Anglican World Issue 141

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Anglican

WORLD MAGAZINE OF THE ANGLICAN COMMUNION • ISSUE 141 • MAY 2016

Finding God in a strange land

Spiritual journeys in Cyprus Uniting the church family in Korea through peace and reconciliation

Family values in Rwanda including people with disabilities anglican world issue 141 may 2016

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Our worldwide family in action

AS FOLLOWERS OF JESUS CHRIST we’re all members of God’s family. The Anglican Communion is a part of that worldwide family too, with churches spread across 165 countries and including some 85 million members. In the Zambian capital of Lusaka, at the gathering of ACC-16 this April, the family was clearly visible in the representatives who came from all parts of the world. We heard about how they are working out their calling to live out the gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ and how each situation is different, yet the welcome and care of the church is the same. The Anglican Communion is a family by choice. From Dallas to Peru, from Wales to the West Indies, I have seen When we operate as brothers for myself how we are stronger to help when we walk and sisters, helping the weak and together as part of a united family. When we operate as brothers and sisters, helping the weak and oppressed, oppressed, listening to one another, listening to one another, fighting for justice and speaking fighting for justice and speaking for for those without a voice, it’s all part of a sign that we are in God’s family. those without a voice, it’s all part of a This issue of Anglican World looks at how the global family of the Communion is working together to tackle sign that we are in God’s family. hardship, disease, injustice and putting love into action by striving to for peace and reconciliation in places of conflict. In Fiji the church has stood in the gap and responded to the needs of those caught up in the devastation after Cyclone Winston, while church leaders in Africa have been part of the response to the Ebola outbreak, helping health agencies and the government stop the spread of the virus. The way the family of the church responds to those around us shows the world that we are part of God’s family. It might be like the church in Rwanda working for ways to ensure those with disabilities can take part, or in Greece where the church has been supporting refugees stranded without homes and basic needs. Being part of a united family for the church in Korea, has meant working to bring peace and reconciliation between North and South Korea through prayer and action. Wherever we are, God calls us to be an active part of his family, making a difference through our prayers and actions to share his message of love in a hurting world. It’s good to see that across the Anglican Communion we have enormous opportunities to show God’s love in practical ways and see lives transformed.

Archbishop Josiah Idowu-Fearon Secretary General of the Anglican Communion 2

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anglican world issue 141 may 2016


contents

Anglican

world Inside this issue ISSUE 141 MAY 2016

Produced by The Anglican Communion Office St Andrew’s House 16 Tavistock Crescent London W11 1AP United Kingdom Registered Charity 7311767 Tel +44 (0)20 7313 3900 Fax +44 (0)20 7313 3999 E-mail aco@anglicancommunion.org Web www.anglicancommunion.org Serving the Instruments of Communion: The Archbishop of Canterbury The Lambeth Conference The Anglican Consultative Council The Primates’ Meeting And approximately 85 million Anglicans and Episcopalians in more than 165 countries President The Archbishop of Canterbury Secretary General The Most Revd Josiah Idowu-Fearon Interim Editor Rachel Farmer Any comments, questions or contributions should be sent to The Editor at magazine@anglicancommunion.org Subscriptions: E-mail aw.subscriptions@ anglicancommunion.org UK £2.50 / US$4 / €3.50 for one issue. UK £10 / US$16 / €14 for four issues. See our website for how to subscribe to further copies of the magazine – visit http://www.anglicancommunion.org/ resources/shop.aspx Design and Layout Marcus Thomas e-mail info@marcusthomas.co.nz Printed by CPO, Garcia Estate, Canterbury Road, Worthing, W. Sussex BN13 1BW

All original material may be reproduced by Member Churches without further permission of the Anglican Consultative Council. Acknowledgement and a copy of the publications are requested. Permission to reproduce copyrighted work should be sought from the owner. ANGLICAN WORLD IS PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE ANGLICAN COMMUNION OFFICE

¢ EDITORIAL

Archbishop Josiah on the global family of the Communion in action 2

Anglican

WORLD MAGAZINE OF THE ANGLICAN COMMUNION • ISSUE 141 • MAY 2016

¢ COMMUNION NEWS

The latest from around the Anglican world 4 ¢ FEATURE

Responding to a disaster – The church in action in Fiji 6

Finding God in a strange land

Spiritual journeys in Cyprus Uniting the church family in Korea through peace and reconciliation

Family values in Rwanda

¢ PROFILE

Finding God in a strange land – Spiritual journeys in Cyprus & the Gulf 8

including people with disabilities anglican world issue 141 may 2016

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Cover photo

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Children taking part in ACC-16 in Zambia

¢ FEATURE

Tackling the Ebola and Zika viruses – How the church plays a vital role 10 ¢ FEATURE

Postcards from Lusaka – A snapshot of ACC-16 12 ¢ WORLD VIEW

The Communion at a glance 14 ¢ FEATURE

Family values matter – How the church in Rwanda is becoming more inclusive 16 ¢ FEATURE

A family in need – How the refugee crisis in Greece brought the churches together 18

¢ PROFILE

Uniting the family of the church Koreans step out in peace and reconciliation 22 ¢ THE LAST WORD

Adrian Butcher reflects on the Anglican Communion family meeting in Lusaka 23

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Gentille and her son met with church leaders to discuss disability

¢ ANGLICAN YOUTH

Celebrating dynamic youth initiatives Rwanda & Kenya scoop new awards 20

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communion news

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ANYONE FOR CRICKET? The Vatican Cricket Team, the St Peter’s XI, will lock horns again with the Archbishop of Canterbury’s XI later this year in Canterbury in the third of what has become an annual cricket match between the two sides. They will then be joined by a Muslim XI for a triangular T20 match at Edgbaston. The first ecumenical match between the Anglicans and Roman Catholics was played in Canterbury in September 2014. The Anglicans achieved a narrow victory against the Catholic side. The two teams met again last year in Rome, in a match which saw the Vatican side claim the honours. Now, the two sides will meet once more on Tuesday 13 September, again at

The Archbishop of Canterbury with the cricket team

Kent County Cricket Club’s Spitfire ground in Canterbury. Organisers say that the tour will be ‘a joyful… celebration of faith and belief’ and

RICHARD WATT

will ‘illustrate that we can be true to our own faith and at the same time cherish diversity.’

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HONOURS FOR PIONEERS OF PEACE & JUSTICE

PHIL GROVES / ACO

Archbishop Thabo Makgoba with the former Zambian president, Kenneth Kaunda and the Rt Revd Trevor Mwamba (left)

The Archbishop of Cape Town, Thabo Makgoba, honoured a number of pioneers in the fight for justice in South Africa by bestowing on them the Archbishop’s Award for Peace with Justice. Archbishop Desmond Tutu and his wife Leah, the Rt Revd John Osmers and the first president of Zambia, Kenneth Kaunda, received the awards during separate presentations

this month. Bishop John Osmers, the retired Bishop of Eastern Zambia, received his award during a Eucharist at the Cathedral of the Holy Cross in Lusaka, Zambia, during the recent ACC-16 meeting. Bishop Osmers’ citation recognizes the distinction he has achieved ‘in multiple countries for multiple reasons’ as a result of his ‘lifelong work as a faithful servant of God.’

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PRIMATE OF HONG KONG TO CHAIR ACC The Archbishop and Primate of – together, to work together and to serve together.’ He explained Hong Kong, the Most Revd Dr Paul Kwong, has been elected as the new how his Hong Kong background would be an asset in helping the Chair of the Anglican Consultative Council. As the first serving primate Communion to hold together. Hong Kong – despite its mix of to be elected to the role, he said Western and Eastern cultures, was that he was ‘deeply honoured and ‘basically a Chinese community,’ humbled’ by his election. ‘I think he said. ‘Chinese culture is very the most important issue that we inclusive. Normally, we don’t judge have to work towards is to hold who is wrong and who is right. the Communion together,’ he said, We walk together with those who ‘and also to bring all the people of are right and also with those who differences – people who are of are wrong.’ different views of different matters

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The Most Revd Dr Paul Kwong


americas

RENEWED COMMITMENT TO THE ENVIRONMENT Episcopalians from the Diocese of California reaffirmed their commitment to the environment following the signing of the Paris Agreement on climate change. The Diocese of California hosted its third annual EcoConfirmation in April. The service began with the Cosmic Walk, a meditation on the history of creation from the formation of the Earth’s atmosphere, through to the writing of the Bible and Jesus’s

birth to the discovery of gold in California in 1848 and oil becoming a major industry in the state in the early 20th century to 1969, when humans first viewed the earth from the moon. During the event they gathered under a tree at Lone Tree Point along the East Bay in Rodeo, northeast of San Francisco, where participants reaffirmed their commitment to the environment. As a community, they agreed to recommit themselves to the Fifth

DIOCESE OF CALIFORNIA

Episcopalians make a walking commitment

Mark of Mission, ‘to strive to safeguard the integrity of creation and sustain and renew the life of the Earth’.

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WALKING TOGETHER AS A COMMUNION

Archbishop Justin Welby

The Anglican Consultative Council (ACC) committed itself to ‘walk together’ with the primates of the Anglican Communion in response to Archbishop Justin Welby’s report on January’s

Primates’ Gathering and Meeting in Canterbury, which set out ‘consequences’ for the US-based Episcopal Church following its decision to change its regulations to allow same-sex marriage. The Archbishop briefed members of the ACC about the Primates’ meeting. A resolution to receive the report was part of a consent list approved by the Council. Speaking at the end of the ACC-16 meeting, Archbishop Welby welcomed the resolution. ‘The actions of the ACC

demonstrate that it is working in close collaboration with the Primates, as has been the aim since both started and is set out especially in Resolution 52 of the Lambeth Conference 1988,’ he said. ‘The Anglican Communion finds its decisions through spiritual discernment in relationship, not through canons and procedures. Primates’ Meetings, Lambeth Conferences and ACCs are not a question of winning and losing, but of discerning together in love.’

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AUSTRALIAN CHURCH LEADERS OPPOSE AID CUT The Primate of the Anglican Church of Australia, Archbishop Philip Freier, joined the leaders of Australia’s 12 Christian denominations in a letter published in The Australian newspaper to government Treasurer Scott Morrison, in which they called on the federal government not to proceed with the scheduled $224 million Australian Dollars (approximately £119 million GBP) cut to the country’s aid budget. The Church leaders voiced their concern that a failure to act now will see the aid budget fall to its lowest ever level in Australian history. ‘This is an unprecedented action from leaders within Australia’s Christian

IUMA BANI / ANGLICAN OVERSEAS AID

denominations, instigated by a scheduled further cut to the aid budget,’ World Vision CEO, Tim Costello told The Melbourne Anglican. ‘Coming on top of more than $11 billion in cuts to aid since coming to office, this will be the fourth time the government has targeted

Australian aid for cuts.’ Ben Thurley, the national coordinator of the Micah Australia coalition, said that more than ten million Australians identify with the signatory churches and denominations and are united by their belief in Jesus, who calls us to ‘love our neighbour’.

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Jesa Baro’s father Mosese and family (above) sheltered under their house which was completely destroyed in the cyclone. Jesa Baro (inset)

The family responds

TAONGA MAGAZINE

How the Church rolls into action in a crisis WHEN A CRISIS STRIKES a community the Church is invariably the first to respond. Church members find themselves in the thick of it, standing alongside those affected long after the emergency agencies have left. Tropical Cyclone Winston hit Fiji in February. It was the largest storm ever recorded in the region killing 44 people and causing widespread damage. As the emergency agencies pulled together, the Church was among the first to respond. The Revd Canon Robert Kereopa, the chief executive officer of the Anglican Missions Board (AMB), gave an insight into what happens when a disaster strikes…

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The diary of a disaster We are fortunate in the South Pacific because we have a strong Christian community where churches are used to working together, writes Robert Kereopa. In Fiji, different faiths generally relate well together, especially Hindus and Christians. There is a willingness to help one another in times of need. The three phases of an emergency of this kind, the 3 ‘r’s, are the ‘rescue phase’, the ‘relief phase’ and the ‘rebuilding phase’, and each phase is critical to the safety and wellbeing of the people’ albeit with different demands. The rescue (and recovery) phase is the phase during and immediately

after the disaster. The community including the churches mobilize to rescue those whose lives are at risk, to recover the dead and to provide medical assistance to those in need. Being prepared for a disaster cannot be overstated, and having a resilient community shelter is recommended, but not always possible. With communications and services down and often roads and transport difficult, communities often have to fend for themselves, particularly in remote communities. Fortunately, where there is strong community co-operation everyone helps one another. The relief phase can take months depending on the devastation caused. This phase focuses on food, water, clothing, medical support

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and temporary shelter for those affected. The response of the churches is critical because they often know their communities best and know how to assess the need and get relief supplies to where they are needed. In the aftermath of a disaster it is helpful for churches to have experienced people who can offer pastoral support, assist relief efforts and assess the needs. Anglican Missions (Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia) sent their Projects Officer the Revd Mike Hawke in the immediate aftermath of Cyclone Pam last year that devastated Vanuatu and nearby islands, and during and immediately after Cyclone Winston. Providing pastoral support for churches on the ground which are also victims of the disaster, helps assess needs and speedily mobilize the church to assist with relief efforts. The rebuilding phase can take years. The rebuilding phase is still ongoing after the earthquake that struck Christchurch in New Zealand in 2010. Our Projects Officer is currently in Vanuatu assisting with rebuild efforts more than a year after Cyclone Pam in the Melanesia region. This is often the most difficult phase, because people often forget that residents still need help to rebuild their homes, their gardens, their communities and their lives long after rescue and relief efforts have been completed. Temporary shelters need to be turned into permanent homes, gardens replanted, resilient cyclone shelters built for the communities if funding can be found, trauma counselling provided if needed, as well as preparations for the next cyclone. Anglican Missions is focusing appeal

Many homes were wiped out by the storm

The church truck arriving with practical support (above) Robert Kereopa (right)

efforts on rebuilding the very poor and remote community of Maniava, struck by the full force of Cyclone Winston. For Stage 1 we want to rebuild 33 homes at a modest cost of $7,000 each – details are available on our website. With cyclones growing in strength due to climate change, their impacts are also growing. Cyclone Winston was the strongest cyclone to make landfall in the Southern hemisphere with devastating consequences for Fiji and nearby islands. Those who are least prepared are the poorer more isolated communities. It’s early days and we are going to need to be in for the long haul. We would value prayer for those helping with relief and rebuilding efforts and for a resilient Pacific as climate change is bringing more severe cyclones to our region. You can support the Anglican Missions Board emergency appeal by donating online.

A story of hope Reporting on how people are coping since the cyclone, Lloyd Ashton writes in Taonga magazine: So, are the people just intent on surviving, day to day? Or are they looking ahead? Actually, they’re holding both things in tension. I was speaking with Jesa Baro the other day. Jesa is a Sunday School teacher, and he and his wife Lesi and their two children live with his father Mosese. But his house got wiped out, too. Everything above the floor was taken. So now Jesa and his family are living beneath the floor. Jesa’s children are asking him questions

TAONGA MAGAZINE

about that: ‘How much longer are we going to be sleeping here, Dad?’ Jesa was a bit teary when he was telling me this. He told me, too, that he’ll find it hard to rebuild. ‘Every time I hear the wind and tin rattling,’ he said, ‘it takes me back to that night.’ On the night of the cyclone, when the wind force became really ominous, Jesa’s family decided to make a run to one of four sturdier governmentbuilt houses (they’re the only ones to survive the carnage) about 50 metres away on the eastern slopes of the village. Jesa led the way. But the winds were so fierce this fit young man couldn’t stand. So he inched his way forward on his knees and elbows, commando-crawl fashion, cradling his young son in his arms. Jesa made it to the government house, and he made it back again, too. But the winds grew stronger still, and there was no way Jesa could survive a second trip. So he and eight members of the family, his father Mosese among them, clambered under the floor of their home. Four hours later, when they emerged, there was nothing left above the floorboards. The two-storeyed home had simply disappeared. Anyway: a couple of days after the cyclone Jesa told me he was feeling down. He was thinking: ‘Lord: why has this happened to us?’ But just as he was forming that question, Jesa heard the church van coming to the village. So instead of brooding over that question, he breathed a statement of trust: ‘Even though I don’t understand what has happened to us, Lord,’ he said… ‘I thank you that you still care for us.’

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Finding God in a strange land

Crosses made during a retreat craft day

SARAH & PAUL MAYBURY

Churches in Cyprus and the Gulf are helping people on a journey of discovery AS A MIGRANT or an expatriate, when you move from your homeland to live and work in another country, many people find themselves in a ‘strange land’, without familiar securities and extended family support networks. The church offers a degree of familiarity, a place of fellowship and a context in which to explore questions like, ‘Where is God now?’, writes the Revd Canon Paul Maybury, Spirituality Coordinator in the Diocese of Cyprus and the Gulf. The Diocese of Cyprus and the Gulf spans eight countries of the Middle East – Cyprus, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman and Yemen. In six of those

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countries Anglican congregations are made up entirely of migrants and expatriates from many nations of the world but in Iraq, the priest and congregation are indigenous, and in Yemen, currently without a priest, because of the dangers in that country, the same is true. Through Sunday worship, mid-week activities and occasional events, thousands of Anglican Christians in this region find their faith is renewed, deepened and reenergized. In unfamiliarity, insecurity and the challenges of living in a demanding context, the church family here is rediscovering the richness of their Christian heritage. People

“the church family here is rediscovering the richness of their Christian heritage” are experiencing the value of the spiritual disciplines of prayer, fasting, meditating on Scripture, confession and the importance of sharing one’s faith journey with a spiritual guide.

Rowena’s story… Rowena* retired to Cyprus from the UK 12 years ago. She would describe herself as a Christian but had not been a church-attending

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Christian for over 20 years. On coming to Cyprus she was drawn to the Anglican church near where she lived. Here she met Christians from many different countries and denominations and found a spiritual home in the local church. For a year or two she attended worship most Sundays and found comfort in the hymn singing and felt strangely out of her depth when she heard readings from the Bible and the sermon. When her husband unexpectedly died and she found herself alone and in a foreign land, without her children and grandchildren nearby, she began to pray and search more diligently. She responded to an invitation to attend a retreat day. Here she discovered that she was not the only person in her advancing years asking searching questions and wanting a deeper sense of peace and purpose. She began to spend time each day meditating on Scripture using the ancient practice of Lectio Divina. Slowly, slowly, Siga siga as they say in Cyprus, she found that in the quiet of her heart and in the peace of her home she felt her Lord speak to her through the familiar Bible stories which she remembered from her childhood. She attended more spirituality days and learned about “healing life’s hurts”. She dared to opt in to the offer of a Retreat in Daily Life, where she met with a spiritual guide for an hour a day for five consecutive days. Rowena’s faith was deepening and with it her commitment to church. She began to volunteer to take responsibilities in the life of the church. She asked to meet regularly with a spiritual guide and discovered the value of confessing to another Christian. Every time she walked the dog and

Retreat Day participants at Katafiyio Retreat House

“this is a journey from head to heart – moving from what they have learned about God to being in a relationship” intentionally sought to listen to God she heard him speak to her most days. From her deep sorrow over her husband’s sudden death and the regrets of her life she found that not only could she be compassionate and forgiving to herself, but to others who had hurt her in the past as well. Rowena discovered ‘the joy of the Lord is my strength’ ( Nehemiah 8.10) and is looking forward to the next spirituality day – How to pray in the power of the Spirit. It is a wonderful privilege to share the spiritual journey of someone like Rowena. To meet with her and encourage her to put words and prayers to her feelings and thoughts; to offer Scripture verses and to pray for the deepening of the Spirit’s work in her life. This is the role of a spiritual mentor or guide. Rowena is just one of many who have found their faith become more meaningful and transformative, while living away from home. Rowena is from the UK but the same is true for others from many other countries of the world. Much of the diocese is desert. In the midst of the desert great cities have grown in the past 50 years. In these oases of affluence, study, materialism and wealth,

SARAH & PAUL MAYBURY

the thirst for ‘living water’ is often acute. To help people grow in their discipleship and be renewed in faith, service and mission, the diocese has set up a group, called the Barnabas Team, which responds to requests for training, support and spiritual nourishment for church members. Spirituality journeys cut across all cultural barriers and boundaries. As we explore different ways of being open to God from retreats, to prayer guides and practical workshops, we are plumbing the depths of spiritual traditions and 2000 years worth of faith. We are learning from those who have become holy through spiritual discipleship over the years including the early monks, or desert fathers, in Sinai and Egypt during the second century. For many people this is a journey from head to heart – moving from what they know and have learned about God to being in a relationship with Him and ‘chewing’ on God’s word to let it sink in deeply and mull over its meaning. Jesus promised his disciples when they had caught nothing to fish on the right side of the boat and they would find some (John 21.6) and their nets were full to bursting. For those who fish on the other side by exploring different and new ways of praying, meditating, reflecting and journeying inward, there are abundant riches to be found. The spiritual journey is never ending and the benefits for individuals, families and whole church communities are enormous. *Name changed

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Looking after the family ‘home’ How the Church plays a vital role in tackling a deadly virus Member of a decontamination crew, Kambia, Sierra Leone

LAST YEAR THE DEADLY Ebola virus dominated headlines and drove fear across West Africa. In the last few months the vicious Zika virus has been threatening communities in South America. Although the international health authorities take the lead with action plans and schemes, it seems churches across the Communion have a vital role to play. A few weeks ago the Episcopal Anglican Church of Brazil (IEAB) joined with other churches in the country to raise awareness of the Zika virus and promote preventative

“We need to give people hope at a time like this... Start small but do something”

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measures through an ecumenical Lenten campaign for a healthy environment. Its campaign Care for our Common Home lifted up the right to clean water and sanitation in Brazil. IEAB Primate Archbishop Francisco de Assis da Silva said, ‘Half of the population of Brazil has no access to sanitation and a great number have no clean water. The outbreak of Zika is an example of the neglectful situation in which our people live. All of this can be overcome with education, mobilization and public policies that take into consideration the preservation of the environment.’ For IEAB, the Zika crisis was a key moment to promote community action and call for a strong governmental response to ensure sustainable and just living conditions. The Aedes aegypti mosquito that transmits the Zika virus to humans is able to breed where pools of water are left standing. The virus has now been detected in at least 23 countries

CAFOD/LOUISE NORTON

across the Americas, leading the World Health Organisation (WHO) to declare a global public health emergency. Pregnant women are at particular risk due to a suspected link between the Zika virus and microcephaly in babies, a birth defect where a baby’s head is smaller than expected when compared to babies of the same sex and age. According to WHO, if microcephaly is combined with poor brain growth, developmental disabilities may result. Around 4000 babies have been born with microcephaly in Brazil since October 2015. Anglican Alliance Co-Executive Director the Revd Rachel Carnegie said, “Access to health care and proper sanitation, such as safe water, sewage treatment and garbage collection, are targets of the new Sustainable Development Goals and fundamental elements for communities to live in health and dignity. With its presence in every

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Meeting of faith leaders in Sierra Leone. Caption

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Members of Caritas Makeni burial team, Kambia district, Sierra Leone.

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community, the churches has a key role to play in raising awareness on prevention of the Zika virus, as well as advocating with governments on water and sanitation issues.” While churches in Brazil and other parts of South America support the response to the Zika virus and raise awareness of the risks, churches in West Africa have been reflecting on their role during last year’s Ebola outbreak.

CHRISTIAN AID/AURELIE D’UNIENVILLE

Training for faith leaders in Sierra Leone

The bishops of the Dioceses of Bo and Freetown in Sierra Leone and of Guinea joined representatives from partner agencies and link dioceses at a meeting convened by the Anglican Alliance to explore lessons learned and how they might be applied to similar crises elsewhere. They all concluded the churches must be involved as partners by the government, the UN and other agencies. ‘The Ebola response underlines the unique and vital role of the churches in preventing and responding to such an epidemic,’ said Dr Janice Proud, Anglican Alliance Relief and Programme Manager. She said findings of a report commissioned by four faithbased agencies, called Keeping the Faith: the role of faith leaders in the Ebola response, showed there was significant delay in engaging faith communities – a delay, it states, that may have cost thousands of lives. The report documents the trajectory of the virus, which showed the sharp decline in its spread coincided dramatically with

the point in time when the faith leaders became centrally engaged in the response. Once faith leaders were involved, the report found that they were transformational due to their trusted, respected long-term presence in communities and their ability to contextualize the response to take into account local beliefs and traditions. Bishop of Freetown, the Rt Revd Thomas Wilson, said, ‘We need to give people hope at a time like this. To change [mentality] it is not just one Sunday preaching or one pastor or imam, it is real engagement,’ he said, adding that often lay people such as catechists were instrumental in helping pastors to overcome fear with messages of hope. ‘The Church must take the lead in times like the Ebola crisis rather than waiting to be drawn into the response’, he said. ‘Start small but do something.’ Bishop of Bo, in Sierra Leone, the Rt Revd Emmanuel Tucker, recommended that the churches look at integrating how they are handling the response, talking about the issues and finding solutions within their normal programmes and ways of working. The experience of the West African churches in responding to Ebola was very important for the Communion, said Rachel Carnegie. ‘The Alliance wants to explore how leaders in other places can tap into this learning for challenges in their own contexts, especially with disease epidemics in the future.’

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Participants at ACC-16 (above), Archbishop Josiah (right) and all members with the Archbishop of Canterbury (below right)

ACC-16 – the Anglican Consultative Council met in Zambia during April

Postcards from Lusaka Members of the ACC shared their experiences… The Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby: ‘The Province of Central Africa welcomed us most beautifully and on the first Sunday a service at the Anglican Cathedral in Lusaka was one of the most joyful I have ever attended. The following Sunday it was matched by a huge open air service in Harare, Zimbabwe. …there is this deep sense that we are called by God to be peace-makers between God and humanity through our evangelism.’

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Natasha Klukach (Ecumenical participant, World Council of Churches): There is a sincere desire that the experience of fellowship between the ACC and the church here will remain as a legacy of this gathering. Your commitment to advocacy and action on the urgency of climate change and environmental crises is reflected here in your endeavour to have a paperless meeting

Wilfred Baker (Ireland): I’m not just a member of the Church of Ireland, I’m part of this Communion. I spoke to so many people and learned their challenges and what I can learn from them. It has been a wonderful experience. Nigel Pope (North India): There is a space for youth; youth are not the future of the Church but the present and we are moving beyond tokenism because of the youth present.

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Speakers and participants (above) and the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, with the Archbishop of Central Africa, Albert Chama and Dora Siliya, Zambia’s Energy and Water Development Minister

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Arthur Copeman (Australia): [I’ve gained] a greater understanding of different contexts in the Communion e.g. persecution; the joy of Central Africa – it is clear that God is building his kingdom through the Anglican Church in our world. Clifton Nedd (West Indies): The grace, love, generosity and faith of the people in Central Africa – we will take that to our various parishes.

Suzanne Lawson (Canada): My messages when I go home are quite personal. I tell stories of different people… I want them to understand their sisters and brothers in the Anglican Communion and tell the personal stories.

Revd Canon Robert Shiubwa, Provincial Youth Co-ordinator (Zambia): People have recognised a time to be noisy and a time to be silent; a time to meditate and a time to celebrate. So that is the type of worship we are bringing out to the international community to show that this is what churches are about – churches are about laughter and excitement.

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world view

The Communion at a glance Melanesian women manage their money Savings clubs in the Anglican Church of Melanesia are empowering women to manage their finances, support their families and take leadership in their communities. The women in four hamlets of Rarumana village in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands had heard that, thanks to savings clubs the Anglican Church of Melanesia (ACoM) began offering last year through the Mothers’ Union, women in neighbouring villages had been able to pay their children’s school fees and purchase small home items such as kitchenware or furnishings. ANGLICAN CHURCH OF MELANESIA

Strategies to keep youth

ACNS - GAVIN DRAKE

A panel of both young and elderly representatives from the Church of the Province of Central Africa (CPCA), the Anglican Church of Southern Africa (ACSA) and the Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia shared with ACC-16 members the various strategies of keeping young people in the church. ‘Some young people are leaving because we have made the church a place for perfect people’, said the youth coordinator for CPCA, Fr Bob Sihubwa. ‘There is need to create space and receive the youth just as they are so that they can transform out of their own conviction.’

Intentional discipleship report An Anglican Communion-wide season of intentional discipleship should be ‘a response to the biblical call to make disciples to honour and glorify God, rather than a way to address poor church attendance, or to counter a lack of commitment,’ a major new report published by the Anglican Communion states. It says intentional discipleship happens as Christians live out their faith in everyday life as faithful followers of Jesus Christ. The report, Intentional Discipleship and Disciple-

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Making – An Anglican Guide for Christian Life and Formation, was published for members of the Anglican Consultative Council who met in Lusaka in April. The Revd Canon John Kafwanka, the

Director for Mission at the Anglican Communion Office, said, ‘This book is a text for everyone.’


Anglican newspaper scoops awards The Anglican Journal – the national newspaper of the Anglican Church of Canada – received 17 awards, including four for excellence and one for Best in Class at the Best of the Christian Press Awards held in St. Louis, Missouri, in April. The awards, presented by the Associated Church Press (ACP), the oldest interdenominational religious press association in North America, recognize excellence in church publications on both sides of the US-Canadian border.

Walking alongside steel workers under threat

WIKIMEDIA

Leaders from the churches and chapels in the Welsh town of Port Talbot have formed an ecumenical ministry team to support thousands of local workers who could lose their jobs following the announcement that the Indian steel company Tata, which owns the majority of the UK’s steel works, is looking to divest from its operations in the country. ‘Local churches and chapels are supporting Tata workers through prayer and pastoral care, and I am very pleased to have a ministry team on call to be with those workers feeling particularly stressed,’ Tata’s chaplain, the Revd Rick Hayes, said. ‘All the workers feel at risk at the moment and there is a lot of confusion and anxiety.’ The Vicar of Port Talbot, the Revd Mark Williams, whose father was a project engineer at the steel works for 40 years, said his message to the steel workers was quite simply: ‘We’re walking alongside you.’

Film competition tackles addiction

CHURCH OF SOUTH INDIA

The Church of South India held a short-film competition and film festival as part of a campaign to dissuade young people from using and becoming addicted to drugs. Some 25 short films were entered into the competition, organized by the Church’s youth department; and the 12 best were screened during the festival. The

diocesan youth teams were tasked with preparing a short interview on the theme Youth against Addiction and Abuse. The aim of the campaign was to teach young people ‘about the menace of addiction and abuse in society today,’ the Church of South India (CSI) said on its website.

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f e at u r e

Family values? don’t leave anyone out

Mama Gentille and Samuel, her son, sit with Leone, her pastor, as she hosts workshop participants

HAVE YOU EVER felt left out? Perhaps you didn’t get invited to that amazing party everyone is talking about, or you couldn’t attend a wedding that fell on a day when you were at work. For whatever reason you were made to feel excluded and nothing could change the sting of hurt and disappointment. In theory the church should welcome everyone, but the reality is the church family doesn’t always get it right. Churches can be guilty of leaving people out too. A recent event in Rwanda has been looking at how churches can do better and be more inclusive of those with disabilities. Statistics* state that 15% of the world’s population lives with a disability. But a more disturbing figure is that 80% of people living with a disability are in developing countries where access to good nutrition and healthcare is not easy. Dr Janice Proud, Anglican Alliance Relief and Programmes Manager, said, ‘Poverty increases the risk of disability and disability increases the risk of poverty. People with disabilities make up 20% of the

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poorest of the poor. Life is difficult when you are poor, and even more so when the country you live in does not have a good healthcare, education and social support systems. So you can image how life is even harder for those living in those countries who also live with a disability.’ She explained that disability causes further problems – more than nine out of ten children with disabilities in developing countries do not attend school, while only 1% of women with disabilities are literate. Anglican development, Church Community Mobilisation and Mothers’ Union leaders in East and Central Africa have been taking steps to make their work more inclusive of people with disabilities and a special workshop organized by the Anglican Alliance and the Council of Anglican Provinces in Africa in Kigali, Rwanda, looked at practical ways forward for churches.

Mama Gentille and Samuel Mama Gentille was born with a disability. Her legs are unable to straighten and she has never been

ANGLICAN ALLIANCE

able to walk. However, now Mama Gentille supports herself and her son, Samuel, thanks to the care and support that she has received from the church. She shared her story with workshop participants. A church member since childhood, she was carried up the hill to church by the church leader on his bike as she got older. After her parents died she was alone and her only hope was the church – they visited her. When she was pregnant, she felt guilty, but the church continued to support her with antenatal care, food, clothes and even community health insurance. They did not abandon her but showed more love and care. Through the church she learned that God does not abandon us and from that time her faith became even stronger. By reaching out to Gentille as a person, the church learned that she is a skilled mat maker. Initially church youth collected grasses (reeds) from the swamp for her to make the mats people sit on at home. Others took the finished mats to the market for her helping her to gain some independence using her skill.

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Now she pays the youth to collect the grasses and those who take the finished mats to market. She has a regular income now as her mats are sought after. She has had other support from the church, some more successful than others, they also gave a wheelchair, which she uses round her compound. She really appreciated the way the church had continually come to support her in different ways. She asked us to pray that she might get a home of her own near the Church, so she can be free. Her house is off a steep rutted path that leads from the valley to the church and shops on the ridge of the hill. After visiting Mama Gentille, the group looking at disability were impressed by the care group from the church that had supported her to become independent, by how they had treated her as a person with skills to share as well as needs to be met. The workshop participants realized that although their organisations were transforming lives in East and Central Africa, it wasn’t as inclusive as they previously thought. Sarah Kasule, Mothers’ Union Provincial Coordinator for the Church of the Province of Uganda, who joined the workshop, said the week had been eye-opening. ‘It is something that we have talked about before, but then it doesn’t happen, because actually the churches are quite inconvenient to come to for people with disabilities.’

The workshop participants identified gaps in their materials and practice – such as meeting places not being accessible, not specifically inviting people with disabilities to join in, not providing inclusive materials, which all excluded people with disabilities from grassroots activities. Janice said, ‘The most amazing thing for me was how those gathered for the workshop seemed to already be aware that they were not reaching people with disability in their work, and they were ready to explore how to adapt their practice and resources to ensure that it was sensitive to and inclusive of people with disabilities of all types, not just physical, but mental ones too. This made the time together one of blessing for us all as we shared experiences, listened to the experience of people with disabilities and planned practically how this was going to be incorporated into church development work in each country.’ All the participants registered the need for a change in attitude. Janice said, ‘Each of us is different; we are all special, valued, loved and chosen by God. As church and communities we can all have a better life together if everyone is enabled to play their full part in God’s work here on earth.’ Janice believes the church could play a key role to ensure that everyone, including people with disabilities, is treated with respect, able to participate fully in family and community activities and decisionmaking. She said, ‘This begins by

Text of memorial stone at Yolanda Housing Project

ANGLICAN ALLIANCE

Disability workshop in Rwanda

“Each of us is different; we are all special, valued, loved and chosen by God. “ talking with and listening to people with disabilities.’ Sarah Kasule said she had been challenged by the discussions, ‘When we start to envision the church, we need to think about who we invite? Is there anyone with disabilities there? Do we care that they have not come, that they are not included?’ Janice hopes that material from the workshop might contribute to the development of a CCM resource on disability sensitivity and inclusion. She said, ‘Sensitivity to and inclusion of people with disabilities in the life of the church and our communities is important in all parts of the world. It will transform not just the lives of people with disabilities but our lives too.’ *source: A Better Life Together – Faith Communities and people with disabilities (2014) http://clients.squareeye.net/uploads/ anglican/documents/Anglican_Alliance_ Disability_Resource_Print.pdf

Discussions at the disability workshop

ANGLICAN ALLIANCE

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f e at u r e

Malcolm Bradshaw & Rebecca Boardman

A family in need

LIGHTHOUSE/SAMUEL NACAR

Supporting refugees has united the churches in Athens in a common cause

“many were traumatized by their experiences in Syria or by loss of family members while crossing the Aegean”

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ACCORDING TO THE Revd Rachel Carnegie, Co-director of the Anglican Alliance, we are living in unprecedented times with more people on the move around the world than ever before. An estimated 60 million people are currently displaced due to natural disasters, conflict and climate change. With so many people looking for new homes and security, how should the church respond? There are many examples of parts of the Anglican Communion family meeting the needs of migrants from central Africa to the Solomon Islands. In Europe too churches have been faced with more people arriving to seek sanctuary than ever before. Rachel Carnegie said, ‘The refugee flow into Europe is much greater than it has been since the end of the Second World War…

But there have been inspirational stories too, like the chaplain in Athens who has been drawing together churches and agencies to help with a coordinated response.’ The Revd Canon Malcolm Bradshaw is the Anglican chaplain in Athens. When he arrived in the city several years ago, ecumenical relations were not strong and there was no Churches Together group. He said, ‘It was the crisis that has brought the Churches together. In the past year, under the increasing pressure of the flow of refugees and migrants into Greece and with a lack of coordination throughout the country, the churches in Athens began to turn to one another mutual support, to avoid duplication and to keep one another informed of developments in a very fluid situation.’

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US/MAX MCCLELLAN

Asylum seeker at camp with blankets, Idomeni, Greece

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Malcolm Bradshaw was instrumental in setting up a monthly meeting, drawing together representatives from the Greek Orthodox Church, the Roman Catholic Church, the Salvation Army, the Greek Evangelical Alliance Churches and the Anglicans. He said, ‘As churches we feel the magnitude of the crisis before us and it is helpful to share our sense of vulnerability, but also to try to assist one another in discerning what it is that we as churches can bring to the response. During October 2015 over 5,000 refugees/migrants were entering Greece each day. They were in transit, none wanting to stay in the country. Nevertheless, many were traumatized by their experiences in Syria or by loss of family members while crossing the Aegean or families which had become separated on the journey. To pastorally respond to the needs of the traumatized and the young people other than to provide food and shelter is very demanding in time and emotional energy.’ The ecumenical group of churches as well as the American Protestant Churches and the Lutheran Churches of Sweden and Germany now form ‘Churches Together in Athens for the Refugees’. Rebecca Boardman works with the Anglican chaplaincy in Athens, supported by Us (United Society), she said the situation in Greece was changing rapidly with less people arriving on the islands at the moment the efforts are now focused on the urban areas of Athens and Thessaloniki and in the official camps located all over mainland Greece.

Refugee arrivals Skala, Lesvos

“One of the great challenges is providing good information so that refugees can make safe choices”

Members of the Anglican congregation in Athens have been aware of the flow of refugees and migrants into Greece for some time and have worked with the Greek Orthodox Church over the past six years to distribute 800 hot meals a day for both refugees and migrants and the impoverished local population. The Church has also responded to an emergency in a detention centre providing clothing, toiletries, sleeping bags and blankets and currently provides one hot meal a week for 450 people who are in detention awaiting deportation. Of late, it has organized regular monthly donations among the expatriate community including items like toothpaste, toothbrushes and bars of soap. But for a country in the depths of economic austerity, the care of 54,000 refugees is yet another burden. Rebecca said, ‘There is an issue of ensuring a right balance between meeting the needs of the refugees and those of the domestic population who are also struggling to feed their families.’ She said Victoria Square in central Athens where hundreds of refugees had formerly camped was still a focal point for them to gather, partially because it is a place

LIGHTHOUSE/SAMUEL NACAR

to meet with smugglers. One of the great challenges is providing good information so that refugees can make safe choices and avoid expensive and dangerous smuggling rings. With funding from Us and the Anglican chaplaincy, the Salvation Army has now employed a Dari (Afghan language) interpreter to help improve communication for migrants in the square, guiding them to the right resources and where to get help with filling out forms and finding basic medical support. The Anglican Chaplaincy in Greece, supported by Us, is funding Lighthouse Refugee Relief (LRR), an NGO set up last year by volunteers from Sweden, Norway and the UK. It is one of some many NGOs responding to the crisis. It is now focusing its attention on the unofficial camp at Idomeni and three official sites in the north of Greece where those now stranded in Greece since the closure of the borders have been moved. Rebecca said, ‘They have helped establish children and mother and baby friendly places, where mothers can feed babies safely and been given help with care of new borns.’ The Chaplaincy in Athens has been the recipient of generous donations from the Anglican chaplaincies in Europe and beyond and has the responsibility for dispersing these funds with the programmes that it can trust. Working with Us and the Diocese in Europe, the Chaplaincy continues in trying to discern gaps where funding of programmes would be most useful.

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a n g l i c a n yo u t h

Anglican students act as role models for their peers in Kenyan universities ANGLICAN CHURCH OF KENYA

Youth force with a mission Young people create a buzz about their faith BEE KEEPING AND turning barren ground into a food source are just two of the innovative projects being celebrated by the new Anglican Communion children and youth awards. A project with students in Kenya and an emerging youth programme in Rwanda were both recognized for their approaches which combine outreach to young people with Christian discipleship. Two new awards, which were announced during the Anglican Consultative Council meeting in Lusaka in April (ACC-16), recognized the success of an existing project and awarded a cash grant of £10,000 to support innovative and emerging schemes. The mission and training coordinator for the Diocese

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of Kigali, the Revd Manasseh Tuyizere, said the original idea for the programmes came from the Bishop of Kigali and that the projects had been developing over the past few years following consultations with the local clergy. ‘Rwanda is very different because most people here are Christians,’ he explained., ‘But the country is also the fastest growing economy in Africa at the moment. This has meant that there is less interest for young people to come to church.’ Tackling the apathy among many young people was a big challenge and Manasseh Tuyizere said they had consulted young people themselves to gather ideas about what to do. He explained, ‘In the African culture young

people are seen as inferior to the adults and often the young people don’t believe in themselves. Once they start to get together they come up with brilliant ideas and people start believing in them.’ Youth Unions are just one of the emerging programmes being set up in the diocese. These serve as a platform for training young people in church identity and mission and act as a pipeline for their Christian involvement in the church and community. Through these, young people have developed social and economic projects in their churches. One of the programmes is a bee keeping venture, where young people have been trained in managing the bees, making honey and candles which can be sold to create

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THE ANGLICAN CHURCH OF KENYA

The Revd Manasseh Tuyizere from Rwanda (left) and Anglican students in Kenya (right)

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funds in support of outreach to young people. In other churches Manasseh said young people had been able to develop barren land around churches and turn them into farming co-operatives. He explained, ‘The Youth Union movement is growing so fast now with a membership of 997 trained and commissioned members in 34 parishes. Young people are being equipped to reach out to their peers through evangelistic conferences, leisure and social activities.’ Other initiatives in the youth outreach and discipleship programme includes a ministry to young people in universities and schools, Christian activity camps and Boys and Girls Brigade programmes. Manasseh said some 10,000 young people gather for regular youth services set up through the Youth Unions. He said he was excited about the award, ‘This is God’s timing and I am so grateful to God and to each one of the people who has played a role in getting the programme to where it is.’ He said the funds will be used to implement the various schemes further and provide resources and training materials for all the youth discipleship activities. In Kenya the Provincial Mission Director for the Anglican Church said he was very excited about receiving their recognition award for the Anglican Students’ Fellowship (ASF). The Revd Evans Omollo said, ‘We’re thankful to God that he has enabled us to be recognized. We believe this award

“We hope they will move from being a mission field to a mission force that the church can tap into” has given us a pan-African and an international platform to engage with others and to roll out more of our programmes and reach even more young people.’ Evans said the ASF, which is a movement of Anglican students in colleges and universities, works under the umbrella of the Kenya Anglican Youth Organisation (KAYO), and was set up in 2014 at the national youth conference. It aims to nurture Anglican students to act as role models for their peers and supports them through discipleship, keeping them connected to their local churches. As Mission Director for

the Anglican Church of Kenya he said young people were under increasing pressure from their peers, advertising and the internet to stop attending church and move away from their Christian faith while at university. ‘With these programmes we are building a pool of young professionals who can encourage their peers and become agents of change in these institutions,’ he said. ‘We hope they will move from being a mission field to a mission force that the church can tap into. We’d like to see this being a role model for others to take up both in Kenya, East Africa and the wider world.’ It is hoped funds from the award will help with the cost of resources and funding things like better communication and reports on activities, so that organisers can monitor the results and establish the most effective ways to support young Christians and draw in others.

MANASSEH TUYIZERE

A gathering of young people for a youth service in Rwanda

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p ro f i l e

Members of TOPIK preparing to distribute medical supplies to partner parishes in North Korea

TOPIK

Uniting the family Peace and reconciliation in Korea Reconciliation doesn’t mean we all agree. It means we find ways of disagreeing – perhaps very passionately – but loving each other deeply at the same time, and being deeply committed to each other. That’s the challenge for the church if we are actually going to speak to our society, which is increasingly divided in many different ways. – Archbishop Justin Welby THE CHURCH IN Korea has been putting these words into very practical action through the work of TOPIK (Towards Peace in Korea). Provincial Secretary for the Episcopal Churches in Korea and

Church members gather at the border for prayer

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TOPIK

anglican world issue 141 may 2016

“they are singing a silent song for peace, which is being encouraged by the church family” Executive Director of TOPIK, the Revd Stephen Si-Kyung Yoo talked about what steps they are taking. TOPIK was set up during the first Worldwide Anglican Peace Conference in 2007 which called on Christians to ‘protect the life and dignity of all human beings’ and ‘transform unjust structures of society’, partly in response to a resolution at the Anglican Consultative Council (ACC-13). The organization, which is supported by the government and the national council of Korea, works toward alleviating famine in North Korea as well as promoting peace and stability between the North and South Korean nations. Stephen Yoo said, ‘In 2007 we started our own activities supported by the Archbishop of Canterbury and a number of worldwide-wide

churches. The purpose of TOPIK is to promote prayer and action, spirituality and participation for peace towards peaceful reunification of North-South Korea.’ He explained the three main objectives were to work through peace education both inside and outside the church. Korean adults are traumatised by the years of war, yet the youth have no experience of the violence. It is a country divided by war. TOPIK’s education programmes aim to tackle this and have established an Anglican Peace School. Stephen Yoo said, ‘There are plans for nurturing a peace-building facilitator and spreading restorative justice among our congregations.’ Other practical peace-building initiatives include monthly pilgrimages near the border line in the so- called DMZ (Disarmed Military Zone). He said, ‘We visit the borderline with North and South Korea and pray. We walk along praying by the ruined buildings and we feel the tensions and we pray that they will be softened.’ TOPIK is also involved in raising funds for partner parishes in North of Korea. ‘We support them with their daily needs like rice, milk and medical supplies and fuel.’ Although only a small church, the Anglican Church of Korea has given all the offerings taken over Lent towards the humanitarian aid efforts in North Korea. One of the latest projects has been restoring an ambulance for a hospital in the North Korean city of Najin in consultation with the local People’s Party there. TOPIK also provides medicines and equipment for the hospital. Stephen described it as a practical way of peace making in a complex situation. He said, ‘We believe there is are some very small but significant changes in the minds of the North Korean residents who are accepting support from Christians in South Korea and recognizing the Anglican church here.’ Members of TOPIK believe they are singing a silent song for peace, which is being encouraged by the church family all over the world. They say if Koreans can begin to see their divided land healed there is hope for other countries split by wars.


the last word

One family b y a d r i a n b u tc h e r

I STOOD STILL for a moment and looked around. I wanted to take in the solemn beauty and calm of the Cathedral of the Holy Cross in Lusaka while it was still new to me. Before most of the ACC members arrived; before it became a place of work; before familiarity dulled my senses. What struck me most then were the vast windows of stained glass, throwing down squares and rectangles of differently coloured light in the bright sunshine. Like the cathedral itself, the style was a modern take on a very traditional art form. What struck me most later, after ACC-16 had got underway, was the amazing mix of people involved: different backgrounds, different cultures, different generations, different colours and, yes, different viewpoints on some issues. But with that came an overwhelming sense of all being part of one family and a shared feeling of warmth and genuine friendship. Once the ACC got down to business, it was evident the members shared another vital attribute – stamina. The pace was

relentless. Long days were spent in discussion groups or listening to presentations. Some topics were tough: the environment; migration; gender-based violence. Not only was the itinerary packed but there was work to be done in the margins too: over coffee, during lunch, at breakfast. There were set-piece events too. The most memorable for me was the stunning opening service at the cathedral on the first Sunday. Five thousand people gathered for an occasion of spectacle and celebration. It was a riot of music, colour and joy. One moment above all will live long in my mind. As we shared the peace, about thirty clergy began dancing at the foot of the cathedral steps. Minutes later, who should make his way down to join in but Zambia’s president, Edgar Lungu. ACC-16 was relentless behind the scenes too with ACO staff scurrying around to ensure things ran smoothly. It was not easy with the WiFi regularly falling over. This was my first ACC – and my first month as Director for Communications. The media team – Archdeacon Paul Feheley from Toronto and Gavin Drake and

“different cultures, different generations, different colours.... But an overwhelming sense of all being part of one family” Michael Ade from the UK – had been assembled before I joined and were veterans of previous gatherings. Two more – Matt Davies and Bellah Zulu – came on board to shoot videos. Our job was not just to follow events at ACC, but to monitor and respond to ‘noises off’. Those included newspaper revelations about Archbishop Justin’s real father and his meeting with President Mugabe of Zimbabwe. But those stories are for another time. At a service to mark the close of ACC-16, two huge bunches of helium balloons were released close to the altar. They floated to ceiling to form a large, multi-coloured cross. It was a suitable emblem for an extraordinary event.

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