Barn Design Guide (2021)

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BARN PLANNING GUIDE A GUIDE TO THOUGHTFULLY DESIGNED BARNS

AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware


AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

Introduction Contrary to popular belief, a new barn’s planning and construction can be extremely difficult. This statement applies for even the most experienced equine professional or enthusiast. It’s not difficult because it is so complex, but it is difficult because there are so many things to consider. Variables begin to stack up as you think about your barn’s architecture, your particular geography, your animals, and the people who operate the barn. There are so many factors that go into building a successful barn. What do we mean by a “successful” barn? At American Stalls, a successful barn is a barn that works like a well-oiled machine. That means that the horse stalls are built to gracefully work with your working style and your horses’ behavioral tendencies. That means a barn design that naturally promotes ventilation and ample sunlight. It means selection of materials that are chosen based on your barn’s geography and climate. Simply put, a “successful” horse barn is elegant, safe, and built to serve you for generations. As you flip through this guide, we encourage you to have a notebook (or tablet) by your side. Although it is not a definitive guide, this guide will ask questions about how you do things and your horses’ behavioral tendencies. Make notes. Write down questions. Annotate certain pages that pique interest. This will then allow you to make logical decisions that will serve you well for decades.

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AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

WHERE TO BEGIN? Your Lifestyle There are so many questions that you must ask yourself – whether you are building a 4-stall private barn or a 40-stall commercial barn. There is more to designing a barn than looking at Pinterest pictures and searching for quotations. The first place to start is yourself. That means it is important to consider your own lifestyle and working style. For example, you might spend significant time with your animals in the Summer. If this is the case, you should consider how to cool the barn during those times to ensure it is comfortable. In contrast, you might work during the day and only ride shows on the weekends. This occasional involvement will lead to a different set of decisions. If you are planning a training or boarding facility, you will need to consider for both horses and other individuals. Simply put, you must ask, “how will I use this barn?” This first question will then lead to follow up questions such as: 1. What is the climate, wind flow, and topography like where I am building? 2. Is there enough acreage on our property to pasture instead of creating paddocks? 3. Where will we park horse trailers? 4. Do I need an office, laundry room, lounge, a shop? The above questions are just a starting point. We recommend that you make a check list of questions to really understand the how, what, and why of your lifestyle.

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AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

WHERE TO BEGIN? Your Horses Once you consider your working lifestyle, it is equally (or more) important to consider the horses. The barn is ultimately the home for your beloved horses and it is important to build around their tendencies. We have worked with clients who know how many horses they want and use that as a self-limiting factor. This works sometimes and sometimes it does not. For example, you can plan for 8 horses, but then end up with 19 horses on the property. For this reason, thinking ahead on this issue is equally important. Below are some preliminary questions to consider: 1. How many horses do I intend to keep in this barn? 2. What breed are the horses? 3. What is the average size of our horses? 4. Will I be breeding in this barn? Will there be a stallion on the property? 5. How do I feed and water my horses? 6. Do our horses get along with each other? These are all questions to consider and answer before you move forward. This mental clarity will find itself in a finished product that serves you – instead of a barn that works against you. Note: You can find more questions in our Client Questionnaire – Download Here

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EXPERTLY BUILT


AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

BUILDING TYPES In today’s market, there are various types of barn designs, building materials, and barn types. That being said, there are 3 to 4 basic structures that are most popular for horses. The first – and most common – is the post and beam barn. This barn is also referred to as a pole barn, framed barn, and panelized “pre-fabricated” barn. Secondly, we will discuss clear span barn structures. Thirdly, we will discuss the increasingly popular block barns found in hotter climates. Lastly, we will discuss other options such as stabling inside indoor arenas.

Post & Beam Barns It is likely that you have been through hundreds of horse barns. If so, it is likely that you’ve walked in numerous post and beam barns given their popularity. The post and beam barn (also known as a “pole barn”) is especially popular along the east coast. This particular style is very popular because it can be put up in a cost-effective manner. There are also times when a general contractor who puts up the shell and the remaining work is left to the builder. Additionally, the pole barn has cost advantages because it is usually pre-engineered for most land sites or not engineered at all. These barns are usually made with 6’x6’ or 4’x4’ timbers on 12’ or 14’ centers. It is then covered using a single wall construction of tongue and groove lumber (T&G). Luxury barn builders will go one step further when insulation is required. In these cases, the barn’s exterior will be framed with a sheer wall and a finished wall on the barn interior. Although wood is a great choice for these post and beam barns, it is important to acknowledge that these barns have a limited lifespan. This is because the wood needs to be protected from the horses who may chew, crib or eat the exposed edges. Another consideration is that the column spacing limits what can be done with the barn’s interior. In other words, this is a single use structure that is limited by its configuration.

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AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

Panelized Barns Panelized horse barns are also referred to as “prefab barns.” These particular barns are sold under common brand names and are often found in California, Oregon, Washington, and Texas. Panelized barns are cost-effective and satisfactory agricultural structures that do the basic job of housing your horse. These structures can also be built quickly without much permit issues. That being said, these barns offer little to no flexibility for alternative uses and are architecturally uninspiring.

Framed Barns Framed barns provide the most flexibility and functionality when it comes to post and beam construction. These particular buildings are common used when there must be an upper story to the barn for an apartment, office, or other application. Framed barns are built similarly to homes because they use a double wall construction. This construction allows for more architectural detail and creativity in building materials. The sky (and a client’s budget) is truly the limit in these buildings.

Clear Span Barns (Steel & Wood) Clear span barns (both wood and steel) may or may not have a framed wall. They do use the truss to clear the span in the shorter side of the building. The trusses are usually one of three types: timber trusses, metal tube trusses, and scissor trusses. These engineered buildings tend to require savvy builders due to the need for a foundation. Once permitting and the foundation is done, a clear span building can be built quickly offsite and "assembled" (bolted) together on the job site. In terms of budget, clear span buildings can be utilitarian – using inexpensive siding and roofing materials. They can also be extremely costly if you add stone walls, slate roofs, and steeper roof pitches. Clear span steel barns are fantastic in terms of longevity since horses do not have places to chew. Lastly, they offer clients flexibility as the building can be used for other purposes in the case of a future sale. www.americanstalls.com | (855) 957-8255 | sales@americanstalls.com


AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

Indoor Arenas with Stabling Covered or fully enclosed arenas are growing in popularity – especially in geographies that have harsher climate. Although you might have a barn in addition to the arena, it can be worth it to also plan limited stabling with the arena. Horse stalls can be installed off the arena’s long side or short side depending on your quantity needs. An indoor arena also offers flexibility as the side spaces can accommodate everything from stalls to office space to vehicle storage.

Block Barns (CMU) For starters, “CMU” is also known as cinder block. Block (CMU) barns are increasingly popular in geographies with warmer climates that are prone to inclement weather. Block barns are very popular in Florida because of their strength again hurricanes and tropical storms. CMU barns make for a great structure that will last against the elements – including weather and horses’ day-to-day wear and tear. We do recommend to find a high-quality builder for any barn structure, but especially block barns. This is because there are certain details that need to be done right to ensure your barn is safe for your horses and built to last. For example, some horse owners express concerns the block’s hardness. Cinder block walls can be covered with padded rubber in the horse stalls. Additionally, block edges and corners must be either ground down or covered with a steel angle iron. If you are considering a block barn, we also recommend to loop our team well in-advance to ensure there is sound communication between the builder, our team, and the architects. This is to ensure openings are accurate to ensure stalls, doors, partitions, windows, and other components are correctly built.

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ELEGANCE. SAFETY. LONGEVITY.


AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

PUTTING TOGETHER THE RIGHT TEAM As equestrians, we understand just how much time, energy, and financial resources go into building your dream barn. A dream barn is often a once-in-a-lifetime project for many clients. That is why it is so crucial to work with the right individuals and companies to ensure the best barn build possible. Any horse barn is built primarily by two parties including the client (yourself) and the barn builder (or contractor). Although there will be many other individuals involved, the success of your barn will largely depend on your relationship with the builder. For starts, let’s cover the different types of construction help available to you. It can sometimes get rather confusing understanding the different titles and their capabilities. Here are common types of construction contractors: Handyman – A handyman is usually great for fixing and installing smaller items around your barn (or home) after the construction is complete. Framer – A framer is usually best for the skeleton structural parts of your barn (or home). The framer is usually not involved with the barn’s foundation nor the exterior or interior fixings. We see clients sometimes hire a framer to install exterior window and door components, but this can lead to confusions given the framer’s expertise. General Contractor (GC) & Builders – This is the last and final category of industry professionals for barn construction. They are also exactly who we recommend to hire for your new barn’s construction or even renovation. Both types of individuals will manage the construction of your barn from start to finish.

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AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

Finding the Right Contractor and Builder Once you have the above basic understand, we find the best way to find a high-quality builder is to use your own network. We recommend to ask your friends, family, coworkers, and even real estate agents for recommendations. Referrals are always a great way to find the right partner in your barn project. Once you have a few referrals, we recommend to listen to their experiences before speaking with a contractor. Some questions to ask your colleagues: 1. Which builder or contractor did they use for their project? 2. What particular work did the contractor perform? (This question is key because a contractor could perform work on a high quality shed row barn, but lacks the experience in building a high quality enclosed center barn aisle. Hence, it is possible that a contractor is highly skilled at one type of build, but not so much in another build). 3. What is the quality of their workmanship? (“Good” differs person to person. We always recommend to ask the client’s contractor for more references so you can see some of their work in-person). 4. How was the communication before, during, and after the barn build? (Good communication will make your life 1,000x easier and help give you peace of mind) 5. Did the contractor provide a timeline and stay on schedule? 6. What was the payment structure of the build? 7. Did the contractor provide suggestions on the build’s safety, materials, and other considerations? (A good contractor will provide their recommendations based on their experience)

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AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

Finding the Right Contractor and Builder - Continued Once you narrow down on a contractor, we recommend to have very honest and transparent conversations about the entire process. A barn can take anywhere from a month to half a year to build depending on the size, amenities, and labor availability. Below are some discussion points and questions to touch upon: 1. Discuss the barn site’s location, topography, and climate. An experienced contractor will provide loads of suggestions based on your particular site to ensure that the barn is built for success. 2. Discuss and understand the barn builder’s “lead time.” In today’s ever-competitive labor market, it is sometimes difficult for a barn builder to procure proper labor. This might translate to longer timetables to build your barn. Whether you have a small or large barn, it is crucial to understand your builder’s timetable and understand any potential variables that might delay your project. 3. Understand the builder’s crew. It is good to ask the size of the contractor’s team and their experience. It is also beneficial to understand whether the contractor’s crew is their own or if they are using sub-contractors. 4. Discuss how long will the builder stand behind his or her work. This is equivalent to a warranty. Like anything in construction, hiccups will occur. How will your builder react to those? Will he or she stand behind their work for years after the completion? 5. Discuss your hopes and wishlist for the barn. This goes without saying, but it is best to do your research on your wishlist and share with your barn builder. Although a stall and barn door manufacturer (like American Stalls) will provide recommendations, your barn builder can also provide recommendations on your wishlist based on the agreed upon barn structure. 6. Discuss Permits, Code Inspections, and Zoning Requirements. This line item has the ability to affect everything from timelines, your overall expenses for the build, and also affect certain things like the height of your ceilings.

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AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

Working with an Architect Although it is an expensive service, the selection of an architect is just as crucial as choosing the right contractor. An architects’ benefits are immeasurable as the thoughtful planning will save you in the long run. An experienced equine architect will help with the aesthetics, but will simultaneously help you design a barn that is efficient and functional. Reputable equine architects will be able to help you think about your barn site’s location, the surrounding topography and climate, and other details that will make all of the difference in your barn’s day-to-day functionality. Once you speak to an architect, do make sure to communicate your vision, your requirements, and your budget. As is the case with anything, the more honest you are upfront, the easier the process will be at the end. It is easy for yourself or the architect to get carried away without having proper discussions of your barn’s vision, your budget, your horses’ breeds, and how you see the barn’s function. While we do recommend clients to work with an architect if their budget allows, there are times when an architect is not required. For example, your project’s simplicity may not require an architect’s involvement or your project’s budget. Another example is when a client will have a discussion with an architect and realize that they want a simple, pre-fabricated barn. In this case, you don’t need an architect. An architect involvement is truly dependent on your barn’s purpose and project’s estimated budget. No two barn projects are the same. For example, we can work with a client who wants to build a 18-stall barn with an indoor arena, office, laundry room, wash bay area, tack room, and a client lounge. For their stabling, they’d like European stall fronts, Dutch Doors, shutter windows, and rubber pavers as flooring. The conversation will inevitably lead to a quotation when a client asks, “what will something like this cost?”

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AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

Working with an Architect - Continued The true answer is that such a project could cost anywhere from $80,000 to $3,000,000. The first amount could be a more utilitarian barn. The latter (or somewhere in-between) is where projects budget is well spent with a preliminary conceptual drawing. For a project with a latter project, an architect can come into provide a site masterplan, structure conceptual drawings, and help you truly sculpt your vision into a reality. This entire process also helps you look at the project’s reality. This means that it puts you in touch with people to approach project’s lead time, budget, and scale with a real view of your facility’s vision.

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BUILT RIGHT. BUILT TO LAST.


AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

SELECTING YOUR STALL FRONTS & DOORS Your choice in a stall front is important to your barn's success. The horse stall front and door are arguably the most used components in a barn – opened and closed dozens of times per day. It is also the access point to your barn's secure area for your horses. Your choice in the stall front will greatly vary on your personal preference, your horses, and other personal factors. To start, there are two basic types of horse stall doors: sliding and hinged. Both types can range drastically in price from $300 to more than $5,000. A lower end stall front will usually entail a "kit." This simply describes a kit of hardware, lumber, grills, u-channels, and other components that you must put together onsite. This also usually includes framing the stall with your own lumber.In contrast to a kit, there is also our "fully welded" product that is completely framed. These products usually are ready to install onsite, but still require door posts in most cases. In the industry, you will see a wide variety of stall systems in terms of quality, design, and safety. The lower end options will have wide bar spacing and use solid steel bars for the grills. At a glance, most horse owners can't tell the difference, but these solid bars are actually very weak because of their tension point – compared to our hollow bars. Additionally, the bars are usually spaced very far apart – creating a safety hazard for hooves. Beware of these as the bars are weak and the spacing is incorrect. Lastly, inexpensive stall fronts may also use black (carbon) steel or galvanized steel and then spray paint on the welds. Beware of this finish as it leaves that weld and joint to rust. (see section on coatings for steel stall fronts and partitions.) A higher quality stall front system will include pre-galvanized steel with a long-lasting powder coat finish. Although these points come with a cost, these are "upgrades" that should not be compromised. Below are specifications that we feel strongly about and are standard at American Stalls: 14-GA Steel on Frame & Tubes 2" Square Tube Frame & 1" Round Bars (RB) 1" RB on 3" OC (Top) and 2.5" OC (Bottom) Pre-Galvanized Steel Zinc Prime Applied on Welds (Coastal & Warmer Climate Projects)

TGIC Powder Coat Finish Galvanized Steel or Stainless Steel Hardware – Including Hinges, Tracks, and Latches 5 Year Limited Warranty on Stall Workmanship Lifetime Warranty on Sliding Tracks

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AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

SELECTING YOUR STALL FRONTS & DOORS The previous page is simply a starting point for the basics of horse stalls. Similar to our philosophy for barns, your choice in stalls will be uniquely driven by your lifestyle and your horses. We highly recommend to spend time making a comprehensive list of questions that help you understand how you like to use your horse stalls. Note: You can find more questions regarding stall fronts, their multiple upgrades, and other factors in our Client Questionnaire – Download Here

Cost Drivers in Horse Stalls Before we move on, we'd like to cover cost drivers in horse stall fronts in-depth. We have multiple phone and email conversations per day where a client will share photo(s) of a stall front design. Often times, clients will share a particular photo, but have little expectation of the stall front's actual pricing or an accurate ballpark estimate. As a luxury stall manufacturer, we completely understand this and we would like to address this by explaining cost drivers. While we work with clients that have few budget restraints, we also work with clients who have a very firm budget. In any case, we understand the need for value for any project. To begin, two factors tend to the main cost drivers: 1. Materials – Quantity and Cost 2. Labor – Welding & CAD Design

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AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

Cost Drivers in Horse Stalls - Continued Sliding Stall Fronts – The first driver of cost is the distinction between a "kit" stall and a fully welded stall front. As mentioned earlier, a stall kit will include a welded door, track hardware, a latch, channels, and grillwork. This then requires significant labor and time onsite to build the stall. Cost is driven when the client chooses our popular fully welded system that includes a complete frame – removing the need to build and frame the stall onsite.

Fully Welded Stall Front

The next cost driver in a sliding horse stall is the addition of a yoke in the door itself. Yokes are the opening through which your horse can hang their head out. Our basic yoke is a v-shaped yoke opening that requires the steel tubing to be bent into shape. The cost can be driven further if a client chooses a hinged, drop down yoke that is popular in barns. Drop down yokes are more cost intensive because of additional welding, hinge hardware, the addition of a stainless steel plunger latch, and an additional filled yoke piece.

Kit Stall Front

V-Shaped & Rectangular Yokes (Left) Hinged Drop Down VShaped Yoke (Right)

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AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

Cost Drivers in Horse Stalls - Continued Drop down yokes (previous page) are more cost intensive because of additional welding, hinge hardware, the addition of a stainless steel plunger latch, and an additional filled yoke piece. European Stall Fronts – The first decision that drives cost in a hinged, European Stall Front ("Euro") is the height. We build both "low" Euros and high Euros. The main difference between the two is simply the height of the left wing, the door, and the right wing. The additional steel material is the main cost driver between the two types. The second decision that drives cost is the arch and radius bend of the left wing, right wing, door's top most tubing. Our Euros start with a straight diagonal design or bent design. Labor and specialized machinery is then required to further build larger swoops and arches.

Diagonal Design

Bent Design

Arched Design

The very last cost driver are the finishing touches such as end caps and finials. These can be made out of either aluminum, brass, or a powdered coated aluminum. Each cap (left) or finial (right) is hand polished in-house to ensure the most elegant finishing touch on your stall.

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AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

Cost Drivers in Horse Stalls - Continued All Stall Fronts – There are decisions that impact both Sliding Stalls and Euros. A popular option is to place 1" round bars or steel mesh in the stall bottom. This bottom fill can be placed on either the door bottom or across the entire stall front bottom. This addition (i.e. 1" round bars or mesh) is one of the largest cost drivers for any stall. This is because this design uses a significant amount of steel. Additionally, unlike many manufacturers, our mesh and bars are welded at every single joint for extra strength. When adding a mesh or bars, clients will also add a Shavings Guard to keep bedding inside the stall. This Shavings Guard can be either a steel sheet or a welded HVH that is ready for a wood piece. This is another cost driver to the stall due to the additional steel material and welding. The above covers a good majority of things to consider, but it is not a comprehensive list of upgrades. It is true – if you can dream it, it can be done in most cases. We hope that the above allows you to understand how to choose a stall front that drives the most value for your barn.

Mesh Door Bottom & Wood Shavings Guard

Bar Door Bottom & Steel Shavings Guard

Last but not least, feeding and watering options. Feed upgrades can include a feed hole opening, a grilled feed door, a revolving feed door, and other custom options. Each option requires CAD design, additional steel materials, welding, and hardware (i.e. hinges and latches). This is equally true for watering options such adding water spigots for water buckets or adding an integrated automatic waterer. The above covers a good majority of things to consider, but it is not a comprehensive list of upgrades. It is true – if you can dream it, it can be done in most cases. We hope that the above allows you to understand how to choose a stall front that drives the most value for your barn. www.americanstalls.com | (855) 957-8255 | sales@americanstalls.com


AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

CHOOSING THE LUMBER Your choice in lumber is important because it makes up so much of the horse stall. The selection will dictate your horse stall's strength, safety, and longevity. To start, below is an overview on the most commonly used materials and lumber in horse barn products: 1. Softwoods – This includes the most popular option for horse stalls which is Southern Yellow Pine. That being said, we always recommend to use the highest grade of wood that is possible for your project’s budget. This is because softwoods are generally not recommend for use inside horse stalls. Softwood is prone to warping, twisting, and shrinkage over time. Southern Yellow Pine lumber is the only viable option in the softwood category for horse stall environments. 2. Domestic Hardwoods – Hardwoods are more expensive than softwoods, but last much longer due to their density. Many domestic hardwood options can also be found in FSC-certified versions. Domestic hardwoods include douglas fir, mahogany, and oak. 3. Exotic Hardwoods – Exotic hardwoods can be extremely dense when compared to domestic hardwoods and softwoods. This profile allows them to hold up to the rigors present in a horse stall environment. This makes exotic hardwoods particularly well suited for horse stalls and barn doors. This option lasts longer and provides your barn with a higher quality aesthetic, but it is also one of the most expensive lumber options. Exotic hardwoods include options such as Brazilian hardwood. 4. Plastic (HDPE) Infills – Lastly, a growing alternative to wood is a plastic (HDPE) fill option. These are synthetic materials that are built to look like wood. The benefit to plastic HDPE is their benefits around longevity and durability. The synthetic fill keeps its finish longer. It is also easier to clean so it is a more sanitary material compared to wood. Lastly, HDPE fills use primarily recycled post-consumer plastic which makes for a more positive environmental impact. Given the wide variety of wood and filler options, it can be difficult to make a decision about the best material for your barn. Although there are some best practices, each barn is unique because of its location, surrounding climate, and the barn’s overall build. www.americanstalls.com | (855) 957-8255 | sales@americanstalls.com


AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

CHOOSING THE LUMBER A barn located in New England will experience heavy snow and heavy winds. This New England barn will often require different considerations than a barn located in a southern barn where insect, humidity, and rust issues arise. Below is a list of factors to research and consider when deciding on lumber: 1. Does the lumber have a good nailing holding powder? 2. Is there moderate and reasonable shrinkage? 3. Is the lumber easy to work with, finish, and clean? 4. Will the lumber resist decay and warping? 5. Does the lumber withstand splitting? The above is a starting point for your decision regarding the wood for your horse stalls and barn doors.

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BUILT TO BRING YOU PEACE OF MIND


AMERICAN STALLS Luxury Stabling Equipment & Hardware

CONCLUSION While this guide is far from all encompassing, we hope that this serves as a great starting point. There are so many other things to consider including lighting, heating, and flooring. That being said, we hope that this guide serves as a starting point for thinking around your barn, its structure, and the horse stall systems. It is our hope that this guide made you a bit more savvy – ensuring that your barn is set up for success. At our firm, we truly believe in the philosophy of "build it right or not at all." We go to great lengths to not only manufacture the very best materials, but to also provide the best education to our clients. Each barn is special and unique. It our privilege to help you to ensure your dream barn is built right and built to last. If you may have any questions, you can always reach a team member at (855) 957-8255 or sale@americanstalls.com

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