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CONCLUSION The Sunnī scholar Ibn Qutaybah received his knowledge of various Islamic sciences from scholars known for their attachment to the Sunnah. He learned Sunnī theology from Ish.āq ibn Rāhawayh, Sunnī tradition from Abū H.ātim al-Sijistānī and philology from al-„Abbās ibn al-Faraj alRiyāshī who had transmitted the works of Abū „Ubaydah and„ī who were teachers of Ibn Qutaybah of the second degree in philology. When al-Mutawakkil was appointed as a caliph in 232/846 and changed the ideology of the state from that of the Mu‘tazilah to the Sunnī orthodoxy, Ibn Qutaybah found himself favoured by the new government. He was made qād.ī of Dīnawar by the newly appointed vizier „Abd Allāh ibn Yah.yá ibn Khāqān in 236/851. Ibn Qutaybah was undisputedly the greatest man of letters in the Arabic language chronologically after al-Jāh.iz., and his contribution in the field of Qur‟ānic exegesis cannot be underestimated. In the introduction of his work Ta’wīl he stated that the book was a collection of interpretations of difficult passages of the Qur‟ān with explanations based on Arabic expression. Yet this statement does not necessarily imply that he merely acted a transmitter of the sciences of the Qur‟ān from the previous generation to his generation without giving his own interpretation. Some interpretations were taken from scholars whom he mentioned by name; others were adopted by him without attributing any source. Yet, we can trace these interpretations back to some of his teachers, such Abū „Ubaydah and al-Farrā‟. However, there were many other philological interpretations which seemed to be purely his own, and were cited by many authors of later generations, such as Ibn al-Jawzī, alQurt.ubī and others. One of the interpretations attributed to Ibn Qutaybah alone was his view on the seven ah.ruf. According to Ibn Qutaybah, these seven letters were seven aspects of variant readings, as follows: (1) The variant i‘rāb of a word or the vowelisation of its letters without changing its s.ūrah, such as the variant reading yujāzā and al-kafūru for respectively nujāzī and alkafūra in the verse wa hal nujāzī illā ’l-kafūra (Q. 34:17); the first reading belonged to Ibn Kathīr, Nāfi„ Abū „Amr and Ibn „Āmir, whereas the second belonged to H.amzah, al-Kisā‟ī and H.afs.; (2) The variant i‘rāb of a word and the vowelisation of its letters which changed its meaning only and not its s.ūrah, such as rabbunā bā‘ada for rabbanā bā‘id (Q. 34: 19); the latter was the reading of Nāfi„, „Ā, Ibn „Āmir, H.amzah and al-


Kisā‟ī; (3) The variant letters of a word which does not change its i‘rāb, but changes its meaning without changing its rasm, such as nunshiruhā for nunshizuhā (Q. 2:259); the former reading belonged to Ibn Kathīr, Nāfi„ and Abū „Amr, whereas the latter belonged to „Ā, Ibn „Āmir, H.amzah and al-Kisā‟ī; (4) the variant words which change the s.ūrah but not the meaning, such as Ibn Mas„ūd‟s reading zuqyah for s.ayh.ah (Q. 36:29); (5) the variant words which change the s.ūrah and meaning, such as „Alī‟s reading wa‘in for wa (Q. 56:29); (6) The variant reading by means of inversion, such as Abū Bakr‟s reading wa jā’at sakrat al-h.aqq bi-al-mawt for wa jā’at sakrat al-mawt bi-al-h.aqq; and finally, (7) The variant reading based on addition and omission, such as the reading of H.amzah and al-Kisā‟ī ‘amilat for ‘amilathu which was the reading of Ibn Kathīr, Nāfi„, Abū Bakr, „Umar, Ibn „Āmir and H.afs.. This view of Ibn Qutaybah on the seven ah.ruf was quoted by many authors, among them al-Zarqānī in his work Manāhil al-‘Irfān. Al-Zarqānī also quoted the statement of Ibn H.ajar that the view of al-Rāzī on the seven ah.ruf was adopted from that of Ibn Qutaybah after revising it. Ibn Qutaybah believes that the al-rāsikhūn fī ’l-‘ilm know the ta’wīl of the mutashābihāt in the Qur‟ān. He contends that difficult expressions which cannot be easily understood similar to the mutashābihāt in the Qur‟ān are also found in the H.adīth, the saying of s.ah.ābah, poetry as well as Arabic expression. He cites an example from the Prophet‟s statement concerning women “who dress and at the same time are naked”, meaning that they wear thin or skimpy clothing which reveal the outlines of their bodies. Ibn Qutaybah contends further that Allah would not mention something in the Qur‟ān except for the benefit of mankind, and that Allah would let them know what He meant by it. The argument for and against those who hold views similar or different from that of Ibn Qutaybah brought a third and a conciliatory view: some mutashābihāt are known by al-rāsikhūn fī ’l-‘ilm, others by Allah alone, such as the beast which will appears as one of the signs of Doomsday (Q. 27:82). The term majāz as the opposite of h.aqīqah was unknown in the first/seventh and the second/eight century. It appeared in the third/ninth century or probably at the end of the second/eight century. The term majāz in Abū „Ubaydah‟s work Majāz al-Qur’ān was still used in its basic meaning: “the way of expression.” The term majāz as opposite of h.aqīqah appeared in al-Jāh.iz.‟s statements in his work al-Bayān wa ’l-Tabyīn, and later was used more obviously in Ibn Qutaybah‟s work Ta’wīl. Ibn Qutaybah stated that the use of majāz was common, not only in the Qur‟ān, but also in poetry and common expression. As an example, he


cited the word “mother.” The Qur‟ānic verse fa’ummuhu hāwiyah (“his mother will be an abyss”) (Q. 10:19) means that the unbeliever will be sent to Hell like a baby to his mother. Similarly, the Prophet‟s wives, described as “mothers of the believers” (Q. 33:6), means that they are like their mothers in the reverence accorded them. In poetry Ibn Qutaybah cited the following poem of Umayyah ibn Abī al-S.alt: “And the land is our refuge and was our mother. In it our grave will be, and in it we shall be buried.” Ibn Qutaybah was extremely cautious with the use of majāz. When he warned people against excessive use of it in the Qur‟ān which might lead to misinterpreting its verses he might have had the Mu„tazilīs in mind. He also might have been influenced by his teacher of the second degree, Ah.mad ibn H.anbal, who refused to interpret many Qur‟ānic verses dealing with Allah as majāz, such as His throne (‘Arsh) which was interpreted by the Mu„tazilīs as a metaphor for “His sovereignty.” Ibn Qutaybah made a distinction between “saying” and “speaking” and said that the former could be majāz but not the latter, unless there was a strong indication of being majāz, such as an animate being giving advice or moral lessons. He gave two conditions for a word to become majāz: it shall not be accompanied with its mas.dar, and it shall not be emphasized with takrār (repetition). For example, we can say “the wall will fall down,” but we do not say “the wall will fall down with strong willingness,” because it is majāz. The verse wa kallama Allāhu Mūsá taklīman (Q. 4:164) and innamā qawlunā li-shay‘in idhā aradnāhu an naqūla lahu kun fayakūn (Q. 16:40) are not majāz, but h.aqīqah, as the term kallama is accompanied with its mas.dar, namely, taklīman in the former verse, and the term qawl is emphasized with the repetition of it with the word naqūlu in the latter. Ibn Qutaybah‟s treatment of isti‘ārah was rudimentary. He included not only metaphor, but also majāz mursal, wujūh (homonyms) and hyperbole ( ) in the category of isti‘ārah. In the verse wa af’idatuhum hawā’ “and their hearts (as) air” (Q. 14:43), the word hawā’ (air) is a metaphor for emptiness of their hearts. In the verse: “But as for those with faces shining, they shall be within God‟s grace, therein to abide” (Q. 3:107, Asad), Allah‟s grace which is a h.āl (a condition) is a majāz mursal for a place, Paradise. As Ibn Qutaybah also mentioned other meanings of rah.mah in the Qur‟ān, such as rain in Q. 7:57 and sustenance in Q. 35:2, this term was later dealt with as having many wujūh by later writers, such as al-Dāmaghānī, Ibn al-Jawzī and [al-]Tiflīsī in their


respective works Qāmūs, Nuzhah and Wujūh. These works dealt with alwujūh wa ’l-naz.ā’ir (homonyms and synonyms) in the Qur‟ān. The verse yakādu layuzliqūnaka bi’abs.ārihim (Q. 68:51) meaning “they would all but kill thee” (Asad), “would fain disconcert thee” (Ali), or “would almost trip thee up” (Pickthall) indicates hyperbole, that the disbelievers looked at the Prophet with such hostility and sternness that they almost made him slip and fall down. It is commonly known that the Arabic language is called the language of opposite meanings (lughat al-ad.dād). For this, Ibn Qutaybah includes a special chapter in his Ta’wīl entitled al-Maqlūb (lit., “the inverted one”), translated in this study as “inversion”. Inversion occurs by ascribing something with its opposite quality, such as calling a foolish person a bright one with an intention either to encourage him or to insult him. Ibn Qutaybah also examines in this chapter thirteen words which have contradictory meanings, one of which is usually more prevalent than the other, although they are derived from one basic meaning. The word warā’ for example, its basic meaning is “something absent from our sight”, whether before or behind us, but the more prevalent meaning is “behind”; however, it can also mean “before”, such as in the verse: “… because [I know that] behind them was a king who is wont to seize every boat by brute force” (Q. 18:79); the term warā’ here, according to Ibn Qutaybah, means amām (before). The later author Ibn al-Anbārī included all these terms except ya’isa in his work Kitāb al-Ad.dād. Other authors, such as al-Dāmaghānī, Ibn al-Jawzī, Tiflīsī, and Ibn Fāris, included some of these terms in their works. Some Qur‟ānic verses seem to be unclear because of the ellipsis (h.adhf) of some words and the brevity (ikhtis.ār) of the Qur‟ānic verses. Ibn Qutaybah deals with ellipsis and brevity of expression systematically in his Ta’wīl to clarify the meanings of these verses. Some verses utilize the ellipsis of one or two words, a noun, a verb, a preposition, the particle lā (no, not), the main clause of an oath, of a conditional or incomplete sentence. They are examined with examples from the Qur‟ān and some lines of poetry are included as shawāhid to support his view. Takrār (repetition) and ziyādah (pleonasm) are also among the characteristics of the Arabic language dealt with by Ibn Qutaybah in his Ta’wīl. They are used to emphasize something. Takrār can be in meaning, either (a) by mentioning its synonyms, such as “Or do they, perchance, think that We do not hear their hidden thoughts (sirr) and their secret confabulations (najwāhum),” (Q. 43:80) (b) by mentioning its kind, such


as “In both of them will be [all kinds of] fruit, and date palms and pomegranates.” (Q. 55:68, Asad), or (c) by negating its opposite, such as the expression “I order you to fulfill your promise and I forbid you from betraying it.” Ibn Qutaybah divides ziyādah into two types: (a) general pleonasm, namely the addition of unspecified words, such as the expression “with their mouths” I the verse “uttering with their mouths something which is not in their hearts” (Q. 3:167, Asad), and (b) specific pleonasm, namely the addition of specified words, such as nouns, particles and prepositions. They are fifteen in number. Not knowing them could make it difficult for us to understand the meanings of the verses of the Qur‟ān, such as the verse: “Everything is bound to perish save His [eternal] Self” (Q. 28:88, Asad), in which the term wajh (face, countenance) in wajhahu (lit., His Countenance”) is additional according to Mujāhid, Abū „Ubaydah dan alFarrā‟, and translated as “Self” and “Essence” by Asad as cited above and al-Zamakhsharī respectively. In the field of ta‘rīd. Ibn Qutaybah mainly deals with the euphemistic and circumspective expressions in the Qur‟ān. For example, “…and behold, either we [who believe in Him] or you [who deny His Oneness] are one the right path, or have clearly gone astray!” (Q. 34:24, Asad). This is a euphemistic and polite way of saying “we are on the right path, and you have clearly gone astray”. For the circumspective statement Ibn Qutaybah gives the following example: “He [Abraham] answered: „Nay, it was this one, the biggest of them, that did it: but ask them [yourselves] – provided they can speak.‟” (Q. 21:63, Asad). Here Prophet Abraham confessed to destroying the idols through insinuation. Apart from majāz and mutashābihāt Ibn Qutaybah in his Ta’wīl also deals with various types of idiomatic expressions entitlted Mukhālafat z.āhir al-lafz. Ma‘nāh (lit., “the disagreement of the literal meaning of the word with its [intended] meaning”). It includes, to mention a few, (a) the imperative mood intended to threaten (tah.dīd), such as: “Do what you will…” (Q. 41:40, Asad) and exemption (ibāh.ah), such as: “And when the prayer is ended, then disperse freely on earth…” (Q. 62:10), Asad; (b) specification in which a general statement is intended to be particular in time and person, such as: “…and I am the first of those who surrender to Him” (Q. 6:163, Pickthall), meaning the Prophet in his time; (c) number, such as a noun put in a singular number but is meant to be in the plural, as in the verse: “…and then We bring you forth as infants” (Q. 22:5, Asad), in which the word t.iflan (lit., an infant) is meant to be at.fālan (infants);


(d) what is called by later philologists iltifāt (sudden transition), such as Allah addressing the Prophet with “and if they do not respond to your call”, suddenly the address is shifted to unbelievers, with “then know that [this Qur‟ān] has been bestowed from on high out of God‟s wisdom alone, …Will you, then surrender yourselves unto Him?” (Q. 11:14, Asad); (e) juncture, namely, the joining of two different statements of two different persons (or groups of persons), such as the verse: “They will say: „Oh, woe unto us! Who has roused us from our sleep [of death]?‟” which was the statement of righteous Muslims when they were resurrected. This statement was joined with that of the angels, “[Whereupon they will be told:] „This is what the Most Gracious has promised! And His message bearers spoke the truth!‟” (Q. 36:52, Asad). This is the view of Ibn „Abbās and al-Farrā‟ adopted by Ibn Qutaybah; and (f) tempora, such as the use of a verb in the past tense when they are meant for the present or the future, for example, “God‟s judgment is [bound to] come…” (Q. 16:1, Asad), in which the verb atá (lit., “it came”) is meant to be “it will come.” As we know Ibn Qutaybah believes that the al-rāsikhūn fī ’l-‘ilm know the ta’wīl of the mutashābihāt. Therefore, he does not belong to those who believe that the al-ah.ruf al-muqat.t.a‘ah (the disconnected letters) at the beginning of twenty-nine sūrahs in the Qur‟ān to be mysterious and inexplicable. He mentions four interpretations of them: They are: (a) the names of the sūrahs to which they belong; (b) Allah‟s oaths; (c) letters taken from Allah‟s attributes; and (d) letters taken from the attributes of the Qur‟ān. One of the important branches of the sciences of exegesis dealt by Ibn Qutaybah is the homonyms and synonyms in the Qur‟ān (al-wujūh wa ’l-naz.ā’ir fī ’l-Qur’ān) which he calls “words which agree in wording but differ in meaning” ( ). For example, the term fitnah which basically means “a test,” means shirk (polytheism, idolatry) in the verse: )١٩١ : ( “…for polytheism is worse than slaughter.” (Q. 2:191), whereas it means ithm (sin) in the following verse: )٤٩ : ( “…Surely, it is into sin that they (thus) have fallen….” (Q. 9:49). With this branch of science many Qur‟ānic verses become clear, as the textual meaning is given rather than the literal meaning. This branch of science is so important that al-Zarkashī put it in number four of the forty-seven branches of the Qur‟ānic science in his work al-Burhān, whereas al-Suyūt.ī put it number thirty–nine of the eighty branches in his book al-Itqān. It was in this branch of science that Ibn alJawzī in his work Nuzhah quoted Ibn Qutaybah by name about fifty times,


mainly from his Ta’wīl in which he dealt with forty-four words and their meanings. As a philologist Ibn Qutaybah in his Ta’wīl also deals with thirtythree particles with their various meanings with examples from the Qur‟ān and occasionally from poetry as shawāhid. For example, the particle anná has two meanings: (a) kayfa (how), as in )٢٩٩ : ( “He said: How could Allah brings this [township] back to life after its death?” (Q. 2:259); (b) min ayna (wherefrom), as in : ( )١١١ “…where can He have a child from…” (Q. 6:101). One of the problems in understanding a language is the use of prepositions. Different prepositions make different meanings, such as the word “look” added with prepositions and it becomes “look for,” “look at,” and “look on.” The substitution of these prepositions would change its meaning and could confuse people. Such substitution was dealt with by Ibn Qutaybah in his Ta’wīl as well as his Adab al-Kātib. He mentions seven particles substituted with other particles without any change of meaning with examples from the Qur‟ān. They are: ilá (to; toward; up to; as far as; till, until), bi (in, at, on; with; through, by means of), ‘alá (on, upon, at, by, in; to, toward, for), ‘an (off, away, from; out of, about; for), fī. (in; at; on; near; by; within; during), li (for), and min (from). One example cited by Ibn Qutaybah is the verse )٨٧ : ( “He will surely gather you all together on the Day of Resurrection” (Q. 4:87) in which the prepositions ilá substitutes the preposition fī. Therefore, the expression ilá yawm al-qiyāmah in the above verse means “on the Day of Resurrection” rather than “till the Day of Resurrection.” We have seen that Ibn Qutaybah in his works in general and his work Ta’wīl Mushkil al-Qur’ān in particular has rendered an enormous contribution to Qur‟ānic exegesis. This contribution was either by transmitting the knowledge of his teachers in this field of study or by his being an a‘jamī (non-Arab), he has proved in effect his profound knowledge of Arabic philology which is of inestimable value in the study of Qur‟ānic exegesis.



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AUTHORITIES AND TRANSMITTERS OF THE QUR’AN Place Authority Transmitters ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Madīnah

Nāfi„ (d. 169/785-786)

Warsh (d. 197/813) Qālūn (d. 220/835)

Makkah (Mecca)

Ibn Kathīr (d. 120/738)

al-Bazzī (d. 250/864) Qunbul (d. 291/904)


Ibn „Āmir (d. 118/736)

Hishām (d. 242/856-857) Ibn Dhakwān (d. 245/859)


Abū „Amr (d. 154/771)

al-D.ūrī (d. 246/860) al-Sūsī (d. 261/875)


„Ā (d. 128/746)

H.afs. (d. 190/806) Ibn „Ayyāsh (d. 194/810)


H.amzah (d. 158/775)

Khalaf (d. 229/844) Khallād (d. 220/835)



al-D.ūrī (d. 240/854-5) Abu‟l-Harith (d. 46/860)

[d. ca. 189/805]

Adopted from: A. Jones, "The Qur‟an - II," Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period, eds. A.F.L. Beeston, T.M. Johnstone et al. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), p. 244.



āh ād, a h.adīth reported by one chain of transmitters alif al-istifhām, alif as an interrogative particle. alif al-was.l, (lit., alif of connection), the letter alif which can be omitted, either in pronunciation, spelling, or both, such as ūlī ’l-amr read ulil amr, in modern terminology it is called hamzat al-was.l, conjuctive hamzah. amr, command, commanding, imperative amthāl (sing. mathal), parables ‘arūd., prosody asbāb al-nuzūl, the reasons for revelation; the occasions and circumstances which led to the revelation of the verses of the Qur‟ān as.h.āb al-kalām, the adherents of scholastic theology as.h.āb al-ra’y, the adherents of personal opinion as.l, basic meaning, the primary signification ‘a t.f, conjunction bā, inward meaning bayān, explanation dalālah, an indicant, a hint, sense, meaning d.amīr, pronoun d.amīr al-sha’n, a pronoun indicating circumstances, e.g., “It is late” dīwān, collection of poetical work, collection of poetry by a single author or from a single tribe. fad.ā’il, particular virtue, "excellences" farā’id. (sing., farīd.ah), religious obligations fas.āh.ah,. eloquence fatwá (pl. fatawá). legal opinion fiqh, Islamic jurisprudence fuqahā’ (sing., faqīh), Muslim jurists gharīb, rare, uncommon word or expression h.adhf, ellipsis h.adīth, news, a story, and finally a technical term for the tradition of what the Prophet said, did or approved


h.alāl, lawful, permissible h.arām, unlawful, prohibited h.udūd (sing., h.add), penal law al-h.urūf al-muqat.t.a‘ah, ambiguous letters found in the opening of some sūrahs of the Qur‟ān ibāh.ah, examption ‘ibrah (pl., ‘ibar), deterrent example ibtidā’ (of) inception, e.g., lām al-ibtidā’ (letter l of inception) ‘iddah, the legally prescribed period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being divorced or widowed idghām, contraction, such as contracting letter n with letter m in min ba‘d and read mim ba‘d id.mār, making implicit ih.tijāj, protest ijtihād, independent judgment, especially in a legal question based upon the interpretation of the Qur‟ān and the Sunnah ijtihād bi ’l-ra’y, speculative thinking ikhtis.ār, brevity ‘ilm al-tas.rīf, etymology iltifāt, apostrophe, shifting from one object or pronoun to another, turning the address from one person or group of people to another imālah, inclining closed vowels to open, such as pronouncing hāk as hék imām, leader, particularly at prayers. inshā’, composition ‘iqāb, punishment i‘rāb, adding vowels, the inflectional terminations of nouns and verbs; desinential (grammatical) inflection ishmām, „giving the flavour‟ of one sound to another such as the pronunciation of the vowel u with a trace of i and vice versa, similar to the German ü; e.g., reading rudda as rüdda and h.imār as h.ümār; in the Australian accent "a nice day" is pronounced almost like "a noise die". isnād, chains of authorities on which a h.adīth (a tradition or a historical writing) is based; chains of transmitters through whom a h.adīth has been handed down


isrā’iliyyāt legends from Jewish people; Jewish traditions used to amplify Qur‟ānic allusions isti‘ārah, metaphor istifhām, asking a question istifhām inkārī, a negative question istifhām taqrīrī, an affirmative question is t.ilāh., conventional term, technical term (terminology) istit.rād, digression i‘tirād., parenthesis ‘ilm al-‘arūd., Arabic prosody ‘ilm al-tas.rīf,- etymology ‘iz.ah, sermon, advice iz.hār, pronouncing clearly jadal, dialectic jawāb al-shart., a clause answering to an if-clause in syntax jazm, apocopating kāfir, unbeliever kalām, theology, especially the scholastic one khabar, predicate; news of the past khalaf, successors; (esp. Muslim scholars of) later generations (approx. after the third/ninth century) khālafa lafz.uhā rasmahā, irregular orthography kināyah, metonymy kunyah, "allusive" name consisting of Abū ("father of") or Umm ("mother of") followed either by a name or describing some prominent characteristic of its bearer kuttāb, Qur‟ānic school lah.n, solecism, ungrammatical expression laqab, (earlier) name alluding to a personal characteristic; (later) honorific title lughat al-‘Arab, the Arabs‟ way of expression mabnī, indeclinable madhhab (pl., madhāhib), a school of law among Sunnī Muslims mād.ī, preterite


maghāzī, military expedition, accounts of early battles of Islam, early Muslim expeditions in which the Prophet took part majāz a way, road, or path; figurative (literary) expression majāz mursal, a loose trope (e.g,. "hand" used as meaning "a benefit" or "a favour"). malā, apocalyptic h.adīths; tales of eschatological nature related by storytellers mansūkh, abrogated marfū‘, in the nominative case mas.dar, verbal noun ma‘s.ūm, immune from error, infallible mawā‘iz. (sing., maw‘iz.ah), exhortations, advice mathal (pl. amthāl), parable mawlá (pl., mawālī),- protector; client, freed slave; non-Arab Muslim maws.ūl, relative pronoun mubtada’, inchoative, subject mud.āf, annexed mud.āf ilayh, what is annexed to, complements of a prefixed noun mud.āri‘, imperfect verb mufassir, commentator, interpreter, Qur‟ānic exegete muh.aqqiq, an effective investigator (researcher) muh.kam, parts of the Qur‟ān which had a clear meaning mujtahid, a legist who exercises ijtihād mulh.idīn, (sing. heretics, unbelievers, Qur‟ānic codex al-Imām: the Master Copy, the standard copy of the Qur‟ān, namely, the copy of „Uthmān mut.ābaqah, antithesis mutakallim, scholastic theologian mutashābih (pl., mutashābihāt), ambiguous obscure; ambiguous verse in the Qur‟ān mutawātir, a tradition narrated by many reliable authorities that the possibilities of its being fabricated by collusion is out of question. This is the reliable tradition among Muslims.


Mu‘tazilah, theological school which created the speculative dogmatics of Islam nah.w, grammar, syntax nafy, negation nāsikh, abrogating nas.rāniyyāt, legends from Christians, insight, reason nisbah, derivative form (ending in -i) of a name or other noun Qadarīs, a group of teachers of the „Abbāsī period who championed free will against the theory of predestination; they later merged with the Mu‘tazilīs qād.ī, a judge, a judge of a court qād.ī ’l-qud.āt, (lit., judge of judges), chief judge qāri’ (pl., qurrā’), reader, reciter of the Qur‟ān, narrative, tale, story qas.s.ās., storytellers, relaters of qirā’ah, recitation of the Qur‟ān; variant reading of the Qur‟ān qirā’ah munkarah, a rejected reading, a reading which was temporarily permitted in the early period of Islam only to people who were not able to memorize or articulate the Qur‟ān properly qis.s.ah (pl., story, narrative tale, in particular; in plural, the narrative of the Qur‟ān qurrā’ (sing., qāri’), readers, reciters of the Qur‟ān rāsikh (pl., rasikhūn) fī ’l-‘ilm, a person who is conversant with knowledge, firmly grounded in knowledge (A.Y. Ali), deeply rooted in knowledge (M. Asad) or of sound instruction (M. Pickthall) ra’y, personal opinion rithā’, lamentation, elegiac poetry s.ah.ābah (sing., s.ah.ābī), companions of the Prophet saj‘, rhymed prose salaf, (lit. predecessors), the first three generations of the s.ah.abah, tābi‘īn, and tābi‘ī ’l-tābi‘īn s.alāh., prayer sanad, (see isnād)


shakl, consonantal outline, consonantal skeleton, such as (bashar), (nasr) and (yusr).


sharī‘ah, Islamic law shawāhid (sing., shāhid), quotations serving as textual evidence shifā’, healing s.ilah, a syndetic relative clause; the connection of a verb with the object complement, whether immediate or by means of a preposition; the complement of a maws.ūl (conjunct) s.uh.uf (sing., s.ah.īfah), leaves; pages; sheets, scrolls, particularly those of the Qur‟ān sunnah, way, path; customary practice, particularly that of the Prophet; usage sanctioned by tradition; the sayings and doings of the Prophet which have been established as legally binding Sunnī, Muslim who believes that the sunnah cannot be over-ridden by any human authority sūrah, chapter of the Qur‟ān s.ūrah, form, representation, picture tābi‘īn (sing., tābi‘ī), people succeeding the generation of the s.ah.ābah tābi‘ī ’l-tābi‘īn, (lit., "followers of the followers"), the generation after that of the tābi‘īn tadabbur, reflection tad.mīn, insertion tafkhīm, emphatic pronunciation of a consonant, such as the English pronunciation of c, p and t in "capital", "people" and "time" (rather than in "logic", "open" and "meter". tafsīr, commentary, interpretation; Qur‟ānic exegesis takhfīf, the easing in reading by dropping a vowel, such as reading bushran for bushuran; in English it is like pronouncing "transptation" for "transportation". takrār, repetition tamthīl, analogy, comparison, likening tanwīn, nunation, making clear the an, in or un ending of a word, e.g., rajul with tanwīn becomes rajulan, rajulin, and rajulun taqrīr, affirmation targhīb, encouragement of good


tarhīb, discouragement of evil ta‘rī d., allusion tarqīq, softening the pronunciation of a word (opposite of tafkhīm), e.g., letter t in "better" tashbīh, simile; the error of asserting that Allah resembles created things in any way, anthropomorphism tas.rīf, the conjugation of a verb tawātur, (see mutāwatir) tawbīkh, reproach, reprimand, rebuke tawqīf, the subject of divine revelation thawāb, reward tubba‘ (pl., tabābi‘ah), the title of the pre-Islamic Himyarite kings of the Yemen ‘ulamā’ (sing., ‘ālim), scholars, men of learning, savants, the theologians and teachers of Islam wa‘d, promise wa‘īd, threat wāw al-qasam, adjurative particle wud.ū’, ablution wujūh al-qirā’ah, variant readings; variae lectiones zabāniyah, infernal attendants of Hell zajr, prohibition z.ālim, transgressor zawj, a pair or one of a pair zindīq, a heretic, a dualist, particularly a Manichee.

IBN QUTAYBAH'S CONTRIBUTION TO QUR'ANIC EXEGESIS (Conclusion, Bibliography & Appendices)