Aesthetic Path Buddhist Art collections
國際古玩展 香港會議展覽中心展覽廳 5BC
2019年5月25 - 28日
劉惠漢 何杏根 劉俊揚
東寶齋 電話: +852 2559 8688/ 2541 6338 電郵: firstname.lastname@example.org 網址: www.hollywood-galleries.com
International Antique Fair Hong Kong Convention and Exhibtion Center Hall 5BC
May 25 - 28, 2019
Hon Lau Ellen Ho Andrew Lau
Hollywood Galleries Phone: +852 2559 8688/ 2541 6338 E-mail: email@example.com Website: www.hollywood-galleries.com
Aesthetic Path Buddhist Art collections
are delighted to present an exhibition on
â€œAesthetic Path â€?
at the I nternational
and I ndian
exhibition focuses on some exquisite private collections of
and paintings from the
regions ,I ndia and
ranging in date from
the eleventh to the eighteenth century , with media rendered in silver , bronze , wood , silk and cloth .
To a substantial extent, the acquisitions of these current custodians
reflect the tangible and intangible links to the aesthetic path of joy and peace .
significant portion of the exhibits displays the lama portraits-the spiritual masters
who play the essential role of a guru guiding his students along the aesthetic path to enlightenment . in one lifetime
An eminent historical guru who achieved the ultimate goal only
- Milarepa, is one of the highlights in the selection. Unlike the majority
of the conventional
sculptures , this
century gilt bronze
is portrayed in his enlightenment stage , both hands clasped on his lap , seated in meditation. at the
This Milarepa belongs to the Nyingjei Lam collection, exhibited in 1999
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford
Rubin Museum, New
A powerful mid-15th century Chinese statue of Mahachakra Vajrapani and consort, a magnificent
exquisite set of nine
T ibetan C hakrasamvara
paintings from circa
silk embroidery thangka , an
and more .
from various private international collections and with excellent provenance .
would like to express our immense gratitude to our family , clients , friends , and
gurus who have been with us in the past years .
current exhibition would not
be possible without their help , inspiration and support .
are thankful to
D r . D avid T empleman
for the informative catalogue entries
and for generously sharing his knowledge with us . consignors especially
special thanks to all the
Sir Oâ€™Neill for entrusting us with their precious gems, we are
grateful for their unfailing trust in us and the opportunity given to us .
but not least , we thank the organiser and the brilliant team from the
their great efforts in providing the invaluable platform for us all .
展覽包括多個私人收藏品：喜瑪拉雅地區、印度和中國的藏傳佛教造像和唐 卡。年份由十一世紀至十八世紀，造像取材於銅、鎏金銅、銀、絲和棉布。這 些藏品都是他們精心挑選，反映他們不同的選擇過程，亦反映他們擁有這些收 藏品的喜悅。
這次展覽，上師造像佔著比較重要的份量，表示上師造像在收藏路上的地位。 在藏傳佛教，上師地位極為重要，他們帶領信徒由認識佛學以至最終目標：成 道。展品中有一件菩薩道珍藏：鎏金銅成道的密勒日巴造像，體型巨大，非 常珍貴難得。這位重要的歷史人物是釋迦牟尼佛陀以外，在他生命完結之前成 道的聖者。這尊難能可貴的密勒日巴造像，雙手結禪定印，一如佛陀成道的模 樣。這件展品曾在1999年至2009年在英國牛津大學展覽、和於2012-2013年開始 在紐約魯賓博物館展出。
展品有一尊充滿力量的十五世紀中期鎏金銅大輪金剛手雙修造像。另外一張罕 見十六世紀刺繍唐卡勝樂金剛雙修，一套九張十三至十四世紀小唐卡亦是精挑 細選的藏品。
「智道」收藏品由各地收藏家歷年挑選而成，來源有序。對於他們慷慨讓出， 我們感激不已。感謝他們的信任和支持，特別是歐啓忠老師讓我們分享他多年 珍藏。
01 T he E nlightened M ilarepa
(T ib . M i
la ras pa )
Tibet 14th century Gilt copper 26 cm h
成佛者．密勒日巴 西藏十四世紀 銅鎏金 26 公分高
image is said to be of the
is the most beloved of him .
figure from history and there exist many thousands of images
improvised spiritual songs are called the
songs ’ and are profoundly
beautiful in their spiritual content as well as for their evocation of the forests and caves in which he meditated .
Milarepa and were compiled 1488 by another Tibetan yogi-saint, Tsang Nyön Heruka (Tib. gTsang smyon He ru ka). Milarepa’s life encompassed poverty, enslavement, revenge , the meeting M arpa his master under whom he studied , retirement to isolated caves and eventual full realization . I t is T ibet ’ s most popular single biography and was edited by the same yogi T sang N yön H eruka . I t was translated into E nglish by L obsang L halungpa in 1997 as T he L ife of M ilarepa . songs were actually not composed by
from the memory of his lineage disciples in
Milarepa in a quite different pose While he is usually seen ‘pre-enlightenment’, with his hand held up to his ear in a yogic pose , here I suggest instead that M ilarepa is shown in the ‘post-enlightenment’ phase of his life - as the Buddha himself. After Milarepa’s experience of E nlightenment he was , as are all those who attain that state , indistinguishable from the Buddha. In portraying him in such a pose the artisan was making this very important point. Indeed many images of saints and lamas in Tibet are shown in Buddha-like poses for this very reason . I n the 10 th chapter of his biography M ilarepa describes this approach to E nlighten ment extremely beautifully . fluid and extraordinary image is said to represent
to which he is usually seen in .
from his stable and resolute pose of deep meditation we notice his robes , diaphanous
yet luxurious , reminding the viewer of the
own robes .
further example of the
understated way the robes are portrayed is seen on the reverse of the image where they are gathered together at his left shoulder in a pleasing and charming manner .
his feet the
surplus material spills out in pleats evenly and it can be noted that the hem of his robe closely replicates the so - called
Malla rice-grain design. This use of the simple and effective design might suggest that this M ilarepa piece was made by N ewari artisans from N epal , pos sibly working in southern T ibet or far western N epal . T his was a very common practice in the 14-17 th centuries and there are many records found in T ibetan literature of their work , costs of materials used , payments etc .
special note are the ‘ plugs ’ inserted into
was a very common prac -
Tibetan ascetics and such plugs were usually made from ivory or bone. They may Nath yogi custom of inserting a plug into the ear-lobe to stretch the lobe to its extreme . N ath yogis were commonly seen in T ibet in this period and T ibetans might have adopted their habit as part of their emulation of I ndian ascetic practices . tice among
be based upon the I ndian
blessed scrolls which may be seen in the base of the image and thrust upwards into the
chest and head region of the image would be very useful in locating and dating the piece but to unroll them would be completely inappropriate due to the blessings and protections placed on them .
Milarepa’s teacher Marpa is said to have given 2 scrolls to his student – the ‘Inner Heat’ (Tib. gtum mo) and
first was a text on how to raise and control the psychic
the second was a sealed scroll which he was instructed not to open until he felt he was in great danger .
Even when very late in his life he ate deliberately poisoned food (in exactly the same manner as the B uddha did ) and was in great danger , he felt that death was nothing but ‘ an adornment ’ to his life rather than a hindrance , and he felt it was not at all neces sary to unroll M arpa ’ s scroll . T his was because M ilarepa felt that he was entering into a new , unexplored realm and there could not possibly be any danger in that state of death . He passed into that very state in 1123. 造像是十一至十二世紀生活的西藏隠士密勒日巴。他是西藏歷史最受愛戴的西藏人物。 他的塑像無數。傳説他曾創造「十萬歌曲」，描述他在森林和洞穴冥想的美麗情景。事 實這都不是密勒日巴創作的，而是1488年一位藏族瑜伽士增南卻加基於密勒日巴的學生 回憶錄集成的。密勒日巴的傳記：由他貧窮的童年，經歷奴役，復仇，師從瑪爾巴， 最後到洞穴冥想以至得道的經歷，成為最受歡迎的傳記，都是這位瑜伽師增南卻加編 輯。1997年洛山拿隆翻譯成英文「密勒日巴的生命歷程」。 多數密勒日巴造像都表現密勒日巴舉右手到耳旁，那是他啟蒙前的樣子。此造像體形流 暢，以不常見的禪定坐姿表現密勒日巴成道時的形象，一如佛陀，非常罕見。故此我們 見到其他上師造像都會出現這種佛陀的坐姿時，亦是工匠想要表達上師成道的情景。密 勒日巴傳記第十章曾詳述了這種達到成道的方式。 除了密勒日巴穩重而堅定的冥想姿勢外，我們還要注意他穿著的長袍，透明又奢華，好 像佛陀的衣服。簡單的衣服披在左肩後的方式亦令人著迷。長袍下擺造成的褶皺結合在 盤膝前的設計是尼泊爾馬拉時期典型。推測這造像是尼泊爾工匠在西藏南部的作品。十 四至十七世紀時尼泊爾工匠非常普遍。西藏文獻記載著他們的工作、使用材料成本和交 易情況等。 我們亦要留意穿插在密勒日巴耳垂的「塞子」，這是藏族苦行者普遍的做法，一般是象 牙或骨頭製成。他們師從印度瑜伽師，實踐修行的過程。密勒日巴的老師瑪爾巴曾經送 給密勒日巴兩個捲軸（可見造像的耳垂插著兩個捲軸）：第一個是關於提升和控制心靈 的經文；第二個是密封的捲軸，指示密勒日巴非到危急時才開啓。可惜最後密勒日巴重 蹈釋迦牟尼佛陀蓄意進食有毒食物的覆轍，而危在旦夕時，密勒日巴都沒有打開那救急 經文。密勒日巴覚得死亡不是生命的障礙，他感覚他已經進入另一未曾探索的新境界， 他並不害怕死亡的威脅。密勒日巴於1123年逝世。
Published David Weldon and Jane Casey Singer, The Sculptural Heritage of Tibet: Buddhist Art in the Nyingjei Lam Collection, London, 1999, pp.172, pl.40. Franco Ricca, Arte Buddhista Tibetana: Dei e Demoni dell’ Himalaya, Palazzo Bricherasio, Turin, 2004. Exhibited The Sculptural Heritage of Tibet: Buddhist Art in the Nyingjei Lam Collection, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 6 October - 30 December 1999. Arte Buddhista Tibetana: Dei e Demoni dell’ Himalaya, Palazzo Bricherasio, Turin, June September 2004 . Casting the Divine: Sculptures of the Nyingjei Lam Collection, Rubin Museum of Art, New York, 2 March 2012 - 11 February 2013. Provenance The Nyingjei Lam Collection, Hong Kong On loan to the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 1996–2005 On loan to the Rubin Museum of Art, New York 2005-2018 出版 大衛韋爾登和簡凱西:《西藏雕塑遺產：菩薩道收藏》(倫敦: 1999 )，頁172，號40。 佛朗哥偉伽:《西藏佛教藝術：喜馬拉雅的神與惡魔，宮布里凱拉肖 》(都靈: 2004年) 。 展出 《西藏雕塑遺產：菩薩道佛教藝術》，阿什莫爾博物館，牛津大學10月6日 - 1999年12月30日。 《西藏佛教藝術：喜馬拉雅的神與惡魔》，宮布里凱拉肖都靈月 - 2004年9月。 《鑄造神聖：紐約魯賓藝術博物館菩薩道收藏的雕塑》，2012年3月2日至2013年2月11日。 來源 香港菩薩道收藏 1996-2005年間租借給英國牛津大學阿什莫林博物館博物館 2005-2018年間租借給美國紐約魯賓博物館
02 Y ogi -L ayman Tibet 15-16th Bronze 19 cm
瑜伽士．智者 西藏十五至十六世紀 銅 19 公分 高
The figure sits in a relaxed pose with his raised hand in the preaching gesture and the lowered one in the generous giving gesture . H is long hair is held in several chignons which also spill over his back and these are held in decorative bindings , which near the ears suggest a M akara - like shape . L ong hair in images of humans usually suggests that they have been engaged in yogic practices. In the present image the fact that they spill down over his shoulders suggests links with the archetypical yogi , the great I ndian god S hiva , whose long hair flowing down his shoulders represents the sacred river G anges . T he figure ’ s wearing of the five lobed ritual crown in which the panels representing the five B uddhas are changed to five flowers and also his layman ’ s robes suggest that this is a tantric layman - practitioner of some importance . T he beautiful robes , especially at the rear are typical of the 15 th century with their long and deep folds . 造像的坐姿輕鬆自然，左手置胸前施無畏印，右手下垂結施願印。頭上髮髻用繩帶結 起，長髮披肩，輕散背後，兩鬢有若海獸魔羯。從造像的髮式顯示他是修道瑜伽士， 亦顯現他與印度濕婆神的歷史淵源。他的長髮披肩代表神聖的恒河。瑜珈士頭戴五花寶 冠，代表五方佛。身穿長袍亦表明他是重要的密宗修道者。長袍的褶皺，非常突出，是 十五世紀風格的典型。
03 T he 3 rd D alai L ama , S önam G yatso , ‘O cean of M erit ’ (T ib : b S od nams rgya mtsho ) Tibet 16th century Gilt bronze 20 cm h
三世達頼喇嘛索南嘉措 西藏十六世紀 銅鎏金 20 公分 高 The 3rd Dalai Lama (1543-1588)
was born in
into an illustrious family and
his birth was said to have been predicted by the protectress of T ibet ,
Palden Lhamo (Tib: dPal Mongols to Buddhism in 1578 and formed a strong relationship with the great A ltan K han . S önam G yatso reminded A ltan K han of their rela tionship in their previous births , reformed the old M ongol practices which had crept back into the country and destroyed the old gods . I t was A ltan K han who gave S önam G yatso the title of ‘D alai L ama ’ meaning ‘T he L ama W hose W isdom is L ike an O cean ’ and S önam gave the titles 1 st and 2 nd D alai L ama to his teacher and his teacher , making them the 1 st and 2 nd D alai L amas . ldan lha mo ).
re - converted the
The image is particularly imposing and conveys much of the power and importance of the 3rd Dalai Lama. Clearly made by a talented artisan this image is marked by its clean lines and its simplicity , quite rare features in T ibetan art . M ost images of him show him with his right hand touching the earth and his left hand holding a vase containing long-life nectar. In the present image we see the vase ion the form of a lotus bud with what appears to be a plant emerging from it , perhaps an earlier stage of the more developed vase image . The
base is marked by the crossed vajras
(Skt. Visvavajra. Tib:
sna tshogs rdo rje ) signifying
absolute power and that the contents of the base are finally and absolutely sealed .
(prayers, blessed seeds etc) give life to the image and it is considered to be truly ‘alive’ as long as the contents remain undisturbed. A small letter appears towards the edge of the base plate which is the S anskrit syllable ‘ nri ’. T his could mean ‘ a man ’ or ‘ a human ’ but is also shorthand for N arasimha , the lion - god avatar of V isnu . P erhaps this hints at the high regard the artisan or the commissioner of the piece held S önam G yatso in , giving him such a divine I ndian link . contents
三世達赖喇嘛（1543-1588年）生於西藏中部一貴族家庭。傳説保護神吉祥天母曽預言 他的誕生。1578年他帶領蒙古族人重新皈依藏傳佛教，與蒙古領袖阿爾坦汗建立牢固的 關係。索南嘉措提醒阿爾坦汗他們前世的關係，改革蒙古族的信仰。阿爾坦汗册封索南 嘉措為「達頼喇嘛」，意為智慧如海洋的上師。索南嘉措再追封他前兩世的老師為第一 世和第二世達頼喇嘛，開創了格魯派轉世的制度。 此造像強而有力地表現出三世達赖喇嘛的權力和影响。出自才華橫溢的藝術家之手，特 別在簡潔的線條和厚重的鎏金，令造像莊嚴貴重，西藏造像中不多見。索南嘉措造像多 以右手觸地，左手拿著裝有長壽花蜜的寶瓶。眼前此像，我們看到寶瓶以未發芽的蓮花 代表長壽，也許比巳盛開的蓮花更為早期。蓮座底部以鎏金銅片密封，底片刻有十字金 剛杵，表示絕對的力量。內裏有原裝開光寶物（經文、種子等）賦予造像生命。封底邊 緣有一梵文小字母「 nri 」，可代表「一個人」，也可以是獅面毗濕奴的簡寫，暗示工 藝師把這尊索南嘉措造像與印度神靈的聯繫。
04 M aitreya ‘T he L oving O ne ’
(T ib . B yams
Tibet 15th century Bronze 15.3 cm h
彌勒菩薩 「愛護者」 西藏十五世紀 銅 15.3 公分 高
image is inscribed with the following words , badly mis - spelled and therefore probably
written by the image maker himself rather than a more literate person .
‘Homage to the Precious One (named) Rinchen Laydup (Tib: Rin chen las grub). Through this image of the Lord Maitreya we pray for Kun Kapala (?) and pray that this image may serve to perfect both his virtues and his faith . I t has been donated by the S teward (T ib : Ma chen) Jinpa (Tib: Byin pa) and has been made with a deep faith. May Happiness Come!’ The
image has been created with a fluid and sensuous style and its smooth lustre suggests
that it has been offered worship consistently over a long time .
so the details of his
jewelled ornaments and festoons have retained almost all their detail adding to the magnifi cence of the piece .
identification of the image as
is not only confirmed by the
inscription but by the quite small water pot located on top of the lotus at his left shoulder .
The hand gestures are quite uncommon in other images of Maitreya. Another feature of Maitreya is seen in the stupa located in his piled up hair. His gentle and re-assuring smile is perhaps his most charming feature . F or a similar statue see U hlig , p . 149, image 94. Reference: Uhlig, W. On
Enlightenment, 1995, p.149,
此造像具有流暢的線條和充滿美感，其古舊光滑和帶著光澤的皮殼反映崇拜者長年的膜 拜。造像精雕細琢，華麗的珠寶裝飾和花巧的衣服令造像增添輝煌。除了背後的銘文提 示，也可從左肩蓮花頂部托著的寶壺認出造像是彌勒菩薩。他另一特徵是髮頂上的佛 塔。此彌勒菩薩像的手印非常罕見。他溫柔而安撫人心的微笑也許是他最迷人的地方。 背後銘文（有多處不明之處，可能由非學者的工匠銘刻）： 「向尊貴的仁川利多致敬。彌勒菩薩保佑...占巴莊嚴敬送祈望快樂蒞臨。」 參考： Uhlig, W.: 《成道之路》(1995)，頁149，號94。
05 V ajrasattva ‘H e W hose N ature (T ib . D orjé S empa – r D o
rje sems dpa ’)
D iamond -L ike ’
India 11-12th century Bronze 10 cm h
金剛薩埵「堅如鑽石」 印度東北部 十一至十二世紀 銅 10 公分 高
Vajrasattva represents the unchangeable and immovable spirit of Buddha’s Enlightenment. He is considered to be the most important of the bodhisattvas who aspire to Enlightenment. He holds in his left had the vajra-tipped bell which combines the pure sound of wisdom (the bell regarded as female ) and the diamond - like unchangeable spirit represented by the vajra (regarded as male). In his right hand he holds a vajra and the ritual moving of the vajra with the bell is symbolic of the gradual movement towards E nlightenment . T his state of Enlightenment is regarded as the combination of male power and female wisdom. He sits in an immovable position and flexes his body in this dance - like process of combining the 2 ritual items in their spiritual dance . The
Bengal in N.E. India and dates to the period when Buddhism was in its last stages in I ndia . I t has all the hallmarks of an I ndian piece including the P ala dynasty model of the face looking inward , the prominent aureole ( which T ibetans retained in their own images until the 15 th cent ), the exaggerated sway to the body , the lotus petals on the base which are more prominent than in T ibetan images of a similar period etc . image is most likely from
The piece is typical of the finds of Pala dynasty images found throughout eastern India. Many such images found their way into Tibet where they acted as templates for the very earliest T ibetan ateliers who copied them to the best of their ability . R eference : https :// himalayanbuddhistart . wordpress . com / category / all / india / bodhisattvas - in dia / page /1/ ( see under : A pril 16 2018) 金剛薩埵代表佛陀不變和不可動搖的精神。左手握著金剛鈴（代表女性）結合智慧之 聲。右手托著金剛杵，代表男性有如鑽石不變形的精神。表示男權與女性智慧的結合， 是佛教成道的重要法門。 這造像很可能出自印度東北地區工匠之手，具有印度作品的所有標誌，是帕拉王朝時期 造像的典型。突出的背光，優美搖擺的身驅和優精美的雙層蓮花，都不是同期的西藏風 格所能比擬。這尊銅像是帕拉皇朝造像的典型代表，成為西藏造像工藝師所追隨。 參考: 喜瑪拉雅佛教藝術網站: 印度菩蕯，頁1(2018年4月16日) 。
06 Y ama ‘T he L ord O ver D eath ’
(T ib . g S hin
Tibet 15th century Bronze 14.5 cm h
降閻魔尊 西藏十五世紀 銅加彩 14.5 公分 高
Standing on top of the bull which represents our uncontrolled lusts, ‘Yama the Lord Over Death’ strikes his Vajra-chopper which symbolizes cutting wisdom away from ignorance into the skull - cup containing the wisdom elixir . I n other words he represents the truth that death brings to the B uddhist practitioner – that even in death we can still become E nlight ened . H is red hair flies upwards in the hot air which rises from the H ell - realms over which Yama is the Lord. The
bronze has been blessed and the ritual contents are still inside it .
Tibetan and M ongolian bronzes in which the ritual blessed items are sealed in the lotus base , in this image the contents are sealed in the back of the image . T his same location is also found often in images of V ajrapani , the ‘L ord of S ecrets ’ and ‘H older of the V ajra ’. Y ama ’ s bull head and his trampling an ox both suggest his ‘ origins ’ in the ancient N ear E ast where the cult of M ithras was common , a cult which involved bull slaughter . most
降閻魔尊右手拿著金剛鉞刀，象徵清除無知；左手托着裝滿智慧靈藥的嘎巴拉碗。貴為 地獄之主，他代表死亡能帶給信衆解脱痛苦的真理。降閻魔尊威武地站在公牛背上，寓 意無窮的慾望，表現南亞地區屠殺公牛的傳統。 此造像開光的裝藏在造像的背后，保存良好。
07 D rukpa K agyü L ama Tibet 18th century Gilt bronze 14 cm h
竹巴噶舉派喇嘛 西藏十八世紀 銅鎏金 14 公分 高
elegant image shows a
whose identity is unclear but whose image shows the great
respect he must have been held in .
is seated on a lotus throne in which the petals point
upwards which is a relatively uncommon depiction .
gung ) or the
Drugpa (Tib. ’Brug
The figure wears the hat of the Drigung
pa ) traditions ( the hats of both traditions are
very similar ) and wears beautifully draped and defined monastic robes which have been finely chased and decorated .
particular interest is the manner in which the robes hang at the
rear of the image suggesting a person ( and a life ) of order and exactitude .
The base of the image is sealed with a base plate which has been marked with the double Vajra (Skt. Visvavajra. Tib: sna tshogs rdo rje) showing that the image has been filled with blessed items such as pieces of a lama ’ s robes , fingernail parings , blessed seeds , semi - precious stones , written prayers etc . and that the base is not to be disturbed . 噶舉派止貢和竹巴分支的上師都會戴相似的僧帽，所以難以肯定這些上師是噶舉派那一 分支的上師。 這上師披著的斗蓬非常特別。他右手下垂示觸地印、左手横置肚前，儼如釋迦牟尼佛成 道時的形象，證明這造像是道行高深的大德。他坐在單層蓮花座上。此造像底部保存良 好，封底保留原貌，相信銅像內開光聖物原封未動，彌足珍貴。
08 A rhat A bheda ‘H e W ho M akes N o D istinctions ’ (T ib . M i
phyed pa )
Tibet 16th century Gilt bronze 17.5 cm
羅漢阿秘特 西藏十六世紀 銅鎏金 17.5 公分 高
The inscription reads: ‘He who lives on Mount Sumeru (World Axis-mountain. Tib: Ri’i rgyal po) in the Land of Snow (Tibet) is the Noble Sthavira (Elder Monk) named Abheda. He is one of the group of 1,000 Arhats. I pay my homage to He who holds the Enlightenment Stupa in his hands. May He bring about an increase in the (Buddha’s) Teachings!’ Abheda
16 Arhats as the final one of the series. He is Tibetans as he is said to still live somewhere in the Hima1,000 disciples, many of whom were also Arhats whose names
is usually portrayed in the group of
of special emotional interest for layan region along with his we do not know .
this charming and personable bronze
is shown with facial features which are so
realistic that they may have been modelled from a real person whom the artisan knew .
He He has finely incised robes with impressive detail of the floral design and wears Mongolian style ‘turned-up nose ’ boots which Tibetans often use in their Arhat portrayals. Like several other Arhats he is shown seated on a chair rather than in a B uddha - like pose and has what appears to be a piece of silk probably blessed by a L ama , attached to his left wrist . is old but still vital and shows a bright and alert attitude .
His most important identifying feature is the (slightly bent) Enlightenment Stupa he holds in his hands . T his style of stupa is of a unique design and is intended to remind the viewer of the key moment in the L ife of the B uddha – his overcoming of the evil M ara who attempted to prevent the P rince S iddhartha from attaining E nlightenment and becoming the B uddha Sakyamuni. The
image is still sealed with what appears to be the original base - plate and so one can be
quite confident that the contents have remained untouched since the image was created .
＂無分你我＂，＂ 無分善惡的尊者＂ 銘文：[住在須彌雪山上是尊貴的阿秘特尊者，他是一千羅漢之一。我向手上持有成道 寶塔的人表示敬意。願他增加佛祖的教誨！亅 阿秘特通常排列十六羅漢最後一位。藏民對他特別感興趣，傳說他和一千位門徒仍住在 喜瑪拉雅地區，其中還包括許多不知名的羅漢。這造像非常精彩。面容生動逼真，可能 工匠根據他熟悉的人物。造像型態雖老邁，卻老而彌堅，仍表達精明智慧。精心打造的 長袍刻有精美的圖紋，羅漢穿著蒙古風格靴子。阿秘特坐在椅子上，而不是佛陀一樣的 姿勢。左手拿著上師祝福的絲帶。能識別阿秘特是他手上的寶塔(微彎），寶塔是提醒 衆生佛陀克服邪魔成道時的景象。
09 S akya L ama (T ib . N a
Tibet 15th century Gilt copper 15.5 cm
N aza D ragphupa S önam P el .
phug pa bsod nams dpal )
薩迦派上師或扎普巴索南披爾 西藏十五世紀 紅銅鎏金 15.5 公分 高 Dragphupa lived between 1277 and 1350 and it is likely that this image was made within a quite short time after his passing . H e belonged to the S akya (S a skya ) tradition of T ibetan B uddhism and was a specialist in the L amdré (T ib . L am ’ bras ) ‘P ath and F ruit ’ system of B uddhist practice . H e was taught by the renowned (and rather ferocious) Lama Zhang and he in turn taught the famous scholar Lama Dampa Sönam Gyaltsen who was renowned for a voluminous commentary on the H evara T antra . When translated his complete name means ‘The One with Garments who resides in rocky caves – Sönam Pel’. Even though his family (or perhaps monastic) name was Sönam Pel, he is usually known by the name which reflects his life which is the N aza D ragphugpa part of it . T his might appear to be a strange name but non - monastic B uddhist practitioners who lived in caves in T ibet were not always fully clothed and it is possible that his name conveys the fact that he was quite different - a fully ordained monk of the S akya tradition and not simply an itinerant yogin yet still engaged in ascetic practices . The present image is clearly the work of a very skilled artisan. Dragphupa adopts the pose of the Buddha Sakyamuni with his left hand in his lap in a meditational pose and his right hand touching the earth as the Buddha did when calling upon it to witness his Enlightenment. To further show his power and spiritual immovability there is a small V ajra of power on the base directly in front of him . O f immediate note is the beautiful design engraved on his robes , a further sign of his eminent position . T he design features two cloud designs and extends around the entire robe . A particularly neat fold in his robe may be seen at the rear of the image . The gilding on the image is quite noticeably worn, especially on Dragphupa’s head. This is more than likely due to people seeking a blessing from the image by touching it , a rather rare practice in T ibet where for the most part images remain on altars and are not to be handled . H owever where an image is renowned to have certain special ‘ powers ’ or healing properties , or where an image might be of a master who is believed to give blessings to students , they are often touched nevertheless . A s this image was made relatively close in time to D ragphupa ’ s passing it is quite possible that it contained relics of the master thereby empowering it and making it an object of special veneration leading to the major wear . T he base remains sealed with the crossed power vajras and appears to be the original , meaning it is possible that any relics of the master , if any , contained inside are still ‘ alive ’ making the image the equivalent of the actual M aster himself . 這尊薩迦派上師索南披爾造像可能在上師過世后鑄造的。索南披爾受教顯赫的向上師，傳道於著名學 者丹帕桑南堅贊上師。索南披爾名字譯作「居住在岩洞內的披衣者」，表明他與其他瑜伽修道者不 同。 此造像表現工匠的精湛技術。扎普巴一如釋迦牟尼成道的様子，右手下垂施觸地印。為了加強表現造 像的力量和不動的精神，蓮台上有一金剛杵，置於上師足前。僧袍上刻有漂亮的雲彩圖案。 扎普巴頭上的鎏金明顯剝落，表示這造像曾受信眾長期的膜拜。這造像底部原封末動，內裏開光物料 應保存良好。對信徒來説有如上師的力量仍然保留，吸引信衆長期的膜拜。
10 P admapani – ‘L otus H older C hana P emo ’ (T ib : P hyag
na pad mo )
Tibet Pala Style 12th century Copper alloy 12.5 cm h
蓮花手菩薩 西藏帕拉風格十二世紀 紅銅 12.5 公分 高
Padmapani is commonly known as the 2-armed form of the deity of Compassion, Avalokitesvara . P admapani holds a lotus stem in his left hand and the full lotus emerges at his shoulder . I n suggesting either an I ndian or T ibetan origin for the piece there is much to be said for each claim . T here was a re - emergence of the I ndian P ala style in C entral T ibet in the 12-13 th centuries . F or examples see H untington S. and J. plates 141 and 142 which demonstrate clearly how the Tibetans accurately imitated the body style but added a flattened face , with a broad jowls and thicker lips than was common in I ndia . B oth these features may be seen in the present image . A nother feature common in T ibet and less so in I ndia is the gilding applied to the face only , remnants of which may be seen here . There
is a lug noticeable on the rear of the image and this could be either an attachment
point for an aureole or a means of holding the image onto larger base which would have held other figures as part of a group . up to the
This practice was very common in both India and Tibet
Reference: Huntington S. and J. Leaves International Legacy, 1990.
Bodhi Tree: The Art
and I ts
兩臂蓮花手通常是觀音菩薩。蓮花手菩薩左手拿蓮花莖，肩膀露出盛開的蓮花。 判斷作品是印度或西藏，說法不一。十二至十三世紀，西藏中部出現印度帕拉風格。參 見亨廷頓1990著作編號141 和142 ，顯示藏族工匠準確模仿印度體形的風格，但增添一 個扁平的臉，比印度常見的寛闊咀唇，是此造像可看到的特徴。另外，西藏造像常見的 特徵是塗在臉上的冷金，在這造像也可以看到。背後有一明顯凸起的地方，可能是光環 的附著點，也許此造像附屬於一個大組合上，這種組合在印度和西藏都非常普遍，直到 十二世紀。 參考：亨廷頓．蘇珊和約翰: 《來自菩提樹的葉：印度帕拉藝術和影響》 (1990)。
11 T he 9 th K armapa W angchuk D orje (T ib . d B ang
phyug rdo rje )
Tibet late 16- early 17th Gilt copper 17.5 cm h
九世噶瑪巴旺秋多吉 西藏十六世紀晚期至十七世紀早期 紅銅鎏金 17.5 公分 高
Wangchuk Dorje lived between 1556 and 1603 and was the head of the Kagyü (Tib. bKa’ brgyud) school of T ibetan B uddhism . H e is particularly renowned for retaining the old T ibetan tradition of living ‘ on the move ’ in a vast tent encampment . H e was able to do this as unlike many other famous Lamas he held no secular power and relied instead on the support of his powerful patrons. Wangchuk Dorje wrote extensively on the meditation system of the Mahamudra which developed in Tibet from the 11th cent onwards. He
is usually shown wearing the famous black hat of the
folio page from a
tradition and sometimes holding a
book but in the present image neither is visible .
most striking aspect of
this remarkably moving statue is the manner of the robe - draping which is generous and yet rather understated , perhaps a reflection of the person .
robe styles may be seen in many images from
this period and they suggest a genre which reached its peak between the
The image shows what appears to be a relatively youthful person. However as with the famous, and strikingly similar, image of him shown in Pal, p.64 which was made when he was 44 years old, his youthful face might well be a way of showing his inner spiritual purity rather than being an actual resemblance. His right hand is held in the gesture of debating argument reinforcing his monastic skills. His left hand is held in the gesture of leisure suggesting that even though skilled in scholarly debate he was somehow relaxed and distant from any result of scholarly activities .
Reference: Pal,P. Tibet-Tradition
Change, 1997, p.64.
旺秋多吉是噶舉派九世噶瑪巴，他保留古老藏族傳統，在廣濶的帳篷營地生活而聞名。他撰寫了大 量關於「馬哈茂德」襌修系統的文章。 這位上師沒有一般的噶瑪巴戴著他著名的黑帽和手拿藏經。最深刻印象是他穿著厚重的僧袍，工匠 表現這位上師真實低調的人生經歷。這樣的僧袍在十五世紀至十七世紀的造像都常出現。 這造像顯然是一位年輕的上師。非常驚奇發現派爾博士（1997）「西藏傳統與變遷」紀錄的一尊銀 製九世噶瑪巴旺秋多吉造像異常相似。那九世噶瑪巴是他四十四歲的肖像，年輕的樣貌是為了表現 上師內心的純浄。 九世噶瑪巴右手表現説教印，左手休閒地表現上師與世無爭的精神。 參考：派爾:《西藏傳統與變遷》(1997)，頁 64。
12 D rukpa
Tibet 16th century Gilt copper 23.5 cm
D rigung K agyu L ama h
竹巴或直貢噶舉派喇嘛 西藏十六世紀 紅銅鎏金 23.5 公分 高
This beautiful and focussed image shows a Lama from either the Drugpa (Tib. ’Brug pa) or Drigung (Tib. ’Bri gung) tradition, seated on his double lotus throne, with his right hand in the gesture of giving ( usually B uddhist teachings ) and the other hand sits in his lap holding 3 burning jewels emerging from a lotus which represents purity . T he 3 jewels are the B uddha , the T eachings and the O rder of M onks . S o it could be said that the sponsor of this unknown L ama saw the L ama as being emblematic of the perfection of the B uddha himself . It
(Drukpa or Drigung) because the hats worn The Drukpa tradition emerges from the 11-12th cent.Tibetan yogi-poet-saint Milarepa (Tib. Mi la ras pa) and the Drigung stems from the charismatic 12-13 th cent . teacher J igten S umgön (T ib . ’J ig rten gsum mgon ). B oth traditions were extremely powerful in T ibet with the D rukpa remaining important in B hutan to the present day and the D rigung only until the early 14 th cent . is hard to establish his particular tradition
of those traditions are quite similar .
這位上師坐在雙層蓮花座上，右手下垂手掌向外，施與願印(佛陀的敎義)，左手置於腿 上，手持由蓮花散出的三寶：佛陀、佛經和上師的傳承，代表著佛陀完美的象徵。此造 像面容飽滿，身穿厚重僧袍，袍邊有華麗花紋裝飾，平凡中突顕高貴。止貢噶舉上師和 主巴噶舉上師都戴類似僧帽，故此未能確定這位上師所屬派系。主巴噶舉的傳統源於十 一至十二世紀藏族瑜珈詩人米拉日巴，止貢噶舉傳承於十二至十三世紀仁欽貝。這兩派 噶舉分支直到今天仍然具有影響力。
13 S akyamuni B uddha C alling E arth H is E nlightenment Tibet early 18th Silver 14 cm h
釋迦牟尼佛 西藏十八世紀早期 銀 14 公分 高
This charming and well balanced Buddha image shows clearly the image- making inheritance which T ibetans gained from I ndia and N epal . T he image sits on a quite high lotus base , a style not uncommon in the so - called ‘P ala R evival S tyle ’ of the 18 th cent in T ibet . I t is not entirely beyond probability that this image had its origins in that period in a typical C entral Tibetan workshop. The figure displays all the classical features of the Buddha such as the usnisa ‘ bump ’, the raised head , the slight downward gaze , the broad chest , highly stylized and decorated robes and the firmly seated position which suggests the immovability of
Buddha’s Enlightenment. 這尊迷人又充滿勻衡美感的佛像清晰地展示了藏族工匠繼承印度和尼泊爾藝術和傳統。 坐在一個比較高的蓮花座上，這種風格在十八世紀西藏出現的「帕拉復興」並不少見。 工藝師可能源於西藏中部。此銀佛造像具有古典佛陀的特徴：髪肉髻丶略微向下的凝 視、寛闊的胸膛、華麗佛袍和堅定的坐姿，表現佛陀成道的意志。
14 B udai H eshang
(T ib . H va
China mid Ming dynasty Lacquer Bronze 20 cm h
布袋和尚 哈得嘉尚 中原明代中期 漆金銅 20 公分 高
Tibetan culture as Hva shang (sometimes with Mahayana added to his name) in the early 14 th century where he appears in a scroll painting dated to between 1340 and 1370 in the Cleveland Museum of Art, Leonard Hanna Jr. Fund (88.104). In this scroll he is shown with several small children climbing over him as is commonly found in C hinese representations and less so in T ibetan ones . enters
The ‘real’ Budai was a monk in China’s T’ang dynasty renowned for his non-conformist and greedy attitude to life . F or him everything , especially food and excess , was part of the path to enlightenment . H e is said to have died in the early 10 th century . I n T ibet he was added to the list of the 16 A rhats in the mid -14 th century and has remained an integral part of them along with D harmatala . T he
image appears to be from the early part of the
dynasty and has some major
differences from other images from a similar period .
The most striking is the variation in his – in the present image his hat appears to be far closer to the Tibetan lama’s ritual known in T ibetan as the G yalwa rig nga (T ib . r G yal ba rigs lnga ). T his is a five lobed in which each lobe represents a B uddha family .
monk ’ s hat hat hat
more telling than the hat itself is the appearance of the front central lobe which has
a motif which appears to be strikingly similar to the ‘ sun - moon ’ motif ( where a circular sun sits atop a horned moon ) found frequently in such T ibetan hats and never to my knowledge , in a
Buddha family figures appears in each While this is not clear evidence it suggests that might have been involved in its making . T his could
image of him where usually one of the
lobe or more commonly , an abstract design . a
hand in some way or other
have been simply a cross - cultural influence or perhaps that the image was intended for the
large belly and jovial features are his hallmark wherever he is found .
suggesting merely gluttony and ‘a good time’ they represent his path towards which permitted everything
Rather than Enlightenment
– including luxuries as part of the path. They are only dangerous
to the seeker if their true and essential nature has not been understood .
十四世紀時，布袋和尚哈得嘉尚進入西藏文化。美國克利夫蘭藝術博物館收藏13401370的捲軸畫，可能是藏族畫師所繪畫。布袋和尚哈得嘉尚的名稱，在八世紀後期西藏 已經出現。尼泊爾藝術家在1435年亦有繪畫哈得嘉尚的形象。真實的布袋和尚出現在唐 朝，不守常規隨意飲食成為他的形象。傳說他活到十世紀初。十四世紀中期開始，布袋 和尚和達摩提那尊者加入十六羅漢行列，令十八羅漢更深入民間。這造像極有可能明朝 初期製造。最引人注目的是他戴著的五葉冠，令人懷疑這尊布袋和尚帶有濃厚藏傳佛教 的影子。也許這造像是送給藏族上師的禮物。大肚子和喜悦的面容是布袋和尚的標誌。 歡樂也許是布袋和尚帶給信衆的願望。
15 S akyamuni B uddha
(T ib . S angs
Tibet Sakya school Late 14th century Bronze with silver and copper inlay 28
rgyas bcom ldan
’ das )
釋迦牟尼佛 西藏薩迦派十四世紀晚期 銅鑲嵌銀和紅銅 28 公分 高
The pose of the B uddha touching the earth commemorates his calling it to witness H is Enlightenment when challenged by the demon Mara. The Buddha is shown in a firm, stable straight backed , cross - legged position appearing as stable as the earth itself . H is eyes appear to look both inwards in meditation while at the same time looking outwards in a state of gentle awareness .
His right hand delicately touches the earth with just his middle finger as described 24th chapter of the 4th century text the Lalitavistara Sutra. A further delicacy is by the elegantly draped robe on his back and the rich drapes hanging on his body . This
exquisitely touching image is both art and inspiration .
in the added
core material is bronze
which , with its yellowish colour , reminds the viewer of the colour of the typical
sanghati monastic robe which oxidation has lent this image a lustrous red tinge .
Buddha’s eyes and The addition of copper to him , adding a flesh - toned
further enhance the beauty of the image silver has been added to the
to his urna , the forehead mark signifying his complete awareness . the
lips and fingernails add a measure of humanity to
which contrasts with the metal he is essentially made from .
base of the image is also a tour - de - force of skilful craftsmanship with alternate lotus
petals being decorated with copper around the upper and lower petal rims as well as alter nating with the petal ’ s core .
too adds a deep richness to the piece .
previous description of this piece identifies it as part of a series of such richly decorated
pieces which emanated from the r G yal rtse ).
Pelkhor Chödé (dPal ’khor chos sde) in Gyantsé (Tib. Gyantsé and the Ming court has been
relationship between the rulers of
well studied and suggests that the style of this and other images was based to an extent
Chinese court to the ruler of Gyantsé. I believe there is sufficient evidence to suggest that Tibet had already developed most of these elements by itself - certainly in terms of the body aesthetics of the image itself , the employment of copper and silver inlays which had entered T ibet via B engal and K ashmir in the 11 th century and the richness of the robes for which there are many T ibetan images from at least 150 years previous to the M ing . on the prevailing
style through gifts offered from the
釋迦牟尼施觸地印坐姿是見證他降魔成道的形象。佛陀神情堅定，背部挺直，雙腿盤 膝，安穩如山。 佛陀右手觸地，一如佛經所描述。缐條優雅的長袍更增加美感，精緻動人的形象充滿藝 術靈感。經歲月的氧化，令黃銅呈現有光澤的紅色。眼睛和白毫部分鑲嵌銀。佛像的咀 唇和指甲亦鑲嵌上紅銅，為造像增添了人性，與黃銅的身體形成鮮明的對比。 佛像的蓮花座也表現精湛的工藝。交替的蓮花瓣在上部和下部花瓣邊緣裝飾了紅銅，並 與花瓣的核心交替，令這件藝術品増添了豐富的色彩。 P r ov e na n c e Hollywood Galleries, Hong Kong, 1990s. Private US collection 來源 東寶齋，香港，九十年代。 美國私人收藏
16 S akyamuni B uddha Tibet 13th century Bronze with copper
(T ib . S angs
rgyas bcom ldan
’ das )
釋迦牟尼佛 西藏十三世紀 銅鑲嵌紅銅 23 公分 高
This strikingly elegant and inward-looking image of Shakyamuni Buddha, the Enlightened One of our world-age, sits in a state of tranquil calm. The Buddha’s Enlightenment is said to have made him as immovable as a mountain and his seated position with legs folded acting as a solid base suggests this quite clearly .
his eyes barely open he is in a state somewhere beyond the world as it presents itself to
us and his inward meditations are both timeless and changeless .
image sums up all that the
fashions and styles .
represents and its simple purity make it transcend
image ’ s reliance is less on detail and complexity and more focussed
on the beauty of its pure line and what that purity makes the viewer feel .
eyes down -
wards - looking the image takes the viewer into itself and into other realms of experience .
The image is in a style that was very 15th century. The copper inlay fits
popular and prevalent in
restrained and simple than in later periods .
can see that the edge of the
are inlaid and also possibly , the front few curls of his hair . more life to the image without making it too complex .
inlay work adds a little
strong physique and
firm body reinforces the ideal of the term that was used to describe him from the
B.C. – ‘A Lion
in with this assessment as in that period it was more
base plate which contains presumably blessed items appears to be original , or if replaced ,
then a long time ago . fill it may be seen
Some of the blessed items (cloth-probably from a poking out from beneath the plate .
lama ’ s robes ) which
優雅的釋迦牟尼形象，處於安寧和平靜的狀態。佛像不動如山，雙腿盤膝呈現安穩的坐 姿，雙眼微開，充滿信心地表現他內心永恆不變的冥想。此造像表現佛陀成道的形態。 線條簡潔，所穿長袍鑲嵌紅銅，高超的工藝增添特色。 佛陀強壯和堅定的身體顯示公 元前二世紀形容佛的理想：「一個如獅子的男人」。
17 G uru R inpoche ‘T he P recious G uru ’ (T ib : G uru R in
po che )
Tibet 14th century Gilt copper 24 cm h
蓮花生大師「尊貴上師」 西藏十四世紀 紅銅鎏金 24 公分 高
Guru Rinpoche or Padmasambhava is one of Tibet’s great ‘Culture Heroes’. He is said to have entered T ibet from N. W. I ndia in the 8 th century and converted the local malignant deities into protectors of B uddhism . F or this he is regarded in T ibet as a S econd B uddha . He is shown holding the vajra of power and the skull-cup containing the elixir of wisdom both of which are used in ritual to recreate the state of perfection when they are brought together .
is usually shown with a trident in the crook of his left arm to
symbolize his yogic nature but this image has been created with no obvious way to anchor the trident . I t must be assumed therefore that this image is part of a series of forms of him and that there never was a trident .
from the image is the stylised vulture feather
usually seen sticking up from the top of his head dress in which we may see the horned moon and the sun nestled in it , another symbol of the so - called ‘ unity of opposites ’ from which perfection arises .
蓮花生大師是西藏偉大的「文化英雄」之一。八世紀時他從印度西北進入西藏，將當地 的惡神皈依為藏傳佛教的護法。為此他在西藏被視為第二神。蓮花生大師右手拿著象徵 權力的金剛杵，左手托著盛滿智慧靈藥的噶巴拉碗，表現完美的狀態。圓滑的身體，優 美的笑容，表現工匠對這位祟高地位的上師的極致尊敬。
18 G uru R inpoche , ‘T he P recious G uru ’ (T ib : G uru R in
po che )
Tibet or Bhutan 16-17th Wood 39 cm h
蓮花生大師 西藏或不丹 十六至十七世紀 木加彩 39 公分 高
This most unusual stylised image of Guru Rinpoche appears to have been connected with the performance of a long - life ritual . T his is clear in the presence of two things in the image which suggest the presence of ritually prepared long-life nectar. The first is the actual pillar on which the image sits on his lotus throne . V ases containing long - life nectar are often found at the bottom of pillars in temples and houses in the I ndian , N epalese and T ibetan worlds. The second vase is in the skull-cup held in Guru Rinpoche’s left hand, suggesting that the skull - cup which usually contains the elixir of wisdom has had life enhancing nectar added to it . T he huge lotus out of which he arises reminds one of the legend of his birth out of a lotus and his wonderfully evocative face shows his super-yogic powers. Seen emerging from his headdress is the vulture feather which symbolizes the attainment of complete
罕見的蓮花大師造像，與祈求長壽法事有關的造型。大師坐在蓮花寶座，裝滿長壽花蜜 的寶瓶，這種寶瓶經常出現在印度、尼泊爾和西藏的寺廟和房屋柱子底部。蓮花生大師 左手托著的噶巴拉碗上亦有 寶瓶，暗示盛滿 智慧靈藥的噶巴拉碗亦裝滿令人長壽的花 蜜。他坐在巨大的蓮花，令人想起蓮花生大師從蓮花中誕生的傳奇故事。造像表露的笑 容，顯示他強大的修行力量。他帽頂上的禿鷲羽毛，象徵著大師達至完美佛法境界。
19 H ayagriva (‘H orse N eck ’) Nepal Khasa Malla 14th Gilt copper 10 cm h
(T ib . T am D rin S ang D rup )
馬頭金剛 尼泊爾 迦舍末羅 十四世紀 紅銅鎏金 10 公分 高
Hayagriva ( having the neck of a horse)with his consort. He is the Avalokitesvara, protector of sentient beings in the six realms, including deities , demons , human beings , animals especially horses , hungry ghosts , beings of hell . deity is identified as
wrathful form of
holds the skull cup of wisdom in his left hand and his consort offers him a
skull cup of wisdom and holds a cleaver with which to symbolically cut wisdom free from ignorance .
they are shown in a sort of
passion ’ in which they are wild
and untamed and yet at the same time , completely in control of their passions . together of male and female deities is referred to in meaning referred
‘father-mother’ to as the ‘ yum ’.
The joining as ‘ yab yum ’
and the female consorts of non - celibate practitioners are always
Nepal in the 13th -15th cenThis early Malla style is highly decorative and great
image is typical of the style which emanated from western
turies , focussed on the town of J umla .
attention is paid to the image ’ s detail as well as to the lavish application of gold and inlaid jewellery and sometimes red paint on the rear of the lotus base .
art the figures
tend towards the sensuous but appear to remain somehow quite uninvolved or distant from the sensual poses they appear in .
此神像為馬頭金剛，以馬頭顯現在護法的頭頂上，與明妃相擁。他是菩薩的忿怒相，救 贖六界眾生包括神靈、魔頭、人類、生畜尤以野馬，餓鬼和地獄者。右手持金剛撅，左 手持頭骨碗(嘎巴拉碗）。此䕶法具異常力量的障礙驅除者。明妃手持鉞刀，象徴擺脫 無知。造像明顯表現尼泊爾西部十四至十五世紀迦舍末羅風格。雙修造像比較罕有。
20 S et
N ine K agyu S mall P aintings
Tibet Kagyu Sub-sect ca. 1300 AD Paint on Cloth 11.5 x 9.5 cm Each (painted
一套九幅噶舉派唐卡 西藏 噶舉派分枝 約公元1300年 礦彩綿布 每張 11.5 x 9.5 公分 (圖) 共長145 公分
The entire set can be almost certainly dated to 1272-1273. This is because the figure of the Lama Sangyé Ön Rinpoche (dBon rin po che) who is depicted in the series (as Painting 9) was head of T aglung ( s T ag lung ) monastery in C entral T ibet only between those dates and to have painted him after that time would have made little sense . The
reverse side of each painting is blessed with the mantra
‘Om Ah Hum’
which is said to
purify body , speech and mind and each has a small number at on the reverse at the bottom .
The first painting (Vajradhara) is numbered as 1 and the final of the nine paintings is number 9 (Sangyé Ön). Reference: Singer, J.C. p . 59, 62.
Denwood, P. Tibetan Art-Towards
整套唐卡幾乎肯定可以追溯到公元1272-1273年。這是因為系列中繪畫的喇嘛桑欽仁波 切 (dBon rin po che)(畫9)是西藏中部達隆 (sTag lung) 寺廟的主持，應該在他在生之時 繪畫的。 每幅畫的背面都有‘Om Āh Hūm’三字，據說可以淨化身體，語言和心靈，每個畫面 底部都有一個小數字。第一幅畫(金剛總持)編號1，九幅畫的最後一幅是9號(SangyéÖn)。 參考: Singer, J.C.
Denwood, P. :《西藏藝術:走向風格定義》(1997)，頁62。
Painting 1/ Vajradhara‘Holder of the Vajra’ Vajradhara is regarded in Tibetan Buddhism as the Original Buddha - that is, he represents the totality of B uddhist perfection . H is crossed arms hold a vajra which represents power
and a bell topped with a vajra which
over each other symbolises that a state of ultimate perfection exists in which wisdom and the power to apply it are brought together.
is the perfect state of being. In
the practice of
Tibetan Buddhism the teacher Vajradhara and
is often referred to as being
he or she represents the state of ultimate perfect realization that the student seeks . why
is the first of the paintings
in the series .
繪畫 1. 金剛總持 金剛總持是藏傳佛教的本初佛，代表完美的佛教。他雙臂交义於胸前，右手拿著代表男性力量的 金剛杵，左手拿著代表女性智慧的金剛鈴，象徵智慧和力量匯集起來的完美狀態。藏傳佛教通常 視上師為金剛總持，帶領信徒追尋完美的佛學，故此將金剛總持畫像放在第一位。
Painting 2/ Four-Armed Avalokitesvara, ‘ He Who Looks Down With Compassion’ Avalokitesvara is the deity embodying pure Compassion and he is the most revered and loved deity in T ibet . H e sits in a firm , immov able pose and holds his two front hands in prayer.
It is said that through deep meditation
on an image of him one might hear his mantra
ma ni padme
sound spontaneously .
right top hand holds a rosary of pure
crystal beads with which he counts his mantra.
His left top hand should hold a lotus stalk (not evident here) which shows his nature is like a lotus which represents the ideal human mind
although its roots are deep
in the mud ( of a pond or daily life ) the lotus grows above it , stainless and untouched by anything that might try to dirty it .
繪畫 2. 四臂觀音 「慈悲者」 四臂觀音是西藏最受人尊崇的慈悲之神，主要雙手合十於胸前祈禱。傳説冥想四臂觀音會聽到觀 音密咒六字真言 「嗡嘛呢叭咪吽」。高舉右手拿著水晶念珠，高舉的左手應該拿著蓮花（畫裏不 明顯，可能因為年代久遠）代表他純潔的本性，亦表達信徒應該追求的目標：出于污泥而不染！
Painting 3/ Four-Armed Mahakala - Caturbhuja M ahakala , ‘T he G reat B lack O ne ’ T his painting depicts the great protector deity C aturbhuja M ahakala , F our A rmed M ahakala . H e is regarded as one of the most
often seen in company with his two and six - armed forms .
is shown here painted
dark blue , a colour associated with wrath and graveyards , and holding a wand with three human heads in stages ranging from freshly severed , to rotting and finally to skull .
reminds us of the inevitable states
of life ’ s transition to death and our need to pay attention to living properly .
sword to keep wicked forces at bay , as well as a freshly severed heart to demonstrate his
Buddhism and a skull wisdom . I t is this same
power over enemies of cup filled with pure
wisdom which he embodies and which gives him the power to act towards
and to protect others on the path .
繪畫 3. 四臂大黑天 「偉大的黑主」 四臂大黑天是藏傳佛教最强大的護法，通常與二臂大黑天和六臂大黑天為伴。他全身畫著深藍 色，一手拿著三個人頭的天杖，其中一個是骷髏頭代表死亡，讓信眾明白出生到死亡的必然過 程，我們需要注意正常生活。一手拿著阻止邪惡力量的劍；一手拿著血淋淋的心臟表現對付敵人 的決心；第四手拿著盛滿智慧的嘎巴拉碗，令四臂大黑天充滿力量和智慧保護信徒走上成道之路。 Painting 4/ Sangyé Menlha – Bhaisajya Guru – ‘The Medicine Buddha’ In this small picture we see the Medicine Buddha holding a bud which will soon blossom and grow into a myrobalan fruit which is used in the I ndian , and
Tibetan, C hinese traditions . I n most
representations the fruit is shown fully developed with the flower extending up the
forearm but here the bud shown
just before opening .
The Medicine Buddha Tibetans say that this associates him with lapis lazuli, a blue mineral used in T ibetan medicinal compounds . I n the bowl , rather like a monk ’ s begging bowl which he holds in his lap , is usually found a variety of medicinal compounds , sometimes seen peeking over the rim of the bowl . T here is only the slightest suggestion of this here . is shown in blue and
繪畫 4. 藥師佛 藥師佛拿著未發芽的果實，與一般的藥師佛所拿已開花的果實不同。藥師佛身體畫著深藍色， 所用顏料應是傳統入藥的青金石。右手托著僧人常用的砵，有時可見不同的藥。
Painting 5/ Acala ‘The Immoveable One’, The name of this deity translates as ‘The Immovable One’ and his image makes this point clearly . O ne of his roles is outlined in the tantras as clearing and purifying the sacred site (of the yogi’s mind) before tantric rituals. Acala is often seen kneeling but equally as often is seen in a heroic posture with his weight bearing down on his right leg . I n some practices one may imagine oneself as being A cala trampling all obstructive forces underfoot . H ere those obstructive forces are represented by the H indu deity G anesa ( or V ighnantaka ) the elephant - headed deity . A cala ’ s status as a heroic yogic practitioner is also represented by the tiger skin he wears as a loin cloth . W ith a background of demonic blazing flames , one can see that A cala ’ s hair swept upwards in the updraft .
繪畫 5. 不動明王 密宗經文説明不動明王的一個主要工作是在密宗儀式之前清潔和浄化神聖的地方（瑜伽 士的心靈）。一般的不動明王單腳跪地，另一腳屈膝呈英雄狀，表現不動明王阻止邪惡 力量的決心。這張畫裡的不動明王以戰鬥格姿勢威武地站立在印度教象鼻神。他下身披 著虎皮更增添他強壯的英雄護法形象。向上衝的髮式，加上火紅的背光，令此畫顯得更 生動。
Painting 6/ Phadampa Sangyé, ‘Holy Father Buddha’, (Tib: Pha dam pa Sangs rgyas) Phadampa was a South Indian yogin who visited and taught in Tibet three times, passing away there in 1117 A.D. H e was said to have been hot - tempered and he favoured taking a swift path to E nlightenment for his students . T he name of the T ibetan school that devel oped after his death , the Z hijé , or ‘W ay of T ranquility ’ is based on his often harsh teach ings which were all intended to bring about this calm state of mind . W e see him in this small painting as a dark - skinned I ndian ascetic yogi with wild curly hair and with his eyes held in a yogic pose, holding a Vajra and a skull cup, the first representing male polarity and the second representing the female wisdom. This is rather unusual imagery for him but may be seen in a 14th century scroll painting in D an M artin ’ s chapter in L inrothe . O f interest are his lower garments which reflect neither the silks of major monastic figures nor the plain white cotton he often is shown wearing . I n this version he wears garments which appear to be either block printed or tie dyed cotton , both typical of southern I ndia .
Reference: Dan Martin
Linrothe, R. Holy Madness: Portraits
Tantric Siddhas, p.120.
繪畫 6. 大成就者當巴桑結 「聖父佛」 當巴桑結是一位南印度瑜伽大師，三次造訪西藏並在那裡傳教，1117年死在在西藏。傳 説當巴桑結脾氣暴躁，他喜歡信徒快速年道。在他去世後建成的學校名字 “Zhije “(寧 靜的方式）教導人平靜，反映當巴桑結當年苛刻的教導。 這位皮膚黝黑的印度苦行瑜伽大師眼睛圓睜，頭髮鬈曲，手拿金剛杵和嘎巴拉碗，代表 男性權力和女性智慧。這形象罕見，曽出現在丹馬田描述的十四世紀唐卡（頁120）。 當巴桑結沒有穿著常見的絲綢褲或白色棉褲，他穿著來自南印度的印花或紮染棉褲。 參考： 丹馬田 Linrothe, R. : 《神聖的癲狂肖像》(2006)，頁120。
Painting 7/ Yellow Jambhala Sometimes called Kubera this deity is considered to be the bringer of wealth . I n all his forms he is shown as prosperously rotund and often wearing royal clothing.
Here Jambhala is shown with jewelled necklaces , armlets and bracelets reinforcing his wealth-bringing properties . I n the most common forms we find J ambhala ’ s wealth - bringing skills depicted as a jewel - vomiting mongoose held in his left arm but in the present painting we see him holding a yellow bag similar to that held by the next picture of
Palden Lhamo with
what might be a yellow mongoose emerging from it and vomiting jewels .
繪畫 7. 黃財神 黃財神是財富的使者。肥胖的身材通常穿 著華麗，身戴名貴珠寶：鑲滿寶石的項 鏈、臂環和手鐲。通常黃財神抱著會吐珠 寶的貓鼬（獾），這裡的黃財神手拿一個黃色布袋，一隻黃色貓鼬從布袋伸出準備吐出珠寶，與 繪畫8吉祥天母手拿布袋風格相似。
Painting 8/ Palden Lhamo, ‘The Glorious Goddess’ This deity appears to be an early form of Palden Lhamo and a similar figure may be seen in the bottom row of the famous Taglung painting of the Vajravarahi mandala seen in Singer and Denwood, p. 57. That figure also holds a sword rather than the more often seen club . protector
T he painting shows the goddess , sword aloft , cloaked
with a human skin and riding her mule through an ocean of blood .
She also holds
what appears to be a yellow bag containing a snake which is possibly vomiting a jewel .
By Palden Lhamo had taken on the role of protector of T ibet , the Dalai and Panchen Lamas and the city of Lhasa (Tib: Lha sa) itself. the
繪畫 8. 吉祥天母 「光輝女神」 這是早期的吉祥天母。Singer & Denwood (1997)頁57 圖40 金剛亥母壇城唐卡最下層見到相似形象，都是持劍的。這張繪畫描繪的女䕶法拿 劍，穿人皮衣，騎著她的騾跨越血海。她拿著一個裝著蛇的黃色布袋，可能會吐寶石。 十五至十六世紀吉祥天母掌管了保護西藏、達賴喇嘛、班禪喇嘛和拉薩城。
Painting 9/ Sangyé Ön (Tib: Sangs rgyas dBon - 1251-1296) He was the 4th abbot of Taglung (Tib: sTag lung) only between 1272-1273. He left after a schism over who was to take control of the K agyu ( b K a ’ brgyud ) monastery of T aglung . Then went in exile to Eastern Tibet and founded Riwoché (Ri bo che). He is seen with his hands in the gesture of explaining the teachings on a throne topped by M akaras ( legendary sea creatures ) and the throne is supported by blue lion - headed vyala ( leogryph figures ) who stand on top of elephants with red trunks . Reference: For a larger painting of Sangyé Ön, see Singer, J.C. and Denwood, P. Tibetan Art-Towards a Definition of Style p. 62.
繪畫 9. 桑欽上師 1251-1296 年 桑欽上師是達隆寺第四任主持（1272-1273 年度）。在爭奪達隆寺主權失敗後，桑欽上 師流亡到藏東並創立日博車寺。他雙手置胸前施説教印，坐在以魔羯魚裝飾寶座，兩邊 有大象承托著藍色狮面狩的門柱。 參考： Singer, J.C. & Denwood, P. : 《西藏藝術： 走向風格的定義》 (1997)，頁62。
21 M ahachakra V ajrapani Tibeto-Chinese mid 15th Gilt bronze 21 cm h
大輪金剛手雙修 藏傳中土 十五世紀中期 銅鎏金 21 公分 高
usual forms of
6-armed Mahachakra Vajrapani
with his consort show him holding a
variety of ritual objects which are not evident in this image . appear in positions which might suggest that he
Moreover his hands do not once held them . I nstead M ahachakra some significance . H e is shown with 3
Vajrapani’s hands are held in gestures that hold heads , 6 arms and 4 legs which is quite normal for
him but instead of the ritual chopper
and skull cup he usually holds directly in front of him here he is shown with his right hand in the gesture of rejection and his left one seems to be in the gesture of giving .
bottom right hand holds the floating ribbon surrounding the pair and his top
right hand holds the power -V ajra .
bottom left hand is in the gesture of banishing
demonic forces and his top left hand shows threat to evil spirits . be seen being trampled under his feet . and
consort holds the
These demonic forces may power V ajra in her right hand
in her left hand .
This image is particularly well made and the quality may be seen by the detailed robes, crown, the apron at his front and the bone ornaments worn by the pair . 三頭六臂大輪金剛手與明妃並不常見。第一雙手左手施無畏印，右手持金剛杵。第二雙 手抓著蛇身。第三雙手置胸前施與願印。上身披薄衣，下身穿華麗珠寶裝飾裙。頭戴骷 髏冠。 明妃不單穿相同華麗珠寶裙，頸上還戴骷髏項鏈。雙修造型尊貴，裙飾花巧。深受永宣 時代造像影響，是十五世紀中期漢藏的典型。
22 H rdaya H evajra . ‘T he H eart of H evajra ’. T ib . N ying pö K yé D orjé (T ib . s N ying po ’ i K ye ’ i rdo rje ) Nepal Malla 16th century Gilt copper 14.5 cm h
喜金剛雙修 尼泊爾 馬拉皇朝 十六世紀 紅銅鎏金 14.5 公分 高
Hevajra is one of the most powerful tantric tutelary deities. Although he is associated with the S akyapa (T ib . S a skya pa ) tradition in T ibet he is also the profound practice deity for many other traditions . H e is primarily associated with the female / wisdom aspects of practice and his tantra is among tantric B uddhism ’ s oldest texts dating to about the 7-8 th century . Hevajra was particularly worshipped in Nepal and southern Tibet and it is likely that this image was made by N ewar craftsmen from N epal either in N epal itself or for a patron in T ibet . According to his tantra (translated by D.L. Snellgrove in 1959) his mighty wrath, his great passion , his terrifying aspect etc . are all illusory because his inner nature is beneficent peace . Associated with Hevajra is his consort, Nairatmya (‘ Without Self’) whose essence is pure wisdom and who ‘ completes ’ H evajra . T he H evajra T antra ( in E nglish translation ) contains much that S nellgrove was unable to publish in E nglish due to what was then considered its sexual nature but it was retained in the T ibetan and S anskrit texts . T he modern reader and collector knows that what appears on the outside as potentially ‘ dangerous ’ can be made wondrous under the guidance of an experienced teacher . T his concept may be found in the tantra itself which says , ‘B y passion is the worldy person bound and by the passions themselves is he also freed .’ In the form shown in this image he is known as Hrdaya Hevajra or ‘The Heart of Hevajra’. Hevajra has 8 heads and holds seven animals in his seven right hands and seven, mainly Hindu, deities in his left seven hands. This does not necessarily suggest an anti-Hindu viewpoint but rather that H evajra is not bound by the strict rules of H indu society and in fact has gone beyond them . H evajra usually holds a skull cup in his left front hand and a V ajra in his right front hand . H owever in this version he holds a skull cup with the goddess of the earth , P rthvi in his left front hand and a skull cup with an elephant in his right front hand . H e is usually shown trampling the H indu deities B rahma , S hiva , V ishnu and I ndra underfoot but in this image with its missing base they are absent . H is consort N airatmya holds a skull cup filled with wisdom-nectar and a chopper with which to separate ignorance from wisdom .
image is extremely carefully made and its intricacy is extraordinary .
in particular his dancing robe made of human bone shows the level of
detail achieved by the artisan .
From the areas where the gilding has worn it can be seen that
the application of gold was quite generous and suggests that the piece may be a product of the early part of the
application of red colour to the hair of both
figures clearly shows that the image had spent some of its life at least in
process is commonly found on wrathful figures .
Perhaps it is best to let Hevajra himself have the last I, and terrible…..but my inner nature is tranquil.’
his tantra he says ,
喜金剛是密宗最强大的護法之一，除了薩迦派尊崇，其他派系亦非常敬重，在尼泊爾和 西藏南部受人崇拜。 喜金剛八面十六手，右邊七手托著顱蓋碗，盛載著動物，左邊七手托著顱碗盛著印度教 徒，表明喜金剛不受印度社會嚴格規則的約束。 胸前左手托著顱碗盛著地神，右前手托著顱碗，內有一象。腳下通常踐踏印度教 神梵天濕婆，昆濕奴和英德拉，可惜此像缺乏底座。喜金剛擁抱著明妃＂金剛 無我瑜伽母＂，右手拿彎刀，用以分割無知和智慧，左手托顱碗盛滿智慧花蜜。 此像精心製作，工藝非凡。喜金剛佩戴人頭項鏈，鎏金厚重，呈現馬拉晚期風格。喜金 剛和明妃頭上紅彩，表示此造像曾在西藏受人膜拜，通常亦只會出現在憤怒護法頭上。 喜金剛經書有記載：「我是黑，可怕…但我內心是平靜的。」
23 C akrasamvara (K horlo D ompa . T ib . ‘K hor lo sdom pa ) and C onsort V ajravarahi (T ib . r D o rje phag mo ) Tibeto-Chinese 16th century Silk Embroidery 40 x 28 cm (78
cm with original borders )
勝樂金剛雙修 藏傳中土 十六世紀 絲綢刺繡 40 x 28 公分 (78 x 50 公分 連原裝絲布框)
P u b l i cat i o n Orientations, November 1997, p.24, C. P. Ching Fine Oriental Art. P r ov e na n c e C. P. Ching Fine Oriental Art
出版 《美成在久 》藝術雜誌 11月 1997年。頁24。 C. P. Ching Fine Oriental Art。 來源 C. P. Ching Fine Oriental Art 1997年前藏
The present piece shows the two-armed form of Cakrasamvara known as ‘The Yellow Samvara’. In his 2-armed form, when he is without his consort he holds a khatvanga (Tsésumpa. Tib. Rtse gsum pa) a three-pronged trident which represents his partner. When he is shown in sexual union with his consort as he is here , the trident is absent as it has become his partner . The trident usually has three human heads in various stages of decay from freshly severed to a dry skull and is intended to remind the practitioner that all human life must end and that the only sensible aim is to attain
a state beyond mortal death .
Despite their obvious passionate state the only indication of the barely controlled lust (for Enlightenment) between Samvara and his consort is seen in their mouths which snarl at each other . T he true nature of their state of absolute tranquil calm may be seen most clearly in his eyes which gaze inwards . W hat the eyes say is a universal truth of B uddhism – what a practitioner of B uddhism might do on the outside is only a show because inside they are in a state of absolute non - dual calm . The obvious signs of Samvara’s power and apparent wrath may be seen also in the aureole of flames, his garland of skulls, the tiger skin worn by yogis, he and his consort’s skull-ornamented head - dress and her fine human bone ornaments worn round her waist . T he couple ’ s perfect union of power ( male ) and wisdom ( female ) is represented by S amvara ’ s clasping of the vajra of power and the bell of wisdom in front of him . T hey trample hindering forces below their feet and dance on a perfect lotus of purity below which is a pile of jewels as an offering . 雙臂的勝樂金剛又稱為「黃勝樂」。當他沒有明妃為伴時，他會拿著天杖：一枝代表他 的伴侶的三义戟；三义戟附有三個人頭，從剛切斷的到骷髏頭顯示不同腐爛階段，旨在 提醒修道者所有生命都會終結，唯有修行最終成道才可超越死亡。這裡雙修的黃勝樂和 明妃，三叉戟沒有出現，因為明妃已取代了它。 雙修的黃勝樂和明妃並不是表現他們失控的慾望，他們面上表露的憤怒，正是明確顯示 他們絕對平靜的內心，説明佛教的普遍真理：修道者外表所見的只是一場表演，他們內 心是處於絕對非雙重平靜狀態。 黃勝樂背後的火熖光環亦顯示他的力量和憤怒的特質。黃勝樂頭戴骷髏冠，下身披著瑜 伽師慣用的虎皮，虎皮前有人頭鏈裝飾。明妃亦戴著骷髏冠，她腰間戴著珠寶，異常精 彩。黃勝樂擁抱明妃雙手交叉於胸前，右手拿著代表男性權力的金剛杵，左手拿著代表 女性智慧的金剛鈴，表現完美結合雙修的力量。他們腳踏阻礙力，在純浄的蓮花座上跳 舞。蓮座前有珠寶作為供品。
Orientations, November 1997, p.24, C. P. Ching Fine Oriental Art.
Reference David Weldon and Jane Casey Singer, The Sculptural Heritage of Tibet: Buddhist Art in the Nyingjei Lam Collection, London, 1999, pp.172, pl.40. Franco Ricca, Arte Buddhista Tibetana: Dei Turin, 2004. Uhlig, W. On
Enlightenment, 1995, p.149,
Himalaya, Palazzo Bricherasio,
https :// himalayanbuddhistart . wordpress . com / category / all / india / bodhisattvas - india / page /1/
April 16 2018)
Huntington S. and J. Leaves tional L egacy , 1990. Pal,P. Tibet-Tradition
Bodhi Tree: The Art
Denwood, P. Tibetan Art-Towards
Tantric Siddhas, 2006, p.120.
Style, 1997, p. 62.
Orientations, November 1997, p.24, C. P. Ching Fine Oriental Art.
and I ts I nterna -
Change, 1997, p.64.
Linrothe, R. Holy Madness: Portraits
Hollywood Galleries, Hong Kong Copyright ÂŠ 2019 by Hollywood Galleries All rights reserved.
Literature Photography and design ISBN Printed
Dr. David Templeman Andrew Lau 978-988-15327-8-7 in Hong Kong Front cover: (cat-23, p.66-69) First page: (cat-22, p.62-65) Back cover: (cat-20, p.50-57)
劉惠漢, 何杏根, 劉俊揚 Hon Lau, Ellen Ho, Andrew Lau
東寶齋由劉惠漢夫婦創立於1985年，近於香港荷李 活道文武廟，專營古代佛教藝術包括塑像丶唐卡丶 法器等。 其中以喜馬拉雅山區地區的藏傳佛教鎏金 銅像居多，除此之外也有尼泊爾丶中國丶印度丶東 南亞藝術作品。 他們在藝術世界的追求可以追溯到70年代已從事於 藝術界生意的劉先生的父親，多年與中國及海外的 私人收藏家和博物館合作，為他的下一代打好了基 礎和靈感。從此家族生意的熱情不斷地延長。
Hollywood Galleries was established by Hon Lau and his wife Ellen Ho in 1985, took its base in the ancient sector
of Hollywood road near the Hong Kong Man Mo temple where many of the reputable antique shops are centered. They specialized in Buddhist sculptures, paintings and religious works of art with origins from the Himalayas, India, China, and Southeast Asia spanning from 12th to 19th century. Their major expertise is on Tibetan gilt bronze sculptures working in collaboration with private collectors and museums in China and overseas. Their legacy in the art world goes back to the 70’s with Hon’s father’s initiation which set his foundation and inspirations for the next generation. The family business has since been passionately endeavored and continuously extended.
73 Hollywood Galleries
Copyright 2019 Hollywood Galleries
Printed in Hong Kong
All Rights Reserved
Aesthetic Path Buddhist Art collections exhibition catalogue in 2019, showing different collections of Buddhist and Hindu Antique objects fr...
Published on May 1, 2019
Aesthetic Path Buddhist Art collections exhibition catalogue in 2019, showing different collections of Buddhist and Hindu Antique objects fr...