weeks.

Activity Chairperson, Education

Copyright 2018 Student document publication meant for private circulation only. All rights reserved. Master of Design, Graphic Design 2015 – 18 National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad No part of this document will be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means including photocopying, xerography, photography and videography recording without written permission from the publisher, Ankita Thakur and National Institute of Design. All the illustrations and photographs in the document are copyright by respective owners. Edited and designed by Ankita Thakur Processed at National Institute of Design Paldi, Ahmedabad 380007 Gujarat, India

Originality Statement

Copyright Statement

I hereby declare that this submission is my own work

I hereby grant the National Institute of Design the right

and it contains no full or substantial copy of previously

to archive and to make available my degree project/

published material, or it does not even contain

thesis/dissertation in whole or in part in the institute’s

substantial proportions of material which have been

Knowledge Management Centre in all forms of media,

accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma

now or hereafter known, subject to the provisions of

of any other educational institution, except where

the Copyright Act. I have neither used any substantial

due acknowledgement is made in this degree project.

portions of copyright material in my document nor have

Moreover, I also declare that none of the concepts are

I obtained permission to use copyright material.

borrowed or copied without due acknowledgement. I further declare that the intellectual content of this degree project is the product of my own work, except to the extent that assistance from others in the project’s design and conception or in style, presentation and liguistic expression is acknowledged. This degree project (or part of it) was not and will not be submitted as assessed work in any other academic course. Student Name in Full: Ankita Thakur Signature Date

Student Name in Full: Ankita Thakur Signature Date


For Dr. Nakkeerran Who said he had the time of his life in the 6 days he spent with us, when all he did was ask questions to an audience that would hardly respond.

I finally understand.


Acknowledgements On a regular day post work, sitting with a couple of seniors from college, a month after proposing my book at Eklavya, we start discussing our degree projects. I start telling them how all I wanted was to illustrate an ‘easy’ little book for kids; how I wanted this one project to be less taxing than all my previous projects. But instead I found myself dipping into philosophy, attending sessions by psychologists, reading one theory after another trying to chart a hundred things on two planes, revising proposal with the researchers innumerous times and testing my skills with girls from the local school to create what lies here. What If, a resource book for constructive argumentation. Simply put— a book to encourage opinion and reasoning.


This document is a joint effort of all the people that helped

My mentors,

Bonds I made along the way (Bhopal),

me doubt, and grow from it.

Tarun Deep Girdher,

Yashoda didi, for feeding me while I was away from

for easing me into understanding the educational scenario

home. CLIx Science Team, for introducing me to Bhopal

My family,

in India. His experience in the field, both as a designer

and taking good care of me.

for being the steady support throughout all my ventures,

and an educator, helped me gain better insight into the

big or small, logical or aimless. Thank you for the conscious

project. Tarun has been able to show us the value of our


parenting and building a culture of dialogue at home. I’ve

profession and its impact in the field which I attempted to

the one with logic, reasoning and a sweet tooth

come to realise that this project roots from a deeper place.

carry forward through the project.

Thank you for dumbing down philosophy for me. I

Ankush for making these months look lighter with his

would have been struggling with the big words like

humour. Arjun for helping me realise my worth on

Tridha Gajjar,

difficult days.

our disclipline coordinator, for her attention and guidance


epistemology and metaphysics if it weren’t for you.

throughout the academic years, pushing us to strive for

Shivangi, the kids’ favorite

our best.

Thank you for making child psychology exciting for me and guiding me, clarifying me through theories

Ajitesh for the early morning pep talks in the graphic design studio. You helped me stay motivated.

Jagadish and Mona Prabhu, for their assistance in the

of Piaget and Vygotsky (whose names I can now

Anurag and Monika for answering the distress calls at any

‘Learning from the Field’ module. Shilpa Das, for getting

pronounce because of you!). It wasn’t just the

time of the day. Cana and Vineet, for the 1000 piece puzzle.

some wonderful people to take our Science and Liberal

knowledge you shared in the dorm room but who

The girls who made the journey smoother— Pooja, Sheetal,

Arts (SLA) modules.

you are, as a person and an educator, that I had a lot to learn from. It was wonderful knowing someone so

Swati, Himani, Nargis, Kanica, Sayee. The boys who refuse to grow up— Nitish, Chandu and Arun.

Kanak, for believing in me.

young, so enthusiastic about education. Thank you for

Pavan for delighting me with his stories.

Tultul ji, for being able to look at the project with new

sharing the energy.

Nayana and Divya for hustling together to get this far.

eyes everytime and lending me that vision.

The Institutes, National Institute of Design, for availing me the platform to interact, play and grow. test my skills; and Eklavya Foundation, for a new perspective

Vinatha, for not being easily convinced. Rashmi ji, for her encouragement and the most wonderful smile that fills one with high spirits. It is because of you that I didn’t give up.

and the girls of Sarojini Naidu Public School, who were not afraid of sharing their opinions, who helped me create content with such conviction, who accepted me, who taught me what children are capable of, and who are a part of the process as much as I am. Thank you.


National Institute of Design INSTITUTE The National Institute of Design was set up in 1961 with an aim to provide multidisciplinary approach to design education that could satisfy the complex problems of India’s changing environment. The Government of India invited Charles and Ray Eames to recommend a programme of design. Based on the recommendations made in the India Report, prepared by Charles and Ray Eames, the Government of India with the assistance of the Ford Foundation and the Sarabhai family established the National Institute of Design. Today the National Institute of Design is internationally acclaimed as one of the finest educational and research institutions for Industrial, Communication, Textile and IT Integrated (Experiential) Design. It is a statutory institution under the aegis of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India. NID has been declared ‘Institution of National Importance’ by the Act of Parliament, by virtue of the National Institute of Design Act 2014. Apart from delivering Bachelors and Masters level degree in 20 diverse design domains, NID also offers Ph.D. programmes. The disciplines are spread across 3 campuses— Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar and Bangalore. Graphic Design is one of the disciplines offered in both B.Des. and M.Des.

I called up my friends back in hometown on the final day of our first module— introduction to Design We were asked to create a poster on what design means. I was more than satisfied with my product. It was pretty close to what I had visualised in my head. All 100 of us lined up our posters on the strings around the columns, running from the old canteen to the aquarium. “It is the school of my dreams! No exams, Gunmeet, NO EXAMS! and we just made a poster and you know what? No one scores it! Imagine”. I made the call after we set up the display. I start looking at the posters, all 100 of them, one by one, some made me emote, some made me think, some confused me too. I’d try and trace the route the maker had likely followed in order to achieve it. A few friends were happy to share their process as well, one after the other. I get to my poster, and I think, I could have done better. It had just begun.




SELF Unlearning, the term, was unknown to me before Design. I like to think that without an education in architecture, I would have had more steps to climb at NID. I have always been mapping the differences between architecture and design for the initial juries. Presently I am of the opinion that design is the mother language, the system of architecture operates under. PLACE Having spent 22 years of my life in the post independence city of Chandigarh, I am more intrigued by places with a history. The five years in architecture were my portal to all of these places. Chandigarh, with its grid and structures imparts order to the city, perhaps its residents too, while Ahmedabad offers a rich palette to keep me curious. The old city of Ahmedabad, the sporadic heritage monuments, the crafts and the festivities keep my spirits high. PEOPLE NID is a melting pot of people from different places, cultures and families. It has introduced me to some wonderful people with whom I learnt to collaborate and create. It was around the foundation course when my batchmates made me realise my accent was different, I was using a few Punjabi words here and there and how fast I talked. An identity began to take shape, only to be moulded in a couple of years.

The transition VII

Eklavya Foundation SPONSOR

Eklavya was founded in 1982, when a group of educationists

Reach and Vision

and social activists came together to explore possibilities in

With its head office in Bhopal, conveniently in touch with the

the field of education research and innovation. This group

government bodies, Eklavya operates through a network

had a long association with a pioneering science education

of field centres situated in small towns and casbahs of the

project that had started in 1972, running in the Hoshangabad

state. Eklavya believes that contact with the field situation

district of Madhya Pradesh. Eklavya was born out of the

ensures that any curriculum developed would be rooted in

need to have a dedicated institute to lead and scale up

the local environment and the social context of the learners.

these innovations in education. Although autonomous in its

By responding to local needs, learning would become more

functions, Eklavya built up a partnership with the government

meaningful and relevant to the learners.

to implement changes in the mainstream system to reform school education system in India.

Eklavya Bhopal also runs a publication unit. This unit publishes/produces and sells educational books and


booklets, textbooks and other learning materials, activity

The functions of Eklavya stretch beyond the purely academic

booklets, educational games and toys, etc. It also publishes

aspects and considers the education system holistically

magazines for children, teachers and the general public-

through curriculum critique, material development, extra-

namely, Chakmak, Srote and Sandarbh. This is the unit I was

curricular packages and administrative reforms. Teacher

directly associated with during my degree project, mentored

professional development is another area that Eklavya is

by the editors, Tultul Biswas and Vinatha Viswanathan, and

engaged in through conducting teacher capacity building

the art director, Kanak Shashi.

workshops. It’s recent contributions include developing the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005 and the syllabuses and textbooks based on the NCF 2005 with the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)


Eklavya is a non-profit, non-government organisation that develops and field tests innovative educational programmes and trains resource people to implement these programmes. It functions through a network of education resource centres located in Madhya Pradesh.


Tarun Deep Girdher GUIDE


image 1. Tarun Deep Girdher at NID Print Labs

The degree project requires us to look for a guide within our

visually clever calendars. Being a firm believer in striking

2012, 2014 and 2017, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka, CEPT

own discipline. The student can look for a guide based on

a balance between theory and practice, he often engages

University, and NIFT Gandhinagar.

the expertise, or area of specialisation of the faculty. The

his students in hands on work outside of the computer,

guide and the student shall have periodic reviews during

with his workshops on letterpress printing. He has a special

His work and musings on the world of design and beyond can

the course of the project.

inclination and years of invaluable expertise in design

be viewed on Instagram @tarundg

interventions in the socially relevant areas of education, For this project, I was guided by Mr. Tarun Deep Girdher.

healthcare, gender studies, accessibility and disaster

With over two decades of experience in professional design

awareness. He has created visual identity and logos for

practice and design education, he is a senior faculty at NID,

various agencies, including Right to Information, Central

Ahmedabad campus.

Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Institute of Company

Tarun teaches courses such as Typography, Visual Narratives, Introduction to Printing Technology, Introduction to Specialization, Open Electives (book binding), Communication Skills, Letter Design, Publication Design, and Introduction to Illustration, Environmental Perception, and Hand Book Binding. He coordinated the Foundation Programme at NID from 2003–2005 and Graphic Design discipline from 2008–2011. He has been a member of the Admissions Committee for many years and was the founder Head of the NID Admissions Cell where he lead a team to revamp and modernize the entire admissions process at NID, making it more transparent and friendly for the candidates. A keen observer of social behaviour, Tarun also has a passion for hand lettering, hand book binding and designing

Secretaries of India, National Institute of Naturopathy and NOTA (None of the Above, for Election Commission of India). He has a keen eye for detail and has worked on several publication design projects. He led the design team for several editions of the Young Designers series published by the institute. Tarun has published widely and organised international conferences at NID such as Brands, Identity

As a part of the Graphic Design fraternity, Tarun has been always been active and up to date with the trends in the field. His courses would be often intense with an handson approach. It is not just his approach to teaching or the collective knowlegde that he likes to build with his peers and students, but also the enthusiasm he brings to the table that is infectious, thus, encourages us to deliver. Tarun is always pushing us to probe for the right questions and look at design as a system. Coincidentally, his association with Eklavya goes back to the decade of 90s when he had design several publications for them including he Bal Vaigyanik series.

and Graphics 03 in 2003 and the Typography Day 2011. He was also involved in the concept, design, art direction and print production of Ananya, a publication on issues of Indian women for the Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India. He has also contributed remarkably in developing the curriculum of Graphic Design programme at NID; and B.Des prog. at Banasthali University, India. He has been a juror at several design competitions including the IBDA 2018, logo design competitions at, Design for Change School Challenge, Poster for Tomorrow 2010,



Ankita Thakur ¡ National Institute of Design

This document is a comprehensive process guide towards the graduation project I carried out under Eklavya, the NGO that works in the field of education. The project was initially planned to be covered under 4 months but since I had the opportunity to create my own design brief that aligns with their visions and philosophy, I spent my initial months educating myself about Eklavya- its functions, target audience and seeing their work in action. All of it to narrow down to a project proposal, that is agreed upon, both by my sponsor (Head editor and art director at Eklavya) and my guide, Tarun Deep Girdher, extending the project into a 6-month long commitment. The joining month was spent working with the CLix Science team (TISS initiative on digital education, in collaboration with Eklavya), creating content to support their online modules in Physics and Biology. I later decided to shift to the main office at Eklavya that publishes magazines, books and develops educational learning material.

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Eklavya Foundation


Existing Interventions


Mapping the Scenario


Observing Session 40 42

Project Proposal 44

treading with an intent

DISCOVER a dive into the educational landscape

Process timeline

CLIx 02



Stakeholders 52 Target Group 60 Understanding the Client


Case Study 66 Thinking and Learning


Exercises in Thinking


Introducing Philosophy


Eklavya in Action


Revising the Proposal


Idea Model 94



Content Building 102 Shaping the Idea


Building the Narrative



Review 129 Illustration 130 An Alternate Approach


the reveal

DESIGN creating, testing and building


Ideation 98



Cover and Title


Typography 156 Test Run 160 Production and Costing 168 Proposed Book


Reflection 174 The Journey 180


gather. look. discover. scavenge. perceive. interpret. verify. knowledge sources.

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Connected Learning Initiative


Ankita Thakur ¡ National Institute of Design

About CLIx

The Connected Learning Initiative (CLIx) is a technology

Sciences, Communicative English and Digital Literacy,

enabled initiative at scale for high school students. The

designed to be interactive, foster collaboration and

initiative was seeded by Tata Trusts, Mumbai and is led by

integrate values and 21st century skills. These are being

Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai and Massachusetts

offered to students of government secondary schools in

Institute of Technology, USA. CLIx offers a scalable

Chhattisgarh, Mizoram, Rajasthan and Telangana in their

and sustainable model of open education, to meet the

regional languages and also released as Open Educational

educational needs of students and teachers. It’s curriculum

Resources (OERs).

development partners include Eklavya Foundation, Centre for Education Innovation and Action Research, TISS, Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education, TIFR, Tata CLass Edge, National Institute of Advanced Sciences, InterUniversity Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics. image 1 and 2 top: CLIx logo (TISS and MIT, 2018) left: CLIx in action (TISS and MIT, 2018)

CLIx incorporates thoughtful pedagogical design and leverages contemporary technology and online capabilities. Resources for students are in the areas of Mathematics,

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


image 3. L to R: Priyanka and Sayali (Biology team), Honey Singh (Physics team) (picture credits Subeer Kangsabanik, 2017)

image 4. L to R: Dinesh Prasad (Physics team), Praveen, Gaurav and Subeer (Chemistry team) (picture credits Subeer Kangsabanik, 2017)

The team


Eklavya serves as one of the curriculum development

The CLIx science team was also responsible for carrying

partners for CLIx. The associated team included young

out field tests for the developed modules and publishing it

researchers in the field of Physics, Chemistry and

on the CLIx platform. The teacher training programme that

Biology, creating content for the said modules. The

was held periodically in the Govt. schools of Chhattisgarh,

designed modules were then reviewed by the members

Mizoram , Rajasthan and Telangana were conducted jointly

of TISS and Eklavya.

by the CLIx team.

Ankita Thakur ¡ National Institute of Design



How might you review or evaluate the

What do you want students to know,

course to find out if it has successfully

understand and/or be able to demonstrate

aligned learning outcomes with activity and

after they complete your module?




What learning activities do you want your

What is the best way to assess how

students to engage with? What content will be

far students have achieved the

needed to achieve learning outcomes?

learning outcomes?


What support will the learners need to achieve the learning outcomes?

figure 5. Module generation process flow (UACES 2018)

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Scope of Work

CLIx functions at various levels— from research to teachers

My responsibilities with the science team at CLIx included

training at the govt. schools in the target states. The

creating supplementary illustrations for the modules,

various institutes and organizations associated with CLIx,

translating the content into videos/motion graphics and

hold responsibility in the subject of their proficiency, and

generating promotional content. A major challenge with

collaborate within themselves to ensure a smooth and

developing the visual content was there were no pre-set

efficient process. As a graphic designer under the Eklavya

guidelines to unify the content across all modules. They

foundation, I had been tagged with the CLIx team to execute

took shape as and when content was sent for review to the

and complete modules with them. Within CLIx, I was placed

advisors at Eklavya. Hereby, I have attempted to gather

as the only designer who was developing content for CLIx.

insights from the feedback on the work done during my

Only after completion of any topic under a module, we were

term with the CLIx science team.

reviewed by the subject experts at Eklavya. Within the CLIx science team, each module was framed independently with its own aims, objectives and methodology. Each module was also published at different points in time. The content was developed through field experiments at local schools and open source content that aligns with the objectives of that specific module.


Ankita Thakur ¡ National Institute of Design


figure 6. My role at CLIx

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Lessons: Visual Language Having worked with CLIx Science team, I had got the opportunity to interact with the researchers and educationists at Eklavya and gain insight into their way of working, structuring and developing content. The founding members of Eklavya are all experienced with the field and are now advisors for various curriculum programs, in mostly Science and Social Sciences. CLIx does not have a defined visual language but here are a few pointers to consider while developing content:

INCLUSIVITY The intended inclusion use of marginalized or otherwise excluded population of the society (the disabled, handicapped, racial and sexual minorities) in the illustration is encouraged to build a foundation of equality. image 7. an illustration from the Health and Disease module


Ankita Thakur ¡ National Institute of Design

A motion graphic was required to be developed for the Biology module explaining wellness. In the module, wellness had been classified into three major types-

The very first exploration was shared with the team and it was felt that the message of social health was not explicit. The idea that was communicated was more of civic sense.

The preceding explorations were ideas of sharing and helping. It was felt that they delivered notion of social responsibility rather than social health.

image 8. initial exploration for Health and Disease module

image 9. revised illustration

physical health, mental health and social health. The adjacent example illustrates the series of revisions that followed for social health and how the final deliverable shaped up.

Working together as a community

Working together to eradicate problems

image 10. revised illustration

image 11. revised illustration

Children from varied socio-economic backgrounds coming together to play

image 12. final concept

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


GENDER NEUTRALITY The dictionary meaning of ‘gender neutral’ means suitable to both male and female. For example, any term or expression that cannot be taken to refer to any one gender, like police officer or flight attendent. The content that is rolled out of Eklavya (and hence, CLIx) is sensitive towards establishing any social roles for any gender. This is done in order to avoid discrimination arising from the impression that any one gender is better suited to perform a certain task. Along with making conscious efforts for a gender neutral content, Eklavya also looks at maintaining gender balance in its stories and illustrations. Through an ideology like this, Eklavya aims at breaking stereotypes related to gender and allows its readers to develop a critical mindset towards their social upbringing.

image 13. cover illustration, Mitwa, Eklavya 2017

Mitwa, written by Kamla Bhasin and illustrated by Shivangi, is the story of a young girl who is the only child in the family of farmers.


Ankita Thakur ¡ National Institute of Design

image 14, 15, 16. clippings from Ladki kya hai? Ladka kya hai?, Jagori 1999

‘Ladki kya hai? Ladka kya hai?’, written by Kamla Bhasin and illustrated by Bindia Thapar, illustrates and breaks our perceptions of each gender. It also educates about the scientific classification in gender. Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


CONTEXT The CLIx platform is currently active in the four states: Chhattisgarh, Mizoram, Rajasthan and Telangana. Defining the target audience helps us understand the context and develop efficient content to suit its needs. The same explanation follows for the illustrations— the skin complexion, facial features, costume, environment; a relatable depiction of the subject in focus.

image 17. A comic strip prepared for ‘Chakmak’ showing the Cholita climbers in their native costume and landscape.


Ankita Thakur · National Institute of Design

Adjacent are the stills from an animated video developed under the Health and Disease module. The video narrates the story of a village girl, Chanda, who is migrating to the city but faces problems adjusting to the new environment.

image 18. stills from Chanda’s story, an animated video

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Lessons: content structure Having worked with CLIx Science team, I had got the opportunity to interact with the researchers and educationists at Eklavya and gain insight into their way of working, structuring and developing content. The work developed under the science modules was shared with Anjali Norohna and Subbu ji for review. The feedback sessions helped gain a perspective from the view of the educators.



Anjali Norohna on Motion,


Physics module A complete module was developed by the CLIx Physics team


(Honey Singh and Dinesh) and I had assisted them in the the module. The module was put forward for feedback, to Anjali, one of the founding members of Eklavya. One of the major questions to arise out of the work under review was the need for abstraction in a system where we are trying to assimilate the context— the community, the language, the lifestyle. In a case where abstraction is necessary, what should be introduced first? Anjali was of the view that when contextualisation precedes, abstraction, reduction and deconstruction of the learning quickly happens within the student since the senses are under direct engagement. Once the core has been caught, it is decoded within the mind of the receiver and gives rise to new understanding.


Ankita Thakur · National Institute of Design

image 19. A print template of the Motion module, CLIx 2017

supplementary illustrations pertaining to each section of

In our day to day life we use many different measurement units like kilogram, meter, kilometer, liter etc in different contexts. There are different equipment such as scale, weighing balance, beaker measure these physical quantities. In the scientific world, there are standardized units for all the physical quantities. For example kilogram is the unit of mass, meter is the unit of length. Standardization of measurement units is important

for uniformity. For example, 1 meter length in India will be equal to 1 meter in U.S.A. too. To reduce error one should: • Repeat the measurement activity number of times. • Take care of the least count of the scale. • Take care of other parameters that may affect the activity.

1.2 MAKE YOUR OWN MEASURING TAPE MAKING A PAPER TAPE OF AT LEAST TWO-METER LENGTH Make your own paper tape Material Required: 1. Three A-4 size paper sheets (one side used paper will do) 2. A sketch pen 3. Scissors 4. A scale Process to do the activity: 1. Use a scale to draw some lines on paper, draw them one centimetre apart from each other. 2. Cut the paper strips along the drawn lines. 3. Join the paper strips together, lengthwise, using gum/tape on any one end.


image 20. A leaf from the Malaria comic for the Health and Disease module, CLIx 2017

ON CONTENT DESIGN — CONSUMERS AND NEED FOR CONTEXT CN Subramaniam on Health and disease, Biology module The Malaria comic was shared by Sayali and Priyanka from the Biology team with Subbu for feedback. The main objective behind the narrative was to take the readers through the journey of how Malaria was discovered and the role technology had to play in it. The comic was therefore, devoid of any hierarchy in information, details of date and location. Subbu put forward his concern as a Historian of being curious about the factual data such as dates. And similarly, any particular consumer of content with any varied background, would need to know about the context to place the given narrative into his web of knowledge. Without context, any sort of content would be an independent speck of data.

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue



Ankita Thakur ¡ National Institute of Design

The switch Having spent more than a month working with the CLIx

promotion, TISS for CLIx platform management, the

science team, I had discovered the scope for intervention

science CLIx team for curriculum content, Eklavya

at a lot of levels. Opportunities were identified to add

for research and review, MIT for developing revised

value to the digital platform through design and shared

content, and then a joint team (TISS+Eklavya) coming

with the science curriculum lead– Deepak Verma (TISS).

together for the orientation for the finished module.

Although there was autonomy in choosing the focus of my degree project, there were challenges within the

Hence, it is a network of teams that have separate roles to play at different stages as the module progresses.

current system that led me to discontinue my association

It was personally felt that I could gain more from my

with CLIx and pursue a project under Eklavya.

experience under Eklavya, independently, where all the

The journey of a module from conception to being published is a joint effort of various teams. In this case, TISS for approaching state Govt. and distribution/

teams were working under the same roof, giving me access to be a part of the process. Here, I was also an active part of the workshops and activities carried out in the field.

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Eklavya Foundation The idea behind the conception of Eklavya was to contribute to improving the mainstream education of the country, to bring the best in education within the reach of everyone and to support everyone’s effort to learn and discover, question and create. Eklavya is associated with schools and communities, executing educational programmes through research, publication and teacher training programmes

image 21. my workspace at Eklavya


Ankita Thakur ¡ National Institute of Design

The very first step towards forming a design brief was to acquaint myself with the works of Eklavya. ORGANISING RESOURCE CENTRES FOR CHILDREN, TEACHERS AND THE COMMUNITY Eklavya has set up 180 community based learning centres (Shiksha Protsahan Kendras) in 106 villages of MP. These seek to provide out of school support to children going to government primary schools and give space for the community to get involved in managing the education of their children and get acquainted with new educational ideas. Organising library and creative activity sessions in government middle schools in 6 Blocks based on formation of children’s groups. Providing support to in-service government teachers through trainings, planning meetings and reflections on their experiences.

top to bottom: image 22. SPK session in Ganera, Hoshangabad image 23. SPK in Changariya village of Bichhiya block

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


PUBLISHING AND DISTRIBUTING EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS After a few reports and booklets emerged out of the field work and interaction with children and teachers, it was realized that publishing quality material could be a vital supplement and valuable addition on the way to the goals that Eklavya was out to pursue. Publications were an efficient medium to increase the reach of their philosophy and ideas way beyond the restrictions that the limited resources and activist power imposed. Bit by bit the caravan of books grew to include educational classics, educational modules for teachers and children, picture books, material for young readers and beginners, activity books, fiction and non-fiction, books on various social issues and so on. Magazines: Eklavya publishes a monthly for children called Chakmak, Shaikshanik Sandarbh for teachers and high school students; and Srote, a science and technology feature service. Other than the magazines, Eklayva publishes about 30 new titles every year that include a wide range of books for early readers, activity materials, literature for and by children, educational classics, teachers’ manuals etc. L to R, top to bottom: image 24. Srote, magazine for educators image 25. Sandarbh, science and technology magazine image 26. Chakmak, science magazine for kids image 27. books published under Eklavya


Ankita Thakur ¡ National Institute of Design

COLLABORATING FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND TEACHER EDUCATION Eklavya has worked with the NCERT in the development of the NCF 2005 and the textbooks, resource books etc. based on it. It has also assisted in the curriculum and textbook development for SCERTs of Chattisgarh, Bihar, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh. Collaborating with TISS, Mumbai and other organisations in conducting an MA in Elementary Education Programme. Attempts are afoot to develop a similar programme in Hindi medium as well.

Top to Bottom: image 28. Arvind Gupta conducting a session in a classroom image 29. Uma Sudhir during educator’s training in Hoshangabad

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Kanak Shashi earned M.F.A. from Faculty of Fine Arts Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda in Vadodara, Gujarat, India. Currently, Kanak leads the design team at Eklavya as the creative director. During my time at Eklavya, Kanak was responsible for assigning me tasks undergoing in the publications department. The books, posters and illustrations were developed under her supervision.


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Vinatha Vishwanathan holds a background in ecology and works at Eklavya as editor at Sandarbh. Vinatha took the responsibility of guiding my project and testing its validity in the context of Eklavya.

Tultul Biswas has been associated with Eklavya since the HSTP. Currently, she has been working and writing for the periodic magazines at Eklavya as the Editorial Coordinator.

Rudrashis Chakraborty Editor at Publication Department Rudra assisted me with the workshops at schools and libraries in and around Bhopal.

Tultul introduced and helped me get in touch with the various organizations working with Eklavya. She would also review the project at different stages to assist in the direction of project.

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


The team




All the book proposals are received by the editorial

The creative director at Eklavya assigns (in-house)

After the book has been proofread, edited, and designed,

department, which makes the pivotal decision of accepting

designers/interns or commissions freelancers everytime

it goes for printing. The process of printing of the book

or rejecting it. For the same reason, the team includes

a manuscript is accepted. Being associated with the

is supervised by the production department. This

people who are acquainted with Eklavya’s vision and

Riyaaz academy of illustrators, Eklavya also circulates

department makes decisions related to the vendors to

ideology, and have excellent command over Hindi. The

design briefs within the institute for the students to

approach for printing of the book, the negotiations of

editorial department has a role to play throughout, until

pursue. The designer is given a brief, a document that

the cost of printing, ensuring the right paper size and

the book is finally printed. It helps the author in shaping the

outlines the format (size and shape), production schedule,

quality, and carrying out color tests, and is responsible for

final content of the book— from manuscript to proofreading.

information about the content and context of the book

communicating to the vendor the desired print output.

Editorial is concerned with content: ensuring the story/

including a blurb (a version of what end ups on the back

information is communicated in a clear and engaging way.

cover), and passages that represent the writing style and plot. The book cover, illustrations, typography and layout of a book is taken care under design team. The department is also responsible for designing the monthly magazines and seasonal publisher catalogs


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The marketing department acts as a communication

The sales department or Pitara works on making sure

bridge between the publishing house and the readers,

that the books are available to the target audience

making the readers aware of the organisation’s various

at the right time and the right place. It manages the

publications. It creates various advertising campaigns

distribution channel, making sure that the books are

which are implemented through print, broadcast

available at the various branches. It is responsible

and social media. It works essentially to promote the

for collaborations with online bookstores so that

books of the publishing house and seeks to generate

the book is available both offline and online.

higher revenues via an increase in the sales. Closely linked with marketing is the publicity team. From announcing the release of a book to maintaining the interest of the readers in it, the job of the publicity department to is to build a curiosity for the books among the readers. It decides when and how various events such as releasing of the book, press release with the author, interviews etc. will take place. Sales, Marketing and Publicity are concerned with context: figuring out where the book sits in the market, how to get it into bookstores, and reviewed. Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Scope of work

Eklavya Foundation


At Eklavya, the design team works closely with the editorial


and the production team. The design team consisted of the creative director- Kanak Shashi and two summer interns— Pragnya Shankaran, student of illustration (Srishti School of Art, Design and Technology) and Akshita (Faculty of Fine Arts, Maharaja Sayajirao University). My responsibilites as a part of the team included various projects ranging from



illustrating articles for their periodic magazines- Srote and Chakmak; posters and layout design for a few publications. We were also responsible for conducting/assisting workshops in schools, community libraries or at events.


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The degree project requires the final year students to investigate in the field of design of their discipline and carry out a systematic inquiry for the chosen project. It is also an opportunity to demonstrate one’s expertise as a practitioner of design. Since there was no ongoing or pending project at Eklavya that sufficed the criteria to qualify as a degree project, Kanak suggested I propose a brief of my own. This meant, diving in to understand: •

Eklavya— its ideology and methodology in achieving its goals

Spectrum of education system in India,

and the science of cognitive development

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Existing interventions With the realisation for the need of a reform in the education system different approaches have been implemented at various levels— inside and outside the school. Each is formulated with different objectives and operating within different environments, but rooted in the same notion.


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This section includes the various models that brought about reform in education system- some as a part of secondary research (WHO skills for life, Avehi Abacus Project, NCF 2005) and a few observational studies (Democratic Schools, Shiksha Protsahan Kendra)






Additional content to enhance

Democratic Pedagogy

Introducing life skills

School level



Curriculum revision

current curriculum SCALE

Pan India

Participant dependent

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National Curriculum Framework 2005

There is much analysis and a lot of advice. All this is accompanied by frequent reminders that specificities matter, that the mother tongue is a critical conduit, that social, economic and ethnic backgrounds are important for enabling children to construct their own knowledge. Media and educational technologies are recognised as significant, but the teacher remains central. Diversities are emphasised but never viewed as problems. There is a continuing recognition that societal learning is an asset and that the formal curriculum will be greatly enriched by integrating with that. There is a celebration of plurality and an understanding that within a broad framework plural approaches would lead to enhanced creativity... ...We need to give our children some taste of understanding, following which they would be able to learn and create their own versions of knowledge as they go out to meet the world of bits, images and transactions of life. Such a taste would make the present of our children wholesome, creative and enjoyable; they would not be traumatised by the excessive burden of information that is required merely for a short time before the hurdle race we call examination.

Foreward by Yash Pal


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The National Curriculum Framework 2005 is the fourth

framework published by the NCERT. It provides a skeleton for making syllabi, textbooks and teaching practices within the school education programme in India.

To enriching the curriculum so that it goes beyond textbooks.

Nurturing an overriding identity informed by caring concerns within the democratic polity of the country

The NCF 2005 document draws its policy basis from earlier government reports on education as Learning Without Burden and National Policy of Education 1986-1992 and focus group discussion The NCF was framed Considering the articulated ideas in the past such as

SYSTEMATIC REFORMS: The NCF has aimed at bringing about reforms in the education system to bring about a curriculum that is learner centric, has a flexible process, provide learner autonomy, teacher plays a role of a facilitator, supports and encourages

To shift learning from rote method.

learning, involves active participation of learners, develops

Connecting knowledge to life outside the school.

multidisciplinary curriculum, focuses on education, brings

To integrate examination into classroom learning and make it more flexible.

about multiple and divergent exposure, multifarious, continuous appraisal in educational system.

Learner Centred Curriculum Teachers play the role of facilitator Involves active participation from learners Multidisciplinary and divergent exposure Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Curriculum Supplements

Supplementary Materials are defined as, “any instructional materials which relate to the curriculum and are available for teacher use and/or student selection.� Supplementary materials are used to provide extension, enrichment, and support to the curriculum. Eklavya has been associated with one such initiative called the Avehi Abacus Project based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. The Project was set up with the aim of developing a supplementary curriculum for formal schools in order to strengthen the quality and content of education. It aims at empowering children to develop a comprehensive view of the world, beginning with their immediate reality. To appreciate the possibilities and limitations of this Project, it is necessary to locate it in the context of current educational beliefs and practices. Attempts have been made to provide teachers and children with a way of thinking, of looking at and interpreting the world through their designed modules. The idea is to enable the child to see the connections between everyday experience and what is learnt formally in school apparently disparate subject areas, like science and history for example the world of nature and the various cultures that have developed around the world


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structured to provide opportunities for them to discuss issues and to link concepts to their real-life experiences.

The Avehi Abacus Project recognizes the conservative role played by the educational system in society and finds that

A variety of activities of activities have been devised that

space within the system for exploration of alternatives.

engage different aspects of students’ interests.

Without creating a parallel structure outside the school

Group work and discussion are integral to the methodology

system or trying to reform the curriculum itself, they draw

as they help students understand and clarify new

on elements of each where pedagogical strategies could be

information and to develop their attitudes. An effective


discussion gives students an opportunity to present their own points of view as well as to listen to the views of others.


Working in groups is seen as a way to promote teamwork and a spirit of co-operation.

The aim is to equip the child with an outlook and a method of analysis, a tool, which will help her/him grow

The programme also includes the use of stories and games

up into a thinking, concerned human being. The focus is

through which new ideas are introduced or conveyed.

on developing children’s skills of thinking, analysing and making choices; and on inculcating the values and habits

Most sessions have a variety of interactive visual aids, such

of mind that will enable them cope with the daily reality

as flipcharts and posters. Different artists and styles have

of their lives and to live and work with others in a spirit of

been used to make the learning materials as attractive and

understanding and harmony.

communicative as possible. Getting the students to develop an aesthetic sense and comment freely on their preferences and dislikes is also important to the Avehi Abacus Project


methodology. Other materials such as cue cards for group work, worksheets, and hand-outs are provided at the end

The Avehi Abacus Project methodology lays great emphasis

of the relevant session so that they can be photocopied and

on the active participation of students; the sessions are

used by all students. Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


WHO Life skills While looking for existing interventions in the field of education, WHO’s approach opened up a new direction for the project. WHO stresses on the inclusion of life skills as a part of quality education. The report, SkillsforHealth (UNICEF), includes how skillsbased health education, including life skills, fits into the broader context of what schools can do to improve education and health. It can be used by education and health workers to orient themselves towards the same purpose.

WHAT ARE LIFE SKILLS? Life skills are abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life (WHO definition). In particular, life skills are a group of psychosocial competencies

Are literacy and numeracy skills enough to thrive in a world with HIV and AIDS, conflict and violence, gender, ethnic and other kinds of discrimination, disasters and emergencies, poverty, homelessness, hunger?


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and interpersonal skills that help people make informed decisions, solve problems, think critically and creatively, communicate effectively, build healthy relationships, empathise with others, and cope with and manage their lives in a healthy and productive manner. Life skills may be directed toward personal actions or actions toward others, as well as toward actions to change the surrounding environment to make it conducive to health.

Delphi method identifies these life skills: •

Problem solving and decision-making skills




Development of critical and creative thinking




skills •

Communication and interpersonal skills

Self-awareness and empathy

Coping with stress and emotions The document linked health issues with Life skills (eg. Table 1)and elaborated on how each life skill could help cope with the issue.

• Interpersonal Communication Skills

• Decision-making/Problemsolving Skills

• Skills for Increasing Personal Confidence

- verbal/nonverbal communication

- information-gathering skills

and Abilities to Assume Control, Take

- active listening

- evaluating future consequences of

Responsibility, Make a Difference, or

- expressing; giving/receiving feedback

present actions for self and others-

Bring About Change

determining alternative solutions to

- building self-esteem/ confidence

• Negotiation/Refusal Skills


- creating self-awareness skills, including

- negotiation and conflict management

- analysis skills regarding the influence

awareness of rights, influences, values,

- assertiveness skills

of values and of attitudes about self and

attitudes, rights, strengths, and

- refusal skills

others on motivation


• Empathy Building

- setting goals • Critical Thinking Skills

- ability to listen, understand another’s

- analysing peer and media influences

needs and circumstances, and express

- analysing attitudes, values, social norms,

that understanding

beliefs, and factors affecting them

• Cooperation and Teamwork - expressing respect for others’ contributions and different styles - assessing one’s own abilities and contributing to the group • Advocacy Skills - influencing skills and persuasion

- self-evaluation / self-assessment/ selfmonitoring skills • Skills for Managing Feelings

- identifying relevant information and

- managing anger

sources of information

- dealing with grief and anxiety - coping with loss, abuse, and trauma • Skills for Managing Stress - time management - positive thinking - relaxation techniques

- networking and motivation skills Table 1. extract from Skills for Health by World Health Organization (WHO), 2003

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Democratic School “A radical change is going to be needed to get a learning system fit for a democracy. It needs to get away from domination and its endless stream of uninvited teaching. It needs to recognize that, in a democracy, learning by compulsion means indoctrination and that only learning by invitation and choice is education.� Roland Meighan Alternative schools grew to oppose the idea of education in schools where children are assessed over what they remember and the teacher is the ultimate dispenser of knowledge. Few educators introduced alternative models based on a democratic setup that can deliver creativity and self-directed learning. Democratic schools provide an environment where children are accorded all the rights and responsibilities as adults: free speech, free association and freedom to choose their own activities.


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A day at Anand Niketan Democratic School LOCATION: BHOPAL AFFILIATION BOARD: INDEPENDENT FIRST ACADEMIC SESSION: 2012 NUMBER OF STUDENTS: 45 STAFF MEMBERS: 10 I had the opportunity of spending a day at the Anand Nikatan Democratic School in Bhopal, as an observer. The age range of the students attending the school would be 5 to 14 year olds, with segregation based on cognitive development. (Please note that is a common notion that children develop certain cognitive abilities after a defined age, but it is not the only parameter to assess. The secondary research that covers Jean Piaget’s developmental stage theory (on Page 72) elaborates on the same.)



The day starts with the assembly. Everyone including the facilitators, help staff

The children then disperse with their respective group for the podium session,

and children gather around and sit in a circle to sing. Any one of the members

wherein each one shares his experience of the previous day with their group and

would start a song and the rest would follow. The one who is leading the song is

facilitator. This session helps develop an economy of thought and word, accessing

encouraged to emote and enact the song.

their articulation skills. The shared recollections also serve two purposes - as a

A little introduction to Vygotsky’s cognitive development theory helped me

method of evaluation and to make course corrections. The students provide direct

translate the happenings into observations at Anand Niketan.

or indirect evidence of their progress while speaking and give honest feedback about the activities as well as their teachers and peers.

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


TIME TABLE Herein, all the groups come together to draft their day’s schedule. This is an important part of the democratic setup where decision making authority is invested in each student.

CLASSROOM SESSIONS The subjects (Social Science, Science, Craft) were held separately for each of the groups. It was interesting to see how the course is directed by the facilitator upon response from the children. There seemt to be some preparation and a lot of improvisations as per the discussion led in the classroom.


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The classes closed with a feedback session amongst the facilitators, sharing the progress of each student and their own challenges. The environment of decision making autonomy that runs at the core of ANDS is exhibited at all levels. In the society, unwary of such an initiate, there is certain skepticism around the idea- whether children and teenagers, given such power, would make reasonable decisions, either for the school as an institution or for themselves as individuals. Yet Anand Niketan Democratic School has proven successful in raising children who are curious, critical and explorative. The project picks up from this very aspect of autonomy in decision making.

Learner centred teaching top to bottom, L to R image 30. Science experiment in progress image 31. ANDS signboard image 32. Ankita, student of ANDS image 33. Students preparing the room for a match

Autonomy to the children Trained facilitators Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Observing a session


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How to conduct a session Inducing a response in children Observing behaviour and attention




It was noticed that in a classroom of about 40 students,

When addressing a group, in this case the students of 8th

almost everyone paid attention for the first few minutes

standard, one might encounter students who are not vocal

of the session. It was the time when Honey and Dinesh

about their opinions and hence any sort of feedback from


introduced the cup experiment to understand how sound

the experiments is held. In such cases group responses or

travels. This method of discovery, unlike the traditional

objectives answers can be practices (eg. those who felt the

During my span at Eklavya, I would try and attend the field

method, kept the children hooked throughout the process

vibration in the string please raise your hands).

experiments and workshops being held in any subject

since they were a part of the experiement as observers



or under any programme. The purpose of the visits were to study how children respond to different teaching methodogies.


It was observed that if the feedback or response is a part of

The purpose of visit had been to test a few experiments

Having observed a primary school class session, it was felt

(from students) during the activity are higher because of

from the sound module (CLIx programme). The session was

that it is easier to manage a class of 13 year old than the

direct engagement with with the tools in the exercise. Post

conducted with 8th standard students of Saraswati Shishu

younger ones. Children with the cognitive abilities of a 13

the exercise, the students seem to be low on reasoning and

Mandir, Bhopal.

year old respond to fear and understand responsibility.

attempt to post rationalise.

the activity it is a relatively active session. The responses

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Mapping the scenario The context we are setting the project in, realizes the need for critical thinking. While most of the interventions seem to club it with the school curriculum and practice it as a method, some have been able to find a platform where it can be taught and practised independently. When thinking is practised like that, it does not only enhance the educational experience but also helps improve the quality of our beliefs, judgements and decisions. Since Eklavya has already been involved in research and training programs in critical thinking, I decided to take it further and explore the latter.


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re c



ka ge s





Ed uc a



sy st

NCF 2005


tangential efforts in education





Are literacy and numeracy skills enough?






figure 00. Keywords mapped from research

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Project Proposal CONTEXT

“Philosophy may begin in wonder and eventuate in understanding.” Younger children are naturally inquisitive, demanding justification and struggling to make sense of their everyday experience. At school, this curiosity is constantly tamed by the limits of the curriculum, fear of the teachers and discipline conditioning that keeps them immobile and confined. “..Pupils are accustomed to the idea that there is only one truththe ones expounded by the teacher. The pupil is no more expected to be selective or to imagine alternatives..” (excerpt from Danger! SCHOOL). It stretches a line between right and wrong, restricting our access to the grey zone of context and reasoning. Furthermore, television and other media (that are not developing reasoning skills) are quietly stealing away the imaginative play time which is essential for cognitive development. The application of our thought process is not limited to the knowledge acquired at school but the decisions we take as an individual—


BUT WHY ENGAGE CHILDREN INTO PHILOSOPHIZING? The soul of Philosophy lies in seeking the truth through the tool of thinking and reasoning. The idea of realising our choices gives a sense of autonomy and independence, and understanding the consequences of our choices holds us responsible for our decisions. The life skills is something that is cultured into us through our upbringing and education, together, and it affects the way we behave as adults tooWhy is it that we can’t handle belief clashes, be it in the case of religion, region or political affinity? Riots rooting from this have resulted in loss of life and property. As adults, how were we not aware of the consequences? Or are we impulsive? Why is the millennial unsatisfied with their jobs? Was failure never taught to be a part of the process? Why does the idea of ambiguity makes us uncomfortable?

“Should I share my food? But this is all I have.”

This is where Philosophy comes into play since it initiates a two (or multi)

“But If I tell baba the truth, he will beat up my brother.”

way dialogue and opens us up to contrasting opinions, appreciate them

“I can’t work with Surya, he always tells me I’m wrong”

and build a constructive discussion from it.

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We’ve been seeing a lot of attempts at seeding the attitude of critical

The project looks into developing thinking skills through a book/ TLM/game. The idea is to nurture the child’s capacity for independent critical thought.

thinking, currently catalysed by The National Curriculum Framework of 2005, which aims at building a system that provides learner autonomy by integrating the social context and making evaluation flexible. NCF attempts these changes through revised syllabi, study material and teaching practices within school programmes in India. The democratic schools go a step further by not limiting its methodology to just academics, and enhance the social skills of the individual. The dynamics of child-parent relationship has also changed since our last generation. Parents are now discussing and referring guidebooks and psychologists to understand behaviour or discipline the kids. The need of an intervention for building life skills has been realised. A study into the context that Eklavya deals with would give throw insights into what skills are we dealing with.

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Reinforcing the purpose CONTEXT

Arun Kumar Dave at Lokbharti, Sanosara

While working at Eklavya, I would often associate the

Manubhai firmly believes that the future of humankind lies in

discussion with the one we had at Lokbharti during our

the villages and therefore we must empower it by providing

Learning from the Field module at NID. Prof. Arunkumar

quality education. He shared his experience of questioning an

Manubhai Dave, the director of Lokbharti shared his views

awardee of a science quiz trophy- What would happen if you

on the need for an institute such as his own. Lokbharti

replaced the petrol in the scooter with water?

is an institution in Sanosara, located in the Bhavnagar

And the awardee had no answer to it.

district of Gujarat, that aims at delivering education to address problems of rural India. Being an institution

Challenging the education system, he rhetorically asks,

working with the rural oriented approach, it lays emphasis

“How would rocket science help if you’re dealing with scooters?”

on rural development and upliftment in all the activities it undertakes. It is a vision in action that also conducts research in agriculture and animal rearing. Lokbharti is basically an empirical model of Mahatma Gandhi’s vision of basic education termed as- ‘Nai Talim’ a principle which states that knowledge and work are not separate.


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Dr. N. Nakkeeran for Science and Liberal Arts II

In the second semester of our postgraduate term at NID,

“What education offers is a perspective.

Science and Liberal Arts module was led by Dr. Nakkeeran,

No degrees or a name. Perspective”

Associate Professor at Ambedkar University, Delhi. The title for SLA-II had been— Perspectives on Indian Society. Learning objectives: gaining a critical look into social reality. There were no presentations, no movies, no reading material but only questions. He picked up the case of the vanishing vending machines - 90% condom machines go missing installed at public places by NACO. Why do you think this happened? Would this have happened if it were some other country? ANY other country? Opinions would be put forward and played in the court of reasoning and reflection. Dr. Nakkeeran would never bring in his opinion but lead on the discussion with another question. Discussions on varied such cases (Caste, Gender, Education etc.) contributed to a major part of the course and let us to realise how the Indian social structure plays a major role in design. With a deeper understanding of the

image 34. Poster on Nationalism by Canato Jimo (GD), Dhruv Satija (FVC), Vedi Sinha (FVC) and Ankita Thakur (GD)

Indian society and its values students of design can make their contribution meaningful to the society.

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Constructive Argumentation by Milan Pandya

Constructive Argumentation was one of the 3 courses offered

“It moves us away from rash conclusions, bad arguments

in the 4th semester SLA module. I personally felt that it is one

and reluctance to question received wisdom, authority or

skill that we’ve already acquired as designers and therefore

tradition. It moves us towards intellectual discipline, the

opted for the Film Appreciation course instead.

clear expression of ideas and the acceptance of personal responsibility for our thinking.”

My knowledge of this course comes from my roommate, Kanica Verma (AFD), who actively participated in the discussions of this module. The course was led by Milan Pandya, Masters in Philosophy and a research scholar in the field of critical thinking. Milan explains argumentation as ‘reason giving’. Critical thinking and argumentation include the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking using reasoned and valid arguments. It demands evaluating information and thoughts in a disciplined way. From my point of view, had such a topic been introduced at an earlier stage at NID, or even school, we would have been better decision makers.


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— Milan Pandya writes on his social media

These are the influences I carry with me. Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue



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analyse. filter. define. objective. goals. prioritise.

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Stakeholders In the education system, with the child as the primary receiver, there is an opportunity that lies in studying the other bodies invested in the process. This study gives an insight into how each stakeholder is vested in the interest of the children and the constraints they work within.


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Policy makers

A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide

Advisory Board of Education (CABE) is the highest advisory

the children. It has been discussed in detail under the

decisions and achieve rational outcomes. In short, it is a

body to advise the Central and State Governments. The

‘Existing interventions’. NCF is a programme that ensures

statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure

National Education Policy, that comes along every few

a nationwide uniformity in content and standards in

or protocol.

decades, serves as a comprehensive framework to guide the

education. It is legislated by national government, in

development of education in the country.

consultation with state or regional authorities.

ROLE OF POLICY MAKERS The role of a policy maker includes the monitoring of school size, class size, school choice, school privatization, tracking, teacher education and certification, teacher

The Indian education system has made significant progress in recent years to ensure that educational opportunities are available to all segments of society. According to the Right to Education Act 2009, schooling is free and compulsory for

ISSUES As people responsible for achieving the goals of education

all children from the ages of 6 to 14.

policy, the decision-makers and administrators in the

requirements, school infrastructure investment, and the

Earlier, there was emphasis on rote learning and

and competent to deal with the diverse and complex

values that schools are expected to uphold and model.

memorisation because of the strict pattern of examination.

issues of education in India.

pay, teaching methods, curricular content, graduation

Apart from Union Education Minister, all states are free to initiate more education policies. The Central

education system need to be significantly better prepared

The National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005 has brought about a reform in the system by laying emphasis on enhancing the critical and creative thinking skills of

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The school or the institute is responsible for imparting order

Another major issue is with the availability of resources and

to the system. It provides the infrastructure and resources

poor management in the government schools. Our public

for education. Figure 00 shows the different categories of

education system has historically suffered from inadequate

schools in India.

budget towards fulfilling the vision set out to improve the

Personal objectives:

quality of education and methods of teaching. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14. After passing the


Higher Secondary Examination (the grade 12 examination), students may enroll in general degree programmes such

Education leadership & management: Leaders and

as bachelor’s degree in arts, commerce or science, or

administrators are mainly responsible for creating an

professional degree programs such as engineering, law or

enabling environment for the school and the teacher to


perform effectively. There is a complete lack of pre-service professional education as well as an effective in service development support for these positions


Rethinking objectives: The main aim of any educational

Curriculum, classroom environment and pedagogical

organization shouldn’t be limited to getting good results

processes are primarily based on rote-learning and do not

and establish their name, but also to make students more

enable conceptual understanding, creativity or collaborative

innovative, creative and independent learners.

learning. In their current form, examinations do not assess the achievement of curricular goals and mostly promote a process of mechanical, rote-based learning in the classroom. Examinations are also a source of acute stress and fear among children and their families.


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What can they offer? Infrastructure and resources

The figure shows the segmentation parameters of Indian schools. It can be done on the following parameters: Levels of Education: Pre schools are not compulsory but after kindergarten, one is expected to progress consecultively through all the levels. Ownership: Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state, and local. Educational Board affiliation figure 35. Segmentation of schools in India Source: Indian School Education System, British Council 2014

CBSE / ICSE / State Board/ IB / Independent

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Teachers ISSUES

Eklavya has also been working on the same issues and

In the school system, a teacher’s job is directly affected

the system through their teachers’ training programs.

by the success of the students. If the children fail, nobody

The programs focus on learner centred teaching. The

is accountable other than the children themselves. This

application of one such program was observed at the SPK in

brings out a lack in accountability among educators due

Tamia district of Madhya Pradesh, that’ll be further shared

to several reasons- absence of performance culture, lack

in detail.

therefore is strengthening the impact of teachers in

Personal objectives:

of risk-reward system and uncertain tenures. We must begin to see teaching as a very highly-regarded profession considering that a teacher is a leader of change. The reality is that teachers as a group are in some measure politically empowered but, both as a group and as individuals,

ACTION The role of the teacher, under the NCF 2005, has been

professionally disempowered.

extended to a collaborator, facilitator and innovator. This

They also function within a framework where the system

just about technology or skills for the global economy. We

is fixed to produce decent enough results to keep working.

need to train the educators of today to perform these roles

They can only supplement the information in the book

and equip them with the tools and techniques of the new

with examples and analogies. Changing any part of the

pedagogical approach. The success of any effort to improve

framework they work within, would be a risk.

the quality of education is centrally dependent upon the

is because preparing students for the 21st century isn’t

teacher. Quality issues in education are crucially linked The teachers working in the public (government) school

to quality issues in teacher education (pre-service and

framework have another set of woes which include lack in

in-service). Educators should be capable of making their

budget and political interference in teacher appointment

classroom as dynamic as the world around us.

and transfer. The alternate schools realize the constraints and therefore, try to play within that zone through innovative pedagogy (observations from Anand Niketan Democratic School).


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What can they offer? Teaching methodology

figure 36: a school in rural India initiated by Ekal Vidya Foundation

figure 37: A private school in India

figure 38: Jain Heritage School, Bangalore

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Parents Chandra Prakash Kada Father of 10 year old girl All I wish from my child is that she is good at studies, is able to judge danger and protect herself and be empathetic to others. Mother of 3 (Kindergarten, 2nd, 5th) I pick up my young ones from school every afternoon. From the eldest one all I expect is to obey the rules and come home on time.

In search of good education, parents who can afford, choose

The middle class family is in constant struggle because of

private schools over government schools. Once they realise

their aspirations. They have an image to protect and maintain.

that even private schools aren’t offering the needful, they

Only their best selves are portrayed to the outsiders (even

resort to alternate schools, tuitions or supplementary

relatives). This also puts pressure on the children to excel in

programs. The aspirations of parents vary depending on the

schools and behave in a certain way. This might limit their

family’s financial status and cultural background. The child

need to express.

Personal objectives:

is expected to perform and meet the same. Amidst all the stakeholders in the education landscape, the parent is the most ignored even though they spend the most time with the students.

Something that all the families can provide their child is an

Mr. Chandra Prakash Kada, a research fellow at Eklavya

active learning environment where enquiry is encouraged.

shared his views based on his experiences with children of

Children who grow up in a protected environment face

different communities and economic background. According

difficulty when they later step out into the real world, and

to him, the lower economic class lives within a tightly knit

in situations where kids are already exposed to social

structure where children are spectators of everything within

issues, there must be a platform where they can share their

and beyond their understanding. Even if it is about the

experiences and reflect on it to build understanding.

father coming home drunk every night or them living on one meal per day on the dry days; they’ve developed their understanding of the world through what they’ve been exposed to at home. It is also because of the same reason that they are more open and vocal about their feelings.



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What can they offer? active learning environment

Children Multiplying the role of education to impart — Creativity Cultural Awareness Problem solving Innovation

Children are the most important beneficiaries of good

Civic engagement

education yet the ones with least power to shape it. Therefore it is important to make our system student-centric.





In India, where most of our population is below poverty

Learner centred teaching


line, it is hard to prioritise education before earning a

Ensuring social inclusivity

livelihood. Other social issues that deny education to most of our populaton have arose out of caste, class and gender differences. The practice of child labour in India and resistance to sending girls to school in several parts of the country remain as genuine concerns. However, our education policy as a provision for free education from 6-14 years, the first-generation learners face

Accountability Exploration Initiative Responsibility Leadership

a high probability of falling behind in school

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Target group

8-12 year olds A history of physical experiences and increased accommodation for processing situations. Capable of thinking abstractly and conceptualize, creating logical structures that explain his or her physical experiences. 60

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What do their parents do? Are they willing to send them to school? What languages do they speak? Can they access the internet? What is their routine? How are they connected to Eklavya? VAISHNAVI 12 YEAR OLD MIGRATED FROM BUNDELKHAND REGION

Vishnavi is 12 years old and she lives with her mother and grandmother in Bhopal. Her father pays them a visit on the weekends but she isn’t fond of him much because he was in jail for harrassing her mother. She and her friends take the local bus to come to school which costs them 5 rupees each. Sometimes when the bus is crowded, they get by even without buying the ticket. She needs a bigger uniform that her mother has been saving up for. Every Saturday, bhaiya didi from Eklavya come and conduct workshops with them in her all girls school. On these days, she likes to sit in one of the front rows with her three best friends. Vaishnavi is not afraid of sharing her opinions. image 39. Students of Sarojini Naidu Public Schools Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue



Mahesh is 8 years old and he belongs to the Bhariya tribal community of Patalkot. Both his parents are farmers by occupation. He attends the primary school that operates at 11 in the morning but his parents also enrolled him for the Shishka Protsahan Karyakram, where Sheila didi, from his tribe, teaches them. The 2 hour SPK starts at 9 in the morning when didi calls all the kids from the village o her way to the centre. Surya is usually feeding the goats at this time so he arrives around 9:30. Sometimes, his mother has more work for him. The farthest he’s been is to Tamia, for the weekly market, to sell vegetables with his father.

images 40, 41, 42. Shiksha Protsahan Kendra in Bhariyapani, Tamia, Madhya Pradesh


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images 43, 44, 45. Samrat at Anand Niketan Democratic School, Bhopal

Samrat is 10 years old and both her parents are working full time in the city. They drop her off to Anand Niketan on the scooter when it’s not raining. Samrat is quite acquainted with technology


and likes to play science experiments on youtube on her mother’s phone. She likes to translate stories into plays and perform with her friends. Her school has a library of its own, full of storybooks and activity resources. She also likes to have a game of ‘kushti’ with the girls after the classes, before her parents come to pick her up.

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Understanding the client Science Folktales Written by children Picture stories In order to propose a product that could be published


under Eklavya, there was a need to understand what their

Activity Books

team considers quality content. An understanding of the

Educational classics

market that Eklavya has built would also provide direction to the project. PITARA is a sales outlet conceived by Eklavya that makes available a range of carefully selected books and educational materials of selected publishers and organisations from India. It also disseminates the Eklavya materials. There is an online channel for the sale of Eklavya books too. Pitara is run in collaboration with various interested organizations and individuals in 18 cities in India with a goal to provide quality and meaningful reading materials, books and periodicals to children, parents and teachers.


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Level 1: Beginning to Read Level 2: Learning to Read Level 3: Reading Independently Level 4: Reading Proficiently Baby board books Picture books Bilingual Books Fiction Non fiction SEGMENTATION OF PUBLICATIONS

Deepali Shukla, Editor at Eklavya

Jalaj Verma Pitara Sales Head

What do you look for in a manuscript?

Who are your customers?


Our ‘big’ customers are organizations who make bulk orders to

“If it is an alphabet book, tell us how is it different

distribute in schools. These organizations have long time association

from the other alphabet books.”

with Eklavya and most of them are NGOs that work for smaller communities and their upliftment.


Most of the visitors at the store are either teachers or researchers. We

“Is the product raising any subjects we should be

also have an online channel for ordering books.

talking about?”

in the story and relate to it. Therefore be sensitive

On what platforms do you advertise Eklavya publications?

about details is important.”

Our magazines- Chakmak, Srote and Sandarbh help spread the word

Context “Our audience needs to understand the character

Narrative Quality “Are they talking down to the readers? Or opening themselves? Is it interactive?” Potential

amogst our existing readers. Most of our existing readers are educators. We also try to reach out to as many children through our workshops and activity sessions in schools around Bhopal. We also set up our stall at the World Book Fair in Delhi every year to get our name out there for the independent readers.

“Is there a possibility to extend the idea to form a part of something bigger? Perhaps a series or translating as an activity?” Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Case study The purpose of this exercise had been to identify the objective behind the identified books/magazines and detect the methodology used to achieve it. These lessons can then


Subject: Sex roles, Gender identity Method: dialogue + information Objective: To explore discussions and debate with the learners on Illustrated by Bindia Thapar

Written by Kamla Bhasin

issues of gender stereotyping

Jagori, 1999

Ladki kya hai Ladka kya hai

be used to guide or develop our content.

The book is divided into two parts, first half works by breaking our notion of gender. After it has played its part in breaking the stereotypes, it rebuilds our stock of information with facts. Kamla Bhasin is a feminist activist whose narrative style is quite interactive as it induces a response in the reader. This method works like a dialogue that prompts one to think. image 46. A spread from Ladki Kya Hai? Ladka Kya Hai?

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Subject: Tribal life, Education Method: storytelling Objective: Encouraging curiosity and establishing the need for education for reasoning It’s a story of Moina, the tribal girl, who asks ‘why’ alot— “Why do we have to follow orders?” “Why do I have to thank him?” She makes the reader questions traditions and facts— whether we follow the same traditions only because it is the done thing; because the parameters have been laid down or because those particular traditions or customs are good and beneficial for all concerned. It ends with Moina

The writer, Mahashweta Devi, is a Bengali social activist who works for the

Illustrated by Kanica Kini

Translated by Sushma

Written by Mahasweta Devi

rights and upliftment of the tribes.

Tulika Books, 2003

Kyun Kyun Ladki

finding herself with a book with answers to all her questions.

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Method: Storytelling, Poem, Activity, Thought experiments Objective: Encourage expression nestled in social and regional context

Chakmak was started in 1985 with the intention of developing thinking skills


Head editor: C N Subramanium

and encouraging expression within children. It was proposed to serve as an alternative to the international cartoons, comics, toys and superheroes which are defamed for stripping the kids off their local identity. It publishes a variety of materials created by adults, for the children; and by the children, as an act of self expression.

Illustrated by Durgabai Vyam

Written by Kancha Ilaiah

Subject: Dalit, Occupation

Eklavya Foundation, 2009

Eklavya Foundation, first Issue 1985

of India

Hamare samay mei shram ki garima

Chakmak (magazine)

Subject: Science, Social science, Maths, Art, Environment

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Method: information Objective: To realise the value of each profession Kancha Ilaiah is a political theorist and activist for dalit rights. In his book, addressed to the kids, he heeds us to develop a respect for the professions we consider ‘lesser’. The narrative surfaces the history of each of the professions, which are hereditarily passed on with the caste. The history emcompasses the process and struggles that the potter or weaver go through to deliver what we see today.

Accidents as an observer personal

Celebrations Festivals Marriages

Observing rituals


Loss of life

Celebrations Festivals Marriages

Things they don’t approve of

First times (the first time I got my head shaved)


a compilation of stories written by children

Lomdi aur Zameen 1989-2008 Aazadi ki Nukti 1997-2010 Pyara Laddu 1989-2007

Summer vacations

Subject: Literature, Fiction, Non fiction Method: Storytelling Eklavya conducts various workshops and sessions in schools and libraries where they prompt the kids to express their views or ideas through any medium. The content is then curated by the editors at Chakmak and published in the bi monthly magazine. ‘Lomdi aur Zameen’ is a product of those sessions and responses from readers that made it to the magazine. There are more books in the same series written by children in their regional language and compiled together. A quick read through all the books provided me an insight into what constitutes a day in the life of our readers— the children. It also gave an understanding of the context I’m working within.

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Thinking and learning Processing information Capacity to reason Judge or regard Expect, believe, or suppose Make inferences, decisions, or arrive at a solution Recall knowledge from memory Imagine or visualize Decide by pondering, reasoning or reflecting Conscious thought Ideas Mindfulness


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What is thinking? The operating skill with which intelligence acts upon experience When do we think?

Creative Thinking – refers to the ability to conceive new

Critical Thinking – refers to the ability to exercise

To perform tasks

and innovative ideas by breaking from established thoughts,

careful evaluation or judgment in order to determine

To make choices (even identify choices)

theories, rules, and procedures. It involves putting things

the authenticity, accuracy, worth, validity, or value of

To make an opinion

together in new and imaginative ways.


Divergent Thinking – refers to the ability to generate

Convergent Thinking – refers to the ability to put a number

creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions in

of different pieces or perspectives of a topic together in

an effort to find one that works. It involves bringing facts

some organized, logical manner to find a single answer. It

and data together from various sources and then applying

involves focusing on a finite number of solutions rather than

logic and knowledge to solve problems or make decisions.

proposing multiple solutions.

How do we think? Experts believe that neurons (nerve cells) come together to form an intricate net, known as a neuronet, in order to form thought patterns. A neuron alone can’t create thought. The staggering amount of neurons all constantly sending messages allow a bigger picture to come through. Do we all think the same way? Our decisions and choices depend on these variable parameters that differ from person to person- our history, our cognitive abilities and our environment; but it is

It starts from a common point and moves outward in diverging directions to involve a variety of aspects or perspectives.

processed in our brain in the same way EXISTING KNOWLEDGE → ASSUMED KNOWLEDGE → INFLUENCING FACTORS → DIAGNOSE Can we get better at thinking? Various psychologists and philosophers have identified and developed methods to enhance our thinking skills. (pg. 75)

Sequential (linear) Thinking – refers to the ability to process information in orderly prescribed manner. It involves a step-by-step progression where a response to a step must be obtained before another step is taken.

Holistic (nonlinear) Thinking – refers to the ability to see the big picture and recognize the interconnectedness of various components that form the larger system. It involves expanding your thought process in multiple directions, rather than in just one direction, and understanding a system by sensing its patterns. Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


On cognitive development Theories by experts on how children gather information and apply knowledge

DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE THEORY The swiss developmental psychologist, John Piaget’s (1896–1980) developmental stage theory deals with the nature of knowledge and how humans gradually come to acquire, construct and use it. Piaget states that cognitive development is the progressive reorganization of mental processes resulting from biological maturation and environmental experience; and it can be classified in 4 distinct stages in children: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, and formal. Sensorimotor stage: The infant builds an understanding of himself or herself and reality through interactions with the environment. Learning takes place via assimilation and accommodation. Preoperational stage: The child is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations. Concrete operations: As physical experience accumulates, accomodation is increased. The child begins to think abstractly and conceptualize, creating logical structures that explain his or her physical experiences. Formal operations: Child is capable of deductive and hypothetical reasoning. His or her ability for abstract thinking is very similar to an adult.

Stages of cognitive development


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We only think when we are confronted with problems. JOHN DEWEY

image 47. Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development



Lev Vygotsky, the Soviet psychologist, reiterated the belief that students’

For John Dewey, the American philosopher and psychologist, knowledge

cognitive development and construction of knowledge were not caused by

emerges only from situations in which learners have to draw them out of

their personal experiences and physical development alone but were also

meaningful experiences. Further, these situations have to be embedded

directly impacted by the students’ social surrounding, experiences as well as

in a social context, such as a classroom, where students can take part in

interactions with their peers and teachers. The concept of Zone of Proximal

manipulating materials and, thus, forming a community of learners who

Development (ZPD) was introduced by him. ZPD is the range of tasks that

construct their knowledge together. Dewey stresses on the involvement

a child can perform with the help and guidance of others but cannot yet

of teachers, in being more sensitive towards the culturally and liguistically

perform independently.

diverse background of the students, and the parents, in building an active

He also describes how ‘play’ can stretch the cognitive abilities of a child by

learning environment for the children.

performing roles that they may not be able to perform in real life.

Reinventing the role of teachers Zone of Proximal Development Role of ‘play’

Active learning Environment that is rich in interaction Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Educational Objectives “What Bloom had to offer his students was a model of an inquiring scholar, someone who embraced the idea that education as a process was an effort to realize human potential, and even more, it was an effort designed to make potential possible. Education was an exercise in optimism.”

BLOOM’S TAXONOMY In 1956, Benjamin Bloom (An American education psychologist) with collaborators Max Englehart, Edward Furst, Walter Hill, and David Krathwohl published a framework for categorizing educational goals: Taxonomy


of Educational Objectives, which classified the different learning objectives and skills that educators set for students. Bloom categorises learning into gradually increasing levels of sophistication, beginning with surface learning skills, such as recall of information, moving to deeper learning skills of assessment and evaluation. Typical


PRODUCE NEW OR ORIGINAL WORK: Design, assemble, construct, conjecture, develop, formulate, author, investigate JUSTIFY A STAND OR DECISION: Appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, critique, weigh DRAW CONNECTIONS AMONG IDEAS: Diffrentiate, organize, relate, compare, contrast, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test


USE INFORMATION IN NEW SITUATIONS: Execute, implement, solve, use, demonstrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch EXPLAIN IDEAS OR CONCEPTS: Classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate

learning outcomes for a module might map onto Bloom’s hierarchy, indicating the development of learning over the


course of the module. figure 48. Bloom’s taxonomy (c) Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching


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RECALL FACTS AND BASIC CONCEPTS: Define, duplicate, list, memorize, repeat, state

Thinking techniques There are various thinking techniques and methods we employ. A few of them are classics— like brainstorming, which one can find in every meeting room; and a few lesser used, like Edward De Bono’s six thinking hats. All these methods have different intentions that can help you with different issues you face in decisions making. This portion briefs us into most of them. Managing Blue Emotions Red Information White Creativity Green Optimistic response Yellow Discernment Black





Brainstorming sessions allow one to think

What, Why, When, Who, Where and How

5 Whys is a technique to probe for the root

The six thinking hats is a set of six different

cause of a problem. One needs to ask

functions and roles. It allows the thinker

without any practical constraints. The main intent behind the ideas should be to adhere

The Six W’s, are questions whose answers

“why?” and each answer forms the basis

to detach the idea or opinion from himself

to the problem statement. The vialbility

are considered basic in information-

for the next question. One might need to go

and look at it from different angles.

of ach idea can be later discussed upon

gathering. They constitute a formula for

further than 5 times or lesser depending on

but brainstorming is a divergent approach

getting the complete story on a subject

the problem.

METHOD: interrogation

METHOD: interrogation

INTENTION: building holistic understanding

INTENTION: explore the cause-and-effect

that precedes it. When relationships and links are developed between the ideas, it is called mind mapping.

METHOD: role playing INTENTION: perspective building

METHOD: divergent thinking INTENTION: exploration

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Mind map of thinking


image 49. generating relationships around thinking Ankita Thakur ¡ National Institute of Design

While the knowledge of all the mentioned techniques and methods enable us efficiency in our tasks, we also need to improve the quality of our beliefs, judgements and decisions, which is where philosophy can intervene. To learn philosophy is to learn some of the most vital skills for the modern age: critical thinking, tolerance for opposing viewpoints, and public speaking to name a few. We also need to understand what good reasoning is supposed to look like, how to distinguish good versus bad arguments, how to read for the argument, how to engage in

Do we need to acquaint them with the process? Or introduce different tools and techniques?

constructive, rational debate with an audience that is open and responsive to reason and debate.

who is them?

Philosophy can help children make better sense of their educational experiences by reflecting on relationships among different areas of enquiry. The best part about it is that philosophy isn’t something that needs to be taught to the children afresh, it is an instictive attitude that needs to be nurtured and directed.

Or provide a platform to practice their skills? Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Exercises in thinking While I was acquainting myself with the tools and methods


of thinking, I’d try and grab every opportunity to practice it

E÷Úk…‰ EÚ… BEÚ n˘x…

with the students. Rudrashish from the editorial team was

All the spreads were separated and presented as individual

assigned the responsibility of testing a 28-pages picture

images to kids (like cards). They were then asked to arrange

A Dog’s Day

book called A Dog’s Day by Narendran Nair. The book had to

the images in a sequence in order to generate a story.

Narendran Nair

be tested with the children before it could be published.

xÉ®äúxpùxÉ xÉɪɮú

In this case, because the images have been rearranged by


the child, the reasoning would be already established and

The book narrates a day in the life of a dog in hand painted

the focus is on creating the story rather than ‘figuring’ out

medium. The default method of testing suggested by Rudra

one and the children are more involved in the process since

had been to print a dummy of the book and present it to the

they are a part of the ideation process.

the narrative would be natural rather than forced. Also here,

class. Once everyone has gone through it, everyone could share with us their version of the story . It was discussed that this method might require the students to fit a narrative to match the sequence. Each

9 789 381 33 736 3

narrative might still be different from the other but we are testing the kids instead of testing the book. The method also appears to be more of an exercise in articulation rather than story-making.


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image 50. A Dog’s Day by Narendran Nair


DUMMY PRESENTED figure 51. default method



figure 52. proposed method

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Introducing Philosophy WHY INTRODUCE PHILOSOPHY? Children are born with natural inquisitiveness that one must help cultivate through direction and guidance. Teachers and parents, both are responsible for fostering their spirit of enquiry. Through introducing Philosophy at an earlier level in school or/and at home, children would be able to start looking for reasons on their own. This, in turn would enrich their learning process in school and reshape their understanding and beliefs of the society.

Philosophy is to be studied, not for the sake of any definite answers to its questions, since no definite answers can, as a rule, be known to be true, but rather for the sake of the questions themselves; because these questions enlarge our conception of what is possible, enrich our intellectual imagination, diminish the dogmatic assurance which closes the mind against speculation... THE PROBLEMS OF PHILOSOPHY, BERTRAND RUSSELL


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How to teach philosophy It was essential to know what constitutes philosophy before I could deliver it. While I was onto this conquest I met Ebrar Bachivan, majoring in Philosophy, who acquainted me to the methods of philosophising— principles of logic, method of dialogue and identifying logical fallacies.

Not “This is what philosophy is,” but rather, “This is what philosophers do.”

Big Ideas for Little Kids by Thomas E. Wartenberg cleared

The book illustrates philosophical dialogues conducted y a

how doing Philosophy with children does not need an

professional philosopher and eight children in a school in

understanding of philosophy and and is nor about delivering

Edinburgh. The philosopher, Gareth B. Matthews, believes

the concepts of great philosophers. It is about giving

that children are far more able and eager to think abstractly

children the opportunity to discuss open questions among

than adults generally recognize.

themselves. The only function of the facilitator is to assist the children so that they can have a productive discussion with

With the example of these dialogues, the writer invites us to

one another.

join him in this recognition and to consider how we might

“So when we teach children philosophy—and this method is

and respectfully as he himself has been able to.

suitable to other subjects as well—we seek to mobilize their

This documentation of his dialogues with the children is not

natural curiosity and help them discover, express, and support

only a standing proof of the abstract thinking and logical

their own answers to questions that concern them. For this

reasoning children are capable of but also offers us a model

reason, I call this method of education learner-centered

of teaching philosophy

teaching to emphasize the centrality it accords to the children as natural investigators and learners.”

respond to children’s philosophical remarks as seriously


BIG IDEAS FOR LITTLE KIDS, 2009 THOMAS E. WARTENBERG Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Critical inquiry through storybooks PICTURE BOOKS

There has been a lot of discussion about the children’s picture books having more philosophical content than the adult books. In any adult book, everything is defined and the scope of imagination is very limited in terms of extending the idea beyond a particular point. Whereas, a picture book has the ability to be perceived in different ways depending upon the reader.

image 53. The Big Orange Spot by Daniel Pinkwater

image 54. Harold and the Purple Crayon by Crockett Johnson

image 55. The Butter Battle Book by Dr. Seuss

figure 56. The Lorax by Dr. Seuss

A picture book allows children to make philosophical issues tangible. These might be presented by the illustrator intentionally or as an alternate thought, metaphorically or hidden in layers— these books provide a wide range of philosophical concepts.


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image 57. an illustration from Frog and Toad Together by Arnold Lobel

image 58. cover Frog and Toad Together


it is important to try to get every student involved in the

Lessons from experts who practice philosophy with

discussion the facilitator begins with questions that relate

children through literature.

to children’s own experience, which can give students a way to participate, even if they are not yet ready to enter the

Dragons and Giants by Arnold Lobel raises questions of

abstract discussions completely.

bravery and courage. As the session precedes, questions surface- What do brave look like? What does it mean to be

Having a lesson plan at hand helps direct the discussion.

brave? What qualities would you attribute to a brave person? Does brave have to be brave all the time? ...and so on. In developing the questions, there’s a conscious effort to present the individual questions in a logical sequence. The idea is to begin with more specific and concrete questions, and then to move to more abstract and general ones. Since

Source: Matthews, Gareth. Revised by Marissa Saltzman. Guidelines for Philosophical Discussion of Dragons and Giants, 2016, retreived from url DragonsAndGiantsFromFrogAndToadTogether

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After a dip into the tools and techniques implied to teach philosophy to children, I discovered that all of these root from one method- The Socratic Dialogue. Whatever the tool may be— a story, a poem, an example from real life, a toy- all of them follow the same method of dialogue that is directed by the facilitator.


his or her own experience, which purports to embody or otherwise to illustrate the universal in question. The group

Socratic dialogue is a formal method by which a small

may freely question each person’s example, to further its

group (5-15 people), guided by a facilitator, finds a precise

understanding of that particular experience. Examples

answer to an open question (e.g. “What is courage?”, from

should be first-person accounts, closed in time, not too

Dragons and Giants)

emotional, and as simple as possible. Even the simplest

Since the Socratic dialogue is neither a debate nor any other kind of competition, there are no winners and

examples can lead to considerable complexity under dialogical analysis.

losers. The method involves group decision-making by

The group then chooses one of the examples as the

consensus, which is distinctly unlike most other modalities

focus of the dialogue. The chosen example becomes the

of group function. Thus every relevant question, doubt,

principal vehicle for the process. An example having been

insight, observation or objection offered by a participant

chosen, the person who offered it then gives as detailed

is considered by the group as a whole, until everyone

an account as possible, which is subject at each step to

is satisfied by the deliberation. No person is on trial in

questions by the group, which seeks to elaborate and

a Socratic dialogue; rather, an impersonal truth is the

understand the example in as much detail as necessary.

subject of a quest. The participants are bound by rules of

The facilitator transcribes, numbers, and displays each

rational discourse. The group itself will offer evidence, will

step of the example, so that the group has a written

decide what evidence it wishes to weigh, and will produce

“history” that it can continuously consult.

and examine all its witnesses from within. The Socratic dialogue actively produces both the equivalent of a trial

Following this, the group must decide on a definition of

and a verdict.

integrity that adequately describes the thing they have located in the example. The consensual articulation of

There are three levels (or orders) of discourse in a Socratic

this definition brings the group to the narrow waist of the

dialogue: first, the discourse of the dialogue itself; second,

hourglass. From here the dialogue begins to broaden.

strategic discourse about the direction or shape of the

The working definition is re-applied to each of the other

dialogue as it unfolds; third, meta-discourse about the

examples, which were not elaborated but which have been

rules governing the dialogue. The facilitator plays no

summarized, transcribed and displayed. If the definition is

contributory role in the actual first-order discourse;

truly universal, then it will suit each example; if not, then it

he simply transcribes the proceedings at each stage,

must be modified accordingly.

according to the prescribed structure. At the final stage, toward the bottom of the hourglass,

image 59. Socrates


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One begins at the top, with the universal question under

the group will then offer counter-examples, trying to

consideration (e.g. “What is integrity”). Each member of

undermine or falsify their definition. Modifications are

the group is then asked to summarize an example from

again made if necessary; if not, then the group will have succeeded in its quest.

Extract If teaching philosophy does not require the knowledge of philosophical ideas of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and self, then what does it include? What are the things I must know?

Teacher as initiator and regulator, not as dispenser of knowledge.





Being able to distinguish between

Learn to distinguish between open and

Where does knowledge come from and how

Understanding what a perspective is

cleverness and wisdom

close questions—

should we classify it? Empathising with alternate points of view

How many days in a week? How much money Decisions and choices Making judgements and providing justification Evaluating and Reflecting

do you have in your wallet? What is love? Can

Are some types of knowledge more reliable

computers think? What makes us happy?

than others?

Factors that comprise a perspective

Open questions are the kind we are

In what ways can we tst the reliability of our

Evaluating different perspectives

interested in, because these can be debated,


and tend to lead to interesting discussions

Reflecting and re-evaluating

and expand our understanding of things. We might discuss how to establish the truth of a closed question, but there is not much room for discussion beyond this.

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Eklavya in action

A visit to the Shishka Protsahan Kendras, a community based learning support system, in and around Tamia

During the time we were revising and refining the project proposal, the Eklavya team of editors organised a field trip to Tamia to observe the Shiksha Protsahan Kendras. SPK is a community based learning support system to assist first generation learners in their studies and help them overcome their sense of alienation from the school system. These (SPKs) function in a predominantly tribal area where education is a relatively new input in the lives of the people. These learning centres, set up with community support and mostly located in spaces provided by them, have a facilitator appointed by the community. They function for two hours in the mornings before the school begins and for a couple of hours after school ends. We attended the SPKs, independently, around tribal villages of Tamia. It was my first experience of watching an Eklavya publication in action. In this case, Khushi Khushi.


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Khushi Khushi is a innotive experiment in primary education which was developed under the Prathamik Shiksha Karyakram.

CURRICULUM AND CONTENT The curriculum takes into account current thought and theories on various aspects of education: child development, language learning, mathematical abilities, etc and is phased in a sequential manner on a hierarchy derived from a Piagetian framework of development of abilities. It also took into account the socio-economic conditions and cultural traditions of the learners, the local environment and the physical and administrative conditions of schools. DESIGN AND PRODUCTION Khushi Khushi mostly comprises of activities that have to be addressed by the reader directly, and therefore, every SPK ensures to provide one book to each child. As earlier explained, SPKs are set in the rural areas where some facilities (printing in this case) might be unavailable and services like post, might take longer than usual. Therefore the content in the book has been kept basic to the core, with single line organic drawings and handwritten body copy. This allows for easy imitation of the content on a larger scale by the facilitator in case of shortage of books. Production at the publishers as well as xerox is cheaper since it is single color linework. This in turn brings down the making cost of the product.

image 60, 61, 62, 63. Khushi Khushi, class I-IV

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The SPK session at Balmheri village was an insightful one with all the efforts of Eklavya- in curriculum development, research and publication, and teachers training, coming together to make an impact. 8 am The facilitator greets us at the Sarva Shiskha Abhiyan Primary School centre and we leave our bags inside to call the enrolled students of the village. 8:20 am The facilitator makes the children sit in groups of 6-8 and takes attendance. The grouping is done according to their literacy and numeracy skills so each group can proceed with one activity from the ‘khushi khushi’ pertaining to their skill level. 8:30pm I join the group that seems to be around 5-7 years of age. They are asked to proceed to page 2 of Khushi Khushi (for class 1). The facilitator narrates the poem to the kids with actions and encourages them to repeat after her. This is where the role of a facilitator starts.

image 64. a page from Khushi Khushi, standard I



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Facilitator narrating the poem. Explaining the motion with actions. Kids reciting the poem.


Facilitator prompts to count ‘fal’. Kids identify the fruits. Differentiate the leaves.


Asks to identify the number from the number cards.


explains the formation of the number and the count.


Asks more number questions from the same poem.


Building on the kids’ experiences to prompt answers.


Proceeds to word identification.


Word formation from letters.

90 minutes session 1 illustration, 1 poem Understanding environment and related motions and sounds. Number identification and count. Identifying differences in form Assimilating findings with real life experiences. Word and letter identification.

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


INSIGHTS The session is highly dependent on the proficiency of the facilitator. The books and other resource materials only act as tools The facilitator is able to multiply what the tool (khushi khushi in this case) delivers and provide adequate scaffolding to the children to push their skills.

images 65, 66, 67. pictures from Balmheri Kalan


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Revising the proposal Throughout the project, there was much doubt about the objective of the project. Whether there is an issue that has been identified and needs to be dealt with or whether it’s a leap of faith that the designer would find a problem or an opportunity along their way. As I was trodding along, carrying out my research about how children learn and respond, I learnt a lot from the field. There were many instances where it was felt that the system (of printed content, teaching pedagogy and community managment) was just adequate and efficient in its functioning. It was a result of the immediate feedback from the field that had refined it to this level of adequacy. It was perhaps best for me to absorb from it and deliver a product with my understanding of what EKlavya aims to do.

It began with asking the right questions

Instead of asking Is there a gap? Or can it be done better? ask what can I, as a graphic designer, gather from my observations and insights and provide to the field, that will make an impact. Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue



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creating a space for a dialogue that equips children with the tools and techniques of thinking.

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Idea model While the discovery phase acquainted me with the objectives and challenges of the education system, through exemplifying a few interventions, define phase was a deeper investigation into how these interventions are carried and applied in the field. This investigation was a lesson rooted in the context of Eklavya— its readers, researchers, products and pedagogical approaches. With its strong hold in the field of teachers’ training and content building (educational material), Eklavya is already making impact in the field.

The publication department is not an independent content generator but an extension of the facilitation programmes taking place under Eklavya. The richness of the teaching/learning material does not surface until the facilitator plays his or her role in delivering it. With this understanding, the project got more focussed into developing a product that considers this scaffolding that comes with every reading/learning material produced under Eklavya (eg. Khushi Khushi).

development of the product, from content generation to

realised how critical thinking is practised in the field.

preparing the dummy. It was Eklavya’s methodology that

In the context of my degree project, it manifested

was planned to be taken forward to yield a product that

into initiating or generating a dialogue. Thus, it was

satisfies our objective.

renamed- Design for Dialogue.


The following pages of the document cover the

The intent of the project got clearer after it was

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Direct interaction with the target audience (Field programmes) Learner Centred Teaching

Weekly workshops (Chakmak)

Action based

Curriculum research

Trained facilitators from various programmes — Hoshangabad Science Teaching Programme, Shiksha Protsahan Kendra,

Organizations/NGOs Educators Alternate education institutes Independent Readers Shiksha Protsahan Kendras Library programme

figure 69. ‘Scaffolding’ for the product to be developed

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue



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ideate. conceptualize. explore. iterate. develop. test.

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Ideation aligning and comparing all the possibilities




Compilation of philosophical perspectives by kids

What if...

Examples from history

...the animals dictated us

The proposed idea could include instances from history

What is love?

A collection of prompts narrating hypothetical scenarios

Why do we get angry? Are we wiser than generations to come? INTENTION Sensitization and perspective building. PROS Opens up the readers to a variety of perspectives Can be used for independent reading (increased market) CONS Defines user age group (reading age and above)

....the toys started talking were invisible

which could either have responses compiled, or just ask the reader to delivers his own. INTENTION practicing imaginative thinking PROS Encourage opinions and reasoning hypothetical scenario building Holds ability to be multiplied as classroom activity CONS Inability to relate findings to actual environment


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where critical thinking opened up new ventures for science and other fields. For example- discovering that the Earth isn’t flat or Galileo discovering that the Earth revolves around the sun (and how he used mathematics as proof of his findings). INTENTION Sensitization and perspective building. PROS Narrates application of philosophy Can be used for independent reading (increased market) CONS Stagnant as a product (In terms of multiplying its use) Defines user age group (reading age and above)


A non linear narrative Every story has a point of perspective that is defined by the narrator. This makes it a linear narrative. The proposed idea is to create a non linear narrative that changes point of perspective from character to character as the story precedes. As the plot reveals, the readers would figure 69: linear narrative

have built perceptions according the the first narrator and every new narrator would only owe to that perception being moulded or broken. INTENTION Understanding perspectives PROS Equips the children with a new skill. The product can then be used as an initiator for a classroom discussion wherein personal experiences are shared and the class reflects on it by considering all perspectives. CONS The product leads a one way narration which reduces the

figure 70: proposed narrative style

interaction with the users.

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue



A self guided story The idea of the self guided story has been employed before in a couple of children’s titles, most famous being The Goosebumps. Goosebumps is the children’s horror book series which introduced this method where there is more than one ending to the story. The series is called- Choose your own horror. Because of the choices the reader makes the plot changes to give different ending everytime you change your mind. The proposed product uses the same method to put decision making into practice. INTENTION A platform for active decision making PROS Involves the reader in the process Can be used for independent reading (wider audience) CONS Reasoning might not be practised. Limitations with extending the resource to a classroom activity since the quality of content is stagnant.


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figure 71. Structure of proposed book

Narrowing down the approach

ACTION BASED PRODUCT In the context of Eklavya, I saw an opportunity in creating a product that could be delivered, refined and extended by Eklavya itself, through its field programs and the

Approach I

trained set of facilitators. The audience for this product would remain unchanged. Action based implies to the application and hence practice of skills acquired through the facilitator or the book, through the book itself. It is the method used to achieve the objective. For this approach one needs to deliver prompts to induce response, or simply create a platform, without a plot or character, to bring people together for a dialogue.


Approach II

If we look at the bigger picture, the need for critical thinking still needs to be understood by a wider audience. This calls for a product that can acquaint the readers with the process of thinking, how people make choices and take decisions, form beliefs and make judgments, how vulnerable are we to errors arising from cognitive biases and the evolved architecture of human reasoning. This product can be addressed to all age groups, whether or not they are currently linked to Eklavya.

image 72. notes from guide visit, Tarun Deep Girdher

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Content building What issues should constitute the content? The workshops were conducted to identify the issues the children could relate to. Since a dialogue had to be sparked (objective of project), there was an opportunity to consciously pick up a subject that concerns everyone, including the reader. Inequality Disability Gender Religion Community Profession Bullying Race/Ethnicity Rejection Exclusion RIghts Prejudice Diversity


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Workshop 1

MUSKAAN LOCATION: BHOPAL AFFILIATION BOARD: INDEPENDENT NUMBER OF STUDENTS: 110 STAFF MEMBERS: 16 In order to develop content, workshops were planned with children belonging to different groups. The first workshop was help at Muskaan, the NGO that aims to provide education to the urban poor in and around Bhopal. Muskan also works across slums, catering to the immediate needs of the community. Muskan has an independent school building outside the city image 73. Muskaan School, Bhopal

which provides free education to its students. Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


18 September, Muskaan Workshop 1 - IDENTITY CHART Number of participants: 18 TASK 6th standard students of Muskaan were asked to highlight what they think ‘defines them’ through drawing or writing. Post this exercise they’d be asked to swap their bodies with another batchmate and tell us what tags would remain. To explain them the exercise, a portrait was drawn and identity ‘tags’ were added. The task took 40 minutes to 1 hour to complete, with assistance. RESPONSE Most of the children identified themselves through the things they like— their favorite food, hobby etc. These are the things one has made conscious choice for therefore the second part of the exercise failed to be even presented.


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image 74. responses from the workshop


The researcher had already built certain expectations for the kind of responses. The actual responses did not fall into the same line of thought and hence, the preparation to initiate a dialogue failed. If one already had a certain kind of response in mind then perhaps, there is no need for research.


Executing the exercise as an example might have limited the response of the children to those very ‘tags’.


The task of writing or drawing or any other media deviated from carrying out the main action- the dialogue.

image 75. responses from the workshop Degree Project · Design for Dialogue



September 23, 2017 Session 1 Number of participants: 45

building, we lead on to the example.

Yes, everyone agreed

How many of you have travelled in the MyBUS?

On what basis do we think so?

7-10 hands raise Handicapped and old need more care. More than women,

The session at Sarojini Naidu Public School was conducted with little preparation, with the purpose of initiating a

Have you noticed the ladies reserved seats? How do you feel

Their problem is something that could get really diffcult with

dialogue in the classroom. The only tool of inquiry was

about it?

all the motion of the bus.

picked up from their daily lives- The local bus, mode of

It feels nice.

travel for most of the girls at Sarojini Naidu. I introduce myself as a designer who makes books, and who

men? Don’t they want to sit too?

is seeking content for a new book. The workshop’s intent is

Yes but they pinch and push ladies. We don’t do it.

to realise what issues the society faces and what opinions do you, the students, have about it. After some bond


The problem with women face is something we can deal Why do you think there’s a reservation for women and not

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with. It is not a physical problem. We settle with this example because more parameters needed to be introduced. so another example is shared from

I tell them I’m going be asking a lot of WHYs during the

the movie ‘Deewar’.

dicussion because that will help build reasons for the story. Continuing the discussion I asked them- and why do you

“Main phenke huye paise nahi uthata”

think only this basis for reservation? Should the seats be for

(I don’t accept money thrown down at me)

handicapped as well? Replace the ladies seats with them?

Why doesn’t he pick it up?

since there was no less or more that could be measured on a single parameter. MALE because they’ve got power. But imagine a weak little man, I can still picture him beat his wife up. It keeps happening around us. The counter argument did close the claim but gave another direction to the discussion- LINKING the parameters MONEY – POWER – SUPPORT (succeeded by a talk about how age and power relation becomes inverse with older age) a girl shooted out a word- “himmat!” or COURAGE

image 76. Sarojini Naidu Public School Bhopal, 7th standard

If there’s courage you can fight for anything. However no response.

My sister beats me but mum says it’s okay, she is little.

Alright, why does the other man throws money instead

They say nothing to my brother if he plays all day but I have

of giving it in hand?

to work. Why? I think because he is a boy.

Perhaps he is more rich and privilaged. He considers too

My grandparents keep taunting my mother and

high of himself to be dealing with ‘lesser’ men.

they even used to practice black magic to punish her. For what? Because I’m their only child

So is money a criteria for someone to look down upon another?


Yes, the one who owns more, has more power therefore

We start a discussion about the words listed down.

everyone abides by him.

When does one think that he has authority over the other? Does it depend on these words?

MONEY, I put the word up on the blackboard Can you recollect any incidents of injustice or inequality?

Discussion started and everyone settled at the idea that one with MORE of the parameter (word) thinks they have authority, but in the case of gender, we felt stuck

old you are, whether you are rich or not, it is independent of any of these parameters. From this talk we jump to the story- Who will bell the cat? as an analogy to her statement. To delve in more into what all parameters could lead to inequality I shoot a question- when was the last time you had a fight or witnessed one? A lot of experiences were share after this questions. Most of them, rooting from anger. Why do you think we get angry? when someone does wrong when someone or something is disturbing us when I don’t get what I want

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


when people are jealous of you so they do bad things to you (the village dwellers-city residents difference story) We add CITY/VILLAGE on the board How do you analyse which one has the authority? Kids tell me that village provides food for the city as well as themselves. City provides amenities. They both provide us things that can’t be compared. Where do you feel more uneasy, city or village? There’s water and electricity issue in my village. The city has too much traffic and pollution. So why do the city people tend to look down upon the village people, a girl asked. Because they think they know more. We add EDUCATION to the parameter. I feel both are interdependent, both the city and vvillage. Both RESPECT and sustain each other. Why can’t we do that for gender as well? Suddenly there’s an aha moment.

image 77. Compilations from the first session


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image 78. documentation of the session Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Shaping the idea The trigger had been identified and the method had been tested. It was time to make the idea concrete to test its validity in the field. With the current content, decisions were to be made on how to project them.

Sequence of events could be explained with or without a story but prompts are necessary to trigger response.

Is it a story or just prompts?

The narrator could either be the teacher or the independent reader

Who is the speaker/narrator? Should actual scenario be posed? or a hypothetical scenario? Which one would the kids be able to respond better?

A parallel universe OR a village so far away it doesn’t know how our society functions OR

How must the narrative grow?

Creation a new world by the reader

Could scale up from self to community to environment


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the shape of a few ideas

image 79. The Sneetches by Dr. Seuss

image 80. Let’s Talk About Race by Julius Lester

image 81. What Do You Do With a Problem by Kobi Yamada

The Sneetches portrays a hypothetical world with

Julius Lester himself is the narrator in the book where he

The abstract idea of the narrative has been made tangible

metaphorical parameters picked up from actual world. Dr.

builds his cultural identity— his colour, his place of birth,

through illustrations in the book by Kobi Yamada. With the

Seuss narrates a closed story which has the potential to be

the shape of his eyes, etc. The book seeks to develop

absence of a subject, the narrative feels rather poetic.

carried onward as a discussion about differences.

an understanding of different ethnicities and through a conversation sort of narrative, asks the reader to identify and value their own.

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Visuals as triggers (What) Philosophy + (for) kids + (through) graphic design figure 82. structure of the book


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This section must be written in easily comprehendible language for use by the students as well


the facilitator

These scenarios were listed and translated into visuals based on the dialogue with the girls of Sarojini


Naidu School. Each scene attempts to highlight an issue.

This is the section (1) in action. It is the task of the facilitator to ensure


this process is followed.


multipyling the use of the book

figure 83. structure of the book

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue



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01 Building scenarios SUBJECT The workshop at Sarojini Naidu helped identify the issues we could take up as subjects for out narrative. But the scenarios could not be directly translated into images since they are not inducing questions by themselves. There was a need to ‘twist’ the plot for the reader to identify the twist and talk about it. Generating the scenarios took a good amount of reverse, imaginative thinking. The final scenarios were revised after back and forth testing with colleagues at Eklavya and students of Sarojini Naidu Public School.

ILLUSTRATION At this level, the illustrations were kept flat, the emphasis was on decoding the action in question. Landscape orientation had been chosen because of the nature of illustrations that figure 84. generating scenarios

were planned to depict each scenario.

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue



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02 Introducing characters In order to link all the images in the narrative, something common had to be established. This called for a character to bind as well as arrange the finalised scenarios. It was realised that just one character would mean only a single perspective. Therefore, two more were added to add variety of responses to the scenario in question. The naming and choice of attire for each of the character was conscious, making it more relatable with the readers.

ILLUSTRATION The best possible angle for each scenario was discovered at this stage.

left, image 85. Exploring perspectives for each scenario top, image 86. Character design

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


THE EVOLUTION OF CHARACTERS The characters were developed as per the requirement at different platforms. After the scenarios were fixed, the priority was to test each of them within the students. Post the session with children, I explored the best frame to depict the actions and expressions with clarity. The illustrations were then developed to be shared with the editorial team before I could begin working on the final ones. The final characters took shape post the feedback from the children and the mentors.

image 87. The basic sketch only depicting the characters and action, that was prepared with the intention of sharing in the classroom


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image 88. Exploring different camera angle for the same scenario. The characters were also defined in this one.

image 89. A frame with a suitable angle was frozen and the drawing style for the characters was revised to reflect child-like innocence. This was fixed as a template to develop rendering style later.

image 90. The final characters

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


image 91. Laying out the scenarios on spreads


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03 Pagination SUPPLEMENTARY CONTENT Since the book isn’t intended to be read like a traditional story-book, a foreward was more than necessary. Also, a brief ‘how to use the book’ was required so the reader understands the intent of the content and can make the most out of it. Also, since the story progresses from one scenario to another, care was taken to reveal each scenario in its totality. Pagination was required at this stage for this very reason.

PRODUCTION After pagination, the available sizes the book could be printed in, were explored with Indu (Eklavya production team). The illustrations were drafted a little large than the original print size to be refined later.

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


image 92. Laying down the content on spreads


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Initially, the ‘how to use this book’ section was integrated in the narrative as the story proceeds (image 93 and 94). Later, it was decided that we need to share with the readers what to expect out of the book, in the very beginning, so they can make the most out of it. Including this information within the narrative complicates the flow.

image 93. Developing copy for ‘how to use this book’.

image 94. revising ‘how to use this book’ to make the instructions concise.

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


from. Muskaan suggested we must take lessons from the

Jaya’s favorite marble that looked like emerald, took a long

world we live in and use those lessons to make this new

sweep and hid behind the bushes. It was her lucky marble

world. Jaya and Rashid both agreed.

so she asked her friends to help her find it. It was a gift from her grandfather, along with other toys from his childhood.

They sat down by the rock to discuss what do they like

Do you also own a special something? What is it and what

about their world, and what they don’t...

makes it special?

. dialogue

They searched the bush but it wasn’t there, they kept



...I think maybe fruits and flowers can act as currency, you

...parted the bushes and the marble rolled out on its own

can’t cheat with it. It will take the care and time it needs to.

to the nearest tree and stopped. “Thank you for coming

It will also make us all more lovable.

here”, it said. “This is where I belong, a land untouched by

Can you 3 benefits of Muskaan’s idea?

humans. Since you’re the first ones here, will you help me

Script 1

Building the narrative

Jaya, Muskaan and Rashid were playing marbles when

operate it?” Everyone happily agreed, they always had fun

Everyone seemed to have a point. Maybe they could use

playing ghar ghar, it should be similar.

your help.

We should start from scratch! eliminate everything

What would you suggest as an alternate to money? Why? ....

manmade, said Rashid.


But Jaya thought it’d be helpful if we make it like our own world, with a government and laws, it should function alright. But then she thought of the poverty, the riots and XYZ, and stopped . We would have to read our books in the dark if there was no electricity, we might still be consuming poisonous fruits, It’d take us hours to reach school if there was no wheel. These all were gifts from our world history we are still benefitting

The details in the narrative seeks to derive response from the reader, at every possible instance. Also, there are hints of a lot many techniques introduced here (six thinking hats) which makes the narrative too long to keep the user interested. Instead, the designer could focus on just one technique Developing method of dialogue


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Jaya Muskaan and Rashid have entered a new world while

Meet Muskan, Rashid and Jaya who like to play marbles every

looking for their lost lucky marble...

summer evening in their mohalla. “Don’t go too far”, aunty


would always tell them. but today, the marble slipped too far.


It ran from the road,

...they aren’t sure whether they want to stay or go back to

to the far end of the park,

their world. So they decided to let you to peep into the other

and towards the jungle.

world and help them make up their mind..

Following the marble they discovered a new world. a little different. They decided to step into this new world.

Jaya thought it was too kind of him

Following the marble, they ended up in the vegetable market

Rashid was skeptic about them

As a vegetable seller, would you accept songs as payment?

and Muskaan, well Muskaan can never say no to tea!

Why? Under what circumstances would you accept songs as payment?..

Would you have it? Is it fair to have half of what he made for himself? If someone in a suit offered you tea, would you take it? What would make you trust a person? DO you think people lie on purpose? Is it bad? Is it ever okay to lie? Do you believe whatever is written in the newspaper? Why? Do you believe in dinosaurs? Why do you trust your sources? If you believe in God, how do you know he exists? ...continued

Too many questions makes the direction of dialogue very

Final Script

Revised script

With a sky and land like ours, and people like us, it was still BEGGARS ON THE STREET -offering you tea

. . . ...the marble finally stops at the secret entrance from where it entered. They pick it up and think of the choice they have now- to stay or to return? Where would you rather be?

The questions could be reframed to encourage response

strict. The discussion needs to be lead on according to response from the children. Responses by the characters might affect the reader’s perspective. Therefore, llustrations are enough as it leaves the response open for interpretation.

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


image 95. Spread 8-9, introduction spread set in the actual world.

image 96. Spread 10-11, the portal to the ‘other’ world. The difference in the two worlds depicted through saturation of colors.


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image 97. Spread 12-13, the ‘how to use this book’ section

image 98. Spread 14-15, the homeless who shares tea

image 99. Spread 16-17, the lion with a salary

image 100. Spread 18-19, the song barter

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image 101. Spread 20-21, reserved seats for the fat

image 102. Spread 22-23, the teacher role reversal


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image 103. Spread 24-25, the decision.

Review Editorial Team

Tarun Deep

Tultul Biswas

The editorial team kept a critical view of each scenario. The

Tarun helped provide a zoomed out view of the project

The concept was shared with Tultul a little before the

intention behind each scenario was discussed and tested.

and suggested on developing an alternate product that

prototype was created. At that time I was figuring out

For scenarios which weren’t clear, scenarios were rebuilt

everyone could use. The product could aim to educate

the narrative style for the book. Tultul explained how a

keeping the intention intact.

the readers on how thinking takes place and how can

particular age group responds to a certain tone of speech.

one enhance their skills. A product like this one would

Therefore, effort should be made to involve the readers in

be accepted and consumed by a wider audience.

the narrative as equals and not as someone who need to be educated.

I planned to continue with the previous concept since it fit well within the context of Eklavya despite of its

On the compilation of ideas generated from the workshop,

limited audience.

Tultul shared how Eklavya would carry it forward. Removing my apprehension of whether the idea would

However, a dirty prototype was designed and developed

work or not, since I’m not an expert in the field the book

for the alternate idea since the prerequisite research was

concerns, she suggested that it could be put forward as a

already covered.

documentation of my experiences with the girls at SNPS. The product can then act as tool for capacity building amongst teachers and facilitators.

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Illustration Eklavya has always encouraged a hand-drawn or tangible illustration style over digital media. The styles range from 2D watercolor illustrations to mixed media. Black and white illustrations of Karen Haydock are very intriguing as they have a tradional feel about them. The textures and detailing brings out the most of the single color reproductions. Below, I have tried to sum up the characteristics of illustrations published under Eklavya •

Handmade (Organic, textured)

Social-regional diversity (complexion, attire, posture)

Relatable environment — rural and urban setting in India (architecture, foliage etc.)

traditional ornamentation (specially in case of folktales; patterns, details)

Gender balance

Inclusive in nature (choice of characters)

For our content, where the image is the feature of each spread, clarity was important in order to decipher the act in each scenario. Therefore, we refrained from experimenting media and prepared traditional watercolor renderings of the illustrations.

image 104, 105. illustrations by Bindia Thapar


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L to R, top to bottom: image 106. illustrations by Karen Haydock image 107. Hot and Cold (Eklavya Publications) image 108. Akal Aur Uske Baad (Eklavya Publications) image 109. Chhoti Lal Murgi (Eklavya Publications)

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


L to R: image 110. Rafia Bano for Rain (Eklavya Publications) image 111. Zareena Khatun for River at Night (Eklavya Publications)


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L to R:, top to bottom image 112. cover by Proiti Roy for A Walk with Thambi (Tulika Publishers) image 113. illustration by Proiti Roy for A Bon Bibi’s Forest (Tulika Publishers) image 114. illustration by Proiti Roy for Bulbuli’s Bamboo (Tulika Publishers)

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Archana Sreenivasan and Priya Kurian’s work can be accredited for the face of children’s literature of today, widely accepted and appreciated for their vibrancy.

L to R: illustrations by Archana Sreenivasan image 115. My Body, My Space (Fitkids Education) image 116. Let’s Go Seed Collecting (Pratham Books) image 117. Who Wants Green Fingers Anyway? (Katha)


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L to R: illustrations by Priya Kurian, image 118. Ammachi’s Glasses (Tulika Books) image 119. characters from Kochi Biennale (Priya’s personal archive)

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Process ORIENTATION AND SIZE Considerations: What is the content? How can it be best presented to serve the purpose? How will the book be used? Is it sustainable?

figure 120. book in use by facilitator for a classroom session

The landscape orientation of the book had already been decided considering the nature of content (full spread


illustrations in this case). Indu from the production team was consulted for defining the trimmed size of the book.

Since the book had to be used within groups, the


We referred the existing publications to estimate the size.

illustrations ran across the spread to include the body copy as well. A standard size had been decided upon for production which was similar to the existing publications.


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figure 123. finished size of exisiting publications by Eklavya

figure 121. book used for a self initiated session



The illustrations were drawn on actual scale to get an idea

The illustrations in pencil were photocopied to test color

of the perspective, distances and the level of detailing that

swatches. Colors were defined for the main characters— Jaya,

needs to be done for each spread.

Rashid and Muskan, to stand in contrast with the background.

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue




The illustrations were then copied onto handmade paper,

Detailing in pencil colors lent texture to the illustrations

a little larger than the actual size of the book spread. They

making it tangible.

were then rendered in watercolor according to the fixed color palette.


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PORTALS To diffrentiate between the ‘other world’ and the ‘real world’, portals were created through cut-outs. It was necessary to use the depths in the illustrations to communicate the idea.

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LAYERING The cut out layers were later composed and fixed in place to reveal the depths.


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PHOTOGRAPHY Each of the final composed spread were clicked on a sunlit terrace to attain sharp shadows.

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


DIGITISING The ready illustrations were photographed instead of scanning to obtain the shadows and paper thickness. They were photographed in daylight and then edited in photoshop for correction, The paper texture at places where there was no paint appeared as noise therefore, it was removed to reveal the actual color and texture of paper


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ENHANCEMENTS Post color matching and angle correction,more depth was added to the layers. The color of the shade defined the surface material, therefore, they were altered as well.

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An alternate approach An alternate solution was also developed that aimed at providing the necessary information on the process and techniques of thinking. 1.

Various sequences had been laid out to deliver the information in best possible way, and the one in figure 00. was fixed as the skeleton.


It was then the task of the copy to induldge the reader into reading the information. Something that needed to be taken care of was the tone of speech. Since the type of content is factual in nature, it might appear like the narrator is talking down to the reader as the dispenser of knowledge.


The initial approach included using ‘thought’ as an abtract form that interacts with elements and changes forms as the narrative leads. This visual approach to the book breaks down the informative narrative into edible portions. (figure 00 and figure 00)

figure 124. structure of narrative


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An alternate idea to tackle with the structure of copy, was introducing characters. The characters allowed the narrative to be turned into a conversation. The conversation becomes interactive when the reader is also involved in responding to the prompts. This method was preferred over the last one since

figure 125. thought as form, initial approach to visualisation

the presence of characters hinted at a dialogue being created in the book itself, exemplifying how it can lead to deeper understanding of things. A dialogue holds major importance in the art of thinking. 5.

The ideas presented through the narrative were made tangible through illustrations. The illustrations allowed for easy understanding of abtract or intangible concepts.


At places where it was even harder to exemplify an idea through illustration, exercises were inserted. This helped involve the reader in the conversation and also in building a better understanding of the content in question through active application.

figure 126. introducing characters

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Moodboard For children to construct their own meaning, the book should provide them with visual triggers. Children find the unfamiliar interesting and look for challenging situations and notions in illustrations. So the books must facilitate this process. The target audience is expected to extract not just the content but logic as well. A reader (10-12 year old) is expected to imagine and interpret. The style is visualised as a patchwork of textures and mediums to interact with the narrative and make the process of reading more involving. Unlike the previous approach, this one relies highly on the text and the visuals are only supplementary, therefore opportunity was taken to play and explore the style of expression.


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The work of Sandhya Prabhat plays with layers, textures and mediums- all of which amalgamate together to create whimsical characters.

image 127. illustration by Sandhya Prabhat

image 128. illustration from The Colour Thief, Sandhya Prabhat

Stephen Kroninger, with collage as his medium, uses portraits to create new meanings.

L to R: image 129, 130, 131. illustrations by Stephen Kroninger Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Jokerman Imprima for copy

image 132. moodboard depicting visual style and typefaces for the final product


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BARRIO barrio Barrio lends a playful feel to the content and is legible at the same time because of its uppercase letters. Imprima is used for body copy. The book is visualised as a graphic heavy design to balance the ‘information’ laid down in the body copy.

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giving thinking a thought

image 133. a spread from the dummy


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image 134. exploring visual language

image 135. spreads from Giving Thinking a Thought

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue



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retouch. test. share. deliver. refine. reflect.

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Cover and title

खेल खेल में had been proposed as the original title for the book. The title hinted at turning ‘thinking’ into an activity. Upon sharing with the team at Eklavya, it was realised that although the cover illustration did signify ‘play, it did not give a glimpse of the content that is inside. The characters were isolated from their context.

image 136, 137, 138. explorations for the cover illustration


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Therefore, another variation keeping the same title in mind

The title and cover was again revised around themes of

was explored Although the title and the cover illustration

wonder and curiosity.

worked well with each other, we needed to bring out the subject of the book, that is, thinking

All in good fun खेल खेल में What If? यूं होता तो? A wonderful evening एक अद्भुत शाम Stop and Ponder आओ ख्याल करें Whims of Wonder आश्चर्य की उड़ान

figure 00. the final cover illustration for ‘What If’ image 139. Final cover illustration

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Typography For the said project, body copy is limited under 50 words per page and the readers are 8+ in age.

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. ABEEZEE

Typefaces with open and round counters were explored since they’re the closest to traditional lowercase letterforms. For very young readers, typefaces with larger x-heights and one-story ‘a’s and ‘g’s (infant characters) are more identifiable since these are the lowercase shapes school-age children learn to write. Considering the above factors in mind, a few open source licensed typefaces were explored.

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. AMARANTH

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. CONVERGENCE

Open and round counters Large x height Single storey ‘a’ and ‘g’


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The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. IMPRIMA

ABeeZee ABeeZee

Amaranth Amaranth Amaranth Amaranth

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXY Zabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 ‘?’“!”(%)[#]{@}/&\<-+=>:;,.*

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabc defghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 ‘?’“!”(%)[#]{@}/&\<-+=>:;,.*



for children. Open and simple, the definite shapes support

italic design with a slight contrast and distinctive curves.

ABeeZee was designed by Anja Meiner as a learning typeface

The Amaranth family by Gesine Todt is a friendly upright

the process of learning to read and write.

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue




ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXY Zabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 ‘?’“!”(%)[#]{@}/&\<-+=>:;,.*

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 ‘?’“!”(%)[#]{@}/&\<-+=>:;,.*



Convergence is a low contrast Sans Serif Typeface with a

Imprima by Eduardo Tunni, with its broad counters, strong

large x-height. Looking at the font in detail, the bottom

joins between stems and inktraps enable it to perform well

halves of the glyphs have Transitive serifs while the upper

in all sizes. The weight of the letterforms is also on the

halves conserve the Sans Serif terminals.

lighter side when used in body copy. It was one of the major reasons Imprima was chosen over the other typefaces with

Designed by Nicolas Silva and John Vargas

similar features. Imprima works well with the illustrations, where there is a minimal use of black. The copy stands out to be identified but does not overpower the illustration.


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image 140. Actual page size


Typeface: Imprima Point size: 18 pts

ashid and Jaya who like to play R , n a k mar Mus h t e i n r i m t g o n bles i h n a e e l v l a . er e m Me m u ys r e v e “Don’t go too far”, aunty would always t el l t h em.

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Test Run The scenarios in the book were developed and tested with the students of Sarojini Naidu Girls Higher Secondary School for a span of two months, during their Saturday ‘bal


therefore, because in the ‘actual’ world I’d doubt the man and his intentions, in this world his intentions might be positive and in our common good.

sammelan’. The final images and questions are a result of

Every session must initiate with the participants spotting

the back and forth dialogue with the participants.

what is happening in the picture. In the initial sessions, I

So do you mean to say that if the man was placed in

Illustrated is a compilation of dialogues that were

used to explain them the scenario and then ask questions:

actual world, you wouldn’t accept his tea?

conducted with the girls and other people (colleagues at Eklavya, teachers at the school, batchmates) I shared my

In this strange new world, the poor doesn’t ask for

No, I wouldn’t

project with.

anything, in fact he likes to share whatever he has. In this

The dialogues have been narrated here to give an overview

you take it?

introduced - He could be just kind. Sharing might give

No (unanimous)

since all of us are led by the common instinct that he

of the sort of topics that each scenario can surface.

case, he is sharing the tea he prepared for himself. Would

Here on, a directive question could have been him happiness and that could be the only intention. But intends some ‘harm’, do we believe that humans are

Would one of you tell me why wouldn’t you?

evil by nature?

I feel there’s something suspicious about him. Why is he

If there was a well dressed man instead of the poor man,

sharing it? He might have poisoned the tea to loot us.

would you accept the tea?

There’s is no reason for him to be nice to us. I think he

No (unanimous, reasons stay intact)

would ask for something in return. that is also suspicious because why is a well dressed I don’t know him therefore I can’t trust him It is safe to not accept tea.

man serving tea on the roads? What would convince you to accept tea from the poor man?

Is there someone who would take it? He must build his trust. That takes time. I would. I feel that the man is not going to take advantage of us because this is ‘ulti dunia’ (a parallel universe


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How can one build trust?

WHAT IS HAPPENING: MAN LIVING ON THE STREETS SHARING HIS TEA INTENTION:PERCEPTION ABOUT RICH AND POOR We must talk or meet on regular basis. He must know me as much as I know him. Like, a relative. Do you believe what they say on news channels and believe everything that is written in a newspaper?

We close the discussion with this response.


Could have asked instead: Can you think of other sources or mediums that you don’t know but you still trust? Yes But you don’t know them. Do you? I don’t know them but they’ve built their trust through years. I don’t, but since a lot of people believe them, I guess they must be giving the right information. (Could discuss mob-mentality) Alright, so you have your reasons and they seem fair. Do you believe in dinosaurs? Why? Yes, their remains have been found. That gives us proof that they were once here. Great, so we have a PROOF in this case. And what about God? Do you believe in God? Umn.. Yes (hesitant). It is written in our book

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Well, it can entertain you. Imagine if you were upset

Could discuss about the phenomenon of money and the

about something, a song could make you feel better.

need for it.

happening in the image- The seller is asking for

(The conversation is directed on its own in the

If food holds more importance than entertainment, why

songs in return for his tomatoes.

classroom within the students.)

does the singer get paid more for his work?

The session begins with identifying what’s

Would you exchange your vegetables in return for songs? No (Unanimous)

Imagine if I wasn’t a singer but a milkman, would you

We circle around the same cycle of questions, without

barter your tomatoes with milk?

having figured out the direction for a metaquestion. It was perhaps, a lack in my ability to facilitate the

Yes, because you can quantify them both, and use when you wish to. I can’t store the songs you sing when I’m upset.

Why? So does that mean a tomato seller is more valuable to You can feed yourself with the vegetables, but

the society than a singer?

what will I do with your songs? Food is more important than entertainment. Anyone I have to add. You can use the vegetables

would take tomatoes over songs. It only seems functional.

whenever you need, but once you have stopped singing what do I have? I can’t

The discussion could have been led along to surface the

replay the song.

maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

But once you eat the vegetables, they are

A famous singer could sing and earn much more than

also gone.

a tomato seller. Then he could use the money to buy tomatoes.

Yes, But at least my hunger is satisfied. How would the song feed me?

Perhaps this is why money was invented. It gives a common unit to quantify the value of different professions.


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Degree Project · Design for Dialogue



So if he gives him food would that be a favor?

The image itself made the children react with laughter and


questions- Where will he keep the money? What will he do with the money What will he spend it on? I felt that it was a great starter since now they were able to question the scenario and put their opinion out for the other participants to ponder upon. What still remains a mystery is whether it was the image that was stimulating or the process that we’ve been following with the girls over the weekends , that developed this attitude in them. After everyone has read the image, we begin the session In the previous example, we introduced money to assign value to different services we consume (food and entertainment). So, over here, the joker is giving salary to the Lion for performing. Is he doing him a favor? No. (Unanimous) Why? The Lion can’t do anything with the money. It has no VALUE for an animal. Any animal needs just food and water to survive. Humans aspire for more than that.


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Yes, when I’m ill my mother gives me medicines that I don’t like. But it’s for my benefit only. In this case, the lion is being taken advantage of.

No, it’s an exchange for the lion’s performance, the

When do you think others have authority over us?

clown owes him the food. When we are not in a state to take decisions for ourselves. I don’t think that this is even an exchange. Food

Usually, the adults know better than the kids because they

isn’t something the lion can’t arrange if he wasn’t

have experience.

caged. He can provide for himself. When they have more power or knowledge than us. I agree, this is not something the lion agreed to (This could be taken forward to highlight all the


parameters of diffrentiation between the authority and Yes, I feel he is exploiting the lion. He is only


giving food so that the lion survives longer to keep performing for him. The lion doesn’t

Humans and animals, rich and poor, elder and younger,

need food, he needs to be free right now.

different castes, genders)

This could have been developed into a talk about what freedom means to each of us. The answer to the favor question turns a unanimous no after this discussion Can you think of times when other took decisions against your will? Sometimes when I don’t want to go to school my mother gets me ready and sends me here.

We close the dialogue here


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Reframing questions While framing the trigger questions, one must take care to

However, revisions were required after conducting the

sound like opinions are asked for. Hence, the question must

test sessions as well. Here, I’ve attempted to illustrate

be an open question, without a definite (or ideal) answer.

the process of framing and reframing the questions for

I learnt this through a series of trial and error at sessions

each scenario.

whenever I got the opportunity to interact with the kidsSPKs at Tamia, Muskaan School, Library program in Bhopal and Sarojini Naidu School.




Initiate the dialogue by asking for opinions.

An example is chosen as the principle vehicle for the

The metaquestion is one that deals with the rules governing

Usually it is a YES or NO question.

dialogue and probed into by other participants.

the dialogue. This is the one where the intention of the

Would you.... ?

So if this was replaced by.... would it still be valid?

Do you think.... ?

Do you mean to say that.... ?

scenario surfaces. Are humans inherently evil? What do you consider to be fair? The participants shall respond and reinforce their opinions with reasons or examples.


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Who are you more likely to take the tea from?

(Can induce both a yes or no answer, therefore works.)

This man or a gentleman in suit? Why?

Is it fair to have half of what he made for himself?

Under what circumstances would you

(Could be eliminated. Requires an ‘ideal’ answer)

accept tea from this man?

If someone in a suit offered you tea, would you take it? What would make you trust a person? Can people you trust never lie? Is it ever okay to lie? when is it okay to lie? Can you think of instances where it was okay to lie? Do you believe whatever is written in the newspaper? Why? Do you believe in dinosaurs? Why do you trust your sources? If you believe in God, how do you know he exists? (allow the dialogue to be led in the direction it is taking)

What is happening? Where will he keep the money? What

If you were the lion, would you be happy

will he spend on?

with the salary too? Why?

Is the man doing him a favor? Will he be doing a favor if he

Under what circumstances would you act

gave him food instead?

against your will?

Are some being superior to others?

Can you think of instances where others

Good job! here’s your salary

took decisions for you? Does anyone have authority on us by birth?

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Production and Costing Finished size: 8.5”X7” 3000 copies 24 pages + 4 (cover) Spreads (24 pages, 12 spreads) on 100 gsm art paper Cover on 250 gsm art paper Production cost: ₹ 17.5/copy Total cost of production: ₹ 52,500 + 5% GST

figure 141. trimmed size of each spread with 3mm bleed margins


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figure 142. 23” x 18” sheet for printing 6 spreads



6 MM




figure 143. two, 100gsm, 23”x18” sheets required for the 24-page book (excluding cover)

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Proposed book


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Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Summing up It has always felt like a daring move to initiate a

So, although the final deliverable is proposed for

discussion with new participants because one needs to

8-12 years olds, it would be interesting to see how it

be prepared with examples. And the only way to build

performs with a mixed group of 8+, bringing in all

the stock of those examples is to conduct sessions with a varied group. So, no two sessions are the same

the perspectives into the discourse and having more content at hand to reflect upon.

provided that I, as a facilitator, am open to be guided by the discourse.

I’ve also come to realise that although each scenario had been developed with an intention, some dialogues

During the course of sharing the scenarios with different

might end up with a different metaquestion and that is

groups, I’ve had instances where the group would

alright because the tool has sufficed its purpose; which

respond differently. Like in the case of the bus seat

is, ‘how to think’ rather than ‘what to think’.

reservation for overweight people. The girls discussed whether being overweight should be a criteria for reservation and evaluated who needs the seat more. But the teacher on the other hand was able to see from another perspective. Here’s her take on the scenario when she first saw it. It reminds me of the time when I was small and we would take the tempo to go to the ‘Bada’. On our way, there was this lady who asked the tempo whether he’ll take her to the Bada. He said no and drove on. I got worried if this is not going to the bada where is it going? I asked the tempo driver, “Why didn’t you pick her?”. He replied, “I’m going to the Bada only, but the problem is- that lady would pay for one and take space of two! Principal Sarojini Naidu Girls Higher Secondary School


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The best preparation is an open mind, and a good example.

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


Reflection Is it contextual? DELIVERABLE

The book is a result of the research, observation

What can I bring to the table?

and tests conducted in the field Eklavya works in.

The best that can done with the available resources

Therefore, it does not deal with the problems of

is already been done by the trained facilitators and

the past or exploits opportunities of the future. It

the content developed by Eklavya. It was around

only attempts to take forward their ideology and

this point that I didn’t find myself of value.

manifest it through my understanding of the field. It was only after I let myself be a part of the project as All the platforms at which Eklavya functions had been

a learner, and not as someone who needs to add value

studied- the kind of market it has, the reach and exposure,

to this system, that I was able to produce this book.

the audience we are catering to, it had all been taken into account before developing the idea model (Page 94).

The book is therefore, born out of the field and breathes in it.

Though, at the beginning it might have felt like a constraint to explore in a field that needs to produce in minimal budgets and production limitations (to keep minimal selling prices for end product), it was only when I saw their books in action, I realized the impact it is making. basic. essential. efficient.


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Learner Centred Teaching



The book is is designed keeping in mind the audience that

For sessions to be conducted with groups outside the

The user group for the end product were 8 to 12 year-old

Eklavya serves- alternate schools, library programs, SPKs

radar of Eklavya, it might take some time to understand

children, it can be used by anyone who wants to be part of

etc. They’re all bound by the same ideology of learner

the role of a facilitator and the process of conducting a

the dialogue. But since the content was developed along

centred teaching, which, the book makes most use of.

dialogue. Although the book gives a brief into that aspect

with the said age group, it might be more relevant to them.

The book enables the facilitator to initiate a dialogue in

but there’s still a gap (teacher training in this case) that

the classroom (or a group) and for the children, an active

needs to be filled unless it is practised with the said

platform to share their experiences, act and reflect upon it.

audience. However, attempt has been made to simplify the instructions for ease in conducting the session. Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Is it complete? DELIVERABLE

The proposed deliverable acts as a template in content structure to generate more of its kind. The book had been generated along the lines of differences in society, although it raises questions of ethics and epistemology during the discourse. Figure 00 shows where the existing deliverable stands in relation to the titles in the proposed direction.

figure: 145. direction for SELF: mind, identity, emotions, ego, values

figure 146. direction for ENVIRONMENT: relationship with nature, cultural differences, humanity, ideologies

figure 147: The proposed book on SOCIETY in the series

figure 148. direction for BEYOND: reality, perceptions, existence



figure 144. proposed direction for the series


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Insights SELF




I often contemplate on dedicating myself to a sole purpose,

The depth of experience is one that leads us here. The

As designers, we tend to observe everything around

but I always feel that I’m at a stage of learning where I

researchers who have been working with Eklavya since its

us critically- the menu at the new restaurant, the

must delve into new things, explore them and create in

conception days have been able to mend the processes to

iconography in the metro or a new product that our friend

that very context. And then, move on to a new venture to

give them efficient results. It has only been possible because

just bought. Our education is responsible for lending us

explore. But the experience at Eklavya, and interacting with

they’ve been constantly in touch with their target audience

this perspective. Similarly, my time at Eklavya has been

the people who have dedicated their lives to education

in the field. Their time in the field has led them to come up

just as enriching that I’ve acquired their perspective.

has opened me towards the other perspective. While

with the most sustainable methods to develop and deliver

investing deeply in one activity or purpose might deny us

the content with the feedback from the audience.

Of the things that owe to this perspective is not only the specified project but the people I have met during

breadth of experience, breadth of experience denies us the rewards of depth of experience. The depth of experience

There were times when I felt worthless because I wasn’t

my time at Eklavya, the sessions and events attended,

is one that one that is able to make an impact to the field

able to provide anything of value to this system. Everything

the articles I was asked to illustrate for- they all bring

while the breadth of experience provides us with the

that was needed to be done was already being done and

in the same ideology that emphasizes the need for

personal satisfaction of having a hold on wider spectrum.

executed through an iterative process of 36 years. Although

imparting quality education. They also specify what

I came with a skillset and an education in design, there was

quality education in the context of India looks like.

nothing I could seem to add value to unless I let myself be a part of the system. The final deliverable began to grow from

During the course of the project, the field visits to the SPKs

that very point where I let myself be guided by the field.

in and around Tamia sensitized me into understanding the impact that Eklavya has been able to make in the field. Now I see teaching as one of the noblest and most difficult profession and share my experiences amongst friends and colleagues with a spark in my eyes.

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Notes to self





The time at Eklavya has tested me and my

Had it been another publication house,

Eklavya is an NGO that aims to provide

We all bring in varied histories and culture

methods. The 4 months project extended

I wonder if I’d be able to come up with

a book in every hand. The books are

that seeps into our work. Do not resist it.

into an eight-months commitment

a deliverable of such nature. While the

designed to incur low production costs,

Assimilate and accomodate your history

interrupted by change in department (CLIx

project was going on, a few people showed

usually single color and standard sizes, to

within the pool of information and build

to Eklavya publications) after 2 months

apprehension towards the project which

deliver affordable books to their audience.

on it.

of work, and later 2 months of being bed

required me to prove its validity time after time.

This limited the explorations I could have


done with the medium, but what it gave At the same time, there were people from

in return was an opportunity to devote my

The process had moulded according to

Eklavya who showed similar excitement in the

time to develop richer content.

the schedule of the other parties. Like

purpose of the project and encouraged me

observing or conducting workshops in

to develop it. It was a matter of taking that

schools came in at different intervals but

decision of pursuing the tested and known, or

I had to prepare myself according to what

taking a risk.

stage of the process I was at. This led to


an organic process that was led by the

Perhaps, for Eklavya it was never a risk. It was

availability of opportunities.

another lesson, another test in the field.

Ankita Thakur ¡ National Institute of Design

Degree Project ¡ Design for Dialogue


The journey The four months spent under the mentorship of Kanak at Eklavya, provided a platform where I got an exposure to different perspectives and ideas, organizations of similar kind and a taste of the field. Following is a glimpse of the variety of projects done during the period of September – December.


े image 149. Event banner for Bal Adhikar Mela, 2017


Ankita Thakur · National Institute of Design

image 150. Slogan banners for Bal Adhikar Mela, 2017

image 151, 152, 153. pictures from the Bal Adhikar Mela, 2017

image 154. Illustration for the kavita poster - ‘Ullu Gullu’

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue




figure 155. Sandarbh - Issue 113

figure 156. Sandarbh - Issue 112

figure 157. Sandarbh - Issue 111

पाठ्यपुस्तक की बनावट

कक्षा में कोशिका पर कार्य और सवाल

बच्चों के बीच अखबार के साथ कुछ गतिविधियाँ - महेश झरबड़े

उदयन वाजपेयी

राकेश कारपेंटर

Ankita Thakur · National Institute of Design


आज से 700 साल पहले उत्तर भारत में गसणत के एक महान पंवडत रहते थे। उनका नाम था नारायण पंवडत। नारायण जी को गसणत में खासकर जादुई चौकोरों से प्ेम था। कया तुम जानते हो जादुई चौकोर कया होते हैं?

वकसी भी तरह से संखयाओं को जोडो तो एक ही उत्तर आएगा: 15

♣ हकै

गलित मजेदार

चोललतास एस्कै लादौरारास्

नीचे वदए चौरस देखो। उसमें खडी लाईन, आडी लाईन और वतरछी लाईन


इन पननों में हम कोलि​ि करेंगे कक आपको ऐसी चीज़ें दें जिनको हल करने में मज़ा आए। ये पनने खास उन लोगों के ललए हैं जिनहें गजित से डर लगता है।

करो तावक हर तरर् का जोड 12 हो।


















RNI क्र. 50309/85 डाक पंजीयन क्र. म.प्र./भोपाल/261/2018-20/प्रकाशन तिथि 24 मई 2018

अब तुम इस चौकोर को इस तरह पकूरा

बाल विज्ान पत्रिका

0 6

जून 2018


नारायण पंवडत जी को ऐसे चौरस बनाने में बडा मज़ा आता था और वे इस पर ववचार करके तरह तरह के गसणतीय ससदांत खोज वनकालते थे। आसपास वालों को ऐसी पहेसलयाँ देकर परेशान भी

Title for the cover- kitne gaay kitne bachche

करते थे। एक बार उनका सामना एक गवाले से हुआ। वह गाय चराने जाता था और जब बोर होता था तो पहेसलयाँ बनाता था। उसने नारायण पंवडत से पकूछा-

पंड़ित जी, ये चौरस-िौरस रहने दो। मेरे एक सिाल का

हा हा !! हा हा!!

जिाब दो। मेरे पास एक गाय हकै। यह हर साल एक बछछया को जन्म देती हकै। ये बछछए तीन साल होने के बाद हर साल एक-एक बछछए को जन्म देते हैं। तो पंड़ित जी झट

धचत्र व डिजाईन : अंक्‍‍ता ठा्‍ुर

से बताइए वक बीस साल में मेरे पास

साल 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

गाएं 1 1 2 3 4


साल 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20



पहले तुम इस ताललका को पूरा करो तो पता चले।


कुल वकतनी गाय हो जाएँ गीं?

पंवडत जी सोच में पड गए। एक-एक साल का वहसाब करके कुछ समय बाद तो उनहोंने जवाब दे वदया। लेवकन झट से कैसे दें। नारायण जी को कई साल लग गए इसका उत्तर खोजने में। जब खोज वनकाला तो उनके पास संखयाओं के बारे में एक नया ससदांत वमल गया।

जून 2018 चकमक बाल विज्ान पत्रिका

image 158. Activity illustration for ‘Chakmak’

मूल्य ₹ 50



जून 2018 चकमक बाल विज्ान पत्रिका

image 159. Comic strip for ‘Chakmak’

image 160. Cover illustration for ‘Chakmak’

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


A Daughter Questions An important book for adolescent girls and women

Fieldwork and writing: Anu Gupta Concept, design and illustration: Karen Haddock

A Daughter Questions

Fieldwork organisation and support: Shobha Shingne

First Edition: Price: ISBN: Publisher: Eklavya E - 10, Shankar Nagar BDA Colony, Shivaji Nagar, Bhopal - 462016 (MP) Phone: (0755) 2671017, 2551109

An important book for adolescent girls and women


Illustrators of this book:

Karen Haydock, Chandigarh: Why this book, pages 5-7, 12-23, 25-31, 34-42, 44 (picture on top and plant), 45, 50 (bottom), 51, 53-56, 60, 59, 62, 64, 65, 69-72, 75(Box), 76 and back cover. Prateeksha Tiwari, Dewas, MP: pages 8, 43, 49, 61 (middle), 66 (top), 68 . Anu Gupta, Dewas, MP: pages 50 (top right), 51 (middle) . Saroj Thakur, Dewas, MP: pages 60 (middle), 61 (bottom left) . Ujjwala Bhavasar, Pipalranwa, Dewas, MP: pages 32 (top left), 33 (top middle) . Rita Badhave, Basna, MP: Acknowledgement page. Ashok Kumar Kacher, Karkati, Shahdole, MP: page 65 (top) . Rashmi Vishvakarma, Narsinghpur, MP: pages 66 (bottom), 67 . Veena Chauhan, Banapura, Hoshangabad, MP: page 32 (bottom left) . Kirti Chauhan, Timarni, Hoshangabad, MP: page 74 . Ami J Deliwala, Bhavnagar, Gujrat: pages 60 (bottom), 61 (bottom) . Amarjyot, Chandigarh: page 32 (top right) . Anuj, Chandigarh: pages 33 (bottom), 44 (middle), 52 (top) . Shana, Chandigarh: Content page, pages 9, 32 (bottom left), 50 (top) . Tanui, Chandigarh: pages 46, 75 . Shamsher, Chandigarh: pages 48, 52 (bottom) . Harleen, Chandigarh: page 49 . Viplav Shashi, Bhopal, MP: pages 10 and 24 . Cover: Praveena Bhavsaar, Pipalranwa, Dewas, MP.

A Daughter Questions

Acknowledgements The material in this book is not only for professional objectives but for unlimited use in any form. That is what will make the book worth its while. Therefore use this material without hesitation. However, we would appreciate being informed whenever you do.

Why this book?

What’s inside We are grateful to many individuals and organisations who have contributed to the making of A daughter questions. To the teachers and students with whom we conducted sessions on ‘Our Body and Menstruation’. Most of the questions in the book emerged from discussions with them.

Why this book? Part - 1 1. You are growing up


To the organisations that made all kinds of facilities available to us.

2. What is menstruation?


To PGBT, Dewas, the site for the use of Human Body Model and workshop with teachers.

3. Menstruation: Questions and problems


4. Some common beliefs related to menstruation


5. Adolescence: Some more questions


DIET, Dewas; Maharani Radhabai Government Girls’ Middle School and Maharani Radhabai Girls’ Higher Secondary School, Dewas, the venues for camps with girls. We received special comments on the book from these students of Dewas: Hema Joshi, Jyoti Joshi, Bharati Dave, Chhaya Dube, Chetna Khare, Archana Kajle.

We felt the need to write a book like this while talking with a group of school girls in Dewas, about three decades ago. In the course of our conversations, we were telling the girls about changes in our bodies at adolescence. One of the girls had said, “Didi, sir says we have become bad girls. Have we, really?” My face fell. But then another girl added, “That’s not right, didi, if not now, this information will definitely be useful for us in a couple of years.” Similarly, another girl told us, “Didi, after my first period, I have not had another for five-six months. My parents are suspicious, they don’t trust me. You should share this information with our parents too.” In an environment where discussion about menstruation, related body changes, and childbirth is considered dirty, it becomes very important to encourage an atmosphere where one can talk about these issues. While in some schools teachers initiate informal discussions with students on these issues, in others the relevant chapters from the curriculum are not even addressed. Parents too are unable to share information extensively – either because they lack it themselves or because they feel embarrassed. In an effort to foster comprehensive understanding of the changes in our bodies during adolescence, we held discussions with girls, in and out of schools, their teachers as well as women in Dewas. The first part of this book had developed from these experiences and the questions that girls had asked. The second part of the book talks about the various beliefs and practices that affect the lives of adolescent girls. During our discussions, we learnt about the discouraging circumstances with which women have to cope. Some of these experiences have also been included. We hope that the information provided in this book will allow for a better understanding of menstruation and the misconceptions connected with it. A primary objective of this book is to provide an environment and context for discussion and exchange of information related to these issues.


Part - 2 1. What will I become?


2. Am I beautiful?


3. Is there any value of domestic work?


For assistance with suggestions and improvement and resource material for the book: Neela Hardikar, Sanjeevani Kant, Lakshmi Murthi, Lauri Benjamin, Subhadra, Kalyani Dikay, Pratibha Das, Vaidya Bhagyawanti Verma, Dr Thakur, Dr Ratna Shihurkar.

4. Yours, mine. Our own personal stories

1. Govt Girls’ High School, Bhaunrasa 2. Govt Higher Secondary School, Bhaunrasa 3. Govt Girls’ Middle School, Bhaunrasa 4. Vaibhav Bal Mandir, Dewas 5. M Radhabai Girls’ Middle School, Dewas 6. M Radhabai Higher Secondary Girls’ School, Dewas 7. M Chimanbai Girls’ Middle School, Dewas 8. M Chimanbai Higher Secondary Girls’ School, Dewas 9. Gaud Vidyapeeth, Dewas 10. Bal Vihar, Dewas 11. Govt Nutan Middle School, Dewas 12. Govt Girls’ High School, Khategaon 13. Govt Girls’ High School, Nevri 14. Saraswati Shishu Mandir, Khategaon 15. Govt Adivasi Harijan Hostel, Khategaon 16. Govt Higher Secondary School, Tonk Khurd

– A father’s letter to his new-born daughter

67 76

– Reference books


– Word list





figure 161. Layout for ‘A daughter questions’ by Anu Gupta


Ankita Thakur · National Institute of Design

Part I Girls whom we see in magazines, commercials, TV, films, etc, usually are fair, don’t wear glasses, have a face with no pimples or freckles, and have long, thick hair. It seems as though they have no problems whatsoever. Looking at them makes us feel that our skin is rough, our hair is dry and our nose is snubbed! We feel as though nothing is good about our face or hair or body. What do you like or dislike about your appearance? Each one of us has a different perception of our own bodies. We often feel we lack something, which someone else has. The fact, however, is that whatever our appearance, whatever our features, we all accomplish a lot in our lives with our bodies.


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figure 162. Illustrations and layout for ‘Dibbe se doctorate’ by Ravindra Keskar

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Degree Project · Design for Dialogue 3. nùÒ´ÉÉ®úÉå Eäò MÉÉä±É¤Éxn/iÉɱÉɤÉxn ʺɮäú ÊSɨÉ]õEò®ú UôÉäc÷ näù* 1. A +É<Ç º ÉGòÒ¨É EòÉä x É EòÒ nù É ªÉÓ-¤ÉɪÉÓ nùÒ´ÉÉ®úÉå EòÉä BEò ºÉÉlÉ 4. nùÒ´ÉÉ®úÉå EòÉ BEò VÉÉäc÷ ¤ÉxÉ MɪÉÉ*ù {ÉEòc÷Eò®ú/=`öÉEò®ú R,Q ʤÉxnÖù+Éå EòÉä BEò nÚùºÉ®äú ºÉä {ÉÉºÉ ±ÉÉEò® 5. ®úÉäb÷ÓMÉ EòÉ]õ näù* ʨɱÉÉ (ºÉ]õÉ) näù*


Bibliography PRINT


Wartenburg, Thomas. Big Ideas For Little Kids. R&L Education, 2009.


Matthews, Gareth. Bachchon Se Baat-Cheet. Eklavya, 1996.

Connected Learning Initiative, TISS and MIT, 2018, digital image, accessed 19 July 2018, < https://clix.tiss. edu/>

De Bono, Edward. Teach Your Child How To Think. Penguin, 1992. Mukunda, Kamal. What Did You Ask At School Today : A Handbook Of Child Learning. Harper Collins, 2009. Bhasin, Kamla. Ladki kya hai? Ladka Kya Hai? Jagori, 1999. Devi, Mahasveta. Kyun Kyun Ladki. Tulika Books, 2003. Ilaiah, Kancha. Hamare Samay Mei Shram Ki Garima. Eklavya, 2011

Kangsabanik, Subeer, 2017, digital image, Prototype testing in progress, accessed 19 July 2018, < https://> Kangsabanik, Subeer, 2017, digital image, Prototype discussion in progress, accessed 19 July 2018 <> Burge, Amy. How to design effective teaching modules <> Gupta, Arv ind. 2016, digital image, Ladki kya hai? Ladka kya hai? by Kamla Bhasin, accessed 23 August 2018, <> TRI Foundation 2017, digital image, SPK session in Ganera, Hoshangabad, accessed 23 July 2018 < https:// > Basedia, Mahesh. 2006, digital image, SPK in Changariya village of Bichhiya block, accessed 23 July 2018, < > digital image, Sandarbh cover, < Education/89314> digital image, Srote cover, <> digital image, Eklavya publications, <> Ram, Sai. 2012, digital image, Arvind Gupta conducting session in classroom, accessed on 23 July 2018, <> 2014, digital image, Sessions on water quality of natural systems, accessed on 23 July 2018, < http://www.>


Ankita Thakur ¡ National Institute of Design

WEB References: Matthews, Gareth. Revised by Marissa Saltzman. Guidelines for Philosophical Discussion of Dragons and Giants, 2016, retreived from url < DragonsAndGiantsFromFrogAndToadTogether> NCERT. 2005. National Curriculum Framework < english/nf2005.pdf> The Avehi Ababcus Project, Avehi Abacus. 2014 <> Skills for Health, World Health Organisation, 2003 < sch_skills4health_03.pdf >

IMAGE CREDITS: Tarun Deep Girdher (image 1) Connected Learning Initiative (image 2) Subir Kangsbanik (image 3, image 4) TRI Foundation (image 22) Mahesh Basedia (image 23) Sai Ram (image 28) Google images (image 36, 37, 38) Eklavya, Tulika Books, Katha, Fitkids, Pratham books for title covers Priya Kurian, Archana Sreenivasan, Proiti Roy, Stephen Kroninger and Sandhya Prabhat for illustration refrences

Indian School Education System, British Council. 2014. Hendricks, Scotty. Want to raise the next Socrates? How to teach children philosophy—and why you should. BigThink. 2018. <> De Leplante, Kevin. Argument Ninja. 2016 <>

RESEARCH PAPERS Akhtar, Asif. The Role and Challenges of School Teachers in Contemporary India. Learning Curve 60-63. 2017 Shabani, Karim, Mohamad Khatib and Saman Ebadi. Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development: Instructional Implications and Teachers’ Professional Development. Institute of Education Sciences, 2010.

Degree Project · Design for Dialogue


Colophon: The text for the document is set in Source Sans Pro, created by Paul D. Hunt and Source Serif Pro, created by Frank GreiĂ&#x;hammer The two typefaces were created for Adobe systems and are distributed under the SIL Open Font License. The document is designed in Adobe InDesign CC 2018 and digitally printed on 100gsm normal SSP at Siddhi Printech, Ahmedabad August 2018


Ankita Thakur ¡ National Institute of Design

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