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TABLE OF CONTENTS Letters of Support Executive Summary

pp. 8-9

I. Introduction Project goal • • Need for study Project partners • Location - Context Map •

pp. 10- 1 I

2. C&D History History - Time line • Waterway Operation •

pp. 12-15

3. Resource Inventory The Landforms • • Hydro logy Fish and W il dlife • Vegetation and Hab itat • Cana l Eco logy • • Geology • C & D Cana l • Deep Cut Geographic and Demograph ic Cons iderations • • Current Land Use • Delaware and Mary land State Parks & Recreation • Cu ltura l Resources

pp. 16-29

4. Existing Conditions • Corps Dredged Material Placement Areas • Recreation and Opportun it ies • Existing Bike Paths and Connections / Service Roads • Current Uti lization • Cana l Bridge Crossings • Current Cana l Major Access Points • Marinas & Boat Access • Fishing Piers • Current Utilization Diagrams & Images

pp.30-47

5 .. Results of C&D Publ ic Survey • Pub lic preferred activities • Loca l vs regional preferences • De laware vs Maryland preferences

pp.48 -49

6. Multi-us e T,-a il Design and Associated Amenities • Trai l Design Cons iderations • Trai l Paving Materia ls • Firmness, Stab il ity and Slip Res istance for a variety of common trai l surfacing materia ls • Trai l W idths . • Trai l Drainage, Erosion Contro l and Landscape Restoration • Trai l Signage • User Group Targets • Future Access Points

pp . 50-55

7. Recommended Plan • Conceptual Design Diagram w ith Phasing • Pavement Diagram • Sections • C ircu lation Diagram • Utili ty Diagram • Composting • So lar power • Infrastructure • Imp lementation plans and schedu les • Habitat Restoration and Landscape Management • General Des ign Guidelines for Trail Deve lopment • Prel iminary Opinion of Cost & Phasing Strategy Summary

pp.56-71

8. Operation, Maintenance and Secu,-ity Recommendations • Summary and Budget Costs • Delaware Division of Fish and W il d life Security Proposa l for C & D Cana l Trail

pp.72-73

9. Conclusion

pp. 74

Appendix

App . 1- 19

References

App. 20


LETTERS OF SUPPORT DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY NORTH ATLANTIC DIVISION, US ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS FORT HAMILTON MILITMY COMMUNITY BROOKLYN, NEW YORK 11252-&700

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February 28, 2006

It is an honor for me to announce the completion of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Trail Concept Plan. I want to congratulate the federal and non-federal sponsors, the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, the Delaware Department of Transportation , New Caslle County, project partners in Maryland and Delaware, and the public for having a vision and working together to bring this project closer to reality. I also want to offer a special thanks to our Congressional members, Representatives Mike Castle and Wayne Gilchrest, for their leadership and continued support. Through sound engineering and architectural deSign, the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Recreation Study Working Group has developed a "Trail Concept Plan" that includes a multi-purpose trail stretching from Delaware City to Chesapeake City. The make-up of the Working Group, encompassing local, state and federal agencies and organizations exemplifies the power of partners teaming and is just the right thing to do! The C&D Canal and the men and women who operate and maintain it have a long history. In addition, as a major commercial waterway between Delaware and Maryland it is a vital asset to the region. As shown by this study and the outpouring of positive public comments, the C&D Canal has the potential to become a recreational area that serves local, state and regional visitors, providing them with opportunities to partiCipate in many and varied forms of compatible recreational and educational activities, I am proud of the tremendous effort displayed by everyone and look forward to going to construction on a project that will connect the states of Delaware and Maryland and make a valuable contribution in the region.

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It ~iv(;=, m c g1'l:al pka slIn: to fl ll ll Oll ll CC Ih e COll1pkl ilHl urlhe "( : h (;~ap ca k c and Ikiawarc Canal Tra il CO IKl.:p t Plan. " Sim il:i r to what ha :\ bl'CIl achicvcd ovcr dlc last thrce dl'CHks :llnng tlH: l>al1l<s of lhl' ( ::IPC (:od ( :al1:1l , th is 'l'nt il CU II O.: pt Pla n ou tl ines how b,,: sl III iIllP!<.'llll·tlt l'nh:ln ccmC!lI S to a ll1ulti -purpo:\c rr:lil along both the no rth and SOll lh silk's uf til l' C hl'sa pl'akc a nd Ddaw;lrc C uwl (C&D Ca n:.!). \'\I hile th is is il long-tel'ln projccr, I am (:ollfide ll l that \VC arl~ well Oil our way It) creati ng a mult i p ll r pU ~ l' trail co nncc ting I) clnw:\t~ City and CiH:sapcnkc Ci t}'.

Over a }'c:lr ago m y ofli ..:c partllercd wilh till' U.S. Army Corps (If I':nginl'c r:\, tilc Dc!;l\vare I)l'partillc llt of N arumlltes o ulTes lind 1': nvit'lJIl1l1clltal ( :()ll1 I'CJI , th e DclawalT l)q)arttncll t of Tr:lll spur\a tion , N cw Ca slk, Cotlnty. and !'tale alld loc;ll agcllcic!' in Dc!aw:l rc and t'-.laryi:lnd ill for m ing the ( :&1) r..lIlallh~c ITatioll S tudy \X/orki ng Croup, Th is g roup has coordin ated with f('dcnd, !'ta tl' , co ullt y :lIJd loud :lHcllcies, sl:lkcholders, a nd citi zen s tu bl'lIel' undcrstand huw tile Ca nal is presently L1sed ;1I1d how it s usc is ellv ision ed in thc fullJrl'. Th e "C:h(~ sapeak e mid Delaware C:Ina l Trail COllcc p t Pl an" is lill' culmina ti on of our lind i n~s an d provides a practica l road Illap fur jmp kl1l<.'llt ation . As you wi ll ~ec in rhl' co ming pages, the C~'Jl Cl..~ ptll:ll desig n ollriincs :l lll uhi-purpusc trail tha i wi ll ac t:I)l1llll o da tc a I1l i;.; ufwalking, bik in~ and hOl.'sl·baci< rid ing (among olhcr activi lies) wi th tra il markers, restroom (;lLilitll'!'i, impro\' ..:d fis h ing piers. cO l1lroJJ ed acn' Ss poi nts, :Ind parkj ng arl'a s, The plan impol'tlllHl y illcn rponltcs all ac tivi ti es cu rre lltl y I'jlki l1 ~ place at fhe C ana l, inciudi ng hunting, fishing, dOHtraining, :1111..1 horsehack riding, ;IS well :IS prcscrv:lIion of th e Ca llal' s werla nds, wild li fc, and lIatural infrolSll'llC lllr{'. TIll' I1l'<.'<1 for p rcsl't'v ing open space is paramount, partic ularl y ill areas wit h g rowing populations, likl' Dc!aware C ity. I Ilope r ou will take thl' tilll{' to lll H"-: rstand our visio ll for enhanci ng recreation along the C&D Canal :lnd til l' potl.~ ntial b{'T1 e fil' 10 the surrounding l'ol11l11u nili <.:s in Delaware and I\ laryland. I look forwa rd 1'0 working \\lit'h tl1I.' Arm y Corps :lIld th t, proj{:c l partners in turning fhe Trail Conccpt Pl an in ro rea lit y.

Sincerely, t\ li chael N, Cas tl e I\ k'mhcr of Congrcss

WILLIAM T. GRISOLI Brigadier General, U,S. Army Division Engineer

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WAYNE T. GILCHREST COMM ITTEE ON l RANSPORTA1 10N

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WATEA RF. SOURC ES

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COM M ITTEE O N RF. S OUfl CES CHAIRMAN. f tSH ERIF.S ANU OCEAN S

FQRJ:srSAND

CHRISTOPHER A . COONS

87 READS WAY

C OUNTY EXE CUT IVE

NEW CASTlE . DE 19720

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CHAIH MAN. CH ESAPEAKE BA V WATERS HED TASK FORCE

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March 6, 2006 Wi lli am T. Grisoli Brigadier Ge lleral, USA U.S . Army Corps o f Eng ineers North At lantic Division

Brigad ier Gcneral William Grisoli Commander U.S. Army Corps of Eng ineers - North Atlantic Divisio n 302 General Lee Ave Brookly n, NY 11 252

Fort Hamilto n ,\11 il ilary COllllllun ity

(Je nem I Lee A ven ue Brooklyn. NY 11262· 6700

Dear General Griso li; Dear Ge neral Gri sol i:

I am wr iting to express my fu ll support fo r the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Trai l Concept Plan. This pla n partners the US Army Co rps of Engincers with state agenc ies and cities from both Maryl and and Delaware. I wi ll assist these collaborative efforts and the vision they have crcated for the futu re of tourism along the banks of the historic Chesapeakc and Delaware Canal.

'IeI\' Castle Coull ty is pleased to be work ing wi th n1ll' federal. state and local go vemmcnl p<:irtl1l.:rs in the dcyclopmcnt of n ne\v vi sion for the Chesapeake and De laware Ca l1all hat is encompassed in the Multi· l:se Trail Pla n propusal.

I am excited for the recreational opportunities that thi s project will provide to residents and visitors to the Canal area. It is important to protect and support areas in this Mid· Atlantic Region that arc al ready attractive locations for outdoor enthus iasts. Park patrons w ill continue to enjoy hunting, fis hin g and dog-training as we ll as new adventures on the proposed wa lkin g, biking and blading trails.

,Vly adm inistration is committed to creating a mo re livable Cl nd hcn hh icr cOllllllunity for nil ~ e\v Cas tlc County residenls. The C & U Canal is a s ignificant resource that " ill be mo re bruadly app rec iated and enjoyed as a result of the e l'f()rl s to un de rtake the Multi- Usc Trai l Pla n. it is an impol1ant step tOl\'ards meeting the ri sing dem and lor hca lt hy, outdoor activit ies in a rapidl y gro\.\'ing regiun and builds upon Ollr OWI1 effol1s to develop hoth on and urr-road trail sys t cm s~ linking the narura l, hi stori c. ilnd cultural assds count ywic.h:. making them accessible to everyone.

The C & D Canal project will creatively combi ne these recreational activities w ith th e conservation of natural areas and wi ld life habitat. I app laud Congressman Castl e's effOits to uti li ze this scenic stretc h of lands as a place whcre people can safely enjoy act iv ities along our

region's beautiful waterways.

I ap plau d Ihe Army Corps of En g ineers for th eir illte!'est and il1\' ol vem~lll in this impOn <1 nl

in itintive for the people of New CasLtc Cou llty and the surroll nd ing nfcns.

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UA Historic Past"

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"A Bright Future

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C I TY OF DELAWARE C I TY

407 Clinton Street - P.O. Box 4159 Delaware C it y. De laware 19706 302-834-4573

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January 27,2006

Rob Bemstine, Mayor Jack Ritter, Vice Mayor Council Bill Kiessling Ron Francis Joe Lewis Bill Miners

The Honorable Michael N . Castle 1233 Longworth Building Washington, DC 20515 . Dear Congressman Castle: The Town of Chesapeake City supports the objective of the C. & D. Canal Recreation Study Group's directive to study the feasibility of recreational enhancements along the banks ofthe Canal. We believe that the population growth in the immediate vicinity of the Canal in both Delaware and Maryland in recent years underscores the need for nearby rccreational access. Chesapeake City looks forward to the day whcn the report by the Canal Study Group is put into actual working use and the development of safe recreational areas along the Canal are available to all. The Canal roads are a Datural for bicycling, walking, rollerblading, horse riding and fishing. We look forward to working in partnership with the State of Delaware to improvc and enhance the greenway linking our two states. Sincerely Mayor and Council Town of Chesapeake City

January 27,2006 On bebalfoft he Mayor & Council and residents of Delaware City, 1 am extremely pleased to congratulate the United States Allll y Corps of Engineers and their partners on the comp letion of the Cbesapeake and Delaware Canal Trai l Concept Plan. We hope the plan can he brought to fruition in the near future. Delaware City bas been an active parti cipant on the C&D Canal Recreation Study Working Group and is excited by prospect of a multi-purpose trail that wi ll link Delaware City and our historic sister city, Chesapeake City, Maryland. It is a dream that we have pursued for many years. Delaware City was founded as the eastem tenllinus oftbe origina l canal when it opened in tbe 1820's and our history is closely inteltwined witb that of the C&D Canal. Thus, it is with great anticipation that we look forward to tbe enhancement and preservation of the natural and recreational resources that the Canal area offers. Th is p lan is a perfect fit with Delaware City's future as a recreati on and tourism destination. Special thanks must go to our Congressman Mike Castle and to Congressman Wayne Gilclu'est of Maryland fo r their leadership in advancing thi s stud y and the vision behind it. Wi thout their effOlts, this would still be just a dream. The Working Group, made up of local, state, and federal agencies and organizations, has done a tremendous job with this plan. It balances the preservation of the Canal' s natural resources with improved pub lic access and respects current users of the cana l land s while expand ing the recreational opportuniti es avai lable to residents of thi s area and the region. We in Delaware City are proud to be associated with the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Trail Concept Plan and look forward to working with the Corps and our oth er partners to implement tbe plan as soon as poss ible.

t!nd~;J!1-0Vu?-tT CordeJ'ia W. Bennett Mayor City of Delaware City, Delaware


MARYLAND DEPARTMENT OF

Robert l. Ehrlich, Jr., Governor Michael S. Steele, Lt. Governor

NAT~LRESOURCES

C. Ronald Franks. Secrerory

Feh,uary I, 2006

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January 27, 2006

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Willialll T. Grisoli

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RE: Chesapeake & Delaware Canal Recreation Study Iluh bi 1il,IIuli

RE: Chesapeake & Delaware Ca na l Rec reation Stud y

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Dc'lf Geller.Ii Grisoli :

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Dear General Grisoli :

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On hehalf n( the Maryland Department of Na t ural Resources (DNR) alld the Maryland Grcc il ways ;l1ld \'Vatcr ~1 'r:1 i1s Pnlgram I w(Hlld like to express stlpport (III" the Army C()rp,s' \..:([(uts to provide addi tio nal recreational oppornmirics along the C hesapcak c <lnd Delmvmc C allal thnHlgh the cstahlish11ll'nt of ,I I'ccn.:ati<lilill grCCllwa y,

'I'he State of Maryland has I'cc..:o,L! ni zcd thc C&D C<l11:Il ;IS il p()feIHial/plnllllcd grcellW;lY corridor linki ng rhe Chesapeake BilY to Dd;l\V,lrC Bay, in the l'vfcn,),laud Arias o!CireClItuCl)'S, \.\'Imcr Trails ami Grecn In!rastructure, since 1992, We helieve tit,l[ this projcct wil l provit.h: ITcmcnJotlS rccrcarillll:ll ()pportuilitics t o tile SllrnHllH.lillg CIUUlllllni ty, (ontrih llte t"() 0111' ()\v 11 l'XpiUlding nctwork ()f tra ils, illid serve as;J st'J'f1[cg ic, illfcrst;t[C link hL:tweell M:lq,1;11ll1 ,Ind

Delaware.

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In ;lddit ioll , wc werc pleased to pnnicipme on th l: stud y tC illll <1lld npp l:lud Ihe coopl:rnti vc p;lI' (I1er~ hip~ hctwecn s t~ltes. agencies ;lnd othl: r clHi tics, which have developcd as ;1 res ult (If

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rhis effon . \Vl: offe r 0111' c mhu si:lsrk support for the Cfl::Ition o ( thi s important, interst at e reLn.:atioll;11 gn.:enway ~lIld hope th:U;l commitllll:1lI 1'0 imple mentat ion wilt emergc illlhc ncar fur lll'l: .

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While many people now regularly enjoy the area's diverse recreational offerings that include hiking, mountain biking, fishing, horseback riding, bird watching, boating, dog training, and hunting, J believe the canal holds tremendous potential to serve an even broader group of users and become a regional attraction for recreational enthusiasts of all types. The Army Corps of Engineers along with Congressmen Castle and Gilchrest have shown great foresight by recognizing the need to improve accessibility to the canal and its thousands of acres now. Soon communiti es surrounding the canal will see a great influx of new residents all looking for an attractive location to walk, bicycle, picnic, and spend time together as a family . With modest improvements, the Chesapeake & Delaware Canal area will offer new and existing residents a place where they can enjoy a small piece of nature in an increasingly urbanized region.

Maf1 ", U,,,,,,, JO'ICph M,l('hdl " CIC' Slucl.h

,','Ie, J. W~ I' " . JI 1'1I" ICI:a W.. ~ , 1

Tawes State Office Building' 580 Taylor Avenue' Annapolis. Maryland 21401

On behalf of Delaware Greenways, J enthusiastically submit this letter in support of your continuing efforts to enhance and improve recreational opportunities along the Chesapeake & Delaware Canal.

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William T. Grisoli Brigadier General - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers North Atlantic Division - Fort Hamilton Military Community General Lee Avenue Brooklyn, New York 11262-6700

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We believe this venture is the most significant outdoor recreation and greenway project in the state, and J am excited at the prospect of the Corps expanding their duties and partnerships with other agencies to further serve residents of Maryland and Delaware. Sincerely,

~PL-

Delaware Greenways Brad Killian Director of Projects and Planning


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TRAILS

STATE OF DEL .... W ... Re:

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

February 7,2006

AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL OP"I"I CE 0 1" TH r.:

The Honorable Michael N. Castle 1233 Longworth Building Washington , DC 205 15

89 K I NOS HIGHWAY

SECRETARY

DOV~R,

O e: L.AWARIL 18901

February 27, 2006

Dea r Co ngressman Castle: On behalf of the Council on Greenways & Trails, I am writing to express support for the creation of a trail system and associated amenities identified in the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Trail Concept Plan. We congratulate th e United States Army Corps of Engineers and their partn ers on the completion of the Plan , which, when impl emented, will provide linear outdoo r recreation fa cilities for hiking, bicycling and horseback riding. The Council first id entified the potential for tra il developm ent in the C&D Canal in 1992 in Delawarc's Grecnway and Trail Plan, and thcn again in the 1999 Greenway and Trail Atlas. Construction of thi s trail will fulfill the publi<;'s identified need for hiking, bicycling and oth er linear recreational acti vities that are docum ented in the 2003-200 8 State Comprehensive Outdoor Rccreati on Plan. We envis ion tha t trail faciliti es alo ng the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal waterway will become well used by local resid ents and will draw vis itors from within the region for recreation plII'suits. The Council is dedicated to the creation of pcdestrian and bicycl e fa cilities that serve both altcrnativc transportation and recreation nceds, and thc creation of trails for th e cnjoymcnt of equcstrians. The Council has bee n a pa rtner in thc dcvelopment of the Chesapeake a nd Delaware Trail Concept Pl an and we look forwa rd to wo rking with the Corps and ollr other partners to implement this Pla n.

William T. Grisoli Brigadier General- U.S. Anny Corps of Engineers North Atlantic Division - Fort Hamillon Military Community

General Lee Avenue Brooklyn, New York 11262-6700

Dear General Grisoli : On bebalf oftbe Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Conlrol (DNREC), I would like 10 express support for both the Anny Corps' and Congressman Castle's efforts 10 provide additional recrealional opportunities along the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal (Canal). The completion of the

"Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Trail Concept Plan" represents a milestone in the joint vision our agencies have to providc increased recreational opportunities, walking, biking and horseback riding (among other aelivilies), through Ihe establishment of a formali zed trail along this historic waler body. I am particularl y pleased by the plan's consideration and incorporation of the existing recreational activities currently taking

place on the Canal, including hunting, fishing and dog training, as well as its intent to protect the existing wildlife and preserve their associated habitats, As you arc undoubtedly familiar, the DNREC and the Anny Corps have a long and successful

relationship in preserving this area and providing recreational opportunities while accommodating the maritime navigational needs of the region, Delaware's Divisions of Fish and Wildlife and Parks and Recreation have successfully maintained 10ng-tenn lease agreements between our agencies, some lasting over 62 years, providing for increased recreational opportunities on the Canal. Implementation of a new multi-usc trail will provide valuable connections to both Lums Pond and Fort DuPonl State Parks and to Ihe historic lowns of Delaware City and St. Georges. I am delighled Ihat our

agencies, as well as the numerous other state, fedcral and local agencies who are partnering with us, are making stride!; to increase recreational opportunities, especially in an area of Delaware whose population has grown so rapidly, We look forward to continuing this work with the Corps and our partners in implemcnting this noteworthy plan.

~eerelY'

Chairman Council on Grcenways & Trails ( ;41\'("1'1 II II'

1\ p!,oi ll in I ( ' itii'.l'I IS ;lIl d Advisor),

I) t'parlllll'll i or Na ll lr al lksOlllH 'S

PHONe:: 1302 ) 738-4403 FAX: (302 ) 739-6242

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pc: Congress man Michael N. Castle


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A key goal was to develop a t rail plan w ith reco mm en dations for restoring, re newing and integrati ng the ric hness

already prese nt alo ng t he Ca nal lands. As t he State o f Delaware is ex pe ri e ncing doub le di git deve lop me nt. places for recreati o n, especia ll y as va ri ed and w ide as th ose offered at the C & D C anal, are beco ming priva te and cor po rate land.

The de ma nd is high for quality recreatio nal experie nces in t he regio n overall . es pecially for hiking and biking_ T he C & D Ca nal and app rox imately 7,700 ac res o f adj ace nt public land a re ow ned and o pe rate d by th e Co rps and co nn ec t Delaware a nd Ma ry land by wate r and la nd _ Recreatio n is no t new to t he Canal o r to other Corps Canals and faci lities. H owever, at prese nt recreatio nal fac il ity develo pme nt alo ng the C & D Ca nal is not an authorize d project.

Stem m ing fro m Congress man Mi chael Castle's

lea dersh ip and vision fo r developing recreatio nal opportuni t ies in D elaware for t he local, state and reg ional citi ze ns,

t he Corps' Cape Cod Ca nal was used as inspirat io n a nd mo del for t he C & D co nce pt design effo rt_ The fo llowing Tra il Co nce pt Plan is a res ult of an intense and t ho ughtfu l effo rt by t he Wor king G ro up a nd t he public to for malize th is idea and ma ke t his plan a reali ty_

CURRENT STATUS

The C & D Canal has a lo ng histo r y and is one o f t he o nly two co mm e rc iall y viable sea- level Ca nals in th e Unite d States. A s it takes on an add itio nal ro le as a re crea ti o n des ti natio n, it w ill co ntinue to be a foc al po in t and ser ve t he ST. GEORGES BRIDGE. 4-LANE US-IJ. LOOKING NORTHBOUND. TAKEN AUGUST 1997. BY DELDOT. PROVIDED BY BRIAN A _DORESTE OF DELAWARE. PHOTO IMAGE C ROPPED BY SCOTT KOZEL-THE C & D CANA L SPLITS IN TWO THETOWN OF ST GEORGES. DELAWARE

region we ll. Th e landforms along th e Can al are man- made, fas hio ned fro m th e mass ive quantities of dre dge materials exc avate d to create t he Canal. O ver t he years , var io us st rategies have been develo ped to address t he problem of re-vege tating these rega rd ed a reas. In partn ers hi p wi t h enviro nm ental agencies, fi sh and game agencies, and so il co nservatio n services

THE CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

in both D elaware an d Maryland, the Arm y Cor p has focuse d o n im proving soi l co ndit io ns and vege tati o n rest o ration strategies for t he sites. T he res ult has been a mosaic of success ional habitat areas of o pen meadow areas, in ters perse d

In 2005 the U_S_ Army Corps o f Engin eers (Corps) rece ive d initi al funding to co nduct a study of t he C hesa peake & De lawa re (C & D) Ca nal's recreat io nal pote ntial and a projec t team (Working Gro up) was created to manage th e study. A signi fica nt focus o f th e stud y was to deve lop an appropri ate visio n for a mult i-use tra il system alo ng th e C & D Canal

w ith woo d lots and man-mad e po nds.

that wo uld enhance the recrea ti o nal o pp ortuni ties fo r t he local and the regio nal co mmuni ty.

th e Canal la nds fo r hun t ing, bird-watching. hikin g. horse bac k-riding and dog t raini ng_ The Ca nal lands are co nside red to

As th e plant co mmunity habitat di vers ity has increased, so has the di vers ity of w ildli fe and hence the importance of be th e most heav il y use d w ild life area in th e state of D elaware du e to it s pro xim it y to t he mos t popu late d part of th e

The W o r king Gro up ex pl o red th e possibili t y o f a phase d imp le me nta t ion th at wou ld co nclud e in mu lti-use paths

state.

alo ng t he no r t h and so uth banks of th e Canal along w ith parking lots. res troom faci lities, educatio n ki osks. and other enhanceme nts of current recreat io n activities such as fishing and boating.

Th e land along th e C&D C an al has been re fas hio ned in a series of terraces o r t iers w ith mil es of existing unpaved se r vice roads constructed by the A rmy Corps to help service and main ta in t he viabili ty of the Ca nal. In orde r to gain

A ndropogon Assoc iates, Ltd. was in vite d to ass ist the Work ing G ro up in gathering info rmation, site investigations, pub li c

ful l access alo ng its ban ks, t he. roa ds were co nstructe d alo ng its ent ire length, except for areas inaccessible by na tu ra l

wor ksho ps a nd to develop pla n recomme ndatio ns_ The plan ning process fo r t he C & D Ca nal also ex plores the diffic ul t

waterways. It is estimate d that there are over 100 mil es of service roads thro ugho ut the public lands.

questio ns: H ow ca n the demand for recreational resources actuall y be acte d upon? What are the most feas ible and rea li stic solu tio ns?

8

I


The service roads along the first tier on the north and south side of the Canal are the main focus of this study for the development of a multi-use recreational trail. Local residents and a growing number of regiona l users already utilize the roads for hi king, cycling and equestrian activity. Development of numerous trail heads and connections are possible for these service roads, as we ll as relatively fl at, unvegetated land for the development of trai l amenities such as comfort stations and parking areas.

Specify native plant species. Wherever possible contract grown plant material from local seed. Utilize native plant

KEY RECOMMENDATION S

Do not compromise natural and cultura l resources such as geological formations or stream corridors by activities

species that may be missing from the area where they are appropriate. Do not displace or mod ify any relatively healthy natural system. Minimize disturbance to any natura l area.

that threate n their character and preservation. The primary objective of the proposed improvements is to encourage additional recreational activity along the Canal wh ile keeping existing activit ies and fostering its respo nsible use. The primary goal of management is to confine the impacts of the trail to the trai l corridor. The strategies to accomplish this are both physical and programmatic.

Protect and expand remaining wetlands wherever possible. Reestablish natural drainage patterns and hydrologic regimes where they have been disturbed. Establish missing links and provide connectivity, such as forest edges where possible.

TRAil FEATU RES

The proposed trail features include trailheads, signage, maps, comfort stations, benches, fishing piers and parking areas. The concept plan o utlines a tota l of 29.2 miles of multi-use trail on both sides of the Canal along the first tier of service road. Trailheads are the welcoming entrances to the tra il. This is where visitor information about use, destinations and amenities is ava ilab le. Contro ll ed access of vehicles to trail may also be necessary at some trail heads. Two different materials are proposed for the trail surface:

I.) Paved multi-use trail to provide access for the widest diversity of users and accommodate the most intense use. Paved trails provide all-weather access. 2.) Unpaved (compacted stone fines) two lan e multi-use portions of the trai l where the environmental conditions req uire. Comfort Stations are an important amenity and should be located where adequate surveillance is present. Parking areas have been identified on both sides of the Canal lands at over a dozen sites. The concept is to develop and improve already cleared and relatively flat land adjacent to trailhead areas. The existing fishing piers will be restored as an amen ity along the Canal.

LANDSCAPE RE STORATION GUIDELINES

PUBLIC PART ICIPATION An important com ponent of the study process has been community invo lveme nt. Current users value the access to the natural environments that the trail system allows. Throughout the study, participants emphasized the relatio nship between access to the Canal lands, recreational activity and quality of life. While public support for the project is very high. concerns were expressed about trail development. They included: •

The area is currently heavily used by hunters and dog training activities. How wi ll these activities co-exist and be kept separated?

As more recreational activity is encouraged along the Canal, how will the rules be enforced?

Why does the multi-use trail need to be paved? Why can't the roads remain the way they are now?

W ill access for motorized vehicles be limited?

Wi ll equestrians continue to have access to the trai ls that they presently enjoy along the Canal?

The development of the multi-use tra il wi ll result in opportunities to improve the ecological aesthetic of the area

Th e Trail Concept Plan addresses these concerns through the plan recommendations, trail alignment and design

immediately ad jacent to the trail and its ame ni t ies; raise awareness of regional native plant species; and increase the biodiversity of the Canal lands. The "restoration" of the landscape will be incremental. just as it has been throughout the history of Canal lands. by managing the process of eco logical succession.

gu idelines. Despite the complex nature of trail development in general, and the Canal lands in particular, the proposed guidelines for managing the proposed trail system are fairly simple: Confine the impacts of the trail to the boundaries of the trai l.

This plan outlin es several typical conditions for the proposed trail and amenities and suggests a set of Landscape Design and Management Principles as outlined below: Consider undertaking extensive soil reworking and massive planting efforts only where the landscape is in collapse, overwhelmed by non-native invasive species, or extensively eroded.

Accommodate mixed uses. All non-motorized users deserve access to the trai l system. The goal is to provide balanced access. Involve users in the effort to upgrade the standard of care. Informed tra il users are responsible trail users. Implement infrastructure improvements that are adequate for the level of proposed use. Accommodate responsible use of the trail without compromising environmental quality. Effectively promote courtesy and compliance with ru les of the trail.

C HE SAPEAKE & DE LAWARE C ANAL

II / TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

/ 9


INTRODUCTION PROJECT GOA L

NEED FOR PLAN

The goal of the C & D Canal Tra il Concept Plan is to wo rk with Fe de ral, State and loca l age ncies in De laware and

Section 22 of the Water Resources Development Act ("WRDA") of 1974 (Public Law 93-25 1), as amended, authorizes

Mary land and other in terested partners to in vestigate potential futu re recreatio nal usage of the C & D Canal and

the Secretary of t he Army, acting t hro ugh the Chief of Engineers, to assis t the Stat es in t he preparation of comprehensive

compile a fin al report w ith recommendations for the betterment of recre ational opportuni t ies availab le to the citizens

plans for the develo pm ent, ut ili zation and conservation of water and re late d resources of drainage bas in s, wa tersheds

o f De laware and Maryland . These rec reationa l uses included hunting, fi shing, bicycling, birdwatc hin g, hiking, walking,

or ecosystems located w ith in the bound aries of such State.

horseback ridin g and other popular fo rm s of outdoor recreation. The State of Delaware ha s rev iewed their comprehensive water pl ans and identified the need for pl anning ass istance Demand for these and other uses wi ll o nl y increase as the popu lation continues to expand around the Canal. To en hance

from the Corps. Th e Corps tec hnical expertise in water and re lated land resource management has su pplemented a

ex isting recreation along the Canal and consider new uses, pla nn ing for the fu ture at this time is very important.

Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan 2003-2008. Thi s Plan o ut li nes outdoor recreation prefe rences and

Work ing Group of State, co unty and private partners in Delaware and Maryland o n this effort. In addition, th e State of Delaware (the non-federal sponsor), through the support of the three partners (Department of Natural Reso urces and Environmental Control, Department of Transportation, and New Castle Cou nty), has contributed to o ne-half (y,) t he cost of developing the C & D Recreatio n Trail Concept Plan.

recommen ds facility development that will meet the public needs. The State of Delaware identifi es the potential for a tra il within the C & D lands in its 1999 Greenway and Trails Atl as. The State of Maryland has listed t he C & D Canal as

The multi-use trail concept evolved from t he original idea of Congressman Michael Cas tl e and a consortiu m of

Th e starting po int for the C & D Trail Concept Plan came from comments provided to the State of Delawa re for its

a potentia l recreational greenway in its Statewi de Greenways Atlas since 1992. Th e Working Group is recommending

suppo r ters.

t hat a multi-us e tra il for walkers, joggers and bikers serve as the main element in all plans to enhance recreatio n along

o utreach phase of this study. A futu re goal of the C & D Canal Recreation Study is to complete a Mas ter Recreation Plan for all properties of the C & D Canal.

the Canal.

In ad ditio n, support for this t rail came through extens ive positive public input during t he commu ni ty

Th e C & D Canal has . long history and is o ne of the o nly two commercially viab le sea-leve l Cana ls in t he Unite d States. Forty percent of . 11 ship traffic in and out of th e Po rt of Balti more trave ls throug h the Canal. As it takes o n an additional

WORK ING GROUP

ro le, it w ill contin ue to be a focal poin t and ser ve the region we ll.

The partners in the C & D Canal Recreation Study Working Group are th e U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; U.S. Congressman Michael N . Castle; U .S. Congressman Wayne Gilchrest; D elaware Department of Natural Resources and

A key component of the stud y process is public involvement. Th e C & D Canal Recreation Stud y Working Group has

Environmental Control; D elaware D epartme nt of Tra nsportatio n; Ma ry land D epartment of Natural Resources; N ew

made every effort to enli st support and work closely with its stakehold ers in this reg ional effor t .

Castle County, DE; Cecil Cou nty, MD; De laware Greenways, Inc.; De lawa re City; Chesapeake City and St. Georges.

The planning process for the C & D Canal explores the difficult questions. Ho w can the demand for recreatio nal resources actually be implemented? What are the most feasib le and rea li stic solutio nsr

CHESAPEAKE CITY BR IDGE 路 MARYLAND

10 I

C&D CANAL - C HESAPEAKE C ITY BR IDGE 路 (LOOK ING EAST)

SU MM IT BR IDGE路 DE LAWARE

CARGO SHIP PASS ING UNDER RR BRIDGE

S.R. I BRIDGE路 ST. GEORGES. DELAWARE


CONTEXT MAP LOCATION AND REGIONAL CONTEX T The C & D Canal is a working waterway, wide and deep eno ugh to handle ocean-going sh ips.The Canal is one of the busiest in the wo rld , w ith over 25,000 vesse ls a year passing thro ugh it waters. The waterway extend s west from the Delaware River at Reedy Po in t, Delaware, to the junction of Back Creek and Elk River at the Chesapeake Bay.

Th e 14-mile Canal cuts across the narrow neck of the Delmarva Peninsu la where it has become a natural and cultural boundary between upper and lower Delmarva.

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CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

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TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

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BRIDGE OVER OLD BRANCH CANAL - DEL. C ITY

REEDY PO INT BR IDGE AND DELAWARE RIVER

I

II


C & D HISTORY - TIMELINE - 1661-1910

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In 8 2 9 ,Chesapeake and Delaware Cana l "open for business". The nea rly $2.5 million construction cost made it one o f the most expensive canal projects of its time .

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A steam ope rated pump was purchased in 837 to rai se water from Ba ck Creek and in a steam engine and large waterwheel were insta lled in the pumphouse in Chesapeake City. Measuring 39 feet in diameter and 10 fe et wide, the iron and wood had I 2 troughs. By mond sce,m engine was in use. The two ISO-horsepower engines consumed 8 tons of coa l daily while lifting 170 tons of water per minute in the canal. They remained operationa l through the mid- I

I

I 852

-1661

A MA PMA KER'S D REAM In the mid-1600s,Augu sti nc Herman, a Dutch envoy and

mapmaker, proposed that a waterway be built to connect the Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay. The canal would reduce the water routes between Baltimore and Philadelphia by nearly 300 miles.

1854 ,

I 788

In the issue of contructing the canal was raised again by regiona l business leaders, including noted Philadelphians Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush.

Surveys of possible water routes across the Delaware/Maryland Peninsula we re made, but canal would not become reality for decades.

1802,

In following actions by the legislatures of Maryland , Delaware and Pennsylvania, the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Company was incorporated .

In 1804 construction on the canal began including 14 locks to connect the Christina River in Delaware with th e Elk River at Welch Point, MD. But the project was halted two years later for lack of fund s.

-1829 to 1919

The Chesapeake Bay and Delaware River were now connected by a navigation channel measuring nearly 14 mi les long. 10 feet deep, 66 feet wide at the waterl ine and 36 fe et wide along the channel bottom. l ocks to pass vessels through the waterway's various level were constructed at Delaware City and St. Georges, and two at Chesapeake City. Teams of mules and horses towed freigh t and passanger barges, schooners and sloops t hrough the ca nal. Ca rgoes included lumber, grain. farm produ cts, fish. cotton, coal. iro n and whiskey.

In 1823 and 1824, the U.S. Army Corps of Engin ee rs provided tWO seni or commissioned officer s to assist in determining the canal route . The engineer officers and two civilian engineers recommended a new route with four locks, extending from Newbold's l anding Harbor (now Delaware City), westward to the Ba ck Creek branch o f the Elk River. Canal Construction resumed in April 1824 . The swampy marshlands along the ca nal's plan ned route proved a great impediment to progress as some 2,600 workers continuou sly battled slides along the soft slopes of t he "ditch" being cut.

AV ISION IS REA LI Z ED

r

920,·

C&D O PERATI O N S

President Theodore Roosevelt appoints commission in 906 to report on the feasibility of conve rting the canal to a " free and open waterway".

Packet lines were eventually established to move freight. One such en terprise - the Ericsson line - operated betwe en Baltimo re and Philadelphia, and continued to carry pa ssangers and freight through the cana l into the 1 940 s. The cargo ton age peaked in 1872 with more than 1.3 million tons transiting the ca nal.

-1822

The ca nal compa ny was reorganized in 1822, and new su rveys determined that mo re t han $2 mi llion in capital was needed to resume construction . Eventually t he Commonwealth of Pennsylavania purchased $ 100,000 in stock, the State o f Maryland $50,000 and Delaware $25,000. The fede ral government's investment was $450,000 with the remainder subscribed to the public .

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12

Throughout the 1900's the canal's use continue d to change with the N ew Castl e and Frenc htown Railroad being its on ly major competitor. Steam power brought larger and deepe r-d raft vesse ls t hat cou ld not pass through the restricting locks. By 1900 the decline in canal traffic and great cOSt of operation and repairs brought a downward trend in canal profits.

I


C & D HISTORY - TIMELINE - 1911-2005

UNCLE SAM BUYSA CANAL 1919 In 19 19 the canal was purchased by t he

CANAL WIDENED AND DEEPENED - 1 9 35-1938 In 1933, the Phi ladelphia District Corp's of Engi neers took over operation of the canal. Between 1935 and 1938 the

Federal government for $2.5 million and

designated the " Intra-coastal Waterway Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay,

CONGRESS AUTHOR IZES EXPANSION - 1 95 4 In 1954, Congress authorized further expansion of the channel to 450 feet wide and 35 feet deep. These improvements began in the 1960s and were completed in the mid-1970s. New bridges to accommodate highway traffic crossing the canal also became necessary as deepening and widening progressed. Two mechanical lift bridges at St. Georges and Chesapeake City, toppled by sh ip co ll isions, were replaced in the 1940s with high-leve l highway spans. PEN NS. RAI LROAD LI FT BRIDGE CONSTRUCTED - 1966 In 1966 a new rai lroad lift bridge was completed by the Corps and turned over to the Pennsylvania Railroad to carry freight ac ross th e ca nal. The railroad and Summit spans were recogn ized by the American Institute of Steel Construction as the most beautifu l bridges of their types in the years they were completed.

channel was again deepened to 27 feet deep and widened to 250 feet - at a cost of nearly $ 13 million. The project was expanded to include a federa l navigation channel 27 feet deep and 400 feet wide some 26 mi les in the Upper Chesapeake Bay, from the Elk River to Poole's Island,

Delaware and Maryland". Included were six bridges. plus a rail road span owned by t he Pennsylvania Railroad. They were replaced during the 1920s by four vertical lift spans and a new raitroad bridge.

In

The "new" cana l opened in May 1927 with great celebration, yet plans were underway for further expansion as the sizes of ships and amounts of cargo continued to increase. In

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

/II

TRA IL CONCEPT PLAN

C & D AND RECREATION

1968. Reedy Point Bridge was constructed.

SEA LEVEL CA NAL COMPLETED - 1 927 Responsibi lity for operating, maintaining and improving the waterway was assigned to the Corps of Engineer's W ilmington, DE District. By 1927 the eastern entrance at Delaware City had been relocated several miles south at Reedy Point, DE. All locks (except the one at Delaware City) were removed and the waterway was converted to a sea-level operation 12 feet deep and 90 feet wide. These improveme nts cOSt $ 10 million. Two stone jetties at the new eastern entrance were completed in r 926.

1960.Summit Bridge was co nstructed.

C&D ATTRACTIONS The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is designated as a National Historic Civil Engineering and Mechanical Engineering landmark. The ca nal is un ique as the sole major commercial navigation waterway in the United States built during the early 1800s still in use . The Corps also mai ntains the Canal Museum in Chesapeake City which provides visitors with a glimpse of the canal's early days. The wate rwheel and pumping engines remain in the origina l pumphouse . These steam engines are the o ldest of their type in America sti ll on their original foundations.

2 003 - 2 0 0 8 In 1 996 路S.R. I Bridge was constructed. Also, the district accepted into the museum inventory a full-sized replica of the 30 foot Bethel Bridge lighthouse. And. a Corps feas ibility study to investigate improvements for the canal and the Baltimore connecting navigation channels ofTolchester. Brewerton Eastern Extension and Swan Point with the signing of the Ch ief of Engin ee rs' report.

The starting point for the C&D Canal Recreation Study came from comments provided to the State of Delaware for its Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan 2003-2008. The State of Delaware Green and Trail Atlas identified a potential trail linking Delaware City and Chesapeake City within the C & D Canal l ands . ( 1999) The State of Maryland has listed the C & D Canal as a potential recreational greenway in its Statewide Greenways Atlas since 1992.

I

13


WATERWAY OPERATION TODAY

THE FUTURE

Today's Canal is a modern sea-level. electronica ll y contro lled commerc ial waterway. carry ing 40 percent of all ship

The Canal is sign ifica nt ly im portant to the ports of the Delaware River, Baltimore, and others along the northern

traffic in and out of the Port of Baltimore.

Atlantic trade routes.

Millions of tons of cargo are transported t hrough it annually by container and other bulk-

carrying and general cargo vesse ls.

Since 193 3 the Corps Philade lphia District has managed Canal and highway bridge operations from a two-story white frame building o n the Canal's southern bank at Chesapeake City. MD. Cargo shi ps of all s izes. ta nkers. containercarryi ng vesse ls. barges accompanied by tugboats, and countless recreational boats create a steady flow of traffic.

A Corps feasibility study to in vestigate improvements for t he Canal, and the Baltimore connecting navigation chan nels

Through state-of-the art fiber optic and microwave links, dispatchers use closed circuit te levis ion and rad io systems to

the Chief of Engineers' report. The stud y. co-sponsored by the Maryland Department of Transportation (MDOT).

monitor and safely move commmercial traffic through the waterway.

of Tolchester, Brewerton Eastern Extension and Swan Point was completed in December 1996 w ith the signing of investigated deepening of t he chan nel to 40 feet from its current 35 foot depth, plus additional navigation improvements and enviro nmental initiatives.

N avigating ocean-go ing vesse ls require extensive maritime skill s, w it h strong currents or bad weather cond itio ns

add ing risks. A U.S. Coast Guard certified pilot is required for vessels engaged in foreign trade transiting the Canal. the Delaware River an d Bay. and Chesapeake Bay. Many shipping firms use pilots from the Delaware River and Bay or Maryland Pilots' assoc iat ions.

Through the efforts of Federal. State and Local agenC ies. all aspects of Canal improvements recomme nded at the concl usio n of the study were anal yzed for environmental, cu ltura l, econom ic and engi neering concerns. Th e Ch ief's report concluded t he plan was sound from an engineering aspect, but certai n economic and environme ntal concerns

needed to be reso lved before t he design of a project could be ini t iated. Typically a Delaware River and Bay pilot boards a ship as it passes Lewes. Delaware. entering the Delaware Bay. and guid es the vessel up the bay and into the Canal at Chesapeake C ity. A Mary land pilot then takes over and continues the

These issues were addressed as the project continued through the Preconstruction Engineering and Design phase,

sh ip's trans it in to the Chesapeake Bay to Baltimore or A nnapo li s, Maryland. Th e procedure is reversed for eastbound

w hich was cost-shared with t he Maryland Port Administration. In January 200 I the study was suspended due to a

ships. At Chesapeake C ity a "chang ing of the pilots" takes place. w hile the pilot launch maneuvers alo ngs ide a vesse l as

downturn in contain er ships ca lling on the Port of Baltimore and the unlikelihood that there wo uld be Federal interest

it continues its journ ey w ithout stopping. The pilots use the sh ip's gangway, Jacob 's Ladder or port entrance to climb

in proceeding with the C & D Canal pro ject at that time.

aboard or leave t he vesse l.

14 I


C&D H ISTORY

WATERWAY OPERATION TODAY The public can also track waterway traffic via the in ter net. Vist the USACE website https:llcandd .nap.usace.army.mill

and you can obtain a daily report along w ith a map graph ic (s how n at right) to determine traffic freque ncy.

LOGS COURTESY OF USACE • CHESAPEAKE CITY FIELD OFF ICE WEBSITE

C HE SA PE A KE & DE LAWARE CA N A L

III

TRA IL CONCEPT PLAN

IM AGE COURTESY OF USACE· CHESAPEAKE CiTY FIELD OFF ICE WEBSITE

15


RESOURCE INVENTORY THE LANDFORMS The Ca nal lands lies e nt ire ly in the Atlantic Coastal Plain Coastal Plai n

APPALACH I AN PIEDMONT PROVINCE

_---- -.,

- - -......

HYDROLOGY The

1920's mo difi catio n to t he Ca nal that

phys iographic province. Th e natural landforms of this prov ince are

deepened and w idened

character ized by ge nera lly low surface features and shall ow stream val leys

allowed t he fresh wate r from the Delaware Ri ver to mix with the brackish t idal flow of the Elk River. The t ide of the Ca nal is also a res ult of

with we ll-developed fl ood plains. The landforms alo ng the Canal no longer reflect the typ ical physiograp hic features of the Coasta l Plain, but resemble more t he steep slopes and ro lling hills of the Piedmont to the

PIEDMONT PROVIN CE

also

Delaware Ri ve r tide at t he east e nd (Reedy Po int), and that o f the Chesapeake Bay at the west end (E lk River). Th e mean ra nge of th e t ide

1).,

County

Over time, as the Canal was built, improved and maintain ed, massive

00

amounts of material have been deposited along the banks . Thi s ha s create d

varies fro m 5.5 feet near the east end to 2.6

the landforms that ex ist today. It is reported that there are areas where the deposits are 50 to 60 feet deep. " In the perio d from 1920 to the ea rly I 970s, approximately 100 million cubic yards of dredged mate rial was place d in

ATLANT I C COASTAL PLAIN PROVINCE DOVER

K"".

diked di sposal areas on these em bankments," (D es ign Memoran dum No.

Chesapeake C ity.

waterway

the t ides of t he wate rbo di es at its ends." ..... the

north.

28, ACOE, September 1977.) To day existing disposal areas range fro m over 1,488 acres in Delaware to 765 acres in Maryland. Average elevations from north to so uth range from 120' to 0' at the Canal edge. From east to west. the elevations range from S' at the eastern tip De laware C ity to 5' at

the

feet at Chesapeake C ity. Mary land, a nd 2.2 feet in Elk River at Co urt House Po int, Maryland . The norm al high wate r e levatio ns grad uall y decrease from 6. 0 feet at the east end to 4.7

o

feet at the west end . Th e no r mal low water

~

°0'l. °

County

elevatio ns change from .05 feet at the east end

to 2.2 feet at t he west e nd. W he n re lated to

ATLANT IC COASTA L PLA IN PROV INCE

the same ocean tides, the t id e at t he west end

of the Canal ar rives 10.S ho urs late r than t he t ide at the east end . Thi s is due to the longer

Vario us strategies have been deve loped over time to address the pro bl em

di stance and tim e of trave l up the Chesapeake

of re-vegetating these large areas of dredge material. Lack of vegetate d

Bay." (Des ign Memora ndum N o. 28, ACOE,

GEORGETOWN

cover was imperativ e to reduce erosion, to improve t he stru ctural integrity Sunex

o f the disposa l areas and to provide w ildlife habitat. In partnersh ip w ith

~.n

Septe mber 1977.) The wate r o f t he Canal is similar to calm o pen bay conditions. Large sh ips

on

environm ental agencies, fish and w ildflife age ncies, and soil conservation

can produce waves I' to 2' high.

•g

services in both Delaware a nd Maryl a nd, t he Army Corps has fo cused on improving soil co nditi ons and vegetat ion restoration strategies for the sites. Th e res ul t has been a mosaic of success ional habitat areas of open meadow areas , in terspersed w ith woo d lots and man-made ponds.

As hab itat di ve rsity in creased, so did the divers ity of w ildlife, a nd hence, t he importa nce of t he Ca nal lands for hunting. bird-watch ing, hiking, horse backriding and dog t raining. Th e Canal la nds are considered to be the most

MAJOR PHYS IOGRAPHIC AND POLITICAL DIVISIONS OF DELAWARE

MAJOR PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS OF MARYLAND

I

heavily used w il dlife area in the Sta te of Delaware due to its location

to the most popu late d part of t he state. Game species hunted includes whi te-ta iled deer, mo urni ng dove, cottontail rabb it, squirre l, waterfow l and

bobwhite qua il. Land cove r adjace nt to the Ca nal lands is mostly farm and wood land. H owever, adjacent res idential ho using is in creasing at a rapid

rate w ith high growth trends pro jected for the area t hrough 2025.

16 I

GENERALIZED CROSSSECTION OF THE C&D CANAL ILLUSTRATING THE COMPLEX MAKEUP OF THE DREDGED AND EXCAVATED MATERIAL DEPOSITED OVER THE ORIG INAL GROUND SURFACE

....

.

. '.

:"

-- --- --- -- -- --_- ._- --- -._ -- -- -- -- -- - - - - -=--

-

-

·Il 6'j


RESOURCE INVENTORY

FISH AND W ILD LIF E The C & D Canal is a good locatio n to view migratory du c ks and geese. Beca use the wate rway is cont inuously traverse d by both co mmerci al and recreational vesse ls of all

sizes. the wa ters are too turbid to permi t the growth o f aquatic grasses in the Canal's ma in stem. So me of t he tr ibutaries, particularly

those sheltered fro m th e wa kes of large vesse ls, have recen t ly seen th e emergence of var io us forms of pondwee d. w hich to

migrating du cks and geese is an im portant

food so urce. (Source: Marylan d's To p Publicland Goose Hun ting, Diamo nd ) BETHEL W ILDFLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA

Meas ur ing ju st over 400 ac res, Bethe l Wil dlife Manage ment A rea is situated di rectly o n the

shores of t he C & D Canal. The Canal's

WMA

sho reline here consists mainl y of dredging

spoils th at c re ate a near-ve rtical sho re lin e ,

.

~~

w hi ch is not condu cive to wa terfow l hun t ing.

~

.

~

However, t he stretch along state Ro ute 286 cons ists mainly of low land swamps that provide

good

pass- shooting for

;p

0/,

hun te rs

seeking du cks and geese. O nl y fo ur sites are available here, bu t acco rdin g to local

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p

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t

wildlife manage rs. Bethel is among t heir most

!

po pu lar locations fo r waterfowl hun t ing.

Sensitive Wildlife Areas

1

2

~

Flora and Fauna images courtesy FEODOR PITCAIRN from his book "Dreaming of the Wild"

TURKEY VU LTURE

I

RED W INGED BLACKBIRD

CHESAPEAKE & DE LAWARE CANA L

/I I

WH IT ETA llED DEER

TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

MALLARD DUCKS

WATERFOWL HABITAT

BOX TURTLE

I

17


VEGETAT ION AND HABITAT The early successiona l hab itats that have developed on the Canal lands includ e: Thickets, shr ub lands, hedgerows, and wood lots. In the broad se nse, the vege tation of these habitats includes a variety of both native and no n-native species. A few narrow wooded ravines ex ist, which suppo rt young deciduous species on moderate slopes. Smal l fres hwater streams can be

found in these rav in es that flow to the Canal. Occasional ly these ravines lac k a wooded ca nopy and sup port a scrub/s hrub wetland plant community. At lower elevations, areas ca n also be dominated by Phragmites ma rs hes which lower the habitat SCOTT RU N

JOY RUN TIER) SERV ICE ROAD

va lue of a site. On ly two sites support a contiguo us block of mature forest - Emily Point and Summ it East.

The Environmental Resources Report (December, 1994) ranked the e nviro nm ental reso urc e va lue of 13 dredge material areas (see page 28) in the fol lowing descendin g order: EMILY POIN T - one of two sites w ith large areas of mature forest greater than 100 acres, important for forest in terior dwelling birds. Mapl e-gum-po plar and Oak-hickory-beech are the most common forest types. " Most o f the site has not been disturbed ... Vegetative communities and the ir res ulting animal co mmuniti es are well developed ... permanent po nd s in the center of the site provide an additional habitat component.

SUMM IT EAST - one of two sites with large areas of mature fo rest types greater than 100 acres, important for forest in terior dwelling bird s." ... it is recommended that this site be left alone due to its increasingly rare size of habitat and th e DEEP CUT

GUT HRIE RUN

species w hich are using it."

DELAWARE C ITY - particular va lue to migratory waterfowl and proximity to Pea Patc h Island, a nesting site for wading birds. A 93-acre large open water area is a nesti ng area for many bird spec ies including mallards, black duck and tea l.

UPPER SUMMIT - currently a des ignated dog training and dog tria l area. "Th is site has th e potential to being valuable to a number of wi ldlife .... Fres hwater marsh areas in Delaware are the among th e least common type found .. ..Th e large area of grassland is a habitat that is becoming increas ingly rare in the Mid-Atlant ic region as fewer farmers main ta in pastureland or grow hay. Many of the grassland neotropicaJ birds, such as the eastern meadowlark, dickcissel,

and savann ah sparrow, are ex pe r ie nci ng even greater population declines than the forest dwe llers (S mith et.al, 1992) Unfortunate ly, the regular mowing of the upl and grassland prevents successful breeding by grassland species."

OLD BRANCH CANAL - DELAWARE CITY

SOUTH CANAL EDGE AT BETHEL

GOOSE POINT - A third o f t his site is wetland habi tat and open water, with an upland area dominated by grassland. "The large area of fres hwate r mar sh surrounding scattere d ponds formi ng a good interspers io n of cove r types, plu s the extensive area of grasslan d and meadow give this area a mo derate to high potential for w ildlife use."

SCHOOL HOUSE ROAD - mixed juxtapos iti o n o f woods and fi e lds, with low divers ity o f plant spec ies . Consid ered to have a low to moderate value for w ildlife. BIDDLES POINT - low habitat di versity due to dense stands of scrub-s hrub or phragm ites and many non-native species. ST. GEORGES - largely fie ld and early suc cessional forest of low str uctural com pl exity.

BETHEL DRA INAGE D ITCH

18 I

ST. GEORGES NORTH GATED ACCESS


RESOURCE INVENTORY

LOWER SUMMIT - The on ly know n site of diffuse juncus, Jun cus d iffus iss imus (De laware Natural Heritage Inve nto r y - S I state ra nk species of concern}.A lso a dog tra ining area, t hi s site has a low to moderate habi tat va lue du e to fre quent presence of peopl e and dogs and plant spec ies di vers ity.

BETH EL - "This area is do minated by large blocks of low va lu e habi tat s uch as phrag mi tes and bare gro und . W hile BETHEL NATURA L AREA

BETHE L DITCH

habitat in te rspersio n is fairl y good w ith scattered stands of fores t ... th e overall habi tat an d w ildlife va lue is low,"

C HESAPEAKE C IT Y - "Thi s site is covered by low va lue, early successio nal habitats that prov ide li tt le str uctu ra l com pl exity ... Much of the site is covered wit h monotypi c stands of phragmites. Th e w ildlife va lue is lo w,"

REEDY POINT SOUTH - Fifty-o ne percent of th e site is do minated by phragm ites w it h patc hes of sh rubs and woo dy species res ul t ing in low hab itat va lue.

RE EDY POINT NORTH - "O vera ll w il dlife use of t he site is co ns idered low as t here is limi ted di ve rs ity and t he majo ri ty of vegeta ted habitat is covere d by pl ant species w ith low w ildlife va lue."

CANAL ECOLOGY

BETHEL DISPOSAL SITE

BETHEL DISPOSAL SITE

Thi s reso urces o f th e C & D Canal have bee n we ll doc um e nted in pas t studi es such as Habi tat Assess me nt of C & D Canal Upland Disposal Areas for the C & D Canal Dee pening Feas ibili ty Stud y, Decemb e r 1994, p re pare d by En viro nmental Reso urces, Inc. Thi s re port build s upon the wo rk of prev io us studi es to insure th at th e develo pm ent of t he C & D Canal as a rec rea ti on reso urce considers the program and fac ility nee ds as we ll as environmental iss ues in an integrate d fash io n.

T he na tu ra l enviro ns of th e C & D Canal W ildlife Area lie within a fragme nted lan dscape, co nsisting of a mosaic o f early successional habitat ty pes, wh ich are an ar tifact of th e creatio n of the Canal. Early success ional upland habitats include: t hickets. grass-land s. shrub-lands. hedgerows, an d woo dlots. In t he broa d sense, the vegetation of these habitats inclu des a var iety of both native and non-native broad-leaf herbs, grasses, se dges, vines. and decidu o us and evergreen t rees and shrubs. In addi t io n. narrow woode d ravines also exis t. whic h ty picall y support yo ung. deci duo us tree species BETHEL NATUAL AREA

BETHEL NATURAL AREA

o n mo derate slopes. In t he bottom of t hese rav ines, small freshwater stream s fl ow toward the Canal. O ccas ionall y.

these streams lack a woo ded ca no py and as a resul t, emerge nt and scrub/s hr ub wetl an ds deve lo p along th e streams narrow fl oodpl ains. Artifi cial t ypes o f hab itat, such as po nds and impo und me nts also occ ur in th e Canal W ildlife Area. Th ese human-c reated habi ta ts do prov ide va lue to w il dlife, parti cul arly w hen native vegetatio n has beco me esta bli shed within , or o n t heir perimeters.

REEDY POINT NORTH路 FORT DUPONT

/

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

REEDY POINT NORTH

II /

TRAI L CONCEPT PLAN

19


GEOLOGY - C & 0 CANA L The o ldest Coasta l Plain uni t in Delaware. the Potomac Formation, was deposited o n ancie nt crystalline rocks of the Basement Comp lex from the la tter part of Early Cretaceous time into Late Cretaceous time. Streams transported clays and sands from the Appalachians in the northwest and sediments were depos ited probably in a deltaic enviro nment in this part of Delaware.

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The overlying w hi te sands and ligniti c black silts of the Magothy Formation are separated from the Potomac Foundat ion by a n un co nfo rmity. The Magothy

Formation

indicates the transition

from

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o ld er nonmarine

sediments to the later marine deposits. Another small uncomformity separates the Magothy from the overlying marine Upper Cretaceous rocks. Magothy sed im e nts we re deposited in a shorelin e e nviro nm e nt containing e lements of stra nd line, barrier is la nd, and lagoonal cond it ions.

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A sequence o f var ied marine sed im entary rocks was deposited essentially co ntinu o usly from upp er Cretaceous to at least Middle Eocene time. The o ldest Cretaceous sediments above the Magothy form the Matawan Group, co nsisting of t he Merchantville, Englishtown, and Marshalltown Formations. The Englishtown Formation was formerly called Wenonah and t he Marshalltown was included in the area mapped as Mount Laurel Formation. (Spoljaric a nd jordan, 1966.) The area mapped previously as Redba nk is probably weathe red Marshalltown and Mo un t Laure l Fo rm atio n. N o ne of these uni ts persist very far into th e subsurface, so

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t he Matawan is ass igned formational status at depth a few miles south of t he C & D Canal. The Merc hantvi lle and Marshalltown sedim e nts were

SYMBOL S ~ 30 _ ,,'t·"iZ'.~";,,-""t'"::' ::::::; J :.:,_~~

i

probably deposited in fairly sha llow, ope n marine, perhaps embayed areas as evid e nced by t he glaucon ite co nte nt and fossils. However, li tho logy and fossils indicate that the Englishtown represents a shore lin e environme nt in which sea level was dropping.

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II

GEOLOGY Of THE CHESAPEAKE AND DELAWARE CANAL AREA. DELAWARE. T HOMAS E. PICKETT. , 1970 1···I",·.l t'

In Delaware. t he name Mount Laurel Formation is synonymous with the name Monmouth used in Maryland and New j ersey. li t ho logy and fossils indicate a slight regression of the sea during Mount Laurel time.

(Note: Base Map is comprised of USGS Topographic Division for Elkton, St. Georges, Delaware City Quadrangles. Map modified by Delaware Geologica l Survey aro und Ra ilRoad Bridge area to show new sh ip chann el, t herefore many topographic conto urs are mea nin gless in th is area.)

The Paleocene-to-Eocene Age Rancocas Formation is found in the so ut heastern part of the Ca nal area of Delaware. There is no obvious unconformity betwee n Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary Age sed im e nts. The high glauco mite content of t he Rancocas Formation indicates open shelf co ndi t io ns. The area previously mapped as unit B (Spoljaric and Jordan, 1996) is includ ed w ithin the Rancocas Formation because suffi cient criteria for a separate unit were not found in the field investigations.

Much later, during t he Pleistocene time, the advance and retreat of the continental glaciers brought about changes in sea level and in t he streams draining in to Delaware. The Pleistocene Co lumbia Formation, consisting mostly of coarse sa nd and gravel, was deposited on the stream-channe led surface of the truncated Cretaceous and Tertiary beds. In the Cana l area a major north-south "channel" ca n be seen in t he St. Georges area and a lesser one near Summ it Bridge, shown by t hickn ess co nto urs (isopachs). (Source: Delaware Geo logica l Survey, University of Delaware, Robert R. jordan, State Geo logist)

20 I

"

'

•.

j


RESOURCE INVENTORY

GEOLOGY - DEEP CUT There are three uniqu e geological expos ures alo ng the C&D Ca nal. The three areas are know as the Deep C ut, Low Bluff

and t he Biggs Farm site. During excavation for th e Canal, ancient marin e fossil depos its dating back 500 mi ll ion years were revea led at t hese si t es. Today, rich depo sits of tr ilobites and bac ulites continue to draw fo ssil hunters to t he area. The closest comparable site in size and qual ity is at Martha's Vin eya rd in Massach us etts. All three sites have ve ry high ed ucational va lue. Two of th e sites, The Deep Cut and Biggs Farm lie close to th e proposed tra il system and sho uld be

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recog nized for special protection as plans develo p.

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The Dee p Cut site is access ible from the prese nt se rvice

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bluff was e roding at t he rate of about two feet per year. The

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lOW BLUFF C&D CANAL: St, Georges Quadrangle \l~.];I'II,\\;T\"1I.U '

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SCAL.E

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road that wi ll become the proposed mul t i-use trail. The site is highly susce ptible to erosion. It was reported in 1978 that the

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IO IDI ATIO\

BIGG'S FARM ; St. Georges Quadrangle

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educationa l va lue and e nvi ro nm e ntal se nsitivity of this s ite is

-

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very high and sho uld be protec t ed. ~...:...

The Biggs Farm site was exposed when th e Canal was w ide ned .

Attempts to protect th is site from erosion and damage in th e past have produced mixed resu lts. The e ducatio nal value and enviro nm ental se nsiti vity of t his site is also very high a nd

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shou ld be protected.

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DEEP CUT C&D CANAL; St. Georges Quadrangle

600'

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CRETAC IOUS FORMATIONS IN THE CHESAPEAKE ANO DELAWARE CANAL" GEOLOGY BY THOMAS E. PICKETT, DEL. GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY CROSS SECTION THROUGH "DEEP· CUT' DEPICTING CANAL AFTER EACH ENLARGEMENT

BLUFFAT DEEP CUT· PHOTOGRAPH BY H.H. HARVEY. 1967.

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

/11

T RAIL CONCEPT PLAN

i I. ~

45 0 ' --

250':"~

/ 21


GEOGRAPH IC AND DEMOGRAPHIC CONSIDERATIONS There are three distin ct municipa li t ie s along the C & D Canal, dating back to it s creation as an instrumental waterway

St. Georges lies south of the C & D Canal and t he small remaining portion of St. Georges Creek. It was one of

for commerce and trade. In Maryland, C hesapeake City is located on t he north and south sides of t he Canal. In

the original "hundreds" in Delaware created in 1682 and was named for St. Georges C reek that once flowe d along

Delaware, St. Georges is adjacent to Route 13 on the north side of the Canal. De laware City occup ies t he north s id e

its northern boundary. A hundred is an adm inistrative division, frequently use d in Europe and New England, w hich

of the Canal, along the o ld branch Canal to the Delaware River. St. Georges and Delaware City in New Castle Cou nty, DE and C hesapeake City of Ceci l County, MD.

hi storica ll y wa s used to divide a larger region, in to smaller geographi cal units. Today, most of the bed of St. George s

The 7,700 (De laware, 4986 and Maryland, 2706) acres situ ated di rect ly along the Cana l Waterway, between Chesapeake C ity and Delaware C ity and is fede rally- owned land operated by the Cor ps. The Corps leases most of the gove rnm ent

From St. Georges to the De laware River, there is a mix of industrial (Valero refin ery in D elaware C ity), agricultural, commercial, residential, recreational and large areas of und eveloped land and we tl and s/waterways. W hil e St. George's

land to the states of Mary land and Delaware for wi ldlife management. Thi s has bee n going on for several years, and is

Hundred is rural and agricu ltural in plac es there ha s been considerable residential and co mm ercia l development in the

expected to continu e ind efinitely.

1980s and 1990s wh ich continues to this day. Thi s area is among the fastest growing parts of Delaware.

Creek has been used by the route of the Canal, w hi ch has effectively rep laced it .

Th e cities an d sma ll towns along the Canal are a story of comm unities that ha s been form ed in respo nse to the Canal

Delaware C ity's location at the eastern terminus of the Canal in 1829 caused D elaware C ity " .. . to become both an

and its unique geographi c locatio n. C hesapeake C ity was nam ed in 1839, ten years after the Canal was opened to

operating ba se and a way statio n for a number of significant shipping-re lated activities over the decades."

traffic. Prior to 1929, when the Canal was dredged to sea-leve l, sh ips wou ld stop at Chesapeake C ity for the locks that

"Delaware C ity has evolved through many perio ds of growth and dec line and continues to be a thriving, li ving

all owed them to use the Canal.The Canal has always had a major impact on t he town continui ng in 1942, when a ship

community for the people who work and reside w ithin its bounds. Battery Park, located along the Delaware River at

destroyed a bridge that con nected the north and so uth side of town, to t he opening of a superstructure bridge in 1949,

the foot of C li nton Street, was rece nt ly renovated. H ere a visitor is surround ed by a scenic panorama of t he D elawa re

to the razing of homes in order to en large the Cana l in the 1960s.

Ri ver, Pea Patch Islan d and the New Jersey shore li ne. (www.de lawa rec ity.info/his to ry.html)

"Tod ay, Chesapeake C ity is the o nly town in Mar yland that is situated on a working commercial Canal. M ost of its

Both counties in Maryland and Delaware are areas of projected high growth. Much of the Canal li es in New Castle

interesting 19th-century architecture re mains intact, and the area that enco mpasses it on the south bank ha s been

County, o ne of three counties in D elaware.

placed o n the Nati o nal Register of Historic Places. At the city dock, pl easure boaters find a tranqu il harbor off the

metropoli tan area and is ranked first in the State for population growth during the 199 0s. The estimate d popu lation in

bu sy In ter-Coastal Waterway, of which the Canal is a major element. From the ba sin, visitors can wa lk easil y in to town

fi lled the locks sta nd in mute testimony. Outside is a rep lica of the lighthouses that li ned the Canal in days go ne by."

2004 was 5 19,396. This was an increase of 3.82% from the 2000 census. The County is ex pected to have a 19% increase in popu lation by 2030. The popu lation percent change was also great in Cecil County, Maryland where from Apr il I, 2000 to July 1,2004 the population rose by I 1. 1% to 9S,526. Projections for Ceci l County for 2030 are 108,800; an

(Chesapeake C ity website, www.seececil. org/)

increase of 13% in population.

or tour t he Canal Museum, where the story of the Canal is to ld and t he massive waterwhee l and steam engin es that

N ew Castle cou nty is consid ere d part of the Philadelphia-Camd en

Between the De laware/ Mary land state border and Ro ute I in St. Georges, Delawa re, open space north of the Canal lands is qu ickly being converted from agricu lt ural/crop land to residentia l and co mm ercial land. Lums Pon d State Park occup ies 1,757 acres just north of the Canal in De laware, essentiall y its geograph ical midpoint. Majo r res idential and

commercial growth is rap idly unfo lding so uth of t he Cana l.

BIRO'S EYE VIEW OF CHESAPEAKE CITY

22 /

OLD CANAL - DE LAWARE CiTY

CHESAPEAKE C ITY

ST. GEORGES

DELAWARE CITY


RESOURCE INVENTORY

GEOGRA PHIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC CONSIDERATION S

Poplllatioll Projectiolls by Age j i/I' Cecil COIIII~I' (mil !I1mr/llll/l, 2000 to 2020

2005

NEW CASTLE COUNTY POPULATION GROWTH 2000·2025 PERCENT INCREASE BY TRAFFIC ZONE

Cedi I' errl,nt Nnmber 28,067 29% 53.208 56% 14,3 76 15% 95.65 1 100%

0- 19 20-59 60 + Total

2020 ~ lar \' land

Nnmber 1.556,153 3, 138.385 9 15,954 5.6 10,492

Percent 28% 56% 16% 100%

Man'land I'ercent Number 27% 1,584.647 3206.448 55% 18% 1,433.864 6224.959 100%

Ceeil P. rcent Number 27% 29,922 57,827 52% 2 1% 23.705 100% 111 .454

Source. Mary land Departm ent of Plannillg. 2004 ,

600,000

60,000 J...-~...;.-n

f---

C&D Canal Bridge Crossings

-

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50 ,000 -

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New Castle County

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% Change in Population 2000-2025

o

D •

·2% to 0% to 25% to 50% to 100% or

40,000

0%

25% 50% 100%

c

..

:; 30,000 "0

39;:900

, f- :,

./

-

"-

L

20,000 f-

10,000

~

...,

~8

-

MOT Area

NCC County

8,2 14

, ~;l8

~ ~

~

r::e

I

300,000 I-

MOT Area NCC Counly

1

The. Popukltioo of New Castle Coun ty IS

.388l. bet ween 1970 and 20 25

2005

M

20 15

1990

2000

10,040

13, 187

29, 120

36,247

397,900

18,578 -440,400

26,438

375,500

488,475

502,680

522,614

,--

400,000

29, 120

1980

1970

-

v<pa le d t o grow +4-4% while the MOT area IS expected to grow

10,040 0

502,660

~,

/

375,500 ,

~

more

f-- 4IC'

~75

c.....MOI3.L . 500,000

522,614

Year

2025 48,2 14

--

540,734

A,....... OelOO ...........T '. ~'\

C H ESA PE A KE & DE LAWA RE CA N A L

III

TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

I 23


GEOGRAPH IC AND DEMOGRAPHIC CONSIDERATIONS

Census 2000: Maryland Profile

Slate Race* Breakdown

Census 2000: Delaware Profile

State Race· Breakd own .·.."IlI ..) ~"h" !l .~-.~."

j

Popu lati on Den sity by Cen sus Tract

Population De nsity by Ce nsu s Trac t

.<><1 Oth .. '''cill,'''",d«(<O.1''1

\ :w.n.,.n"''''(2.0lfl 1.~ "' m ", ... «.

<l 1l(,

Hispanl( or l.allno (o f an)' racc) makes up 4.3% of the state po pulati on.

llis pan ic or La llno (of a n), race) ma kes up 4 .8% or the Slate po pul atio n.

Population by Sex and Age

Population by Sex and Age

."'" " " I XI.OO"

I ('I

14U,OOO

de

Hou sing Tenure

Housing Ten ure

l u"I<I"•• i.dU...

I ..., U<, "~ I,d ""u.I"~ Un'"

67.","

A'-"OJI,U,,,,,,""ld$l ..

,,' ("n"~I«",".d""'''

US C ENS USBU REAU II~II""II Yo" Milke

"'{Mm,'" DuWI,"s

U.S. Dep.,.",e,,' of ("""".t«

24 I

2.35

~\~ ,.. • • " .... ~.I ~ .. oJ ()o..".(l(tupl,dU"""

U"'"

2.6 l

V'UI" .

AVf"~'

n..." ..... ~ SI"

. , ~.""' .O(' "pI ... u", ..

pe<>pl~

2.37

p~"pJ"

Po pu la ti on Per Square Mile

by Ce nsus Tract

by Census Tract

-

U.5. (( NSUS 8URfAl)

W . n'<,", I<, ",~ , d

27.1'IIk'"I<' fl«uplod

Po pulatio n Per Sq ua re Mile

(fJ

.1 902·2001

["",Im,,,, ."d ~.. "'''" A,huon;' '''''''''

O<C'llpled

~"'''''<'''',,'''''dS'',

01

2.73 "e., plc

~~ 72.1"OwnuOccupltd

n.n; Ronte,

Own~r Otru pl~d

' 'lIl.m,,,.

298,736

1,980,859

10,000.0 ,<> 176,524.0 5,000.0 109.999.9 1.000.0 to 4.999.9 ~OO.O 10 999.9 79.6'0199.') ~O.O to 71.S

10,1)003.0 '0 34.260.5 5.000 ,0 '0 9 ,999.9 1.000.0104 ,999.9

1£.0 th." ~O.O

Loo .. ,h.n 40,0

COUIlI)' or Cil)'

8,,""d'''''

~~'i{~:"I~tro~~n Ce n,e,

200,010999.9 19.61019').9 40,0 ".19.S

US C E NS USBU R EA U

- - County

(i)

Hound"~'

~~~~I~,~;,;'n C."tu


RESOURCE INVENTORY

CURRENT LA ND USE

Miles 1

2

Legend

D

Federal Property

Landuse Agricu ltural/Cropland

/

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

/1 /

TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

_

Commercial

_

Forest

o o _

Industrial

_

Marinas

L;';#q Wetlands

Recreational Residential

D

o

Waterways/Streams/Canals/Lakes

Other Undeveloped Other

Utilities

/ 25


DELAW A RE STATE PARK S & RECREATION

MARYLAND PARK S & RECRE ATION

LUMS POND

CECIL COUNTY

Lums Pond State Park is bu il t aroun d the largest freshwater pond in Delaware.The park features fishing, sports facilities,

Ceci l County is characterized by rol ling topography that transitions into the Pennsylvania Piedmont to the north

camping. and more on its 1,790 acres on the north side of the Chesapeake and Delaware Cana l. Covering 200 acres,

and the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the south and to the east. Among the county's most prominent physica l features are

Lums Pond itse lf offers a sandy beach for sunbathing (swimming is not allowed), and boat rentals provide water-bound

the granite cliffs of Port Deposit rising steeply from the Susquehanna River. In 1998, the population was 82,522; it is projected to reach 94,600 by 20 I O. The cou nty's growth areas are concentrated around the towns located along the U.S . Rt. 40/1-95 corridor.

recreation in the summer months. A boat launching ramp and two piers allow easy access to the water. A 7 mile multiuse trai l is open to hiking, mountain bikes and equestrian use. Other shorter nature trails are found in the park.

Before the pond ex isted, St. Georges Creek flowed through the hardwood forest and was the site of several Native American hun ting camps. The creek was dammed in the early 1800s when the C & D canal was buil t. Water from the pond was used to fill the locks of the canal and power a small mill. This area was first opened as a state park in 1963. The park is ow ned and operated by the State Division of Parks & Recreation.

The cou nty covers approximately 222,940 land acres. Fifty-six percent (56%) or 16 1,522 acres are zoned agr icu ltura l. Agricu ltu ra l lands dominate most of the northern and southern portio ns of the county. Four hundred sixty-four

farms averagi ng 185 acres each comprise about 38.5% of Cec il County's tota l land acres. Just under 15,000 acres are enrolled in agricul tural districts through the Maryland Agricultura l Land Preservation Foundation. Easements have

been so ld on about 8,700 acres. The Maryland Environmental Trust holds conservat ion easements on about 2.700 acres, and an add it ional 600 acres are protected by easements held by other land trusts such as the Ceci l Land Trust

and the Natural Lands Trust. Scout troop marching up a tra il. The county's Comprehensive Plan identifies eight potential greenways and four C lass II bikeways . The Lower Susquehanna Heritage Greenway is the primary greenway in the county. H owever, t here is ongoing discussion about the possibility for several others that could link parks, trails, and greenways in Pennsylvania and Delaware, with corridor extensions into and through parts of northern Ceci l County and along the Chesapeake

and Delaware Canal. Elk Neck State Park, Elk Neck State Forest, and the Fair Hill Natural Resources Management Area provide the three largest blocks of publicly owned land in t he county. The planned East-Coast Greenway cou ld eventua ll y be routed t hro ugh Ceci l County if appropriate tra il corridors and bike routes are establi shed in the future in Cec il, Harford, and Baltimore counties. A pedestrian bridge across t he Susquehanna River wou ld also have to be accompli shed to accommocate this route.The W ilmington Metropolitan

Area Planning Comm ission (WILMAPCO) is currently evaluating potential routes. The Maryland East Coast Greenways Comm ittee has identified an interim route that straddles the Chesapeake Bay. (See Append ix B.) The ideal corridor wou ld be an off-road tra il in the vicin ity of the 1-95 corridor through north eastern Ceci l County.

CHESAPEAKE AND DELAWARE CANAL GREENWAY The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Greenway is a planned greenway lin king Welc h Point Managed HuntingArea, Elk Forest Wi ldlife Management Area, Canal National W ildlife Refuge, and Bethel Managed Hunting Area. The u.S. Army Corps of Engineers currently holds ownersh ip to substantial tracts of land alo ng the canal. There are existing trai ls withi n its land holdings, and the service road parall eli ng the canal is being considered for a bike path to link various communitie s along the canal.

26 1


RESOURCE INVENTORY

L

Agricu ltural Ease ments MET Easements

-

Private Conse rvation Lands Co~ty

Parks

DNR Lands Federal Lands

---

Additional Protected Lands Data Reported by the County existing Greenway

Potential Greenway

+

2~!!!!Iiiiiiiii0i!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2 Miles

Maryland Atlas of Green ways, Witer Trails and Green Infrastructure

Cecil County Greenways, Water Trails and Protected Lands {

'.

Cecilton

Chesapeake and Coastal Watershed Service

Waterway and Greenways Division Maryland Greenways Commission Watershed Managemen t and Analysis Division @ DNR Augusl 2000

I

CHE SAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

I II

TRA IL CONCEPT PLAN

I

I 27


CULTURAL RESOURCES FORT DELAWARE Located on Pea Patch Island off Delaware City, pentagon-shaped Fort Delaware stands guard over the Delaware River. Today it is a popular State Park and is reached by taking a pleasant ferry ride from Delaware City. It was an even busier place during the Civil War when it served as a prisoner-of-war camp for captured Confederate soldiers. Pea Patch Island's important strategic position for the defense of W il mington and Philadelphia against naval attack was recognized in 1819 when the first fort was built on the island. Constructed of wood, th is fort was destroyed by a fire in

1832. By 1848, the federal government appropriated funds to build a state-of-the-art coastal fortification. It is this fort that stil l ex ists today. The island fortress, combined with gun batteries at what is now Fort DuPont on the Delaware shore and at what is now Fort Mott. New Jersey, formed an imposing defensive system. Construction of the fort was an expensive undertaking; at a cost of two million dollars, the structure is built atop more

than 7,000 pilings driven into the marshy land. Fort Delaware was substantial ly completed eleven years later in 1859, ju st before the beginning of the Civi l War. The fort is a massive structure made of granite and brick. The wa lls are up to 30 feet thick and stand 32 feet high. It was outfitted with the 19th Century's most modern defenses including three tiers of guns. The fort is entered through

the sally port after crossing the drawbridge over the 30-foot wide moat that surrounds the fort. Fort Delaware's ro le as a coastal defense fortification changed to that of prisoner-of-war camp with the arrival of the first Confederate prisoners after the battle of Kernstown in 1862. As more and more prisoners arrived. additional

barracks were erected. They were wooden structures built just north of the fort. By Jun e 18 63, there were 6,000 prisoners on the island. Fort Delaware's largest population came in 1863 after the battle of Gettysburg. At this time 12.500 prisoners were housed on the island. Combin ed w ith the civi lian and Union population. the island's population

reached close to 16,000 people making it, some say, the largest city in Delaware for a brief period. Largely abandoned after the Civi l War, the fort was modernized in 1896 by the addition of "disappearing" guns at the south end of the fort. A garrison was posted at the beginning of the Spanish-American War, which remained in place

until 1905. The fort was again lightly manned during Wo rld War I and at the outset of World War II. But in 1943 the disappearing guns were cut-up for scrap to support the war effort. The fort was closed in 1944 and dec lared surplu s

PHOTO COURTESY OF THE FORT DELAWARE SOCIETY

property. It was turned over to the State of Delaware in 1947 and became a State Park in 195 1. During its entire

history, Fort Delaware never fired a shot in anger. (Source:WWW.DELAWARECITY.INFO)

PORT PENN INTERPRET IVE CENTER Another attraction in the area is the Port Penn Interpretive Center, located on Route 9 about four miles south of

Delaware City.The Center offers disp lays and programs which explain the folk life of the historic wetland communities along the shores of the Delaware. Se lf-gu ided wa lking tours are available featuring the historic homes of Port Penn. as we ll as the scenic marshlands surrounding the town. The Center is operated by the State Division of Parks & Recreation. PHOTO COURTESY OFVISITTHEFORT.COM

28 I


RESOURCE INVENTORY

CULTURA L RESOURCES FORT DUPONT Fort Delaware State Park - Pva Patch Island -

Fort DuPont is located on the shores of the Delaware River at the original Chesapeake & Delaware Canal near Delaware City. During the War of 1812. cannons were mounted on its shore to defend the De laware River against the British

and Fcury to PClO Patch hland

The first permanent fortification of this site was constructed during the C ivil War with the install ation of the Ten Gun Battery. In those days, the site was call ed "The Fort Opposite" due its location across the river from Fort Delaware .Along with Fort Delaware on Pea Patch Island in the Delaware River a nd Fort Mott o n the N ew Jersey coast, Fo rt DuPont was part of a three-point defense system - now known as the ''Three Forts." Legend The fortification was strengthened in the 1870s w hen the battery was expanded to house twenty IS-i nch Rodman guns and a co ncrete powder magazine was constructed. Major improveme nts were made again during the Spanish-American War in 1898. New batteries were constructed of concrete formed over steel frames to house "disappearing" guns, rap idfire cann o ns, and mortars. Many of the bunkers and gun emp lacements still exist today. In 1899, the site was named Fort DuPont in honor of Rear Admiral Samue l Francis du Pont, a C ivi l War hero from Delawa re.

SHe Information Open Part. Land

(iii

Palklng

~:7.;'

WeUal'ld

Telephone

OIher Protecled Lands

II I!Hl

Watltf

~

InformatIOn Boards

-=Fa

Fe"y

~ Wooded Part. Lal'ld

- - Road, Part F•• tur. .

~ BUilding ~ Part.ing

In the twentieth-century the fort was used to tra in soldiers for both World War I a nd World War II. Between the wars, the fort served as

FacintiN

<:)

@

Re.tricted Area.

Tran.

headquarters for t he First Engineers Regiment. Many local residents remember uni ts competing to build pontoon bridges across th e Branch Cana l during tra ining exerc ises. During World War II , over 3,000 military personnel were stationed at Fort DuPont. It also held ove r 1,000 German and Ita lian prisoners-of-war from Rommel's Afrika Cor ps. After World War II Fort DuPont was turned over to the State of Delaware . A portion of t he site was dedicated as a State Park in 1992. Text courtesy of delawareclty./nfo

River View Prison Camp Wetlands

e m

Reslfooms

1

AagostlnCl WlidlUCl

Vlllagv of , Port Penn ~'" and Vldnlty ~--t-7 -----',

" Fortress

to .. OI WillfUl. A •• " I Olvhl"n ", rl . h " .. of Wlllflll.'

Fishing Picnic Tables

II

Basketban Couns

IJI

Tennis Courts

m

SeenlC 0vef100k

~

Tran Head

S

Boat Launch

The DRBA's Th ree Fo r ts Fer ry Se rvice runs between Fort Mott in New Jersey, Fort Delaware State Park o n Pea Patch Island a nd De laware City, Delaware . From April through October, visitors

expe rie nce authentic reenactments of Civi l War episod es, both civili an and military, "lantern tours" of th e fort at night and demonstrations of how people lived in the 1800s .

Text courtesy

L

~ .QV- L

"

of three forts . Com

PHOTO CO U RTESY OF VISITTHEFORTCOM

I

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

III

TRAIL C ONCEPT PLAN

I 29


EXISTING CONDITIONS CORPS DREDGED MATERIAL PLACEMENT AREAS

(J

------

,

,\

\

LONG CREEK

( 13Acres )

COURTHOUSE POINT

( 172 Acres)

CANAL POND

( 55 Acres)

R%~YF.ed,,,a l Property

COE Dredged Material P I"r.Fi,nA,,1

o

The Army Corps operates and maintains e ighteen (18) Dredge Material Placeme nt Areas directly along the north and south sides of the Canal in Maryland and Delaware . This is land set as ide for the disposal of dredge material on a needed basis.

30 I

0.5

2


EXIST IN G COND ITIONS

RECREATION AND OPPORTUNITIES

/

,\

\I

1/

Elkton

,0

,?

~ ~ ... Delaware

0«)

<.,~ 111'!

City

~

./

13-",

'1>

F

"

.)<

<

'1~

896

/" 1\

i

\ \ I

iI

!

i

J---~lil.,----_~

o

!

,5

1

2

ii

The Canal exists today as a functional waterway with supporti ng structures that faci li tate its operation. In add ition, the

adjacent Canal property is util ized by local Delaware and Maryland residents during daylight hours for wa lking, ru nni ng, biking, hi king, fi shi ng, hun ting, bird watch ing, dog-training, horseback rid ing among others activit ies. Restroom facilities are located at

the Grass Dale Center in Fort DuPont, south of Delaware City, DE, and at the C&D Canal Museum in Chesapeake C ity, MD during its hours of operation.

/

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

Legend ~ Federal Property

M!J Waterfowl Hunting Area

~ Retriever Training Area

-\:..- Bicycle Routes

Fishing Piers I Spots

Marinas

F

Trail_AccessPts

~ Dog Training Area

o II/ TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

State Property

- - Potential Trails

.......... Trails

/ 31


EXISTING BIKE PATHS AND CONNECTIONS P E NN S YLV A N I A

Based on th e New Castle County Bicycle Map. there are two statewide routes running over t he C & 0 Canal, ut ili zing Summ it Bridge a nd St. Georges Bridge. There is also o ne regiona l route, w hi ch run s a lo ng Route 9 and crosses over

Reedy Point Bridge south of Delaware City. A series of recreational connector's link these main routes together utilizi ng county and municipal roa ds both north

and so uth of the Ca nal. From these, it is poss ible to link into loca l roads and reach NEW JER S EY

the Canal in severa l loc at ions (s ee C urre nt Ca nal major access points above).

East Coast

In Ma r yland, Rt. 213 w ill be a maj or co nn ection between the Cana l Trail and

Greenway·

Elkton to the north. Rt. 2 13 has ge ne ro us 8 foot s hould e rs on e ith er side wh ich

0001 ••• ,. 8eclkln

=:a'IOO

can accomodate bike traffic in both di rectio ns. This w ill all ow linkage between the C&D Cana l and pote nti all y to Elk Ne ck State Forest, located southwest o f

--.,._ ----...

_ _ _ ._0-

. _........_... --.--. --... ........---

o

Elkto n and N o rth East alo ng t he N o r t heast River. This fo rest park in c ludes sa ndy

"5

beaches, mars hl and s and heavy woo de d blu ffs.

7

.......

BICYCLISTS ON THE DELAWARE AND MARY LAND TRAILS

--~ _ . _ _ c- ....

. '_

' _ _'''-'0 _ _

-~

'

--

Mov ing south on Rt. 2 13 In Mary land, one cou ld reac h th e Bohemia a nd Sassafras

- ~-

Rivers and o n dow n to the southeast pen is ula of Maryla nd .

-" 1I : 1.... ... _ _ 1I ·: 1If"_~_ .... "-

r-'t---rI

EAST COAST GREENWAY

..Jo.

EAST COAST GREENWAY · DELAWARE SECTION

Sometimes ca ll ed t he urba n Appa lachian Trail, " ... The East Coast Gree nway is th e

-(

nation's first long-d ista nc e , c ity-to-city, mu lti-modal transportation cor ridor for

/.

cycl ists, hikers , a nd other non -motorize d users . The a im is to co nn ect all maj or

\

\

p

N

S

HII ' CUIT

(

Y

cities o f th e East Coast a long a continuous, o ff road path that spans fro m Calais.

i!J_-_ _,

East Coast Greenway '

!=_

~,~~ =llon

_,73_

I l l l • • ' , ' ~rooo

Main e to Key West, Flo rid a." Th e main route of t he East Coast Greenway sw ings

..... --... ... ,,.,

KeyTo " , -

northwest o f the Cana l at Wilmington to co nn ect Balt imo re, Annapo lis and

"[.J'"

Was hingto n, D.C. A tra il along the C & D Ca na l wi ll serve as a connector tra il to

1'1 r;.,..,'",,,,, fi' """'. ' ... ~ ltIII

the main route of East Coast Greenway. (East Coast Greenway Alliance, 2006) SERV ICE ROADS

< .

r~

N'_

I' I' I'

c~"'_ _ _ ''''

[.

., "

THE FISHING PIERS

' ...

_Iolo>'t".. -~

,T_

..... """lr' ......

fill -'--'''' _ .. O : - _ h ,

[!.., [tJ'

Th e land alo ng t he C & D Canal has over 100 mi les of ex isting service roads

<

co nstru cted by t he Army Corps to he lp service and maintain the viab ility of the

~

Ca nal. In o rd e r to gain fu ll access alo ng its banks, the roads were constructed

W

a lo ng its entire le ngth. exce pt for areas in access ibl e by natura l waterways.

0

At the ce nte r of the Ca nal, where its deepest cuts occur, a series of tier roads are located at vary ing e levatio ns between the bottom and top of slope. This gives the Corps vertical access ibility as we ll as providing preve nt ive meas ures aga inst

--.-

-..~-

---.--.... .........

~I_I_-

;

-v

slope failu re. The roads are co nstructed of grave l and they are drained away fr om the Canal t owa rd co ll ectio n swa les. The water then co ll ects in a series of drains wh ich eventua ll y drain back into the Ca nal. EAST COAST GREENWAY · MARYLAND SECT ION

32 I

00J0_ ,.

~

~

-~

--~ ,,,, _ _ w

{.

I .. _~""'_I .. . ....., ~ ""'" II. " - ' "

cno-

llooIr-""<-~

_

th_,c.c;"""",

THE FISHING PIERS


EXISTING CONDITIONS

CANAL AREA

LEGEND

/Cl/

Slatewide Route s

/'../ Interstate Highways

A?Y Regional Routes /"v'

/'v'

Recreational Connectors

Major Highwa ys State and Local Roads

Type of Facility

x x

A (Advanced)

"'1f

....

B (Basic)

,-

~~~ ~

. .ut., ""'1".

x x x

C (Children)

x x

x

C,

D

~

N

" "

-•

"

,...-.,-

BEFORE USING THIS MA" Marylanll's ~I~le roadways nlve ~'! co 0< COdec lor bl,:,!,c1e compalib,'ily based ",pur> the mOlt 'Ken! in'orma!io'l IVIl ltDle U the l,me of publl ~allOn Rc'ne",be, that 'oaoNay ~(wd'!rOI"S ana ua~ic \'O:"'I'e$ ,'e (onsunl'y ch'J1gini, The Iw(lways sl1cw r\ 0' I,,"s m.~ a,l' J1eC by iI~tOmob;!l'5 and tr\Jcks and ~,pjcaWy do -:0: n",,-e specja IIlIO\l ls':>n ~ lo' blcycllnll e h, 'dren 3" d nOI',ct eye iSis W\culd r ei allemo. to use any of these roadVli)').

Delaware Bay

C.,rtiOll and good judgment on YOIl: be'!,1f " e PI.,rnoun l aod o;C}'C I:sts uSing these 'o.tds .l;uume a' I I~ 5 bolLhes (or Ihe, Q'I m uil'ly. You sr,ou!d po5.StiS ilde<;ute bicycling skils a<ld be knov.ledgeab'e of tilt Vf'!licle I....... ~ tldOfl' "dor.~ or. ilrty OtIbicc roadv.a)' Bjc ~"'I~ Should be in 800d \\crki~li order and oossess all equipment.H 'eQ~HeC tJoj Maryl, r.::! 51&le lal. ro' a I,~I 01 S~ he 1"11$ pe'l"Il,n, [0 b'~)'CIt1, can the S.C)'tle and Pede51n, n Coordm"or !-800-252- 8 776

The A,'erilae Oil .ly r'alt.c (AOT) 0.1 , ro,61.,y can glurly effecl a titlrsls' per'ounaute ,f1(i to,..,lart levI!! . "laps 'n6ica tmll the average oarl:; traffIC or sure ro ~ 6ways c.n be p~ rcha5ed from Our Mapp n~ Tu m (~ I.IAPS I Tnne roadways ha'ie P8'1fld sI101J1lfers Ihat ale al lea~! 8 lee: w,de (regardless o! the AIIet~ Daily Traffrc AOT). or t'1e rcaawa¥s ~\"!! leu tI,.n 2 ,000 Aor (fe~rdl~s 0{ the rOMJw8y 0< s/'o;/der ·NiOI I·~).

11'6e rD'dll'YS have lIlI'<ed l>~ulc)e1S !hal"' 1! at ~ilsi 4 leet wide ('eg,ld;ess o! IIle AOll,

ihe!.t ,oadwa)'s hIVe no

s~'o<lldtfS orshoold~l$

Ih.a: Ire leu th.n 4 leel ",;ce.

BICYcles and pedQlr , ns B'e 1101 Pfrmilted 10 c!)el.ie

o~

thew (oao'll'Ys.

lnese foadl'lays are opera ted and m. h ta ined 0, the co~"t1 o' local jumdicl<on ar'(l tla:e .:el ce ~ n r,lt'O Tile)' 1)'PIc.lly dl) nO! !II'.'t' shoulde.~ ,1r1O carr,. less trllt" than State (cad·... a>1 NOTE ; Th e colo" ulld for lIeh rOl dway In d icate the .houlder wid lh l lh. t e r. typiee l fo, thaI rO l dwaV . Du e to th, l u lt I)f th' map end lim iled , p.C1. IIch and eve ry ehn!il' in . houlder width c.nncrt be shown. Shoulder' end wid. curb lann mav not I xi.1 in ' urb anized" Ir... , Th ll may require YI)U to ahl" tha roa dway with motoriud It.fllc.

MARYLAND BICYCLE MAP (PARTIAL)

I

C HE SA PEA KE & DELAWA RE CA N A L

NEW CASTLE COUNTY ON·ROAD BICYCLE FACILIT IES MAP

I II

TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

I

1 33


Pennsylvania

••

_~_Wo'_-,

I

I ' I

:,

•• •

-""""-_....

::,-o::~~'L.'="

•~__ c.... •. . ......... -.""'~

•, e.n.o "· _ _ ......10 ~ l -.,~

• c...e--,Cot<at, .... c....c-..r~ " c.ao Co.«" .................

10

I

• I

• # #

c.oo """"" '--" .....". ::=:-~;...... e..-_ ..... _ CdoIt .

'1

III ,~

~

',~~1I<Ooo<t

III

_.P. .

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34

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MARYLAND RECREATION AND PUBliC OPEN SPACE

Figu re 111-2 Recreation and Public Open Space Cecil County Land Preservation, Parks, and Recreation Pla n


EXISTING COND ITIONS

CANA L BRIDG E CROSS IN GS MARINA FACILITY DESCRIPTION EX ISTING CONDITIONS

There are five (5) main veh icul ar and o ne rai lroad bridge that currently cross the Canal. One is located at Maryland and fo ur are located in Delaware. Th ey are:

The water-based marina facilities curre ntl y consist of: An access pi er alo ng the northern shore of the basin; Nine finger piers that extend into t he basin;

MARYLAND

250 boat sli ps (23 to 27 boat sli ps alo ng both sides of each finger pier); A fuel dock;

Chesapeake City Bridge ( 1940s) DELAWARE

Sum mit Bridge ( 1960) SR I Bridge (1996)

Pe nn Railroad Lift Br idge ( 1966) St. Georges Bridge ( 1940s)

Reedy Po int Bridge ( 1968)

None of these bridges are directly access ibl e fro m the Canal service roa ds.

To und erstand the traffic vo lum e that occurs on these bridges, pl ease refer to the 'Canal Crossings Study Traffic Forecast Report' prepared by De lDOT on August 7, 200 I. CURRENT CANAL MAJOR ACCESS POINTS Majo r Access points exist along the Canal in the following locations. moving from east to west:

Wastewater pump-out; and

A travel lift. The access and nine finger piers are of the floating type that rise and fa ll in response to changes in water level. Only boats equipped w ith U ,S, Coast Guard approved marine san itatio n devices are perm itted to berth in the marina. The western portion of the marina basin and the entrance cha nnel between the C & D Canal and the marina basin are

periodically dredged to maintain water depth of approximately 12 feet at mean low water (MLW). Th e land -based marin a faci li ties currently co nsist of a marina office, bathhouse, unpaved parking lots, pave d and unpaved access roads, a boat and boating equipment sa les and repair building, lo ng-te rm and winter boat storage areas, and a restaurant, Th e marina is serviced by a sewage co llection system and a public potable water system.

MARYLAND,

U.S. Army Corps of Engin eers Camp us (at C&D Canal Museum) Lock Street - Chesapeake City north

PROPOSED EXPANSION

Charles Street - Chesapeake City so uth

extensio n of the access road , and constructio n of an ad ditional bathhouse to the west of the existing restaurant,

An expansion of the marina is proposed, Propo se d land-based faciliti es include constructi o n of add itional parking areas,

DELAWARE,

Po lktown Place (just west of Reedy Point and south of De lawa re City) Mai n Street - St. Georges south C&D Canal Gravel Road - St. Georges north Old Summit Road (south of Lums Pond State Park) Old Summit Bridge Road (east of Summi t Bridge)

The water- based po rtion of the proposed expans ion includes:

Dredging a portion of th e basin e ntrance to a depth of approximate ly 12 feet below MLW; In stal ling three add itio nal floating finger piers, a wave attenuator. and an attached finger pi er at th e western

e nd of the marina for a tota l of 90 new slips; In stalling a new access ramp that w ill extend from the nort hern basin shore to the access pier; Install ing a fl oating perimeter pier alo ng the southern side of the marina bas in to provide berths fo r

Most of these access points do contain U SACE signage identifying Canal and its permitted uses . A lso, alo ng the entire

app rox im ately 38 transient boats; and

length of t he Canal , t here ex ist severa l minor Canal access points w hich are su itab le for current an d future access to

Co nstructing a fork lift we ll to facilitate launch ing and recovering boats.

the Canal. Marinas also exist at two other areas along the Canal: Delaware City and Chesapeake City. In Delaware City, the Delaware City Marina is located on the north side of the o ld Canal branch, between Ro ute 9 and Clinton Street. A public boat laun ch located in Fort DuPont State Park on the south side of the o ld branch Canal.

MAR INAS & BOAT ACCES S Summit North Marina is located in a man-made, freshwater. tidal embayment that is connected to the northern side

of the C hesapeake and Delaware Canal (C & D Canal) approx imately three quarters of a mi le to the south of Lums Pond . The mouth of the mar ina basin (southwestern end) , at the C hesapeake and Delaware Canal, is located between a

In Chesapeake City, there are marinas at the north and south sides of the Canal, east of the bridge. The southside marina is located at the western edge of the mooring basin.

ra ilroa d bridge and Summit Bridge crossings over the cana l. An unnamed stream exten ding from Lums Pond discharges

fresh water into the northeastern end of t he marina basin . The property, owned by the federal government (Corps),

FI SHIN G PIERS

is leased to the State of Delaware, and is subleased to Summit North Marina as a concess ion operatio n in Lums Pond

There are currently ten ( 10) fish ing piers owned and operated by the USACE along the Canal. Seven of the ten are fai ling from

State Park. Revenue from the marina is sha red w ith the State of Delaware, Department of N atural Resources and

major neglect and disrepair. The remaining three are useable but suffer from the same neglect as we ll as vanda li sm through

Environmenta l Contro l, Division of Parks and Recreation , Th e original constru ction of the M arina began in 1989.

fire. Two piers are located in Maryland and eight are located in Delaware.

I

CHE SA PEAKE & DELAWARE C AN A L

III TRA IL CONCEPT PLAN

I 35


CURRENT UTILIZATION DIAGRAM - WE LCH POINTTO CHESAPEAKE CITY

(

CHESAPEAKE BAY

..

LEGEND:

C=:J C=:J C=:J C=:J C=:J

FEDERAL PROPERTY

SERViCE ROADfTRAIL - ll '-lS'

VEGETATION· WOODLAND

-

VEGETATION - SHRUBS

,--

SERVice ROADfTRAIL · < 10'

-....

EXISTING STATE PAAK TRAIL

WATER

HIGH GROWTH AREA

WETLANDS SENSITIVE: WILOUFE AREA STATE PARK

~

SERVICE ROAorrRAIL· 16'·10' SERVICE RQADITRAIL · 10'. IS'

MAJOR ROAD I HIGHWAY 3 FORTS FERRY

EXISTING TRAIL ACCESS POINTS

•* -'j-:' "

e e

ED B Q

~ UNDEVELOPl:D OVERLOOK

POINT OF INTEREST SCHOOL

FISHING PIER . DAMAGED FISHING PIER I LOCATION BOAT RAMP CAMPING . TENT CAMPING · TRAILER

6

INFORMATION

m

PICNIC

~

II r3

m == D

PARKING

RANGER STATION

EQUESTRIAN BIKING

I!lil

..

m m

RESTROOMS BIKEWAY. STATEWIDe

BIKEWAY · REGIONAL BIKEWAY · REC. PHOTO NUMBfR

CANOEING HIKING

~

0

Photos on opposite page are keyed to the map above

III 0 0

36 /

2/ 10

(])

5/ 10

311 0

4/10

I MILE


EXISTING COND ITIONS

CURRENT UTILI ZATION IMAGES - W ELCH POINTTO CHESAPEAK E CITY - PHOTOGRAPH S

CHESAPEAKE CITY BRIDGE AT DUSK

USACE FIELD OFFICE OVERLOOKING CANAL

CHESAPEAKE CITY BAND SHE LL

C&D CANAL MUSEUM

CHESAPEAKE CITY MARINA

I

CHESAPEAKE & DE LAWARE CANA L

VIEW OF CHESAPEAKE CITY

DOWNTOWN CHESAPEAKE CITY

III

TRAIL CO NCEPT PLAN

HOG'S CREEK TRAIL TERM INUS

CHESAPEAKE CITY DREDGED MATERIAL AREA

CHESAPEAKE CITY MOORING BAS IN

HOG'S CREEK TRAIL TERM INUS LOOKING WEST

VIEW TO CHESAPEAKE CITY BR IDGE

USACE SERVICE ROAD ENTRY

I 37


CURRENT UTILIZATION DIAGRAM - CHESAPEAKE CITYTO LUMS POND STATE PARK

LEGEND:

C=::J FEDERAl PROPERTY L C=::J WATER E-C=::J VEGETATION. WOODLAND ~ C=::J VEGETATION - SHRUBS ~ C=::J HIGH GROWTH AREA ~ E "'1 WETlANDS I-h SENSITIVE WILDUFE AREA ~

L

STATE PARK

....

SERVICE RQAOfTRAlL . 21'·15'

UNDEVELOpeD OVERLOOK

\. n~

SERVICE ROAOfTR.AJL· 16'·20' SERVICE ROAOffRAlL - 10'· 15'

SERVICE ROADfTRAll· < 10' EXISTING STATE PARK TRAil MAJOR ROAD I HIGHWAY

3 FORTS F€RRY

EXISTING TRAil ACCESS POINTS

'iu;" 1/

-I'J-;'

e e

f3 B

POINT OF INTEREST SCHOOL

FISHING PIER - DAMAGEO ASHING PIER I LOCATION

6

~

m m C.

BOAT RAMP

CD

CAMPING - TENT

CD

=

CAMPING - TRAILER

a

INFORMATION PARKING

PICNIC

AANGER STATION EQUESTRIAN BIKING

I1ID

m

.. CD CD

RESTROOHS BIKEWAY. STATEWIDE BIKEWAY - REGIONAL

BIKEWAY - REC. PHOTO NUMBER

CANOEING HIKING

--

I

-

-

\

\

\

Photos o n oppos ite page are keyed to t he map above

3/10

1/ 10

0

38 I

2/ 10

5/ 10 4/10

I MILE

CD


EXISTING COND ITIONS

CURRENT UTILIZATION IMAGES - CHESAPEAKE CITY TO LUMS POND STATE PARK -

BETHEL FISHING PIER

BETHEL - SIGNAGE

GUTHRIE RUN OUTLET

/

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

BETHEL - LOOKING WEST FROM TRAIL ACCESS

BETHEL - SIGNAGE

BETHEL - WILDLIfE PARKING

GUTHRIE RUN DRAINAGE CULVERT

II/ TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

BETHEL - LOOKING EAST fROM TRAIL ACCESS

LOWER SERVICE ROAD NEAR SUMMIT

/

BETHEL - LOOKING WEST FROM FISHING PIER

BETHEL FISHING PIER

SUMMIT BRIDGE

BETHEL THIRD T IER SERVICE ROAD

BETHEL - LOOKING SOUTH DOWN ACCESS ROAD

SUMMIT BR IDGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST

/ 39


CURRENT UTILIZATION DIAGRAM -

LUM S POND STATE PARK TO ST. GEORGES

LEGEND:

'j

"'"

c:::=J FEDERAl PROPERTY t=J WATER f-c:::=J VEGETATION · WOODLAND ~ c:::=J VEGETATION . SHRUBS c:::=J HIGH GROWTH MEA K""::""",,'- J WETlANDS

=-

-.J

SENSITIVE WILDLIFE AREA

STATE PARK

-

!I ••• 1Ii

SERVICE ROADITRAlL ·11 '·25'

SERVICE ROAOrrRAJL· 16'·20'

SERVICE ROADfTRAlL· 10'. 15' SERVICE ROADfTRAll · < I 0'

EXISTING STATE PARK TRAIL MAJOR ROAD I HIGHWAY

) FORTS FERRY

EXISTING TRAIL ACCESS POINTS

• ~t. ,>

'/ "/i :'

e e

Ell B CI

6

UNDEVELOPED OVERLOOK

~

POINT Of INTEREST

m (I r:a m == II

SCHOOL FISHING PIER · DAMAGED FISHING PIER f LOCATION BOAT RAMP

CAMPING - TENT CAMPING · TRAIl£R

PICNIC

RANGER STATION EQUESTRIAN BIKING

CANOEING

40 I

/<

BIKEWAY · STATEWIOE

BIKEWAY _ REGIONAL BIKEWAY - REC.

PHOTO NUMBER

~----

1/ 10 0

m m m

RESTROOMS

HIKING

Photos on oppOSite page are keyed to the map above

IillI

INFORMATION

PARKING

(J)

SilO

3/10

2110

4110

I MILE


EXISTING COND ITIONS

CURRENT UTILIZAT ION IMAGES -

LUMS POND STATE PARK TO ST. GEORGES - PHOTOGRAPHS

RAILROAD BRIDGE

SERVICE ROAD ADJACENT TO DEEP CUT

ST. GEORGES BRIDGE NORTH

ST. GEORGES NORTH OFF CHESAPEAKE CITY ROAD

ST. GEORGES NORTH

DAMAGED FISHING PIER WEST OF S. R. I BRIDGE

S.R. I BRIDGE AND ST. GEORGES BR IDGE BEYOND

C H ESA PE AK E & DE LAWARE CANAL

II/ TRA IL CO NCEPT PLAN

GATE ACCESS AT JOY RUN

/

DAMAGED ST. GEORGES FISHING PIER

UT ILITY SPAN EAST OF RR BR IDGE

ST. GEORGES BR IDGE

ST. GEORGES NORTH - EAST OF BRIDGE

VIEWTO S.R. I BRIDGE

ACCESS TO SERVICE ROAD路 ST. GEORGES SOUTH

/ 41


CURRENT FAC ILI T IES DIAGRAM - ST. GEORGES TO DELAWARE C ITY/REEDY PO INT

LEGEND:

c=:=J c=:=J c=:=J c=:=J C=::J

l f'

FEDERAL PROPERTY

[

SERVICE ROADfTRAIL· 11'·25'

WATER

~

SERVICE R.OADfTRAIL- 16'-20'

VEGETATION. WOODLAND

f--

SERVICE ROADITRAIL. 10'· IS'

VEGETATION - SHRUBS

E---l

SERVICE ROADfTRAIL - < ' 0'

HIGH GROWTH AREA

f---,3

EXISTlNG STATE PARK TRAIL

..." WETlANDS

SENSInVE WILDLIfE AREA STATE PARK

...

~ ~

0

MAJOR ROAD I HIGHWAY

~ l FORTS FERRY EXISTING TRAIL ACCESS POINTS

• ~ I,

-/J-:

UNDEVELOPED OVERLOOK

POINT OF INTEREST SCHOOL

FISHING PIER _ DAMAGEO

e

ED

a

C1

FISHING PIER I LOCATION 80ATRAMP

CAMPING - TENT CAMPING _ TRAILER

fJ

~

fD

m r3

m

0==

INFORMATION

PARKING PICNIC RANGER STATION

EQUESTRIAN BIKING

IlIiI

m

.. CD

m

RESTROOMS

•••••••••• •••••

BIKEWAY. STATEWIDE BIKEWAY · REGIONAL

BIKEWAY - REC . PHOTO NUMBER

CANOEING HIKING

THOUSAND ACRE MARSH ---r-.

Photos o n opposite page are keyed to t he map above

111 0

o 42 /

3/10 2/10

5/ 10 4/ 10

I MILE


EXISTING CONDITIONS

CURRENT FACILITIES IMAGES - ST. GEORGES TO DELAWAR E CITY/ REEDY POINT

BIDDLE POINT FISHING PIER

SCOTT RUN OVERLOOK

OLD BRANCH CANAL

DELAWARE CITY PROMENADE LOOKING NORTH

/

REEDY POINT NORTH - LOOKING EAST

OLD BRANCH CANAL - DELAWARE CITY MARINA

OLD FORT DUPONT OVERLOOK

C HE SA PE AK E & D ELAWA RE CA N AL

11/

TRA IL CONCEPT PLAN

BRIDGE OVER OLD BRANCH CANAL

REEDY POINT BRIDGE LOOKING WEST

/

REEDY POINT NORTH - LOOKING SOUTH

J FORTS FERRY BUILDING - DELAWARE CITY

GRASS DALE CENTER PARKING AREA

DELAWARE CITY PROMENADE LOOKING EAST

REEDY POINT BRIDGE

/ 43


EXISTING CONDITIONS SIGNIFICANT VIEWS - W EL CH PO INTTO CHESA PEAK E CITY

44 I


.--_----1 -

.-r:'

--

I 4S


EXISTING CONDITIONS

SIGN IFICANT VIEWS - LUMS PO N D STATE PARK TO ST. GEORGES

I~

46 I


EXIST ING CONDITIONS

SIGNIFICANT VIEWS - ST. GEORGES TO DELAWARE CITY/REEDY POINT

-.. .......... ~

/

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

II / TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

/

•••• ••••

••• •••

••• •••

••• •••

/ 47


RESULTS OF C & D PUBLIC SURVEY PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT The major objectives of t he Canal study o utreach program were to establish an ongoing dia logue w ith the public abo ut the study, collect t heir comments abo ut recreation at the C & D Canal, and merge the know ledge of t he Working Gro up with the public's feedback for inclus ion in this Conceptual Study. Prior to establishi ng the Work ing Group, Congressman Castle and the Corp of Engineers Philade lphia District cond ucted a jo in t press conference at t he Canal to annou nce t he study, intent, and fun di ng. Other press conferences, news re leases, and med ia interv iews announced the estab lishment of the working group and the public meetings. The Working Group. includ ing loca l, state and federa l agencies and organizations, refl ects t he d ivers ity o f t he project and t he need to collect information from many so urces. Sitting at the plan ni ng tab le are members from t he U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Congressman Mic hae l N. Castle's office; Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Enviro nmental Contro l; Delaware Department of Transportation; New Castle County, Delaware; De laware Greenways Inc.; De laware C ity, Delaware; St. Georges, Delaware; Congressman Wayne Gilchrest's office; Maryland Department of Natura l Resources; Maryland Greenways and Water Tra ils; and Cec il County, Maryland. The Working Group's direct con nectio n to the local, state and reg io nal publi c fostered good commun ity re lations and helped to spread the word about the Cana l study and public meetings. Every member had a voice and contributed e ither direct ly or ind irectly to the project. As the project commenced, a wea lt h of studies and other informatio n were ava il ab le to t he Working Group includ ing t he State of Delaware Statewide Comprehens ive Outdoor Recreation Plan and t he Cecil Co un ty, MD Land Prese rvation, Parks, and Recreat io n Plan. Th ese stud ies for med t he fou ndatio n of the rec reation activit ies that were being considered and led to the Planni ng stage of our pubic outreach program. In spite of the historica l and curre nt information about recreatio n in Delaware and Mary land, t he information about the current an d potent ial recreatio n along the C & D Canal was scarce due , in part, to recreatio n being an informa l activity. Therefore, t he Work ing Group deve loped a public survey to gather importa nt informatio n about the preferred recreatio n choices of both current and potential users. The goal of the survey was to quantify the public's wants and needs for recreatio n on the C & D Canal and identify the co ncerns and issues of neighbors and users. The strategic messages deve loped by the Worki ng Group: Stewards of the environment and wil dlife Stewards of your tax do llars Local and state officials are involved in the study and share yo ur concerns Connecti ng two states C & D Canal is a major commercial waterway serving the regio n and nation Recreation is importa nt to qua lity of life and demand will increase in the future Space for recreation is li mited The project's starting point is a mu lti-use path The project wi ll accommodate many forms of compatible recreation The project w ill not reduce curre nt recreation at the Canal We need your in put to make th is a successful project

48 I

T he first set of public meetings was conducted in Apri l 2005 over two evenings with o ne meeting in De laware and one in Mary land providing public outreach spanning the length of the Canal. The publi c meetings, attended by 250 people, were an opportuni ty to inform the public about t he Canal, its reg ional miss ion and t he var ied uses of its 9,000 acres: wi ldlife management areas, wetla nds, Cana l ma in tenance and dredge material disposa l sites, fo ur Corpsowned bridges, and 24-hour dispatch operations along the 15 mil es o f the Canal waterway. T he public meetings began w ith a few remarks from t he project spo nsors, Congressman Castle and t he Phil ade lph ia D istrict Corp Commander, fol lowed by a brief presentation by the project manager and a questio n and answer session. The public was then encouraged to ta lk with the Worki ng Gro up to informa ll y discuss their issues and concerns. A series of posters d isplaying the wi ldlife areas, current recreation areas, federa l land used for dredge d isposal sites, public land surrounding t he Canal and an aer ial mosaic of the Canal area were too ls to engage the public in voici ng t heir concerns and in terests. Chart paper on easels was ava ilab le for t he public to wr ite down comments and ask questions. T he wr itten surveys were ava ilab le at t he sign-in tab le w it h tab le space for people to sit and write out the ir respo nses to the survey questions. The Cana l Study web site (http://www. nap. usace.army.m iIiProjects/CD/i ndex.htm) launc hed immed iate ly fo llowing t he first publi c meeti ng whi ch provided informatio n, comments by t he public and the opportun ity to fill out the same survey provided at the pub lic meetings. T he writte n and online survey wou ld run for 30 days after wh ich DN REC personnel wou ld ana lyze the res ul ts and provide them to the rest of t he team. T hose peop le who cou ld not attend the pub lic meetings co ul d access t he survey on line at the Canal study's web site. In add it io n to the people w ho com pleted public comments, approx imate ly 300 publ ic comments have been rece ived and posted to the Trail Concept Plan webs ite. A fo llow-up se ri es of public meetings was he ld in December 2005 to announce t he comp letion of t he ana lysis and conceptual design for the multi-use path. The meetings, atte nded by 300 peop le, were held at the same locations, us ing the same informa l small group discussio ns and forma l presentation fo llowed by a questio n and answer session. The purpose was to share the survey find ings and the co nceptual des ign to the public. The Work ing Group coll ected comments about how the public viewed the conceptual design so it could conti nue deve loping the study and plans. T he posters and presentations were focused on this t heme . The specific resu lts (not scientific) of the outreach program: Overa ll, 474 people completed the pub lic survey and 80% were current C&D Canal users. Of those users, 97% stated they use the land and 64% use the water. Ha lf of the survey respondents live in Delaware wh ile 30% li ve in Maryland. Based on th is survey, dog tra ini ng is the most popu lar use of t he Canal for current users. Other activities t hat ranked high among current users are observing w il dlife, hikinglwa lki ngljogging and bicycling. The average participation days per year were highest for those observing wi ld life fo llowed by hi kinglwa lkingljogging, bicycling and equestrian users.


When aske d to rate the importa nce of both current and potential recreationa l uses of the Canal, the most important ac ti vities (for the survey respondents) were dog training and o bserving w ildlife fo llowed by preserving the area, hiking/walking jogging, fishing and bicycling. It is interesting to note that for both users and non-users observing wildlife and preserving the area ranked in the to p three of importance. In addition, observing wildlife and preserving

Rate the lrJ1)ortance of Each Activity on a Scale of 1 to 5

the area ra nke d among the top 4 potential uses base d o n the distance res ponde nts lived from the C & D Canal.

1= Not Important, 3= Somewhat Important, 5= Very Important N early 40% of the respo ndents indicated that more outdoor facilities and opportunities wo uld encourage them to use the C & D Canal more often and 35 % indicated that better security is the factor that would enco urage them to use the Cana l more.

Overa ll, the o utreach effort has acco mplis hed two important goals. First, the publi c has gained a grea ter respect and und erstand ing of the Corps' land usage and responsibi li ties in and alo ng the C & D Canal. Second ly, everyone

3.00

Doglraining WildlifelNature Observati on Preserved

3.08 3 .04 2.71

(the Public and Working Group) has gained a better awareness of current rec reation activiti es o n the Ca nal and the

Fishing

req uirements and potential issues among users.

I

2.57 2.50

2.34

Hunting Add itionally, this outreach effort provided a means to share information between neighbors and var ious recreational groups. Th e information sharing w ill cont inue throughout the life of the study and project; public comments and

project updates wi ll continue to be posted to the web. To date, we have compil ed an email list of approximate ly 600 people . Summary of Public Input Overall the public input was pOSitive but tempered with the conce rn that the Working Group not favor o ne form of recreation over another. Major concerns were safety and security, especially from the local homeowners' standpo int, considering the numbers of people who wou ld use the new facility, ensuring the viab ility of the land to sustain or improve enviro nmentally, and not wa nting to add more asphalt to the state's open lands that would only meet the needs of a

2 .29

Picni c~eas

2.22

l\Ibuntain Kayaking Dogparks I Campgrounds Equesl ri Off I-ighway 'khicl

2.04 2.04 1.81 1.78

1 .44 1.21

o

2

3

Scale ofln.,ortance

relative ly few groups. Additional comments focused on: PLEASE SEE APPENDICES FOR THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION

• •

Creating educational opportunities Losing or curtailing hunting, fi shing and other ongoing activities

Keeping the Canal as it is and making no changes at all

• •

Concern for the environment and wil dlife Adding faci li ties for and allowing recreational opportuniti es that are currently not authorized at the Canal such as

I. Project web page 2. Sample of public input via email 3. Public Survey from first meeting

dirt bi kes and other off-road vehicles

4 . Survey Presentation from second meeting

Developing a multi-purpose trail for equestrians, wa lkers, joggers, bikers, and others

5. Public input from second meeting (scanned copies)

Changing traffic patterns and accessibility for local res idents

C H ESAPEAKE & DE LAWARE CANA L

III

TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

I 49


MULTI-USE TRAIL DESIGN AND ASSOCIATED AMENITIES TR A IL DESIGN C ON SIDERATION S The adva ntage of building a tra il alo ng the C & D Canal is that a majority of the service roads and access points have

In order to esta blish an improved tra il surface, a de sign solu t io n w ill be required to address t he slu mping problem to

long been established w ith co nstructio n of t he sea-level Canal. Although most tier roads are unp aved; the w idths. sig ht

avo id warpi ng, s inking or cracking due to earth movement below subgrade. One solutio n wou ld be to construct the

lines for two-way traffic, grading and dra in age are in place. Upgrades are requ ire d, but overall the stage is set for layout

tra il in t hese slu mp areas w ith gra nul ar sto ne fines, in li e u o f asp halt pavement. Th e use of sto ne fines , w ill provide

and co nstr uction.

adeq uate tra il harde ning a nd w ill be easier to re pair, fill an d gra de to new, eve n levels at a potentiall y lower cost t han heavy duty as phalt.

The first t ie r of serv ice road, directly adjacent to the Ca nal waterway is identified by the Working Gro up as the best location to create a co ntin uo us multi-use tra il alo ng both sides from Chesapeake C ity. MD to Delaware City. DE. The

Stone fines have several different names accord ing to locality. The nam es include cr usher fines, ci nd er or rock dust.

proposed C & D Canal Trail is expected to accommodate var ious user activities with increasing amounts as population

W hatever the local name, all are increasingly popular as trail s urfaces for multi -use trail s for a numb er of factors. As an

and awareness of the trai l grows. Because the trail system w ill be constructed on an exisi ng service road bed, it

alternative to asp halt, crushed sto ne tra ils can meet the Amer ican Di sabilit ies Act (ADA) Acc eSS ibili ty Guide lines and

must also support o ngo ing Army Corps of Eng ineers maintenance operatio ns and emerge ncy veh icle access. These

support a wide range of trail users includ in g hike rs, cycl ists, baby stro ll ers, w heelc hairs and eq ues trians.

co nsiderations are important factors for dete rmining desig n decisions regard ing the proposed tra il. The reco mmend e d grade for sto ne fin e tra ils is less tha n 8 % grade to promote access ible use. Most of t he ex is ti ng Access ibility is anot her important consideration for the proposed trai l design. Th e U.S.Architectura l and Transportation

grade along the C& D Canal service roa ds on the lower t ier is less t han 3%. Stone fines have also proven to be a good

Barriers Compli ance Board has released proposed Accessib ili ty Guidelines for Outdoor D eveloped Areas und er the

a lt er native in areas that have poor drainage or soi l co nditions.

Americans w ith Disabi li ties Act (ADA). These guide li nes provide recomme nd atio ns for s urfacing, w id th, cross slope, lo ngitudi na l slope and other trai l characteristics fo r new and reco nstructed trai ls. There are exemptio n provisions for cases where t he proposed sta ndard s wo uld cause s ub stantial harm to historic or natura l features, a lter t he purpose of

" In a rea s with long periods of rain or snow and clay or sil t based so il s, park infrastr ucture trai ls are o ften s urfaced with co ncrete or crusher fines to min imize muddy tra il cond it io ns and reduce faci li ty mainte nance .... Trail treads s urfaced with 4-6 in c hes of co mp acte d fin es over a land scape fabr ic (geotextil e) can e li minate many o f t he prob le ms associated

t he tra il, or for areas of r ugge d terrain.

w it h so ils a nd climate . Land sca pe fabrics or geotextil es are also the key to preventing vegetation from grow ing into It is not the inte nti o n of th is study to in terpret the app licabi li ty or repeat the t ec hnical co nte nts o f t he gu ide li nes.

the trai l and preventing co mi ng lin g of the crusher fines w it h th e natura l so ils .." (T. Boone, The A r t o f Building Cr ushed

However, t he g uid e lines sho uld be consu lted for detai led information as the trail is designed and constr ucted. The

Stone Tra ils, 2005)

recomme nd ations are consistent w ith good trail design a nd have bee n inco rp orated in to th is concept desig n. Stone fine s are not to be co nfused w ith grave l paths. The grave l used in path sys t ems is screened to remove t he fine s and so the grave l rem a ins loose . Th is is due to the fact that rou nd ed grave l all ows vo id space or poc kets to form

TRA il PAVING MATERIALS

between t he sto nes, and res ists compaction. Stone fin es have no grave l or so il . Stone fin es are pu re crus hed sto ne In order to accomodate the anticipated user ac tivity, prov ide access ibility and mainta in access for future maintenance

which contain t he natura l binders t hat all ow for th e hardenin g of the trai l.

operations, a paved s urface is recom mended for the proposed multi-use trail system. The paved surface of multi-use tra ils typica ll y cons ists of bituminous concrete (asp halt) o r Portland cement on a crus hed aggregate base co urse.

"Crusher fin es retain t heir inherent so il ce me nts and binders which promote so il compaction. Fines that contai n too many rounded particles (like some decompo sed gra nites) are more difficult to in te rl ock a nd ofte n yie ld a loose and

It is recomme nded that t he C & D Trail be co nstr ucte d of bituminous pavement for seve ra l reaso ns. Bituminous paveme nt typ icall y has a lower install ation cost whe n compared to ot her paved trail surfaces. It also has the adva ntage

unco nsolidated surface. A ngul ar particles like andesite, do lom ite, an d certain type s of gran ite ca n eas il y be wetted and compacted .... A good indicatio n of the st rength of a rock binder is the hardness of the parent roc k.

of a smooth s urface, w hich ca n be a cons ideration in areas of heavy pedestria n and ro ll e r blade us e. The disadvantage is that Bituminous pave ment w ill need period iC sealin g a nd overlays to ma in ta in s urface q ua li ty. A second pav ing materia l, sto ne fin es, is also proposed for the tra il system to accommodate use r needs, and to address soi l and geo logical conditio ns along th e trai l. It has bee n doc umented by the Army Corp of Engineers t hat along the plann ed tra il ali gnm e nt, geo logical slump ing occ ur s with some regularity in s pecific areas.

Since the sea level construction of the Cana l, several se r vice tier

access and ma in te na nce roads have been observed sinking (or slumping) in e levation. Th ese areas are curre ntly be ing mon itored for further movem e nt over tim e. The most recent geotechnical inspection by the USACE of the s lumping areas describe s t he problem in more de tail and is in cluded in the Appe ndi x of this report. (see SFY2004 Geotech ni cal Inspection of t he Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Slopes, October 2004) PHOTOS OF TYP ICAL MULTI路USETRAILS CONSTRUCTED W ITH STONE f iNES

SO I


The harder the source rock, the stronger the binders wi ll be. Crushed rock conta in s the original rock cements and

Th e separation of stone and asp halt is accomp lished by add ing an extra layer of asphalt on the paved side. The small

binders withi n the rock dust. These binders, combined with water and then compacted w ith a vibratory roller or

curb t his produces in the middle of the tra il does a fin e job of keeping the dust from trave ling across both su rfaces.

plate compactor shou ld produce a solid, compacted surface that res ists significant deformation from hiking boots and

Along sections where a powdered surface was not desirable, such as over bridges, both lanes feature asphalt.

mountain bike tires." (T. Boone, The Art of Building Crushed Stone Trails, 2005) FIRMNESS. STABILITY. AND SLIP RESISTANCE FOR A VARIETY OF COMMON TRAIL SURFACING MATERIALS

In the areas of known slumping along the trail, if the surface of the trail becomes loose, slumps or uncompacted over time it can be res haped, wetted and compacted again. Several factors can lead to an unsuccessful stone fine tra il, most of w hich dea l with improper construction techniques. They include:

Surface Material

Firmness

Asp halt

stable stable firm stable firm stable soft unstable firm stable firm stable stable firm moderately firm moderately stable moderately firm moderately stable

Concrete

Lack of fines to bind particles together (high percentage of gravel) Improper wetting and compacting

Lack of angu lar ity in t he fin es (rounded fines create pore spaces wh ich do not compact) Lack of precipitation Trail grades greater t han 6% (Trail tread grades over 6% w ill require significantl y more maintenance sin ce they tend to unravel or erode over t ime.)

Soil with Stabilizer Packed Soil without Stabilizer Soil with High Organic Content Crushed rock (19 mm ('/.") minus) with Stabilizer Crushed rock witho ut Stabilizer Wood Planks En£ineered Wood Fibers that comply with ASTM F 1951 Grass or Vegetative Ground Cover Engineered Wood Fibers that do not comply with ASTM FI951

Inadequate amounts of natural soil cements in t he parent material

Wood Chips (bark, cedar, generic)

" ... the best crusher fines for trails exhibit three critical characteristics. The rock source is crushed in to irregula r angular particles that in terlock and bind into a firm matrix. The material has particles ranging from dust to a spec ified maximum particle size in order to mechanically bind the matrix (ex. 3/8" minus). Lastly, t he material must retain all of its original binders in order to be recompacted to a firm surface after shaping, wetti ng and vibratory compaction."

Pea Gravel or 38 mm (1-\1,") Minus A•• re.ate Sand

Stability

firm

firm

soft

unstable

moderately firm moderately stable to soft

to unstable

soft soft

unstable

unstable

Slip Resistance (dry conditions) SliD res istant slip res istant· slip resistant not slip resistant

not slip resistant sliD res istant not slie resistant

slip resista nt not slip res istant not slip resistant not slip resistant not slip resistant not SliD resistant not slip resistant

Source: US Deportment o(Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Recreational Traif Design, 2005

(T. Boone, The Art of Building Crushed Stone Trails, 2005) Stone fines are also proposed for the multi-use tra il s to accommodate those user groups who may wis h a "softer" trail surface, such as equestrians and joggers. Many trai l systems are now constructed with both materials, sid e by side, to accommodate a wide array of users.

TRAIL WIDTHS

"Mu lti- use tra il s, by definition, should accommodate various users simultaneously, although th is can be difficult given the diverse needs of each user group. Accommodating a range of users with in a single trail depends upon trail w idt h,

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

Side-By-S ide Ho lmes County Trails (Source:http://holmestrail.orgl trai l.htm l, 2005)

trail surface, and speed of tra il users. Th e widt h of a tra il depends on the land ava ilable within the boundaries of your project." (Trails for the Twenty-First Century, 200 I)

Pictured

in

This statement ho ld s true for the design of t he C&D Canal. The wid th of the tra il will be limited by the current widths

Fredericksburg, Ohio. This path consists of two tra ils constructed

of the bottom t ier service roads. In most areas, the width will remain constant. However, in some areas, w idth is

side-by-side. The crushed stone lane is specificall y for horse & buggy use, while the aspha lt lane is for everyone else. The two tra ils take up about 14 feet in width at their widest points.

co nstricted by topography and natural waterways. To accommodate a var iety of user groups, the trail width wi ll be a

III

is

a

IO-m ile section

TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

of a newly

finished

trail

minimum of IS ' w ide, or comprised of paved and/or stone fines. It wi ll be constructed above t he existing gravel road

directly ad jacent to the Canal.

I SI


Trail widths should be adequate for stability and the intended use, but not so wide that the trai l becomes undefined and the route is unclear. A mu lti-use, two lane, paved trai l designated for cyclists and equestrians shou ld have a minimum tread width of 10' to 12', with a minimum 5' to 7' soft shou lder (stone fines) and 12' vertical clearance. A cross slope of 2% wi ll ensure positive drainage for the trail surface and meet the maximum cross slope presented in ADA guidelines. Based on ADA tra il access ibi li ty guidel ines, passing spaces at least 5' wider than the predom inant tra il shou ld be provided everyone t housand feet (1,000'). T hese passing areas cou ld be incorporated into points of interest and

In o pen areas, where parking faciliti es are planned for th e trail system, th e re are likely to be opportuniti es for impou nding surface runoff. The most obvious cho ices for locating such impoundments are areas where standing water is found during and after a rainstorm and where the existing level of impoundment can be easi ly increased to provide more retention. Temporary shall ow impoundments are essentially broad, shallow retention "puddles" created either by excavation or by the creation of a low berm to ho ld back water at the point of runoff. Downs lope water movement wi ll not be eliminated, but it will be slowed and reduced. Numerous small basins throughout a site can make a significant contribution. The depress ions can be managed as turf grass that tolerates stand ing water for short periods or planted as a wet meadow of ferns, sedges, rushes and native grasses or native lowland trees and shrubs.

resting areas along the trail. TRAI L SIGNAGE

Trail signs fa ll into two categories: safety and information. Trail users sho ul d be informed where they are, where they are going, and how to use tra ils safely. Signs re lated to safety are most importa nt and shou ld be considered first. Information signage can enhance the tra il users experience. Signage and Maps reach beyond the boundaries of a park to facil itate respons ible trai l use and extends into t he commu nity. Trail markers shou ld be placed as close to the in tersection of trai ls as poss ible and shou ld provide orientation information and appropriate use. Trail markers have a good visibili ty from a distance of 10¡20 feet and be readab le from a distance of I to 4 feet TRA IL DRA INAGE. EROS ION CONTROL AND LANDSCAPE RESTO RAT ION

Stormwater management is a universal prob lem that impacts all tra il systems. The continued increase in stormwater runoff both generated and funneled to a tra il can degrade habitat value and water qua li ty as we ll as the tra il itse lf. Pr ior to implementing any tra il improveme nts, the entire area should be evaluated to determ ine the source of any drai nage or eros ion problems. Any dra inage prob lems from a higher tier, elevation or adjacent areas must be addressed before improv ing a trai l. Proper dra inage is critica l to ensure the lo ngevity of any pavement surface. Without proper dra inage, any tra il surface wi ll eventually erode and degrade. The goal of the tra il design is to remove water from the trail at regu lar intervals along the entire length of the Canal to prevent the tra il from becoming a conduit for water. The options for dra ining a paved tra il are simi lar to those used for roadways, and include inlets, storm sewers, vegetated swales, cu lverts and pavement underdrains. For the C & D Canal, it is important that fina l engineering des ign for the proposed trai l system is carefu lly coordinated with the existing drainage systems of the service roads. Altering t he management of landscapes can also effect substantial reductio ns in run -off. Solutions to stormwater management shou ld be promoted that maximize opportunities for gro undwater recharge. Tall grass and wi ldflower meadow species can provide friction to slow run-off velocities, and a root system that effects higher leve ls of infiltration. Tall grass can also serve to inhibit trampling and help to confine users to deS ignated trai ls. The integration of landscape restoration and trail development can on ly be addressed on stabilized land. Serious trampling, soil compaction and stormwater damage must be contro lled before restoration can be effective. Soil disturbance is frequently fo llowed by invasion of exotic species.

Ra in gardens, bioswales and bioretention cells can all be emp loyed in the stormwater design for t he new tra il system. A Rain Garden is a planting bed system with some rainfa ll retention and storage capac ity. and can take many forms. Rain gardens shou ld be carefu ll y des igned to en hance the character of the existing landscape. In practice, the important distinctio n as a stormwater mitigatio n measure is the inclusion of ra infa ll vo lume capture. with a combination of physical processes (slow infil tration and evapo-transpiratio n) red ucing the retained volume prior to a subsequent ra infa ll. Areas of turf and/or planti ng beds that now typica ll y convey run-off by sheet flow to the stormwater infrastructure system can be converted to dispersed shallow basins for sma ll -scale storage. Rain gardens will requ ire grading to create depreSS ional areas that are strategically placed to intercept the first fl ush of run-off from adjacent imperv ious surfaces pervious areas such as roofs, roads and parking lots. The function of ra in gardens is to reduce the vo lume of run-off that is e ntering the storm dra ins. In add it ion, water qua li ty benefits are rea li zed as t he first flush of stormwater run-off may conta in the highest concentrations of non-po int source poll utants that was h off of impervious surfaces. Rain garde ns effective ly capture and fi lter these poll utants.

Roof dram connected to rain g arden via su rface '3u t t e r.

Maintained lawn or gro undc ove r edge

Perforated underdraln In gravel bed connected t o st o rm drain . â&#x20AC;˘ MOist ure t o lerant native pl ant mat e rial

Ame nded 5011Zone Conceptua l Stormwater Sketch at Trailhead/Comfort Stations only.

S2 I


USER GROUPTA RG ET$

The C & D mu lti-use trail is designed to accommodate an array of non-motorized users including wa lkers. hikers. joggers, runners. bicyclists. in-line skaters, equestrians, bird-watchers, boat-watchers, anglers, nature lovers, and picnickers and be handicap-accessible . Wherever very different kinds of users share tra il faci lities, it is important to recognize and accommodate their differing needs or conflicts of use. Cycl ists moving at a fast speed easily startle horses, for example, creating potentiall y dangerous situations. Walker and wi ldlife may also be startled by cyclists. Walkers slowing suddenly may pose hazards to cyclists. The conflicts are inherent in mixed use and cannot be reconc iled by trail design alone. Often the conflicts are as much perceived as they are rea l. "Crowding was rated ... as the most important trail-re lated cause of conflict. In general, socia ll behaviora l factors were rated as being more important causes of conflict than were tra il-related factors." (Gambi l. Multi-Use Trail Management Po licy: User-Group Conflict and Resource Impact Issues,200S) Adequate trai l width, appropriate signage, surface material and adequate trai l maintenance are all critical considerations for a successfu l mu lti-use trail system. Stud ies have shown that there are programmatic solutions to reso lving trail conflicts. They include user-based programs such as; Bioretention cells are designed to function similar to rain gardens. except that they collect larger quantities of runoff. The cells are designed with more temporary storage and have more depth and structure than a rain garden.

Round washed aggregate Continuous trench backfilled ,tQ 'cre~tone gggregate rapped wittftilter fabric

.

with filter fabric -.....,~~

r -----" â&#x20AC;˘ l.

-..... ~....-I-'IAnr~!('/

Slope

Note: Th ese options are not su itab le so lu tion s in a reas above or adjace nt to the extensive underdrain system already in place to prevent slope failures.

Bioswales or vegetated swales are an alternative to standard underground storm sewer systems. They intercept or receive impervious surface runoff and blend infiltration and s low conveyance of stormwater. The soil matrix of the swale can be amended to enhance infiltration and percolation of stormwater runoff. T hese swales can be engineered to hand le the high frequency. low intensity storm events wh ile providing vegetated filter ing. Bioswa les are discharged to groundwater, storm sewer intakes or directly to surface water.

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

/1/

TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

I. Education of user-groups by user-group organizations and media on proper trail use and tra il etiquette 2. Education to be provided by tra il-managing agencies 3. Brochures, maps and other tra il-related information for dissem ination to tra il users 4. Commu ni cation between trai l-managing agencies and user-groups S. Patroll ing or monitor ing to reduce conflict on the ir mu lti-use tra ils - Vo lunteer patrols have been effective ways to reduce confl icts and enforce trai l etiquette 6. Involve user groups in the dec ision mak ing process and in tra il ma intenance programs

The trail design has accounted for the existing recreational activities that occur. Hunters and dog trainers are very active groups that have a long tradition of using the Canal lands. Th is plan is des igned so that hunters wi ll continue to have access to t heir current designated hunting grounds in both Maryla nd and Delaware. These activ ities do not presently take place at the first tier of service road, where the trai l is planned . Equestrians w ill have continued access to the trail, including the second level tier trails which wi ll be unpaved. Use of the first tier tra il wi ll be through separation by use of surface materials and signage. Where horses are all owed, a soft stone fines surface wil l be provided to accommodate their needs. During the Public Workshops in December 20005. several representatives of the Equestrian groups requested adequate parking for horse trailers, with pu ll through space and water availab le for both people and horses. Equestrians are an active user group along the Canal, where they presently enjoy over 30 miles of unpaved trail along the service roads and at Lums Pond State Park. Overall. the mu lti-use trai l is intended to meet the needs of the current user groups polled during the 'Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Recreation Study Public Involvement' public questionnaire as we ll as future needs as the trai l is constructed over time.

/ S3


FU T UR E ACC ESS PO INTS

Fu t Ul-e Access Points - DELAWAR E C ITY, DE

One goal of the C & D Canal Trai l is that it interconnect with open space and future greenways and trail s acros s New Castle and Cecil counties, and, thus add to the green infrastructure of the region as a w ho le (see pp. 32-33).

A New Castle County Greenways Plan is currently being drafted that wi ll incorporate both on an off road co nnections into Lums Pond State Park and Delaware City from the north and t herefore with the East Coast

Greenways (see page 30), Washington Roc hanbeau Revo lutionary Route (W3R) , s lated to be designated a Federal tra il in the fa ll of 2006, and the Northern New Castle County History Corridor. To the south, the Greenways Plan will encompass Scott Run's Loop, running into Middletown and poi nts south.

" .... ' <,,~'" ! ,,+. ",. ""

,f'. ,,'

.'1 ..... " ... ~

+---,-:;:~~;:

New Trai l heads wi ll be developed in locations t hat are within popu lation centers or future growth areas, provide

connectiv ity with existing and/or planned greenways and parks, and wi ll first consider existing po ints of access to the

Canal. Many existing tra il access points w ill be deve loped into trai lheads with parking and other amenit ies. They will be located where they are most suitab le to site comfort stations and utilit ies, adequate space for parking, proximity to the trai l and Canal, prom inent views, population centers, safety, existing in frastructure and favorable topography.

')

I

New tra il heads wi ll be deve loped in locations that are within popu lation centers or future growth areas and w ill first consider existing points of access to the Canal.

MARYLAND (SEE CO N CEPT UAL D IAGRAM PP. 54-55) Trailheads

General Location

USACE*

Campus (at C & D Cana l Museum) peninsu la

Chesapeake North*

West of Lock Street and Bridge

Chesapeake South*

West of Charles Street and Bridge on second tier overlooki ng bridge

w ." N

DELAWARE (SEE CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM PP. 55-57) Tra ilheads

( I"" ,_.1".,

<

... "

""!""

~,,,.,,,-.,

J'

Ge nera l Location

Grass Dale *

Polktown Place and ad jacent to Grass Dale Center

De laware City

Adjacent to Three Forts Ferry Bu il ding

Reedy Point Bidd le Point

Reedy Point South just east of bridge Southeast of Gunn ing-Bedford high sc hool

St. Georges North*

Between Route I Bridge and St. Georges Bridge

O ld Branch Canal. This trail wou ld connect from the proposed multi-use tra il to the the marina and Delaware City waterfront. T he tra il wi ll pass the historic African Un ion Cemetary.

Deep Cut/Marina

East of St. Georges Bridge at bottom of access road West of ra ilroad bridge on previous ly constructed park knoll

joy Run

East of ra il road bridge along fourth t ier road west of joy Run

Delaware Greenways is proposing a potential loop that wou ld connect joy Run and Welfare/Wh iteha ll on the south side

Guthrie East Summ it Bridge South*

West of Old Summit Road and Summit Bridge on first tier East of Summit Bridge on fourth t ier by O ld Summit Bridge Road

of the Canal and wou ld tie in with the proposed C & D Mu lti-use Trail.

Bethel East

Adjacent to fishing pier on first and/or third tier

St. Georges South

*

C&D CANAL PARK & AFRICAN UNION CEMETARY

The plan above has been proposed by Delaware City and ill ustrates a trai l link and loop alo ng the west bank of the

Lums Pond State Park is located in the midway point along the north side of the Canal. The potential exists to link this large park and its extensive trai l system to the C&D Canal Mult i-use tra il.

* Existing Main Trail Access S4 /

Poin t (and/or vicinity)


Future Access Po ints - LUMS POND STAT E PARK

Future Access Points - WELFARE/WHITEHALL SCOTT RUN NATURE LOO P

Legend

_

Parkland V\t1itehall Tract • • Seett Run Loop - East Branch • • Soott Run Loop - YVest Branch Existing Roads @Canal • •• Paved Multi-Use Path

o

Parkland Trees • •• Existing Trail Extent of Park

_

0.5

1,800

IMAGE COURTESY DELAWARE GREENWAYS INC.,200S

/

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

2,700

3,600

Feet

IMAGE COU RTESY DNREC

II / TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

/

/ 55


RECOMMENDED PLAN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN DIAGRAM - WELCH PO INT TO CHESAPEAKE CITY

....( \

( r (

CHESAP ... ,..,. ....... NORTH CHESAPEAKE BAY

\

.•

LEGEND: FEDERAL PROPfRTY

c=J

~

TRAil I SERVICE· FUTURE

STATE PARK

II • •

PROPOSED TRAIL· BY OTHERS

f----

SERVICE ROAD. USACE MAINT.

~ SLUMP AREAS

• •

SERVICE· VEH. ONLY

WATER

SENSInVE WILDUFE AREA

----,

EXISTING STATE PARK TRAIL

TAAlL I SERVICE· TIER. I

_

MAJORROAOIHIGHWAY

•• • • •

HORTS FERRY

• • • TRAIL! SERVICE · TIER 2

• • • TRAIL I SERVICE· BIKEIVEH . • • • _II1II

PROPOSED CHES. OTY fERRY

* •*

TRAIL HEAD I COMFORT

STATION· PARKING. RESTROOHS. INFORMATION KIOSK. PICNIC AREA

~

~

PROPOSED PARKING

m

m

PROPOSED KIOSK

6

PRoposeD INFORMATION

PROPOSED OVERLOOK

ffiil

PROPOSED RESTROOMS

6 ffiil

PROPOSED PICNIC AREA

POINT OF INTEREST

g

SCHOOL

e

HANDICAP ACCESSIBLE

EXISTING PARKING

CJ 61!ID

EXISTING PICNIC AREA EXISTING INFORMATlON EXISTING RESTROOMS

.

\

~~-{

PERSPECTIVE #

FISHING

3/ 10

I II 0

0

56 I

0

2/ 10

(J)

SilO 4110

I MILE


RECOMMENDED PLAN

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN DIAGRAM - CHESAPEAKE CITY TO LUMS POND STATE PARK

PHASE I DELAWARE CITY, DE TO CHESAPEAKE CITY, MD 16.5 miles NORTH SIDE OF CANAL 87,550 LF OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT 82,150 LF OF STONE FINES PAVEMENT SOUTH SIDE OF CANAL 5,645 LF OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT 5,645 LF OF STONE FINES PAVEMENT

!

I

I DOG TRAINING AREA

..

I .I .I .I • I •

BETHEL WILDLIFE AREA

MIT SOUTH-

EAST - Tier I & 3

(;JmIJl!IDeg

HI

~

(;JfD6

I

PHt CHESAPEAKE CITY, MD TO SCOTT RUN 10.1 miles SOUTH SIDE OF CANAL 52,900 LF OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT 53,352 LF OF STONE FINES PAVEMENT

I

/

r 1/ 10

o I

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

III

TRAIL C ON CE PT PLAN

I

3/10 2/10

5/10 4/10

I MILE

I 57


CONCEPT UAL DES IGN D IAGRAM - LUMS POND STATE PARK TO ST. GEORGES

PH ASE I DELAWARE CITY, DE TO CHESAPEAKE CITY, MD 16.5 miles NORTH SIDE OF CANAL 87,550 LF OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT 82,150 LF OF STONE FINES PAVEMENT SOUTH SIDE OF CANAL 5,645 LF OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT 5,645 LF OF STONE FINES PAVEMENT

'V !

;

/ I

PI-'A I CHESAPEAKE CITY, MD TO SCOTT RUN 10.1 miles SOUTH SIDE OF CANAL 52,900 LF OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT 53,352 LF OF STONE FINES PAVEMENT

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I

1/ 10

o 58 I

3110 2/ 10

Si lO 4/ 10

I MILE


RECOMMENDED PLAN

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN DIAGRAM - ST. GEORGES TO DELAWARE CITYI REEDY POINT

*

LEGEND: FEDERAL PROPERTY

[.

SERVICE· VfH. ONLY

WATER.

Ui!iIl

TRAIL I SERVICE· FVTURE

• • III!

PROPOSED TRAIL . BY OTHERS

STATEPAlU( ~ SLUMP AREAS

~ SERVICE ROAD · USACE MAINT.

SENSITIVe WILDUFE AREA

~

EXISTING STATE PARK TlWl

TRAIL I SERVICE . nER. I

_

MAjORRQAD / HIGHWAY

• •

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~ TRAIL I SERVIce· TIER 2

• • ~ ) FORTS FERRY

• • • TRAIL f SERVICE - BIKENEH• • • • • •

PROPOSED CHES. OTY FERRY

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TRAlLHEAD /COMFORT STATION· PARKING, RESTROOMS,

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PROPOSED PARKING

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EXISTING PICNIC AREA

Pft,OPOSED PICNIC AREA

INFORMATION

KIOSK, PICNIC AREA

PROPOSED KIOSK PROPOSED OVERLOOK POINT OF INTEREST

6 ffiiI II

e

SCHOOL

6 ffiiI

PROPOSED INFORMATION PROPOSED RESTROOHS

HANDICAP ACCESSIBLE

EXISTING INFORMATION

EXISTING RESTROOMS

PERSPECTIVE #I

FISHING

-~

_

DELAWARE CITY

EXISTING PARKING

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-

PHASE III CHESAPEAKE CITY, MD TO 2.1 miles NORTH & SOUTH SIDE OF CANAL 11,200 LF OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT II 200 LF OF STONE FINES PAVEMENT

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\ REEDY POINT NORTH

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SCOTT RUN WATERFOWL AREA

THOUSAND ACRE MARSH

3/ 10

1110

o I

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

I II

TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

I

2/10

SilO 4/ 10

I MILE

I 59


PAVEMENT DIAGRAM - WELCH PO INT TO LUM S POND STATE PARK

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UMMIT BRIDGE SOUTH - Tier 4

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fEDERAL PROPERTY WATER TRAIL. HEAvY DUTY ASPHALT & STONE DUST· PHASE I TRAlL - HEAVY DUTY ASPHALT · PHASE I

~I"

J.II.. ... I.I~

TRAIL· HEAVY DUTY ASPHALT" STONE DUST· PHASE II

TlWl . HEAVY DUTYASPHAlT-PHASE II TRAil · STONE DUST • PHASE II TRAIL· HEAvY DUTY ASPHALT" STONE DUST· PHASE III

TRAIL. STONE DUST· PHASE I

•••••

TRAIL· STONE DUST· PHASE III

ISOLATED SWMP AREA

-

MAJOR RQAO I HIGHWAY

SLUHP AREA · ROAD RAISED PRoposeD BRIDGE AT

GUTHRIE RUN

*

PROP. TRAIL HEAD I COMFORT STATION · PARKING, I\ESTROOMS, INFORMATION KIOSK. PICNIC AREA

I MILE

60 I


RECOMMENDED PLAN

PAVEMENT DIAGRAM - LUMS POND STATE PARK TO REEDY POINT

LUMS POND STATE PARK

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POINT -Tie. I

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FEDERAL PROPERTY WATER

TRAil · HEAVY DUTY ASPHAlT & STONE DUST - PHASE I TRAI L· HEAVY DlITY ASPHALT· PHASE I TRAIL - STONE DUST • PHASE J ISOLATED SLUMP AREA

I.... ,,.1 •

TRAIL · HEAVY DlITY ASPHALT & STONE DUST - PHASE II TRAIL · HEAvY DUTY ASPHALT . PHASE II

..........

TRAil . HEAVY DUTY ASPHALT & STONE DUST . PHASE III

-

MAJOR RQAD f HIGHWAY

TlWL· STONE OUST . PHASE II

TRAIL· STONE DUST· PHASE III

SLUMP AREA · ROAD RAlSEO

--

-

------ ... -

-----

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*

PROPOSED BRIDGE AT GUTHRIE RUN

1/ 10

:

3/ 10

PROP. TRAil HEAD I CO MFORT STATION · PARKING,

RESTROOMS. INFORMATION KIOSK. PICNIC AREA

5110

I MILE

O~O_

BLOW UP OF DEEP CUT

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

III

TRA I L CONCEPT PLAN

I 61


SECTION A-A' - TRAIL SECTION AT SLUMPING AREAS EDGE WIDTH VARIES

8ENCHES -PlACE EVERY

900'- ' 000'

. PROVlDE FlUSH lEVEL GAAV~L PAO LANDSCAPf RESTORATlON . ESTABlISH NATIVE PlANT COMMUNmES ....LONG 80TH EDGES OF PATH . INTII.ODUCE SEASONAlITY, SUSTAINABILITY AND W1LDUFE HABITAT -II.EMOVE INVASIVE EXOTIC SPEOES

EL 20'

'~~~~~~~-~~~- ~~~:~rnANDSEPAAAT10NOFTAAFAC .SLOPt: AT 2% MIN, TOWAAO SWAlE O N HIU SIDE

PATH SIGNM>E .DlRECTlONAl. MILEAGE. REGULATIONS, POINTS O F INTEREST, INFORMATION

r~~- ~~~~NCOMMUNIT1ES AlONG 80TH EDGES OF PATH

. INTRODUCE SEASON.A.UTY, SUSTAiNABIUTY AND WILDUFE HABITAT

. REMOVE INVASIVE EXOTlC SPECIES

ELl O'

.POW ·EXlSTING STONE TO REMAIN

MEAN HIGH nOE • S

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8'

16'


RECOMMENDED PLAN

SECTION B-B' - TYPICAL TRAIL SECTION

EL 20'

路PROVIDE FLUSH lEVEL GAAVeL PAD

lANDSCAPE RESTORATION .ESTABUSHNATIVEP\.ANTCOMHUNITIESAloNG80THEOGES-df-PATH _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ -INTl'.OOUCE SEASONALITY, SU$TAlNA.BlUTY ANO WllDUfE HABITAT

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _,

路 REMOVE INVASIVE EXOTlC SPEOES

.STRlPEfOR,Wm.NI"'p. . .J~~~~! -----------------, 路SlOPE AT n:. MIN. TOWARD $WAlE ON HILL SlOE

-DIRECTIONAL, M'!.拢AGE, REGULATIONS. POINTS Of INTEREST,

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lANDSCAPE 1l.EST0AA TION .ESTABUSH NATM~1't.ANT COMMUNmES Al~~~~

_ _ _ _ __ _,

SUS'TAlNAIIIUTY ANDWIt.DUfE HABITAT

EL 10'

-REMOVE INVASM EXOTIC SPEOES

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CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANA L

//I

TRA IL CONCEPT PLAN

I 63


CIRCULATION DIAGRAM - WELCH POINT TO LUMS POND STATE PARK

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FEDERAL PROPERTY

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WATER ISOLATED SLUMP AREA

~ SLUMP AREA· ROAD RAISED ~

DOG TAAINING

• • ~ PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION . . . . VEHICULAR CIRCULATION

3/10

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64 I

2110

*

PROP. TRAIL HEAD I COMFORT STATION· PAAKING, RESTROOMS, INFORMATION KIOSK. PICNIC AREA

PROPOSED BRIDGE AT

GUTHRIE RUN

5/10

4110

I MILE


RECOMMENDED PLAN

CIRCULATION DIAGRAM - LUM S POND STATE PARK TO DELAWARE CITY/ REEDY POINT

LUM S PO ND STATE PARK

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GATES I ACCESS AREAS

WATER _ _ ISOLATED SLUMP AREA

PROP. TRAIL HEAD I COMFORT

~ SLUMP AREA. ROAD RAISED

RESTROOMS,lNFORMAnON

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PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION

STATION . PARKING, KIOSK, PICNIC AREA

PROPOSED BRIDGE AT GUTHRIE RUN

• • • VEHICULAR CIRCULATION

1/10

o

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CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

/II

TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

]110

2/10

SI l O

4/10

I Mi lE

I 65


UTILITY D IAGRAM - WELCH PO INT TO LUMS POND STATE PARK

CHESAPEAKE BAY

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CHESAPEAKE SOUTH. Tier 2

t EAST路 Tier I & 3

, TRA IL HEAD UTILITY GUIDELINES

Carbon Dioxide " ' \ , . . Water Vapor

COMPOSTI NG TO ILETS

Waste, Air and Bulking Malerial

J, o {(

Composting is the natu ra l, ae ro bi c decompos it io n of organic materi al. That means " har ml ess" bacteria, fungi and

enzymes w ill red uce the o rga ni C waste as much as 95%. This process operates in the presence o f air and mo isture

",,-Vent

and pro du ces safe. useful e nd prod uct.

- - - ,,:-;'1

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Wh il e th e bio logy and chemistry of t he co mposting process is com pl ex. composting ca n be manage d effective ly if

d ry toilet

t hree key fac tors: air. te m perature, moisture and the ir ro le in the co mposting process is understood.

foam flush toilet

W hen the ce mposting process is complete, 95% of t he o ri ginal materi al w ill have bee n co nve rted to wate r vapo r and other harm less gases. Th e re maining 5% sho uld be odorless, a r ich brown co lor and have th e texture of coffee grounds w ith a pH of seven o r above. For the C & D Canal, co m posting to il ets are be ing recomme nded at comfort statio ns located away from ex isting

maintenance space

Composting Waste

ut ili ty corridors or areas, such as C hesapeake C ity and Delaware C ity. Th is w ill help keep infrastr ucture costs 4'm in .

down by eli minating nee d fo r co nstruction of additional wate r and sewer lines alo ng t he ca nal. Finished Compost

Such faci li ties have alrea dy been effective ly install ed and ut ilized at Pea Patc h Island. Fort De lawa re. COMPOST SYSTEM OVERVIEW - COURTESY OF C LIVUS MU LTRU M

66 I

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RECOMMENDED PLAN

UTILITY DIAGRAM - LUMS POND STATE PARK TO DELAWARE CITYI REEDY POINT

LUMS POND STATE PARK

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DRIVE \.lIND PDI-/ERED AlR ,. DIRECT IIVs is NlSt f(onooico l , os c

SOLAR PANELS

51stI'll

to"4W'I''>M'd lIir '>(UtI'

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CDl~PRESSDR

LEGEND:

r('l.n~t' ff'nolv IIrf'(I~

wh¥re (OI'\I\l'rcic.L E'.Ktr ic:ity s not

fee.silIe rr Qvolobi4.',

The co mposting t oilets can also be run util izing e lectrici ty

Suggested size and conFiguration. Hay be ModiFied to suit conditions.

{lin', t D'we. \riind POff'"ed

ge nerated by solar pa ne ls pl aced o n t he rooftop o f eac h rest room faci lity. Aga in. th is w ill re du ce co nstr uctio n costs

N.r Co"{yPS'h'"

'by bf' I1s:o.Utd J;J

associated w it h ru nning new e lectr ical co ndui ts from

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ex isting ut ilities.

to r.;H (lw01.

SdGr f'I~tric pt~ fl s Ilpf'retp I?' "I'IIt ren dwiolQ doyll{f1t I'o.rs.

FEDERAL PROPERTY

EXIST. WATER

WATER

PROPOSED WATER

SLUMPAAEA

PROPOSED SEWER

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EXIST. POWER

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EXIST. ELECTRIC/LIGHTING EXIST. GAS

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PROPOSED COMPOSTING RESTROOM

MAJOR ROAD I HIGHWAY PROP. TRAil HEAD (COMFORT STATION - PARKING. RESTROOMS, INFORMATION KIOSK. PICNIC AREA

EXIST. SANITARY SEWER

SOLAR PR£HEA ITO AIR rROM

llL_Il--_+H-- WU~DU ILl TO 1.10 COMPOSTINC

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At la,ool fMltl'lltnct ioi':fd to 2 vi9ts Pff ~r. 'kJ solids r'l\O~o1 fer 10 ' yf'lrs. 110 t.q.Md rrMVa\ shell r~tf' ~ rr~rd. 110 frt'Sh uler sys':.m 0" . ... ttf'fZAtion rroktd Systm Is IN rfsis~n t ~sorry ard skmss sitorL

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511 0 1 M I LE

SOLAR ROOF PANELS ON FORT DELAWARE· COURTESY OF BIO-SUN

I

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

W IND AND SOLAR DIAGRAM COURTESY OF BIO-SUN

I II

TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

I 67


CAN AL I WATER EDGE

HABITAT RE STORATION & LAND SCAPE MANAGEMENT

Condi tions "Restoration is not a one t ime th ing, any more than ra isi ng a ch il d is." - Les li e Sauer, Andropogon Assoc iates

Very poor soil s

The development of the mu lti-use trai l w ill resu lt in opportuni t ies to improve the ecological aesthetic of the area

Little ava il ab le mo isture for plant material

Exposed site - w indlfu ll sun immed iately ad jacent to the tra il and its amenities; ra ise awareness of reg ional native plant species; and increase the

Must com pl y with maintenance requ irements of t he Army Corp. of

biod ivers ity of the Canal land s. Th e "restoration" of t he landscape w ill be incremental. ju st as it has been throughout

Engineer - no woody shrubs or trees along Canal Waterway edge

the hi story of Canal lan ds, by managing the process of ecological success ion. "E cosystem in tegr ity and fun ction set the necessary cond it ions for biodiversity to flo urish

by achieving stabi li ty."

(Dennis Martin ez, Soc iety for Ecological Restoration, 1995) The Canal land s no lo nger resemb le the typica l Coastal Plain phys iography, especia ll y alo ng t he Ca nal e dge where the proposed trail is plann ed.

"The co nfiguratio n of the Canal tends to accentuate area climate. W in ds are acce lerated

by the canyon e ffect of high Canal banks an d move unrestricted across large disposa l areas on the high platea us. The same canyon effect acts as a summer heat trap when the w ind di es. Cli mate at Canal leve l ca n be extre me ly hot and humid in mid -s umm er. The effects of hot, dry so il s, o n vegetatio n on north shore banks angled directly in to the sun, is

particularl y no t icea bl e in summ er periods of high temperature and humidity and li ttle wind," (Design Memorandum

No. 28, ACOE, Se ptem ber 1977) The restoration !landscape strategies in these areas, therefore, can not use a former state as a model. Rather. the success ful landscape retoration plan mu st refl ect current condi tio ns of soil , avai lab ili ty of moi sture, and expos ure in

co nj unctio n wit h the po li cies t hat affect the da il y operations of t he Ca nal.

SUGGESTED PLANT LIST TALL GRASS AND MEADOW SPEC IES - DRY AREAS W ILDF LOWERS/BOTANICAL NAME Asc lep ias tuberosa Aster li nariifolius Aster spectab ilis Baptisia austra lis Boltonia aste roides Coreopsis lanceo lata Coreopsis tri pteris Chrysanthemum leucanthemum Echinacea purpurea Helianthus angustifo li us Helianthus moUis H elian th us strumosus Monarda fi stul osa Rud beck ia fulgida So li dago sem per vire ns

So li dago caesia

COMMON NAME Butterfly weed Stiff aster

Showy aster Blue fa lse indigo Bo lton ia Lance- leaf coreops is Coreopsis Ox eye da isy Purp le co neflower Go ld Lace Downy Sunflower Woo dland Su nfl ower W il d Bergamot Brown-eyed Susan Seas ide goldenro d Blu estem go ldenrod

PURPLE CONEFLOWER

This plan outlines several typical con ditio ns fo r the proposed t rail and suggests a set of Land scape Design and Management Principl es as outlined below:

LANDSCAPE DES IGN AND MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES Consider undertaking extensive soil reworkin g and massive planting efforts on ly w here t he lan dscape is in co ll apse, overwhelmed by non-native in vas ive species, or extensive ly eroded. Spec ify native plant species. W herever possible, contract grow plant material from local seed. Utilize native plant species that may be miss ing fro m the area w here they are appropriate .

Do not displace or modify any re latively hea lt hy natura l system.

GRASSES/ BOTAN ICAL NAME Andropogo n gerardii Ca lamagrostis canadensis G lyceria canade nsis Panicum virgatum Schizachyrium scopariu m Elymus canadens is Elymus Species Eragrostis tric hodes Jun cus tenu is

Sand Love Grass Path Rush

Tridens flavus

Purp le Top

COMMON NAME Broom sedge Blue j o int grass Rattlesnake grass Switch gr ass li ttle Bluestem Canada Wi ld Rye

Si lky W il d Rye

WILD BERGAMOT

Minimi ze di stu rbance to any natura l area. Do not co mprom ise natural and cul t ural resources such as geological formations, stream corridors by activiti es that threaten the ir character and preservation. Protect and expand rema ining wetlands wherever possible. Reestablish natura l drainage patterns and hydrologic

regimes w here t hey have been disturbed. Establi sh missing lin ks and provide connectivity, such as forest edges w here poss ible.

BUTTERF LY WEED

68 I

BLACK EYED SUSAN

JOE PYEWEED

SWA MP ROSE


RECOMMENDED PLAN

INLAND EDGE OFTRAIL

PARK IN G AREAS

Conditions

Conditions

Poor soil, but opportuni ty to amend soil condi t ions

Soil Conditions vary, but opportunity to amend

Moisture available due to runoff from upper tiers and ad jacent slopes - condition

Moisture avai lable due to runoff from upper Tiers and ad jacent slopes and captured run-off

from dry to moist depending o n site condi tions

Bioswale areas can be in tegrated w ith parking lot design to capture stormwater and create small wetland s

Sem i-exposed - sun and partial shade

Semi-exposed - sun and partial shade

Woody shrubs and trees allowed

Woody shr ubs, small trees, canopy trees can be planted to create shade and diversity

SUGGESTED PLANT LIST

SUGGESTED PLANT LIST

TALL GRASS AND MEADOW SPECIES - DRY AREAS

TALL GRASS AND MEADOW SPECIES - DRY AREAS

LOWLAND WOODLAND AND WETLANDS SPECIES BOTANICAL NAME

COMMON NAME

CANOPY AND UNDERSTORY TREES

Acer rubrum Ame lanchier canadensis Betula lenta Fraxinus pennsylvanica Salix nigra Quercus bicolor

Red Maple Shadblow Sweet Birch Green Ash

TURTLEHEAD

Black W illow

OLD FIELD SMALL TREES & SHRUBS BOTANICAL NAME

COMMON NAME

Comptonia peregrina Juniperus virginiana Myrica pennsylvanica Rhus copallina Viburnum Prunifolium

Sweet fern Red cedar Bayberry Shining Sumac Black Haw

MESIC SOIL CONDITIONS

Swamp white oak

CANOPY & UNDERSTORY TREES SHRUBS Arcnia melanocarpa Cephalanthus occidental is

buttonbush

C lethra alnifo lia

Sweet pepperbush

Hibiscus moscheutos

Swamp rose mallow

Il ex verticillata

Rosa palustris

Winterberry Swamp Rose

Spirea latifolia

Meadowsweet

Viburnum dentatum

Arrowood

Fraxinus Americana Sassafras albidum Quercus alba Quercus coccinea Quercus pri nus Ilex opaca Amelanchier canadensis Betula lenta

Black chokeberry

Shadblow Sweet Birch WINTER BERRY

BIOSWALE AREAS CANOPY & UNDERSTORY TREES

Magnolia virginiana Nyssa sylvatica Quercus alba

WILDFLOWERS

Aster novae-angliae Asclepias incarnata Caltha palustris Eupatorium pu rpu rem Hibiscus moscheutos Rudbeckia lacin iata Veronica noveboracensis

American ash Sassafras W hite oak Scarlet oak Chestnut oak American Holly

New England Aster Swamp Milkweed Marsh marigold

Joe PyeWeed

SHRUBS

Swamp Rose Mallow Greenheaded coneflower Ironweed

Clethra alnifolia

lIex glabra GOLDENROD

Ilex vertici llata Vaccin ium corymbosum

Sweetbay Magnolia

Black Gum White oak

Sweet pepperbush Inkberry W interberry Highbush Blueberry

SWAMP OAK

WILDFLOWERS

Chelone glabra Juncus effusus Lobe lia cardinalis Lobe lia syphil1itica Monarda didyma

Turtlehead Soft rush Cardinal Flower Blue lobe Ilia Bee Balm

GRASSES

Calamagrostis canadensis Glyceria canadensis Panicum virgatum

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANA L

III

TRA IL CONCEPT PLAN

Blue Joint grass Rattlesnake grass Switch grass'

LITTLE BLUESTEM

I 69


GE NERA L DESIGN GUI DE LINE S FOR T RAI L DEVE LO PME N T The objective of the proposed improvements is to encourage recreatio nal activity along the Canal and foster responsible use. The primary goal of management is to confine the impacts of the trail to the trai l. The strategies to accomplish this are both phYSical, as well as programmatic. A great trail is memorable and worth return ing to year after year, season after season. The most successful tra ils are those that were purposefully planned to foster a rich visitor experience. The well-main ta ined tra il is especially successful. The Chesapeake & Delaware Canal Trail and associated amen ities should comprise a system that affords access and influences the nature of the visitor's experience. ...

......- - .... ~

As the plan for the trail and amenities are refined and implemented over time the fo llowing guideli nes should be met: Create well-defined trail heads that have good connections Provide access points and gateways to adjacent neighborhoods Provide for adequate parking and controlled access to the trails T RA IL FEAT URES

The proposed trail features include trail heads, signage, maps, comfort stations, benches, fishing piers and parking areas. Trailheads are the welcoming entrances to the trail. This is where visitor information about use and destinations is availab le. Controlled access of vehicles to trai l is necessary at tra il heads. Two materials are proposed for the tra il surface: I. Bituminous Asphalt to provide access for the widest diversity of users and accommodate the most in tense use. Paved trails provide all-weather access.

.

.'

.~~~ ::路2~:~_ ","'. ,

PERSPECT IVE I - SEE CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM FOR PLAN LOCATION.V IEW LOOKING EAST TOWAR D SUMMIT BR ID GE ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE CANA L.

2. Stone fines adjacent to accommodate more user groups, Comfort Stations are an important amenity and will be located where adeq uate surveillance is present. (Isolated faci li ties often create difficu lt security conditions and require a disproportionate level of main tenance. ) Existing utili ties will be used wherever possible. In areas where uti li ties are unava ilable, composting systems and solar powered systems will be employed. Parking areas wi ll be created on both sides of the Canal Lands at over a dozen sites. The concept is to deve lop and im prove already cleared and re latively flat land adjacent to trai l head areas. These sites will be deve loped to accommodate a flexible number of cars, starting with a modest number (20-30 cars) at first. Future expansion can be added as needed. The parking areas will be unpaved gravel surfaces designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. (Note: Th is option is not a suitable solutio n in areas above or adj ace nt to the extensive underdra in system already in place to prevent slope fai lures. Plantings for the parking areas include trees to provide shade and species that will thrive in bioswale areas to accommodate runoff in the landscape. Res idents who presently utili ze the fishing piers wi ll enjoy restored facilities. Parking for these piers will generally be located at the trai l heads closest to the piers. Public vehicle access will be restricted along the first and second tier where new tra il s are located, with exception of Guthrie East tra il head w hich is located on tier one.

PERSPECT IVE 2 - SEE CONCEPTUAL D IAGRAM FOR PLAN LOCATION. VIEW LOOK ING WEST TOWARD T H E SR. I BR IDGE.

70 I


PRELI MINARY O PINI O N O F COST & PHAS IN G STRATEG Y SU MMARY A phased approach to trai l developme nt is planned for the C & D. At t he completion over 29 miles of mu lti-use trai l will be built on the north and south side of the Canal. PHASE ONE

PH AS E THREE

DELAWARE C ITY TO C H EASAPEAKE C ITY - NORTH SIDE OF THE CANAL - 16.5 Mi le Trail C HESA PEAKE C ITY TO HOG RUN - SOUTH SIDE OF T HE CANAL - I Mile Tra il Amen ities Include: Comfort Stations/Trailheads Parking Areas Benc hes Overlook structures

REEDY POINT - NORTH AND SOUTH SIDE OF CANAL - 2. 1 Mile Trail Amenities Incl ude: Comfort Stations/Trai lheads

Parking Areas Bench es

Overlook structures Landscape restoration

Landscape Restoration

Stormwater/Erosion Controls

Stormwater/Erosion Controls

Trail Surface - Compacted Stone Fines - 2. 1 mi les Repair and Replace Fishing Piers Gatesl BollardslSignage

Trail Surface - Paved Asphalt & Compacted Stone Fines - I 1. 1 Mi les Trail Surface - Compacted Stone Fines - 6.02 miles Repair and Rep lace Fish ing Piers Gates/Bollards/S ignage Bridge at Guthrie Run Utilities SUBTOTAL PHASE O N E $7,780, I 00. 15% Contingency $1, 167,0 15. 12% Design and Engineering Co ntingency $ 933,6 12. OPIN ION OF COST PHASE ONE $9,880,727.

Ut ili ties

SUBTOTAL PHASE THREE 15% Contingency

$ 1,722,595 .

OPINION OF COST PHASE THREE

$ 258,389. $ 206,7 11 . $2, 187,695.

TOTAL FOR THREE PHAS ES

$18,845,079.

12% Design and Engineering Contingency

PHASE TWO CHESAPEAKE C ITY TO SCOTT RUN - SOUTH SIDE OF THE CANAL - 10. 1 Mile Trai l Amenities Include: Comfort StationslTrailheads Parking Areas Benches Overlook structures Landscape restoration Stormwater/Erosion Controls

Trail Surface - Paved Aspha lt & Compacted Stone Fines - 9 Miles Trail Surface - Compacted Stone Fines - 1. 1 miles Repa ir and Rep lace Fishing Piers Gates/Bol lards/Signage Utilities SUBTOTAL PHASE TWO I S% Contingency 12% Design and Engineering Contingency

$5,335,950. $ 800,393. $ 640,3 14. $6,776,657 .

OPINION OF COST PHASE TWO

I

CHE SAPEAKE & DELAWARE CAN A L

I II

TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

I 71


OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE,AND SECURITY SUMMARY AND BUDGET COSTS "If you bu ild it, they wi ll come." Larry Davis, an e ngi neer on the Cape Cod Canal, quoted this famous li ne from the movie Field of Dreams, when he was referring to t he two and a half mi llio n visitors that come to use the Cape Cod Canal recreation facilities every year. "And when they come. it is vita l that you have visitor ass istance ready for them,"

The C & D Canal has never had Corps of Engineers Park Rangers on patrol, but the proposed mu lti-use tra il will bring about the need for government employees to manage t he increase in public use. For Phase I, the project will

need four full time rangers that w ill work in two sh ifts (trail use w ill be limited to daylight hours). They w ill patrol the Canal in maintenance trucks, and mountain bikes for vis itor assistance. and also help with faci lity maintenance such

as landscap ing. Th e rangers wi ll work out of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Pro ject Office located on the Canal in Chesapeake City. Th ey w ill have citation authority to enforce laws and rules that govern the propo sed recreation areas. The wildlife management and hunting law enforcement responsib ilit ies o n the Canal lands will remain with the states of Maryland and Delaware, and their current law enforcement personneL Additional tra il ra ngers wi ll be required for the Phases II and III of the trail, and supplementary seasonal range rs may be req uired for increased public trail use in the warmer months. Seasonal reside nt contractors that camp in personal campers at selected sites can also be used for visitor assista nce and maintenance. The construction and public use of the multi-u se trail and faci li ties wil l significant ly in crease the maintenance load of the Corps of Engineers Project Office. Th e trail and surro unding terra in will have to be carefu ll y maintain ed, req uiring more labor and equipment than ha s been historicall y required for the existing maintenance roads. Th e trail

l. C & D CANALAT CHESAPEAKE CITY. MARYLAND. MD-2 1l CROSSES THE 2- LANE BRIDGE. W HICH HAS I lS FEET OF VERTICAL NAVIGATIONAL CLEARANCE ABOVE THE AVERAGE HIGH TIDE WATER LEVEL. PHOTO IMAGE COU RTESY OFTHE U.S. ARMY CO RPS OF ENG INEERS.

w ill have two surfaces (asphalt and stone dust), side by side for the length of the trail. Both surfaces will requ ire some regular maintenan ce, but a Plant Replacement and Improvement Progam (PRIP), wi ll be implemented and budgeted to have funds availab le for com pl ete rep lacement or rehab ilitation of the surfaces in the future. Th e increase in the amount of faci li ty structures, utilities, and landscaping improvements along the Canal will require O&M funding for rep lacement parts and materials, maintenance equipment, and hired or contracted labor. Th e comfort stations will need janitorial services and require uti li ty services such as electricity and water. The proposed ame ni ties such as signs, gates, parking lots, and ki osks wi ll have to be maintained and rep laced periodically. There wi ll be landscape areas that w ill require mo re maintenance than what exists at these areas now. Th ese subjects are

broke n dow n in an estimated annual O&M budget. Th e O&M budget estimate for the proposed recreation improvements, including the materials, equipment, and labor

for Phase I amou nts to about $ 1,000,000 per year. All t hree phases tota l to approx imate ly $2.4 million. This is consistent with Cape Cod, which has a recreation budget of about $2.5 million. The C&D trail wi ll be double the length of the Cape Cod trail, but Cape Cod has a large campground in its charge, wh ich equals o ut the O&M burden between the two recreation projects, and verifies the similar costs.

4. C & D CANA LAT REEDY PO INT AND DELAWARE RIVER W ITH PEA PATCH ISLAND INTHE D ISTANCE . PHOTO IMAGE COURTESY OF T HE U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS.

72 1


OPERATIONS. MAINTENANCE,ANO SECURITY

DELAWARE DIVISION OF FISH AND W IL DLIFE SECURITY PROPOSAL FOR C & D CANAL TRAIL The Delaware Division of Fish and Wildlife (Division) is presenting the following proposal to enforce Delaware State Criminal Code; State Traffic Code (DWI and reckless driving); State Fish, Wi ldlife and Boating Statutes, and area

3. Fish and Wild life agents already have an administrative. technical and supervisory support system.

specific regulations on the C&D Canal Wildlife Area. These activities are currently being done (albeit not at the

support as well as prisoner and evidence holding facilities.

level probably desired due to existing staff shortages) by existing Fish and Wi ldlife Enforcement Agents (Division's

S. Many of the existing violations that occur on the Canal warrant more than a ticket. Many will require an arrest.

Enforcement Section); however. with the increased vis itor use and additional recreational activities anticipated

Will federal rangers be able to perform these activi ties and will these vio lations be prosecuted in federal court?

w it h the proposed Canal Recreational Plan. an in creased enforcement presence w ill be requ ired. The Division is

6. Fish and Wildlife have full state powers of arrest/authority including those beyond fish and wi ldlife statutes. Since the rangers w ill not, wi ll Fish and Wildlife agents be required to address these issues as we ll as the hunting and fishing

proposing the following inc rease in staff and associated annual funding to address these increased demands:

4. Fish and Wi ldlife agents have an office complex adjacent to the Canal with appropriate logistical and clerical

violations?

PHASE I

7. Wi ll federal rangers address activities away from the Canal! And if not who will address these activities. The Cape Cod Canal. use a model, does not have anywhere near the amount of upland area that is associated with the C&D

Labor

Enforcement officers

Equipment

(includes benefits/fringes) Patrol vehicles (fleet services) Uniforms and safety equipment

$71,500 x 4

$286,000

Canal. 8. Fish and Wildlife agents are currently familiar with the Canal and already have sign ifica nt contacts with both the

$8,250 x 4 $8,250 x 4

$ 33,000 $ 33,000

county and state police force.

Total

$352,000

9. Fish and Wildlife agents are already plugged into the Homeland Security network. a growing concern associated

with the Canal. 10. Fish and W ildlife agents are also deputized to enforce U.s. Fish and Wildlife regulations.

PHASE II & III Labor

Enforcement officers

$71,500 x 2

$143,000

Equipment

(includes benefitsifringes) Patrol vehicles (fleet services) Uniforms and safety equipment

$8,250 x 2 $8,250 x 2

$ 16,500 $ 16,500 Total

ALL PHASES

Grand Total

$176,000

$528,000 Annually

This proposal represents those enforcement needs specific to Delaware and does not include those needs specific to

Maryland. It is anticipated that Maryland wou ld have a similar proposal, albeit reduced proportional to the amount of C&D Canal area w ithin their jurisdiction. This proposal also represents an alternative to the need for federal rangers

as these duties wou ld be undertaken by the Delaware Fish and Wildlife agents. In the event that a federal presence is sti ll desired, another alternative might invo lve a combination of both the federal and division proposals although some measure of increased resources wi ll be necessary.

The following is a partial li st of why the Division feels its Fish and Wildlife agents would better address enforcement activities associated with the proposed Canal Recreation Plan: I . Fish and W ildlife agents wi ll have access to several boats stored on or near the Canal to address recreation activities on the water.

2. Fish and Wildlife agents are part of a larger staff within the county and as needs dictate additional staff can be requested to address special events or to fill in for Canal staff during extended leave (medical, family, and military). C & 0 CANAL AT REEDY PO INT BR IDGE AND DELAWARE RIVER W ITH PEA PATCH ISLAND IN T HE D ISTANCE. PHOTO IMAGE COURTESY OFT HE U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENG INEERS.

I

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

III

TRAIL CONCEPT PLAN

I

1 73


CONCLUSION This plan is a step towards improving the recreational potential of t he C & D Canal lands for a variety of activities in Delaware and Maryland. The visio n and goal is to realize the extraordinary potential for recreation and natural area protection afforded by these public la nds. The foc us of t he study was to develop a co nceptual plan for tra il development wh ile restoring. renewing and integrating t he richness already present alo ng the Canal lands. Im porta nt areas that serve as links in many places merit upgrading. The proposed budget places the priority on the most used feature - a multi-use tra il system - that serves a diversity of users. There are significant resourc es alo ng or near the Ca nal that impact the pla nning decisions for fac iliti es a nd trail deve lopment, suc h as existing mar inas. state park lands. historic sites, sce nic viewpoin ts, co nn ections to historic towns, residential neighborhoods, and state-wide gree nway tra il and bicycle ro utes. These c ultu ra l. historical and natural resources are important in o rd er to und ersta nd t he local needs a nd to determine the need for access points, co nn ec tions and t rail amenities. The proposed phasing of the multi-use trail recognizes these resources and supp orts the needs of the present population w it h a n und ersta ndin g of future trends in po pulatio n growth.

Current users va lue t he access to t he natural e nvironments that the tra il system allows and have vo iced support for the tra il design co ncept. Th roughout the study, participants emphasized t he re latio nship between access to t he Canal lands, recreational activ ity and quality of life. Public concerns underscore th e need for a fu t ure Comprehensive Recreation Master Plan that w ill allow for a thorough understanding of the econom ic, social and env ironmenta l systems of t he Canal lands. Integrating eco logical systems with landscape structure and function is an inhe re ntl y complex component of the planning process, as t he co nfli cts between development efforts and conservation endeavors are becoming in creasingly pertinent in our modern soc iety. An integrated ap proach to planning and management of the Canal lands wo uld recognize t hat commu ni ties are complex webs of in terdepende nt systems each in order to provide a hea lt hy, productive and meaningful life for the members of t he commun ity.

This study has begun an important dialogue w ith the comm unity t hro ugh t he o utreac h effort. The be nefit has been a two-way exchange t hat has allowed t he public to ga in a greater respect and und erstanding of t he Corps' land usage and responsib ili ties in an d along the C & D Cana l and has all owed the Corp a nd the Work ing Group to ga in a better awareness of curre nt recreation activ ities o n t he Ca nal and t he requirements and potential iss ues among use rs. The recommendations of this study reflect an att itude of rea listic optim ism by t he cur re nt users for a high quality recreational ex perie nce and t he susta inability o f the communiti es' enviro nm e nt. As the regional population grows. public awa reness and invo lvement w ill continue to be necessary in order to manage highe r levels of diverse use and to im prove and protect enviro nmental cond itio ns. Comm uni catio n a nd ed uc ation fosters appro priate use and positive user in vo lveme nt. A new trail system alo ng the Canal must also achieve a cha nge in the management of what at present are Corp maintenance service roads. Th e primary goal of management w ill be ta confine the impacts of the trail ta the trail. This goa l requires good design and adequate infrastructure as we ll as user compliance with the ru les of the trail. The strategies to accomp lish th is are both physical as we ll as programmatic, such as the decision ta limi t t he access of motor ized veh icles on t he multi-use tra il. Despite the complex nature of tra il development in genera l, and the Canal lands in particular, the proposed guid e lines for managing t he proposed trail system are fairly simple: Co nfin e t he impacts of the tra il to t he boundaries of the trai l. Accommodate mixed trail uses. All legit imate users deserve access to the trail system. The goa l is to provide balanced access utili zing spli t tra il surfaces of asp halt and stone du st. Invo lve users in t he effort to upgrade the sta ndard o f care. Info rmed tra il users are responsible t rail use rs. Impl ement infrastructure im provements t hat are adeq uate far the level of proposed use. Accommodate responsibl e use of the tra il with out comprom ising enviro nm e nta l quality. Effective ly promote courtesy a nd co m pliance w ith rul es of t he trai l. THE C & D'S EASTERN TERMINUS AT REEDY POINT ON THE DELAWARE RIVER. PHOTO COURTESY THE CORPS.

74 I


APPENDIX BIRD SPECIES IDENTIFIED IN THE CANAL DISPOSAL AREAS

SURVEYED - From Habitat Assessment of the C & 0 Canal Upland D isposal Areas for the C & 0 Canal Deepening Feasibility Study. prepared december 199 .. by Environmental Resources. Inc .

Shorebird migration, Black and Ye llow-crowned Night Herons flying overhead at the end of the canal at dusk (Reedy Point vicinity). AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILE S IDENTIFIED IN THE CANAL DISPOSAL AREAS SURVEYED - hom H,bIUlA..."m,nt of th, C & D

C,n,1 Upland Disposal Areas for the C & 0 Canal Deepening Feasibility Study. prepared december

SCIENTIFIC NAME

COMMON NAME

Agelaius phoeniceus

Red-winged blackbird Teal

1994 by Environmental Resources. Inc .

Mallard Black duck Great-blue heron Cattle egret Red-tailed hawk

Rana catesbeinana

Anas Sp. Anas platyrhynchos Anas rubripes Ardea herondias Bubuleus ibis Buteo jamaicensis Butorides virescens

Green heron

Cardinal is cardinalis

Cardinal Turkey vulture Yellow-shafter fli cker Bo bwhite quail Olive-sided flycatcher

Cathartes aura Colaptes auratus

Terrapene c. caro lina

Bullfrog Eastern box turtle

VEGETATION : - From Habitat Assessment of the C & 0 Canal Upland Disposa l Arcas for the C & 0 Canal Deepening Feas ibility Study. prepared december 1994 by Environmental Resources, Inc .

SPECIES IDENTIFIED IN T HE CANAL DISPOSA L AR EAS SURVEYED

American crow

Ailanthus altiss ima

Tree-of-heaven in

Albiizzia julibrissin

Mimosa in

Alisma plantago-aquatica Amaranthus cannabinus

Dumetella carolinensis

Blue jay Downy woodpecker Yellow warbler Catbird

Hydroprogne caspia

Caspian tern

Amelanchier canande nsis

Iridop rocne bicolor

Tree swa ll ow

Anagallis arvensis

Water plantain Tidemarsh water hemp Giant ragweed Oblong-leaf serviceberry n Scarlet pim pernel

Larus argentatus

Herring gull Laughing gull Red-billed gull

Andropogon virg inicu s

Broomsedge n

Apios americana

Ground nut

Aralia spinosa

Herculus' club

Turkey Song sparrow Mockingbird Brown-headed cowbird Great-crested flycatcher Osprey

Aristida dichotoma

Poverty grass, t hree-awned grass

Aristida curtissii

Curtis' three awn grass

Asclepias syriaca

Common milkweed

Asplenium platy neuro n Aster sp.

Ebony sp leenwort Aster

Aster vimineus

Small white aster

Cyanocitta cristata Dendrocopos puvescens

Dendroica petechia

Larus atricilla Laru s delawarensis

Meleagris gallopavo Melospiza melodia Mimus polyglottos Molothrus ater Myiarchus crinitus Panidion hali aetes

Acer negundo Acer rubrum

Ambrosia trifid a

Parus carolinensis

Carolina chickadee

Betula populifolia

Passer domesticus

H ouse sparrow

Boehmeria cylindrical

Passerina cya nea

Indigo bu nting Rufous-necked pheasant Glossy ibis Prothonotary warbler Bank swallow

Pipilo erythrophthalmus Plegadis faleinellus Protonataria citrea Riparia riparia

I

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

III

Cinna latifolia Cirsium vulgare Convolvulus arvensis

Acer saccharinum

Contopus borealis Corvus brachyrhynchos

Chenopodium album Chenopodium sp. Cichorium in tybus

Box e lder n Red maple n Si lver maple in

Colinus virginianus

Ceratophyllu m demersum

Botrychium sp.

Gray birch n False nettle Grape fern

Camps is radicans

Trumpet creeper

Carya glabra Carya ovalis

Pignut hickory n Sweet pignut hickory n

Carya tomentosa

Mockernut hickory n

TRAIL DES IG N CONCEPT STUDY

Coontail Lamb's quarters

Goosefoot Chicory Drooping wood reed Bull thistle Field bindweed

Conyza canadens is

H orseweed

Coreopsis sp. Cornus florida

Tickseed su nflower Flowering dogwood n

Coronilla va ria

Crown-vetch in

Corylus americana

Desmodium sp.

Haze lnu t n Hawthorn n Umbre ll a sedge Scotch broom Queen Anne's lace Beggar's ticks

Dichanthelium clandestinum

Deertongue

Dichanthelium sp haerocarpon Digitaria sp.

Round-fruited panic grass Crab grass

Diospyros virginiana

Persimmon n

Echinochloa crus-galli Echinochloa wa lteri

Ba rnyard grass Walter's millet

Elaeagnus angustifoli a

Russian o live

Elaeagnus umbellate Eleocharis obtusa

Autumn ol ive

Crataegus sp. Cyperus sp. Cytisus scopariu s Daucus carota

Eragrostis curvula

Blunt spike rush Small spikerush Squ are-stem spikerush Weeping lovegrass

Euonymus american us

American strawberry bush n

Eupatorium hyssopifolium

Hyssop-leaved thorough wort Hairy thoroughwort

Eleocharis parvula

Eleocharis quadrangulata

Eupatorium pubescens Eupatorium serotinum

Late-flowering thoroughwort

Fagus grand ifo lia

American beech n

Festuca arundinacea

Tall fescue Hemp dead nettle Camphorweed Swamp rosemallow

Galeopsis tetrahit Heterotheca subaxi ll aris Hibiscus moscheutos

I APP : I


SCiENTif iC NAME

COMMON NAME

Hieracium canadense

Canada hawkweed St. john's wort American holly f1 jewelweed Ivy-leaved morning glory Wild morning glory Black walnu t n

Hypericum sp. lIex opaca Impatiens capens is Ipomoea hederacea

Ipomoea sp. juglans nigra

Nuphar lutea Nyssa sylvatica

Yellow cow-lily Black gum n

Obolaria virginica

Pennywort n

Oenothera biennis

Common evening primrose

Panicum dichotomiflorum

Fall panicum

Panicum verrucosum

Warty panicum

Panicum virgatum

Switchgrass n

Juncus canadensis

Canada rush

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Virginia creeper n

juncus effusus

Paulownia tomentosa

Princess tree in

Juniperus horizontal is

Creeping juniper n

Juniperus virginiana

Eastern red cedar n

Lactuca canadensis

Sm ilax sp. Solidago gram inifolia Solidago juncea Solidago patula Solidago puberula Solidago rugosa Solidago sp. Sparganium sp.

Greenbrier

juncus sp.

Soft rush Path rush Rush

Grass-leaved golde nrod Early goldenrod Rough-leaved goldenrod Downy goldenrod Wrinkled-leaved goldenrod Goldenrod

Juncus tenuis

Lathyrus pratensis

Wild lettuce Prickly lettuce Yellow vetchling

Leersia oryzoid es

Rice cutgrass

Leersia virginica

Spiraea tomentosa

Steeple bush

Taraxacum officinale

Common dandelion

Leptochloa fascicularis

White grass n Wild peppergrass n Spangle top

Toxicondendron radicans

Poison ivy

Lespedeza cun eata

Sericea lespedeza

Tridens flava

Lespedeza sp. Lindera benzoin

Bush clover Butter-and-eggs Spice bush n

Triplasis purpurea Typha latifo lia

Purple top grass Rabbit-foot clover Purple sandgrass Broad-leaved cattail

Liquidambar styraciflua

Sweet gum n

Ulmus americana

American elm n

Liriodendron t ulipifera

Tulip poplar n japanese honeysuckle in Morrow honeysuckle Tartarian honeysuckle

Vaccinium corymbosum

Verbascum blattaria

Highbush blueberry n Lowbush blueberry n Moth mullein

Verbascum t hapsus

Common mullein

Lactuca scario la

Lepidium virginicum

Linaria vulgaris

Lonicera japonica Lonicera morrowi Lonicera tatar ica

Ludwigia palustris Ludwigia peploides

Marsh seedbox Floating seed box Lanced-leaf loosestrife Purple loosestrife in Crab app le

Trifolium arvense

Vaccinium vacillans

Burreed

Verbena hastata

Blue vervain

Viburnum dentatum

Arrowwood n

Viburnum nudum

Smooth haw n

Vicia cracca

Cow vetch

Sweet clover

Vitis sp. Xyris sp.

Wild grape Yellow-eyed grass

Myrica pensylvanica

Mulberry Bayberry n

n = native

Myriophyllum spicatum Nelumbo lutea

Eurasian watermilfoi l

in = invasive

American lotus n

Lysimachia lanceo lata Lythrum salicaria

Malus sp. Melilotus sp. Morus rubra

A P P:2

I


6 October 2004 Rogersljsml6673

CENAP-EC-DG

The arcuate sloughed area had been cut back and the lowest leve l road realigned around the repair at this location MEMORANDUM FOR FILES

(see Photo I). There was no evidence of any new significant movement in this area, and a comparison to Photos from

SUBJECT: FY2004 Geotechnical Inspection of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Slopes

previous inspections indicated no apparent change . This location should be visually checked quarterly by C&D Canal operations personnel as well as inspected annually by Geotechnical Section personnel. Any observation by C&D Canal operations personnel of cracking, slumping, or slough ing should be brought to the immediate attention of Geotechnical Section.

I. INTRODUCTION . C. STAT ION 29+250. SOUT H BANK . A concrete retaining wall was observed at this location. which is at the town of St. A REfERENC ES.

Georges (see Photo 2). Since the wa ll provides stability to the bank, the undersigned decided to include this feature in the inspection. The wall was in good overall condition. The al ignm ent, backfill, and weep hol es were all in satisfactory

(I) ER I I 10-2- 100, "Periodic Inspection and Conti nuing Evaluation of Completed Civil Works Structures," dated 15 February 1995.

cond ition . There was some spalling that cou ld be considered normal for this type of concrete feature. except for one

6" long spall near the east end that had rebar showing (see Photo 3). This spall shou ld be repaired as soon as possible to protect the structural integrity of the structure.

(2) Geotechnical Appendix, "Feasibility Report, C&D Canal - Baltimore Harbor Connecting Channels (Deepening) Delaware and Maryland," dated August 1996.

D STAT ION 51+250, NORT H BANK . Movement in this location. which is under an overhead pipeline near the location of the

The purpose of this report is to document and communicate the condition of the slopes of

old Summit Bridge, consists of cracking along the so uth bank of the second level road, forming t he head of the slope failure, and barely-observable cracking and dipping of the lower road, forming the east and west flanks of the slope

B. PURPOSE AND AUT HORITY.

the Chesapeake and Delaware (C&D) Canal with the primary consideration that a severe slope failure could endanger the ship channel or bridge piers. This inspection was performed under the authority of Reference I a( I) by Bruce R. Rogers, P.G., of Geotechnical Section on 30 August 2004.

failure. The movement location coincides with a previous movement in 1979. and is likely a reactivation of this slope movement plane. The cracking was not as pronounced during this inspection as it was in February 2004 when the movement was brought to the attention of the unders igned. Photo 4 depicts the movement along the west flank of this slope failure as observed in February 2004. It was determined that the movement at this location was not severe

A GENERAL.

enough to warrant installation of geotechn ical instrumentation. This location should be visually checked quarterly by C&D Canal operations personnel as we ll as inspected annuall y by Geotechnical Section personnel. Any observation by C&D Canal operations personnel of cracking, slumping, or sloughing sho uld be brought to the immediate attention of Geotechnical Section

Previous slope failures along the cana l have been found to be associated with locations where the canal is cut through

E. STATION 54+900 . NORTH BANK

the Mount Laurel (Station 14 to 21), Magothy (Station 49 to 54), and the PatapscolRaritan formations (Station 54 to the west end of the canal); whereas, there have been no slope failures where the canal is cut through the Marshalltown, Englishtown, and Merchantville formations. A slope stability analysis performed during the C&D Canal Deepening Feasibility Study [Reference I a(2)] indicated that the factor of safety against slope failure for the Magothy and Patapscol

along the south bank of the second level road, forming the head of the slope failure, and cracking and dipping of the lower road, forming the east and west flanks of the s lope failure (see Figure 2 and Photos 5 through 7). The movement

2 . INSPE C TI ON OB SERVAT IONS . Both the north and south slopes of the canal were inspected while driving along the canal. The local stratigraphy of the canal is such that different geologic units outcrop within different zones of the canal (see Figure I).

Movement in this location. w hich is just east of Summit Bridge. consists of cracking

location is on the west flank of a previous movement in 1982. and is likely a reactivation of a portion of this slope movement plane. The cracking was not as pronounced during this inspection as it was in February 2004 when brought

Raritan formations is less than one . This means that these formations are inherently unstable under existing conditions.

to the attention of the underSigned; however. the dip in the road was certainly still obvious, This movement apparently

Emphasis was placed on these areas while conducting the inspection. In addition. since the la st inspection, new slope

started a few years ago. but was not observed by the undersigned during previous annual inspections. The severity

movements at Stations 51 +2S0 on the north bank, 54+900 on the north bank, and 70+ 130 on the south bank were brought to the attention of the undersigned by C&D Canal operations personnel. Further, an additional area of new movement at Station 82+800 on the north bank was noticed during the inspection. The following subparagraphs, which

movement plane. horizontal movement at depth. and rate of movement. The inclinometer was measured five times

are in station order, provide additional information about these locations. B. STATION 2 1<200. NORTH BANK

(NOTE:This location has been incorrectly described as Station 20+000 in past reports.) A shallow slope failure that was repaired in 1991 was still evident at Station 21 +200 on the north bank, which is between the St. Georges Bridge and the Delaware City Branch Channel.

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANA L

III

T RA IL DES IGN CONCEPT STUDY

of the movement warranted the installation of an inclinometer (see Photo 8) in order to determine the depth to the between installation on 6 May 2004 and 3 I August 2004. By the latter date, the inclinometer had moved about 0.4" (see Figure 3),and the rate of movement was steady over the entire period (see Figure 4). The inclinometer shou ld continue to be read quarterly, and this location should be visually checked quarterly by C&D Canal operations personnel as well as inspected annually by Geotechnical Section personnel. Any observation by C&D Canal operations personnel of cracking, slumping, or sloughing should be brought to the immediate attention of Geotechnical Section .

I APP :3


Geotechnical Sectio n has been mon itoring an eXisting slope failure that became appare nt in 1986 at Station 58+500 on t he so uth bank of the canal (s ee Photos 9 through I I). The movement location coincides with previous mo veme nts in 1927 and 1966, and is like ly a reac ti vati o n of this slope move me nt plane. Th e s lope fa ilu re has an arcuate head ris ing from the lowest level road toward t he second level road with the highest point being about T (horizontally) from the edge of the second level road. The wid th of the sli de plane along the centerline of the lowest level road is about 150'. Geotec hnical instrumentation consisting of two inclinometers and six piezomete rs was install ed in 1990 (see Figure 5) . One inclino mete r and two pi ezomete rs were install ed wi t hin the slope fa ilu re itself adjacent to the lowest level road. One inclinometer and two piezomete rs were also installed above the slope failure ad jacent to the second level road. Two add it io nal piezometers were installe d ad jace nt to the third level road . Th e two piezometers and o ne inclinometer that were install ed with in the fa ilu re plane sheared off wit hin 3 months of installation as expected. The failure plane surface was t hen identified at 30' below the lowest level road. The inclinometer on the second level road has shown less tha n 0.5" of movement since installatio n 14 years ago, indicating that the slope failure is not increas ing in extent . The geotechnical instrumentatio n sho uld continu e to be read quarterly, and t his location shou ld be visually checked quarterly by C&D Canal operatio ns personnel as we ll as inspected annua ll y by Geotechnical Section personnel. Any o bservation by C&D Canal operations personnel of cracking, slumping, or sloug hing shou ld be brought to the immediate attention of Geotec hn ical Section. F.

STAT ION 58+ 500. SOUTH BANK .

3. CO N CLU SIO N S AND RECO MMENDATIONS. Slope moveme nt has been o bserved, instrum e nted, and docum e nted during th e past inspectio n yea r. Geotechnical Section personnel will continue to provide inspectio n and mon itor ing services to Operations Division for the C&D Canal slopes. It is recommend ed that as long as t he ship channe l is not threatened by any of these slope movements, then t he present maintenance and management of t he affected road sectio ns sho uld cont inue to be the course of action. If a more seve re conditio n is indicate d by the res ults of co ntinue d visual mo nito ring o r geotec hn ical instrume ntati o n, a further review of the recommendations will be performed. At that t ime, proposals for design, construction. and maintenance of barriers to prevent or contro l movement will be presented. along with cost estimates. It is also recommended that an inclinomete r be installed at Station 82+800 on t he North Bank. A preliminary cost estimate for installation and ini tia l read ing of the incl inometer is $12,000, split even ly between cont ract and hired labor funds . Locations to be visua ll y monitored quarterly are listed in Table I.

G. STAT ION 70+ 130. SOUTH BANK . Movement in this location consists of barely-observable, arc uate cracking across part of the lower road. The movement locatio n co incides wit h a previous movement in 1968, and is likely a reactivation of this slope movement plane. The cracking was not as pronounced during this inspection as it was in April 2004 whe n the movement was brought to the atte nt ion of the undersigned. Photo 12 depicts the movement along t he west flank of this slope failure as observed in April 2004. It was determined that the movement at th is location was not severe enough to warrant in stallatio n of geotechn ical instrum entatio n. This location should be visua lly checked quarterly by CaD Canal o peratio ns personnel as we ll as inspected annually by Geotec hnical Sectio n personnel. Any observation by C&D Canal operations personnel of crackin g, slumping, or slo ughing should be brought to t he imm ed iate atte nt ion of Geotec hnical Section .

H STAT ION 82+800. NORTH BANK . Movement in this location cons ists of obvious dipping of the lower road, forming the east and west flanks of t he slope failure (see Photo 13). The head of the slope failure must be on the slope toward the second level road, but it was not readily apparent. The movement location coincides with a previous movement in 1966, and is like ly a reactivation of a portion of this slope movement plane. The width of the sli de plane along the centerlin e of the lowest level road is abo ut 225'. This movement location had not been brought to the attention of the undersigned by C&D Canal operations personnel; rather, it was spotted from t he opposite side of the canal during t his inspection . Th is location shou ld be visuall y checked quarterly by C&D Canal operations personnel as well as inspected annu all y by Geotechn ical Section personnel. Any observation by C&D Canal operations personnel of cracking, slumping, or sloughing should be brought to the immediate attention of Geotechnical Section. Cons ideration should be given for installation of an inclinomete r at th is location .

J. STAT IONS 83+200 AND 84+000, SOUTH BANK . Sloughi ng was observed at these two locations from the opposite side of the canal (see Photos 14 and 15). The sites were not inspected du e to lack of vehicular access as well as lack of severity of sliding. These locations shou ld be visuall y checked quarterly by C&D Canal operations personnel as well as inspected annua ll y by Geotechnical Section personne l. Any observation by C&D Canal o pe rations personnel of cracking, slump ing, or sloughing shou ld be brought to the immediate atte nt io n of Geotechn ical Section. C&D Canal ope rations personnel shou ld advise Geotechn ical Section pe rsonn e l on access to these sites for closer inspection.

A PP :4

I

PHOTO I. STATION 2 1+200. NORTH SIDE. LOOKING WEST. 30 AUG 04. LOCATION OF A PREVIOUS SLOPE FAILURE. THIS AREA WAS CUT BACK AND PROTECTED WITH RIPRAP.


PHOTO 2. STATION 29+250, SOUTH SIDE, lOOKING EAST, 30 AUG 04 CONCRETE RETAIN ING

PHOTO 'I STATION 51+2S0. NORTH SIDE, LOOKING WEST, 12 fEB 0'1_ EAST fLANK Of SLOPE

PHOTO 6. STATION 5'1+900, NORTH SIDE, LOOKING WEST, 12 FEB 04. CRACKING ALONG EDGE

WAll AT ST GEORGES.

fAILURE

OF SECOND lEVEL ROAD.

PHOTO 3. STATION 29+250. SOUTH SIDE. 30 AUG 04 SPAll WITH REBAR SHOWING IN THE RETAINING WAll SHOWN IN PHOTO 2

PHOTO 5 STATION 54+900. NORTH SIDE. lOOKING WEST. 12 fEB 0'1 EAST FLANK OF SLOPE

PHOTO 7. STATION 5'1+900. NORTH SIDE. LOOKING EAST, 30 AUG 04. WEST FLANK OF SLOPE FAILURE

I

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

III

FAILURE.

TRAI L DES IGN CONCEPT ST UDY

I

I APP :S


PHOTO 8. STATION 54+900, NORTH SIDE, ]0 AUG 04 INCLINOMETER INSTALLED TO MONITOR

PHOTO 10 STATION 58+500. NORTH SIDE, ]0 AUG 04 LOOK ING ALONG THE WEST FLANK AT

PHOTO 12. STATION 70+ 1]0, SOUTH SIDE,]O AUG 04. LOOK ING ALONG T HE EAST FLANK FROM

SLOPE MOVEMENT,

THE HEAD OF THE SLOPE FAILURE.

THE HEAD OF THE SLOPE FAILURE.

PHOTO 9. STATION 58+500. NORTH SIDE, LOOKING EAST,]O AUG 04 WEST FLANK OF SLOPE

PHOTO I I STATION 58+500, NORTH SIDE, LOOKING WEST, ]0 AUG 04 EAST FLANK OF SLOPE FAILURE

PHOTO I]. STATION 58+500, NORTH SIDE. LOOKING EAST.]O AUG 04. WEST FLANK OF SLOPE

FAILURE

APP :6

FAILURE


PHOTO I ... STATION 8)+200. SOUTH SIDE. 30 AUG 0.. . LOOKING AT THE SLOUGHING FROM THE NORTH SIDE OF THE CANAL

PHOTO I S. STATION 8.... 000. SOUTH SIDE. )OAUG 01. LOOKING ATTHE SLOUGHING FROM THE NORTH SIDE OF THE CANAl.

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

III

TRAIL DES IGN CONCEPT STUDY

I APP:7


RESULTS OF C & D PUBLIC SURVEY

Public Involvement:

Chesapeake & Delaware Canal Recreation Study 2005 Public Involvement

General Data:

A questionnaire was developed by the Working Group to gather information on how the public uses the C&D Canal lands for recreation and their vision for future recreation uses. Workshops:

• 474 respondents 343 web-entries 131 mail-in entries

April 25th at Delaware City, De 4-8pm

• 80% of the respondents are C&D Canal users

April 26th at Chesapeake City, Md 4-8pm

The questionnaire was available at the workshops and on-line at http://www.nap.usace.army.milfProjectsfCDfindex.htm . The public was encouraged to complete the questionnaire at the workshop, on line or mailed .

Public Questionnaire

Distance to the C&D Canal from Home

"'''''

I

.4

I

!J

'"

I

50 .0%

E

26.1 %

• Activities and frequencies of current C&D Canal users Rating the importance of both existing and possible recreation activities on a 1 to 5 scale • Enhancements that would encourage the public to use the C&D Canal more often

2 5 m 1 o f - - - - - - - - - - --"""" - - -

30.1%

1 103

20 ....

4 - - - -- - - - - - - -

I J>.1 %

VA

I

~ 3.7% NY

JU%

I

10""

I

NC

JI.9%

I

I MA

~%

CT

~%

I

...

,

--,P...:.n: Who PrvooIdid C«Iiut 'rfomwUon

APP :S I

....

J

0.""

Less than 2 Miles

2 and51v1iles

5 and 10 rril es

10 and 25 Miles

97% use land 64% use water

Survey Information Collected

SII"""I Respondents By State

DE

• C&D Canal users

25 and 100 Miles Greater than 100

Mias


Current C&D Canal Users tfyou answered yes to question 1, please tell us how many times p er year you or a member of your household participates In each of the following existing act ivities.

543%

Ooglraining

I 32.7%

IMkl lifehllature Db servation

I

Times per year

Powerboaling

I

I

5 1.0

8i c)C ~ng

.2 328

Equestrian 26. 209

Fisling

I

145%

1 .0

Kayakirg

5.5%

.,.

,..

Powerboaling

11 .2

Hurting

10.8

Percent

o

10

30

20

60

40

70

DIfYSPflr V. r

Below are lists of both existing activities and possible activities to be evaluated under the Study. Please let us know how important each is to you.

(Scale of 1 to 5) 1 Not Important 3 = Somewhat Important 5 Very Important

=

=

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

I

T I

s~%

Kayaking Equestrian

I

I

17. %

I

I

Dogtrairing

21B%

Huling

Current and Possible Recreation Activities

I

I

Fishing

I Ii kingNIalkirg,{Jo99i ng

7 %

Bicycling

31.9%

t-ikingtNal<inglJogging

63 5

WikllifelNalure Observation

-,

Do you currently use the lands and/or waters of the C&D Canal for recreation? _ Yes _ No

Outdoor Activity Hunting Fishing Power boating • Kayakinglcanoeing Wildlife Inature observation • Hiking or walking or jogging • Dog training Bicycling Equestrian • Other (specify)

Average Participaa on Days Per Year By Users of the C&D Canal

How Do You Currently U se Th e C& D Can al For Recreatio n? (384 Respondents)

III

Current and Possible Recreation Activities Existing Activities

Rate the Importance of Each Activity on a Scale of 1 to 5 1= NOllmportart, 3= Somawh1l Impo rt"'t, 5= Vsry Importart

= Possible Activities

3.'"

Dot1ranirg

• Hunting Fishing Power boating Kayaking/canoeing • Wild life Inature observation Hiking or walking or jogging • •

Dog training Bicycling Equestrian

• AII - terrain vehicle sites (AN) Campgrounds Dog parks • Preserved areas • Mountain biking Picnic areas • Playgrounds • Other (specify)

3 .08

Wi!t(eiNature Observa!ioo Preserved .Afeas Hll4ngfWalki1g/Joggirg Fishirg

3.04

2.11

257 2.50

Bicyc~rg

2.34 2.29 2.22

Hunting Picnic .Areas

MJ UI1 8J1 Bi<irg 204

Kayaking Dogparks

2.04 1.81

Pla)'gl ounds

1.78

Campgrounds 1 .4.

Equestrian 121 1 .13

Off tigMay 'khicles PONerboaling

o

TRA IL DESIGN CONCEPT STUDY

2

I APP :9


APPENDIX C & D CANAL WILDLIFE AREA, SUMMIT RETRIEVER TRAINING AREA 2004 - 2005 CHESAPEAKE AND DELAWARE CANAL WILDLIFE AREA SUMMIT RETRIEVER TRAINING AREA

GENERAL DOG TRAINING REGULATIONS

OTHER SPORTING DOG TRAINING AREAS -

1. Dog training activities are restricted to designated dog traini ng areas from March I-August 31(See attached map) . From September I-Febu rary 28 dog training may take place on a n y suitable area within the C&D Canal Wildlife Area during open hunting seasons for the game that the dog is being trained to hun t. 2 . During field trial e v ents permitted by the Division , dog training areas may be closed to the pUblic . A signage system at appropriate access areas will be used to provide n otice when a permitted field trail is occurring and that the dog training area is closed . 3 . Individuals are not permi tted to drive or operate motorized ve h icles off established and maintained roadways on lands administered by t h e Division , i ncluding dog training areas . 4 . Individuals are not permitted to drive or operate unlicensed vehicles on l ands administered by the Division , including dog trai n ing areas . 5 . F irearms are not permitted on lan ds admin i stered by the Div ision from March 1 - August 31 , except by permit during legal h unting seasons or on areas established by the Division as a designated dog training area . Tar get shoot i ng is p roh ibited. Call Omme l anden Shooting Range for year-roun d target s h ooting information at 323-5334 .

sporting Trainin g Marylan d traini n g falconry

SUMMIT RETRIEVER TRAINING AREA 1 . The Division has established a retrie v er training area along t h e n orthside of the canal bet ween Route 896 and Gut h rie Run (a.k . a The Waterfall) . This area is restricted to the training of sporting dogs in the act of retriev ing (See attached map) . 2 . In a cooperative stewardship agreement with the Division of Fish and Wildlife , the Delaware Bay Retriever Club is assisting the Division in the man agement of this area . Except during permi t ted field tr i al events , t h e clu b does not maintain any exclusive use of t h e area and the area is open to all members of t he public engaged in t h e retriever training of their dogs . 3 . The Summit Retriever Training Area is closed to h unting except duri n g the archery and firearm deer seasons (See Exception below ) . No dog trai n ing is permitted during any firearm d eer seasons , e x cep t on Sundays (See Exception Below) .

4. Firearm deer hunting will not be permitted in the Summit Retriever Training Area during the Special October Antlerless Firearm Season and as such dog training is permitted . Archery hunting will be permitted. 5 . It is unlawful to enter the Summit Retriever Training Area for any p u rpose other than to train dogs in the act of retrieving or to hunt deer during the firearm or archery deer seasons. I t is unlawful to fish , operate model or full size boats, ride horses or bicycles , or conduct any oth er activity on the area .

APP: 14 I

The Division has also established a dog training area located i mmediately west of t h e Summit Retriever Area , along the northside of the can al between Guthries Run and the State Line, referred to as The Bowl Sporting Dog Training Area. The of all sporting dogs is permitted within t h is area . Hunting and is also permitted wit h in this area.

Patrick J . Emory, Director For furt h er information , contact the Divi sion of Fish and Wildl ife, Dover , Delaware , 19901 , Telephone: (302) 739-5297 or the Au gustine Wildlife Area (834-8433). To report wildlife or wildlife area violations, or to contact an enforcement agent call the Department Communication Center toll free at 1-800523-3336 . State and Federal law prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex, religion and/or handicap or disability . If you believe you have been discriminated against in any program, activity, or facility, or if you desire further information , please write to : Office for Equal Opportunity Division of Fish and Wildlife U. S. Department of Interior 89 Kings Highway Washington , D . C . 20240 Dover, DE 19901 Federal Aid project w-S- D


APPENDIX C & D CANAL REGULATIONS 2005 - 2006 CHESAPEAKE AND DELAWARE CANAL WILDLIFE AREA Person s ma y hun t o n t h e Che sapeake and De lawa re Cana l Wi l dlife Area o nly as dire cted by the above rules , which have been established by Wildlife Regulation 3908 (WR-3908) of the Division of Fish and Wildlife , pursuant to Section 103 , 7 Delaware Code . A. GENERAL HUNTING REGULATIONS 1. Hunters are cautioned not to trespass on private lands . 2. The Summit Retriever Training Area is closed to hunting except during the firearm deer seasons (see attached map) i however , deer hunting will not be permitted in the traini n g area during the Special October Antlerless Firearm Season . 3. Lums Pond State Park has separate hunting regulations . Secure maps and hunting regulations at the Park Office . 4. No hunting is permitted within posted safet y zones and refuges . Hunters are cau tioned that sev eral ne w safet y zones have been established (See attached map)

B. 1. 2.

3.

4.

4. 5. 6.

c. 1. 2. 3.

D. 1.

2.

E.

UPLAND SMALL GAME AND DEER HUNTING Deer and upland small game hunting is prohibited in Scotts Run (See map) . Deer hunting will b e permitted on this area during t h e Special October Antlerless Firearm Season (ex cept within the Summit Retriever Training Area where only archery hunting will b e permitted) . Archery hunters during this special season and other firearm seasons must meet fluorescent orange requirements . No permanent stands or structures are allowed and all parts of portable stands must be re moved at the end of the day . No portable stands or tree steps that cause d amage to trees are a llowed . Deer hunting by dri v ing is permitted on the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Wil d life Area between the ho u rs of 9 : 00 am and 3 : 00 p.m . No more than six (6) resident hun ters may participate in actively driving deer at anyone time . Non-residents may not participate in actively driving deer and must hunt from stationary locations . Upland small game hun ting is closed during the December and January shotgun deer seasons . Falconry seasons and regulations are t h e same as upland small game hunting . Hand gun h unti n g for deer is not permitted on this area .

F.

TRAPPING.

Not p e rmitt e d e xc e pt with a valid state contrac t o r p e rmit .

G.

Vehicles. Motorized ve h icles are only permitted on established and maintained roads. All motorized vehicles must be licensed.

H.

HORSEBACK RIDING - Horses may be used only on established roads open to v ehicular traffic except for activities approved by t h e Div ision .

Patrick J . Emory , Director For further information , contact t h e Division of Fish and Wildlife , Dover , Dela ware , 19901 , Telep h one : (302) 739 - 9912 or the Augustine Wil d life Area (834 - 8433) . To report wildlife or wildlife area violations, or to contact an enforcement agent call the Department Communication Center toll free at 1-800 - 523-3336. State and Fe d eral law prohibit discrimi n ation o n the basis of race , color , national origin , age , sex , religion and/ or handicap or disability . If you b elieve y ou have been disc r iminated against in any program , activity , or facility , or if y ou desi r e fu r ther information , please write to : Office for Equal Opportunit y U . S . Depart ment of Interior Washington , D. C . 20240

Division of Fish and Wildl i fe 89 Kings Highway Dover , DE 19901 Federal Aid Project W- 5 - D

WATERFOWL HUNTING Hunters hunting in Scott ' s Run must use the established blind sites on a first come , first serve basis (See attached map) . Hunters using blinds in the tide marsh must have a boat a n d required safet y equipment to hunt . See Delaware Hunting Guide . J u mp shooting of waterfowl is permitted on other areas of the C&D Canal Wildlife Area , e x cept the Su mmit Retriever Training Area . FIREARMS AND PAINTBALL GUNS No firear ms on lands admi n istered b y the Division from March 1 - August 31 except b y permit d uring legal hunti ng seasons or a u thorized b y the Di v ision of Fish and Wildlife . Target shooting is p rohibited . Call Ommelanden Shooting Range for year - round target shooting information at 323 - 5333 . The discharge or p ossession of paintball guns on l ands administered by the Division is proh ibited . DOG TRAINING REGULATIONS. This area has special dog training regulations including areas designated for specialized traini ng of retrieving breeds and other sporting breeds . For specifics please cons u lt the Summit Retriever Training Area ~

I

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

III

TRAIL DES IGN CONCEPT STUDY

I APP: I 5


APPENDIX :WEB PAGE OF THE US ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, PHILAD ELPHI A Page 1 of3

US Army Corps of Eng ineers, Phil adelphia Dist rict

DI ST RICT US Army Corps of Eng inee rs, Philade lphi a District

il1/ill"lll1l1iOIl

Page 2 of3

Evidence of this is the nature of the website as jl will act as an information porlal for the public to share its comments, concerns, data, and questions.

yo/{ 111(/)' lind

(/1 Ihese {ocliliom·. Lil/h· a r epr ol'ic/cc/("(II1.1"isl('1II

We need your input to help develop recreation along the C&D Canal now and for future generations. The project will not end with the first shovel of dirt but will be an ongoing regional legacy.

Ifill! Ihe pl/rpm·(' oflhis DoD Weh sill'.

CUS ~ 't1y Corp.s of €ulJittttr.s

Please visit the site regu[arly for upcoming public information workshops announcements, study updates, and 10 provide us feedback and tell us how we can better serve you through this website.

I Arm y 111 [Corps of Engineers J II [ North Atlant ic Division J II [ Ph i ladelphia Distri ct J

r:

r: Project

Project Links

Study Docum ents & Presentations

Chesapeake & Delaware Canal Recreation Study

• CD Canal Dec Survey Poster • CD Canal Presentation conceptual • 3035 DELAWARE 120505

C&O Canal Recreational Stud y Group conducts two open houses In Ap ril 2005

Project Updates

Press Release: Castle An nounces Open Houses to Unveil C&O " Multipurpose Recreational Trail " Conceptual Design

Open Houses and .up'dale o n caD Cana l

Recreatio n Project Dec. 5 and 6, 2005

Security ~ &Sec urjly

External LInks

71,(' oppel//'(/lIe!' rd' h)perlil/b (10('.\"

1/(/1

cO lls/iflll t' (III t'11r/o/"x/!mel1l

II)' the US Arm)' Corps (!l Engineers I(/'Ihe Well .l"ile 01" Ihe il(fhrll/ilfilJl/. prlJ{/uct,\' fir sen'ices

cOlI/llilled

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The partners in the C&D Canal Recreation Study Working Group, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; De[aware Congressman Michael N. Castl e; U.S. Congressman Wayne Gilchrest; Delaware's Department of Natura [ Resources and Environmenta[ Control and Department of Transportation; Mary[and's Department of Natura[ Resources; New Castle County , DE.; Cecil County , MD; and Delaware Greenways, Inc. have begun to study potential recreational opportunities and infrastructure improvements along the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. The working Group's Mission The goal of the C&D Cana l Recreation Study is to work with Delaware and Maryland State agencies and other interested partners to investigate potential future recreational usage of the C&D Canal and compi le a final report with recommendations to implement these recommendations for the betterment of recreational opportunities available to the citizens of Delaware and Mary[and. These recreational uses include hunting , fi shing , bicycling, hiking , birdwatching and other popular forms of outdoor recreation. Demand for these and other uses wil[ only increase as the population continues to expand around the ca nal. To enhance existing recreation along the canal and consider new uses, planning for the future at this time is very important.

• C& D Rec reation Study Updat ed Diagram s o Utility Diagram for Multi-use Path and Amenities half scale (6 MB) a Utility. Diagram for Multi-use Path and Amenities-futl scale (7 MB) o Circulation Diagram for Multi-use Path and Am enities full scale (6 MB) o Circulation Diag ram for Multi·use Path and Am enities half scale (5 MB) a Compos ite Diagram for Multi-use Path and Am enitieshalf scale (54 MB) o Composite Diag ram for Multi-use Path and Am enities full scale (82 MB) o Concept Diag ram for Multi-use Path and Amenities hall scale (16 MB ) a Concep t Diagram for Multi-use Path and Am enities full scale (17 MB) a Pavement Diagram for Multi-use Path and Amenities half scale (9 MB) a Pavement Diag ram for Multi-use Path and Amenities - fu sca le (9 MB) • caD Canal Public Work shop Presentation

• C&D Canal Maps (PDF format) o Big_aerial (66 MB) o CaD COE Disposal areas fin al o C&D_landu se_fin al (1 MB) a C&D_recreation_f inal

The starting point for our C&D Cana l Recreation Study came from comments provided to the State of De[aware for its Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan 2003 to 2008. The Slate of Maryland has listed the C&D Canal as a potential recreational greenway in its Statewide Greenways At[as since 1992. The group is recommendi ng that a multi-use trail for walkers, joggers and bikers serve as the main element in all plans to enhance recreation along the Canal.

o C&D_ wildlif«Lfinal o Poster final (31 MB) • State of Delaware Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreatiol

!'Jan • Cecil County's Land Preservation Parks. and Recreation Plan

The C&D Canal has a long history and is one of only two commercia lly vital sea-level Canals in the United States. Forty percent of all ship traffic in and out of the Port of Baltimore travels through the Canal. As it takes on an additional role, it will continue to be a focal point and serve the region we[1.

r-:

In The News ...

US A rmy Corps IIj ElIgil/eel'.ldm.:.I'11fI1

exen.:isl! lIlI)' eililrwill/ ('fIIl/fll/m'e/"

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A key component of the study process is public involvement. The C&D Canal Recreation Study Working Group plans to make every effort to enlist your support and work close[y with its stakeholders in thi s regional effort.

http: //www. ll ap.lIsace.a rm y. mi l/ Projects/C D/ indcx .htm

A PP : 16 I

1211 6/200 5

• Ideas for trail along caD Canal to be reviewed .. 06C6mher 3. 2003 • Workshops set for recreation p.1Qject

http ://www. nap.u sace.armY· llliJ /Projects/C D/ illd ex .htm

1211 6/2005


Page 3 of 3

US Army Corps of Eng ineers , Philadelphi a District

Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Recreation Study MUltipurpose Recreational Trail Conceptual Design Open House

The News Journal, DE • 8 April 2005 ... Mike Castle first announced his plan to further develop the C&D Canal into a recreational site in spring 2004 and since then has secured $150,000 in federal. • Castle, Arm y Corps and pa rtners seek public Input 10 the C&O Can; recreational study Congressman Castle Plans C & 0 Canal Pa rk

Gunning Bedford Middle School, Delaware City, Delaware December 5, 2005 The partn ers in the C&D Canal Recreation Study thank YO LI for attendi ng this open house and request yo ur comments on th e multipurpose rec reational trai l conceptual design and any other aspects of the Canal's potential for recreation in the future. You can se nd addjtional comments to o ur mailing add resses,

~ AdditJonallinks ... • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Congressman Michael N. Castle ~:lIwww. h o u se.gov/cas tie/ Congressman Wayne Gilchrest http://g llchrest.house.govl Delaware City www.delawa rec ity.info Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control tillp'uwww dnrec.state de.usldnrec2000! Delaware Department of Transportation httQ:llwww.deJdol .neUi ndex.shtml New Castle County, Delaware hllJ::!::/lwww.co.newcastle.de.uslhomelwebpage3.asp Delaware Greenways http://www.delawaregreenways.orgl Cecil County , Maryland http://www.ccgov.org Chesapeake City, Maryland http://www.chesapeakecity.coml DNREC hunting maps: http://www.dnrec.state.de.us/fwlwildllfemaps.htm Maryland Greenways - httQ:llwww. dnr.sta te. md . u sfg ree n wav~ Maryland A tlas of Greenways, Water Trails, and Green Infrastructure lillp:IIWWW dnr.state md.uslg.rutAWaYslintroductlon.html Maryland's Green Print Program tillp·llw ww dnr state md uslgreenwayslgw.np1in.tl Maryland DNR Wildife and Heritage Service - httj:!:lIwww.dnr.state.md.us/wildlift Maryland DNR Guide to Hunting and Trapping hUp:JJwww.dn r.state.md.uslhuntemguidelindex.asp Maryland DNR Fisheries Service .Iillp:llwww .dnr.slate md.uslfi sherleslfjshingr.e.R2.d/1r.m..apindex.html

To help us in our efforts to se rve th e public could yo u please let us know how heard of this open house? Circle the one or ones that appl y,

YO li

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1211 6/2005

htt p://www.nap.lIsace.anny.l11i l/ Projec ts/CDli ndcx. htlll

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

Please place your comments in the box at the main table. Or, if you prefer to mail yo ur comments to us p lease send them to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 100 Penll Square East, Wanamaker Bldg., Attn: Merv Brokke, Rm. 600, Philadelphia, PA 19107-3390

III

TRAI L DES IGN CONCEPT STUDY

I

l APP : 17


INITIAL COMMENTS VIA EMAIL TO C & D STUDY I made my first visit to the canal this past weekend and thought it was just beautiful. J do hope you take the concerns seriously in reference to motor bikes, ATV's and speed boats. My personal opinion is that mixing these elements with the function of the cana l is just asking for trouble. I am a horse owner and wou ld appreciate you considering equestrian use as a viable a lternative. Keeping in mind the goal to provide a multi-use trail for walkers. joggers and bikers and "to en hance recreation along the Canal" I do feel

I am a current user of the canal trailslarea on horseback. We would greatly like to be considered as an important part of the canal recreation study. We would like horse trails and lor access to be considered as part of the new project. Not just hikers, joggers and bikers. There are tons of boarding farms in the 'hacking' vicinity of the canal (of which I am one) and would like the opportunity to continue t o use the area. Hors es do not destroy the trails and we are respectful of the environment. Please do not disregard us as a vital part of this plan. It is im portant to include the people who actually live alo ng the canal and have horses as part of their lives .

that equestrians wou ld be a much more compatible choice. Equestrians can successfully share recreation areas with joggers, hikers, etc and are much more environmentally friendly t han the alternative. Including horses in the proposal would prove to be an excellent choice and would blend well with the existing use as well as the proposed use. I am a Delaware resident that s upports the deve lopment of recreationa l non-motor ized paths a long the ca nal. Before making a decision, why not walk the area yourself. The peace and quiet that is found there is what really makes you appreciate nature and is one of the reasons that I fou nd the area so appealing. I think that one of the recreational activities that should be considered would be a safe place (large hill) to do some sledding in the winter. We don't get much snow, but when we do it would be nice to have a safe and convenient place I wi ll not be able to attend either of t he public meetings but wanted to inform you of my support of the proposed

where we can take our children to go sledding. New Castle County developed a hill in their new park in the Bearl

project. I'm an av id cyclist who is an active member of White C lay Bicycle Club & rides regu larly. Development of cycling

Glasgow area and one just like it could be set-up in the C&D area for the residents of lowe r New Castle County. It

tra ils along the C&D canal wou ld be great for off road cycl ing & I wou ld like it recorded that I support the building

wouldn't take much to develop this idea in conjunction w ith bike paths, parking lots, restrooms, etc.

of such tra ils. I th ink t hese trails wo ul d be used extensive ly and be an asset to Delaware & Mary land's recreationa l fac ili ties. We are wr iti ng to vo ice our support for mu lti use tra ils a long the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. As hikers and tra il rid ing bicyclists, we are aware of the tremendous need for long-distance off road trai ls here in De laware. The C & D Thank you very much for your concern for EVERYONE that uses the state parks! Many Parks are limiting the areas

Canal area is an idea l location a nd we who le hearted ly support a m ul t i use tra il system along both s ides of the cana l

available to horsesback riders or are trying to eliminate our use altogether.Th is is very refreshing news! The C&D canal

connected via bike lanes on the bridges.

is a bea utiful place to ride and it would be wonderful to have a such a nice tra il for us to enjoy! All citizens pay taxes and shou ld have equal access to our state areas. This is a great idea and we will be thrilled to see it become a reality. Thanks again for including the equestrian citizens!

I speak for many families of Middletown, Delaware when I state there is a need for a safe winter sledding area south of the canal. Up until this year, families utilized St. Annes Church Cemetery to enjoy the winter snow. This year, signs were put in place and county police patrolled to make sure no one was sledding in the cemetery. That left us no where

I was pleased to hear about this recreatio nal study. Upon review I was very disp leased to see the omission of equestrian

to go.

use from t he proposed study. I board my horse on a property that backs up to the canal and use those fie lds and roadways freque nt ly on trail rides . I would hate to see that area opened up to bikers, hikers and joggers o nly to lose use of it myse lf. I' m sure I speak for many eq uestrians in the area. If t he greenway plan is to move forward please include the poss ibil ities of equestria n use as we ll . We are a large part of t hat "greenway" comm unity a lready. It's a lmost all we have left due to serious over deve lopment in the area. Our properties border the Army Corp of Eng ineers Property. Please don't lose us as part of the big picture.

APP : 18 /

There is a sledding hi ll north of the canal at the new park in Bear. It is located at the intersection of 896 and 40.1 don't feel we should have to travel north (especially in winter weather) and intrude on the local residents there to enjoy a little sledding.


I do not think it is a good idea to deve lop the C & D canal area. Can't we leave wild places alone wit hout trying to ru in them w ith pavement. benches, baseball fields, parking lots. restrooms, visitor centers and the like? Hiking is currently availab le on mil es of dirt roads, and t he lowest level is even graveled for easy wa lking. Fishing piers are already in place up and down t he ca nal. We have a dog tra ining area an d acres and acres fo r hun ting. D eveloped recreatio n already exists in t he area at Lums Pond State Park whic h backs up to the cana l. Why do we need to develop another area? If we bring more people into thi s area it w ill be hard to balance all of the current activities w ith people "strolling" along

these "walking" paths, or "watch ing sh ips" from special "ship watchi ng places". The C & D canal area is great just the way it is, let's not get crazy and pave over everything. This is how it is here; it is not like where ever t hese people w ho wa nt to change it come from.

Has anyone suggested an off-road park for those of us that like to use the C&D canal for off roading fun I would appreciate an honest response as several friends are very interested in any plans you may have concerning this.

No one has mentioned where exactly t hi s w ill be. Is it on the north or south side and w hat part of t he canal in Delaware?

Please bring back the Delaware State Championship Enduro.

I am originall y from Chicago's North Side an d far north suburbs, now li ving in Delaware. W hen going back to vis it, t hey have a continuo us development alo ng the North Branch of the Ch icago River Banks. It consists of a concrete pathway with benc hes and a var iety of artists sculp tures spread out for miles alo ng side t he pathway. It is always being used by

wa lkers, joggers, bikers, families with ch ildren and a pleasant sight to view from the roadway running alo ngs ide. All the scu lp tures are unique to see ranging from very contemporary to recogn izab le. You can interact w ith the scu lpt ures if you want to. Hope you can do something sim ilar so th is can be a pleasant experience as I have seen in the Chicago area.

I live in North Chesapeake City and I have several concerns about developing this area for recreation. One of my main concerns is ATV use on the levies. It is already unbearable on spring, summer, fall weekends and evenings with all of the noise coming from ATV's. It is hard to enjoy ourselves in our own yards due to the noise and I am afraid that it will only get worse. There is also concern over more speed boat traffic in the canal.As it is, when the Chesapeake Inn closes (approximately 2:00 a.m.), cigarette boats and other loud boats race thru the canal once they get past the no wake zone. It also happens during the day, but is extremely upsetting when it happens in the middle of the night. I have an elderly uncle who's property backs up to the canaL I am concerned for him with trespassers and the possibility of someone breaking into his house with access to the canal roads. Is there going to be controlled access to the canal

roads and will they be patrolled!

I

CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE CANAL

III

TRAIL DESIGN CONCEPT STUDY

l APP : 19


REFERENCES

Boone, Tony. (2005) The Art of Bui ldin g Crushed Stone Trail s. (Elec tronic Version) http://www.American Trails.org

Gusey, Daryl. Guide for the Development for Bicycle Facilities. ( 1999) Washington, D.C. : AASHTO. (Electro nic Versio n) http.//www.aashto.org.

Brown, M.L. and R.G . Brown . ( 1984) Herbaceous Plants of Maryland. Un iversity of Maryland. College Park, Maryland. Chesapeake City website, http://www.seececil.orgl

Holmes Co unty Trail Website (2005) (Electronic VerS ion) http: //ho/mestrail.orgltrail.htm/. International Mountain Biking Association. (1995) Tra il Development & Construction for Mo untain Bicycling. Bo ulder, Colo rado. (Electronic Version) http://www.greatoutdoors.com .

Delaware City website, http://www.delawarecity.info Maryland Greenways website, http://www.dnr.state.md.us /greenways/counties/cecil.htmI Pickett, E. Thomas and Robert R. Jordan, State Geo logist ( 1970) Geo logy of the Chesapeake and Delaware Cana l Are a. Delaware Geo logical Survey. (Electron ic Versio n) http:// De laware River and Bay Authority. website http: // threeforts.com Diamond, Gary. (2005) Ma ry land's top public·land goose hu nt ing; Here are e ight places you sho uld try this winte r wh ile plying the marshes, rivers and reservoirs of the free State. (Electronic Version) http://.midatlanticgamean

dfish.cam East Coast Gree nway Alliance. (2006) Close th e Gaps, Blueprint for Action. (Electro nic Version)

http://www.greenway.org/ Eric West, PE., WesTest Inch . (2005) A Guidelin e for the design and construction of aspha lt pavements for Colorado trai ls and paths. (Electron ic Version) http: //www.AmericanTrails.org. Fl eming, M. Lorraine. ( 1978) Delaware's Outstand ing Natural Areas and their Preservation . Hokess in, Delaware: Delaware Nature Education Society.

Flink, C. et ai, Rai ls to Trails Conservancy. (200 I) Trai ls for the Twenty·First Century, Second Edition. Washington, D.C. : Island Press. Fort Delaware State Park. website http:// visitthefort.com

Maryland Maps webs ite, http://www.sha.state.md.us /SHAServices/mapsBrochures /maps/OPPE /maps.asp Ryan , Karen·Lee, editor. (1993) Trails for th e Twenty· Fi rst Century, Planning Des ign and Manageme nt Manu al for Mu lti·Use Trails. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Sauer, Jones Leslie and Andropogon Associates, Ltd . (1998) The Once and Future Forest, A guid e to fores t restorat io n strategies. Was hi ngton, D.C.: Island Press. Taber, William S. ( 1995) De lawa re Trees;A gu ide to th e identification of th e native tree species. Dover, DE; Delaware De partment of Agricu lture Fo rest Service. Swartz, Loering et ai, editor. ( 1993) Conservation Fund. Greenways; A guide to planning design, and deve lopment. Washington, D.C. : Island Press. U.S. Army Corp of Engineers. (200 I) Canal Crossings Study Traffic Forecast Report. De laware Department of Tran spor tation D ivision of Planning and Policy.

U.S. Army Corp of Engineers. ( 1994) Habitat Assessment of C & D Canal up land disposa l areas for the C & D Canal deepening feasibi li ty study. (Contract No. DACW6 1·94·M·0884)Sali sbu ry, MD: Environm enta l Reso urces. U.S. Army Corp o f Engineers. ( 1977) C hesapeake & De laware Canal: Design Memorandum No.28, Maste r Plan (revised) Philade lphia, PA.

Fort Delaware. Ibid . President Monroe quoted from " Message to Congress on the Re-exam ination of Positions on

Dauphin Island and Mob il e Point for Fortifications" American State Papers: Military Affairs, vol. 2, P 368. As taken

U.S.D.A. Forest Service. ( 1996) Standard Specifications fo r Construction and Maintenance of Trai ls.

from Willard Robinson , American Eorts. Architectura l Form and Function Chicago: University of Ill inois Pres s. Amon

Carter Museum of Art, 1977. As taken from # 8 (see above)

U S Department of Transportation . Federal Highway Administration . Recreational Trail Design. (Electronic Version)

http:// www·fhwa.dot.gov Gambill, Pau li ne . (1998) An American Trails Action Article. Multi·Use Trai l Management Pol icy: Use r·Group Conflict and Reso urc e Impact Issues. (Electronic Version) http. //www.AmericanTrails .org.

A PP :20 I


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314 chesapeake & delaware canal  
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