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CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT WALNFORD Upper Freehold TOWI1S11ip, Monmouth County, New Jersey Prepared for The Monmouth County Park System Board of Recreation Commissioners Newman Springs Road, Lincroft, New Jersey Historical Preservation Specialist: Gail Hunton

Funded by the County of Monmouth & A Matching Grant From The Historic Preservation Bond Program Administered Through The New Jersey Historic Trust By Andropogon Associates, Ltd., Architects, Landscape Architects & Planners 374 Shurs Lane, Philadelphia PA 19128 (215) 487-0700

Fax: (215) 483-7520

Project Director: Carol Franklin; Consultants EIiZilbeth McLean, Garden Historian and Tim Long, Historical Architect

25 June 1993


Table of Contents I.

Acknowledgements

II.

Introduction

III.

Methodology including "A Preservationist's Glossary"

N.

Historical Development Site Descriptions of the Four Major Historical Periods 1. "Country Estate and Commercial Headquarters" Richard and Elizabeth WaIn 1772-1799 2. "Federal Merchant Farmer" Nicholas and Sarah WaIn 1779 -1848" 3. "Declining fortunes" Sarah WaIn and Sarah Waln Hendrickson 1848 - 1907 (including plan) 4. "Rura I Retreat" Richard and Anne Meirs 1907-1958 (including aerial photograph and plan)

V.

Existing Conditions Context: Regional Geology Regional & Local Political BOll1idaries

l ('Y'

/' ' Site Description: \ Ownership and Historical Status Location and Boundmies Natural Features Physiography and Land use Vegetation Cultural Features (Explored Through Selective Views) (including plan with cross references)

\


VI.

Analysis and Evaluation: Site Organization Context Circulation Views Activity Zones Site Integrity Summary Photographic Comparisons Map Studies

VII.

Recommendatio11s: General Principles for Site Treatment Site Treatment and Inte1pretation Recommendations for Visitor Infrastructure and the Realization of the Intelpretive Program Developme1lt of a Integrated Landscape Management Program Management Approach Management Framework Future Archaeological Research at WaInford

VIII. A111U)tl1;ted Bibliography

IX.

Appendix A. David Meirs Donations B. Richard and Nicholas WaIn Papers C. Chronologic Sequence of WaIn Source Material D. Description of WaIn Holdings at Rutgers University Archives

X.

Pla11s Computer Disk - In Envelope Notes on "Disk Use" Vellum Maps


1. Acknowledgments We would like to thank the following people who gave us valuable comments, expertise or shared with us their personal experience of Walnford: Monmouth County Park System Staff: Gail Hunton, Historian, Preservation Specialist and Project Manager Faith Hahn, Supervising Park Planner Phyllis Mount, Historian Joe Sardonia, Supervising Park Planner Ken Thoman, Resource Planner Howard Wikoff, Senior County Park Manager We would like to extend our special thanks to Mrs. Phoebe Biddle and Mr. Frank Inman who gave us an understanding of the history of the site during the Meirs' tenancy. Lastly, we would like the thank the institutions and their staffs who generously allowed us access to their manuscripts and photographic collections among those are: The American Philosophical Society, The Hagley Library, The Quaker Collection at Haverford College, The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, The Library Company of Philadelphia and The Rutgers University Library.


II. Introduction The tiny cross-roads village of Walnford is located on the northern bank of the Crosswicks Creek, in the inner coastal plain of southern New Jersey. It combines a 19th century mill with a domestic and farm complex that includes a country house, a barnyard and other outbuildings. Continuously occupied by a single family for over more than 200 years, and located within close proximity to the Delaware River, to the local regional centers of Allentown, Burlington, as well as to the larger regional centers of Newark, Philadelphia and New York, Walnford offers a remarkable opportunity to interpret the domestic, agricultural, commercial and industrial histories of this region. Industry and Agriculture were located here in the inner coastal plain to take advantage of flat fertile land, timber resources, water power and navigable streams such as the Crosswicks Creek. Richard Wain originally purchased this land, just before the American Revolution "as an opportunity to vertically integrate his trading activities by acquiring the ability to control production of his merchandise" 1 "at the same time his Quaker-family base gave him horizontal trading strength. It was a strong position from which to operate in time of depression."2 Raw materials from upstream as well as those produced on the surrounding lands, were processed at the Walnford mills, transshipped to Burlington and from there were brought to the major Colonial markets of Philadelphia, Newark and New York. The Monmouth County Park System acquired this 36-acre complex in 1985. It is to be the centerpiece of the 280 acre Walnford Park and the nucleus of a much larger effort to conserve the Crosswicks Creek ValJey. "To date, 1,820 acres along the Crosswicks Creek have been preserved .. Sale agreements have been reached on another 169 acres so that in the near future over 1,929 acres will be preserved .. " 3 The purpose of this "Cultural Landscape Report" is to study "a geographical area influenced by human activity that includes cultural and natural resources and the people, domestic animals and wildlife therein. "4 Information drawn from archival research, field surveys, archaelogical investigations, and oral histories have been used to develop a "portrait" of this site which has been continuously used and occupied by the Wains for more than 200 years. This investigation has included an exploration of the people who lived on the land, the critical connection between their economy and their individual lifestyles and the impact of these attitudes on the patterns of the landscape. From this portrait an interpretive structure has been developed for the site that will allow these different layers of the site to be expressed, so that the larger site is not 1 HSR page 10, Watson and Henry Associates, April 1991. 2 See McCabe, "Walnford," p.17 3 Crosswicks Creek Greenway, Monmouth County Park System, Rev. 1992. 4 Landscape Architecture magazine pages 96-98, July / August 1987 Page 1

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restricted to a particular "period of significance" chosen for architectural treatment of the house. Recommendations on site treatment and site improvements to provide visitor facilities are included and are intended to guide the in-house master plan. In developing Walnford as a significant public resource three major areas of concern have been articulated by the Monmouth County Park System staff. These areas are: (1). The preservation of the integrity of the site, (2). The interpretation of Walnford in a fresh and thought provoking way and (3). The integration of the historical, cultural, environmental and recreational resources of this 36-acre complex within the larger Crosswicks Creek greenway system. 1. Preservation of Site Integrity

The feeling of traveling back in time being in a world apart is critical to the experience of Walnford. New infrastructure and site improvements should not disrupt the serenity of Walnford or undermine its pastoral character. While Walnford will need the circulation and service facilities necessary for a developing public institution, these facilities should accommodate public visitation without disrupting the spatial and historic character of the site. "Multi-objective planning" is the new phrase used to describe a planning approach where each new element is an opportunity to achieve several goals simultaneously. At Walnford, institutional requirements such as parking and path journeys should be considered in concert rather than in isolation, so that each element enhances the others and that all interventions are used to compensate for existing site deficiencies and to solve site problems. 2. Site Interpretation

Current interpretation of cultural landscapes is now focusing on the landscape as the integrative element in our historical understanding of a site, uniquely capable of illustrating the interrelationships between agriculture, industry, commerce and domestic life and is uniquely suited to reveal the interaction between people and place, between the ideas of an era and the way these ideas have been realized in a specific environment. Interpretation of the Walnford site can playa unique role in fostering connections between separate disciplines with seemingly different view points by integrating historical, cultural, social, horticultural and ecological concerns. The architecture of the house is being restored to the Colonial Revival period interpretation of the 36 acre mill farm complex should not be limited to a single "period of significance" but present the evolution of the landscape as many sequentially experienced historical layers.

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The goal of the interpretive program should be to "bring the site to life" for the visitor. Walnford should explore new interpretive strategies which go beyond viewing a static landscape, with exhibits in glass boxes, to presenting the entire landscape as the exhibit - engaging all of the senses, providing a sense of time and of place and drawing the visitor into the experience. 3. Integration of the historical, cultural, environmental and recreational resources of Walnford As stated in Monmouth County Park's description of the Crosswicks Creek Greenway "There has been a keen interest in Monmouth County as well as the State to preserve farmsteads, the natural environment and the rich historical resources of this stream valley. There has also been growing interest in providing recreational opportunities in and along the corridor. Together these interests provide a good framework for the creation of a multifaceted greenway system along Crosswicks Creek. As envisioned the Crosswicks Creek Greenway will extend six miles through Upper Freehold Township from the Ocean County border to the Burlington County Line, and will encompass county parkland along the stream corridor, trails and public access for fishing and canoeing, and the preservation of adjacent farms through easements and the purchase of development rights. The core of the Monmouth County Park System's Walnford Park, an 18th/19th century milling and farming complex listed on the National Register of Historic Places, will serve as the focal Point along the greenway where interpretive information and educational programs relating to the history and conservation of Crosswicks Creek will be available to the public." 2

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III. Methodology The study was divided into five phases: I. Phase One: II. Phase Two: III. Phase Three: IV. Phase Four: V. Phase Five:

Inventory Program development Report Mock-Up Analysis and Recommendations Final Report Production

Phase I. Inventory The purpose of the inventory was to research and record both the current and historical conditions of the site, identifying all major landscape components. These components include: Internal and external boundary demarcations -walls, fences and hedgerows; Circulation systems - roads, paths, bridges, and domestic animal trails;Vegetation patterns - both natural vegetation such as forest, successional landscapes, and wetlands as well as horticultural and working landscapes such as major trees, shrub and flower beds, lawns, gardens and farm field; other landscape features such as the mill pond, the farmyard and the garden structures. 1. Archival Research & Review of Existing Written, Graphic & Oral Source Material Field investigations were supplemented with extensive archival research and review of existing written, graphic and oral source material. All three members of the team began the historical investigation with a careful reading of McCabe, Brown, the HSR, the National Historic Register Nomination, and the Thoman vegetation report provided by MCPS. These sources formed the "base" which was then developed by noting sources of particular potential in the bibliographies, as well as omissions, such as agricultural, industrial and Quaker history. Research on the manuscript materials, all the Walnford source material, including the Sarah WaIn Hendrickson letters, was researched in chronological order. Research was concentrated on (but not limited to) the late 18th and early 19th centuries, as these periods have been less fully explored in the McCabe reports. 2. Primary and Secondary Written Sources a. Primary Source Materials The first 14 boxes of the WaIn Papers at HSP and the remaining boxes of Wain Papers were reviewed for information specifically regarding the design and functions of the landscape. The remaining boxes were also reviewed although they are primarily papers relating to Richard WaIn. Every effort was made to avoid recrossing ground already Page 1

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covered, but McCabe's references were not always complete and the microfilm which HSP sent Phyllis Mount was not annotated as to folder and box. The Wain Papers in the Quaker Collection at Haverford College, refer mainly to Nicholas Wain, the preacher, although there is one letter from his wife that tells of visiting Walnford. APS was also checked for manuscript material but nothing useful was found. Original research into the Wain Papers proved extremely useful. For example, Richard Wain's "dirty fat" is, in fact, "dirty salt" (the 18th century "s" looks very much like an "f).1 Contemporary agricultural writings indicate that salt was one of the experimental "improvements" tried on the soil in this period. There is also an invoice for the purchase and hauling of 8 bushels of "dirty salt" in June 1800 (Box 8, folder 5), so perhaps the experiment noted in the 1799 farm notebook was considered a success (salt is sold by the bushel while lard is sold by the barrel). The Philadelphia area is extraordinarily rich in library resources. In particular research into the Wain family utilized HSP, the LCP and the Quaker collection at Haverford College. The staffs of all these libraries have been extremely helpful, and often the library staff have more in their heads than can be found in the files. The Receipt Book of Sarah Richardson Wain, sister-in-law of Richard, and aunt of "our" Nicholas, was found at HSP. This Receipt Book was extremely useful in demonstrating the Quaker connection, as many of the receipts were described as being from fellow Quakers, such as William Logan, Sarah Logan, and J. Warder, who figures in the Wain correspondence. b. Secondary Source Materials Primary material such as the receipt book was supplemented by secondary sources such as "Agricultural Notes" of fellow Quaker and New Jerseyian Charles Read (as transcribed in Woodward's Plough's and Politics) and the "Garden Memorandum" (18041809) of Margaret Morris, a Quaker of Burlington Nj, which was copied from the Quaker collection and gives a picture of what might have been grown for family use at Walnford in this period. Other specific references which have been read and annotated are general histories: Schmidt, Agriculture in New Jersey; Woodward, Ploughs and Politics and The Development of Agriculture in New Jersey 1640 -1880; Fletcher's Pennsylvania Agriculture and Country Life 1640 -1840; and Francis Lee's New Jersey as a Colony and as a State (4 vols.), the early well-known descriptions and "travel books" of Acrelius, Budd, Burnaby, Cazenove, Chastellux, Crevecoeur, Cutler, Anandus Johnson, Kalm, Oldmixon, and de Warville. Some secondary sources that have proved particularly helpful are: Lucy Simler's "Landless Worker, An Index of Economic and Social Change in Chester County, Pennsylvania 1750 -1820"; PMHBM CXIV, No.2 (April 1990), which explains the economics and relationship of the tenant/worker, such as were at Walnford through most of the 19th century and Bridenbaugh's Colonial Craftsman, as well as a variety of late 18th and early to mid-19th century works on agriculture, orchards, etc., such as "American Husbandry", Oliver Evans' Millwright & Miller's Guide, Bordley's various Page 2

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writings as well as Cox and M. Mahon. A variety of books and pamphlets on Quaker culture, especially in the Delaware Valley: Tolles, "Meeting House and Counting House" and "Quakers in the Atlantic Culture "have also proved useful. Newspaper descriptions of other mill communities in New Jersey, from contemporary advertisements were also researched to determine what was "typicaL" Collections at Winterthur, the Hagley Museum and Library, and the LCP. were examined in detail. At the LCP a number of almanacs were found belonging to Nicholas, Richard and Elizabeth WaIn with their signatures and some annotations as well as a ten-volume set of agricultural handbooks belonging to John Meirs, a neighbor. In addition books and articles relating to mills and their processes, and the early industrial history of New Jersey were researched. Specific references which have been read and annotated are: Mounier's "A Study of Waterpowered Sawmills in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey", Schuyler's "The Supply Mill on Content Brook in Massachusetts", A. Diderot's "Encyclopedia of Trades and Industry", Gray's "Mills and Mill Works", and Craik's "The Practical American Millwright and Miller" and "The Mill at Phillipsburg Manor Upper Mills and Brief History of Milling" at Winterthur, a book which discusses 19th century mill operations and French burr stones which we know were purchased for the WaIn Grist Mill. For the 20th century, the oral history sources, interviews with key informants, Phoebe Biddle, who visited Walnford and Frank Inman, the Meirs' farm-hand, were particularly pertinent. c. Historical Maps and other Graphic Materials Additional copies of the 1872 Beers' "State Atlas of New Jersey" were located at the University of Pennsylvania Library and at HSP. A copy of the 1873 State Atlas of New Jersey was found at HSP and a detailed image of the Walnford area was photographed in black and white. Indications of the importance of Walnford were signified by its inclusion in Barne's "Railroad, Canal and County Map of Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Adjoining States 1864" found at HSP and in the "Geological Survey of New Jersey 18881889", and in Wolverton's "Atlas of Monmouth County, 1889 ", found at LCP. Historical photographs of Walnford, which may date from the 1930's, have been located at the Rutgers University Archives. Based on the description sent by Rutgers these photographs may be very informative about the site in the late 1920's and early 1930's and may include significant views of the Walnford site previously unavailable. They should be rephotographed for the Wain ford archives. (See Appendix) Lastly, Michael Ryan at the New Jersey State Aerial Photography Library provided a negative of the Walnford section of the 1932 aerial photography of Monmouth County which was reproduced by Triangle Photo Service in Monmouth Junction.

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d. On-Site Investigation A field reference photographic record was made of the entire site. Black and white photographs were taken of significant site spaces, features, views and of the site context. In the report these photographs are cross-referenced to the existing conditions map and are discussed as a base line reference for site analysis. Historic photographs were rephotographed to serve as comparisons with contemporary views. An extensive vegetation study was made at both the scale used to portray the whole site, 1" = 60', and at the scale used to portray the core area in detail, 1" = 20'. The existing vegetation types and their successional structure were recorded for the entire site, revising information provided by the Monmouth County Park System. Areas of disturbance were also recorded. At the detailed scale of the site core, individual species were plotted revising and updating information provided by the Monmouth County Park System. The vegetation information was used to understand the natural structure of the site today and its present management and to compare the experience of the landscape today wi th the historical landscapes. During the inventory phase, some coordination with the Rutgers summer student archaeological project was possible. Since this project occurred before a thorough study of the site it was difficult to provide guidance. While the students represented an opportunity for Walnford their formalized findings were not received until the end of this study therefore, we were unable to evaluate this information or incorporate it into this report.

Phase II. Program Development In this phase the team assembled and organized the data collected into five periods four major historical periods and the present. These periods are listed below: 1. "Country Estate and Commercial Headquarters" Richard and Elizabeth WaIn 1772 - 1799 2. "Federal Merchant-Farmer" Nicholas and Sarah WaIn 1779 -1848 3. "Declining Fortunes" Sarah WaIn and Sarah WaIn Hendrickson 1848 -1907 4. "Rural Retreat" Richard and Anne Meirs 1907-1958 5. "AcquiSition, Conservation and Interpretation" Monmouth County Park System 1985 - Present

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All extant material was reviewed with five members of the Monmouth Park System staff: Gail Hunton, Historian, Preservation Specialist and Project manager; Faith Hahn, Supervising Park Planner; Phyllis Mount, Historian Joe Sardonia; Supervising Park Planner and Howard Wikoff, Senior County Park Manager. Each historical period was examined to determine ways in which each landscape could be represented. A decision was made that the report would include descriptions of the landscape for all five historical periods and the following plans: 1. "Acquisition, Conservation and Interpretation"

Monmouth County Park System Scale 1" = 60' (1990's) This plan represents existing conditions and is derived from the folllowing Sources: -

1980 Mid-Atlantic Surveys, Inc. Survey Map made by David E. Goldbaum Association from photography dated 12/1/80.

-

1992 Atlantis Aerial Survey Co. Inc. Base information from photography dated 4/10/92.

-

1992 Field Reconnaissance.

2. Existing Vegetation Types

Scale 1" = 60' (1990's) Sources: Field reconnaissance to determine plant community types, successional status and vegetation disturbance Walnford Park Vegetation Analysis, Ken Thoman 1992 Freshwater Wetlands map State of New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Allentown Quadrangle, USGS 3. Existing Landscape Conditions - Core Area

Scale 1" = 20' (1990's) This plan includes locations and names of individual plant species. Individual landscape components such as fences are keyed to the text and the illustrations. Sources: Field recconaissance Planted vegetation mapped on Dec. 1980 Survey by MidAtlantic Aerial Surveys, Inc. by Ken Thoman, MCPS 1990 Page 5

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4. "Rural Retreat" Richard WaIn and Anne Meirs Scale 1" = 60' (1920's) Sources: -

C. 1932 Aerial Photograph, Department of Environmental Protection Tidelandscape Management Program. Engineering Aerial Photo Library.

-

1980 Mid-Atlantic Surveys, Inc. Survey Map made by David Goldbaum Association from photography dated 12/1/80.

-

Rev. 1987 "Walnford: 250 years of a Central New Jersey Milling Village and Country Estate" Report.

-

1992 Atlantis Aerial Survey Co. Inc. Base information from photography dated 4/10/92.

-

1992 Frank Inman Interview.

-

1992 Phoebe Taylor Biddle Interview.

5. "Declining Fortunes" Sarah WaIn and Sarah WaIn Hendrickson Scale 1" = 60' (1890's) This plan is largely conjectural and is based only on evidence from written descriptions of Walnford itself, a few period photographs and from graphic and written materials about other crossroads villages and village/farm layouts typical of the region. Sources:

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-

C. 1890-1900 Monmouth County Park System Photographs. Rev. 1987 "Walnford:250 Years of a Central New Jersey Milling Village and Country Estate" Report.

-

1980 Mid-Atlantic Surveys, Inc. Survey Map made by David E. Goldenblaum Association from photography dated 12/1/80.

-

1992 Atlantis Aerial Survey Co. Inc. Base information from photography dated 4/10/92.

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Methodology


The rationale for not providing a plan of the site for the two earlier historical periods was also discussed and approved. During the process of reviewing primary source material and discovering previously untapped material relating to the site, it became obvious to the research team that there was very little information from which to construct these earliest period maps. Culturally significant landscapes, that is natural landscapes that have been modified by man to serve a purpose often can be "read" through careful examination of the site assisted by property descriptions that were recorded at a specific point in the past. These period records can be both wri tten specifications which clearly characterize a site location and activity within a larger parcel of land. Such records are often found in farm account books, personal journals, traveler's diaries and letters, where landscape elements such as orchards, fields, pastures, woodlots, gardens and buildings are mentioned in relationship to each other or to other recognizable landmarks. In some instances hand drawn maps, garden and farm diagrams and land survey documents reveal a wealth of information about the cultural landscape as it once was. Unfortunately, very few of these kinds of records are extant for Walnford. Since patterns of use and function in the Walnford landscape could not be clearly revealed through primary source materials for the late 18th and much of the early and middle 19th century, no attempt was made to map the property in those periods. Had the decision been to create a map or maps, the product would have been almost entirely conjectural. Though such documents have been produced and carefully qualified as "conjectural" for historic sites in the past, there is always the danger that people will accept and interpret them as historically accurate. For this reason alone, the decision not to prepare maps for earlier occupancy and land use periods is professionally responsible and philosophically sound. Phase III. Report Mock-Up The team assembled a report mock-up for review by the Park System staff. This mockup included draft plans of the WaIn ford site at present and for the two agreed upon historical periods and draft narratives of the historical site descriptions of the four major periods of the WaIn family occupancy. These written descriptions are keyed to the plans where appropriate. The purpose of the mock-up was to give the Monmouth County Staff the opportunity to comment on the content and format for the final report.

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Phase IV. : Analysis and Recommendations During Phase IV data derived from the research was compared to the existing site condi tions in order to: 1. Examine the extant resources and their relationship to the historical periods

explored. 2. Determine the features that offer the most potential for presentation. 3. Evaluate site integrity and the integrity of individual elements of the proposed historic scenes. To understand changes in the site comparative photographs and diagrams were used. 4. Identify proposed site uses, compatible and incompatible contemporary uses and the carrying ca paci ty of the site. 5. Determine the type and level of maintenance required to sustain the proposed presentations from conservation/preservation to restoration Ire-creation. 6. Evaluate the sustainablity of required maintenance programs given park budget and staff restraints. This analysis led to the following recommendations: 1. Establish general principles by which any site treatment at Walnford should be

evaluated. 2. Create strategies for the interpretation Walnford linked to proposed interpretative zones. 3. Identify compatible and incompatible locations for contemporary uses. 4. Treatment recommendations for specific landscape features 5. Identify key management strategies required to sustain this presentation.

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Phase V. Report and Report Appendices The final phase of this study was the preparation and production of the report and the appendices incorporating responses and suggestions from the Monmouth County Park's staff. The landscape plans were drawn on CADD on a computerized base from the new topographic survey provided in September 1992 by Atlantis Aerial, Survey Co., Inc. (Project # 1328 -9201). The location of landscape components in these plans is based primarily on aerial photographs from 1992 and from 1930, interview data from Phoebe Biddle and Frank Inman, analysis of historic photographs and extensive site reconnaissance. Particular landscape elements were recorded in greater detail and explored more extensively through measured drawings and photographs. Translated discs containing the graphic information in DXF format are provided in the end of the report and can be used in programs such as "Auto cad". These plans can be reproduced at any scale. As the field of Historic Preservation is a new discipline a "Preservationists' Glossary" is included at the end of this methodology section. We recommend reviewing this before reading the report as all the technical terms used in the report are defined in this glossary. Report Appendices: The report appendices are extensive and include: 1. A complete printout of the Richard and Nicholas WaIn papers, by Box and Folder, with excerpts of pertinent letters is provided. A second copy of this information will be given to HSP, to be kept with their manuscript collection. 2. Arrangement of all Walnford source material, including Sarah WaIn Hendrickson's letters, has been arranged in chronological sequence. The letters are connected to other critical source materials i.e. the letter-books, ledgers, waste-books, newspaper ads, and invoices. 3. Excepts from the David Meirs Donation 4. Description of the WaIn holdings at The Rutgers University Archives.

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III. Methodology A Preservationist's Glossary

This is a working glossary of landscape preservation terms. It includes general preservation terms and those related to historic landscapes types, landscape preservation treatments and the landscape preservation team. This glossary represents another step in the continuing efforts to develop a shared language in this special area of practice. It is presented for your use and comment. Contributions to the glossary were made by Hugh Miller and Steven Elkinton, ASLA, of the National Park Service; Ian Firth, ASLA, of the University of Georgia's School of Environmental Design; Robert Meinick, ASLA; Patricia O'Donnell, ASLA; the Olmsted Historic Landscapes Program of Massachusetts; and the American Institute of Architects Historic Resources Committee. Patricia O'Donnell complied and edited the contributions and accepts responsibility for any errors or shortcomings, while extending thanks to those who contributed. Please address comments to: Patricia 0 'Donnell, Chair, ASLA Historic Preservation Committee, Box 2425, Saugatuck Station, Westport, CT 06880. Landscape Architecture Magazine, July / August 1987 pages 96-98

General Terms Archive: A collection of records or documents relating to the history of a landscape. The term is also applied to the place where these records are kept. Authentic: True to the original or actual historic condition; genuine. Biotic Cultural Resources: Plant and animal communities associated with historic cultural landscapes. They are distinct from native vegetation and wildlife and may include gardens, orchards, woodlots, fields, pastures and other living resources Continuity: The quality of being uninterrupted in time. Retaining the general organization of the landscape, such as field patterns in an agricultural landscape, knows a high degree of continuity. A sense of continuity is a positive quality in historic cultural landscape. Cultural Resources: Sites, structures, districts, objects and biotic elements significantly associated with or representative of earlier human activities and events.

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Design Intent: The creative objectives of the landscape designer or landscape architect that were applied to the development of the landscape either fully or in part. Design intent can be determined from graphic and written documentation, preferably from primary sources, written from graphic records of the original designer or landscape architect. District: An urban or rural geographic area that contains a concentration, linkage or continuity of historic cultural resources. A district is unified by past events, a plan, physical developments or by similar human uses. Individual elements that are geographically separated but are linked by association or history can also form a district. This type of physically separated district is referred to as a thematic district. Drastic Change: A sudden alteration of a landscape. Human action or natural events can trigger a drastic change. Rapid changes in land use, a flood or a forest fire are drastic changes. Furnishings: Constructed equipment placed in the landscape for human comfort and convenience. Benches, lights, trash receptacles, gates, fences, and bicycle racks are examples. Heritage Theme: Major forces or aspects of our culture viewed from a historical perspective. The National Park Service and National Landmarks Program use a thematic framework to classify our nation's history into broad themes, subthemes and facets. Historic Landscape Report (HLR): The report focuses on the landscape resource. The document can collect, present and evaluate archival and field research findings and propose preservation treatments and management options. Historic Landscape Survey: A landscape survey focuses on documenting the history and current status of the landscape. The AS LA Historic Landscape Survey seeks to document United States landscapes in a format that parallels National Register nominations and to collect this documentation in a national data base. Incremental Change: Gradual modification of a landscape by human actions and / or natural forces. Minor impact over a period of time characteristic of incremental change. The evolution of a historic cultural landscape may have little effect on its integrity. Integrity: Authenticity of a landscape's historic identity evidenced by the survival of physical characteristics that existed during the recognized historic period. Retention of topography, vegetation, spatial relationships, circulation systems, furnishings, structures and features all contribute to landscape integrity. Surviving physical characteristics convey historical patterns, deSign, technology or information about a culture or people. According to National Register criteria, historic resources are considered to possess integrity in at least two of the following seven ways: location,

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design, setting, material, workmanship, feeling and association. The entire landscape as well as individual components should be evaluated for degree of integrity. Interpretation: Process of becoming educated or informed about a historic cultural landscape through multisensory methods. The primary resource for interpretation is the landscape itself. interpretation methods may include self- or professionally guided tours, graphics, signs, models, exhibits, interactive computer programs, videotapes, movies, leaflets, brochures, events, seminars, and other creative means. Interpretive Value: The meaning a landscape possesses and can be conveyed to visitors for educational, recreational or scientific purposes. Compared with historic structures, few landscapes have been preserved primarily for interpretive value or are the subjects of appropriate interpretive methods. Landscape Value: The relative worth of a landscape and its components to past and present generations. Historic value is the primary focus addressed here. Additional values inherent in a landscape include scenic, ecological, recreational, interpretive and economic values. Historic cultural landscapes may be preserved for several landscape values. Scenic Value: The worth placed on a landscape by a viewer's or evaluator's perception of it. This perception tends to be subjective rather than objective. Scenic value can apply to the entire landscape or to the interrelationships of individual components. Significance: A significant landscape has historic value: associated with a person, community or culture; as a work of a recognized master; as an important artistic statement; as an example of fine craftsmanship, unique materials, particularly style, type, time or time sequence; as a regional expression; or as an important landmark. Significance is comparative and similar sites should be considered in determining a landscape's significance. A landscape may be significant to the local community, to the state or to the nation. Structure: Features constructed into or upon the landscape. Generally in two categories: (1) load bearing structures such as buildings, bridges or walls; (2) decorative structures such as sculptures, monuments, pergolas, gazebos, etc. Views, Viewshed: An unobstructed line-of-sight from one location to a landscape or portion of it. A viewshed is a sequence of views from a given vantage point. Wilderness: A wild, uninhabited, uncultivated geographic area. (Report author'S note: These landscapes have been traditionally considered to be without cultural value, however, new insights from many pertinant fields are changing this perception.)

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Walnlord Cultural Landscape Study - Methodology


Landscape Terms Cultural Landscape: A geographic area influenced by human activity that includes cultural and natural resources and the people, wildlife or domestic animals therein. Historic Landscape: A geographic area that has functioned as a setting for or been the object of an event or interaction that is significant in human history. (see Historic Site)

Landscape Categories Five general categories of historic cuIturallandscapes define a range of types. They are not mutually exclusive and are derived from current working definitions of the National Park Service, with minor modlfications. Historic Designed Landscapes: A landscape where designer, form, layout and other design elements are the primary reasons for significance. Historic designed landscapes typically include large and small parks, parkways, estate grounds, gardens and similar landscapes. Historic Etlmographic Landscape: A landscape characterized by the use of distinct ethnic groups that added cultural imprints to the landscape. It derives significance from human interaction with or consumptive use of the natural environment. Effective management assures perpetuation of the landscape and continuation of traditional uses. Historic Scene: A view-scale environment where a significant historical event occurred or historic view is evoked. Frequently associated with structures, furnishings or other tangible remains, such scenes provide a context for understanding and interpreting events, ideas or persons associated with the landscape. Historic Site: An event or activity in the past imbues the particular piece of ground with significance that warrants preservation of the historic appearance. Historic sites can vary in scale. Historic Vernacular Landscapes: A place possessing a significant concentration, linkage or continuity of natural and built components that are united by human use and past events. Such places are generally characterized in use by a SOciety or community rather than by specific individuals. The style, workmanship and land-use management techniques of the site tend to be typical of particular groups or historic periods, rather than unique or innovative.

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Walnlord Cultural Landscape Study - Methodology


Preservation Planning Historical research: is essential prior to beginning work on a landscape. The landscape's historic period(s) and their relative significance are revealed through information that is gathered from a variety of sources such as historical photos, plans, nursery records, household records, personal correspondence, and oral histories. Articles found in historic journals and magazines as well as other published sources such as treatise and texts may also provide information about the landscape's history. Inventory and documentation: of the landscape provides a detailed record of the existing materials and features and their condition. This survey should include drawings to scale, photographs, and narrative text, and may also include videotaping. Analysis: of the site provides a basis for understanding the landscape's change over time. this is accomplished by comparing the landscape's current features, materials, spaces, and overall organization to those that, as authenticated by earlier research and inventory, existed during its historic period(s). Based on an understanding of the evolution, these character-defining features may be attributed to specific time frames. Treatment options for the overall landscape may now be weighed. The selection of a treatment: for the landscape determines the type and scope of work for each project, i.e., the extent of repair and replacement to historic features and materials. The type and scope of work, in turn, determine how the entire property will exist in relationship to the user, viewer or visitor. Decisions made at this step will determine how the history of the property will be perceived.

Preservation Treatments One of the problems in developing a clear conception of historic landscape preservation is the lack of a clear, agreed-upon meaning for the term "preservation." So defined, "preservation" becomes an umbrella term that includes a number of possible treatments. The one that comes first, almost automatically, to mind is the strict reproduction of an original design. But there are alternative approaches, and the task of the designer is to choose that which is most appropriate. Preservation: The act or process of applying measures to sustain the terrain and vegetative cover and the form integrity and materials of the landscape. Preservation may include stabilization of extant forms, elements or features from earlier periods and the removal of threatening elements, such as plant overgrowth by volunteers or exotic species. Preservation can be a maintenance activity to a prescribed standard that includes routine, cyclic and special maintenance. The intensity and means of landscape preservation are dependent on the nature of the landscape and the value of its elements. All preservation activities should meet the intent of the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Historic Preservation. The preservation of a historic cultural landscape

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shall proceed on the basis of the following criteria: (1) the landscape is in a satisfactory condition to protect, maintain, use and interpret: or (2) a treatment is indicated and it shall be planned for, programmed and undertaken: or (3) the landscape has been restored, reconstructed or rehabilitated and must now be preserved. Preservation is a process of stabilizing, rebuilding, maintaining, or improving the condition and specific qualities of an historic landscape so that the landscape is protected and the design intent fulfilled. The term Historic Preservation is also used generically to describe activities such as the identification, evaluation, treatment and management which strive to retain the significance and integrity of an historic property. Treatment: Any strategy or combination of strategies that are undertaken in response to the landscape's historic value. The treatment of a landscape shall recognize the historic, archaeological, ethnographic and design values, as well as the dynamics of change to landscape features. Many different treatments are available along a gradient of intervention from release to reconstruction. The National Park Service recognizes six treatments which involve physical work: protection, stabilization, preservation, rehabilitation, restoration and reconstruction. Adaptive Use: Retains and reinforces the historic cultural landscape while accommodating contemporary uses, needs and conditions. A thorough research process addressing history, use, management, maintenance, ecology, safety and other relevant factors should accompany adaptive use strategy development. The treatment should reinforce historic integrity and retain extant historic fabric while integrating relevant factors. Conservation: Is most frequently applied to the preservation of natural landscapes, but it can also be applied to the designed environment. It is a passive process of preservation. It protects an historic landscape from loss or the infringement of incongruent uses. Conservation is basically a stewardship of a site. Interpretation can be defined as basic retention of the original landscape form with the integration to accommodate new uses, needs and contemporary conditions. It involves research of the original design intent and use. The design should reinforce historic integrity while integrating a contemporary site program. Maintenence: (preservation maintenance) actions to mitigate wear and deterioration of an historic property without altering its historic character by protecting its condition, repairing when its condition warrants, with the least degree of intervention including limited replacement in-kind when the level of deterioration or damage of materials precludes repair and emergency stabilization to protect damaged material or features from additional damage. Management: (cultural resource management) the range of activities aimed at understanding, preserving and providing for the enjoyment of cultural resources. It includes research related to cuI tural resources, planning for actions affecting them and stewardship of them in the context of the overall historic property operations. Page 15

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Methodology


Period Setting: The creation of a typical landscape on non original site. Documentation for this treatment is gathered from similar sites and historic examples. An appropriate landscape to the period is developed. Protection: The act or process of applying measures necessary to safeguard the historic character of a property by defending it or guarding it from further deterioration, loss or attack, or shield it from danger or injury. In the case of buildings, structures, objects or landscapes, such treatment is generally of a temporary nature and anticipates future historic preservation; in the case of archeological sites, the measure may be temporary or permanent. Reconstruction: The recreation of a landscape. In whole or in part, on an original site. Candidates for reconstruction no longer exist in original appearance or appearance to . given point in history. The National Park Service does not recommend reconstruction because by nature it destroys existing values of the site and structures. It shall be considered when the following criteria are met: (1) no significant preservable remains would be obliterated or altered, (2) historical, archaelogical, ethnographic and landscape data are sufficient to permit an accurate reproduction with minimal conjecture, (3) the reconstructed landscape is in the original location, (4) the treatment will not negatively impact other resources, (5) all prudent and feasible alternatives have been considered and reconstruction is demonstrated as the only alternative to permit public understanding and appreciation.

Reconstruction applies to the reproduction of a complete landscape setting which may not have been an original site. It starts from the ground up. Evidence of former conditions is gathered from documents, photographs, sites and other resources. Authenticity depends on the research base and funding available. Rehabilitation: Treatment that improves the utility, function and / or appearance of a historic cultural landscape. This often involves safety, environmental, natural resource or administration consideration. The landscape's integrity and its historic fabric must remain following a rehabilitation treatment.

Rehabilitation returns an historic landscape to useful condition, generally bringing it to a state of good repair and possibly including some adaptation. The degree of authenticity is secondary. Release: A management strategy that allows indigenous natural succession of local vegetation communities to proceed unimpaired. This strategy may have the effect of hiding or obliterating traces of cultural landscape features.

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Replacement: The substitution of one biotic community with another. For example, covering a garden with turf still reveals the landform and evokes the space but does not include the mix of flowers and vegetables once grown there. Similarly, cropland managed in hay or lawn can still evoke historic qualities without being authentic. Restoration: The act or process of recovering the historic appearance of the historic cultural landscape. The restoration can address all or part of a landscape. According to proposed National Park Service guidelines, the selection of a restoration treatment should meet the following criteria: (1) minimal conjecture is required, (2) the treatment is essential for understanding and appreciating the landscape, (3) the restoration is complete in its context, (4) the landscape's essential form and integrity is unimpaired, (5) when addressing a portion of the landscape, its relationship to other portions does not compromise the total. A restoration is often undertaken to remove incompatible natural and human-caused accretions and to replace elements.

Restoration connotes return of a si te to its original appearance during a selected period. Strict authenticity of overall form and detail requires extensive research and funding. Stabilization: A treatment strategy which preserves existing features by limiting the effects of weathering, deterioration and natural succession.

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Methodology


IV. Historical Development Site Descriptions of the Four major Historical Periods 1. "Country Estate and C0111mercial Headquarters" Richard and Elizabeth Waz,! 1772-1799

The time just before and during the American Revolution affected Americans in different ways. As a merchant/trader Richard WaIn was affected negatively by the Townshend Act, the Stamp Act, by non-importation agreements and other legislation. He was also affected because he was a Quaker who rejected armed conflict. This circumstances were the logical cause for Richard WaIn's move from the bustle of Philadelphia to the quiet "rich and fertile valley" of Crosswicks in new Jersey.l Philadelphia was his commercial base and he stood astride the Delaware River, with Walnford providing his home base and Philadelphia and New York providing the markets for the goods produced at Walnford. Richard WaIn was originally in business with his uncle, Jacob Shoemaker, and Richard's eldest son Joseph was to go into commodity trading on behalf of his father, and later on his own. 2 Richard WaIn's youngest son, Jacob Shoemaker WaIn, would "enter the counting house of his cousins Jesse and Robert WaIn." 3 Jesse and Robert were second generation in the firm of their father, Richard WaIn's brother. Elijah Brown, a brother-inlaw served as an agent for Richard WaIn in Philadelphia after his move to Walnford; his sons would later solicit "Uncle Richard's" business. 4 When he moved back to Philadelphia, much of his New York business was through his son-in-law, John Ryers. Much of Richard WaIn's pre-Revolutionary trade was abroad with England and with Lisbon as trade in the West Indies had already declined, due to shrinking production of the sugar plantations there. By creating a new commercial base in the Crosswicks village community, Richard WaIn was able to augment his trading business. s Country life was very much in the Quaker tradition, a model set by William Penn, 6 but Richard WaIn may also have been thinking of the quiet of a New Jersey country farm, within a larger Quaker community, as a safe haven during the anticipated difficulties with England. His decision to move to Walnford was certainly a strong one on his part, for the gentle entreaties of his wife, Elizabeth Armitt WaIn, did not dissuade him.? At the time of Richard WaIn's purchase from Richard Brown in 1772, the original early 18th century grist mill and farm of Samuel Rodgers had expanded to a small crossroads village. What was to be named "Walnford" comprised 175 acres of fenced land along the Crosswicks Creek and included: two grist mills, two bolting mills, a saw mill, a storehouse for wheat, a fulling mill, a dye house, a cooper's and blacksmith's shop. [Illus # 1 & 2] Either the latter were in a single building, or Richard WaIn rebuilt the joint shops.S In addition, there was a coal house, a pork house, a smoke house, a barn, a wagon house, and a "chaise" house with a stall for twelve horses. 9 Page 1

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Tltesawmill

Illustration (1) 1969) Saw mill from Edwin Tunis, The 'YOung United States (New York, Assembling the S!al-'es

Illustration (2)

Page 2

if a barrd

Cooper from Edwin Tunis, Colonial Crafts111an (New York, 1965)

Walnford Cultural Landscape StUdy _ Historical DeVelOpment

j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j J


The farm and village was a noisy place. During the day sounds from the mill operations permeated the air. Noises from the domestic animals - horses, cattle and hogs - and from the numerous workers in the mill and farm complex blended together to create a sense of activity and industry. Richard Wain built Walnford House in 1773-1774, shortly after he purchased the property.10 He also added a new fulling-mill, improved the grist mill, ordering the "best burr mill stones" from England. II [lllus. #3] He also built or rebuilt the bridge across Crosswicks Creek (which would later be destroyed by the British army) and built a store, completing the merchant-farmer picture. 12 The dwelling units consisted of a brick house, probably Richard Brown's, a frame tenant house, presumably for the farmer and four other tenant houses for the cooper, the miller, the fuller and the blacksmith.13 It is likely that each tenant house had a garden in the rear of the house, as this was a common practice for the period. 14 Millstone dresser

Illustration (3)

Mill stone from Edwin Tunis, Frontier Living (New York, 1961)

At the time of purchase, there were two fenced gardens: one in front of and the other behind the brick house. 15 Richard Wain evidently took over the front garden, perhaps expanding it to the front of his new house, for he wrote of the importance of maintaining a "trench" there. 16 The gardens were small enough that it took one man a half day to "throw mud in the gardens," (from ditches or stream banks to improve the soil.) 17 Garden fences of 17th and 18th century were not the pretty picket fences of the late 19th century and Colonial Revival, but commonly rather stout fences of vertical boards, meant to keep out all animals. [iIlus. # 4 )18 Page 3

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


Illustration (4)

18th century board fence recreated at Colonial Williamsburg, Photo courtesy of Elizabeth McLean.

Records so far, have not revealed what was growing in the kitchen garden at Walnford. In the 1750's-1770's, fellow New Jersey Quaker Charles Read was growing: asparagus, corn, cucumbers, "pole", "French" and kidney beans, huckleberries, onions, "pease," potatoes, pumpkins, radishes, "sallad," spinach, squash, and water melons, with the watermelons probably planted in the fields. The only flowers mentioned by Read are "four o'clocks"[Mirabilis jalaval and "French mallow" [Malva sv. ] 19 Contemporary accounts discuss some of the vegetables: peas, cabbage, "roots" as well as water-melons. Melons were evidently common among the "cottagers" as well. 20 The farm itself included 100 plowed acres, as well as 25 acres in "good meadow," presumably the wet meadows along the creek or along Shoppen Run. 21 These meadows were "improved" and were sown to clover and "spear grass" and would have been cut for hay.22 There were two "bearing orchards."23 These were "all enclosed with good cedar fence."24 The typical farm boundary-fence of this period would have been postand-rail [illus.# 5 & 6]25 Although a woodlot is not mentioned in the 1772 advertisement, WaIn must have had one, for he instructed his freed black servant Peter to cut a cord a day.26 Woodlots were a necessity, since wood was the basic fuel, and would have been located in otherwise useless land, such as the saturated soils adjacent to the stream. .

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Developmen t


Illustration (5)

Split rail fences illustrated in Luigi Castilioni, Viaggio (Milan, 1790)

Contemporary New Jersey farmers were growing wheat, corn, rye, barley and hemp. Cabbages were not only grown in the family vegetable garden, but "great white winter cabbage" was grown in fields for cattle and hogs. 27 Turnips were also grown in the fields for cattle and sheep. 28 Although there has been appropriate emphasis on Sarah WaIn and Sarah WaIn Hendrickson running the farm at Walnford as "lone women" in the second half of the 19th century, one should not forget that Elizabeth Armitt WaIn was running the farm some of the time during the Revolution when Richard WaIn, like most Quakers suspected of being a loyalists was "taken up" and sent to New York, as well as other PageS

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


times when Richard WaIn was in Philadelphia on business. 29 Writing from Philadelphia, Richard WaIn would make suggestions for his wife, but as "only a hint & leave entirely to thee. "30

Illustration (6)

Split rail fence at Carter's Grove, VA. Photo courtesy of Elizabeth McLean

Brissot de Warville visited a Quaker household in nearby Middleton in 1788, and his description must be very like that of the Richard WaIns. "I was really charmed with the order and neatness of this house, and of its inhabitants .... They are beautiful, easy in their manner, and decent in their deportment. Their dress is simple; they wear fine cotton on Sunday, and that which is not so fine on other days .... We conversed much on the Society of Friends, the Society in France for the abolition of slavery, the growing of wheat, &c..... No, never was I so much edified as in this house; it is the asylum of union, friendship and hospitality. The beds were neat, the linen white, the covering elegant; the cabinets, desks, chairs, and tables, were of black walnut, well polished, and shining. The garden furnished vegetables of all kinds, and fruits. There were ten horse in the stable; the Indian corn of the last year, still on the cob, lay in large quantities in a cabin, of which the narrow planks, placed at small distances from each other, leave openings for the circulation of the air. The barn was full of wheat, oats, &c.; their cows furnish delicious milk for the family, of which they make excellent cheeses ... "31

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Walnford Cultural Landscapc Study - Historical Developmcnt


Richard WaIn's farm must have looked rather like those of contemporary southeastern Pennsylvania Quakers, as portrayed by Edward Hicks: a peaceful family farm, with plowed fields separated by post-and rail fence, house and farm buildings close to another. 32 [iIlus # 7] The mill, however, would have been the heart of the community, the focal point of this bustling cross-roads village. 33

Illustration (7)

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The residence of David Twinning (oil on canvas) by Edward I-licks. Courtesy of Abbey Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Williamsburg, VA.

WaIn ford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


2. "Federal Merchaltf - Fanner 1/ Nicholas Wain and Sarah WaIn

1799-1848

After the Revolution there was a change in the direction of American commerce. The West Indies were cut off from trade by Britain, but in between embargoes and wars trade continued with Britain itself, and trade with and through New York became more active. A lively trade with China, not possible when America was merely a colony, was begun. Nicholas's second cousins, Jesse and Robert WaIn were very active in this trade. In 1799 Nicholas WaIn, the second son of Richard WaIn took charge at Walnford and his father, now a widower, returned to Philadelphia to live permanently.3 4 Richard, however, did not entirely relinquish total control as his letters from Philadelphia are full of instructions. 35 After his father's death, however, Walnford was no longer a part of an interlocking family business, headed by Richard WaIn, closely related to business headed by WaIn cousins. The Quaker family business relationships continued, but on a simpler scale, now functioning largely as outlets for the products of Nicholas' WaIn's farm and mill. 36 Nicholas turned from business in Philadelphia to engage more fully in farming in New Jersey both for himself and for his children. 37 Nicholas purchased five additional farms, to bring the land holding inherited from his father from 320 acres to a total of more than 1,300 acres. 38 One tract was purchased just for the wood for fuel "which is diminishing. "39 Nicholas was a gentleman farmer, a merchant miller and a member of the larger Walnford community. During the era of Nicholas WaIn the buildings in Walnford were much the same as in Richard WaIn's time. The cooperage and blacksmith were probably located close by the mill, as the work was so interrelated. The saw-mill was across the creek.4o The WaIn store was an important part of the general activity, linking the local farmers to the outside world. It is difficult to sort out the tenant houses in this period, particularly as the accounts are not always clear as to whether they apply solely to Walnford, or include the newly acquired farms. Certainly the miller, fuller, cooper, blacksmith and at least one farmer each had a house at Walnford. 41 There were gardens associated with each tenant house, and their size can be estimated by the fact that they could take as much as half-day to plow. 42 Given the locations of the frame and brick tenant houses to the west, and the mill to the south of the main house, one would expect the barnyard complex to be in roughly the same place as it is presently located, convenient to the house. The coal house, the pork house, the smoke house, the barn, the wagon house and the "chaise" house with stalls for horses probably would not have changed much since Richard WaIn's time. The barn-yard complex would have been a courtyard arrangement with the barnyard to the south of the barn - as was typical of coastal plain farmsteads - and auxiliary buildings to east and west. 43 Despite the fact the barn-yard would have a large dung-pile fermenting in the winter, all the current literature recommended that the farm-buildings be close enough to the main house that the proprietor could see them. 44 1Although the PageS

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


present ice-house evidently dates from the 19th century, Nicholas WaIn had one in 1807.45 He would also have had a well and a spring house or "milk house", and a necessary house behind the main house. There was a shed, probably behind the kitchen, with a "cheese room" where the cheese presses and churns were kept. 46 There was a kitchen garden and it would have been fenced by a board fence, as in the earlier period. 47 Within this garden probably from a half acre to two acres would be used to grow a variety of vegetables and herbs (planted in rows), for the family, which would include six children and a variety of household help. 48 Cucumbers are the only vegetable mentioned specifically in the Nicholas WaIn accounts, but New Jersey Farmers of this time were known for their watermelons and these melons would have been grown in their own "patch."49 Somewhere there was a grape arbor .. 50 Rose bushes were also grown somewhere near the house and were used for rosewater. S1 By 1838 Nicholas's daughter Sarah was trying to grow dahlias in the flower garden. 52 Although we have few particulars of Nicholas and Sarah WaIn's kitchen garden during this period, we can surmise what was growing here from the garden of Margaret Morris in Burlington, New Jersey, a contemporary New Jersey Quaker. S3 Her vegetables included a wide variety of beans- bush, white bush, six weeks bush lima, nonpareil, purple, spotted, stringless and yellow, beets, a number of different varieties of cabbages - battersea, drumhead, early York, "purld," and sugarloaf, French carrots, early corn, early cucumbers, "curled brocale," [illus. # 8] garlic, lettuce, musk melons, onions, bush and dwarf peas, parsnips, peppers, pumpkins, radishes, spinach, and turnips (winter). and a variety of potatoes -"London white," "Irish," and "winter".

~

Curled Winter Borecole Cabbage

Illustration (8)

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ell natural size).

Curled Borecale from MM Vilmortin-Andrieux, The Vegetable Garden (English edition, London, 1885) Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


Margaret Morris's herbs included: basil (sweet), chamomile, creases, crown mint, fennel, hyssop, "lambs quarters," lavender, marjoram, pot marigold [Calendulum otficinalis'] mint, nasturtiums, parsley, sage, savory, shallots, tansy, thyme. She even tried a nutmeg plant in a pot, but it failed. She had "fruit trees" which included peaches, she had other fruits such as melons planted (in hills), currants and huckleberries. Flowers mentioned included; "flowering peas," and "cypress vine." (Ipomoea Ouamoclit! The flower seeds were planted in a border "below the sink." Margaret Morris also practiced succession planting --lettuce on the asparagus beds, fennel on the cabbage beds, potatoes on the spinach beds and "where parsnips grew last year," "spin age in ye bed where the pease grew" and companion plantings --radishes round the border of the beans, radishes next the cabbages, and corn used as a support for beans ("beans to run up the corn in the lower part of the Garden".) She followed ancient practices in the timing of her planting: "Beets & Radishes shoud be planted in the decrease of the moon." In this early Victorian era, the whole landscape was considered useful, and it was both a Quaker and a Victorian virtue fully to utilize it. At Walnford, the wetlands were sown to hay; the stream was used to drive the mill and to provide the fish for the table, and hogs were allowed to run wild in the woods until ready for their final fattening and slaughter. In addition to the hogs, Nicholas and Sarah kept cattle, sheep and poultry. 54 At Walnford there were two orchards: a "young" orchard of apple trees adjacent to the "pond field" and a "far" orchard, which was older. Orchards on this size farm might be planted with as many as sixty five or seventy apple trees, twenty feet apart".55 Presumably the vinegar and cider in his "locked cellar" were from his own apples. 56 His bees would have been kept in the orchard. 57 There was at least one peach tree, and grapes as well, which may have been planted somewhere near the main house. 58 Much of the expanded land holdings were probably in fields, cultivated as cropland, with only limited acreage in meadows and woodlots. Walnford itself encompassed about one hundred acres of cultivated land, and twenty five acres in meadow, perhaps another twenty five in woodlot. 59 The meadow and woodlots may have been fenced with post-and rail of cedar. In addition to apples, crops included: flax, sown in the orchard, as well as corn, rye, oats, and wheat. The wheat was cradled, the hay scythed. 60 [Illus # 9 & 10] The oatfield was twelve acres at his death, perhaps a typical grainfield size. 61 Potatoes would have been grown in their own fields or "patches." Nicholas was growing enough red-skin potatoes to send some to his brother Joseph, who was planting a four-acre field, perhaps the same size as Nicholas's.62 Although Nicholas was not a member of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting of Agriculture, as were Jacob and Robert, he was practicing some experimental agriculture. Nicholas was buying clover, which was promoted for succession planting, and added salt, in experimental fashion, to flax sown in one of his orchards, as recommended by Jared Eliot in his Essays. 63

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Illustration (9)

Scythes and cradles from Eric Sloane. A Museum of Early American Tools (New York, 1964) Cradling

Illustration (10)

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Cradling and Scything from Edwin Tunis, Frontier Living (New York,1961)

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


As the harvest of grains increased because of the increased production on the larger number of acres, activity at the grist mill would have expanded dramatically. In addition, farms of 1300 acres, by necessity, would have needed new dwellings, outbuildings and animals shelters, increasing saw mill activity to produce the necessary lumber. During this time, Walnford Village would have reached the height of its population and its activity, with more workers to support the milling functions as well as the craftsmen who made and repaired equipment for both the farm and mill. The roads, still dirt, were busier than ever and the creek carried an even greater number and variety of waterborne craft. The level of activity marked Walnford village as a hub of local development. As with Richard Wain, the whole landscape was used: the wet-lands for hay, the stream to drive the mill and also probably to provide fish for the table. Game for the table would have been available in the woods and fields - certainly the only reason for a peace-loving Quaker to have owned a gun. 64 We know, too, that Nicholas's nephew Edward "walked over the fields ... with dog and gun" when he visited Walnford in his youth. 65 Edward was the son of Nicholas's younger brother Jacob Shoemaker Wain. Edward's childhood visits and his happy memories of them symbolize the strong ties of the extended Quaker family. The recent writings about Walnford understandably have emphasized the Wains, but the relationship was just as strong with Sarah Ridgway Wain's family.66 These bonds which were Quaker as well as family, were doubly strong,67 What changes had been made to the mill and farm complex in the forty-eight years that Nicholas and Sarah Ridgway Wain managed it. There seems to have been a holding pattern in farming as there is little evidence of any experiments after the early years, or new technology introduced in the later period. The push for building, under Sarah Ridgway WaIn and Sarah Wain Hendrickson, might be explained by the fact that Walnford had run down somewhat. Nicholas died in 1848 at 85, but the accounts for his last decades were in the spidery hand of Sarah Ridgway Wain. The farm buildings were probably substantially the same as under the management of Richard Wain. As in Richard's time there were dairy cows, sheep, and hogs; cheese was made; wool was woven; hams were smoked. Oats, rye, corn and wheat were grown in different fields, separated by post and rail fence. Cows were pastured, and hay was cut in the wet meadows. By this period, however, much of the beech and oak woods would have been cut and the natural landscape would have become very open.

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3. "Declining fortunes" Sarah Wain and Sarah Wain Hendrickson 1848-1907

The latter half of the 19th century was a time of great change in both milling and farming. After the Civil War the development of large grain growing farms in the western prairies and the development of the canning industry in the southern and central states "forced most of the state's remaining general-purpose farmers to focus on vegetables fruits and dairying. "68 However, while the two Sarahs had a small herd of dairy cows, this description does not fit Walnford during the second half of the 19th century 69. Under Sarah WaIn and Sarah WaIn Hendrickson, Walnford and its environs became more of a farming community, moving away from its purpose as a mill-crossroads village. The two women ran a large farm, a grist mill, a saw-mill and a store. The Sarahs sublet the grist mill and there was a miller. However, there no was longer a blacksmith, a cooper or a fuller and the store assumed a minor role, mostly as part of a barter economy. Sarah Jr. became the postmistress. Except at harvest time, there certainly was a smaller proportion of people to animals than had been typical of the previous WaIn generations, and with the numerous day-workers coming and going, the population of Walnford was less stable than earlier in the century. As in previous tenancies, the two Sarahs worked the whole landscape, and improved it. The saw-mill, the dam and the mill were repaired. The mill was rebuilt by Sarah WaIn Hendrickson after a fire. 70 By 1878, there was a new carriage house and stable?1 According to McCabe, all the farm buildings except the smoke house were erected in the 19th century, and therefore most of them were constructed under the tenure of the to Sarahs. 72 [IlIus # 11] A new tenant house was built by the saw-mill on the southern side of Crosswicks Creek. Other tenant houses included the "house down the road," the "house on the hill," and the "house over the bridge." 73 In the farm complex there were now two wells, a windmill, and for a while two ice houses?4 Fences defined the work areas and separated them from the domestic spaces. In the letters and journals there are numerous references to fencing, including a fence "in front of the kitchen," and in this era "amenity" picket fencing appeared at the front of the main house and two tenant houses immediately to the west. 75 A more elaborate fence and gate of crossed lathes was built east of the main house, extending to the farm-yard gate. Wlus. # 12] In 1874 there was a purchase for chestnut paling. This long-lasting fencing represented an investment because it was of higher quality than would have ordinarily been used, and in 1885 there was another purchase order for" 500 ft. square pickets."76 It was during this time that the black locust trees were planted at various boundaries within the property. These trees although native to the eastern United States were not native to New Jersey, but were beginning to naturalize in the rural landscape as they were widely planted by farmers for their wood, which was used for fence posts.

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Illustration (11)

Illustration (12)

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Barn yard in the time of Sarah WaIn Hendrickson. Photo courtesy of MOl1mouth Coul1ty Park System.

Fence and gate east of the main house. Photo courtesy of MOl1mouth County Park System.

Wain ford Cultural Landocape Study - Historical Development


As before, the tenant houses had gardens. The Sarahs also had a kitchen garden, perhaps where the Meirs' vegetable garden would later be sited. Vegetables grown in this garden included peas; fruit included strawberries, pears, and quinces. There was new emphasis on the "amenity" garden with letters and notes showing that magnolias and over 20 varieties of that particularly 19th century enthusiasm - roses were purchased.?7 There is some indication that there was a garden near the 19th century kitchen door of the main house. The limited archaeology that has been undertaken has not uncovered a garden directly behind the house. At present, there is no evidence that there was a garden in front of the main house but there appears to have been a garden directly across the road. Certainly the fencing is more elaborate than the picket fence to 11:~1I!,J[lU11.~e. [illus # 13]

Ilustration (13)

Fenced garden across the road from the main house. Photograph courtesy Monmouth County

Park System. On their farm, the two Sarahs concentrated on raising animals: hogs, sheep and cows. They also grew wheat and corn. If there were fewer people living and working on the farm, there was more machinery. "Mechanization of farm operations increased throughout the 19th century and reduced many labor demands. By 1825 the horse rake was in general use and by 1850 the grain drill had wide acceptance. At the same time the factory-made metal plow replaced its locally made counterpart. Since it was light to pull, this fostered a rapid decline in the number of working oxen in the state. In the later part of the century mechanized harvesting and threshing equipment also became common, replacing traditional work gangs. Corn production remained labor intensive Page 15

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


until, at the end of the century, growing demands for silage for the increasing number of dairy herds, fostered its mechanization." 7S[ Following this trend, the two Sarahs tried a seed drill and in 1860 and again in 1881, bought a mowing machine.7 9 [illus # 14] The amount of land in cultivation is unknown. Meadows included: the "creek meadow," the "pond meadow," the "corner lot," the "school house field," and the "saw mill lot. "In 1853 the "far field' of eight acres was sown in wheat. so As before there was a "potato field" as well. S1 The landscape as a whole must have presented a tranquil and romantic country scene. One visitor described "The quiet and seclusion of the country .... green slopes and woody promontories ... black juicy berries in the oak openings on the Crosswicks Creek's briery banks."82

Illustration (14)

Page 16

Mowing machine illustrated in Gouverneur Emerson. The American Farmer's Encyclopedia (New York, 1858)

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


The family network continued, but the strong Quaker ties which had existed in the past appear to be less important. There are no longer family business ties. While Sarah Hendrickson's brother Nicholas often supplied help with the farm at labor intensive times; delivering seed or loaning equipment, this was clearly only part of an ordinary family-support system. As in the past, there was an extensive correspondence with the larger Quaker family. As the two Sarahs rarely left the farm in the latter years it was mainly this correspondence that kept them in touch with the family circle. S3 Walnford made the transition into the 20th century, but not very successfully. The two Sarahs could not spend enough money on equipment to compete with larger farms either locally or in the midwest. Except at harvest time, Walnford must have been a far less bustling place than in the early part of the century. It was still a working farm, with pastures and fields divided by fences, with hogs being smoked, lambs brought to market, cows brought in for milking. The farmyard complex was kept up with virtually all the buildings replaced. 84 While Walnford may not have been a financial success, there is the impression that Walnford brought pleasure to the two Sarahs as they changed the practical Quaker farmstead into a Victorian country farm, softened by amenity fencing and ornamental plantings. 85

Page 17

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


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4. "Rural Retreat" Richard WaIn Meirs and Anne Weightman Meil's 1907-1958

The Edwardian era and the period between the two wars saw the flowering of gardening as a main form of expression for everyone who had a house and garden. " House and Garden" magazine was born, and horticulture journals flourished, featuring gardens which, while generally more elaborate, were often similar in form to the little sundial garden created by Anne Meirs at the front of the main house. For the Meirs and other owners of country estates in this period, the rural landscape was considered primarily a decorous setting. The Meirs never lived at Walnford, but used the place as a weekend retreat and a vacation house. Their economic base was again substantial and centered in Philadelphia. At Walnford they used their resources to transform the working farm into a romantic and pastoral landscape, creating new gardens and making garden backdrops out of the previously industrial landscapes by planting water-lilies in the mill pond, and day-lilies against the grist mill. 86 As with Richard WaIn, the Meirs lived astride the Delaware River. However, for the Meirs the emphasis was on their Philadelphia base. Walnford was an amenity site, always secondary in their lives - a rural retreat. Perhaps having a working mill was for Richard Meirs the sort of picturesque evocation of rural life that a spinning wheel beside the fireplace must have been for Anne Meirs. Richard WaIn Meirs (1866-1917) was the grandson of Richard WaIn, brother to Sarah WaIn Hendrickson and Mary Ann Allen Meirs whose daughter Elizabeth had married John Gaskill Meirs. Richard WaIn Meirs was deeded Walnford by Johnny Wilson on Nov. 9, 1907. 87 Richard Meirs had married Anne Walker Weightman of Ravenhill, Germantown, in 1894. They had three children, William Weightman, born in 1895, Anne Walker, born in 1898 and Jarvis, born in 1901. As McCabe pointed out, the membership of Richard and Anne Meirs in the Genealogical Society, the Welcome Society, as well as the Historical Society of Pennsylvania reflected an "interest in history and their own Philadelphia heritage [which] coincided with a general revival in interest in the Colonial period, and in demonstrating Colonial family heritage .... following their acquisition of Walnford, they undertook an extensive renovation and restoration of the house, mill, outbuildings, and the grounds. This is among the earliest of the many Colonial Revival restorations carried out during the twentieth century in Monmouth county. " 88 With the marriage of Richard Meirs and Anne Weightman, the focus of Walnford turned once again to Philadelphia. Anne Meirs, a Philadelphian, came from a family with horticultural interests. The Weightman estate, "Ravenhill," was a showplace, with a greenhouse and extensive gardens. The Meirs membership in Philadelphia organizations included the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, where Richard W. Meirs was a council member from 1916-1917. Meirs interest was serious enough that he was one of the largest donors of prize money for Society Flower Shows, a total of $1,250.00 before his death in 1917. "The prize money donation by Mr. Meirs was generally for

Page 18

Wain ford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


palms, crotons, and foliage plants." Interestingly, these plants are more typical of Victorian tastes than of those of the Edwardian or Colonial Revival. 89 The 36 acres now designated "Walnford" was the center of the Meirs country estate. The outlying areas included the fields along the eastern part of Hill Road and the southern part of Wain ford Davis Station Road. The wetter fields along Hill Road were pasture only, while the fields adjacent to Walnford Davis Station Road were alternately cropped and pastured. A number of farm lanes led from the farm buildings to the field and were traveled by farm machinery and by the cows. Much of the dairy herd was kept on outlying farms and only brought to Walnford to be milked. Most of the work on both the house and the landscape seems to have taken place in the first years of occupancy. Although Walnford was still a functional farm, the owners did not look to the farm as a major source of their income, but rather brought income from the outside to improve the site. Although the mill was revived and working during the brief ownership of Richard Meirs, it too, was for effect rather than an economic reality.90 Walnford was once again a rural retreat, sustained by the resources of a Philadelphia merchant. This new Walnford, reflected the different taste and lifestyle of its new owners and of a new era as vacation use outweighed the former practicality. Much of the domestic landscape was a large vegetable, herb and flower garden, located to the west of the main house which supplied the family's personal needs during their summer tenancy. The tenant houses each had vegetable gardens at the back of the house where they grew vegetable and berries. Fences surrounded both the Meirs's vegetable garden and those of the tenants to keep away both wild and domestic animals. According to Frank Inman, a gardener maintained the lawn and all the Meirs gardens. This early 20th century landscape at Walnford was still a relatively open one of alternating fields and hedgerows interspersed with large pieces of forest which had regrown after being logged in the earlier centuries. The forested areas were sharply defined by the open fields and were left only in the wettest areas and along the steepest banks of the creeks. Even when wet, almost every piece of land was used for agriculture and drained where necessary. Where people and buildings were concentrated, the wetlands were open meadows, burnt regularly but not annually to keep down weeds. The banks of the streams in these areas were frequently bare or in scrub and brambles, or dotted with a few large trees. It was a landscape of clear definitions, where narrow lines of trees followed the steep slopes and called out the sinuous lines of the water courses. Rows of planted trees and fence lines defined every function, dividing the domestic quarters from the farm, enclosing the fields and lining the roads and farm lanes. The vegetation was without the rampant vines and invasive exotics so visible in the returning woodlands of today. The slope forests were old and open. The predominant trees were oak and beech, with a shiny understory of holly and laurel. The swamps, in contrast, were filled with tall trees with high branching canopies and were filled at the lower layers with dense deciduous shrubs. The trees were predominantly white oak, Page 19

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


red maple, sweet gum, ash and elm and the shrub layer was spicebush, viburnum, clethra and winterberry. There were no upland forests on the Meirs property. Phoebe Taylor Biddle, granddaughter of Richard WaIn Meirs, said that the farm at Walnford was kept up "as a memorial" to her grandfather -- who did not live to enjoy it for many years after his purchase. Mrs. Biddle does not remember the mill ever running. However, Richard and Anne Meirs as a couple, and then Anne Meirs as a widow, came to Walnford for weekends and for parts of the summer. Mrs. Biddle's mother, Anne Walker Meirs Taylor, died when Phoebe Biddle was an infant, and Anne W. Weightman Meirs bought a house next door to the Taylors in Chestnut Hill so that she could help raise Phoebe Taylor and her sister. Mrs. Biddle would visit Walnford in the summer as a child, and stop over when she went to parties at Princeton. She remembers delicious luncheons, particularly broiled lamb chops cooked on the cast-iron stove, and served with home-made quince jelly. Mrs. Meirs herself never cooked except for terrapin soup. 91 Frank Inman worked at Walnford from 1944/45 until 1957. At the time he came, Ann Meirs had three farms. She sold the farm "on the New Egypt Road" two years after he came; "the farm was due south of Walnford on the east side of Hill Road." There had been a bad winter, making it very difficult to get in and out of the fann. 92 Frank Inman remembered that Mrs. Meirs sold two pieces of land, one on the road to the Arney townHornerstown Road in 1948, to "Bob Davis." 93 At that point Mrs. Meirs gave up the cows. Frank Inman had worked for the farmer "up the road" (Hill Road) but when the "outside" farms were sold, Frank Inman then came back to work at Walnford. The following description of Walnford during the Meirs' occupancy is drawn from a compilation of several interviews with Phoebe Taylor Biddle, (1930 - ) a granddaughter of Richard W. and Anne W.W. Meirs, who visited Walnford as a child and with Frank Inman, who worked at Walnford from 1944/5 until 1957. The information gathered in these interviews have made it possible to describe this era extensively and in much greater detail than the previous ones. In order clearly to annotate and locate each feature of the landscape, the property has been divided into sections which are lettered "A" through "M". These letters are shown on the plan which is titled 'Acquisition, conservation and interpretation'. A. The triangular area between WaIns Mill Road on the west; the bank to the south of

the marsh on the north and an arbitrary line to the west of the worker's cottages. In Anne Meirs's time, there were some trees between the fence line and Hill Road. The heifers, who were occasionally pastured there, sought their shade. Later, Frank Inman kept the saplings cut back. The fencing aU along the road was square wire fencing, with a round rail on top to keep the heifers from leaning over and breaking down the wire when they tried to eat the grass outside the fence. There was a double fence of similar construction on either side of the lane leading in from the intersection. 94 [Illus. # 15) Cattle were driven down the WaIns Mill Road from the Ellisdale road, through the gate at the corner of WaIns Mill Road and the Walnford Davis Station Road, up the road Page 20

Walnlord Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


between the double fence where there was a gate and through that fence near the barn behind the tenant houses. It should be noted that the property across WaIns Mill Road, to the west, never belonged to Meirs.

Fig. Dlustration (15)

09.-A CIIEAP

A..'m GOOD FENCE:

Square wire fence with round board top from George Martin. Fences Gates and Bridges (New York, 1887)

A square wire fence proceeded north from the intersection across Shoppen Run, up to the ridge and turned east along the present property boundary. Heifers were free to cross Shoppen Run to this sloped area but rarely did. Frank Inman does not remember any other barrier that would have kept them from wandering east along Shoppen Run. B. The rectangular area across from the mill bounded by "A" to the west, the bank south of Shoppen Run on the north, Walnford Road on the south; and the area which encompassed Mrs. Meirs vegetable garden to the east. There had been a barn directly behind the brick tenant house,and it had a shed on its western facade intowhich a car could fit. 95 This meant that the square wire fence had adjoined the shed on the south western corner so that a car coming in the cow-cartractor lane could pull in. The outhouse was west of the barn/ shed, inside the fence and to the north of the frame house. The outhouse behind the worker's cottages seemed to be associated more with the frame house than with the brick house. Frank Inman tore the barn down, along with a number of other buildings, when William Meirs took over the property. There was a small shed attached to the tenant barn, where the tenants kept chickens which was the only area in which chickens were kept. Across the front of the tenant area was a paling fence, similar to the one presently there. Behind each tenant house was a garden. Frank Inman thought that they were separated by raspberry bushes running north to south. The raspberries would have created a bramble hedge and defined the separation between the two tenant parcels. In later interview, Frank Inman was not certain but thought the raspberry border may have been along the fence of the cow-car-tractor lane. He was not sure which of the two locations was correct but was certain that the raspberries did exist. In any even the tows of vegetables in the tenant gardens ran in a north-south orientation. There was a grass space between the tenant houses and their respective gardens. Each garden was of about equal size. The garden behind the frame house was to the edge of the cow-carPage 21

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


tractor lane. There was a space on the east side of the brick house garden that ran its full length and Behind each tenant house was a garden. Frank Inman thought that they were separated by raspberry bushes running north to south. Thus, the raspberries would have defined the separation between the two tenant parcels. In a later interview, Frank Inman was not definite, but thought the raspberry border may have been along the fence of the cow-car-tractor lane. He was not sure which of the two locations was correct but raspberries did exist. In any event the rows of vegetables in the tenant gardens ran in a north-south orientation. There was a grass space between the tenant houses and their respective gardens. Each garden was of about equal size. The garden behind the frame house was to the edge of the cow-car-tractor lane. There was a space on the east side of the brick house garden that ran its full length and separated it from the western fence of Mrs. Meirs's vegetable garden. The fence separating the tenant garden from the Meirs's garden is indicated in the 1960 topo map. This fence ran north to south just a few feet west of the locust trees. The fence appears to have been a paling fence that joined the paling fence lining Walnford road. A c.l900 photograph shows such a fence proceeding perpendicular to the Walnford road fence, northward from a point just west of the Smokehouse. There was a crabapple in the northweat corner of the area behind the tenants' houses. Frank Inman does not remember any other fruit trees, quinces excepted. The piles of stone are all form repatining the mill and were not there during Frank Inman's tenure. There is an outcropping of the same red aggregate foundation stone at the northeast corner of the brick tenant house parcel that may be associated with the tenant barn. It is not part of the two deposits that were taken from the mill. This might be a possible site for archaeological research. "96

C. Anne Meirs vegetable garden: present rectangular open area to west of main house. There was a raised bed, edged with boards, down the middle of this vegetable garden, at right angles to the road. Herbs such as parsley were grown here with some flowers, including dahlias and petunias and "some little red things with the beads." A caretaker / gardener, Mr. McCleary, took care of the flower /herb garden. In the vegetable garden the caretaker planted early peas, pole limas, spring beans and some "really nice." lettuce. They changed the vegetable beds around in different areas, which is good gardening practise. Two rows of peonies the hollies at the east side of the garden, just west of the hollies and evergreens. In a later conversation with Tim Long, there were other varieties of vegetables that Frank Inman remembered, a few tomato plants, sweet corn and beets. Frank Inman recalled 5 to 6 rows of pole Iimas. Frank Inman mentioned tha ttwo rows of asparagus beds were located to the extreme west end of the garden. There was a 10' wide mown border all around the garden. There were grapes, which were picked for making jam. These grapes were grown at the west edge of the garden on or near the fence adjoining the tenants' houses. Frank Inman does not remember there being any particular trellis arrangement. Page 22

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


The area north of the road that goes behind the vegetable garden was always kept trimmed. Frank Inman and the caretaker burned it off one time and had it in good shape. One could stand up there then, it was so clear, you could look down and see the cars going across the bridge." D. The area directly in front of the main house and the rectangular open area behind it. Mrs. Biddle remembers box bushes on either side of the front path. The hollies around the perimeter were planted by Frank Inman. The trees along the bank at the back of the lawn have grown up since Frank Inman's and Mrs. Biddle's times at Walnford. Mrs. Biddle does not remember the open area behind the house having the enclosed roomlike feel it now has. This area is where the garden party luncheons were held, with guests coming over from Philadelphia. A pair of concrete dogs stood on either side of the door to the kitchen wing. McCabe says that caretaker's cottage house was originally barn behind the tenant house. 97 However, it must have come from elsewhere on the estate. The caretaker's cottage was in place when Frank Inman was there, and he helped take down the barn behind the tenants houses. Only one barn behind the tenant houses shows in the 1920 insurance map. 98 Tommy McCleary and his wife were the caretakers; before the McClearys this job was filled by Alec Yarr and his wife, who was Tommy McCleary's sister. Frank Inman said they were all from Ireland, but that Alec Yarr sounded more English to him. Henry Charlton Beck wrote books about New Jersey in 'the 30's; he stayed at Frank Tilton's home and went from town to town to gather information. 99It appears that Alec Yarr drove a trolley in Haddonfield, and Charlton Beck rode the trolley every morning and see and talk to Alec Yarr. This went on for many years. Carlin Beck later came to Walnford to get information for his book and when he opened the door "there was Alec Yarr standing looking at him" -- He had expected a strange person and "here was somebody he used to see very morning and talk to." A logical place for a 19th century garden would be just outside the 19th century kitchen door. The archaeological dig of summer, 1992, found traces of a garden bed, and a large number of artifacts, in an area next to the west wall of the "cheese house." Further archaeology is recommended under the cheese house, and particularly under the tenant house,when they are removed for restoration. The gully behind the main house was part of a ditch to drain the barnyard; the water went into a pipe, thence into Shoppen Run valley.

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


E.1. Area between the tool shed, the carriage house & stable, and the cow barn. Frank Inman remembers 40 dairy cows when he arrived, as well as heifers and a bull. Phoebe Taylor Biddle remembers having "her own" cow to milk when she came in the summer. The dairy cows were all pastured in the outlying Meirs farms. One group would return by the Ellisdale road, down the WaIns Mill road, through the gate at the intersection of WaIns Mill Road and Walnford Road, then up the cow path to the west and north of the tenant houses, north of the vegetable garden. There was a bull pen at the south west corner of the barn, and a water trough which is still there against the side of the barn. Half was in the bull pen, half in the barn yard; it thus held water for bull and cows. This bull pen is shown as a fence on the simplified Walnford contour map.lOO Adjacent to the bull pen, to the southwest, there was the threshing barn. It was slightly south of the barn-stable as shown on the 1920 insurance map.lOI The barn came up to the edge of the bull pen. Farm wagons would proceed west through a dirt barnyard, between the cow barn and the carriage barn, to the thrashing barn. There were big doors on east and west ends so that one could drive right through, then enter the cow / car / tractor lane toward the Hill/Walnford road intersection. The threshing barn was as tall as the rain gutter on the cow barn. There was a fence of wide boards,[illus # 16] pointed at the top behind the threshing bam area- between the threshing barn area and the lawn behind the main house. There was a gate to the west of Area "E", which allowed horse to go into the vegetable garden. This same kind of board fencing seems to have been what was used throughout in the "back" of the property; picket on the road in front of houses, and wire on the road where there were no houses.

Fig. 39.-A Illustration (16)

Page 24

LATII AXD PICKET FENCE.

The board fence in the threshing barn area was similar to this, from George Martin, Fences, Gates, and Bridges (New York, 1887)

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


There was a "trolley" line for a manure bucket, which came out through a still existing hole in the barn door in the middle of the west side. The line came about 2/3's of the way to the drop off. It was held by a metal pole at the far end. There was a cement "run" under the manure spreader line, about a five feet wide. (As wide as the spread of Frank Inman's arms.) A wagon would be run under the bucket.Then the manure would be driven to the pastures and spread on the fields. Before Frank Inman worked there,the manure was allowed to pile up. "There was manure just as high as you could see. [illus # 17] Couldn't hardly get out of the barn, and you had to take something and pull it down to get the carrier out..."102

"SJB.LL I MOVE THE BARN OR THE

Illustration (17)

Page 25

MANGR~

PILE?"

From Jonathan Peri am. Home and Farm Manual (New York, 1864)

Wain ford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


The carriage house and stable had a shed jutting out to the north. In a good light one can see the "shadow" of its peaked roof on the wood sides. It did not cover the glass windows on either side of the door. It was large enough to house three vehicles - one of which was Frank Inman's car. It shows as a dotted line in the "Walnford Site Plan."103 It must have been built after the c. 1929 insurance survey and after the grain barn which shows up on that survey was removed .104 After the dairy herd was sold, the barnyard south of the cow barn was filled in, so that friends could park their cars there, when Mrs. meirs entertained. Both bridges have been there all Frank Inman's life, but in '48 they rebuilt the far bridge. Frank Inman said that this was "because what happened, a lot of them farmers ... I was working for, we had over a hundred acres of corn up that that had to be brought up and put most of it, up on that farm there, and a good heavy crop too. Man - and all at once, just about time when we're getting ready, he took a day off and went to the Trenton State Fair, and I took charge of things around. And about the time, before the day was over, a contractor moved in getting ready to tear up the bridge. Well, it put him in an awful spell. They had to go far around to bring the corn in." 105 E.2. Area to north of cow barn, between cow barn and Shoppen Run, as it bends around. There was a machine shop to the north of the cow barn, perhaps the one shown in the insurance map as a "shed." Frank Inman said it was a flimsy building, and there is no foundation remaining. He thinks the foundations were all pushed aside. In the position shown on the insurance map were a milk house and a feed house. The latter had a patterned cement floor which ia still visible, and a cement walk to the north of it. Frank Inman had no idea what the purpose of the walk might have been. There was a grinder inside the feed house at one corner, roughly where the dumpster is now to grind "cornstalks, anything they could - by the back door." 106 To the east of the milk house there is a drop-off in grade down to the Shoppen Run valley. The cast iron fire hydrants removed from near the barn were thrown there along with other debris, mostly concrete fragments. Frank Inman said this had always been a dumping area. The milk house was convenient to the milking machine, which was at the northeast corner of the cow barn. There was a very tall green wooden sliding gate, on a removable track, going from the northeast corner of the cow barn to the northwest corner of the feed house. There was a "little door to go in if you wanted to." 107 The track would be removed for high cartloads of hay going to the barn. The cows did not pasture in the marsh because they got too dirty. Frank Inman kept the whole area cut, so that one could see through to the road. The stream used to come up over the path below the bank from time to time.

Page 26

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


F. Area: to east of main house; south of carriage house & tool shed; west of path/ dirt road to cow barn, north of WaIn ford Road. Part of this area is now used as a picnic area. The original road ran to the west of the present road; its entrance is marked by a wooden gate in the fence paralleling Walnford Road. Frank Inman planted the Chinese chestnut in this area about 1949; he also planted the hollies on either side of the Chinese chestnut. He also said that the evergreens on a north-south line east of the ice house were planted during his tenure, and that the last one closest to the old barn yard fence was brought in and planted by a nursery. He thought that it was different than the others. G. Area to west of cow barn path/road, bounded on east by open area (H) ; south by Walnford Road; north by Shop pen Run This area contained the corn crib, the wagon barn, the water tower, and the carpenter's shed. There was another building - the the mule stable, to the northwest of the Wagon barn. This building is shown in the 1920 insurance map and its foundations remain. There was a gate which crossed the road just north of the well-house. The well is an artesian well. Frank Inman did not think the shed on the east end of the Wagon barn was there during the 1940's. This building does look like an addition, and is not on the c. 1920 survey. It has to have been built before December 1979, when it appears in a low level aerial photograph and must have been removed after the McCabe report, since it is indicated in photographs taken for the report. The water tower served to hold water which was pumped from the artesian well. Frank Inman said that the head or pressure was enough to allow the hose hooked to the fire hydrant closest to the barn to propel a stream of water clear over the peak of the cow barn's roof. The 1979 aerial photograph shows the water tower in poor repair. It would appear that the hydrants were placed, in the event of fire, in four locations: one inside what was termed the threshing barn; one in back of the wagon barn - its east elevation; one on the southeast corner of the cow barn; a fourth just inside the carriage shed. A fifth appears, as the others do, on the c.1929 insurance map. H. Pasture/field/ sometime parking lot to east of building complex. What is now a large open field, to the east of the house, was the tomato patch, where Mrs. Meirs grew tomatoes for Campbell Soup. It was bound by a simple wire fence. Mrs. Biddle remembers sitting in the field and eating tomatos fresh off the vine. In Frank Inman's time, this area was used to pasture young heifers, or briefly, farm horses. Later, when Iinman was working for the caretaker, sweet corn was grown there. The present fence is new; it used to be on the road side of the trees. It was a "square" wire fence with a rounded wood railing on the top. Mrs. Biddle also remembers the fence as being of wire.

Page 27

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


One year Frank Inman recalled putting a lot of cow manure on this field. (Possibly this was when the manure mound blocking the manure bucket was cleaned up.) He also confirmed that this field is reduced in size. The 1937 aerial photo reveals that it indeed was almost twice its present size. It extended eastward almost to a small stream that crosses WaIn ford Davis Station road. To the north of this field is a cow-tractor path that starts on east of the cow barn and runs just behind the mule shed, proceeds in a line to the old field extension, crosses the stream, and turns south to Walnford Davis Station road. The lane at present is truncated at the northeastern edge of the reduced field. The old lane had a square wire fence on either side of it just as the lane east of the cow barn. Currently the path seems to be cleared leading into the Shoppen Run valley, and there are some fence posts heading north. Frank Inman could not remember what this indicated. Further up the road, beyond the woods, and beyond the present edge of the property, was a gravel or sand pit where Mrs. Biddle played as a child. Presumably this was "at the lower end of the orchard" as described by her father in an interview with Mr. and Mrs. Mullen on July 5, 1973. 108 Frank Inman showed Tim Long the gravel pit which is located east of the forementioned pasture, and just west of the house on the north side of Walnford Davis Station road. Frank Inman said that the gravel was of poor quality mixed with dirt and was mostly gotten out of the western embankment. He also said that the cut on the north side of the quarry was there to allow water to drain off into the Shoppen Run. Looking northwest from the quarry to the opposite bank of Shop pen Run, there has been consideable dumping down slope. Frank Inman said the owner to the north of Walnford had dumped there. On the rise, east of the quarry, was an open grass area of approximately two to two and a half acres where a new house has been recently built. Frank Inman remembers only an open grass area here and no orchard. The quarry had also been an open area which has now grown in. Frank Inman said that the cow-tractor lane proceeding east was used to take the cows to the pasture on the south side of WaIn Davis Station road. The field closest to Crosswicks Creek was always pastured, while the field east of it was alternately pastured and cropped. The cows were let into the lower field via a gate almost directly opposite the point where the cow-tractor lane emerged onto Walnford Davis Station road. Frank Inman remembers that there was a small bridge just west of this point, where a small stream exited the south field and ran under the road toward Shoppen Run. The small bridge had a wooden rail supported by posts on either side of the road and the rail was probably just above waist height. Further east on the plateau along the eastern edge of the Mullen property there were old buildings at the end. The road shows up on the 1851 Jesse Lightfoot Map of Monmouth County. This road is shown as joining Holmes Mill Road at that time after crossing Mirey Run. Frank Inman said that when he first came to work at WaIn ford, Mrs. Meirs used to have two men clear out the underbrush and fallen trees from the woods in this eastern portion of the property. His recollection was that it was always woods and always clean. 109

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WaIn ford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


1. "Sundial Garden" across from main house.

Although little remains, the main pleasure garden at Walnford, created by the Meirs, was a bi-laterally symmetrical garden at the front of the house, on the south side of the road. This garden was located on a small terrace adjacent to Crosswicks Creek. The lower edge of this terrace was a retaining wall which held the terrace on three sides.Frank Inman said that the three bermed sides of this "sundial garden" were formed of dry wall. They thus functioned as a "rock garden," a very popular feature of the era. The rocks are indeed still in place and are noticeably different from the rocks used for building foundations elsewhere on the property. The upper terrace was divided into two halves by a walk of small stepping stones that began at the front door of the house. At the southern end of this path, broad stone steps descended to a lower terrace at the creek edge. In the center of the garden a diamond shaped platform held a sundial. Mrs. Biddle remembers this sundial, a requisite feature in any Colonial Revivial garden, and Mrs. Meirs could have seen a number in Germantown 110 [illus # 18 & 19] A row of broadleafed evergreens bordered the garden to the east and west, and Charlton Beck described "the boxwood hedges lining the walk down to the mill stream. "111 There was a path (now a trace) at the water's edge. The path went under the arbor, covered with a flowering vine (not named). The arbor is just visible in the photograph that is in the Rutgers collection. The effect, combined with the picket fence by the house would have been a simplified version of that described in 1921 in "The Spirit of OldFashioned Gardens." "An old-fashioned garden - how the picture flashes across the mind! lilac, laburnum, snowballs and syringas [mock-orange] arching over the gate, and crowding the white pickets of the fence. A sundial and arbor of delicate colonial pattern; neatly raked gravel paths skirting the box-edged beds wherein graciously nod the flowers our grandmothers loved-hollyhocks, honesty, roses and heart-ease ... "112 Frank Inman remembers garden beds. One bed was alongside the box bushes to the east of the sundial. Another was between the box and the azaleas to the west of the sun dial. These were edged in brick turned at a 45 degree angle. This brick edging was also to the east of the eastern-most box. He remembers the path as being "nicer." Very near the Sycamore tree there is evidence of more red aggregate foundation stone just barely exposed similar to the condition at the suspected location of the tenant barn foundation. This discovery occurred after conversations with Frank Inman concluded and we were unable to attribute it to any structure. It might be that if nothing is known, that it could be included in the archaeology trench project that we have suggested to the west side of the "colonial revival garden."

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


SU!l路dial in Uppincott Garden, Germantown, Pennsylvania.

Illustrations (18) & (19)

Page 30

Sun路diaJ at Cranford, Germantown, Pennsylvania: Residence of Charles F. Jenkins, Esq.

From Alice Morse Earle. Sun Dials and Roses of Yesterday, (New York, 1902)

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


There were two other items Frank Inman mentioned. At the edge of the road just above (north of) the arbor he installed a pipe with a spigot so people could get a drink. It was later deemed that for the public's health it could not continue. He couldn't understand this since the water, which originated form the artesian well had been tested as safe. Water from the artesian well also flowed to the milk house to cool the milk cans. There is now a white PVC pipe that discharges what seems to be overflow from the artesian well directly into Crosswicks Creek at about one foot above the Creek's waterline. The pipe is due south of the current entrance into the barn/outbuilding area. Farther east of this, along the road on the south side was a gate which Frank Inman referred to as the "blue gate." It was through this gate that fishermen were allowed access to the bend in Crosswicks Creek. Fisherman were not allowed to fish in the Mill pond itself and the bend location was the concession to them. Mrs. Biddle remembered a "plain" fence to the east of the Colonial Revival garden. She was pleased to see the quince trees still in place. She remembers quince jelly as a special treat. There were water lilies sunk in baskets in the water in front of the garden. These baskets were identified as the ones now at Walnford. There were no water lilies when Frank Inman came, but Alec Yarr, the caretaker told him they had been in the water near the shore, between the colonial Revival garden and the smaller mill dam. As a representative of the gardens of the period both in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, this garden was minimally developed and pleasant rather than distinguished.

J. Small Island directly across from mill. Mrs. Biddle remembers there being peonies and day lilies on the island, reached by a bridge across the dam. She remembers the bridge as being painted white. She also recalls a white structure on the island - which was not defined as either a gazebo or an arbor - under which one could sit. There was no such structure by Frank Inman's time. Frank Inman described flower borders all around the edge of the island and the bridge as a cement walk to the right of the present dam, over the water gate. It had to be high to cross the water gate. There were railings on either siden which were unpainted in his time. K. Area to west of Mill, bounded by mill, WaIn Mill Road and Walnford Road

Mrs. Biddle remembers a mass of daylilies in this area. Frank Inman doesn't remember any day lilies, but remembers it being covered with "blue and pink wild flowers," (Mertensia vir~iniana, or Vir~inia bluebells)

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WaIn ford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


1. Across WaIn Mill Road to S.W.

This area was not owned by the Meirs. M. Land South of the Mill across Crosswicks Creek This is an island that had tree cover, but did not have "all the vines & weeds." Frank Inman said that the house on the south side of Crosswicks Creek was always known and referred to by the locals as the "flat roof house." He said there was a shed attached to it and a front porch that faced the Mill. He felt that it was a shame to tear down the house near the saw mill; someone could have lived there. A photograph that Gail Hunton gave Tim Long supports his description. [Illus # 20] In the 1937 aerial photograph, there appear to be several outbuildings associated with the "flat roof house." Frank Inman should be questioned about any recollection he might have of them. He also pointed out the location of a house on Hill road just south of the site of the "flat roof house;" this was also owned by Mrs. Meirs and was probably part of that farm as a tenant house. 113

Illustration (20)

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The "flat roof" house. Photograph courtesy Monmouth County Parks System.

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


The Meirs tenure brought changes to Walnford, many of them subtle. The house was "restored" with loving care; certainly having the carpet woven to match the rem ant of the original bespeaks an interest in fidelity. Colonial Revival may be criticized by modern eyes as a romantic recreation - which indeed it was. Nevetheless it was recreation to the best understanding of the times, and the interest in colonial history is responsible for "saving" many an old homestead like Walnford. The farm was well runat a loss, according to Phoebe Biddle - the pastures well kept, the marshes burned to keep down weeds, the fences maintained. The mill was restored to run in the time of Richard Meirs. 114 Charlton Beck well described the mood of Walnford between the wars as a "picture from another world. The hurly-burly is far away. The purple crocuses, in a regimental line that heralds the coming spring seem infinitely more important than anything the present counts as precious ... to watch the return of green to the fields and to imagne the people who found contentment in more casual life, these are the inspirations."115

Postlude In 1958 William W. Meirs inherited the 41 acres of Walnford. According to Frank Inman, he started tearing down structures very quickly. According to Frank Inman, William Meirs was a mechanical genius - could fix anything. 116 One can appreciate why William Meirs did not want to lose money in the running of Walnford, and one can be grateful that he did not yield to what must have been a temptation to develop Walnford.

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


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References 1

Pennsylvania Gazette, March 25, 1772

2 james C. McCabe,"Walford: 250 years of a Central New jersey Milling Village and Country Estate, Monmouth County Park System, 1987, p, 27. Richard Wain evidently made an effort to settle equally on his children, as was common Quaker practise. "Thee bid me mention the sum I should require I will ask eight hundred pounds - at the same time permite me to request that whatever more tha[n] this sum may be on a division of thy estate my share may belong to my sister Elisabeth & my brother Nichoals - jacob from his talents and activity I hope will be competent to make his own fortune -- & the rest are happily provided for ... " Hannah WaIn to Richard WaIn 11,4, 1816 (before her marriage to john Ryers) David Meirs Donation [DMDl. Walnford, Monmouth County Park System. McCabe,"WaJford," p. 27. John W. Jordan, Colonial and Revolutionary Families of Philadelphia 3 New York, 1911), p.214.

4

Richard's nephews, joseph and james Brown offered their services as retailers at the store in the "Bird in Hand Wharf" in 1784. Richard Wain Domestic Correspondence, Box 6, Richard Wain papers [RWP], Historical Society of Philadelphia [HSP]

5 There are few existing Wain business records for the Revolutionary period, so we do not know what business Richard Wain was able to carryon. Since he was arrested as a Troy sympathizer part of the time, it could not have been easy.

6 "The Country Life is to be preferred for there we see the work of God ... The country is both the Philsopher's Garden and his Library, in which he reads and Contemplates the Power, Wisdom and Goodness of God. It is his Food as well as Study, and gives him Life, as well as Learning ... " William Penn, Fruits of Solitude (London, 1693) reprint ed. First Friends United Press, Richmond, Ind. p. 37. 7 "Alas, how pleas'd should I be if Philadelphia was my home." Elizabeth Annitt Wain to Richard Wain n.d., [DMD].

8

A note on a letter from Elizabeth Wain in 1773 or 1774 gives the dimensions as "18 by 20 a wheelwrights shop 10 feet high a large Door 7 feet wide Coopers shop 18 by 18 the whole building to be 18 by 36."DMD.

9

The description is taken from an advertisement placed by Richard Brown in the March 25, 1772 Pennsylvania Gazette

10

Monmouth Deeds, Book T-3, page 362 as noted in james S Brown, "Walnford," Monmouth County Park Department 1981, p. 17.

11

It is to get a certain Thomas Green about 5 miles from London to make upon his honor [sic] of the best burr mill stones 4 feet 4 in Diameter the Runner rather heavy as my Stream is strong -- I judge if corse sea sand well washed was to be mixed with the plaister that back he runner it would strengthen it -- I only suggest the hint --leaving it to the artist's judgemnt. As our Wheat is hard - a close stone of an even Temper is best-- the importance of good Mill stones is

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Wain ford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


such that a miller may with them make a Fortune & with bad ones work all his Life for nothing ... Richard WaIn to ... ?, "Walnford 2 mo. 261786, RWP.

12 Jan 24, 1775 "Expense Dr. to Jos. Van dyke for Building me a fulling Mill & Some Repairs to the Grist Mill," Wastebook 1774-5, Box 13, RWP. Notations for items sold at "the store" first appear in June 4, 1775. Wastebook 1774-75, RWP. Oct 22,1774, "Dr. to Amer. [?] Jackson for Cross wick Creek Bridge," Wastebook 1774-75, RWP. 13

March 25, 1772 Pennsylvania Gazette

14 Lucy Simler, "The Landless Worker: An Index of Economic and Social Change in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1750-1820." PMHB. CXIV (April 1990) 164-1990 15

March 25, 1772 Pennsylvania Gazette.

16 "I am so desirous of maintaining the Trench in the Front Garden that I propose to be at Walnford in 6 or 8 days ... " Richard WaIn to Nicholas WaIn, 8/16/1801, DMD. 17 George Williams, bill for September 1791, Box IX, Folder 14, RWP. CaIman covers the discussion of "mudding" quite well in Plows and Politics, pp 238-243. 18 Clarissa Dillon, "Eighteenth Century Kitchen Garden," The Historical Gardener. Spring 1993, p. 10. The article is an excellent summary of the characteristics of an 18th century kitchen garden. 19

Woodward, Ploughs & Politics. p. 293, 302

20

American Husbandry. Harry J. Carman, cd., New York, 1939, pp 97-110

21

March 25, 1772 Pennsylvania Gazette

22

"They have, in various parts of New Jersey, many tracts of meadow land, much of which is marshy; they mow them twice a year, about the latter end of May, and the end of august or beginning of September; they get large crops of hay, some yield three tons anacre at the two mowings ... " Carman, American Husbandry, p. 101. 23 March 25, 1772 Pennsylvania Gazette "Every farm in New Jersey has a large orchard belonging to it. The common fruits are apples and peaches, with some cherries and pears; the peaches are of a fine flavour ... [ and in sufficient quatity to feed hogs. Apples are used for cyder] Carman, American Husbandry, p. 102 24

Pennsylvania Gazette March 25, 1772.

25

Carman, American Husbandry. p. 103. Luigi Castiglioni, Viaggio. Travels in the United States of N. America 1785-87. Antionio Pace cd. & trans., Syracuse, N.Y. 1983, p. 234. 26

"The brush in the far Meadow should be burned & the young sprouts took up & Peter should have a yard full of Wood, a Cord a Day Cut & corded after taking care of the Horses is as much as I expect." Richard WaIn to Elizabeh Wain, 10 June [?] 1778, David Meirs Donation, Walnford, Monmouth

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


County parks Department. and in this era "amenity" picket fencing appeared at the front of the main house and two tenant houses immediately west. 27 Carman, American Husbandry, pp 97-110. Woodward, Ploughs and Politics, pp. 229-230. Hubert G. Schmidt, Agriculture in New Iersev A Three-Hundred-Year History (New Brunswick, N. j., 1973), pp. 65-66. 28

Woodward, Ploughs and Politics, p. 299-301.

29 October 22,1777; Dec. 11, 1778; June 14, 1778, Elizabeth Drinker Extracts from the IOtlrnal of Elizabeth Drinker. Henry D Biddle, Ed., Philadelphia, 1889. 30

Richard WaIn to Elizabeth WaIn, 10 June [?11778, DMD.

31 Jacques Pierre Brissot de Warville, On America New Travels in the United States of America Performed in 1788. (1792; reprint edition, New York, 1970), pp. 185-188. 32

Barry Levy, Quakers and the American Family, New York, 1988, pp. 123-152.

33 Brissot de Warville also visited a miller nearby. " I recollected what Mr. de Crevecoeur had said in praise of the American mills: This one merited it for its neatness, and for the intelligence with which the different operations were distributed. There were three set of stones destined to the making of flour of different degrees of fineness. They employ only the stones of France for the first quality of flour. They are exported from Bourdeaux [sic] and Rouen. In these mills they have multiplied the machinery, to spare hand-labour in all the operations; such as, hoisting the wheat, cleansing it, raising the flour to the place where it is to be spread, collecting it as again into the chamber, where it is to be put in barrels. These barrels are marked at the mill with the name of the miller; and this mark indicates the quality of the flour. That which is designed for exportation, is again inspected at the port; and if not merchantable, it is condemned. The millers here are flour merchants; mills are a kind of property which ensures a constant income.Jacques Pierre Brissot de Warville, On America New Travels in the United States of America Performed in 1788. [1792; reprint edition, New York, 1970,1 pp. 187-188. The mill was of great continued interest to Richard WaIn. After he moved back to Philadelphia, a correspondent commented: "I observe the thoughts on the improvement of Tide mill and if the principals be just and carc[fullyl be applied to affect the purpose proposed on the plan thelellasy down, I think it a great discovery and deserving [of al patent, much more than several of [thosel discoveries that have lately obtained. R. Bowne [agent in New Yorkl to R. WaIn, 8/17/1792. 34

All of Richard WaIn's other children, save Hannah Ryers, now lived in the Philadelphia area.

35 "It is concluded for thee to take TIlOS Morgan in the spring--it is best to have a Fulling Mill stock if needfull, money will be attended to--" .. 1O/1/1806. Richard WaIn, In & Out, 1806-1808, Box 7, RWP, HSP. 36 Robert Vaux to "Uncle" Nicholas WaIn, June 5,1816, letters from G.A. Ryers to "Dear Uncle, "February 25, 1822, Aug 12, 1824, and other similar business orders from the textended family. DMD 37 Nicholas's deep interest in farming at one point irritated his father. "... you may as I know you will - take your own Course-.. Nicholas is deep in the Earth --Money-- Money--Money wht will it do --. separate us from our Peace & real Hapiness [sic] beyond the comforts of Life -- it is a clog & imcumbrance to say we get but little is nothing to the purpose--what is the State of the Mind, highly Page 36

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


displeased, give me more Money--say with George Emlen when a man dies -- "how does he cut up"- not, did he feel an Evidence of that Peace that will be the reward of well doing--... ". Richard WaIn to Nicholas WaIn, 5/20/1806, Richard WaIn, In & Out, 1806-1808, Box 7, RWP, HSP. 38 McCabe, "Walnford," p. 31. As Nicholas had received Walnford from his father, so these additional fanns would be Nicholas's children's patrimony, in keeping with the Quaker practise of equal shares of an estate to the children. J Although he did not designate any of the properties other than the house and Walnford,there was evidently an amicable understanding of the eventual settlement. "Dear Sister..... It gave me great pleasure to learn from it [her recent letter] of the affectionate conduct of thy SonS & of the divisions of their fathers property among them without dispute or difficulty, it most certainly is very much to their credit & will raise their reputation among their friends a & indeed throughout the country ... & when they come to a death bed the remembrance of this act will be a cordial to their feelings for which the possession of wealth would be a poor exchange -- please give my affectionate remembrance to them also tell them how very much pleased I have been to hear it Nicholas has behaved most nobley in this business because I believe his property is of less value, under the estimate than of the others, but no matter he will not be a loser in the end ... " joseph WaIn to Sarah Ridgway WaIn, Sept 19 1848, DMD. 39

Nicholas WaIn to jacob Ridgway, 511,1800 (or 1810), DMD.

40 jesse Lightfoot, Map of Monmouth County New Iersey (Middletown Point, N.j.1851), F.W. Beers, Atlas of Monmouth county, new Iersey. (New York, 1863). Harry B. Weiss and Grace M. Weiss, The Early Saw Mills of New Iersey (Trenton N.j. New jersey Agricultural Society,1968, P. 25. "In New jersey the Sequence of Mills was generally thought to be first a sawmill, then a gristmill, then a fulling mill ... " 19 41 McCabe, "Walnford," p. 31 There are numerous notations and agreements acttered through the accounts, particularly in the Richard WaIn Papers at HSP. i.e.: "Agreement with Aaron Cole to Farm his Place to the Share," 3/21/1814. Nicholas WaIn Bills,1814-1818, Box 8, Folder 8, RWP. "Hired john Fowler june for one year at one hundred dollars per year he engages to come early be industrious to work for nobody else and to allow Twenty five dollars for the use of the house and garden ... " Richard WaIn, Accountbooks (Mill), Box 14, RWP.

42 "to jack for 1.2 day to plough his [Peter Hendrickson's] garden," 1804. Cash book, Box 13, RWP. Tenants often had their own cow as well, which they paid Nicholas WaIn to pasture. 43 Alice E. Manning, "Nineteenth Century Farmsteads on the Inner Coastal Plain of New jersey" Trenton, NJ : Office of New jersey Heritage, 1982. Walnford follows the typical siting; unfortunately, Ms. Manning, in her otherwise excellent essay, has the Walnford complex reversed from North to South, thus as an exception to the general rule, rather than as typical. 44 "It is advantageous to have the farm-yard, and all the work and employment in it, within view from the mansion, as check on the idleness and misconduct of labourers and herdsmen." [Cobbett] An American Farmer, An Epitome of Mr. Forsyth's Treatise on the Culture and management of Fruit Trees. Also, Notes on American Gardening and Fruits: with designs for promoting the ripening of fruits, and securing them as family comforts; and further of economical Principles in building farmers' habitations. Philadelphia, 1803, p. 140. 45

1807. "Farm Account Book," WaIn Papers, Folder 17, Box 9, WaIn Papers, HSP.

46

Nicholas WaIn Inventory, 18 May, 1848,.

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47 The garden may be in the front, or on one of the sides of the dwelling house or of the farm-yard, as conveniently placed as circumstances will allow, not to be, especially too near ... A garden laid out in long beds admits of being advantageously ploughed, with a light plough drawn by a single horse, ass or mule ..." [Cobbett] An American Farmer, Mr. Forsvth's Treatise, pp. 139-40. 48 Jordan, Families, p 212. Dillon estimates a "average family" would need one-fourth to one half an acre. Dillon, "Kitchen Gardens," p. 10. Lemon estimates that 2 acres for "flax, orchard and [kitchen] garden" would provide subsistance for a family of five. James T. Lemon, "Household Consumption in 18th C. America and its Relationship to Production and Trade: The Situation Among Farmers in Southeastern Penna," Agricultural History, Vol. 41, No.1 (Jan 1967), pp 68-69. 49

Richard WaIn to Nicholas WaIn, 7/4/1804, RWP, Box VII, p.16. American Husbandry, p. 102.

50 Thy letter of the 5th of this month by Jno Ridgeway jr is rec'd & the few Roots of Grapes ... " Richard WaIn to Nicholas WaIn, 10/10/1806, Richard WaIn, In & Out, 1806-1808 Box 7, RWP, HSP. 51 Richard WaIn to Nicholas WaIn, February 16, 1807, Richard WaIn, In and Out, 1806-1808," Box 7, RWP, HSP. 52

Sarah WaIn to Elisa Smith, April 6, 1838, "Letters from Sarah WaIn to Elisa Smith," p. 10.

53

Margaret Morris, "Gardening Memoradum," 1804- Special Collections, Haverford College.

54 68 hogs from the farm weighed 10, 184 Ibs in 1803. "Flour Carting Record 1792-1822." Box 14, WaIn Papers, HSP 55 an acre could be "planted with 65 or 70 apple trees, 20 feet apart, which would produce in a good year 250 bushels of apples." Theophile Cazenove, Cazenove TournaI 1794. ed. and trans. by Rayner Wickersham Kelsey (Haverford College Studies, Number 13) Haverford PA, 1922, p. 11 . 56 N.J.

Nicholas WaIn Inventory, 18 May, 1848, typed copy, Walnford, Monmouth County Park System,

57 N.J.

Nicholas WaIn Inventory, 18 May, 1848, typed copy, Walnford, Monmouth County Park System,

58 Richard WaIn to Nicholas WaIn, 10/10/1806, Richard WaIn In-and-Out Box, Box VII, RWP. "A full grown peach tree, in America, will ripen 400 peaches ... " [Cobbett] Mr. Forsyth's Treatise, p. 142. 59 Much the same as in the 1772 ad, and similar to other farms in new Jersey at the turn of the century. Cazenove, TournaI, pp. 9,11. 60 It was not until about the time of the Revolution that the scythe came into use; its long blade enabled the worker to cut more with one swing and its long handle enabled him to work standing up. The next improvement was the cradle, a wood frame attached to the blade of the scythe. The cradle caught the grain or hay so that it could be laid down in even rows, making it easier to gather." Wayne D. Rasmussen, "The mechanization of Agriculture," Scientific American Vol 247, No.3, (1982), pp 77-89. 61 Page 38

Nicholas WaIn Inventory, 18 May, 1848,typed copy, Walnford, Monmouth County Park System .. Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


62

Richard WaIn to Nicholas WaIn jr, 5/14/1800, RWP, Box VII, 15.

63 "Sowd 1 bush flax seed in the far orchard the old pard [sic] from the pond field to the peach tree put 5 bushls of dity salt & next to the young orchard sowd two rows of apple tree with palaster three rows between the sat [sic] & plaister withou an thin [sic]. 4th month 6 1799 Fann Account Book, Folder 17, box 9, RWP, HSP, "a Gentleman at Middletown ... bought a piece of porr Land, put on it five Bushels of Salt to the Acre, sowed it with Flax, a small Strip through the whole Piece he put no Salt upon it, the Consequence was, the salted Part produced fine tall Flax, and the small Strip was poor and short. .. "Jared Eliot, Essay upon Field Husbandry in New England and Other Papers 17481762. Harry J. Cannan, Ed., New York 1934. 64

Nicholas WaIn Inventory, 18 May, 1848.

65 Mary WaIn Harrison, Annals of the Ancestrv of Charles Custis harrison and El1en WaIn Harrison (Philadelphia, 1932), p. 119 66 Correspondence between Nicholas WaIn, Sarah Ridgway WaIn and their brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews and cousins is considerable. It reflects a web of mutual interest and support, as letters from members of the family outside New Jersey bring the Walnford family up to date on various family news. In this same period Sarah Ridgway WaIn receives many letters from members of her family to moved to Illinois, reflecting a great deal of support on her part. It would be worthwhile fol1owing through these relationships, as shown in the David Meirs and Elizabeth Morgan donations. The latter manscripts brings alive a family which exists mostly in fiandal records - farm and business - in the Richard WaIn Papers at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 67 The strength of Quaker tradition is shown in naming of Nicholas and Sarah Ridgway WaIn's children."Unlike New England Puritans, Quakers named their first-born children after grandparents. unlike Virginia Anglican, they were careful to honor maternal and paternal lines in an even handed way." David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed Four British Folkways in America. (New York, 1989) p. 503. Richard was named after his father's father, Elizabeth after both parent's mothers, Joseph after his father's brother, John after his mother'S father. The last born, Sarah and Nicholas, were named after their parents. 68

Alice Manning, "19th C. Farmstead of the ICP." p. 48.

69

Many East Coast farmers began the westward move, and this included brothers and sisters-inlaw of Sarah Ridgeway WaIn' own family. See Ridgway correspondence, DMD.

70 McCabe, "Walnford,"p. 53. "Letters from Sarah WaIn Jr. to Elisa Smith" Transcribed from copies of the originals in the Library of the Princton Historial Society by Janet McGrane, under direction of Phyllis Mount, Monmouth County Park System, 1991 are full of references not only to the rebuilding of the mill in 1872, but earlier repairs to the mil1 and to the saw mill. 71 "Richard WaIn Journals 1761-1769, 1769-1765, Sarah WaIn Journal," WaIn Papers, Box 1O,HSP. One wonders why the carriage house is on a line with neither the main house nor the cow barn and threshing barn. 72

McCabe, "Walnford," pp. 156-180.

73 See local Setting - Beers Atlas 1873 and Wolverton Atlas maps of 1889 Page 39

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


74 Sarah WaIn to Elisa Smith, Dec. 26, 1852. "Letters from Sarah WaIn to Elisa Smith." 10th mo 1853, Sarah WaIn, "Memorandum Book, " [farm book] at Walnford. 75

7/2/1855,S arah WaIn Sr., "Plaister Book," Walnford, Monmouth County Park System.

76 Sept 1874, "110 chestnut palings ... " june 1885, "500 ft. square pickets. Richard WaIn journal [and Sarah WaIn] 1839-49 [sic] Box 10, RWP. 77 "Roses bought in Trenton, May 13, 1882,"Victor Mason""Arch Duke Charles,""Le Pactole"[tea rose], "Madame Camelia, " "Magna Charta, ''''Homer, " "Paul Norain, " "Bosanquet" [Bengal], "Empress India, " "Gen Dijon" [? "Gloire de Dijan" noisette], "Reine des Violet" [hybrid perpetual], "Dingle[Dingee] Conrad Nos. 4, ""Thomas Mills, ""Duchess Edinburgh, ""Amee Vilet" [= "Aimee Vibert"l, "Duchess Braband" [tea], "Grand Duke Nicholas, ""Madame Capulet, " "Running Hermosa" [R. chinesenis, "Old Blush" type], "Appoline" [Bengal] "Allentown May 20 "Bonsaline." "Received nine Roses from Good & Reese, Spring field Ohio, May 12, 1900: names "Princes [sic] Alcadi Morinia[??l," White Maman Cochet" [tea rose, introduced 1896], "Priscilla," "Mademaisell Francisker Kruger" [tea roseL "Mad Elis Lambert, " "Triumph" [?Triumphant R. setigera], "Dr. Parnell" (Father Parne]]), "Ruby Gold," "Augusta Hallan." [this is ten; some must be synonyms: in hand of Sarah WaIn Hendrickson] DWD, Walnford. 78

Manning, "Farmsteads," p. 48.

79 Sarah WaIn Sr., "Memorandum book" [Farm Book '52-'54], Walnford, Monmouth County Park System. Sarah WaIn to Elisa Smith, june 22,1860 "Letters from Sarah Wain to Elisa Smith." The machinery would have been pulled by oxen. june 1881, Richard WaIn journal...[and Sarah WaIn] 1839-49 [sic]Box 10, RWP. 80

1853, "Memorandum book," DMD.

81 In the autumn of 1880, 200 Ibs of potatoes were put in the cellar. "Richard WaIn journals 17611769,1769-1765, Sarah WaIn journal ," RWP, Box 1O,HSP. 82

Timothy Conrad to Sarah WaIn, August 1855, DMD.

83

Sarah Wain hendrickson Correspondence, DMD and "Letters from Sarah Wain to Elisa Smith. it would also seem that there were other relatives that Sarah WaIn Hendrickson did not get along with.

84

McCabe, "Walnford," pp. 156-180.

85 Where did 20 rose bushes go? A good sunny spot would have been the area across from the main house, which shows as being protected by fencing in ilIus # 8] 86

Interviews with Frank Inman and Phebe Taylor Biddle.

87

james S. Brown, "Walnford."

88

james C. McCabe, "Walnford," p. 71. Phyllis Mount, in her research for Wain ford and the Colonial Revival movement, found the membership in the Welcome Society. Phyllis Mount, ms.

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Walnfard Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


89 john McCleary, who had worked for the Weightmans at RavenhiIl, was a Council member from 1899 til 1911, and vice-president in 1899 and 1901. The latter period was a time when the Horticultural Society was run by professionals such as McCleary. McCleary, as a gardener for William Weightman, is listed as an exhibitor in this period. The Philadelphia branch of the WaIn family had been active in in the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society in the 19th century, with jacob WaIn serving as a Vice-President (1831-1833). (james Boyd, History of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society 1827-1927. Philadelphia. 1929. pp. 260261,349-354. 90 According to Richard Brown, "Richard WaIn Meirsspent considerable money restoring Walnford and hired a miller to run the grist mil." Brown, "Walnford," p.27 91 Phoebe Taylor Biddle interviews, with Phyllis Mount, 1991., and with Phyllis Mount, Gail Hunton and Elizabeth P. McLean, Octobe,1992. 92 Tim Long, "Interview with Frank Inman, November 24, 1992," ms notes communicated to Elizabeth McLean. Long explored the si teo "The old road into the farm is now only a trace between two rows of trees, saplings and brush. Mr. Inman said that one winter there was a death on that farm and the hearse got stuck and had to be pulled out by tractor. Another road was cut into the farm, [it] may even have existed before as a secondary road, beyond the crest of the hill. The old road, back towards Walnford and at a much lower elevation was abandoned ... From the looks fo the aerial view of 1937, the old road can be clearly seen. Frank Inman said that a foundation for a house was near the bend of this old road as it ascended to the main house and core farm complex. From what Mr. Inman said, it seems that this farm was one owned by Mrs. Meirs since the farm foreman lived in it. " 93

McCabe indicated that they were sold in 1947. McCabe, "Walnford," p. 73.

94

Mr. Inman could not recall how the heifers were let into the triangular meadow from this route.

95

McCabe,"Walnford," map 8, p. 138

96 At Walnford on Monday, December 21st, Howard Wikoff confirmed to Tim Long that the two above grade deposits of foundation stone were from the flume/mill gate and that they would be used in the reconstruction of that structure. 97

McCabe, "Walnford," p. 135

98 McCabe, "Walnford," Map 8, page 138. The question of the origin of the caretaker's cottage needs further study. 99 Henry Charlton Beck,Forgotten Towns of Southern New jersey, ( 1936) reprint edition, New Brunswick, N.j. 1983; More Forgotten Towns of Southern New Iersey, (1937) reprint edition, New Brunswick, N.j. 1983; The Iersey Midlands (1939), reprint ed.,New Brunswick, 1983; Tales and Towns of Northern New jersey (1937) reprint cd., New Brunswick, 1983. in More Forgotten Towns is a description of Walnford pp 19-23. 100

McCabe, "Wlanford, Map 3, p. 6.

101

McCabe, map 8, p. 138.

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Development


102

Frank Inman interview.

103

McCabe, "Walnford," map 7, p. 78.

104

Tim Long, :"Interview."

105

Frank Inman, In terview

106

Frank Inman, In terview.

107

Frank Inman, In terview.

108

"Mullen Interview," ms in collection of Monmouth County Park System, p. 14.,

109

We believe he told us that there was another pasture area on the west side of Holmes Mill road in open area but we would have to check with him again. Long, "Interview."

an 110

Alice Morse Earle, Sundials and Roses of Yesterday: Garden Delights which are Here Displalyed in Very Truth and Are Moreover Regarded as Emblems (New York, 1902). 111

Beck, More Foq~otten Towns, p. 20 ..

112

Richardson Wright, cd., House and Garden's Book of Gardens, (New York, 1921), pp 34-35.

113

This infom1ation is unclear, and Mr. Inman should be asked again.

114

After the death of Richard Meirs, Walnford again went into a holding pattern, it was at least well preserved, that future generations could come to understand the evolving landscape. 115

Beck,More Forgotten Towns, p. 20

116

He also lived simply, according to Inman, and drove a very inexpensive car

Page 42

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Historical Devclopmcnt


v. Existing Conditions Context

Regional Geology The physiographic province in which Walnford is found is the Coastal Plain. In New Jersey, this geologic type, characterized by unconsolidated sands and gravels, occupies the southern and eastern part of the state. The Coastal Plain province is divided into two sections. The part of the coastal plain sloping seaward towards the Atlantic ocean is generally called the Outer Coastal Plain while the Inner Coastal Plain slopes westward to the Delaware River. A ridge of low hills called "cuestas" separates the inner and outer coastal plain. The eroded parts of these cuestas are the hilliest parts of the region and the locations of the earliest water powered mills.

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Page 1

Walnford Historical Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


Regional and Local Politcal Boundaries Walnford is located in the State of New Jersey, in the south west corner of the County of Monmouth, in the municipality of Upper Freehold Township.

Regional and Local Political Boundaries Diagram. Source New Jersey Road Map Page 2

Walnford Historical Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


V. Existing Conditions Site Description Ownership: In 1979, the thirty six acre property was donated by the last owners, Edward and Joanne Mullen, to the New Jersey Conservation Foundation. These owners tranferred the title to the Monmouth Conservation Foundation which held it in trust for the Monmouth County Park System until 1985.

Historical Status Walnford is part of the Walnford Historic District, placed on the new Jersey Register of historic Places, May, 1975 and on the national Register of Historic Places, June 1976.

Location: The area immediately surrounding the site can be characterised as a typical Inner Coastal Plain landscape of broad, flat uplands, short escarpments, adjacent to wide lowlands which includes the floodplains of the local creeks and their extensive associated wetlands. During the early 20th century, this was an agricultural landscape of dairy farms and vegetable crops. Now Walnford is set in a corridor of preserved land which includes both parkland and agricultural land with conservation easements. New agricultural land uses, such as horse farms and plant nurseries, interspersed with residential development, create the present local context for Walnford. Walnford, once known as Walnford Village, is located in the Crosswicks Creek Valley at a country crossroads - the junction of WaIns Mill Road, Walnford Davis Station Road and Hill Road. The site is bisected by the Walnford Davis Station Road which separates the house and farm buildings from the mill, the mill pond and its island. At the center of the site just north of Walnford Davis Station Road, there is a concentration of buildings, the house, the farmyard and several outbuildings. These buildings are located on a narrow terrace between Crosswicks Creek to the south and Shoppen Run, its tributary, to the north. This terrace, although only 15 feet above these water courses and no more than 360 feet wide at its widest, is flat and higher and drier than much of the surrounding land. Caught between two water courses and their extensive wetlands, the mill and farm complex at Walnford has the quality of a protected enclave. Largely surrounded by farmlands or preserved parkland, there is still a quiet, pastoral feeling in this place.

Page 3

Walnford Historical Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


Boundaries:

The site extends north beyond Shoppen Creek and its banks to the borders of an adjacent farm, now owned by the Monmouth County Conservation Foundation. To the south, the site extends beyond Crosswicks Creek into abandoned farm field that abuts a neighboring farm field, now owned by the Monmouth County Park System. Where Crosswicks Creeks bends south, the north side of the Walnford Davis Station Road becomes the site boundary. WaIn's Mill which joins Hill Road as it travels south forms the western boundary of the site and on the east Walnford is bounded by private property.

Natural Features Physiography and Land Use

In the Inner Coastal Plain the landscape takes its character from the subsurface geology, the beds of sands, gravels and clays dipping gently southeastward beyond the edge of the Atlantic ocean into the continental shelf. This unconsolidated material creates an almost flat terrain with short rivers and creeks that drain mainly into the Delaware River and the estuary. Steep banks develop where these rivers have eroded this unconsolidated, subsurface material. These rivers provided early transportation routes to the interior of New Jersey Land Use Most of the land in the inner coastal plain has been agricultural since the late 1600's. The moderate climate, ample rainfall, and friable, well drained soils (with just enough clay to retain moisture) provided good conditions for agriculture with soils that were easy to cultivate. In the early 1800's farmers in Inner Coastal Plain grew grain but after the Civil War, with the opening of the west and the development of new preservation techniques, most farms specialized in vegetables, fruits and dairying. Close to the market centers of the day - Philadelphia, Trenton, Allentown and Burlingtonspeciality farming developed in the late 19th century which concentrated on dairy or truck farming. Due to different soil conditions, each county in New Jersey became known for a specialty, which in Monmouth, was early season white potatoes. After World War II, sod farms, horse farms, landscape nurseries, and housing developments replaced the family farm and now surround Walnford.

Page 4

Walnford Historical Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


Natural Features Vegetation The vegetation of the inner coastal plain is 'transitional' which shares characteristics of the vegetation of both the adjoining physiographic regions. Natural vegetation patterns in the undisturbed landscape of the region directly reflect topography and soil conditions. Plant habitats occur along two continuums - a moisture gradient which reflects change of environmental conditions, from dry to wet and a successional gradient which reflects change over time. There are three main habitat conditions at Walnford; (1). The uplands which are generally dry. (2). The transitional areas which are represented by the banks of the watercourses and are mesic. (3). The wet floodplains and bottomlands associated with the streams and creeks. The floodplains are periodically innudated and can be dry during the rest of the time while in the bottomlands water table is at surface and the soils are permanen tly saturated. Vegetation types found at Walnford range from forest, the oldest and most fully developed vegetation type in this landscape, to meadows which are the youngest landscapes. Successional change can be brought about by natural disasters such as flood or fire or by cultural interventions such as clearing the land for agriculture or development. These vegetation types are listed below with a brief description of their major characteristics. Forest: Mixed age, stable forest associations with a stratified structure consisting of canopy, understory, shrub and herbaceous layers. Woodland: Successional forest types under going rapid growth and change, often composed of nearly even-aged stands with limited stratification. Woody Old Fields and Wetland Shrub-Scrub: Early successional phases consisting of woody shrubs and young trees in a matrix of herbaceous perennials. Meadow and Wet Meadow: The earliest stage of succession, an open landscape of few layers consisting entirely of herbaceous plants, perennials, biennials and annuals. Forest and Woodlands There is currently very little mature forest represented even on the larger Crosswicks Creek Park site. Two hundred years of continous lumbering has reduced most of the forest to thin, weedy stands. In most of the areas which serve as a frame for the mill, farm and house complex, the remaining woodland is a only a thin strip along the banks

PageS

Walnford Historical Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


of the two creeks. The edges of these woodlands are highly disturbed and characterized by a number of invasive exotic trees, shrubs and vines as well as rampant growth of native vines, which give them a "messy" look. Invasive exotics include: Chinese mulberry, Japanese honeysuckle and multiflora rose. Rampant native vines include grape and bull briar. While these woodlands are at present immature and unsightly, they could be managed to re-create an authentic pastoral vocabulary of "hedgerows" and "thickets". Old "relic" trees found within these woodlands, large beeches and oaks, could be used as the core of a re-establishment of a more "primeval" forest. Even younger landscape elements, if allowed, will ultimately develop into mature regional forest types. At Walnford, however, because of the problems created by both animal (deer and rabbits) and plant pests, vegetation will have to be managed as part of a permanent program. Shrublands and Herbaceous Landscapes Shrublands were not characteristic of the landscape before the twentieth century. When the land was occupied by the American Indian the landscape was almost entirely unbroken forest. Today, where there are still functional working farms one can see that the major landscape types of the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries, were almost entirely forest and meadow. A similar landscape can be seen at the horse farm of David Meirs not far from the Walnford site. Withdrawal of farm uses from marginal lands, particularly after World War II allowed the wetlands and stream banks which were previously open as well as some of the old upland pastures to fill in. These lands, heavily disturbed by grazing animals and adjacent to seed sources carried by birds from nearby plant nurseries and new residential developments, are rapidly being invaded by exotic shrubs and vines such as Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera Japonica), Mexican bamboo (Polygonum cuspidatum) and multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora). Native vines such as grape (vitus spp.) and horse briar (Smilax rotundifolia) also are heaping over other plants inhibiting their growth and reproduction.

Page 6

Walnford Historical Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


Plant List by Vegetation Type

Upland Forest Red oak (Quercus borea Iis) White oak (Quercus alba) Chestnut oak (Quercus montana) Black oak (Quercus velutina) Mockernut (Carya tomentosa) Bitternut hickory (Carya cordifonnis) White ash (Fraxinus americana) Red maple (Acer rubrum) Upland Woodlands Black Cherry (Prunus serattna) Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Woody Old Fields Blackhaw viburnum (Viburnum prunifolium) Flowering dogwood (Comus florida) Red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) Meadow Little bluestem (Andropagon scoparius) Broomsedge (Andropogon virginiana) Transitional Forest White Oak (Quercus alba) Beech (Fagus grandifolia) Shagbark hickory (Carya) Tulip poplar (Uriodendron tulipfera) American Holly (Ilex opaca) Maple leaf viburnum (Viburnum acerifalia) Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifalia) Lowland Forest Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) White ash (Fraxinus Americana) Red maple (Acer rubrum) Sweetgum (Uquidambar styraciflua) Tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica) Hornbeam(Carpinus caraliniana) Spicebush (Undera benzoin) Summersweet (Clethra alnifalia)

Page 7

Walnford Historical Landscape Study - Existing Conditions

,


Lowland Woodlands American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) Black walnut (Juglans nigra) Box elder (Acer negundo) Black willow (Salix nigra) Shrub-Scrub Shrub dogwood (comus racemosa, stolcnifera, amomum) Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) Arrowwood(Vibumum dentatum) Wet Meadows Wetland grasses and wildflowers Invasive Exotics White mulberry (Moms alba) Norway maple (Acer platanoidcs) Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) Porcelainberry (Ampelopsis brcvipeunculata) Mexican bamboo (Polygonum cuspidatum)

Page 8

Walnford Historical Landscape Study - Existing Condi tions


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Cultural Features Purpose This exercise was undertaken to record existing conditions within the core area of Walnford Park. Both natural and cultural landscape features were sought that gave definition to the site without regard for their significance to past periods of occupancy or activity. Both large and small scale objects were photo recorded in an effort to indicate the diversity of elements and contexts within which they exist. This was done by necessity to indicate the breadth of material which contributes to the fabric of the site as it exists in current times. Essentially the effort's aim was to create a base line of visual and descriptive information from which other, expanded studies of Walnford Park could spring. Methodology Walnford was visited on several occasions, beginning in the late spring of 1992 and extending through the early months of 1993. During those visits photographs were taken of current, select site features in relation to their surrounding landscape. It was essential to visit the site when trees and shrubs were in full leaf and after the foliage had fallen so that major components, which may have been missed because of being obscured, could be found and photo documented. Black and white film was used to record the various select elements within the landscape. A set of color slides was also made, principally to orient the photographer when not on the site. Although the slides were not made to totally parallel the black and white photos which were employed to specifically record current conditions and elements within the landscape, they may prove valuable to the Walnford staff and will be submitted with the report. The black and white photographs have been numbered to correspond to numbers entered onto the 1992 map in one of the layers of the 1992 computer map file. The numbers appear on the map within a symbol which locates the approximate point at which the photograph was taken and the line of sight. The same system has been used to locate the photographs which illustrate historic and corresponding current views. The photographs are further cross referenced to the site using the same alphabetical sequence employed in the Meirs narrative section of the report. Therefore the text description and photographs relate to an identical area. In addition to the alphabetical reference, the photographs are further identified by a site feature letter and number. The following example indicates how this system of inventory works:

Page 9

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


Site area "F", which is bordered by the carriage house, the dwelling and the service drive leading to the out-buildings, contains several different fences. A photograph of a fence in this area would be identified as "F.SFO.F". "SFO.F" designates the fence according to the categories established in the draft Guidelines for the Treatment of Historic Landscapes prepared by the U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Fences fall with the category of "site furnishings and objects". Therefore, the use of the category in a foreshortened format "SFO" and ".F" to indicate fence. Since more than one fence type exists, each type is identified further by a number, "F.5FO.F.l" or "F.5FO.F.2" and so on. The number will always relate to a specific fence type so that if the exact fence is present in section "A", it would be identified as "A.SFO.F.l ". This system of notation and identification allows anyone, at a future date to expand upon the initial inventory. The following is a list of abbreviations that have been derived from the Guidelines and will be used in identification: T Topography V Vegetation NS Natural Systems C Circula tion S Structures B Buildings SFO Site Furnishings and Objects WF Water Features VSO Views and Spatial Organization As mentioned in one of the foregoing paragraphs, only select site features were documented in what is considered the core area of Walnford Park. They are only to be representative of the broad spectrum of items that could be found on the site if the time were available to traverse Walnford and record each feature in its every detail. Therefore this record of current conditions and landscape features should be thought of as a base upon which to build an even broader and more elaborate site inventory at some future time. Each site inventory photograph is singly mounted and accompanied by a brief explanation of the item and the landscape context in which it exists. The photographs are grouped and sequentially paged according to the alphabetical site designation.

Page 10

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


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1992 Computer Map Symbol number: 8 Code: A.SFO.F.5 (Refer to code breakdovm below). Site Area: A Guideline Category: SFO Item: F (Fence) Type: 5 (Post and Rail, sawn) Note: This is typical of the construction of the more recent fencing on the site. It is present in site area A as pictured here extending to the shed across from the mill. It is similar to the fence surrounding the field in site area H. Typically the gates associated with this more recent fence construction are of non-corrosive metal. (See Site Area G Photograph #45, G.sFO.F.5). Page 12

Wahlford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 9 Code: AVSO.VC.O (Refer to code breakdown below) Site Area: A Guideline Category: VSO Item: VC (Visual Connection) Type: 0 Note: Indicates the organization and space patterns found near the bridges on the south west side of Walnford Park. Metal guard rails leading to the two bridges could be effectively replaced by a treated timber barrier similar to those used by the National Park Service at Delaware Water Gap.

Page 13

Waln(ord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 10 Code: A.C.R.1 (Refer to code breakdown below). Site Area: A Guideline Category: C Item: R (Road) Type: 1 (Asphalt Aggregate) Note: The asphalt road forks to the left into the mill and dwelling complex and to the right across Crosswicks Creek. Although there is a small sign attached to the bridge weight limit sign standard, there is no sense of arrival. This area needs to be enhanced to announce that this is indeed a place to visit. Re-establishing the fence line on the right northward toward Shoppen Run would assist in leading the visitors eye into the site. The power/phone poles and lines hamper the perception of a "rural historic landscape. Perhaps a cable could be buried after archeological work and elimination of at least these two road flanking poles brought about.

Page 14

Waln{ord Cultural LllldSC.1pc Study - EAisting Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 11 Code: A.V.sW.O (Refer to code breakdown below). Site Area: A Guideline Category: V Item: SW (Shrub Wetland) Type: 0 Note: The view is east into the Shoppen Run corridor. Even the view that Frank Inman described of this area can not at present be imagined. With the trees culled, exotic invasive removed and the area control burned a much more powerful landscape would emerge. If the flow from the impoundment of Shoppen Run headwaters could be increased this corridor could become as vital is it may have been in the early 20th century.

Page 15

Walnford Cultural Landsca},,' Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 12 Code: A.VSO.V.2 (Refer to code breakdown below). Site Area: A Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 2 (Visual lines) Note: The line of sight is directed north, along Hill Road by the bordering trees and shrubs. Frank Inman describes this area as much more open as late as the mid-20th century. The aerial photograph c. 1930 indicates that the area to the left had little tree cover at all. Both the power /phone pole and the sign has been mentioned before as needing attention. Road signs within the Park boundaries could be mounted on 4"x4" treated timber posts instead of the metal post that contributes nothing to the aesthetic quality of the scene.

Page 16

Walnford Cultural L1ndscilpc Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 13 Code: B.VSO.V.3 (Refer to code breakdown below). Site Area: B Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 3 (Spaces) Note: The open lawn bordered by the fence on the north side of Walnford Davis Station Road in the background is all that remains to indicate where the back yards and gardens of the tenant houses once was. Even this space has lost its earlier definition with the deposit of cut stone from the old mill weir & waste gate. Vegetation has grown up within the two deposits in this site area as seen to the right of the frame at midground.

Page J 7

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 14 Code: B.VSO.V.1 (Refer to code breakdown below). Site Area: B Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 1 (Barrier) Note: The sawn post and board fence to the south of site area B creates a physical barrier to Walnford Davis Station Road and the mill beyond. The fence, although more recent to the site, does provide a sense of closure as did its predecessor, a white, painted picket fence that appears in both 19th and 20th century photographs. The post and board fence, unlike the picket fence, does not convey the domestic quality that once was imparted to this area. Page 18

Walnford Cultural Landscape Siudy - Exisling Condilions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 15 Code: B.VSO.V.3 (Refer to code breakdown below). Site Area: B Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 3 (Spaces) Note: The view is taken from within a landscape space near the tenant houses. The vegetation to the northeast closes the view to Hill Road. As late as the mid-20th century the road was not obscured by tree and shrub growth. The shrub like mass in the right foreground is what has grown from between the cut stone of the 19th century mill weir and waste gate dumped in this space in recent years. Page 19

Waln(ord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 16 Code: B.5.DS.1 (Refer to code breakdown below) Site Area: B Guideline Category: S Item: DS (Dump Site) Type: 1 (Fragments, structure) Note: This is a closer view of on of two dump sites in the site area. The cut stones are said to be from the 19th century mill weir and waste gates.

Page 20

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study _. Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 17 Code: B.5FO.BH.1 (Refer to code breakdown below) Site Area: B Guideline Category: SFO Item: BH (Bee Hive) Type: 1 (Wood, painted) Note: These units are positioned north of where the backyards and gardens of the tenant houses once were.

Page 21

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map symbol Number: 18 Code: c.VSO.V.4 (Refer to code breakdown below) Site Area: C Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 4 (Barrier, vegetation) Note: The line of trees beginning in the foreground mark the eastern edge of site area C which was a garden area earlier in the 20th century. The trees also mark the line between the dwelling's back lawn and what was the vegetable, herb and flower garden.

Page 22

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 19 Code: c.VSO.V.3 (Refer to code breakdown below). Site Area: C Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 3 (Space) Note: This space which is defined by a hedgerow of grapes and locust trees to the west, fences to the south, a mixture of evergreen and deciduous trees to the west and another hedgerow and locusts to the north, served as the vegetable, herb and flower garden earlier in the 20th century.

Page 23

Waln{ord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 20 Code: c.VSO.V.4 (Refer to code breakdown below) Site Area: C Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (Views) Type: 4 (Barrier, vegetation) Note: This hedgerow and line of locusts trees located north of the site of the main dwelling's early 20th century garden separates that space from a cattle trace running along its edge just a few feet to the north and at a lower elevation.

Page 24

Waln(ord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 21 Code: C.VSO.V.4 (Refer to the code breakdown below). Site Area: C Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 4 (Barrier, vegetation) Note: This is a line of vegetation which has grown up in an old fence line defining the north edge of site area C and an old trace road by which the cows were led to western and southern pasture areas.

Page 25

Walnford Cultural Ll11dscilpC Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 22 Code: D.VSO.V.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below). Site Area: D Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 3 (Space) Note: This view is from the northern edge of site area C looking south east toward the rear of the dwelling. The photograph captures the Rutgers archaeological project which was underway in the early summer of 1992.

Page 26

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 23 Code: D.VSO.V.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below). Site Area: D Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 3 (Space) Note: This view is toward the south west from the northern edge of site area D. The north western corner of the dwelling appears in the background. The rectangular, mown grass area to the north of the dwelling is compartmentalized by lines of trees on its western and northern edge while the eastern edge is defined by the caretaker's residence extension.

Page 27

Walnford Culiural LlndscClpc Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 24 Code: E1.5FO.F.4 (Refer to the code breakdown below). Si te Area: E1 Guideline Category: SFO Item: F (Fence) Type: 4 (Vertical board, vestige of) Note: The sawn posts are all that remain of the vertical board fence recalled by Frank Inman. They remain standing parallel to a drainage ditch that runs from the barnyard across the northern edge of site area D. The ditch crosses under this fence line, cuts through the trace and empties into Shoppen Run.

Page 28

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 25 Code: E1.VSO.V.4 (Refer to the code breakdown below). Si te Area: E1 Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 4 (Barrier, vegetation) Note: The view is west from the barn yard, site area E1, toward Hill Road. The line of trees to the left marks the edge of the trace road which cows traversed away from the barn toward the pasture areas.

Page 29

Walniord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


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1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 26 Code: E1.B.OB.2 (Refer to the code breakdown below). Site Area: E1 Guideline Category: B Item: OB (out building) Type: 2 (Carriage House, timber frame) Note: This is within the barnyard proper and just in back of the carriage house. The view is of the north facade of the carriage house on the right hand side. The line of disturbed soil marks the path of underground conduit. The Rutgers archaeologist was unable to monitor the trenching. Shells and brick fragments could be seen on the surface of the disturbed soil.

Page 30

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


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1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 27 Code: El.C.R.2 Si te Area: El Guideline Category: C Item: R (Road) Type: 2 (Gravel) Note: The gravel is a white to beige to gray mixture used as paving on the service lane leading from Walnford Davis Station Road in toward the barn. A more site sympathetic gravel paving material could be used. Whatever is used it should be a consistent material throughout the site on all gravel covered roads, turn-ins, and informal drives.

Page 31

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 28 Code: E1.5FO.P.1 (Refer to the code breakdown below). Si te Area: E1 Guideline Category: SFO Item: P (Pole) Type: 1 (wood, supporting exterior HID light) Note: This type of wood pole is used elsewhere in the site to bring power and other utility lines into the site. The light on this pole, although a security feature does not contribute anything to a sense of an historic landscape scene.

Page 32

Waln(ord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


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1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 29 Code: E1.S.DS,2 (Refer to the code breakdown below). Si te Area: E1 Guideline Category: S Item: DS (Dump Site) Type: 2 (Misc. materials) Note: The dump site has been active since Frank Inman can remember. Still visible are a few of the hydrants which were removed from various locations close to the Walnford buildings. Other debris from downed trees has been thrown here along with building materials. If it is an historical dump site, it could yield interesting artifacts.

Page 33

Waln(ord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 30 Code: E1.C.T.1 (Refer to the code breakdown below). Site Area: E1 Guideline Category: C Item: T (Trace road) Type: 1 (Grass covered) Note: This is the beginning of the trace road leading from the cow barn eastward toward other pasture areas once used. Both cows and farm equipment traversed this trace during Frank Inman's tenure. Further along the trace is grown up bu t could be reestablished by following the still standing fence posts leading out toward Walnford Davis Station Road. Page 34

Walnford Cull ural LlIldsc,l}," Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 31 Code: E2.s.W.1 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: E2 Guideline Category: S Item: W (Walls) Type: 1 (Foundation, building) Note: These are foundations of the milk house and feed house.

Page 35

\VaJn(ord CuliurJI Land~JPl' Study - Existing Conditions


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1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 32 Code: E2.5FO.C.1 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Si te Area: E2 Guideline Category: SFO Item: C (Container) Type: 1 (Trash dumpster) Note: The view is of the trash dumpster on the north edge of the gravel paved service drive. It should be relocated in developing the site as an historic landscape.

Page 36

Wahlford Cultural LlllGSCape Study - Existing Conditions


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1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 33 Code: E2.B.OB.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: E2 Guideline Category: B Item: OB (Out Building) Type: 3 (Barn, timber frame) Note: A view of the north facade of the cow barn.

Page 37

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 34 Code: E2.VSO.V.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: E2 Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 3 (Space) Note: The grass covered space north of the cow barn was occasionally used for pasturing animals according to Frank Inman.

Page 38

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 35 Code: E2.VSO.V.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: E2 Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 3 (Space) Note: The west facade of the cow barn is to the left. In this space there existed a bull pen and to the south of it a grain barn A portion of the grain barns foundation still exists.

Page 39

Walnford Cultural Llndscape Study - Exi,ting Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 36

Code: F.C.WW.1 & 2 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: F Guideline Category: C Item: WW (Walk Way) Type: 1 (Brick) 2 (Concrete) Note: 111e brick and concrete walk is to the rear of the ice house and dwelling.

Page 40

Waln{oTd Cultural Landsc.1p(' Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 37 Code: F.5FO.PA (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: F Guideline Category: SFO Item: P (Pole) Type: 4 (Farm bell) Note: The bell pole on the north side of the ice house is obscured by relatively new saplings.

Page 41

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - fA isli ng Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 38 Code: F.VSO.V.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: F Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 3 (Space) Note: The rectangular lawn space has had trees planted within it in Frank Inman's time. 19th century photographs reveal it to have been without trees.

Page 42

Waln{ord Cultural l.1ndscapc Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 39 Code: F.B.oB.4 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: F Guideline Category: B Item: OB (Out Building) Type: 4 (Shed, timber frame) Note: This shed was used recently as a coal and tool shed. It anchors the southern boundary of the barn yard on what was its south western corner.

Page 43

Wahlford Cultural Llndscapc Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 40 Code: F.SFO.FA (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: F Guideline Category: SFO Item: F (Fence) Type: 4 (Vertical board) Note: This is the only vertical board fence on the site. 19th century photographs reveal that it had been a picket fence and picket gate where the present gate is positioned next to the carriage house.

Page 44

Waln{ord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 41 Code: F.B.OB.S & 8 (Refer to the code breakdovvn below) Site Area: F Guideline Category: B Item: OB (Out Building) Type: S (Shed to carriage house) 8 (Pump house) Note: The spatial relationship of the outbuildings is demonstrated in this photograph taken from the service dri ve.

Page 45

Walnlord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 42 Code: G.B.OB.6 & 9 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: G Guideline Category: B Item: OB (Out Building) Type: 6 (Wagon barn) 9 (Double corn crib) Note: The buildings from this vantage point appear relatively the same as in a 19th century photograph.

Page 46

Walnford Cultural L1ndSc.lpc Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 43 Code: G.B.OB.7 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: G Guideline Category: B Item: OB Type: 7 (Carpenter's shed)

Page 47

Walnlord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 44 Code: G.B.OB.10 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: G Guideline Category: B Item: OB (Out Building) Type: 10 (Rear shed, wagon barn)

Page 48

Waln{ord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 45 Code: G.5FO.F.5 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: G Guideline Category: SFO Item: F (Fence) Type: 5 (Post & rail, sa wn)

Page 49

Walnlord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 46 Code: G.VSO.V.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: G Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 3 (Space)

Page 50

WJlrlford Cultural LJndscJpc Study - Existing Conditions


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1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 47 Code: G.VSO.V.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: G Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 3 (Space) Page 51

Waln{ord Cultural Land""opc Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 48 Code: G.C.T.1 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: G Guideline Category: C Item: T (Trace road) Type: 1 (Grass covered)

Page 52

Waln{ord Cultural L1ndscapc Siudy - hisling Condilions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 49 Code: H.V.W.O (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: H Guideline Category: V Item: W (Woodland) Type: 0 (Edging of an herbaceous wetland)

Page 53

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 50 Code: HC.T.1 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: H Guideline Category: C Item: T (Trace road) Type: 1 (Grass covered)

Page 54

\Valn(ord Cultural L;1ndscilpe Study - Exbling Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 51 Code: H.SFO.F.1 Site Area: H Guideline Category: SFO Item: F (Fence) Type: 1 (Wood post, hand split and sq. wire)

Page 55

Walnford Cultural L.lndscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 52 Code: H.VSO.V.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: H Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 3 (Space)

Page 56

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 53 Code: HV.sW.O (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: H Guideline Category: V Item: SW (Shrub Wetland) Type: 0 (V,Toodland edge)

Page 57

VValn(ord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 54 Code: I.VSO.V.2 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: I Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 2 (Visual link) Page 58

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 55 Code: LVSO.V.5 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: I Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 5 (Visual connection)

Page 59

Waln{ord Cultural Lmd>c"p" Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 56 Code: LC.R.1 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: I Guideline Category: C Item: R (Road) Type: 1 (Asphalt aggregate)

Page 60

\A.,I3Jn(ord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 57 Code: LVSO.V.2 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: I Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 2 (Visu al link)

Page 61

\Valnford Cultural Lmdscnpc Study - Existing Conditic)J1s


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 58 Code: I.C.WW.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: I Guideline Category: C Item: WW (Walk way) Type: 3 (Stone pavers)

Page 62

Waln{ord Cultural Londscapc Study - Exi'ting Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 59 Code: LSFO.F.2 (Refer to the code breakdown belmv) Site Area: I Guideline Category: SFO Item: F (Fence) Type: 2 (Lattice, ornamental)

Page 63

Waln(oTd Cultural Land>c"pe Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 60 Code: I.VSO.V.5 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: I Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 5 (Visual connection)

Page 64

Walnford Cultural LandSCilpc Study - Existing CC)J1tiitions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 61 Code: r.SFO.C.2 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: I Guideline Category: SFO Item: C (Container) Type: 2 (Mail & Paper, post mounted)

Page 65

Waln{ord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


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1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 62 Code: LVSO.V.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: I Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 3 (Space)

Page 66

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions

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1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 63 Code: r.C.WW.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: I Guideline Category: C Item: WW (Walk way) Type: 3 (Stone pavers)

Page 67

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


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1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 64 Code: I.SFO.F.6 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: I Guideline Category: SFO Item: F (Fence) Type: 6 (Picket)

Page 68

\Valn(ord Cultufill Lilndscapc Study - Existing Conditions

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1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 65 Code: LVSO.V.2 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: I Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 2 (Visual link)

Page 69

Wahlford Cultural L1ndsclf'" Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 66 Code: J.s.W.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: J Guideline Category: S Item: W (Wall) Type: 3 (Retaining, cut stone)

Page 70

\Valn(ord CUltUTJ.J L.Jndscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 67 Code: K.VSO.V.2 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: K Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 2 (Visual link) Page 7J

\Valn(ord Cultural LJndscJpe Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 68 Code: K.VSO.V.2 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: K Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 2 (Visual link)

Page 72

Walnford Cultural LJndsc,pc Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 69 Code: L.SFO.5.1 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: L Guideline Category: SFO Item: S (Sign) Type: 1 (Warning, single wood post) Page 73

\Valnford Cultural Landscapc' Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 70 Code: L.V.WF.1 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: L Guideline Category: V Item: F (Forest) Type: 1 (Wetland area)

Page 74

Waln(ord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 71 Code: M.VSO.V.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: M Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 3 (Space)

Page 75

V路.,J.11n(ord Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 72 Code: M.VSO.V.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: M Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 3 (Space)

Page 76

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 73 Code: M.WF.I.1 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: M Guideline Category: WF Item: I (Impoundment) Type: 1 (Mill pond) Page 77

\Valnford Cultural Lmdscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 74 Code: M.WF.C.1 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: M Guideline Category: WF Item: C (Creek) Type: 1 (Main channel)

Page 78

Walnford Cultural Lmdscap(> Study - Exi,ting Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 75 Code: M.WF.C.2 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: M Guideline Category: WF Item: C (Creek) Type: 2 (Branch)

Page 79

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 76 Code: M.5.W.2 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: M Guideline Category: S Item: W (Wall) Type: 2 (Flood gate anchorage, cut stone)

Page 80

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study路路 Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 77 Code: M.s.W.2 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: M Guideline Category: S Item: W (Wall) Type: 2 (Flood gale anchorage, cut stone)

Page 81

Wohlford Cultural Landscape Study - Exi,ting Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 78 Code: M.5.B.1 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: M Guideline Category: S Item: B (Bridge) Type: 1 (Metal truss) Page 82

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 79 Code: M.5FO.F.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: M Guideline Category: SFO Item: F (Fence) Type: 3 (Post & rail, hand split)

Page 83

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


1992 Computer Map Symbol Number: 80 Code: M.VSO.V.3 (Refer to the code breakdown below) Site Area: M Guideline Category: VSO Item: V (View) Type: 3 (Space)

Page 84

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Existing Conditions


VI. Analysis and Evaluation Site Organization Context - Late 1890's

This survey map from 1898 shows Walnford Village surrounded by cleared land with little remaining natural vegetation. The location and configuration of the major roads remains the same as today, with the exception of a small road west of the Allentown New Egypt Road, which has completely disappeared. At this time Shoppen Run was not dammed at the headwaters and more water probably flowed into Crosswicks. Historically, it is likely that Shoppen Run flowed more swiftly, moving in a single deeply cut channel as indicated on this survey map.

Source: New Jersey State, Geological Survey, 1898.

Page 1

Walnford Historical Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


Circulatioll - Early 1900's

During this period, vehicular circulation through, past and into the site occurred on packed dirt and gravel thoroughfares, lanes and farm tracks. At least three vehicular paths were little used or close to abandonment. One of these was the route into the carriage house through a gate just east of the ice House. A second, was a turn off from Walnford Davis Station Road which allowed access to the front porch steps of the main house. The third was a thoroughfare segment to the west of the mill cutting toward the primary bridge across Crosswicks Creek. Domestic animals were led both east and west away from the Cox barn to pastures and water beyond the farmyard. The packed dirt lanes were used for animals, people and farm machinery intersected and crossed roadways used primarily for vehicles.

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Page 2

Walnford Historical Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation

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Circulation - Early 1990's

The Walnford Davis Station Road bisects the site and carries through traffic. The road is paved from the cross-roads to the boundary of the 38 acre project site, where it becomes graded gravel. Although the traffic is light, the paved surface and the vehicles traveling through the site, disruptive element are the parked cars. Monmouth County Park System vehicles park within the confines of the farm complex but visitors park along the road and in the gravel turnoff adjacent to the main house. Temporary / overflow par king is curren tty accommodated in the northeastern field.

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Circulation Diagram Page 3

Walnford Historical Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation

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Views - Early 1900's

In the early 1900's views from the buildings and landscape of the house and farmyard were substantially open to the west and down the Crosswicks Creek corridor. The farm complex north of Walnford could be seen through sparse clumps of trees lining Shoppen Run. Views to the west of the dwelling into the Carriage House Fore Court were unimpeded. Likewise the Eastern Field adjacent to the far outbuildings could be viewed from the dwelling. The Sawmill and "Flat Roof House" to the south of the core area was only minimally screened by undergrowth bordering Crosswicks Creek's Edge.

Diagram of Views from the Site

Page 4

Walnford Historical Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


Views - Early 1990's

Views out from the buildings and landscape of the house and farmyard are now screened by trees which have grown up on the south bank of Crosswicks Creek and the south bank of Shoppen Run. Views to the east are foreshortened by trees 'especially the evergreens, planted in the 1940's and 50's by Frank Inman for Mrs Meirs, east of the house, and the young woodland which has grown up in the abandoned eastern portion of the adjacent field. To the west the young woodland regrowing on the banks of both watercourses block views down Shoppen Run and Crosswicks Creek and impedes views into the site from any direction. Only in winter are glimpses of neighboring farms available.

Diagram of Views from the Site

PageS

Walnlord Historical Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


Activity Zones - Em'Zy 1900's When Walnford was still used as a residence, farm and mill complex, the core of the site was clearly divided into three zones reflecting these uses, These zones were defined and enclosed by natural topography, fences, plantings, pathways and roads 'and even by the arrangement of the buildings themselves. In direct contrast to park use today, all the flat area which makes up the narrow terrace between the creek and the run was fully utilized, Service areas adjacent to buildings functioned in many ways - uses as varied as the manure pile and the kitchen garden filled the spaces between buildings. Larger open areas behind or beside the dwellings were generally used as production gardens growing vegetables and flowers for cutting, The outlying open areas were small fields which grew specialty crops such as potatoes or tomatoes or provided tiny pastures,

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Walnford Historical Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation

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Activity Zones - 1990's In comparing this diagram with the activity zone diagrams of the early 1900's, it is clear that few of the spaces within the core area function as they did historically. ,Walnford now serves park functions primarily and while some of the outbuildings still serve as tool and equipment storage much as they once did, the purpose of much of the landscape is presently unspecified. The landscape is now in transistion. Many outbuildings have disappeared and with them the functional spaces that once surrounded and connected them. Many of the previous fences have also disappeared or remain only as fragments and no longer define the boundaries of old gardens, fields, pathways and barnyard. At present, the nearly uniform ground treatment of turf blurs the traces of old patterns while the plantings from the 1940's and fifties have obscured historical spaces and the evocative qualities of each place.

Diagram of Activity Zones

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Walnford Historical Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


Summary

Walnford retains varying levels of historic integrity in a number of places within the site. There are few recognizable historical artifacts and landscape features remaining from the eighteenth century. Even major elements, such as the original road, have been altered. There is also little left to evoke the actual eighteenth and early nineteenth century vegetation or the larger landscape framework this vegetation provided. Cultural and natural features which would have been dramatic and typical of the site during this period are missing from Walnford today. In contrast, a number of the cultural artifacts and spaces characteristic of the late

nineteenth century landscape are intact, although often obsured by the vegetation that has grown up or been planted, filling in spaces and covering defining features. Many of the buildings, outbuilding and fences are sited in their original locations and in consequence, the spaces they create remain and can be experienced if appropriately presented. The early twentieth century is the richest in landscape elements and artifacts. Thanks to the 1930's aerial photograph and the remembrances of Mrs. Phoebe Biddle and Mr. Frank Inman and the late William Meirs, this period is also the best documented. At present, the actual spaces of the domestic landscape, the fences delineating the vegetable garden, the trellis in the front garden, the Colonial Revival garden with sundial and rock garden are well documented and there are clear indications of where those elements were placed in the landscape. Our conclusions are that despite missing pieces, there are opportunities to present scenes evoking the cultural landscape of three major historical eras. These opportunities are fully discussed in the "Recommendations Section".

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


VI. Analysis and Evaluation Site Integrity Photographic Compariso1ls

1992

Circa 1960

View from the intersection of Walnford Davis Station Road and Hill Road looking east to the tenant houses. Computer Map Symbol Number 1

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


VI. Analysis and Evaluation Site Integrity Photographic Comparisons

1992

Circa 1900

View from the intersection of Walnford Davis Station Road and Hill Road looking east at historic and contemporary road configuration. Computer Map Symbol Number 2

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


VI. Analysis and Evaluation Site Integrity Photographic Comparisons

1992

Circa

1960 View of the southeast facade of the main dwelling from Walnford Davis Station Road Computer Map Symbol Number 7

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


VI. Analysis and Evaluation Site Integrity Photographic Comparisons

1992 ~;~0~'"

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Circa 1900

View across Walnford Davis Station Road and HiJI Road looking north to the site of the brick tenant house. Computer Map Symbol Number 3

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


VI. Analysis and Evaluation Site Integrity

Circa

1890 View towards carriage house and mule barn Computer Map Symbol Number 4

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


VI. Analysis and Evaluation Site Integrity Photographic Comparisolls

1992

Circa 1910 View facing east towards the mill. Computer Map Symbol Number 5

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


VI. Analysis and Evaluation Site Integrity Photographic Comparisons

1992

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View facing north to the main dwelling and the ice house, Computer Map Symbol Number 6

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


VI. Analysis and Evaluation Site Integrity Photographic Comparisons /0

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1992

Circa 1910

View facing southwest to the mill. Computer Map Symbol Number 8

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


VI. Analysis and Evaluation Map Studies Property Lines -1709 Approximate boundary lines of Nicholas WaIn farm of 1300 acres.

Source: Drawing from Jim Brown Report Overlain on USGS 7.5 Min. Series Allentown Quadrangle

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


Site Features - 1873 This map from the 1873 Beers Atlas shows Walnford Village with a number of houses and the saw mill which today are no longer present. Note that the saw mill is positioned below the mill dam and very near a structure which could have been the "flat roof house."

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t Source: Beers Atlas 1873

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


Site Features -1889 This map from the 1889 Wolverton Atlas was oriented in a way that was confusing. It is shown here in its north south orientation that corresponds to other contemporary atlases. Note that there is a structure across Hill Road south of Shoppen Run and north of Crosswicks Creek that us depicted on no other map.

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Analysis and Evaluation


VII. Recommendations Historical research on Walnford has revealed that the landscape of distant past is an elusive one. On the other hand, existing site artifacts and new documentation for the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries has contributed to the emergence of a much fuller picture of the landscape character of these eras. The purpose of the recommendations section of this report is to highlight the potentials of the site that were revealed and to provide guidelines for site treatment. It should not be forgotten that whatever is done to prepare Walnford for public visitation contributes another layer of intervention and will be seen by future generations as the most recent phase in the continuing evolution of this multi-layered landscape.

General Principles for Site Treatment Specific treatments or programs at Walnford should be governed by the following prinCiples. 1. The Landscape is the Exhibit Traditionally exhibits were specific artifacts presented in cases within a museum. At Walnford, like Williamsburg, every piece of the landscape should be considered an exhibit. Often a landscape is perceived as a warehouse of objects when instead the land itself should be seen as the artifact which is always on display and it is managed as an educational experience. In the new paradigm, the entire landscape is like an enormous stage set and is used to tell the interpretive stories. 2. The Major Interpretive Theme at Wain ford is "The Evolution of a Landscape" The cultural landscape of the past is a palimpsest and cannot accurately be represented by being frozen at one moment in time. In fact, change is particularly interesting in the landscape because there is change at every level. With vegetation, for instance, there are long term succcessional changes that occur when the forest is cut down and then regenerates; there are cyclical changes such as seasonal and diurnal change and in addition to these factors, there is cultural change. The evolution of the landscape at Walnford demonstrates how the fundamental elements of the site - climate, geology, soil and vegetation - remain essentially the same over historical time but are utilized differently in each era. The impact of the ideas of each era, shaped by the personal visions and the resources of each owner, alter and overlay new landscape patterns in each successive generation. For example, we Americans have moved from a predominantly exploitive view of the natural world in the time of Richard and Nicholas Wain, to a view more tempered by the concerns of conservation, represented by Monmouth County Park System. This movement is reflected in the changes at Walnford and can be explained through this landscape.

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Recommendations


3. The interpretive framework should provide concentrated historical experiences.

After analyzing all the available materials, the artifacts and landscape features that currently exist at Walnford were identified. It quickly became clear that, today, many of the key components of the historical landscapes are camouflaged by later accretions, have been partially removed or are in a state of decay. Although present in some form, they exist as bits and pieces which do not coalesce to create an understandable or evocative picture of another time period. These fragments need to be brought together in such a way that they build up critical mass and presented in such a way that they can be seen and appreciated by a lay audience.

Site Treatment and Interpretation One way to represent changing landscape patterns and to give the visitor a comprehensible sense of several different historical periods within one site, is to create different historical zones. These zones should be located where there are Significant concentrations of artifacts that are representative of a particular period and can clearly reinforce one another. In some ways the historical zones could be understood as permanent stage sets that evoke different periods in time, where the spaces, vistas, and the artifacts emphasize and focus attention on the chosen period. Given the available landscape features, significant buildings and artifacts at WaIn ford, the creation of three historical zones is recommended. These zones, which should not be considered rigid or exclusive, would represent:

1.

The Late Eighteenth - Early Nineteenth Century (Historic Zone #1)

2.

The Late Nineteenth Century (Historic Zone #2)

3.

The Early Twentieth Century (Historic Zone #3)

(See Diagram of Proposed Interpretive Zones). In this section the specific treatments for major landscape components are discussed only within the context of the historical zone in which they occur. Recommendations for specific treatments are divided into several headings: a. Site Integrity: A summary of the integrity of the landscape components which represent the specific historical period. b. Zone Boundaries: Identification of the zone location and a description of its general boundaries. c. Specific Treatments: Identification of site features that should be "preserved" in some way and strategies for their treatment.

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Recommendations


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d. Interpretive Themes and Supportive Exhibits: Recommendations for the main "story lines" for each zone and individual interpretive exhibits to support these stories.

1. The Late Eightee1lth - Early Nil1eteel1th Century (Historic ZOl1e #1)

a. Site Integrity There are few recognizable historical artifacts from the eighteenth century at Walnford. The smoke house, the only building which remains from this period, is visually and physically unrelated to its original function. Even the original road has been covered with asphalt and is not only different in surface but also in configuration, width and depth. There is also little left to evoke the actual eighteenth and early nineteenth century vegetation or the larger landscape framework this vegetation provided. Both the planted landscape and the relic natural landscape are different in appearance, in actual species and in configuration. The landscape in general is far more "closed" and "overgrown" compared to the landscape in the time of Richard or Nicholas Wain. In addition, both creeks have changed their course and the dam and mill pond have been altered several times. Cultural and natural features which would have been dramatic and typical of the site during this period are missing from Walnford today. b. Zone Boundaries The boundaries of this zone follow Shoppen Creek beginning at Hill Road in the west and continuing to the eastern park boundary. This zone widens as it proceeds eastward to include the steep slopes of both sides of the creek bank. c. Specific Treatments The Natural Landscape: Since there are few artifacts remaining, the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century might best be represented by a re-creation of typical landscape features of the era such as the beech forests on the creek banks, the ash, red maple tupelo swamp to the north of the Walnford "core" and by the marsh meadows of the floodplain of Shoppen Creek. Through vegetation management, expansion of the remnants of these vegetation types could be encouraged. Edges of the 36 acre site that are presently disturbed should be managed to promote natural infil!. Framing the Walnford mill and farm complex with an experience which dramatically evokes the open and carefully structured landscape of these historical eras is extremely relevant both to preservation and to interpretation programs at Walnford where the garden landscape has never been well developed. These landscapes are also of interest to a wide audience such as those concerned with environmental issues as well as those interested simply in the beauty and character of the vanishing countryside. Restoration of the historical plant communities which surround Walnford can serve two purposes. (a). The landscape framework would illustrate the structure and evocative qualities characteristic of this countryside during Page 3

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Recommendations


this historical period and provide dramatic views into the site. (b). Moving through a landscape which strongly evokes an earlier era will act like a "threshold" or "foyer" allowing visitors to shed the modern era before they experience the actual village and farm. Three major historical plant communities can be re-created on this site in their appropriate habitats. These plant communities are:

1. The Beech Forests on the northem slopes above Shoppen Run and Crosswicks Creek. 2. The extensive "MaI'sh Meadow" in the floodplain of Shoppen Run. 3. The Lowland Forest to the east of the Walnford core. General Treatment for all Three Vegetation Types. All invasive exotic species - trees, shrubs, vines and herbaceous plants, should be gradually eliminated from the Walnford site. Since these species occur primarily at "edges" such as the top and bottom of the banks of the water courses, removal should not be too extensive or too difficult. In addition to the removal of invasive exotics, cleanup, stabilization and replanting of recent dump sites is critical to the re-establishment of historic vegetation. These dump sites are still active and a program to prevent new dumping, including the dumping of organic debris such as sawn timbers and piles of brush, should be put in place. In general, intensive management should be concentrated in visually prominent areas which should be determined in a design phase. These key areas will require considerable "landscape theater" in setting up dramatic vistas and defining path journeys through the si teo 1. The Beech Forests: Restoration of the Beech forests characteristic of the banks of the water courses that surround the Walnford core would provide a frame for this central area and help to buffer the site from visual intrusion. Nothing evokes the "forest primeval" so effectively as the beech forest, a rapidly vanishing vegetation type in the inner coastal plain of New Jersey. The management program should include:

a. Identification of forest boundaries: The boundaries of the forest should be determined by current topography, with the forest encouraged to cover all of the steep slopes. b. Removal of all invasive exotics: Currently the young woodlands and edges of the slope forests where relic beech remain are covered in Japanese honeysuckle and mutiflora rose. The first priority is to remove these vines and shrubs. Japanese honeysuckle can be easily pulled out by hand in the spring when the soil is wet. Mutiflora rose should be cut to the base and then either pulled out mechanically or use a herbicide such as, "Round-up". The second priority is to remove invasive tree species such as Norway maple and Page 4

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Recommendations


white mulberry. Large trees can be identified in the field by qualified staff and then painted around the trunk with "Garlon". Smaller trees, up to 2 - 3 inches in caliper, can be pulled out by the roots with a "weed wrench". c. Replanting: While replanting is recommended nothing extensive should be done until Walnfords' deer and rabbit population is brought under control. In order to replant the appropriate species, in the appropriate patterns, the beech-oak forest at David Meirs' horse farm should be studied and used as a model. The structure of a forest is multi-layered. These beech forests have a distinctive canopy of beech with occasional white ash, hickory and white oak. The understory layer is American holly and young beech. The shrub layer is maple leaf viburnum and mountain laurel. A rich ground layer of many different varieties of ferns would be typical. Christmas fern, in particular, would occur in almost solid mats on the slope beneath the beech. These plants can all be purchased from local nurserymen or grown by Monmouth County Park System. d. Long-term management: Monitoring is essential in long-term vegetation management as there is very little known about the consequences of most proposed intervention. The site is the best guide and future management actions should be based on an evaluation of the successes and failures of each effort.

2. The "Marsh Meadow" : Restoration of the "marsh meadow" would demonstrate the structure and evocative qualities characteristic of the landscape at this period of time as well as providing dramatic views into the site. This wet meadow is currently filling rapidly with mutiflora rose, briars and Japanese honeysuckle and succeeding to a highly disturbed shrub-scrubland. The major herbaceous species are canary reed grass which is an oriental variety of our native species and a number of coarse wetlandforbs. This "meadow" is a very unsightly and degraded version of the grasses, sedges, rushes and wetland wildflowers that once made a rich mosaic of these wet, open areas. The management program should include: a. Identification meadow boundaries: The boundaries of the meadow should be determined by current topography, with the meadow confined to the flat, wet areas. b. Removal of all woody plants and both woody and herbaceous, invasive exotics. All shrubs and young trees, especially invasive exotic shrubs such as multiflora rose, and Mexican bamboo, presently found within the meadow boundaries should be removed. The best method of removal is probably a brush hog as the NJDEP will not allow the use of herbicides in wetlands. Invasive herbaceous plants should be removed in small areas that are within the major vistas established. Native perennials such as switch grass (Panicum virgatum), wildflowers such as wetland goldenrods (Solidago grami11ljolia), joe-pye weed (Eupatorium fistulosum) New York ironweed (Vernonia Page 5

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Recommendations


l1ovaboracel1sis), and cardinal flower (Lobelia cardil1alis) should be planted in the holes. The best time to remove plants in a wet meadow is in the driest season of the year.

c. Replant: After removal of all woody plants, the meadow may need to be replanted to native herbaceous wetland species. A wait of one to two years before replanting, to see what native plants will volunteer, is recommended. Spot removal of invading woody species should be undertaken during this period. Replanting in a wetland is best undertaken with "plugs" which although more expensive than seeding, is very much more reliable. Plugs can be contract grmvn by a number of local nurseries and placed in critical "islands" from which they will spread. The plant list should include sedges, rushes, ferns and wetland grasses and wildflowers. d. Long-term management: Historically, once cleared of trees and shrubs, the "marsh meadow" was kept free of woody plants by being burned once annually in the fall or early spring. Over time, this re-created meadow should be kept open by burning which will have to done in concert with the local fire department. If it is not possible to burn this meadow, it should be scythed in the late fall. 3. The Lowland Forest:

a. Identification of forest boundaries: The boundaries of the forest should be determined by the end of the proposed marsh meadow to the east and by the current topography with this bottomland forest confined to the flat, wet areas to the east and south of the Walnford core in the floodplain of the Shoppen Creek. b.

Removal of all invasive exotics. Removal of invasive exotics - trees, shrubs and vines is only a minor problem in this area and is confined almost entirely to the edges of the swamp. "Sculpting" of the forest to create the illusion of age by limbing up trees and creating a few open areas where spots of light fall on lush fern meadows would make this area far more interesting and dramatic but would probably have to be undertaken as a "demonstration project" for one of the management seminars in order to be affordable.

c. Replanting: A replanting program should concentrate on the re-creation of the rich ground layer which would have been typical of earlier eras and an undisturbed forest. A number of varieties of ferns and wet woodland wildflowers would have created a dense, spongy, green forest floor. These plants can all be purchased from special "native plant" nurserymen many of whom are in New Jersey. d. Long-term management monitoring is essential in long-term vegetation management as there is very little known about the consequences of most

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WaIn ford Cultural Landscape Study - Recommendations


proposed intervention. The site is the best guide and future management actions should be based on an evaluation of the successes and failures of each effort.

Interpretive Themes The story here is the landscape of early settlement - its character and quality. It is a demonstration of the richness and order that we have lost as well as the story of the initial exploitation of the resources of the land and the primitive methods by which these resources were extracted. This theme should explore the interrelationship of the land and the land-based economy of this inner coastal plain farm/mill complex. Beyond the use of the forests for lumber and the uplands for crops and pasture, the extensive wetlands of this site almost certainly used as "water meadows", providing game, winter pasturage and bedding, among other resources. Ironically, much of the land today would not support these historical industries as early settlers coming to an unspoiled landscape had more resources to exploit. It is also a story of conservation and Quaker practicality. Everything in this landscape was used in some way, nothing was thrown away and although wealthy, the early WaIns did not have the luxury to see this landscape as mere scenery.

Supportive Exhibits Beyond the proposed historical zone other opportunities exist to express and interpret this era. The late eighteenth and early ninetieth centuries could also be represented elsewhere on site, by archaelogical research, by graphic display and by a model or models of the site that could be changed to reflect new discoveries. a.

A graphic display could provide an introduction to this period at Walnford and might include a blow-up of the Richard Brown advertisement in the Pennsylvania Gazette which would describe the site as it was when Richard WaIn bought it.

b. Archaelogical excavations could provide a changing but on-going exhibit which revealed another dimension of a different part of the site as these places are explored over the years. Interesting features that were discovered could be displayed, protected by a transparent material, such as reinforced glass, and become part of a permanent in-situ display. Descriptions of current archaelogical investigations of late eighteenth and early nineteenth century elements could be related back to Richard Brown's description. With the presentation of landscape archeology to the public, exhibit quality is particularly important because this work is very subtle. Where there are no immediately recognizable artifacts it requires clear and lively interpretation to bring to life the secrets uncovered in the soil layers. It is tempting to "over interpret" what is actually found in order to make the site more exciting. Morven, at Princeton, New Jersey has done a very thoughtful job of linking

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Recommendations


professional archaelogical research on site with interesting exhibits and some of the techniques used there might be fruitfully explored at Walnford. The interpretation of the restored landscapes could include exhibits on hunting and trapping and on the medicinal plants collected here. Lists of plant species typical of these historical wetlands and excerpts from historical descriptions of the vegetation of the New Jersey coastal plain should be available. 2. The Late NineteCllth Century (Historic Zone #2)

a. Site integrity Although the focal point of the late nineteenth century zone is the mill, the farm complex is also an important part of the picture of this site during this time. While the mill still stands, it appears that the waste weir has been dismantled, and the mill pond altered a number of times both by natural forces and by man's intervention. The two Sarah's replaced, tore down and rebuilt nearly all of the farm complex, a significant part of which still stands today, although the threshing barn, mule barn, milk house and feed pen are gone. b. Zone Boundary The 19th century zone includes the farmyard which is everything east of the house and north of the Walnford Davis Station Road that is flat as well as the southern banks of Shoppen Run. This zone is bounded here by the lowland forest of the 18th century zone. There is a thin strip of 19th century zone to the west of the house and north of the Walnford Davis Station Road between the 20th century zone and the 18th century zone. This strip includes the farm traces and cow paths which lead out to the road junction. On the south side of Walnford Davis Station Road, this zone includes the mill, the mill pond the island and the small piece of woodland adjacent to the stream. c. Specific Treatments The Industrial Landscape: The Mill and the Mill Pond Spaces: In concert with the restoration of the mill, the little lean-to that was moved across the road could be returned to its original location and serve as a mini visitors center. The fencing along Hill Road and Walnford Davis Station Road could be reproduced from contemporary photographs. Vistas: To tie the mill exhibit to the larger landscape, framed vistas could lead the eye to the location of the sawmill across the stream. A view from the island across the mill pond to the mill would reveal the working side of the mill and tie the mill to the house. Path Journeys: Removal of through-traffic on the Walnford-Davis Station Road and recreation of the packed dirt surface of this era will help to remove 20th century traffic Page 8

Wain ford Cultural Landscape Study - Recommendations


from the center of Walnford and create a significant pedestrian spine which can be the central part of the interpretive path loop. Artifacts: A reproduction of a late nineteenth century scow filled with corn sacks could be placed in the water beside the mill. The Agricultural Landscape: Farmyard and Farm Fields Spaces: The barnyard itself, as it was in Sarah WaIn Hendrickson's day, could be delineated by the appropriate fencing, reproduced from contemporary photographs. Interior spaces could be further clarified by outlining the missing buildings on the ground. The field boundaries along Walnford Davis Station Road should be reestablished by replanting the rows of locusts. To the east of the house the lattice fence should be repaired. The old drive into the farm yard should be reestablished. If the drive is reestabished the single swing gate shown in illustration #1 and #2 should be rehabilitated from the remnants currently in place. The three black locusts along the fence adjacent to the ice house should be replanted. Re-establish the farm field on the north side of Walnford Davis Station Road now used as temporary parking. Throughout its history of occupation by the WaIn Family, the larger Walnford landscape was an agricultural one and was kept considerably more open than the present landscape. This field which is an important visual extension of the 19th century zone should at least be plowed and planted to grain. If possible, the field should be planted to an authentic historical crop and further research should be done to determine the specific (or typical) varieties of grain and to find a source for 19th century seed. Field boundaries should be delineated by re-creations of historic fences which will evoke the historic enclosure and also clearly define management areas. Where undesirable views need to be screened, care should be taken to be sure that this is done with landscape elements which are in keeping with the pastoral scene. Such elements would include meadows, copses, hedgerows and large isolated trees. Within the late nineteenth century zone, wherever possible, the portions of the present Walnford site now in turf and ornamental plantings or in shrublands should be managed to reflect this open character. If it is possible to acquire, at a later date, the fields beyond the Walnford boundary once owned by the two Sarah's (such as the horse pasture directly south of the Walnford Davis Road and east of the bend in the Crosswicks Creek) these fields could be returned to a representative late 19th century configuration and fenced, plowed and replanted to historic species. Path Journeys: Re-open the farm traces and cow paths where adequate historical information is available to indicate their location. In all probability these traces were identical to those used by the Meirs for which there is graphic and verbal evidence as well as relic components remaining on site. These paths could become a part of the interpretive loop. Vistas: Critical nineteenth century vistas, such as views out to the fields or a view to a late nineteenth century part of the house, should be emphasized. Page 9

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Recommendations


Illustration (1)

Illustration (2)

Page 10

Lattice fence with "remodeled" double swing picket gate. Note that the drive is grown over.

Single swing picket farm yard gate and drive into the farm yard.

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Recommendations


Artifacts: Provision of period farm machinery. Through Frank Inman's old farm machinery club and other sources, the farmyard could be brought alive with farm machinery of the period.

Interpretation The Industrial Landscape The mill is the place to tell the story of the two previous grist mills and the change in the late 1800's to a corn mill as well as the congregation of different mills on the site. This story should include the importance of this location for the development of early industry in New Jersey, exploring the significance of the inner coastal plain cross-roads village as well as the history of Crosswicks Creek - its life as a transportation corridor and its transformation into a recreational corridor. The Agricultural Landscape The story of the farm is also an important part of the story of life at Walnford in the 19th century, and for the two Sarah's is a more important story than the story of the mill.

Supportive Exhibits The Industrial Landscape Within the mill there should be an exhibit not only of a working nineteenth century mill, but also of its' "ancestry". The mill exhibit could also include the story of a sheaf of wheat - not only illustrating its journey through the milling process (which can be seen in other restored mills) but also its journey after milling when it becomes a keg of flour and is taken on a scow to the Delaware River and to the 'factor' at the wharf in Philadelphia, and then to the ship which will take this keg to various locations, depending on the period. The Agricultural Landscape The farm story should be told in the barnyard complex and would include journeys on the restored cowpaths which lead out to the re-created fields beyond. Ideas from "sound and light" shows, still popular at major tourist locations, could be utilized to bring life to these scenes. As the visitor passes or enters specific buildings, taped voices and animal sounds could be activated. Quotes about Walnford from historical documents with reproductions of some of the letters and farm journals could be displayed in the barnyard buildings. An exhibit of farm machinery from all the WaIn periods could be put together in the barn, illustrating the evolution of farm machinery. Such an exhibit would reinforce the central theme of the evolving landscape and demonstrate that the ideas and inventions of our era are the descendants of the explorations of the past.

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Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Recommendations


3. The Early Twentieth Century (Historic Z01le #3)

a. Site Integrity The early twentieth century is the richest in landscape elements and artifacts. Thanks to the 1930's aerial photograph and the remembrances of Mrs. Phoebe Biddle and Mr. Frank Inman and the late William Meirs, this period is also the best documented. At present, almost everything is gone, but the actual spaces of the domestic landscape, the fences delineating the vegetable garden, the sundial and the trellis in the front garden are well documented and could be inexpensively rebuilt. The focus of this historical zone would be the main house, the area behind the house where garden parties were held, the area immediatly in front of the house which includes a "rose arbor", the Meirs' vegetable garden and the Colonial Revival garden across the road. b. Zone Boundaries To the north of Walnford Davis Station Road, the 20th century zone would extend from the house to the junction of Walnford Davis Station Road, Hill Road and WaIns Mill Road. To the north, this zone would be bounded by the banks of Shoppen Run. South of the house this zone would include all of the Colonial Revival Garden to beyond the edge of the Mill Pond where Anne Meirs placed baskets of water lilies. c. Specific Trea tmen ts The Domestic Landscape: This zone will require recreation of the spaces of the domestic landscape and of the landscape elements that defined these spaces. No more should be recreated than can be clearly documented and any recreations should be clearly indicated as such. The house needs a setting and such a re-creation of the twentieth century landscape would provide a setting whose period matches the restoration of the house architecture. Spaces: The spaces characteristic of the early 20th century gardens should be delineated by the appropriate fencing, reproduced from contemporary photographs. (See illustration #3 & #4) The Colonial Revival Garden: Of particular importance is the whole area directly in front of the house. The Colonial Revival garden should be reestablished. Archaeological excavations should be made in the front of the house as recommended below in "General Recommendations for Site Treatment" .The garden could be planted simply and the sundial, which is so typical of the Colonial Revival period, should be replaced. The path leading from the house to the garden with box bushes planted on either side should be restored, as well as the path below the garden that leads to the waters edge. This path should be reestablished and should turn left and take the visitor under a rePage 12

WaIn ford Cultural Landscape Study - Recommendations


creation of the arbor that was there. Determination the exact location of this trellis could be done by the archaeologists. It would also be advisable to have Frank Inman there when archaelogical work begins. The Lawn behind the house: Open up the area behind the house where Anne Meirs hosted her garden parties. Removing the "suburban" plantings of the 1940's and 50's such as the hollies and the overgrown boxwoods will help to evoke the feeling of the early Meirs landscape. All the dogwoods should be removed immediately as they are diseased and will spread anthracnose to new dogwood seedlings in the natural areas. This large lawn area might be the place to re-create a typical early twentieth century "country" lawn with its multiplicity of flower and grass species. The Vegetable Garden: Re-establish the Meirs' flower/vegetable garden. The garden could be fenced and restored as nearly as possible to the narrative description. Replanting the peonies alone will give a "period" feeling. Until the vegetable garden can be maintained it could be simply turned to look as if it were newly sown. Vistas: Critical twentieth century vistas, such as views to the mill pond or a view to the house should be emphasized. Artifacts: 1. Re-establishment of the early 20th century fences defining the two main

gardens including the arbor. 2. Retrieval of the fire hydrants from the dump and replacement in their correct locations according to the 1929 insurance site diagram (see MacCabe) 3. Provision of period lawn care machinery.

Interpretive themes Interpretation should tie the Colonial Revival garden to the architecture of the house and to the transformation of the working elements of this landscape, such as the mill and the mill pond, into decorative elements. Landscape elements which appear in this era or are particularly important in the Meirs time, such as the lawn, could be the vehicle for interpreting the development the of lawn, its importance to the social life of a family (garden parties, picnics, etc.) and a demonstration of lawn care in America. In addition these early lawns, traditionally managed without herbicides and pesticides, were often sown with at least twelve species of grasses and small wildflowers and were cut high with primitive "lawnmowers" which were just beginning to be developed as an important landscape management tool.

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Illustration (3)

Illustration (4)

Page 14

Frame tenant house with picket fencing - Meirs period.

Main dwelling with trellis on porch gateway with arbor and picket fence - Meirs period.

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Recommendations


RecommC11dations for Visitor Infrastructure and Realization of t1te Interpretive Program Appropriate measures to determine the carrying capacity of a site have not been developed. However, there is consensus that the carrying capacity of a site is exceeded when the unique qualities of a place are destroyed by the visitor volume of the place at any given time. On the other hand, what is desirable for a visit to Walnford is not true of participation in a special event held there, where crowds are should be encouraged. The carrying capacity at Walnford probably cannot exceed 20 to 30 people at one time when it is fully developed, even though they would be scattered over the site and the restored buildings, landscape spaces and artifacts would sub-divide the site and provide many different places to be. 1. Access and Parking The current temporary parking area is a very poor introduction to the site. Even if access is allowed only from the east- which is very awkward in terms of the larger traffic flow- this location brings cars into the historical scene and preempts including this important agricultural space and the associated farm traces in the interpretive loop. If the road is allowed to remain a through road, then non-visitor traffic is encouraged, the two halves of the site are separated by automobile traffic and thus the 20th century intrudes on the historical scene. The area recommended for parking is the highly disturbed dump area just off Hill Road. This area while technically within a New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection delineated wetland is not wet and has been severely disturbed by construction equipment, dumping and filling. The NJDEP is aware that the delineation is done at the scale of the United States Geological Surveyor one inch equals 2000 feet, and expects that this delineation will be revised by on-ground surveys. Careful planning could accommodate 15 to 20 cars here. Cars here would be hidden by the trees and shrubs. Arrival here would allow access to the site on a path that follows the existing track and brings the visitor to the edge of Crosswicks Creek, to a small bridge which would cross to the island, from there to a re-creation of the path that crossed on the dam. From the island, which should be opened up, the visitor has the most dramatic view of the site. This view which presents the working side of the Mill also gives a sweeping view up and down the creek and frames a romantic picture of all three historical zones: Zone #1 the Natural Framework, Zone #2 the Mill and the Farmyard, Zone #3 the House and Domestic Landscape. This presentation of Walnford allows the visitor to see the different layers of the evolution of this landscape (See Diagram of Proposed Visitor Infrastructure) from one vantage point.

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Views Destinations

-..".-,

Proposed Interpretive Loop Proposed Parking (in: conjunction with the archaeology on the "flat roof" house and use of historic driveway location

Revised 1993

Dia

of

Pro"''''~A''''

Visitor Infrastructure


2. An Interpretive Path Loop The interpretive path loop should lead the visitor through the historical zones in a way that reveals the evolution of this landscape and the forces that shaped it. The journey should be crafted in such a way as to transform this site where currently everything is too obvious into a journey that brings one to unexpected and surprising places where the visitor can experience a part of the site that is not available at the present. As discussed in "Parking and Site Access", the point of arrival will set the tone for the entire journey. In addition, there must a transition zone or "threshold" which allows the late twentieth century visitor to "decompress" and to establish a different pace. 3. Exhibit Centers The mill, the barn and the house are clearly the major exhibit centers on the site, where drawings, period tools and excerpts from period diaries, letters, and archaelogical excavations can illustrate the history and the functions of the buildings. Along the interpretive loop a number of the outbuildings and archaelogical excavations could also become minor exhibit stations enriching the experience of the journey and moving away from the need for "interpretive signage". 4. Exhibits of on-going work at Walnford A visit to Walnford should be interpretive, instructive, entertaining and engaging. Although now done only at a few innovative historic sites such as Monticello, Charlottesville, Virginia and Mount Claire in Baltimore, Maryland, archaeological excavations, preservation efforts, restoration work and in fact any site work including landscape management and building maintenance can be important components of the exhibit framework. 5. Self-Guiding Brochure In conjunction with a visible looped journey around the site and with the development of exhibit centers, a self-guiding brochure is the third ingredient of a understandable and stimulating interpretive path. All too frequently these documents are poorly written and poorly produced and do not introduce the visitor to important ideas. Every document produced for Walnford should be orchestrated as part of an integrated package whose purpose would be to project a coherent and compelling image of the Walnford site. These integrated packages should be thought of as similar to a corporate brochure with interchangeable pieces that reinforce each other. These pieces could be added or subtracted from the package to tailor it for specific fund-raising prospects such as an institutional grant or private donation.

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Development of an Integrated Landscape Management Program ManagemeHt Approach The proposed management areas are keyed to the historical zones discussed previously in this section. As explained in the "general development principles" the entire landscape is to be treated as an exhibit or "stage set" which provides both education and recreation. The historical zones will each have within them several special interpretive nodes. These nodes, both large and small, will require extra measures to preserve, restore or re-create the historical scene. Areas within the historical zones selected for intensive management are chosen because they represent the most interesting, unique, best preserved or most typical features of each era. It is also recommended that pathways and viewsheds should also be intensively managed in order to dramatize the routes where the visitors will walk and the vistas which capture a carefully crafted historic scene. Restoration at Walnford must involve the accurate replacement of plant species characteristic of each historical period in the location in which they belong as judged by the latest and best historical research. Where there are no historical plans or photographs or data from oral histories research should include pollen analysis to determine historical plant species. Great care should be taken with plant species because they are critical to creating the illusion and the atmosphere of the historical era. Management Framework In order to provide the expertise needed to create and maintain the diverse cultural landscapes proposed at WaIn ford certain organizational issues must be considered. 1. Changing Staffing Patterns

Any landscape restoration work, especially the restoration of the more intensely developed exhibit areas will require additional care, a burden which might be borne in part by carefully directed volunteers, but which ultimately will depend on the time, talents and energy of a new or re-trained staff person. Walnford and other Monmounth County Parks with similar requirements might consider creating a new staff position of "Historical Landscape Manager". This person should have horticultural expertise and should also be trained in vegetation management. Such a staff person could also cover other parks where this expertise is needed, for example, Thompson Park. This position might be funded through a grant either public or private or such personnel might be "loaned" to Walnford from other county or state parks for a period of time. This system is widely used in the National Park Service to broaden staff knowledge and skills and to bring fresh ideas to a number of parks within the system.

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2. Staff Training The purpose of these training programs would be to provide the latest information on new directions in cultural landscape management combined with innovative vegetation establishment and management techniques. As both these fields are only recently established and research is continuously providing new information for training workshops which should be held yearly to update existing information and to enlist a widening group of constituents. Management "events" such as the burning of the marsh meadow in the Shoppen Creek floodplain could be part of a possible two day "Innovative Methods in Historic Park Management" seminar. 3. Creation of a Volunteer Cadre While volunteers can be a cost-saving measure to supplement staff work in designated areas, this would not be the primary purpose of such a group. Creating and supervising a volunteer group is an important tool to provide and to involve park users in the site, creating a growing, informed and dedicated constituency for Walnford. 4. Creation of a Community Out-Reach Program Active recruitment of community groups and societies of mutual interest will reinforce any preservation, restoration and management efforts and as with the other programs suggested will build a growing, informed and dedicated constituency. The Society for Industrial Archaeology, the Philadelphia Botanical Club, The New Jersey Wild Flower Society, are some of the many organizations with parallel interests. Management of the marsh meadow by fire would be a time to involve local agencies including the Volunteer Fire Department. 5. Management Logs Management Logs should be established for each special landscape area and should include: a.

Careful documentation of all historical information about each proposed landscape area including plant lists, plans, historical photographs, oral histories, etc.

b. Thorough documentation by descriptions and photographs, of each project before, in progress and upon completion including especially notation and clear differentiation of new fabric. c. Maintenance recommendations including equipment required, plant purchases, person hours needed and schedule. These recommendations should be project oriented with specific objectives tied to specific action steps d. Yearly budget allocations. Page 18

Walnford Cultural Landscape Study - Recommendations


e. Maintenance evaluations which examine the effectiveness of the maintenance recommendations and provide alternative strategies where necessary.

Future Archaeological Research at Walnford General Recommendations A. Archaeology is an important factor in determining the location and size and character of the various landscape features and garden elements. Since so little of the evidence in Landscape Archaeology is derived from intact artifacts and much of the evidence is in subtle soil layer analysis, it is important that future professional archaeologists be familiar with the new discipline of "Landscape" or "Garden" Archaeology and its evolving research tools, such as the Munsell Soil Color Chart to record changes in soil color and phytolithic analysis, including flotation techniques and pollen analysis, to determine actual plant species present.

B. If archaelogical investigations continue at Walnford, they should become an ongoing interpretive exhibit giving the public insight into the new concerns of historical preservation and restoration. Work at Walnford will probably uncover multiple layers of development from multiple time periods, illustrating graphically to the public that the site is a palimpsest - the product of many owners and changing attitudes. Recommended Study Areas

After discussion with Gail Hunton, Phyllis Mount and Howard Wikoff, six areas at Walnford should be considered for immediate study. These areas are: 1. The Open Area between the House and WaIns Mill Road Currently undefined and without visible interest, this area should be the prime focus of professional investigation. In the Meirs/Mullen interview, an orchard is suggested in or adjacent to this area. 2. The Area East of the Quarry The Meirs/ Mullen interview suggests that this area also may be the location of an "orchard!r,

3. The Front of the House from Porch to Waterfront The area in front of the house, from the porch, across the road, through the "Colonial Revival" garden, down to the waterfront should be explored and recorded in several cross sections both east/west and north/south to explore the connections between the house, the mill, and the waterfront in each significant historical period.

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4. Tenant House Area The tenant house area would include the area adjacent to Hill Road from the WalnfordDavis Station Road back to the location of the supposed "small barn". This area would be an ideal area for student investigation as there will be evidence of structures and actual artifacts 5. Kitchen Garden Area When the caretaker's house is repaired and elevated to permit installation of a new foundation, the location and nature of the "kitchen garden" should be explored. 6. The Water Works Under the current contract to rebuild the mill pond investigation of the millrace, the waste weir, the flood control gates, as well as any old discarded mill components preserved underwater will be carried out when the pond is drained, to determine historic placement as well as historic construction methods. In addition, a full understanding of this site will require some future investigation of the industrial complex around the mill pond and the site of the outbuildings across WaIn's Mill Road. 1. The Saw Mill Site This site across the millpond from the fulling mill should be investigated to determine size, shape and location of the building, and its associated mill races and millworks. Despite disturbance of the site, it may be possible to determine a considerable amount from buried saw dust which would help in determining the types of wood used, post holes for framing the protective structure and discarded worn, parts of the machinery. (See historic map - 1890 Declining Fortunes) 2. Outbuildings Investigations of the site across Hill Road from the main Walnford complex adjacent to the new bridge to reveal the location of one or more buildings now no longer in existence. (See historic map - 1890 Declining Fortunes)

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VIII. Annotated Bibliography Manuscripts Barick, Arthur. "History of Crosswicks Meeting." Haverford College, Quaker Collection [ColI. 950]. A history of the building, not people involved. Brown, James. "Walnford" (Report prepared for the Monmouth County Park System), 1981. Manning, Alice E. "Nineteenth Century Farmsteads on the Inner Coastal Plain of New Jersey." Trenton, NJ: Office of New Jersey Heritage, 1982. McCabe, James C. "Walnford: 250 Years of a Central New Jersey Milling Village and Country Estate." (Prepared for the Monmouth County Park System), 1987. Morris, Margaret (Hill). "Gardening Memorandum, Burlington, NJ, 1804." Haverford College, Quaker Collection. Margaret Morris (1737-1816) was a well respected Quaker; her garden diary describes briefly not only what she planted, but how she planted it ... The vegetable garden of a New Jersey Quaker in the time of Nicholas WaIn.

- - - - . Recipe Book. Haverford College, Quaker collection. Her receipt book contains both medicinal and kitchen recipes. Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. Accession records from 1946-1966 were checked. There were no Meirs or Rush gifts. The only mss kept are PHS archives. 1833. Thomas P. Cope, second husband of Elizabeth Stokes WaIn, widow of Joseph WaIn, became a life member of PHS. Sarah WaIn Hendrickson - Elisa Smith correspondence. Library of the Princeton Historical Society. Part of this correspondence has been transcribed in "Letters from Sarah WaIn Jr to Elisa Smith 1835-1874," copy of which is at Walnford. Includes descriptions of problems with labor, and rebuilding the mill. The replies of Elisa Smith should be interleaved with this for a full picture. Sarah Richardson WaIn's Receipt Book. at HSP. Particularly interesting as most of the receipts are medicinal, and many are from fellow Quakers, such as William Logan Presumably, these would have been shared with her sister-in-law, Elizabeth Armitt WaIn.

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Smith, James Few. Farm Journal: 1836-1851. In private collection of S. Robert Teitelman, Collingswood, NJ.

- - - - . Memorandum Book: 1855 . In private collection of S. Robert Teitelman, Collingswood, NJ. J. Few Smith had an ISO-acre farm, Grasebery Place" in Camden County. Entries are on similar plan to the journals at Walnford, except that they are very orderly, and indexed. Debits represent a smaller percentage of the wages. Very useful for detailed accounts of wages and specific plantings.

Wain Papers at Haverford College, Quaker Collection. There are three boxes of Wain paper - nothing directly i!1Volving Walnford. They are mostly about Nicholas Wain [the preacher], brother of Richard of Walnford, and the children of the former. I also examined the Commonplace Books of Joseph, Richard and Sarah Wain of 1814, which are copyings of religious pieces -- dreary to modern eyes. The Quaker Collection at Haverford College is particularly strong in Quaker History, with a very helpful staff,. The Quaker Collection at Swarthmore College is stronger in Quaker genealogy. At Haverford, I found nothing under "Meirs," and nothing useful under "Drinker" or "Woodward." [Elizabeth Drinker's diary is there, but that has been published in full.]

The Wain Family Papers, at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The first fourteen boxes of this collection are a rich trove, already tapped by previous researchers at Walnford. However, each researcher asks different questions of the material, thereby adding other pieces to the picture. Wain Family Papers at Walnford. Donations of Elizabeth Morgan and David Meirs. These collections are important because they fill in the gaps in the papers at HSP, which are almost entirely business, and thin after the death of Nicholas WaIn. These Morgan and Meirs donations extend the picture of the Quaker-family business relationship, further document changes at Walnford: buildings, farming practices, even lists of roses purchased. They should be carefully catalogued, and a copy of this catalogue given to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

Catalogues, Journals, Periodicals, Newspapers Anderson, Russell H. "Grain Drills through Thirty-Nine Centuries." Agricultural History. 10 (Oct. 1936):,157-205. [with illustrations.] APT Bulletin, The Journal of Preservation Technology. vol. XXI, no. 2, 1989. This whole issue is devoted to landscape preservation. The article by Debra Ann Redi, "Openair museums and Historic Sites," discusses their "unique interpretive and developmental problems."

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Ashton Nurseries. Annual Catalogue of Fruit, Forest and Ornamental Trees and Shrubs Cultivated and for Sale by Thomas Hancock, at his well known and established nurseries, Ashton, Near Burlington, New Jersey. Twentieth Edition, 1848. 2-1/2 pages of apple trees, as well as almonds, apricot, cherry currant, grapes, gooseberries, nectarines, peaches, pears, plums, quinces, raspberries, strawberries, miscellaneous fruit. Also ornamental trees, plants for hedging, greenhouse plants, hardy herbaceous plants. Hybrid & garden roses: sweet briars, moss roses, climbing roses, prairie, Austrian briars, damask perpetual, hybrid, bourbon, Chinese, tea-scented, noisette, microphylla. Catalogue at PHS. Bullion, Brenda. "Early American farming and gardening literature: 'Adapted to the climates and seasons of the United States'." Journal of Garden History. vol. 12, no. 1 (992); 29-51. Dillon, Clarissa. "Eighteenth Century Kitchen Garden." The Historical Gardener. Spring 1993, p. 10. Edwards, Edward E. "The Need of Historical materials for Agricultural Research." Agricultural History. 9 (Jan 1935): 3-11. Evergreen Nursery. Woodbury, NJ. David J. Griscom, proprietor. Descriptive catalogue. Foreign and native, evergreen and deciduous trees, fruit, etc. 1855-56. "Woodbury has communications with Philadelphia by the Red Bank Ferry Boats and Omnibuses - the boats leaving the South Street Wharf every hour." Evergreen trees, pines, firs, cedars, evergreen shrubbery, deciduous trees, deciduous shrubbery. List of fruits includes apples (2 pages), pears, (2 pages), peaches, plums, cherries, currants, raspberries, gooseberries, strawberries, grapes. Catalogue at PHS. Gummere, Amelia Mott."Friends in Burlington," PMHB VII-VII. 0883-1884.) Nothing useful to WaIn ford or environs. Hume, Audrey Noel. "Historical Archaeology in Garden Restoration." Landscape Architecture. May, 1976. Useful summary of the uses of garden archaeology by the premiere professional in the field. Larson, Esther Louise, contributor. "Pehr Kalm's Description of Maize, How it is Planted and cultivated in North America, together with the Many uses of this Crop." Agricultural History. 9 (April 1935): 98-117. - - - - " translator. "North American Dye Plants." Presented by Esias Hollberg and Pehr Kalm, Preceptor. Agricultural History. 28 (January 1954): 30-32.

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Lemon, James T. "Household Consumption in Eighteenth-Century America and Its Relationship to Production and Trade: The Situation Among Farmers in Southeastern Pennsylvania." Agricultural History. 41, (January 1967): 59-70. Loehr, Rodney C. "Self-Sufficiency on the Farm," Agricultural History. 26 (April 1952): 37-41. Rasmussen, Wayne D. "The Mechanization of Agriculture." Scientific American, vol. 247, no. 3 (1982): 77-89. Rothenberg, Winifred B. "Farm Account Book: Problems and Possibilities." Agricultural History. 58 (April 1984): 106-112. Very useful in explaining the bookkeeping practices of farm journals/ account-books. Simler, Lucy. "The Landless Worker: An Index of Economic and Social Change in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1750-1820." PMHB, CXIV (April 1990) 164-1990. Very well researched picture of the economics of the farmer workers, such as those at Walnford. The "cottagers either found their own housing or rented a small house on the employers farm year to year, but they worked for the farmer on a daily basis as needed." (p. 165.) The examples she uses compare very closely to those recorded at Walnford. Straub, Jean. "Quaker School Life in Phila ... Before 1800." PMHB 79 (1965). Not useful to Wains' experience.

Books Basic Secondary References

A.

Axelrod, Alan, editor. The Colonial Revival in America. Published for the Henry Francis Du Pont Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Delaware. New York, 1985. Kenneth Ames's introduction pervades an excellent summary of the Colonial Revival movement, and the chapters cover a variety of topics from gardens to silver to kitchens. Bailey, L. H. Cyclopedia of American Agriculture. 4 vols. New York, 1909. Some agricultural history, history of agricultural machinery, as well as current agricultural practices, and useful biographies. Bailey is absolutely reliable.

- - - , . Cyclopedia of American Horticulturee. 6 vols. New York, 1914. Includes horticultural history as well as useful biographies. Beck, Henry Carlton. More Forgotten Towns of Southern New /ersry. 1937 Reprint. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1963. Includes description of Walnford in the 1930's.

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Brick, Gertrude, and Thurman Ridgway. Ridg-UJays in the USA. Baltimore, 1980. Bridenbaugh, Carl. The Colonial Craftsman. New York and London, 1950. Chapter II, "The Village Craftsman of the Rural North." Has useful descriptions of mills and mill-villages, including Richard Brown's. Carrier, Lyman. The Beginnings of Agriculture in America. New York, 1923. Drinker, Elizabeth. Extracts from the Journal of Elizabeth Drinker. Edited by Henry D Biddle. Philadelphia, 1889. A full edition of Elizabeth Drinker's journal was published in three volumes in 1982. The Extracts volume is more generally available. The Drinkers were at the center of the Philadelphia Quaker circle which included the WaIns. The Drinker journal gives a picture of the constant visitings which were part of communication as well as reinforcement of the Friends' lifestyle. Earle, Alice Morse. Old-Time Gardens Newly set forth. New York, 1927. An amalgam of "old-fashioned" and Colonial Revival, with such chapters as "Colonial GardenMaking," "Box Edgings," and "The Herb Garden." Little distinction made between historic gardens, and contemporary recreations in the descriptions. Excellent example of the mind-set of Colonial Revival.

- - - - . Sun Dials and Roses of Yesterday. New York, 1902. Romantic writing about the virtues of sun-dials and old-fashioned roses. Numerous illustrations of sun dials, mostly British, but a number nearer-by: Princeton NT, and Germantown, Haverford, and Wallingford, PA, etc. Ellis, Franklin. History of Monmouth County, New Jersey, Philadelphia. 1885. Fischer, David Hackett. Albion's Seed Four British Folkways in America. New York and Oxford, 1989. The section, "north Midlands to the Delaware the Friends' Migration, 1675-1725," is important to the understanding of Quaker ways in the Delaware Valley. "Delaware Child-naming Ways: Quaker Onomastics," describes the naming patterns of the area Quakers, which fit both Richard and Nicholas WaIn. Fletcher, Stevenson Whitcomb. Pennsylvania Agriculture and Country Life 1640-1840. Harrisburg, 1971. Frost, J. William. The Quaker Family in Colonial America. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1973. Griswold, Mac and Eleanor Weller. The Golden Age of American Gardens. New York, 1991. "Proud Owners. Private Estates. 1890-1940." A superb, well researched, portrait of the elegant gardens of the period, illustrated with contemporary photographs. While most of the gardens discussed are those of sizable estates, there are sufficient of those smaller ones to give a picture of what was considered "the best" of the period. The Colonial Revival gardens include those of Cornelia Horsford

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on Long Island (pp. 112-114), Wallace Nutting in Framingham, MA. (p. 133), the Hertles at Gunston Hall in Virginia (pp 161-163). Harrison, Mary. Annals of the Ancestry of Charles Custis Harrison and Ellen Wain Harrison. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1932. pp. 61-125. Copy at Haverford College, Quaker Collection. [BX 7721 H3H3.] Hedrick, U. P. A History of Horticulture in America to 1860.1950. Reprint Edition with addendum of books published from 1861-1920 by Elisabeth Woodburn. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, 1988. Still the classic work, although not reliable as to dates. Innes, Stephen, ed. Work and Labor in Early America. Chapel Hill, and London: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 1988. The chapter by Paul G. Clemens and Lucy Simler on "Rural Labor and the Farm Household in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1750-1820" is very useful in describing a Quaker farming community of the same period as the early Walnford. Jordan, John W. Colonial and Revolutionary Families of Philadelphia. New York, 1911. [p.200-225.] Kulikoff, Allan. The Agrarian Origins of American Capitalism. Charlottesville, 1992. While focusing on the "struggles of yeomen and capitalists," there is useful information on crops, transportation, trade within. Lee, F.B. New Jersey as a Colony and as a State. 4 vols. New York, 1902. Mostly political history. Levy, Barry. Quakers and the American Family: British Settlement in the Delaware Valley. New York, 1988. Lewis, Albert Addison. Boxwood Gardens Old and New. Richmond, VA, 1924. A paean to the landscape virtues of box, written, not surprisingly, by the founder of the firm of Lewis and Valentine, which specialized in planting mature box to achieve instantaneous age in gardens on the east coast, particularly in Virginia. Mellick, Andrew D. Jr. Lesser Crossroads. (Edited by Hubert G. Schmidt from the Story of An Old Farm, 1889.) Rutgers University Press, 1948. A history of Lesser Crossroads, New Jersey, from the point of view of the Melick family, from 1735 through the Revolution. Somewhat romanticized, but useful picture, based on research. Includes farming methods. Scharf, J. Thomas, and Thompson Westcott. History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884. 3 vols. Philadelphia, 1884.

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Schmidt, Hubert G. Agriculture in New Jersey. New Brunswick, NT, 1973. Emphasis on journals and agricultural societies. Sources, however, include many farm account books, but most from Hunterdon County. Sloane, Eric. A Museum of Early American Tools. New York, 1964. Illustrations of early farm and shop implements, dates and uses thereof. Tabor, Grace. Old-Fashioned Gardening. New York, 1913. "A History and a Reconstruction." Describes, with quotes from original sources, gardens of the different colonial areas. Critical of "overdone" gardens, such as Hampton, Maryland. "Simplicity first, as a cornerstone... " (of the old-fashioned garden). Tolles, Frederick B. Meeting House and Counting House: The Quaker Merchants of Colonial Philadelphia, 1682-1763. Chapel Hill, NC, 1948. Invaluable picture of Quaker business and business relationships. Tunis, Edwin. Frontier Living. New York, 1961. - - - . Colonial Craftsmen. New York, 1965. - - - - . The Young United States. New York, 1969. Vine, John. Old Farm Tools. Shire Publications, Ltd. Aylesbury, UK, 1980. Watson, John R. Annals of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania in the Olden Times . .Enlarged by Willis P. Hazard. 3 vols. Philadelphia, 1907. Watson always has to be taken with several grains of salt, but is very useful in leading one (without benefit of solid references) to historical information. Woodward, Carl Raymond. The Development of Agriculture in New Jersey, 1640-1880. New Brunswick, NJ, 1927.

- - - . Ploughs and Politics. Charles Read of New Jersey and his Notes on Agriculture 1715-1774. New Brunswick, 1941. Invaluable. Excellent biography of a Quaker New Jerseyan with strong Philadelphia connections, showing the strong Quaker business and family interrelationships. Although his farm notes are ahead of the WaIn's period at Walnford, Read was also ahead of his time. (His notes include those on the use of salt in orchards and agriculture.) His receipts are from some of the same sources as those of Sarah Richardson WaIn. Wright, Richardson, ed. House & Gardens Second Book of Gardens. New York, 1927. "A Portfolio of Beautiful Gardens of varying sizes and styles, from a number of states and foreign lands." Articles drawn from House and Garden. Even though founded by Wilson Eyre, Philadelphia's leading Colonial Revival architect, the articles represent a varied picture of current taste in landscape. Most of the gardens owe more to Gertrude Jekyll than to Colonial Revival.

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B.

Contemporary Travel Books which include descriptions of New Iersey and England during the Revolution

American Husbandry, containing an Account of the Soil, Climate, Production and Agriculture of the British Colonies in North America and the West Indies by an American. 2 vols. London, 1775; also New York, 1939, edited by Harry J. Carman. Important contemporary description of New Jersey agriculture, including meadows, orchards, vegetables, and criticisms of practices. Acrelius, Israel. A History of New Sweden, or the Settlements on the Delaware 1759. Wm. Reynold, trans., member, Historical. Society. of Pennsylvania. XI, Phila. 1874. Describes NJ farms, orchards, vegetable gardens, and uses of cider & rum. Brissot de Warville, Jacques Pierre. New Travels in the United States of America Performed in 1788.1792. Reprint ed., New York, 1970. Interesting description of a Quaker farm household, near Burlington, and local mill. "Never was I so much edified as in this house; it is the asylum of union, friendship, and hospitality... " (p. 186) "Mills are a kind of property which ensures a constant income." (p. 188.) Budd, T. Good Order Established in Pennsylvania and New Jersey in America. 1685. Burnaby, Andrew. Travels through the Middle Settlements in North America in the Years 1759 and 1760. 1798. Reprint ed., New York, 1970. Castiglioni, Luigi. Viaggio, Travels in the United States of North America, 1785-87, Antonio Pace, trans. & ed. Syracuse, University Press, 1983. Casanove, Theophile. Cazenove Journal, 1794. R.W. Kelsey, ed. Pennsylvania History Press, 1922. Fairly brief on New Jersey, but very specific as to wages, prices of grain, etc. ChastelJux, Francois-Jean, Marquis de. Travels in North America, in the years, 1789, 1781, and 1782.1787. Reprint ed., New York, 1970. [Cluny, Alexander.] The American Traveler: containing Observations in the Present State,

Culture and Commerce of the British Colonies in America, and the further Improvements of which they are capable. In a series of letters by an old and Experienced Trader. Philadelphia, 1770. Little on NT, which he regards as "backward" in comparison with PA&NY. Crevecoeur, Michel Guillaume St. Jean de. Letters from An American Farmer. London, 1782. Cutler, William P., and Julia Perkins. Life, Journals and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LLd. 1888. Reprint ed. Athens, Ohio, 1987.

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Kalm, Peter. Travels into North America. John Reinhold Forster, Trans., second edition. London, 1772. Reprint edition with introduction by Ralph M. Sargent. Barre, MA, 1972. Peter Kalm, traveled in northeastern America from 1748 to 1751, studying its natural resources for Linnaeus. Few travelers have had a more discerning eye, whether religious customs, architectural materials, animal habits, plants, agricultural practices, etc. He spent much time in New Jersey, but unfortunately for our study, most of it in the area of present day Swedesboro (where he married a widow). The practices there had Swedish rather than English derivation. For a picture that is broad, yet detailed, Kalm's work is extremely useful. Morgan, Kenneth, ed. An American Quaker in the British Isles The Travel Journals of Jabez Maud Fisher, 1775-1779. published for the British Academy by the Oxford University Press, 1992. Useful for information on the transatlantic Quaker connections during the American Revolution, when the WaIn papers are mostly silent. Also includes description of trading houses (some of which were WaIn business connections as well) and lists of goods handled. Glossary of textile terms is useful. Oldmixon, John. The British Empire in America. 1741. Reprint ed. New York, 1969. Feels that New Jersey was neglected because it was in the hands of The Scots, "who then were not so enterprising and commercial as they have been since... and Quakers who had not such a Head as Pen's [sic] for trade." (vol. I, p. 283.) Parkinson, Richard. A Tour in America, in 1798, 1799, and 1800. (London, 1805). Not very informative on NJ. Opinionated and not really observant. Proud, Robert. The History of Pennsylvania in North America. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1797-98. Roberts, Kenneth, and Anna M. Roberts, eds. Moreau de St.-Miry's American Journey. (1793-1798.) Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1947.

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C.

Contemporary Agricultural, Horticultural & Medicinal/Herbal Books

The Agricultural Almanack. Philadelphia. 1816. "patronized by the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture." LCP has Zaccheus Collins' copies, with annotations. Articles on many useful subjects from manures to recipes.

American Husbandry. 1775. Reprint edited by Harry J. Carman. New York: Columbia University Press, 1939. British description of contemporary American farming. Important for New Jersey descriptions. Buchan, William. Domestic Medicine, or a Treatise on the Prevention and Cure of Disease by

Regiment and Simple Medicines with an appendix containing a dispensatory for the use of private practitioners to which are observations on diet ... also Advice to Mothers. Boston, 1811. Very useful in comparing to the receipt books of the late 18th century, not only for the individual "receipts", but for the appendix which explains what various items such as "elixir of vitriol" are used for. Buist, Robert. The Family Kitchen Gardener containing an accurate Description of all the Different Species and Varieties of Culinary Vegetables. New York, 1858. Cleaveland, Henry W., William Backus and Samuel D. Backus. The Requirements of American Village Homes. 1856. Reprint. Watkins Glen, New York: American Life Foundation, 1982. Illustrations include exteriors, plans, "improvements of grounds," and varieties of fencing. Coxe, William. A View of the Cultivation of Fruits Trees, and the Management of Orchards, Cider, etc. Philadelphia, 1817. Coxe was a famous New Jersey fruit grower. Eliot, Jared. Essays upon Field Husbandry in New England and Other Papers. Harry J. Carman, ed. New York, 1934. Eliot's writings were influential in American agriculture in the mid to late 18th century. We know that Richard WaIn's fellow Quaker-New Jersey-farmer, Charles Read read Eliots' writings. Emerson, Gouverneur. American Fanner's Encyclopedia. New York, 1858. Based on Johnson's Farmers' Encyclopedia. Illustrations, especially of farm equipment, particularly useful. Fessenden, Thomas. The New American Gardener. Boston, 1833. Influential nurseryman of the period, Also edited the New England Farmer, which was read in the Middle Atlantic states as well. Martin, George A. Fences, Gates and Bridges A Practical manual. 1887. Reprint. Brattleboro, VT: Stephen Greene Press, 1974. Useful for contemporary illustrations, some of which are of "old-fashioned" models.

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McDonald, Donald. Agricultural Writers, from Sir Walter of Henley to Arthur Young, 12001800. London, 1908. Useful survey of early agricultural writings. M'Mahon, Bernard. The American Gardener's Calendar. Philadelphia, 1806. For fifty years this book was the standard authority in gardening, covering flower garden, kitchen garden, fruit garden, orchard, etc., everything except actual farming practices. It went through 11 editions, through 1857.

Memoirs of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture. Philadelphia, 1808. vol. 1. Miller, Philip. The Gardeners Dictionary. London, numerous editions from 1731 to 1801. The garden source used on both sides of the Atlantic from the 1730's until M'Mahon's Calendar. Jefferson, Washington, even Franklin had copies. It was a gift from Peter Collinson in his first shipment to the new Library Company of Philadelphia.

New Jersey State Agricultural Society. Trenton, NT, 1860. Information on fruits, grains machines: "... the sewing machine has our earnest commendation; it will form a new era in the life of woman particularly in the farmers' family ... " Discusses fair in Elizabeth: stock, machinery, plowing match, etc.; premiums for everything you can think of, including" patent corn husker." Address of James W. Wall [president] ... "Farmers of New Jersey! The future is in your hands ... " Perian, Jonathan. The Home & Farm Manual: A pictorial Encyclopedia of Farm, Garden, Household, Architectural, Legal, Medical, and Social Information. 1884. Reprint. New York: Greenwich House, 1984. Vilmorin-Andrieux, M. M. The Vegetable Garden. English edition. London, 1885. Watson, Alexander. The American Home Garden. New York, 1859. Worlidge, John. Systema Agricultura. London, many editions from 1668-1716. The source for agricultural information in the early years of the colonies. Early colonists from William Penn to Samuel Carpenter had copies. Solid agricultural information, especially on grasses and clovers, until superceded by "improved" agriculture of the late 18th century. Cited by Charles Read in his agricultural notes in the mid 18th century.

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328 cultural landscape report walnford