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Buddhism in Taiwan Anthropology National Chi Nan University, Taiwan Prof. Noel W. Schutz Jr.

Speaker: Lawrenzo Hung-Chun Huang

Gautama Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama Argumentation: 563 BCE to 483 BCE

reincarnate “reincarnate" is basic concept of Brahma religion.

Nirvana 涅盤

Siddhārtha Gautama, also known as Śākyamuni or Shakyamuni ("sage of the Shakyas"), is the key figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to Gautama were passed down by oral tradition, and first committed to writing about 400 years later.

"Nibbāna" means "blowing out" — that is, blowing out the fires of greed, hatred, and delusion

Buddha Buddha People entitle Siddhārtha A honorary title for "awakened one" or "the enlightened one” who Find the way out of reincarnate

Buddhism Road Map Hinduism Brahma

The Jainism swastika




Gandhara was a jewel of Buddhist civilization that stretched across what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Gandharans left us a rich heritage of Buddhist art that was threatened by the Taliban. The Buddhism swastika

The swastika was the official emblem of the Nazi Party, and is used sometimes by modern Neo-Nazis

Worship icon figure? Primitive Buddhism BCE.5 Early Buddhist School BCE.4~BCE.3

Local religion combination After BCE.3

No icon worship, merely symbol of vehicle wheel

Mahāyāna (North Buddhism; Larger Vehicle Buddhism; Buddhism Bodhisattvayana 菩提心) Hīnayāna (South Buddhism; Smaller Vehicle Buddhism) Buddhism

Buddhism Idolizations Greek style Buddha BCE.3~2 (Pakistan)

Polytheism (Syncretism) Icon Worship (Add on local relegion)

the vehicle carry whole wisdom

China style Buddha

A honorary title for a Buddhist monk: “Tripiṭaka” ƒ The Chinese form of Tripiṭaka, "SanZang" (三藏), was sometimes used as an honorary title for a Buddhist monk who has mastered all the Tripiṭaka canons, most notably in the case case of the Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang, whose pilgrimage to India to study and bring Buddhist text back to China was portrayed in the novel Journey to the West as "Tang Sanzang". Hsüan-tsang

Sutra Knowing

[602/603? - 664 CE] was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. sūtra piṭaka 經藏

Nirvana disciplinarian

Certificate vinaya piṭaka 律藏

abhidharma piṭaka 論藏

Mahayana Buddhism

Public debate

Diffusion of Buddhism


5 6

3 1 2



5 3 4


Syncretism in China Confucianism(儒) Buddhism(釋) Taoism(道)

Con Tsu


Lao Tsu

China Shaolin Monastery(少林寺) Three religion combination(三教混元圖) Ming Dynasty Look Careful ! There are three figure in there

Syncretism example

From Avalokiteśvara to Guan Yin

Ming Dynasty

Taoism Goddess


+ Lin, Mo-Niang Amakawa(媽閣) Macao

A tenderness mother

Guan Yin statue Liao Dynasty (A.D. 907-1125)

ninth century CE, 801 CE - 900 CE. (Pakistan)

Ann Hung Kong, Tainan(台南 恩隍宮)

Distinguish the “Temple” “Si (寺)” is ambassador resident in Tang dynasty.

Si refers the Buddhist temple

“Miao (廟)” is official building for worship ceremony. However, Most Educational activity in there.

Miao indicates the Taoist and Confucianism temple

Buddhism Population More than 90 percent of Taiwanese people practice three major religion

3.5% 724,500

35% 7,245,000

61.5% 12,730,500 Confucian principles, local practices and Taoist tradition.

Taoism & others Buddhism Christianity

Taiwan Buddhist system 淨土Jìngtǔ (Pure land) Buddhist 정토종 禪Zen Buddhist Japan system (Tong Teaching東傳 Teaching東傳))

China system (Han Teaching漢傳 Teaching漢傳))

Tibet system (Chang Teaching藏傳 Teaching藏傳))

Tibetan Buddhist

Buddhism Temple in Taiwan

North (Jinshan, Taipei): Master Sheng-yen (聖嚴, d. 2009) of Dharma Drum Mountain (法鼓山)

West (Nantou): Master Wei Chueh (惟覺) of Chung Tai Shan (中台山)

East (Hualien): Master Cheng Yen (證嚴) of the Tzu Chi Foundation (慈濟基金會) South (Dashu, Kaohsiung): Master Hsing Yun (星雲) of Fo Guang Shan (佛光山)

Buddhism Social Service in Taiwan Education

FoGuang University (佛光大學) NanHua University (南華大學) HuaFan University (華梵大學) TzuChi University (慈濟大學) Dharma Drum Sanha University (法鼓山僧伽大學大學)

Tzu Chi Foundation NPO Foundation Tzu Chi Hospital Dharma Drum Sanha Foundation …. Press

DaAi Television FoGuang Television … Columbarium Ci-Guang-Shan(慈光山) …

Buddhism in Taiwan

Conclusion: Buddhism provide Taiwan social stability, from birth to death.