Page 1

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

A THESIS REPORT

Submitted by

S. ANAND KUMAR

LQSDUWLDOIXOÀOOPHQWIRUWKHDZDUGRIWKHGHJUHH RI

BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE

ARULMIGU MEENAKSHI AMMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, VADAMAVANDAL

ANNA UNIVERSITY:: CHENNAI 600 025 MAY 2017


ANNA UNIVERSITY:: CHENNAI 600 025

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified

that

this

thesis

"OCEANARIUM

report

&

ADVENTURE

WATERSPORTS" is the bonafied work of "S.ANAND KUMAR" who carried out the thesis work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE

SIGNATURE

Professor. Ar. N. JAYARAM.

Assistant Professor. Ar. S.TAMILARASAN.

HEAD OF THE DEPATMENT

INTERNAL GUID

Arulmigu Meenakshi Amman College of Engineering, Vadamavandal, Thiruvannamalai District, (Near Kanchipuram), Tamil Nadu.

Arulmigu Meenakshi Amman College of Engineering, Vadamavandal, Thiruvannamalai District, (Near Kanchipuram), Tamil Nadu.

EXTERNAL i


ARULMIGU MEENAKSHI AMMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING VADAMAVANDAL, NAMANDI POST, THIRUVANNAMALAI DISTRICT- 604 410

DECLARATION I hereby certify that the thesis entitled “OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS (A live proposal by govt. of Tamilnadu) ” submitted by S. ANAND KUMAR. In partial fulfilment of the Bachelor’s Degree in Architecture of the Anna University. And that it has not formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma, associateship or fellowship of any other university or institution previously. Due acknowledgements have been made wherever anything has been borrowed from other sources.

Signature of the candidate, ANAND KUAMR. S - 510312251002 X Semester – V Year

ii


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I acknowledge with thanks the many people who have made this thesis possible, starting with the faculty at the School of Architecture, AMACE, especially Ar. Vinod. R and Ar. Rajappa. S for helping me to choose this topic. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to my internal guides Ar. Vinod. R & Ar. Tamilarasan. S and my external guide Ar. Pradeep for their vast guidance throughout this thesis.

I thank my family for being very supportive and helpful with my works.

iii


TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER.NO

CH 1

TITLE

PAGE NO.

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

i

DECLARATION

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iii

LIST OF FIGURES

ix

LIST OF TABLES

xii

ABSTRACT

xiii

INTRODUCTION

1

1.AA

OCEANARIUM

3

1.AB

DIFFERENT BETWEEN OCEANARIUM AND AQUARIUM

3

1.AC

NEED OF OCEANARIUM

3

1.AD

ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

4

1.AE

NEED OF ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

4

1.BA

RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES

5

1.BB

EDUCATION

5

1.BC

CONSERVATION

5

1.BD

TOURIST

5

1.C

OBJECTIVES

6

1.D

MOTIVATION

6

1.E

SCOPE OF PROJECT

7

LITERATURE STUDY

9

CLASSIFICATION OF FISHES

9

CH 2 2.A 2.AA

AGNATHAN

10

2.AB

CHRONDRICHTHYES

10

2.AC

OSTEICHTHYES

10

FISH ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

11

2.BA

THE SKIN

11

2.BB

THE SWIMBLADDER

12

2.BC

MAINTAINING SALT BALANCE

12

2.BD

BREATHING UNDERWATER

12

2.B

iv


CHAPTER.NO 2.BE

TITLE

PAGE NO.

SIGHT AND SOUND

13

SALTWATER VERSUS FRESHWATER AQUARIUMS

13

2.CA

COST

14

2.CB

SIZE

14

2.CC

WATER CHANGES

14

2.CD

LIGHTING

15

2.CE

COLOUR

15

2.CF

VARIETY

15

2.CG

EQUIPMENT

16

2.CH

AQUARIUM DYNAMIC

16

2.CI

EASY OF KEEPING

16

2.CJ

CORAL

17

FRESHWATER AQUARIUM SETUP

17

2.DA

ESSENTIALS & ACCESSORIES

17

2.DB

AQUARIUM FURNITURE - TANKS & STANDS

17

2.DC

HOODS & LIGHTING

18

2.DD

FILTERS & MEDIA

19

2.DE

CLIMATE CONTROL

19

2.DF

MAINTENANCE & ACCESSORIES

20

2.DG

WATER ADDITIVES

20

2.DH

DECOR

21

FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN

22

2.EA

PLANNING

22

2.EB

CIRCULATION

22

AQUATIC NEED

22

2.FA

COMMON INFORMATION ABOUT FISHES

22

2.FB

FEEDING INFORMATION

23

2.FC

HYGIENE CARE

23

2.FD

HEALTH CHECKUPS

23

2.FE

TEMPERATURE

23

2.FF

LIGHTING

24

2.C

2.D

2.E

2.F

v


CHAPTER.NO 2.G

TITLE

PAGE NO.

WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

24

2.GA

OPEN WATER SYSTEM

24

2.GB

SEMI-CLOSED WATER SYSTEM

24

2.GC

CLOSED WATER SYSTEM

24

THE PLANNERS

25

2.HA

THE OPERATION AREA

26

2.HB

TEMPERATURE

27

2.HC

LIGHTING

28

TYPES OF DISPLAY TANKS

30

2.IA

TOUCH POOL

30

2.IB

MICRO AQUARIUMS

31

2.IC

CORAL REEF TANK

31

2.ID

PREDATOR TANKS

32

2.IE

COMMUNITY AQUARIUM

32

2.IF

TURTLE POOL

32

2.IG

CROCODILE MOATS

33

2.IH

DOLPHINARIUM

33

2.II

FRESHWATER DISPLAY

33

2.IJ

AQUATIC MUSEUM

33

2.J

MATERIAL OF TANK

34

2.K

TANK DIMENSIONS

34

2.KA

TANK LENGHT

34

2.KB

TANK WIDTH

35

2.KC

TANK HEIGHT

35

2.KD

EXAMPLE CALCULATION

36

2.L

DOME THEATER

36

2.M

RESTAURENTS

38

2.MA

SPACE REQUIREMENTS

38

2.MB

RESTAURENTS ARRANGEMENTS

39

2.H

2.I

CH 3

SITE DETAILS 3.A

SITE

43 44

vi


CHAPTER.NO

TITLE

PAGE NO.

LOCATION

44

3.B

MAHABALIPURAM

44

3.C

SITE LOCATION

45

3.D

LANDMARKS

46

3.E

PHYSICAL FACTORS

48

CLIMATE

48

3.EAA

WIND

48

3.EAB

DIECTION

48

3.EAC

MAXIMUM, MINIMUM AND AVERAGE VELOCITY

48

3.EAD

SPECIAL FORCES

49

3.EAE

SOLAR ORIENTATION

49

TOPOGRAPHY

50

LAND SURFACE TYPE

50

3.EC

VISUAL CHARACHTERISTICS

52

3.ED

GEOTECHNICAL / SOIL

56

3.EE

UTILITIES

56

3.EF

IMMEDIATE SURROUNDINGS

56

CULTURAL FACTORS

59

SITE HISTORY

59

3.FAA

SITE USES

59

3.FAB

LAND OWNERSHIP

59

CASE STUDY

63

4.A

LOCATION

65

4.B

PLAN - GROUND FLOOR

66

4.C

CIRCULATION

67

4.D

INTERIOR VIEWS

69

4.E

SERVICE SPACE

72

4.F

FRESH WATER FISHES

75

4.G

QUARANTINE ROOM

75

4.H

LSS (LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM)

75

AMPHITHEATER

75

3.AA

3.EA

3.EB 3.EBA

3.F 3.FA

CH 4

4.I

vii


CHAPTER.NO

TITLE

PAGE NO.

4.J

POPULTAION

75

4.K

LIGHTING

75

4.L

PARKING

75

SIGNAGES AND DIGITAL DIAPLAY

76

4.M

THE LOST CHAMBER AQUARIUM

78

THE BLUE PLANET - NATIONAL AQUARIUM

85

INFERENCE

88

CH 5

DESIGN BRIEF

89

CH 6

CONCEPT & FORM DEVELOPMENT

94

CH 7

ZONING

95

CH 8

DRAWINGS

96

CH 9

REFRENCES

viii

134


LIST OF FIGURES 9LVLWRUVà RZSDWWHUQ 2. Plan of tank gallery. 3. Service area section. 4. Cross-section through coral reef tank. 5. Simple Life Supporting System (LSS). 6. Simple diagram of aquarium water system. 7. Touch pool exhibit. 8. Micro aquarium. 9. Coral Reef Tank. 10. Perdator tank. 11. Turtle exhibit. 12. Dolphinarium. 13. Fresh water exhibit. 14. Dome theater Plan. 15. Dome theater section. 16. Restaurent standards 1. 17. Restaurent standards 2. 18. Restaurent standards 3. 19. Restaurent standards 4. 20. Restaurent standards 5. 21. Minimal seating layout. 22. Alcoves arrangment. &RɛHWDEOHDUUDQJPHQW 24. Parallel table arrangment. 25. Diagonal table arrangment. 26. Minimum table spacing. ix


27. Space Requirements. 28. Site Location. 29. Shape of site and its location. 30. Famous Landmarks around site. 31. Direction of wind at site. 32. Wind speed at Mahabalipuram. 33. Cyclone path (Vardha-Cyclone). 34. Sun Path Diagaram at site. 35. Temperature chart (year) Mahabalipuram. 36. Precipitaion chart (year) Mahabalipuram. 37. Soft sand. 38. Hard surface. 39. Beach Sand. 40. Topography and slope. 41. Site Entry. 42. North Side view from site. 43. South Side view from site. 44. East Side view from site. 45. Existing Road network. 46. Vegetation & Existing water bodies. 47. Stone Carvings. 48. Art Sculpture shop. 49. Light house. 50. Pancha Rathas. 51. Noise Map. 52. Mahabalipuram existing Land Use map. 53. Mahabalipuram proposed Land Use map - 2021. 54. Location - Marine Drive. x


55. Conceptual Plan - Taraporewala Aquarium. 56. Circulation - Public. 57. Circulation - Private. 58. Interior view - Key Plan. 59. Tunnel Tank. 60. Aquarium Entry & Exit. 61. Quaratine Room & Amphitheater. 62. Gallery space. 63. Tank at lobby space.  )UHVKZDWHUÀVKWDQN 7URSKLFDOÀVKWDQN 67. Freshwater tank. 68. Lighting at Freshwater tank. 69. Grill Platform. 70. Ladder access to platform. 71 & 72. Lighting at freshwater tank. 73. Air conditioning ducts. 74. Clearence space. 75. Space below Grill Platform. 76. Grill Platform clearence. &RQWLQXHVZDWHÁRZ 78. Tunnel Tank features. 79. Fershwater Tank. 80. Trophical water tank. 81 - 87. Signages and Display. 88. Sea water used for aquarium. 89. Lost chamber Aquarium. 90. Freshwater Tank. xi


91. Pillar Tank. 92. Ambassador Lagoon. 93. Underwater Restaurent. 94. Acrylic Tunnel. 95. Circulation Space. 96. Restaurent. 97. Underwater Room. 98. Tank Lighting. 99. Houre Meter. 100. Coral Tank. 101. Wave machine. 102. Fish tank sump. 103. Tanks Drainage. 104 & 105. Fish tanks sump. 106. Fish Kitchen. 107. Fish Care Place. 108. Breeding Tanks. 109. Zoning 110. Sectional veiw. 111 - 117. views LIST OF TABLES 1. Aquarium Furniture – tanks & stands. 2. Hoods & Lighting. 3. Filters & Media. 4. Climate Control. 5. Maintenance & Accessories. 6. Water Additive. 7. Decores. xii


ABSTRACT

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS The thesis Project is on " Oceanarium & Adventure watersports " at Mahabalipuram Beach - live proposal. In India with more marine life species, there is no large scale Ocenarium and 5HVHDUFKODEIRUĂ€VKFRQVHUYDWLRQ$OVRRQHRI,QGLD VROGHVWDTXDULXPZDVEXLOWLQ chennai which was later destroyed in Tsunami. Also having Oceanarium near world heritage tourist sites, Oceanarium will have footprints from India as well as form other counties. These are some the main reason for this theis project. With site near CRZ 3 (Coastal Regulation Zone 3) and 500m away from the high tite line. The site area is 15 acers with 300 x 200m boundary. The building was designed in such a way it uses the wind speed and the solar energy by Roof and pavilion structure for building performance.

xiii


CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

1


OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

2


1.AA OCEANARIUM (ocean·ar·i·um) A large seawater aquarium in which marine animals are kept for study and public entertainment. Ocean Aquarium

Oceanarium

1.AB DIFFERENT BETWEEN OCEANARIUM AND AQUARIUM 

:HOOWKHGLႇHUHQFHEHWZHHQDTXDULXPDQGRFHDQDULXPLVWKDWRFHDQDULXPLVXVXDOO\DPDULQH

mammal park or a large-scale aquarium. But in a oceanarium they are presenting an ocean habitat with marine animals, especially large ocean dwellers, such as sharks and dolphins. Well in Valencia they have both. 

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RFHDQDULXPV DUH ORFDWHG LQ FRDVWDO DUHDV 7KH ZRUOG¶V ¿UVW ODUJH RFHDQDULXP QRZ NQRZQ DV 0DULQHODQGZDVFRPSOHWHGLQQHDU6W$XJXVWLQH)OD86 

2FHDQDULXPVDUHPRUHGLႈFXOWWRPDLQWDLQWKDQIUHVKZDWHUDTXDULXPV&KDQJHVLQVDOLQLW\

conditions confound the relationships between temperature, acidity, and oxygen levels of an aquatic system and create complex maintenance problems that require constant attention if sensitive ¿VKHVDQGRWKHURUJDQLVPVDUHWREHNHSWLQDKHDOWK\VWDWH2FHDQDULXPVKRZHYHUKDYHFHUWDLQ DGYDQWDJHV 0DQ\ PRUH GLႇHUHQW VSHFLHV RI ¿VK OLYH LQ PDULQH HQYLURQPHQWV WKDQ LQ IUHVKZDWHU systems, so that a greater diversity of displays is possible. In addition, a saltwater environment permits the holding of such large and impressive animals as sharks, rays, and marine turtles, as well as seagoing mammals (e.g., dolphins, whales, and manatees). Many oceanariums make full use of the ability of whales and dolphins to be trained, devising special acrobatic shows for the public. A number of oceanariums are associated with research or educational programs of universities, biological stations, and marine institutes. Arrangements may be reciprocal in that oceanariums can provide facilities for student training or experiments while the academic or research units can contribute specimens and professional advice about the care of marine organisms. 1.AC NEED OF OCEANARIUM India has a long coastline of 7,517 kms.It has one of the longest coastlines compared to most other countries.India also has many fresh wter bodies which house many varities of fresh water ¿VKHV$ERXWRIWKHPDULQH¿VKHVFRPHIURPWKHZHVWFRDVWDQGWKHUHPDLQMQJFRPHIURP the east coast. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

3


Thus the people of the country have very less knowledge of the vast resources that are pooled out IURPWKHRFHDQDQGWKHGLႇHUHQWYDULHW\RIVDOWZDWHU¿VKHVDVZHOODVIHVKZDWHU¿VKHVWKDWDUH present here. The awareness of the vast ocean and its potentials is some thing that most of the peo-ple who live in a country with one of the biggest coastline don’t have proper knowledge. India till date does’nt have a single Oceanarium despite all the resources available. Not even one aquarium has been expanded to a large scale housing marine mammals like shark, sea otter,etc. This being the IUVWDQGRQHLW¶VNLQGZRXOGEHEHQH¿FLDOWRWKHSHRSOHDVZHOOWKHFRXQWU\HFQRPLFDOO\DQGJOREDOO\ 

3HRSOHVKRXOGEHDEOHWRJRWKURXJKDMRXUQH\WKURXJKWKLV2FHDQDULXPZKHUHWKH\ZLOOEH

DEOH WR VHH PDULQH OLIH LQ LIV QDWXUDO KDELWDW DQG QRW LQ MXVW D FRQYHQWLRQDO WDQN 7KL RFHDQDULXP would not be only for sole purpose of entertainment but also would cater the marine enthusiasts and PDULQHELRORJLVW,WZRXOGHGXFDWHSHRSOHQRWRQO\DERXWWKH¿VKHVEXWDOVRDERXWWKHDPD]LQJÀDXUD and fauna in its natural habitat that survive underwater. It would teach us how our human habits and SROOXWLRQDQGZDVWHPDWHULDOVWKURZQLQWRWKHVHDDႇHFWVWKHVHFUHDWXUHV,WZLOOWHDFKXVKRZZHFDQ live in coordination without harming them. 

7KHSURMHFWORFDWLRQLVDW0DPDOODSXUDPZKLFKLWVHOILVDKLVWRULFDOFHQWUHIRUWRXULVP7KLV

WRXULVWSODFHUHFRUGHGWRXULVWYLVLWDWLRQRIODNKVLQFOXGLQJODNKVIRUHLJQWRXULVWVLQDVSHU the data collected from Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation, Government of Tamil Nadu. As the Oceanarium is to be located nearer to Mamallapuram, it is expected that 1/3rdof the existing footfalls might visit this facility. In addition to commercial and tourism applications, it will ensure educational supremacy through alliances with universities and marine biology research centres to undertake research with VLPLODULQVWLWXWLRQVJOREDOO\DFFRUGLQJWRRႈFLDOVRXUFHV

1.AD ADVENTURE WATER SPORTS Water sports are nothing but sports activities are being conducted or played on water surface. 7RGD\\RXQJVWHUVDUHSDUWLFLSDWLRQDQGVKRZLQJLQWHUHVWRQZDWHUVSRUWV:DWHUVSRUWVWKHPDMRU game in Olympics.

1.AE NEED OF ADVENTURE WATER SPORTS As Adventure Water Sports is famous only on north side of India, having an adventure ZDWHUVSRUWVSRWLQVRXWKZLOOGH¿QLWHO\PDNHORFDOSHRSOHWROHDUQDQGSDUWLFLSDWHDQGLPSURYHWKHLU VNLOOV$OVRZLWKH[LVWLQJVPDOOZDWHUVSRUWDFWLYLWLHVOLNHVXU¿QJQHDUVLWHWKLVZLOOEHKDYLQJPRUHWKDQ VXU¿JQZLOOPDNHHQWHUWDLQPHQWSODFHDVZHOODVSODFHWROHDUQ OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

4


AIM 1.BA RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES The oceanarium will be built in such a way that it would attract not only a single visitor but the entire family to the facility. There should be recreational activity for people from all age groups. The design would also be handicapped friend so that any handicapped person won’t be deprived of a not being able to access the facility because of their disability. 1.BB EDUCATION The oceanarium will educate people of all ages towards the marine aquatic life, it will educate the visitors towards the importance of aquatic life, it will educate the people towards the endangered spices in water, and how to protect them. Education shall happen in a very informal way with the KHOSRIVWDႇDQGUHDFWLRQDODFWLYLWLHV6SDFHVIRUVHPLQDUVDQGVXPPHUVFKRROVVKDOOEHSURYLGHG 1.BC CONESRVATION To build a research unit that will focus on conservation of species, experiments should take place on regular basis to impro e lifestyle of species, mating of species should take place to help LQFUHDVHWKHSRSXODWLRQRIWKHVSHFLHV$¿VKKRVSLWDOLVUHTXLUHGWRFKHFNWKHKHDOWKRI¿VKHVRQ regular basis. The dangered species can be breaded in this quarantine. 1.BD TOURIST The oceanarium aims to increase the tourism of Mahabalipuram city, it shall aim to change the way tourist and the people interact with the environment. Provision of the local sculptor art would also be encouraged through this facility. Employment will be generated through this facility.

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

5


1.C OBJECTIVES The oceanarium, which would come up over 13 acres of land on the shores of Mamallapuram, would have alliances with universities and marine biology research centres, besides its commercial interests. The oceanarium would have a submerged, winding acrylic tunnel, which would take the public on a “fascinating tour with views in all directions. The tunnel creates an impression of walking on the seabed and the visitor becomes part of the marine environment, A sailing academy and a training centre for sailing and rowing will encourage youngsters from WKHFRPPXQLW\WRGLYHUVLI\DQGWDNHXSDGYHQWXUHVSRUWVDFUHVRIODQGWRVHWXSDQDGYHQWXUH VSRUWVIDFLOLW\ZKHUHSHRSOHFRXOGVDLOXVH\DFKWVVXU¿QJSDUDVDLO:DWHUVFRRWHU -HW6NL5LQJR Ride Tubing), Water Zorbing.

1.D MOTIVATION 



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WKH¿UVW\HDUVLWZDVXQGHUWKHFRQWURORIWKHJRYHUQPHQWPXVHXPDQGWKHQZDVWUDQVIHUUHG to the Fisheries Department. Originally, it was designed as a marine aquarium with provisions for circulating sea water. During World War II, it was closed for some years and reopened again in August 1955 as a IUHVKZDWHUDTXDULXP/DWHUDIHZWDQNVRIPDULQD¿VKHVZHUHDGGHGVDLGDUHSRUWWKDWDSSHDUHGLQ 2FWREHU,WZDVKHUHWKDWIRUWKH¿UVWWLPHDVHDKRUVHZDVEUHGLQFDSWLYLW\LQ-XO\LQWKH city. Later this aquarium was destroyed during tsunami. We are living in most busy world, people are more stressed out by their works and also even their stress cause health issues mentally and physically. So, it is important to be visit a place ZKHUHWKH\JDLQSRWHQWLDOKHDOWKEHQH¿WVE\QDWXUDOZD\DQGQRWE\DQ\LQÀXHQFHRIFKHPLFDO 

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OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

6


1.E SCOPE OF PROJECT - Among the Chennai’s popular International stadium this adventure water sports will become faPRXVDVLWFUHDWHVQHZSDWKRUSODWIRUPRIVSRUWVWKDWPRWLYDWHSHRSOHWRMRLQWUDLQDQGSDUWLFLSDWH in event. - World class oceanarium. - The oceanarium aims to attract at least one third of the footfall it receives as the ancient historic town, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site housing monuments of archaeological value. - Marine species from ocean. - Apart from promoting tourism, the oceanarium is envisaged to provide facilities for propagating awareness about marine environment and biodiversity. - entertainment and educational attractions, which transform short visits in to memorable occasions. - Underwater Restaurant & Underwater Accommodations. - Water Sports Complex with training centre.

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

7


OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

8


CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE STUDY 2.A CLASSIFICATION OF FISHES 

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Subphylum. Fishes poses notochord, tubular nerve chord, paired gills, segmentation of the body parts, post anal tail, ventral heart, and an endoskeleton to be the member of the Chordata. In order to be a vertebrate, it poses backbone. This back bone supports and protects the spinal cord. 

$OOWKHVSHFLHVRIWKH¿VKIRXQGLQWKHZRUOGDUHFODVVL¿HGLQWRWKHIROORZLQJWKUHHJURXSV

AgnathaMDZOHVV¿VK ChrondrichthyesFDUWLODJLQRXV¿VK OsteichthyesERQ\¿VK 5D\¿QQHGJURXS 

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OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

9


2.AA Agnathan (Phylum: chordate) L6XESK\OXPYHUWHEUDWD 

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They have a circular tooth mouth (cyclostomic) by which they bore the body of their victim and suck WKHLUEORRG7KHVHDUHFODVVL¿HGLQWRWZRPDMRUW\SHV7KH\DUH+DJ¿VKDQG/DPSUH\V ii. Characteristic of Agnatha - Jaws are absent. 

3DLUHG¿QVDUHDEVHQW - Bony scales and skin plates were present in the ancient species but are absent in the living

species. - Gill pouches are present. They have seven or more pouches. - Stomach is absent in the digestive system.

2.AB Chrondrichthyes (Phylum: chordate) L6XESK\OXPYHUWHEUDWD Fearsome predators and harmless mollusc eaters are the members of the Chrondrichthyes. 7KHPHPEHURIWKHFDUWLODJLQRXV¿VKSRVHVWUXHERQHDQGDOVRSRVHVDVNHOHWRQPDGHXSRIFDUWLODJH2QO\WKHWHHWKRIWKLVVSHFLHVDQGUDUHO\WKHYHUWHEUDHDUHFDOFL¿HG6KDUNV6NDWHVDQG5D\V make up the group of chrondrichthyes

2.AC Osteichthyes (Phylum: chordate) L6XESK\OXPYHUWHEUDWD 

$ERXWVSHFLHVRIERQ\¿VKDUHIRXQGLQWKLVFODVV)LVKHVWKDWEHORQJWRWKLVVSHFLHV

DUHVSLQGOHVKDSHGRYDOLQVHFWLRQDQGÀDWWHQHG6NLQVDUHSURWHFWHGE\SURWHFWLYHVFDOHV6RPH ¿VKHV RI WKLV FDWHJRU\ KDYH DFWXDO OXQJV WR EUHDWKH DQG DOVR KDYH VKDUS H\HVLJKW 7KHVH ERQ\ ¿VKHVKDYHDVSHFLDOJDV¿OOHGFKDPEHUFDOOHGDLUEODGGHUKRXVHGXQGHUWKHVNHOHWRQWRDOORZWKHP WRUHPDLQEXR\DQW$QRWKHUDGDSWDWLRQLVRSHUFXOXPDERQHRQWKHVLGHVRIWKH¿VKWRSURWHFWWKH chambers that house the gills. 

%RQ\¿VKDUHDJDLQFODVVL¿HGLQWRUD\¿QQHGDQGOREH¿QQHG¿VK5D\¿QQHG¿VKKDYHWKLQ

ÀH[LEOHVNHOHWRQUD\V/REH¿QQHG¿VKKDYHPXVFXODU¿QVVXSSRUWHGE\ERQHV%RQ\¿VKIHUWLOL]HV HLWKHULQWHUQDOO\RUH[WHUQDOO\7ZRW\SHVRIHJJVDUHODLGE\WKHERQ\¿VK7KH\DUHWKHHJJVWKDWÀRDW and the eggs that sink.

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ii. Characteristic of Osteichthyes - Have more or less bony skeleton and numerous vertebrae. - Mucous glands and embedded dermal scales are present in the skin. 

+DYHSDLUHG¿QV - Jaws are present. - Gill arches support the gills and are protected by the operculum.

2.B FISH ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY There are few creatures on earth that have developed such an interesting and unique set RI SK\VLFDO FKDUDFWHULVWLFV DV WKH ¿VK7KHLU VSHFLDO DGDSWDWLRQV KDYH DOORZHG WKHP WR VXUYLYH LQ DQHQYLURQPHQWFRPSOHWHO\GLá&#x201A;&#x2021;HUHQWWKDQKXPDQV:DWHULVWLPHVGHQVHUWKDQDLU:DWHUDOVR FRQWDLQVOHVVWKDQRIWKHR[\JHQFRQWDLQHGLQWKHDLU6RXQGDQGOLJKWDUHYHU\GLVWRUWHGLQWKH ZDWHU<HWGHVSLWHWKHVHGLá&#x201A;&#x2C6;FXOWREVWDFOHVLQOLIH¿VKKDYHVRPHXQLTXHDQDWRPLFDODGDSWLRQVWKDW DOORZWKHPWRÃ&#x20AC;RXULVK,IDTXDULXPRZQHUVKDYHDQXQGHUVWDQGLQJRIWKHVHEDVLFDGDSWDWLRQVLWZLOO KHOSWKHPWREHWWHUFDUHIRUWKHLU¿VK 2.BA THE SKIN 

8QOLNH PRVW ODQG GZHOOLQJ DQLPDOV ¿VK KDYH HYROYHG VHYHUDO XQLTXH WUDLWV LQ WKHLU RXWVLGH

FRYHULQJVLQFOXGLQJVFDOHV¿QVDQGSURWHFWLYHPXFRXV0RVW¿VKKDYH¿QVDOWKRXJKVRPHKDYH DQGVRPH7KHVH¿QVDOORZ¿VKWRVWHHUDQGPRYHIRUZDUGDQGEDFNZDUG%HFDXVHZDWHULV WLPHVGHQVHUWKDQDLU¿VKUHTXLUHDWUHPHQGRXVDPRXQWRIPXVFOHVWUHQJWKDQGFRRUGLQDWLRQ 7KHSRZHUIXOWDLO¿QFRXSOHGZLWKDODUJHHá&#x201A;&#x2C6;FLHQWPXVFOH¿OOHGERG\JLYHVWKH¿VKWKHQHFHVVDU\ VWUHQJWK2QWKHRXWVLGHRIWKHVNLQPRVW¿VKKDYHFRPSDFWURZVRISURWHFWLYHVFDOHV7KHVHVFDOHV DUH¿UPO\DWWDFKHGWRWKHVNLQDQGDUHSULPDULO\PDGHRIKDUGFDOFLXP7KHVFDOHVRá&#x201A;&#x2021;HUXQVXUSDVVHG SURWHFWLRQ DJDLQVW LQMXU\ DQG LQIHFWLRQ &DW¿VK KDYH HYROYHG ZLWKRXW VFDOHV EXW VRPH KDYH KDUG ERQ\SODWHVDQGRWKHUVKDYHVKDUSVSLQHVLQVRPHRIWKHLU¿QVWKDWKHOSNHHSSUHGDWRUVDWED\2YHU WKHWRSVRIWKHLUVFDOHV¿VKVHFUHWHDPXFRXVFRYHULQJ7KLVPXFXVLVYHU\Há&#x201A;&#x2021;HFWLYHDWWUDSSLQJ DQGLPPRELOL]LQJEDFWHULDDQGYLUXVHVDQGHYHQFRQWDLQVDQWLEDFWHULDOOLNHDJHQWVWKDWZLOOKHOSNLOO WKHWUDSSHGEDFWHULD$QRWKHULPSRUWDQWWUDLWRIWKHPXFRXVLVWRUHGXFHIULFWLRQDQGDOORZWKH¿VKWR move through the water more easily.

)LJ0RYHPHQWRIZDWHUDQGLRQVLQIUHVKZDWHU¿VK OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

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2.BB THE SWIMBLADDER 

7KH VZLPEODGGHU LV D XQLTXH RUJDQ IRXQG RQO\ LQ ¿VK DQG LV VRPHWLPHV FDOOHG WKH µDLU

EODGGHU¶,WLVDVPRRWKJDV¿OOHGRUJDQIRXQGLQWKHDEGRPHQRIPRVW¿VK$¿VKZLOOHLWKHUDGGWR or decrease the amount of air in the bladder to help it move up or down in the water. Without the air EODGGHUWKH¿VKZRXOGKDYHWRVZLPFRQWLQXRXVO\WRNHHSIURPVLQNLQJWRWKHERWWRP%\DGMXVWLQJ WKHDPRXQWRIDLULQWKHEODGGHU¿VKFDQDGMXVWWKHGHSWKDWZKLFKWKH\Ã&#x20AC;RDWDQGH[WHQGYHU\OLWWOH HQHUJ\LQWKHSURFHVV2QHRWKHUEHQH¿WRIWKHDLUEODGGHULQVRPHVSHFLHVLVWKDWLWFDQEHXVHGWR receive or emit sounds.

2.BC MAINTAINING SALT BALANCE 

$VLQSHRSOHPDLQWDLQLQJWKHSURSHUOHYHORIVDOWLQWKH¿VK¶VERG\LVFULWLFDOWRSURSHUKHDOWK

)LVKIDFHDQH[FHSWLRQDOO\GLá&#x201A;&#x2C6;FXOWFKDOOHQJHEHFDXVHWKH\OLYHLQDZDWHU\HQYLURQPHQWDQGWHQG WRµOHDN¶DORW7KHFRQFHQWUDWLRQRIVDOWLQDIUHVKZDWHU¿VKLVPXFKKLJKHUWKDQLQWKHVXUURXQGLQJZDWHUVRVDOWLVFRQVWDQWO\OHDNLQJRXWRIWKH¿VKLQWRWKHZDWHU7RFRPSHQVDWHIRUWKLV¿VK KDYHGHYHORSHGVHYHUDOVROXWLRQV7KH¿UVWDQGIRUHPRVWLVWKDWWKH\LQJHVWDYHU\ODUJHTXDQWLW\ RIZDWHUDQGDVDUHVXOWSURGXFHDODUJHTXDQWLW\RIXULQH WLPHVDVPXFKDVODQGPDPPDOV  7KHLUNLGQH\VH[WUDFWWKHVPDOODPRXQWRIVDOWIURPWKHLQJHVWHGZDWHUDQGSXWLWEDFNLQWRWKH¿VK¶V bloodstream. The other thing they have is an ion pump in their gills that actually helps take salt out RIWKHZDWHUDQGGLVFKDUJHVDPPRQLDDQGRWKHUXQGHVLUDEOHSURGXFWV6DOWZDWHU¿VKKDYHWKHVDPH SUREOHP LQ UHYHUVH )RU VDOWZDWHU ¿VK WKH VHD ZDWHU FRQWDLQV D PXFK KLJKHU FRQFHQWUDWLRQ WKDQ ZKDWLVLQWKHLUERGLHV$VDUHVXOWVDOWOHDNVLQDQGWKH¿VKKDVWRXVHLWVNLGQH\VDQGLRQSXPSVWR excrete extra salt.

2.BD BREATHING UNDERWATER 

%UHDWKLQJXQGHUZDWHULVRQHRIWKHPRVWLQWHUHVWLQJDGDSWDWLRQVRI¿VK)LVKQHHGR[\JHQMXVW

like people, but the trick is getting the small amount of available oxygen out of the water and into the EORRGVWUHDP7KHZD\WKDW¿VKDFFRPSOLVKWKLVLVWKURXJKWKHLUJLOOV7KHJLOOVFRQWDLQWKRXVDQGVRI tiny capillaries (blood vessels). Water is constantly pumped over the gills through a combination of opening and closing the mouth and muscular contractions that force water over the gills. The oxygen is absorbed out of the water and goes directly into the bloodstream. 

:DWHUWHPSHUDWXUHFDQJUHDWO\Dá&#x201A;&#x2021;HFWWKHFRQFHQWUDWLRQRIIUHHR[\JHQLQWKHZDWHU$VWKH

water temperature increases, the free oxygen concentration decreases. Stagnant or poor quality ZDWHUDOVRFRQWDLQVOHVVR[\JHQ$¿VKWKDWEHFRPHVVWUHVVHGRURYHUO\H[FLWHGLQZDWHUWKDWKDVORZ R[\JHQFRQWHQWFDQKDYHVHYHUHUHVSLUDWRU\GLá&#x201A;&#x2C6;FXOW\DQGFDQGLH%HFDXVHWKHDLUFRQWDLQVPXFK PRUHR[\JHQWKDQWKHZDWHUVRPHSHRSOHTXHVWLRQZK\¿VKFDQQRWEUHDWKHRXWRIWKHZDWHU7KH OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

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reason is that the small delicate lamellae (thin branching structures) in the gills will collapse when WKH¿VKLVRXWRIWKHZDWHU7KLVZLOOPDNHLWLPSRVVLEOHIRUR[\JHQWREHDEVRUEHG7RGHWHUPLQHKRZ ORQJD¿VKFDQEHNHSWRXWRIWKHZDWHUKROG\RXUEUHDWKZKHQ\RXWDNH\RXU¿VKRXWRIWKHWDQN :KHQ\RXQHHGWREUHDWKHWKHQVRGRHV\RXU¿VK

2.BE SIGHT AND SOUND 

0DQ\¿VKKDYHDQH[FHOOHQWVHQVHRIVLJKWDQG¿VKVHHFRORUV7KH\DOVRKDYHHDUVKRZHY-

HUWKH\GRQRWKDYHH[WHUQDORSHQLQJV7KHHDUVSLFNXSYLEUDWLRQVDQGKHOSWKH¿VKKHDUDQGQDYigate. Fish also have a unique navigational aid unlike anything found on mammals. The structure is FDOOHGWKHODWHUDOOLQHDQGUXQVDORQJWKHVLGHRIWKH¿VK7KHODWHUDOOLQHFRQWDLQVVPDOOVHQVRU\KDLUV WKDWFDQGHWHFWHYHQWLQ\YLEUDWLRQV7KLVH[WUDRUJDQDOORZV¿VKWRQDYLJDWHDQGKXQWSUH\HYHQLQ low light or cloudy water conditions.

2.C SALTWATER VERSUS FRESHWATER AQUARIUMS While we are generally breaking down the types of aquariums you can choose into two large categories â&#x20AC;&#x201C; freshwater or saltwater â&#x20AC;&#x201C; there are actually several subcategories within each of these larger options. These subcategories have a huge impact on aspects of your tank such as cost and maintenance.

)RUIUHVKZDWHUVRPHRIWKHVXEFDWHJRULHVLQFOXGH - Planted tanks - Biotope tanks - Cichlid tanks (African or New World) - Brackish tanks - Predator tanks

)RUVDOWZDWHUWKHWKUHHPDLQVXEFDWHJRULHVDUH - Fish-only tanks - Fish-only with live rock tanks (FOWLR) - Reef tanks

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2.CA COST

When comparing freshwater and saltwater tanks, cost is what many people assume to be

WKHPDLQGLá&#x201A;&#x2021;HUHQFH7KHUHLVDFRPPRQSHUFHSWLRQWKDWVDOWZDWHUDTXDULXPVFRVWDJRRGGHDOPRUH WKDQIUHVKZDWHURQHV7REHTXLWHKRQHVWWKLVLVJHQHUDOO\WKHFDVH6DOWZDWHU¿VKWHQGWREHPRUH expensive and these tanks tend to require additional equipment. If you choose to incorporate them, FRUDOVFDQDOVRDGGVLJQL¿FDQWO\WRWKHFRVWRI\RXUWDQN$OORIWKHVHWKLQJVQHHGWREHFRQVLGHUHG EXWGRUHDOL]HWKDWFRVWLVUHODWLYH For example, a reef tank is probably going to be the most expensive of the saltwater aquariums. Therefore, if you wanted to keep the cost more in-line with a freshwater tank, you could setup D¿VKRQO\RU)2:/5WDQN<RXFRXOGDOVRGR',<SURMHFWVIRUPXFKRIWKHDGGLWLRQDOHTXLSPHQW UHTXLUHGIRUVDOWZDWHUWDQNV2QWKHÃ&#x20AC;LSVLGHRIWKLV\RXFDQFHUWDLQO\PDNHDIUHVKZDWHUDTXDULXP very expensive. For example, if you have a heavily planted tank, the additional lighting, carbon GLR[LGHDQGIHUWLOL]HUVFDQDGGXSIDVW$IULFDQFLFKOLGWDQNVFDQUHTXLUHKXJHDPRXQWVRIURFNWKDW can be equivalent to placing live rock in your tank in a saltwater setup.

2.CB SIZE 

,W XVHG WR EH WKH FRPPRQ EHOLHI WKDW \RX FRXOG QRW KDYH D VDOWZDWHU WDQN XQGHU 

gallons. With the rise in popularity of nano tanks, however, this is clearly no longer the case. In IDFWPDQ\PDQXIDFWXUHUVDUHQRZPDNLQJJDOORQDOOLQRQHXQLWV H[DPSOH1DQR&XEH+4,  VSHFL¿FDOO\IRUVDOWZDWHUXVH,WUHPDLQVWUXHKRZHYHUWKDWODUJHUWDQNVDUHHDVLHUWRFDUHIRUWKDQ VPDOOHUWDQNVGXHWRLQFUHDVHGZDWHUYROXPH7KLVEHLQJWKHFDVHWKHUHLVQRVLJQL¿FDQWGLá&#x201A;&#x2021;HUHQFH EHWZHHQNHHSLQJDIUHVKZDWHURUDVDOWZDWHUWDQNLQUHJDUGWRWDQNVL]H

2.CC WATER CHANGES Saltwater tanks do require some additional work during water changes, mostly related to the fact that you have to mix the saltwater beforehand. This can be time consuming as the salt tends to dissolve slowly and requires you to buy a hydrometer to check the salinity level. There are ways to make this process easier, however. One option is to keep saltwater mixing continuously in a large bucket, heated with a heater and circulated with a powerhead. Using this method, you will always have fresh water available for water changes. Another option is to purchase pre-mixed saltwater from the pet store, but this option is much more expensive. With freshwater aquariums, of course, \RXGRQRWQHHGWRPL[VDOWZDWHU<RXGRKRZHYHUQHHGWRWUHDWWKHWDSZDWHUZLWKDZDWHUSXUL¿HU WRUHPRYHWR[LFFKHPLFDOVWKDWFRXOGHQGDQJHU\RXU¿VK

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2.CD LIGHTING Saltwater lighting can get very expensive. Many corals require metal halide lighting which is not only expensive to buy, but is also expensive to run. However, you can stay away from high-light corals and stick with power compact lighting which is a good deal cheaper than metal halide, but VWLOOPRUHH[SHQVLYHWKDQWKH³VWDQGDUG´Ã&#x20AC;XRUHVFHQWOLJKWLQJIRXQGLQPDQ\IUHVKZDWHUDTXDULXPV <RXFRXOGDOVRFKRRVHD¿VKRQO\DTXDULXPZKHUHWKHRQO\OLJKWLQJUHTXLUHPHQWLVZKDWPDNHVWKH ¿VKORRNJRRG,WVKRXOGDOVREHQRWHGWKDWVDOWZDWHUFRUDOVJHQHUDOO\UHTXLUHDFWLQLFOLJKWLQJ QRWWR mention the fact that this kind of lighting makes them really pop). Actinic lighting is not often used in IUHVKZDWHUVHWXSVDVSODQWVGRQRWEHQH¿WIURPWKDWSRUWLRQRIWKHVSHFWUXPDQGLWFDQSURPRWHDOJDH growth. In the freshwater world, the planted tank is the only tank that really has a lighting requirement DQG HYHQ LQ WKHVH WDQNV FRPSDFW Ã&#x20AC;XRUHVFHQWV DUH WKH OLJKWLQJ RI FKRLFH ,Q DOO RWKHU IUHVKZDWHU aquariums, you only need the lighting that makes the tank and its inhabitants suit your tastes. No PDWWHUZKDWWDQN\RXFKRRVHWKHVL]HDQGTXDOLW\RIWKHOLJKWLQJV\VWHP\RXXWLOL]HLV\RXUFKRLFHVR ultimately, you have control over how much you spend.

2.CE COLOUR 

7KHUHLVVLPSO\QRVXEVWLWXWHIRUDUHHIDTXDULXPLQWHUPVRIFRORU,WLVMXVWDIDFWWKDWWKHUH

LVPRUHYDULHW\DQGDZLGHUDUUD\RIEULJKWO\FRORUHG¿VKDQGFRUDOVLQWKHVDOWZDWHUZRUOG7KHRQO\ thing that comes close, in my opinion, is an African cichlid tank (people who do not know much about ¿VKRIWHQPLVWDNHP\FLFKOLGWDQNIRUDVDOWZDWHUWDQN EXWHYHQWKHVHGRQRWKDYHWKHLQWHQVHFRORU GLá&#x201A;&#x2021;HUHQFHVIRXQGLQDIXOOUHHIWDQN7KHUHDUHVRPHYHU\FRORUIXOIUHVKZDWHU¿VKRIFRXUVHEXWWKH VSHFWUXPRIFRORUVHHQLQIUHVKZDWHU¿VKLVYHU\GLá&#x201A;&#x2021;HUHQWIURPWKDWVHHQLQVDOWZDWHUVSHFLHV

2.CF VARIETY Again, the edge probably has to go to saltwater here. While there are certainly enough freshZDWHUVSHFLHVWRHQVXUH\RXQHYHUJHWERUHGLWMXVWGRHVQ¶WFRPSDUHWRWKHKXJHDUUD\RIYHU\GLá&#x201A;&#x2021;HUHQWORRNLQJ¿VKDQGLQYHUWHEUDWHVIRXQGLQVDOWZDWHUVHWXSV%HLQJDEOHWRDGGFRUDOVDQGRWKHURGG creatures also adds to the variety found in saltwater setups. With freshwater aquariums, however, \RXVWLOOKDYHSOHQW\RIRSWLRQVLQVSHFLHVRI¿VKWKDWOLYHDWDOOOHYHOVRIWKHWDQN±\RXDOVRKDYH\RXU choice of invertebrates like snails and even dwarf frogs.

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2.CG EQUIPMENT Again, you can do a saltwater setup without a great deal of additional equipment, but the average saltwater aquarium does usually use more equipment than a freshwater setup. Examples of equipment many people use in the saltwater world that are not required in freshwater include: - Protein skimmer. - Hydrometer. - Salt mix - Live rock. - Power heads (these can be found in many freshwater setups as well, but they are generally not required there). - Additional test kits (examples: alkalinity, calcium). - Sump.

2.CH AQUARIUM DYNAMIC With saltwater aquariums, your tank is always evolving. When you put live rock or live sand LQ\RXUWDQNKLWFKKLNHUVFRPHDORQJDQG\RXMXVWKDYHQRLGHDZKDWWRH[SHFWQH[W9HU\UDUHO\LQ the freshwater world (outside of snails coming with plants) do you see inhabitants in your tank that were not purchased intentionally. It is really interesting to sit and watch your saltwater tank to see what is new. Now, along with this comes a negative because not all of these hitch hikers are good (examples: Aiptasia, bristle worms, mantis shrimps, etc.). It can be hard to remove some of these bad hitch hikers which can lead to added stress. 

2QHEHQH¿WWKDWIUHVKZDWHUWDQNVKDYHRYHUVDOWZDWHUDTXDULXPVKRZHYHULVWKHIDFWWKDW

IUHVKZDWHU¿VKDUHXVXDOO\HDVLHUWREUHHG&LFKOLGVOLYHEHDUHUVDQGRWKHUVSHFLHVEUHHGSUROL¿FDOO\ in the home tank with little to no encouragement from the aquarist. Not only do you get to experience WKHMR\RIKDYLQJQHZ¿VKLQ\RXUWDQNEXW\RXDOVRJHWWRZDWFKFRXUWLQJDQGPDWLQJEHKDYLRUV 6DOWZDWHU¿VKFDQEHYHU\GLá&#x201A;&#x2C6;FXOWWREUHHGVR\RXPD\QRWKDYHDVPDQ\FKDQFHVWRKDYHWKHVH experiences if you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t go with a freshwater tank.

2.CI EASE OF KEEPING Similar to the fact that most (but not all) saltwater tanks are more expensive than freshwater, freshwater tanks are generally easier to care for. This is especially true when comparing a freshwater tank to a reef setup. Again, there are counter examples (comparing a heavily planted WDQNWRD¿VKRQO\VDOWZDWHU EXWJHQHUDOO\WKHYDULDEOHVDUHOHVVFRPSOH[LQDIUHVKZDWHUVHWXS OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

16


2.CJ CORAL 

2EYLRXVO\WKHUHLVQRWKLQJLQWKHIUHVKZDWHUZRUOGOLNHFRUDO,I\RXMXVWORYHFRUDOWKHQVDOW-

ZDWHULVWKHZD\WRJR0\PRWKHULQODZKDVDVDOWZDWHUVHWXSZLWKWZRVPDOOFORZQ¿VKDQGWRQV RIFRUDOVSHFLHV6KHGRHVQ¶WUHDOO\FDUHIRU¿VKDOOWKDWPXFKEXWVKHORYHVZDWFKLQJWKHGLá&#x201A;&#x2021;HUHQW kinds of coral in her tank. Keep in mind though that with coral comes additional maintenance. Each RQHRI\RXUFRUDOVSHFLHVPD\UHTXLUHDGLá&#x201A;&#x2021;HUHQWGLHWOLJKWOHYHORUFXUUHQWSUHIHUHQFH<RXPXVWEH willing to put in the time to properly care for these creatures

2.D FRESHWATER AQUARIUM SETUP '$(VVHQWLDOV $FFHVVRULHV All freshwater aquariums require similar basics â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a good tank, a solid stand, quality accesVRULHVDQGPDLQWHQDQFHWRROV%XWWRGHWHUPLQHZKLFKNLQGRIZKDWLWHPV\RXQHHG¿UVWFRQVLGHU WKHDTXDWLFOLIH\RXZDQWWRNHHS)UHVKZDWHU¿VKFRPHLQDOOVKDSHVDQGVL]HVZLWKZLGHUDQJLQJ UHTXLUHPHQWVIRUWKHLUOLYLQJFRQGLWLRQV%HWWD¿VKSUHIHUVPDOOHUWDQNVZLWKDOPRVWQRFXUUHQWZKLOH Oscar cichlids need lots of room to grow and can swim in water with low currents. Understanding WKHQHHGVRIWKH¿VK\RXZDQWZLOOPDNHFKRRVLQJ\RXUWDQNHVVHQWLDOVDQGDFFHVVRULHVWKDWPXFK easier.

'%$TXDULXP)XUQLWXUH±WDQNV VWDQGV 

7KHVL]HRI\RXUWDQNGHSHQGVRQDORWRIGLá&#x201A;&#x2021;HUHQWIDFWRUVKRZPXFKVSDFHGR\RXKDYH

how much weight can you manage (a gallon of water weighs nearly 9 lbs.), and most importantly ZKDWNLQGRIDTXDWLFOLIH\RXZDQWWRNHHS,I\RXURQO\OLPLWLQJIDFWRULV¿VKW\SHUHPHPEHUWKDWPRVW IUHVKZDWHU¿VKUHTXLUHDWOHDVWRQHJDOORQIRUHYHU\DGXOWLQFKWKH\DUHORQJVRPHVSHFLHVOLNHJROG¿VKUHTXLUHPRUH FURNITURE TYPE 'HVNWRSWDQNV

TABLE 1

DESCRIPTION

- Compact design and footprint. ,GHDOIRUDOLPLWHGQXPEHURIVPDOO¿VK 0D\LQFOXGHEXLOWLQ¿OWHUDQGRUOLJKW

6WDQGDUGDTXDULXPV

- Small, medium and large tanks available. - Larger tanks requires strong stands for support. - Glass or acrylic.

Kits

,QFOXGHVWDQNDQGDWOHDVWRQHRIWKHIROORZLQJ¿OWHUKRRGODPS start-up conditioner, food. - Filtration and lighting may be built into the system. *UHDWIRU¿UVWWLPHDTXDULVWV

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

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DESCRIPTION

FURNITURE TYPE Stands

- Made with wood, metal or both. - Reinforced designs to hold up heavy tanks. - May include supply shelves.

Cabinets

- Stands designed with closed cabinet and shelves for storage. - Discreetly hides food and maintenance equipment. $YDLODEOHLQDYDULHW\RIVL]HVWRVXLWGLႇHUHQWDTXDULXPV

&DQRS\&DELQHW&RPER

- Two-piece set for large aquariums - Cabinet holds supplies or equipment - Canopies frame tank and allow access to waterline

2.DC Hoods & Lighting 

/LJKWVEULJKWHQ\RXUWDQNVR\RXFDQHQMR\\RXU¿VKWKURXJKRXWWKHGD\,I\RXZDQWDSODQWHG

tank, you may prefer certain types of lights over others. Some kits include hoods and lamps, but you FDQDOZD\VFXVWRPL]H\RXURZQVHWXSZLWKGLႇHUHQWOLJKW¿[WXUHVDQGEXOEV TABLE 2

HOOD & LIGHTING TYPE Hood

DESCRIPTION

&RYHUVWDQNWRSUHYHQW¿VKHVFDSHVDQGHYDSRUDWLRQ - Often designed to house lights or bulbs $GMXVWDEOHGHVLJQVDYDLODEOH

)OXRUHVFHQWEXOE

- Most popular aquarium lighting choice - Great for most freshwater aquariums - Come in a wide variety of spectrums - Some versions ideal for planted aquariums

+DOLGHEXOE

- Ideal for planted aquariums - May produce excess heat 5HTXLUHVVSHFLDO¿[WXUHVIRUSURSHUXVH

Stands

- Made with wood, metal or both - Reinforced designs to hold up heavy tanks - May include supply shelves

/('ODPS

- Typically longest lifespan of aquarium lighting systems 0RUHHQHUJ\HႈFLHQW 0D\DOORZIRUOLJKWFRORUFXVWRPL]DWLRQ

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DESCRIPTION

HOOD & LIGHTING TYPE ,QFDQGHVFHQWEXOE

- Inexpensive lighting option - Easily found and replaceable - Uses more electricity and produces more heat compared to other bulb types

2.DD FILTERS & MEDIA 

)LOWHUVDUHNH\WRNHHSLQJ\RXUWDQNFOHDQDQGKHDOWK\'HWHUPLQLQJWKHVL]HRI\RXUWDQNDQG

WKHQHHGVRI\RXU¿VKZLOOKHOS\RXGHFLGHZKDW¿OWHUV\VWHPWRJHW0RUHSRZHUIXO¿OWHUVDUHJUHDW IRUODUJHUWDQNVZKLOHVPDOOHUWDQNVRUPRUHGHOLFDWH¿VKPD\UHTXLUHDOHVVSRZHUIXO¿OWHU TABLE 3 DESCRIPTION FILTER TYPE &DQLVWHU¿OWHU

 ([WHUQDO ¿OWHU V\VWHP ZLWK D YDULHW\ RI PRXQWLQJ DQG LQVWDOODWLRQ options - Powerful pump for large aquariums 7KUHHVWDJH¿OWUDWLRQPHGLDFDQEHUHSODFHGVHSDUDWHO\

3RZHU)LOWHUV

6WDQGDUGRYHUWKHHGJHWDQN¿OWHUV $YDLODEOHLQDYDULHW\RIVL]HV 5HSODFH¿OWHUPHGLDDVQHHGHG

)LOWHU0HGLD

0HFKDQLFDO¿OWHUVVWUDLQGHEULVZDVWHXQHDWHQIRRGHWF %LRORJLFDO¿OWHUVIRVWHUKHDOWK\EDFWHULDWKDWEUHDNGRZQDPPRQLD and nitrites &KHPLFDO¿OWHUVUHPRYHWR[LQVWKDWFDXVHRGRUDQGZDWHUGLVFRORUation

2.DE CLIMATE CONTROL 

)UHVKZDWHU ¿VK KDYH DOO GLá&#x201A;&#x2021;HUHQW WROHUDQFHV IRU ZDWHU WHPSHUDWXUH 6RPH OLNH LW WURSLFDOO\

ZDUPDQGVRPHOLNHLWFRRO$QGLW¶VQRWMXVWDPDWWHURISUHIHUHQFH±WKHLUHQYLURQPHQWLPSDFWVWKHLU KHDOWKDQGEHKDYLRU/HDUQDERXWWKHW\SHRI¿VK\RXZDQWWRNHHSDQGZKDWWKHLULGHDOZDWHUWHPSHUDWXUHLV$WKHUPRPHWHUDQGWKHULJKWHTXLSPHQWFDQKHOS\RXNHHS\RXU¿VKKDSS\DQGKHDOWK\ TABLE 4 DESCRIPTION EQUIPMENT 7KHUPRPHWHU

- Helps you monitor water temperature - In-tank or external options available - Digital options available

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

19


EQUIPMENT Heater

DESCRIPTION - Helps regulate tank temperature - External and submersible heating options available - Ideal for tropical tanks or cool climates $GMXVWDEOHWKHUPRVWDWVRႇHUSUHFLVHWHPSHUDWXUHFRQWURO

&KLOOHU

- Ideal for coldwater tanks or warm climates - Typically used for larger tanks - Expensive piece of equipment

2.DF MAINTENANCE & ACCESSORIES TABLE 5

EQUIPMENT $LUSXPSV\VWHPV

DESCRIPTION

- Oxygenates and circulates water - Create a stream or curtain of bubbles - Connect powered pumps to air stone with airline tubing and check YDOYHWRSUHYHQWEDFNÀRZ

*UDYHOYDFXXP

- Cleans waste and detritus from substrate - Change water while you clean 9DULHW\RIVL]HVDYDLODEOHWRVXLW\RXUWDQN

$OJDHSDGV

- Cleans algae and other deposits on tank walls - Specially made to not damage tanks - Pads available for both glass and acrylic tanks

Net

- Makes moving aquatic life easy - Designed to safely catch aquatic life 9DULRXVVL]HVDYDLODEOHWRVXLW\RXUDTXDWLFOLIHDQGWDQN

7HVWNLWV

- Measures pH, ammonia, nitrate and more - Provides a snapshot of the health of your aquarium 6FLHQWL¿FDOO\DFFXUDWHDQGHDV\WRXVH

2.DG WATER ADDITIVES Water right out of the tap isn’t ready to go into your tank. Conditioners, dechlorinators, EHQH¿FLDOEDFWHULDDQGPRUHKHOSWRWUDQVIRUP\RXUZDWHULQWRD¿VKVDIHHQYLURQPHQW

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

20


ADDITIVE

TABLE 6

$OJDHUHPRYHUV

- Helps to control algae blooms

DESCRIPTION

- Keeps water clean and clear %HQH¿FLDOEDFWHULD

- Provides tanks with healthy live bacteria - Supports natural processes like waste breakdown and tank cycling

&KORULQH KHDY\PHWDO

1HXWUDOL]HVKDUPIXOFKORULQHIURPWDSZDWHU

UHPRYHUV

- Use when starting tank or preparing for water changes

$PPRQLD  FKORUDPLQH 1HXWUDOL]HVKDUPIXODPPRQLDDQGFKORUDPLQHIURPWDQNZDWHU UHPRYHUV

- Condition water for new tanks or water changes

/LYHSODQWDGGLWLYHV

- Promotes growth in planted aquariums 0D\LQFOXGHIHUWLOL]HUVDQGQXWULHQWV

S+FRQGLWLRQHUV

- Increases or decreases tank water pH ,GHDOIRU¿VKWKDWSUHIHUVOLJKWO\DFLGLFRUDONDOLQHZDWHU

&ODUL¿HUV

- Eliminates causes of cloudy water - Conditions tank water

2.DH DECOR When all the essentials are in place, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s time to add the bells and whistles. Decorate your tank with ornaments, silk plants, backgrounds and substrate of all colors to create a completely unique look for your aquarium inhabitants. DECOR TYPES

TABLE 7

DESCRIPTION

5HVLQURFN GULIWZRRGRU- :LGHYDULHW\RIVKDSHVVL]HVFRORUVDQGGHVLJQV QDPHQWV

&DQSURYLGHKLGHDZD\VRUFRYHUIRU¿VK 3URYLGHVLQWHUHVWDQGHQULFKPHQWIRU¿VK

$UWL¿FLDO3ODQWV

3ODVWLFDQGVLON¿VKVDIHSODQWV - Creates a more natural look without the maintenance requirements of live plants :LGHYDULHW\RIVL]HVVKDSHVDQGFRORUV

%DFNJURXQGV

- Adheres to the back wall of tank - Choose from natural or fun scenes - Gives the impression of depth and texture

*UDYHO 6XEVWUDWH

- Variety of textures, shapes and colors 3URYLGHVDVXUIDFHIRUEHQH¿FLDOEDFWHULDWRFRORQL]H 6DQGJUDYHODQGDUWL¿FLDOVXEVWUDWHVDYDLODEOH

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

21


2.E FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN An oceanarium involves more complex site design than that of an aquarium. It is a complex that generated a stimulating environment where people can observe marine life in its natural habitat with the complete underwater landscape. 2.EA PLANNING A well designed oceanarium must incorporate smooth facilitation of process and smooth circulation of people since there are chances of it being crowded so that spaces must be well designed and spacious. There are mainly 2 types of area 3XEOLF$UHD - Area with the most circulation consisting of all the exhibits and the recreational area 6HUYLFHV$UHD -All the area required for maintaining the display area for the proper functioning of oceanarium. This area should be usually kept out of sight of the visitors. 2.EB CRICULATION Main principle includes convenience, safety and aesthetics. Convenience suggests speed when desired. Easy smooth working of various operations medical checking guaranteeing to be provided from acoustical and visual nuisance. A well designed Oceanarium must provide enough space for smooth circulation of various SURFHVVLQYROYHGLQUXQQLQJDGHTXDWHWKLQJVHá&#x201A;&#x2C6;FLHQWYHQWLODWLRQDQGVDWLVIDFWRU\VRXQGLQVXODWLRQ 6FLHQWL¿FDOO\SHUFHLYHGVFKHPHRIVHWWLQJXSWKHWDQNLQKDUPRQ\ZLWKWKHVXUURXQGLQJVWRSOHDVH the visitorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eye. Attention should be given for various necessary operations - such as incoming specimens their medical checking and quarantining if necessary. Other important function includes imparting knowledge of the specimen displayed through informative themes by grouping the specimens of same type. It is important that the exit is convenient to public and should not open into an area which would lead to their confusion and should not open near the services area. It should open into an open area in case of any emergency.

2.F AQUATIC NEED

2.FA COMMON INFORMATION ABOUT FISHES  3KYDOXHRIWKHZDWHUVKRXOGEHFKHFNHGUHJXODUO\ SKDWWR  

7HPSHUDWXUHVKRXOGQRWEHPRUHWKDQF



3RROVKRXOGEHGHVLJQHGLQDZD\WKDWUDSLG¿OOLQJDQGHPSW\LQJFDQWDNHSODFH:DWHURI

WKHSRROVKRXOGEHNHSWVHSDUDWHIURPWKHZDVWHZDWHURIWKHVRLODQGURRIUXQRá&#x201A;&#x2021;V 

6DOLQLW\FKHFNVVKRXOGWDNHSODFHDWWLPHO\LQWHUYDOVDQGVKRXOGEHEHWZHHQWRJPV

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

22


Bacterial content of the pool should be monitored and should be kept low as much as possible it VKRXOGQRWH[FHHGSHUPO  7RWDO¿OWUDWLRQWXUQRYHUWLPHVKRXOGQRWH[FHHGKRXUV 2.FB FEEDIGN INFORMATION 

)RRGFKDUWVKRXOGEHPDLQWDLQHGZKHUHGLHWRIHDFK¿VKLVQRWHGGRZQ



(YHU\VSHFLHVRI¿VKKDYHGLá&#x201A;&#x2021;HUHQWGLHWDQGIRRGVKRXOGEHJLYHQDFFRUGLQJO\WKH\VKRXOG

be fed at least once in 3 days. 

 )RRG JLYHQ WR VPDOO ¿VKHV OLYLQJ LQ ODUJH JURXSV VKRXOG EH PHDVXUHG LQ JUDPV DQG DQ

account of the amount of food given should be kept. - Food should be of wholesome and of standard quality it should have the nutritional value to NHHSWKH¿VKKHDOWK\ - Food should be prepared with care that no bacterial contamination takes place food kept in IUHH]HUVKRXOGEHNHSWDWFDQGVKRXOGEHXVHGDWWKHDSSURSULDWHWLPHFDUHVKRXOGEHWDNHQ that the food does not expire. 2.FC HYGIENE CARE 

$OOWKHZDOO¶VDQGWKHÃ&#x20AC;RRUVVKRXOGEHFOHDQHGRQGDLO\EDVLVQRIRRGSDUWLFOHVVKRXOGUH-

main at the bottom of the tanks. 

:DWHUVKRXOGEHFOHDQIRUWKH¿VKHV - Kitchen area should be washed daily and all the utensils should be cleaned on daily.

2.FD HEALTH CHECKUPS - Programs to measure illness prevention and control must be set up regularly. - Fishes should be observed, the way they swim or the change of skin color or diet may suggest illness. - Newly arrived dolphins should be kept apart from others until good health is assured. 

,VRODWLRQSRROVPXVWEHVHWXSIRULOORUVLFN¿VKHV



$KHDOWKUHFRUGIRU¿VKHVVKRXOGEHNHSWZLWKDOOWKHUHTXLUHGGDWD

- An autopsy should be carried out by a vet when an animal dies. 2.FE TEMPERATURE -For economic reasons, it is desirable to maintain an even temperature throughout the OceanDULXPDQGLVEHVWIRUWKHKHDOWKRI¿VK 

0RVW¿VKHVQHHGWHPSHUDWXUHRIGHJUHH)DKUHQKHLWGHSHQGLQJRQWKHVHDVRQ7HP-

SHUDWXUH RI I F  F  LV FRPSDWLEOH IRU YLVLWRUV DQG ZLOO SHUPLW DXWRPDWLF PDLQWHQDQFH RI display tanks at same temperature. - Avoid mercury thermometer cause it might break and poison the tank. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

23


- During winters heaters and during summers coolers shall be used. 

 :DWHU FLUFXODWLRQ PXVW EH VXá&#x201A;&#x2C6;FLHQW WR GLá&#x201A;&#x2021;XVH KHDW HYHQO\ 7KLV FLUFXODWLRQ PXVW EH

PDLQWDLQHGHLWKHUE\DHUDWLRQRUE\DQDGHTXDWHQXPEHURI¿VKHVDFWLYHHQRXJKWRHQVXUHWKLV 2.FF LIGHTING - Lighting is very important for an aquarium and is always neglected having the appropriate light stimulates natural daylight in the tank. 

)ORUHVFHQWOLJKWVWKHEHVWOLJKWLQWKHWDQNWKH\GRQ¶WOHWWKH¿VKJRDZROWKH\DUHDOVRYHU\

easy to install n make feeding n cleaning of the tank very easy. Avoid incandescent lights as they JLYHRIWRRPXFKKHDWZKLFKFRXOGVWUHVVWKH¿VKDVZHOODVHYDSRUDWHVPRUHZDWHUIURPWKHWDQN

2.G WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM There are 3 types of water supply system 1. Open water system 2. Semi-closed water system 3. Closed water system 2.GA OPEN WATER SYSTEM  ,Q RSHQ V\VWHPV WKH ZDWHU Ã&#x20AC;RZV WKURXJK WKH DTXDULXP RQFH DQG LV GLVFDUGHG 7KLV SUR vides water quality comparable to that of the natural environment and there is no buildup of toxic PHWDEROLFZDVWHVKRZHYHUWHPSHUDWXUHFRQWURODQGSXPSLQJDUHXVXDOO\FRVWO\DQG¿OWUDWLRQRIWHQ is necessary. Hence an open system is not preferred. 2.GB SEMI-CLOSED WATER SYSTEM Semis closed are the same as closed systems except that there is a constant connection to the water supply and the problem of dissolved wastes is controlled by the regular addition of QHZZDWHUWKLVV\VWHPLVPRUHHFRQRPMFDOWKDQWKHRSHQW\SHLQWHUPVRIWHPSHUDWXUHFRQWURODQG pumping. 2.GC CLOSED WATER SYSTEM Water is continuously re-circu-lated in closed systems and is on]y re-newed periodically. MetDEROLFZDVWHVPXVWEHWUHDWHGVLQFHWKH\DUHQRWFRQWLQXRXVO\Ã&#x20AC;XVKHGIURPWKHV\VWHP$QLPSRUWant problem is that ammo-nia must be rapidly removed or trans-formed because it is harmful even at very low concentrations. In the aquar-ium the bacteria that converts ammo-nia to nitrite reside SULPDULO\LQWKH¿OWHUPDWHULDODQGDVORZVDQG¿OWHUZLWKDODUJHVXUIDFHDUHDLVXVXDOO\SURYLGHGWR ensure their abundance. 3ODQWJURWKLQWKHDTXDULXPHVSHFLDOO\LQPDULQHV\VWHPVDUHQRWXVXDOO\VXá&#x201A;&#x2C6;FLHQWWRXWLOL]HWKHHQtire nitrate produced by bacteria from ni-trite. Although some aquariums have operated many years ZLWKDPLQLPXPRIZDWHUUHQHZDOLWLVQRUPDOO\QHFHVVDU\WRUHSODFHIURPWRRIWKHZDWHUSHU OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

24


month to maintain a low level of nitrates. The use of charcoal in both fresh water and seawater system helps to slow down the accumulation of nitrogenous wastes. Metabolic wastes also cause an increase in the acidity of water. Carbonate compollllds are commonly used to maintain an optimal level of acidity, particularly when water renewal is infrequent.

2.H THE PLANNERS

The Promotors have a site that apperas to be

suitable. It should be readily accessible by both public transportation and

private vehicals, and should, if possi-

ble, be easily reached by tourist. Adequate vehical parkign in this area is desirable. 

,W LV GHVLUDEOH WR KDYH D Ă RZ SDWWHUQ  IRU YLVLWRUV

)LJ9LVLWRUVĂ RZSDWWHUQ

Design can quite readily lead the visitor into the desired path in most situations. Upon entering, a visitor will generally turn right, provided no attractions draw him elsewhere. By placing disply WDQNVDWDQDQJOHZLWKKHZLOOQRUPDOO\SURFHHGLQWKDWGLUHFWLRQ2SHQĂ RRUH[KLELWVFDQVHUYH as shields and contineous to draw the visitorsr along the desired path. Handrails to keep the public about 3ft from the viewing glass may be desirable. Opinion is divided among aquarists regarding rails. When large number of visitors are present, a rail keeps them back from the glass and permits more people a better view. On the other hand, close inspection of small organisms is then not possible.

Fig 2: Plan of tank gallery

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

25


Fish must not come into contact with water containing metal particles. Mains water must Ă&#x20AC;UVWEHĂ&#x20AC;OWHUHGZLWKFDUERQ$GLVWLQFWLRQLVPDGHEHWZHHQÂśRSHQV\VWHPV¡ZLWKVLQJOHWKURXJKĂ RZ ZDWHUFKDQJHVSHUKRXU DQGÂśFORVHGV\VWHPV¡ZLWKĂ&#x20AC;OWHUDQGUHFLUFXODWLRQ ZDWHUUHQHZDOLQWZRZHHNV )UHVKDQGVHDZDWHUUHVHUYHVRIRIWKHWRWDOYROXPHVKRXOGEHKHOG Lighting of aquariums requires particular care to harmonise with the creaturesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; natural habitat DQGWRDYRLGUHĂ HFWLRQLQWKHGLVSOD\WDQNVXUIDFHV

2.HA THE OPERATIONS AREA 

7KHLPPHGLDWHZRUNDUHDEHKLQGWKHGLVSOD\WDQNVPD\EHFRQVLGHUHGĂ&#x20AC;UVWWKHZRUNDUHD

Ă RRUVKRXOGEHDERXWIWKLJKHUWKDQWKHSXEOLFDUHDĂ RRUWKLVLVGLFWDWHGE\WKHKHLJKWRIWKH average visitors looking into the approximate center of viewing glass of the averaeg large display WDQN0RVWGLVSOD\WDQNVDUHSODFHGRQĂ RRURIWKHZRUNDUHD7DQNVVKRXOGEHSODFHGWRSHUPLW ease of cleaning by aquarists. Holding tanks to receive new specimens for qarantine and space to hold surplus or sick specimens should be placed along the rear wall of the work area or in any other convenient locations. Each of these holding tanks should have its own recirculating system. The total holding capacity should be equal to about one third of the displa yvolume but may-vary cansiderably, depending upon the size of display tanks and specimens as well as the mortality rate and replacement need. All quarantine tanks should be provided with drain valves to permit rapid drainage after treatment procedures. All tanks should have removable pump screens. The various main supply pipes from the reserviors should extends around the aquarLXPRYHUWKHGLVSOD\WDQNV7KHVHVKRXOGEHPLQLPXPRIIWDERYHWKHZRUNDUHDĂ RRUDQGVKRXOG KDYHIUHTXHQWWDSYDOYHVIURPZKLFKE\Ă HVLEOHKRVHUHSODFHPHQWZDWHURUFRQWLQXRXVĂ RZPD\ EHIHGWRDWQNVGHSHQGLQJXSRQWKHV\VWHP,WLVLPSRUWDQWWRKDYHVKXWRÉ&#x203A;YDOYHVFRQYHQLHQWO\ located along the major supply lines to facilitate plumbing repairs. Natural lighting should be held to minimum unless completely controllable. Natural light promote alage growth on interior of tanks. Flexible lighting system over each tank should include the capability of being lifted out RIWKHZD\ZKHQFOHDQLQJWDQNVRUIHHGLQJVSHFLPHQV6XÉ&#x153;FLHQWO\ZDWHUSURRIRXWOHWVVKRXOGEH provided for auxiliray or special lighting.

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

26


Fig 3: service area section A clear passage about 6ft wide should exetend to permit the easy transport of tanks. The VXUIDFHRIZRUNDUHDĂ RRUVKRXOGKDYHDQRQVNLGĂ&#x20AC;QLVK)ORRUGUDLQVZLWKVDQGWUDSVDUHDEVROXWHO\ QHFHVVDUDQGĂ RRUVVKRXOGEHVORSHWRGUDLQV:DWHUUHVLVWDQWPDWHULDOVVKRXOGEHXVHGLQDOOSODFH adjecent to tanks. In any aquarium a two-way intercome system is very important. The work area should be seperated acoustically from the public area. Interior windows may be desirable to permit visitors to view the more intersting operational features.

2.HB TEMPERATURE

1. For economic reasons it is desirable to maintain an even temperature throughout the 2FHDQDULXPDQGLVEHVWIRUWKHKHDOWKRIĂ&#x20AC;VK  0RVW Ă&#x20AC;VKHV QHHG WHPSHUDWXUH RI  GHJUHH IDKUHQKHLW GHSHQGLQJ RQ WKH VHDVRQ Temperature of 72f (260c - 280c) is compatible for visitors and will permit automatic maintanence of display tanks at same temperature. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

27


3. Avoid mercury thermometer cause it might break and poison the tank. 4. During winters heaters and during summers coolers shall be used.  :DWHU FLFUFXODWLRQ PXVW EH VXɜFLHQW WR GLɛXVH KHDW HYHQO\ 7KLV FLUFXODWLRQ PXVW EH maintained either E\DHUDWLRQRUE\DQDGHTXDWHQXPEHURIÀVKHVDFWLYHHQRXJKWWRHQVXUHWKLV

Fig 4: cross-section through coral reef tank.

2.HC LIGHTING

1. Lighting is very important for an aquarium and is always neglected having the appropriate light stimulates natural daylight in the tank. 2. Florescent lights the best light in the tank. $YRLGLQFDQGHVFHQWOLJKWVDVWKH\JLYHRIWRRPXFKKHDWZKLFKFRXOGVWUHVVWKHÀVKDVZHOODV evaporates more water from the tank. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

28


Fig 5: simple Life Supporting System (LSS). OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

29


Fig 6: simple diagram of aquarium water system.

2.I TYPES OF DISPLAY TANKS 2.IA TOUCH POOL 7KHVH DUH VKDOORZ SRROV RI ZDWHU VWDá&#x201A;&#x2021;HG E\ FRRUGLQDWRU ZKHUH SHRSOH FDQ PDNH FRQWDFW ZLWK FRORXUIXODQGLQWHUHVWLQJFUHDWXUHVRIWKHVHDOLNHVPDOOVKDUNVUD\VVHDVKHOO¿VKHV

Fig 7: Touch pool exhibit. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

30


2.IB MICRO AQUARIUMS In order to retain educational value of ocenarium, there are individual micro aquariums allowing WKHYLVLWRUVWR]RRPLQZLWKDGMXVWDEOHPDJQLI\LQJYRLGFDPHUDE\WKHKHOSRIMR\VWLFN

Fig 8: Micro aquarium. 2.IC CORAL REEF TANK ,WLVDKXJHWDQNUHSUHVHQWLQJWKHHQWLUHUHHIHQYLURQPHQWDQGKRXVLQJFRPPXQLW\RIWKH¿VKHVWKDW live and survive in the coral reef.

Fig 9: Coral Reef Tank. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

31


2.ID PREDATOR TANKS 7KHVHDUHWKHPRVWH[FLWLQJWDQNLQWKHDTXDULXPDQGQRUPDOO\KRXVHGLႇHUHQWW\SHVRIVKDUNVDQG rays.

Fig 10: Perdator tank. 2.IE COMMUNITY AQUARIUM 7KHVHKRXVHVDUHPRUHWKDQRQHVSHFLHVRI¿VKHVGHSHQGLQJXSRQHDFKRWKHUIRUVXUYLYDO 2.IF TURTLE POOL These are small ponds housing turtles.

Fig 11: Turtle exhibit. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

32


2.IG CROCODILE MOATS These house marine as well as fresh water crocodiles separately ,complete with pound like naturaJ environment for crocodiles. 2.IH DOLPHINARIUM These are popular among kids where they can see playful dolphin and interact with them.

Fig 12: Dolphinarium. 2.II FRESH WATER DISPLAY +HUHWURSLFDOFRORXUIXOIUHVKZDWHU¿VKHVIURPWKHSRXQGDQG¿VKHVDVZHOODVKRXVHDTXDULXPVDUH GLVSOD\HGWKHVHDOVRLQFOXGHDUWL¿FLDOSRXQGVDQGZDWHUIDOOV

Fig 13: Fresh water exhibit. 2.IJ AQUATIC MUSEUM It houses a complete collection of marineatr facts from shark teethâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s to bones.

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

33


2.J MATERIAL OF TANK 1. Acrylic is half the weight of glass.It is easier to ship, move and set up. 2. Acrylic is stronger than glass and will not shatter or leak like glass. 3. Acrylic distorts much less and is clearer than glass. ,IWKHWHPSHUDWXUHREMHFWVLVVXUURXQGHGE\DQRWKHUPDWHULDOWKDWKDVWKHVDPHLQGH[RIUHIUDFWLRQ ZLOOWDNHSODFHDQGWKHREMHFWZLOODSSHDULQYLVLEOHDQGZLWKRXWGLVWRUWLRQHYHQDWLQFUHDVHGYLHZLQJ angles. 5HÃ&#x20AC;HFWLRQVDOVRGRQ¶WWDNHSODFHLQVLGHDQDFU\OLF*ODVVLQRWKHUKDQGKDVDV8JKWWLQWDQGWKH UHIUDFWLYHLQGH[RIJODVVLVGLá&#x201A;&#x2021;HUHQWWKDQZDWHUVRGLVWRUWLRQKDSSHQVZKHUHLQDFU\OLFKDVWKHVDH refractive index as water so the view is much clearer. 7KHKXJHFOHDUDFU\OLFXVHGDVWKHYLHZLQJZLQGRZLVDERXWLQFKHVWKLFN 7. Acrylic are also very good because they provide light to penetrate inside which is good for the coral reef system. $FU\OLFLVDOVRXVHGFDXVHLWGRHVQRWD8RZZDWHUWHPSHUDWXUHÃ&#x20AC;DFWXDWLRQ 9. Acrylic is also used because it has a better molecular bond than glass.Any custom made shape can be made out of acrylic sheet.

2.K TANK DIMENSIONS 2.KA TANK LENGHT 7KLVLVWKHPRVWLPSRUWDQWIDFWRULQDWDQNVLQFHLWLVWKHGLPHQVLRQZKLFKZLOONHHS¿VKDVIDUDSDUW as possible and give them enough space to swim around in the tank especially for cruise predators. 7KHWDQNVKRXOGKDHDPLQLPXPRI[DGXOW¿VKERG\OHQJWK )/ DVLWVORQJGLPHQVLRQLWKFP Rá&#x201A;&#x2C6;VKOHQJWKEHLQJWKHEDUHPLQLPXP $IXUWKHUH[WUDOHQJKWVKRXOGEHDGGHGLIWKH¿VKLVDFXULVHSUHGDWRU  RULILWLVH[WUHPHO\DJJUHVVLYH   ,ID¿VKLVDSRRUVZLPPHUWKHQZHFDQJHWDORQJZLWKMXVW[ZLWKRXWDQ\DGGLWLRQDOOHQJWKGHVSLWH the aggression factor. Thus for a single specimen,where L - Lenght. )/([FHSWHGPD[LPXP¿VKOHQJKW 3HDFHIXO¿VKSHDFHIXOWDQNPDWHV/ )/[ $JJUHVVLYH¿VKJRRGVZLPPHUV/ )/[[ $JUJUHVVLYH¿VKSRRUVZLPPHUV/ )/[ $JJUHVVLYH¿VKFUXLVHSUHGDWRUV/ )/[[ OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

34


0LOGWHPSHUDPHQWFUXLVHSUHGDWRUV/ )/[[O 3DLURIDJJUHVVLYH¿VKFUXLVHSUHGDWRUV/ )/[[[,W 2.KB TANK WIDTH 

7KHWDQNVKRXOGKDYHDPLQLPXPRI[DGXOW¿VKERG\OHQJWKDVWKHZLGWK:LWK¿VKZKLFK

KDYHDERG\ZLGWKRYHUFPWKHIDFWRUVKRXOGEH[DGXOW¿VKOHQJWKZKLOHIRU¿VKERG\RYHUFP WKHIDFWRUVKRXOGEH/[RUDQ\DGGLWLRQDOFPLQERG\WKHIDFWRUVKRXOGEHLQFUHDVHGE\7KXV DUHGWDLOFDW¿VKZLWKDERG\ZLGWKRIHPVVKRXOGKDYHDIDFWRURI[ 6LQFHWKHDGXOW¿VKKDV DOHQJWKRIFPWKLVEHFRPHVDFPZLGWK 7KHUHVXOWLQJYDOXHVWDNHWKHYROXPHRFFXSLHGE\ common aquascaping into account. 

7KHWDQNVKRXOGKDYHDPLQLPXPRI[DGXOW¿VKERG\OHQJWKDVWKHZLGWK:LWK¿VKZKLFK

KDYHDERG\ZLGWKRYHUFPWKHIDFWRUVKRXOGEH[DGXOW¿VKOHQJWKZKLOHIRU¿VKERG\RYHUFP WKHIDFWRUVKRXOGEH/[RUDQ\DGGLWLRQDOFPLQERG\WKHIDFWRUVKRXOGEHLQFUHDVHGE\7KXV DUHGWDLOFDW¿VKZLWKDERG\ZLGWKRIHPVVKRXOGKDYHDIDFWRURI[ 6LQFHWKHDGXOW¿VKKDV DOHQJWKRIFPWKLVEHFRPHVDFPZLGWK 7KHUHVXOWLQJYDOXHVWDNHWKHYROXPHRFFXSLHGE\ common aquascaping into account. Thus for a single specimen,where W - Tank width. )/([FHSWHGPD[LPXP¿VKOHQJKW )LVKERG\ZLGWKFP: )/[ FP¿VKERG\ZLGWKFP: )/[ FPLVKERG\ZLGWKFP: )/[ )LVKERG\ZLGWKFP: )/[ 2.KC TANK HEIGHT 

)RUKHLJKWLWLVUHFRPPHQGHGDEDUHPLQLPXPRIFPVDQGWKHQWRDGGXS[)LVKERG\

KHLJKW )+  IRU D ¿VK ERG\ KHLJKW RI OHVV WKDQ FP DQG [ IRU ¿VKHV ZLWK D ERG\ KHLJKW RYHU FPVRUD¿VKWKDWVWD\VDWWKHERWWRPDIDFWRURI[%RG\KULJKWVKRXOGEHXVHG7KXVIRUDVLQJOH specimen,where H - Tank Hight. )+([FHSWHGPD[LPXP¿VK+HLJKW )LVKERG\KHLJKWFP)LVK+ FPV +[

ERG\KHLJKW!FP)LVK+ FPV )+[

ERG\KHLJKWFP+ FPV )+[

5D\LVKERG\KHLJKW!FP+ FPV )+[

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

35


2.KD EXAMPLE CALCULATION  )RU ¿VK RYHU  FPV LQ DGXOW ERG\ OHQJWK WKH WDQN VL]H VKRXOG EH FDOFX-DWHG E\ WKH formula L x W x H as previously described. / [[ FPV : FPV + FPV 5HVXOW OLWHUV 3DLU OLWHUV But a tank for same species which is usually aggressive but no a good swimmer ther formula gives: / ; FPV : FPV + FPV 5HVXOW OLWHUV )RUDSDLUDGGLWLRQDOVKRXOGEHDGGHGZKLFKJLYHVDUHVXOWRIOLWHUV

2.L DOME THEATER Real life experiences completely envelope our senses. The more closely we invoke natural QHXUDOUHVSRQVHVWKHPRUHUHDODV\QWKHWLFHQYLURQPHQWEHFRPHVKHKXPDQH\HSURYLGHVD¿HOG RIYLHZRIDERXWÂ&#x192;KRUL]RQWDO[Â&#x192;YHUWLFDO$VDQLPDJHDSSURDFKHVFRPSOHWHFRYHUDJHRIRXU retina it appear frameless and lacks the visual cue that our brain uses to identify it as a dimensionOHVVSLFWXUH/DUJHU¿HOGRIYLHZLPDJHVLQFUHDVHWKHVXEMHFWLYHIHHOLQJVRIH[SDQVHQDWXUDOQHVV depth and powerfulness. 

$ Ã&#x20AC;DW VFUHHQ LV OLPLWHG WR D YLVXDO ¿HOG RI OHVV WKDQ  GHJUHHV 'RPHV DOORZ ZLGH DQJOH

VSDWLDOUHODWLRQVKLSVWREHYLVXDOL]HGZKLFKFDQQRWEHUHSUHVHQWHGE\DÃ&#x20AC;DWVFUHHQLPDJH7KLVLV particularly useful when at-tempting to convey geological or astronomical scales. The percieved presence in a virtual space is enhanced by spatial immersion as well. Cognitive mapping, the mindis DELOLW\WRYLVXDOL]HDQGXQGHUVWDQGSUHVHQFHLQWKUHHGLPHQVLRQDOVSDFHLVIDFLOLWDWHGE\ZLGH¿HOG imagery. 

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space. The way they are lit with theatrical lighting, the silent environment, and the env eloping feel have all added to the mystique that an audience feels when entering a domed theater chamber. 7KHLUH[SFWDWLRQLVWRKDHDXUXTXHH[SHULHQFHDQGWKLVH[SHFWDWLRQLVRIWHQIXO¿OOHG7KHODUJH ¿HOGVRIYLHZVXUURXQGLQJDXGLRDQGSHUKDSVDPRWLRQEDVHDO-SURYLGHIRUPHPRUDEOHDQGGHVLUable experiences. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

36


Fig 14: Dome theater Plan.

Fig 15: Dome theater section. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

37


05(67$85$176 2.MA SPACE REQUIREMENTS 

7REHDEOHWRHDWFRPIRUWDEO\RQHSHUVRQUHTXLUHVDWDEOHDUHDRIDURXQGFPZLGHE\FP

GHHS7KLVSURYLGHVVXá&#x201A;&#x2C6;FLHQWFOHDUDQFHEHWZHHQDGMDFHQWGLQHUV$OWKRXJKDQDGGLWLRQDOFPRI VSDFH LQ WKH FHQWUH IRU GLVKHV DQG WXUHHQV LV VRPHWLPHV GHVLUDEOH DQ RYHUDOO ZLGWK RI FP is suitable for a dining table. Round tables, or tables with six or eight sides, with a diameter of FPDUHLGHDOIRUIRXUSHRSOHDQGFDQDOVRWDNHRQHRUWZRPRUHGLQHUV

Fig 16: Restaurent standards 1

Fig 17: Restaurent standards 2

Fig 18: Restaurent standards 3 OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

38


Fig 19: Restaurent standards 4

Fig 20: Restaurent standards 5

2. MB RESTAURANTS ARRANGEMENTS Before any restaurant or inn is built, the organisational sequence should be carefully planned. ,WLVHVVHQWLDOWRHVWDEOLVKZKDWPHDOVZLOOEHRá&#x201A;&#x2021;HUHGDQGDWZKDWTXDOLW\DQGTXDQWLW\,WLVQHFHVVDU\WRGHFLGHZKHWKHULWZLOOEHDODFDUWHZLWK¿[HGRUFKDQJLQJGDLO\PHQXVSODWHRUWDEOHVHUYLFH self-service or a mixed system. Before deciding on the layout. it is important to know the anticipated numbers and type of clientele and the customer mix. Bring in planning specialists in kitchen and cold store design, as well as in electrical, heating and ventilation systems and washing/toilet facilities. The position of the site will suggest what type of inn or restaurant is likely to be suitable. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

39


The main room of a restaurant is the customersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; dining room, and the facilities should correspond with the type of operation. A number of additional tables and chairs should be available IRUÃ&#x20AC;H[LEOHWDEOHJURXSLQJV,IDSSURSULDWHSURYLGHVSHFLDOWDEOHVIRUUHJXODUFXVWRPHUV 

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food bar may be installed for customers who are in a hurry. Large dining rooms can be divided into ]RQHV7KHNLWFKHQVWRUHURRPVGHOLYHU\SRLQWVWRLOHWVDQGRWKHUVHUYLFHDUHDVVKRXOGEHJURXSHG DURXQGWKHGLQLQJURRPDOWKRXJKWRLOHWVFDQEHRQDQRWKHUÃ&#x20AC;RRU Structural columns in a dining room are best in the middle of a group of tables or at the corner RIDWDEOH7KHFHLOLQJKHLJKWRIDGLQLQJURRPVKRXOGUHODWHWRWKHÃ&#x20AC;RRUDUHDP2P!P2, P!P2PDERYHRUEHORZJDOOHULHVP

Fig 22: Alcoves arrangment.

Fig 21: Minimal seating layout.

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Fig 24: Parallel table arrangment. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

40


Fig 25: Diagonal table arrangment.

Fig 26: Minimum table spacing.

Fig 27: Space Requirements OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

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OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

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CHAPTER 3

SITE DETAILS MAHABALIPURAM BEACH, TAMIL NADU

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

43


3.A SITE 3.AA LOCATION

MAHABALIPURAM (12 sq.km)

Site location

Fig : 28 - Site Location Site Location : Mahabalipuram Beach, Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu. Area : 20 Acers

3.B MAHABALIPURAM Mallapuram, also called Mahabalipuram or Seven Pagodas, historic

town, northeast Tamil Nadu state, southeastern India. It lies along the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal 37 miles (60 km) south of Chennai (Madras). The townâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s religious centre was founded by a 7th-century-ce Hindu Pallava kingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Narasimhavarman, also known as Mamallaâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;for whom the town was named. Ancient Chinese, Persian, and Roman coins found at Mamallapuram point to its earlier existence as a seaport. It contains many surviving 7th- and 8th-century Pallava temples and monuments, chief of which are the sculptured rock relief popularly known as â&#x20AC;&#x153;Arjunaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Penance,â&#x20AC;? or â&#x20AC;&#x153;Descent of the Ganges,â&#x20AC;? a series of sculptured cave temples, and a Shaiva temple on the seashore. 7KH WRZQ¡V Ă&#x20AC;YH UDWKDV RU PRQROLWKLF WHPSOHV DUH the remnants of seven temples, for which the town was known as Seven Pagodas. The entire assemblage collectively was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1984.

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

44


3.C SITE LOCATION

N Shroe Temple

Bay Of Bengal

Mahabalipuram Beach

200

300

15 Acers

300

200

Total Area - 20Acers Oceanarium - 15Acers Adventure water sports - 5Acers

Fig : 29 - Shape of site and its location. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

Site falls under CRZ (Coastal Regulation Zone) I & II. 45


3.D LANDMARKS

Fig : 30 - Famous Landmarks around site.

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

46


OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

47


3.E PHYSICAL FACTORS 3.EA CLIMATE: 3.EAA Wind: 3.EAB Direction :

N NW

NE

W

E SW

SE

S Fig : 31 - Direction of wind at site. The wind direction is usually start from NE (North East) direction to SW (South West) direction. 3.EAC Maximum, Minimum and Average Velocity :

Fig : 32 - Wind speed at Mahabalipuram. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

48


3.EAD Special Forces :

Fig : 33 - Cyclone path (Vardha-Cyclone). 3.EAE Solar orientation Sun angles

Fig : 34 - Sun Path Diagaram at site. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

49


Shading of (or from) adjecent structures, Natural feature & Vegetations 1. The site is not surrounded by any built up structures. 2. There is advantage of using more natural lighting. 3. Here North side is shaded side and SW, S, SE are the side which will get more sunlight.

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SLOPE

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3.EC VISUAL CHARACHTERISTICS

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)LJ6RXWK6LGHYLHZIURPVLWH

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PARKING BUS STAND

PARKING

1 PUBLIC ENTRY

2 ENTRY 2

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COCONUT TREE

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3.ED GEOTECHNICAL / SOIL Soil type: Brown soil. Environmental hazards: Possible Enivironmental hazards that can occure in site is Cyclone & Tsunami

3.EE UTILITES Portable water - Ground Water level is at 4.38m (As per GROUNDWATER YEAR BOOK OF TAMIL NADU AND U. T. OF PUDUCHERRY 2014-2015) Also from public water tanks. Electricity - No HT lines cross over the site. Telephone - Telephone line are avilable along the road side of site.

3.EF IMMEDIATE SURROUNDINGS Neighborhood structures

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56


)LJ LIGHT HOUSE

)LJ PANCHA RATHAS OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

57


NOISE LEVEL

)LJNoise Map. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

58


3.F CULTURAL FACTORS 3.FA SITE HISTORY 3.FAA SITE USES 1. Site doesn’t contain any hazardous dumping or waste dumping area. 7KHVLWHLVDOVRQRWVXUURXQGHGE\DQ\ODQGÀOO 3. Currently the site is not used by the public crowd as 3.FAB LAND OWNERSHIP The land is currently owned by goverment and no public peoples are allowed inside site without permission.

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59


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OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

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CHAPTER 4

CASE STUDY OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

63


TARAPOREWALA

AQUARIUM

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64


LOCATION : Near Charni Road Railway Station, Mumbai. OPENED : 1951 HOURS : 10 AM - 8 PM TOTAL NUMBER OF FISH SPESIES : 400

$ )LJ

LOCATION MARINE DRIVE, MUMBAI.

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ENTRY

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4.B PLAN - GROUND FLOOR

A - ENTRANCE FOYER B - LOBBY SPACE C - AV HALL D - QUARANTINE ROOM E - OFFICE ROOM F - TROPHYCAL WATER FISH DISPLAY G - FRESH WATER FISH DISPLAY H - SERVICE ROOM


4.C CIRCULATION

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4.D INTERIOR VIEWS

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B

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E

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FRESHWATER FISH TANKS

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4.E SERVICE SPACES

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LIGHTING AT FRESHWATER TANK 72


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AIR CONDITIONING DUCTS

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)LJ TUNNEL TANK FEATURES 1. Flexi Glass (at entrance) - 120mm Thick. 2. Lenght - 15ft.

)LJ FRESH WATER TANK 1. 10ft x 8ft x 4ft in dimesion. (28 Tanks) 2. Water for fresh water tanks are collected from sea and treated.

)LJ TROPHICAL WATER TANK 1. 15 tanks 2. 4ft x 4ft x 2ft in size. OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

74


4.F FRESH WATER FISHES 1. Coral Fish. 2. Sea Turtle. 3. Sea Horse. 4. Sea Snake. 5. Eel Fish. 6. Crabs. 7. Sharks. 8. Shark. 9. Octopus, etc., 4.G QUARANTINE ROOM 1. 20ft x 15ft in size $OOQHZHO\DUULYHGÀVKHVDUHEURXJKWWR4XDUDQWLQURRPDQGDUHPDLQWDLQHG7KHÀVKHVDUHWKHQ transferd to dispaly area. 3. All treatment and care are happens in Quarantin room. 4. Totally 48 tanks are in this aquarium. 4.H LSS (Life Support System) The sea water is collected and it is being collected in tanks and stored. The water is then sent to ÀOOWUDWLRQSURFHVV7KHVHÀOOWHUHGZDWHULVWKHQXVHGWRIUHVKZDWHUÀVKHV 4.I AMPHITHEATER The AMPHITHEATER has the capacity of 47 seats. Films are projectd manly for kids such as Marine life & Technology, Animation movies about pollution. 4.J POPULATION $YHUDJHSRSXODWLRQÁRZLVDERXWSHUGD\DQGZKFLKLVDERXWRQ+ROLGD\WLPH 2. Major Age group visiting oceanarium is school students and small kids with their parent. 4.K LIGHTING $UWLÀFLDO/LJKWLQJLVPDMRUO\XVHG 2. For Tanks the use halogen, Flurocent light. 4.L PARKING 1. There is no parking space in Aquarium. 2. People who are by car should park their car to nearby parking space which is away from Aquarium.

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

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4.M SIGNAGES AND DIGITAL DISPLAY

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),*6HDZDWHUXVHGIRUDTXDULXP 1. Collecting sea water. 2. Storing of sea water. 3. Filltering of sea water suitable for marine life. &ROOHFWLQJRIÃ&#x20AC;OOWHUHGZDWHU 5. Water used in Aquarium. 6. Re-Filltering of water from Fish tank. &ROOHFWLQJÃ&#x20AC;OOWHUHGZDWHU

OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

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The aquarium is built on a concept that the mythological city of the Atlantis is below the sea and itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a recreation of the city underwater VXUURXQGHGE\Ã&#x20AC;VKHVLWJLYHVWKHLGHDRIKRZWKH architecture of the Palace of the Atlantis king was and insight of how the rooms were designed.

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THE LOST CHAMBERS

AQUARIUM

LOCATION: The Palm , Dubai. DEVELOPERS: Kerzner International. Concept Architect: Wimberly Allison Tong & Goo (WATG)

Other facilities in Aquarium

FISH HOSPITAL

FISH KITCHEN

RESTAURENT

RESEARCH CENTER

HOTEL

1. The Aquaruim has over 65000 Species and creature. 2. Aquarium has soem of exoticspecis like Eels, Seahorses, Arapaima, Pirhanas, etc., $OVR7RXFKSRROVDUHLQ$TXDULXPZKHUHYLVWRUVFDQLQWHUDFWZLWKÀVKHV $OVRWKHDTXDULXPLVDOORZLQJSHRSOH´%HKLQGWKHVFHQHµZKHUHWKH\IHHGÀVK

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4.N TYPES OF FISH TANKS There are about 21 Tanks in this aquarium. (DFK WDQN KDV LWV XQLTXH Ã&#x20AC;VKV LQ LW DQG WKH DWPRVSKHULVGLÉ&#x203A;HUQWLQDOOWKHVHWDQNV

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4.O ABOUT

I

n their project, the Danish architects 3XN were inspired by the shape of water in HQGOHVVPRWLRQDVRFHDQFXUUHQWVDQGVFKRROVRIĂ&#x20AC;VK$VDUHVXOWWKH\GHQRWHGWKHDTXDULXPWKH â&#x20AC;&#x153;whirlpoolâ&#x20AC;?. The building connects land and sea, drawing both the great outdoors and visitors inside. That in itself tells the story of what awaits inside. The reason for the architectural tender was the poor structural condition of the traditional Danish aquarium in Charlottenlund, which Ă&#x20AC;UVWRSHQHGLQDQGLWKDGUHDFKHGLWVFDSDFLW\OLPLW7KHQHZDTXDULXPVKRXOGFRQIRUPWR the requirements of a global sea adventure center, housing an approximate 10,000 qm² exhibition area up to modern technical standards

Design adds Functionality

In contrast to various other metals Novelis aluminium poses no risk of ground water pollution. This way rain water can be collected and passed on into the aquarium without ablution. The entire metal envelope consists of approximately 27,000 m² coil-coated aluminum, processed LQWRVKLQJOHVLGHQWLFDOLQVL]HDQGIRUPĂ&#x20AC;[HGRQDVXEVWUXFWXUHRIRPHJDSURĂ&#x20AC;OHV VWDLQOHVVVWHHOFOLSVZHUHXVHGIRUWKHQRQYLVLEOHĂ&#x20AC;[LQJRIWKHIDoDGHUKRPEV7KHZDOOVDQGURRIV IRUPDVLQJOHFRQWLQXRXVĂ RZLQDZD\ZKLFKHPSKDVL]HVWKHZDY\RXWOLQHRIWKHEXLOGLQJ

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;THE BLUE PLANETâ&#x20AC;?

NATIONAL

AQUARIUM LOCATION: Kastrup, Denmark OPENED: 1939. NUMBER OF SPECIES: 450. NUMBER OF ANIMALS: 20,000.

Underwater Worlds of all Continents

Inside the building the association of a whirlpool continues. From the round centre hall of WKHEXLOGLQJWKHGLÉ&#x203A;HUHQWSDUWVDUHÂśZKLUOHG¡LQWKHVOLJKWO\FXUYHGVHTXHQFHRIDUHDVDQGURRPV 7KHUHE\WKHZDOOVDQGFHLOLQJVĂ RZLQWRRQHDQRWKHUDQGIRUPDVLQJOHFRQWLQXRXVĂ RZ7KHURRI above the foyer is made of glass, and at the same time it is the bottom of a pool. High above, WKURXJKWKHSRROZDWHU\RXFDQVHHWKHVN\ZLWKVXQOLJKWEHLQJUHĂ HFWHGLQWKHZDWHU.  7KHRÉ&#x203A;VKRRWRIWKH´YRUWH[ÂľOHDGVWKURXJKYDULRXVRUJDQLFZRUOGVDQGSUHVHQWVWKHXQGHUwater world of all continents. Visitors gain stunning insights into the sea life of the Faroe-Islands, LQWRWKHPDULWLPHOLIHRIWKH3DFLĂ&#x20AC;FFRDVWVLQWRFRUDOUHHIVODNHVRI$IULFDDQGWKH6RXWK$PHULFDQ Amazon, even a tropical oceanarium, where sharks live. Opened in March 2013, the Blue Planet is one of Denmarkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s biggest tourist attractions. Around 700,000 visitors are expected each year.

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4.P OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

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CHAPTER 5

DESIGN BRIEF OCEANARIUM & ADVENTURE WATERSPORTS

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CHAPTER - 6 CONCEPT & FORM DEVELOPMENT

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CHAPTER - 7 ZONING

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95


CHAPTER - 8 DRAWINGS

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CHAPTER - 9 REFRENCES 'LɛHUHQFHEHWZHHQDTXDULXPDQGRFHDQDULXP •https://anyarnia.wordpress.com/tag/aquarium/ •https://www.britannica.com/science/oceanarium &ODVVLÀFDWLRQRIÀVKHV  ‡KWWSZZZDQLPDOVZRUOGVFRPFODVVLÀFDWLRQRIÀVKKWPO Fish Anatomy & Physiology •http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=16+2160&aid=583 •https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish_physiology SALTWATER VERSUS FRESHWATER AQUARIUMS  ‡KWWSZZZUDWHP\ÀVKWDQNFRPEORJVDOWZDWHUYHUVXVIUHVKZDWHUDTXDULXPV •http://www.aquariumarchitecture.com/archive/saltwater-aquarium-vs-freshwater/ Freshwater setup •http://www.petco.com/content/petco/PetcoStore/en_US/pet-services/resource-center/product-guides/freshwater-aquarium.html

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Profile for Anand kumar

Architecture Thesis Report - Oceanarium & Adventure Water Sports  

Full Project Details - ( https://www.elathi.com/blog/2019/12/14/architecture-thesis-oceanarium-adventure-watersports/ ) This is my thesis re...

Architecture Thesis Report - Oceanarium & Adventure Water Sports  

Full Project Details - ( https://www.elathi.com/blog/2019/12/14/architecture-thesis-oceanarium-adventure-watersports/ ) This is my thesis re...

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