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American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Scientific Journal


Multidisciplinary Approach

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research 2016 / 2 (2)

Initiated by Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad Not-for-profit Corporation New York NY, USA 2016 1

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research. Issue: 2 (2). Publ.: Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad Not-for-profit Corporation, New York NY, USA, 2016. – 144 p. Scientific journal «American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research» is a peer reviewed open access journal, which is co-published in the USA. The main principle of the journal is to promote communication among scientists from different countries worldwide. The main research areas are as follows: Biological Sciences; Historical Sciences; Economic Sciences; Philosophical Sciences; Philological Sciences; Jurisprudence; Pedagogical Sciences; Medical Sciences; Psychological Sciences; Social Sciences; Political Science; Governance; Cultural Studies; Social Communication; Cross-Sectoral Research. The journal is published quarterly in two languages: English; Ukrainian. Published and distributed by: UKRAINE AND UKRAINIANS ABROAD INC. DOS ID #: 4905826 Initial DOS Filing Date: MARCH 02, 2016 County: NEW YORK Jurisdiction: NEW YORK Entity Type: DOMESTIC NOT-FOR-PROFIT CORPORATION Current Entity Status: ACTIVE Entity Address Information DOS Process: NADIYA BURMAKA 170 WEST 82 STREET NEW YORK, NEW YORK, 10024 Editor in Chief: Burmaka N. – Ph.D. in Psychology, Professor at the International Academy of Sobriety, Full Member of EuANH (Scotland, UK), Honorary member of East European Scientific Analytics Federation of International Academy of Science and Higher Education (London, UK).

Chief Scientific Editor: Maksymenko S. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor, Academician of NAPS of Ukraine, Academician EANS (Germany), Honorary scientist and technician of Ukraine, Laureate of State prize of Ukraine. Executive Secretary: Lunov V. – Ph.D. in Psychology, Professor (RANH), Honorary worker of science and education, Full Member of World Federation for Mental Health, (USA).

Editorial / Expert’s Board Chiladze G. – Doctor of Law, Doctor of Economics, Professor (Georgia); Dubaseniuk O. – Dr. Sc. in Pedagogy, Professor (Ukraine); Gryganskyi A. – Ph.D. in Biology (USA); Gryganska I. – Ph.D. in Psychology (Ukraine); Hlyva Ye. – Ph.D. in Psychology, Foreign Member of NAPS Ukraine, Professor (Australia); Iserman R. – Honorary Dr. Sc. in Political Psychology (USA). Full Member of EuANH (Scotland, UK); Kalashnik I. – Ph.D. in Psychology (Ukraine); Kocharian O. – Dr. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine);

Lantukh V. – Dr. Sc. in History, Professor (Ukraine); Mamedov Z. – Dr. Sc. in Biology, Professor (Azerbaijan); Mykhaylov B. – Dr. Sc. in Medicine, Professor (Ukraine); Pritts A. – Dr. in Psychology and Pedagogy, Professor (Austria); Sosin I. – Dr. Sc. in Medicine, Professor (Ukraine); Tovstyk V. – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Professor, Academician of the New York Academy of Sciences (USA); Tratch R. – Ph.D., Professor, foreign member of NAPS Ukraine (USA); Tsekhmister Ya. – Dr. Sc. in Pedagogy, Professor (Ukraine), Full Member of EuANH (Scotland, UK); Yatsenko V. – Dr. Sc. in Medicine, Professor (Ukraine).

Editors / Reviewers: Balabanova L. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine); Ball G. – Dr.Sc. in Psychology, Professor, Corresponding member of NAPS of Ukraine (Ukraine); Chepeleva N.– Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor, Academician of NAPS of Ukraine (Ukraine); Chernavska T. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine); Danyluk I. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine); Hall A. – Honorary Dr. Sc. in Political Psychology (USA); Hovorun T. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Poland); Hulbs O. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine); Ivaschenko Yu. – Ph.D., in Physical and Math. Sciences (Ukraine); Kireyeva Z. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine); Kokun O. – Dr.Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine); Malecha A. – Ph.D. in Psychology, Professor (Poland); Markova M. – M.D., Ph.D. Professor (Ukraine); Miroshnyk O. – Ph.D. in Philology (Ukraine); Moliako V. – Dr.Sc. in Psychology, Professor, Academician of NAPS of Ukraine (Ukraine);

Orlova O. – Ph.D. in Pedagogy (Ukraine); Shevtsov A. – Dr.Sc. in Pedagogy, Professor (Ukraine); Skiba V.V. – Dr. Sc. in Medicine, Professor (Ukraine); Slyusarevskii M. – Ph.D. in Psychology, Professor, Corresponding member of NAPS of Ukraine (Ukraine); Smagin I. – Dr. Sc. in Pedagogy, Professor (Ukraine); Smulson M. – Dr.Sc. in Psychology, Professor, Corresponding member of NAPS of Ukraine (Ukraine); Sydorchuk N. – Dr. Sc. in Pedagogy, Professor (Ukraine); Tolstoukhov A. – Dr.Sc. in Philosophy, Professor, Academician of NAPS of Ukraine (Ukraine); Vlasova O. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine); Yevdokymova N. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology (Ukraine); Yatsenko T. - Dr.Sc. in Psychology, Professor, Academician of NAPS of Ukraine (Ukraine); Zabrotskyy M. – Prof., Ph.D. in Psychology (Izrael); Zhyhaylo N. – Dr.Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine).

The publishers and editors do not accept responsibility for the beliefs expressed by the authors based on their research and personal beliefs. © Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad Not-for-profit Corporation, New York NY, USA, 2016 © Authors of articles, 2016


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research


Burmaka N. EDITOR’S COLUMN..................................................................................................................................4 Maksymenko S. RETHINKING OF BEING OF THE NATION: PRESENTATION OF SCIENTIFIC MONOGRAPH OF PRESIDENT OF NAPS OF UKRAINE V.G. KREMEN "PHILOSOPHY OF NATIONAL IDEA: MAN, EDUCATION, SOCIETY".....................................................................................................5 RETHINKING OF BEING OF THE NATION: PRESENTATION OF SCIENTIFIC MONOGRAPH OF PRESIDENT OF NAPS OF UKRAINE V.G. KREMEN "PHILOSOPHY OF NATIONAL IDEA: MAN, EDUCATION, SOCIETY".....................................................................................................6 Kremen V. HUMANISM AND INFORMATIONAL PARADIGM OF BEING OF MODERN CIVILIZATION..................................................................................................................................................................7 Pasichnyk I., Voloshyna V., Kalamazh R. DO DIFFERENT METAMEMORY JUDGMENTS SHARE THE SAME UNDERLYING COGNITIVE PROCESSES?.......................................................................................................12 Balandyuk R. TEACHING ECONOMY ACCORDING TO REQUIREMENTS OF THE COMPETENCE APPROACH IN LESSONS OF THE HISTORY OF UKRAINE IN THE 8-9TH FORMS..........................................................................................................................................................17 Burmaka N., Kalashnik I. EMIGRANTS ADAPTATION AS THEIR MENTAL HEALTH GUARANTEE....................................................................................................................................................................21 Derkach L., Maksymenko S. PSYCHOLOGICAL LITERACY IN UKRAINE: WAYS OF LEARNING AND LIVING.....................................................................................................................................................................28 Didukh M. SPECIFICS ETHNIC INDIVIDUATION AND IDENTIFICATIONS OF THE NATIONS OF UKRAINE....................................................................................................................................................................37 Dushka A. METHODOLOGY OF FAMILY - ORIENTED PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSISTANCE TO CHILDREN WITH EMOTIONAL-VOLITIONAL DISORDERS........................................................................................................42 Ivashkevych Е. SOCIAL INTELLECT AS THE BASIC PERSONAL CAPACITY OF A TEACHER..........................48 Kaplunenko Y. PERSONAL FACTORS OF SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG EXPERTS OF SOCIONOMIC PROFESSIONS..................................................................................................................................................................53 Katolik G., Shishak O. EARLY PREGNANCY LOSS ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL IDENTIFICATION PROCES.............................................................................................................................................................................61 Kokorina Y. THE EXISTENTIAL-ANALYTIC METHODOLOGY IN THE PRACTICE OF GROUP PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT.........................................................................................................................................71 Kolesnikova I. MEDIA CULTURE AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN MODERN INFORMATION-ORIENTED SOCIETY..........................................................................................................................77 Korolchuk V. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL BASIS OF EMPERICAL RESEARCH OF INDIVIDUAL STRESS RESISTENCE ............................................................................................................................81 Kudinova O. EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCES ON PANIC DISORDER PATIENTS...................................................85 Maksymenko K. THE PERSONALITY-ORIENTED PSYCHOTHERAPY IN CLINIC OF GASTROENTEROLOGICAL DISEASES: CONCEPT, METHODOLOGY...................................................................88 Maslyuk A. THE INFLUENCE OF THE GREAT FAMINE ON THE FUTURE GENERATIONS’ LIFE SELF-REALIZATION........................................................................................................................................................94 Merzliakova O. DIALOGIC METHODS IN PEDAGOGICAL ACTIVITY...................................................................99 Mykhalchuk N., Ivashkevych E. PSYCHOLINGUISTIC GROUNDS OF SRATEGIES OF ART TRANSLATION........................................................................................................................................................104 Mykhaylov V., Mykhaylov B., Zdesenko I. SOMATOGENIC DEPRESSION AND ASSOCIATED DISORDERS AMONG PERSONS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES......................................................................................110 Sosin I.K., Chuev Yu.F., Burmaka N.P., Goncharova E.Yu. INVENTIVE ACTIVITY TEACHING PARADIGM IN ADDICTOLOGY: PRIORITIES OF UKRAINIAN NEUROSCIENCE.........................................115 Stavytskyi O. PSYCHOLOGY OF HANDICAP COMPLEX: AGE ASPECT ...............................................................125 Sydorchuk N. THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDYING THE PEDAGOGICAL HERITAGE OF A. S. MAKARENKO THROUGH THE PRISM OF INTEGRATION PROCESSES IN EDUCATION.............................................................130 FAMINE-GENOCIDE........................................................................................................................................................136 CHARITY...........................................................................................................................................................................140 ABOUT THE AUTHORS..................................................................................................................................................141


Editor’s Column

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Nadiya Burmaka Ph.D. in Psychology, MD, Professor at the International Academy of Sobriety, Full Member of EuANH (Scotland, UK) Honorary member of East Europen Scientific Analytics Federation of International Academy of Science and Higher Education (London, UK) President of "Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad", USA Editor’s Column Dear Ukrainian community! Dear colleagues, friends, authors and readers of the journal! The second issue of interdisciplinary periodical «American Journal of Fundamental, Applied and Experimental Research», founded in the US by organization «Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad» Inc., in partnership with the Association of Psychologists of Ukraine, G.S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine, was published. With ambitious plans to become a scientific messenger of Ukrainian community in the world, we solemnly present this edition, which covered current topics of psychological, pedagogical, philosophical and other Sciences in investigations and searches of Ukrainian scientists. The fundamental, applied and experimental researches are presented in the edition. However, aware of the historical and epochal context of being, the editorial board focuses on the special event which unites Ukrainians everywhere - celebrating the 25th anniversary of independence of a sovereign Ukraine. For many decades between Ukrainians "at home" and the Ukrainian Diaspora were built the circumstances of separation of people: physical, economic, social, spiritual. Now families separated aforetime by insurmountable boundaries, can celebrate together. Spiritual understanding of our national identity - a return to the authentic forms of self-awareness, inherent in Ukrainians of different epochs and historical contexts of values, acquires active self-sufficient manifestations of statebuilding, the witnesses and carriers of which are we and you. In the spectrum of world civilization we occupy a worthy place of glorious sons of mankind. Famous for talents, skills, diligence, thirst to live a projected life in economically and socially stable society. 25th anniversary of Ukraine's sovereignty, despite the most severe foreign policy and most painful inside betrayals, disappointments and crisis, does not lower our confidence to go glorious way of rebirth of the nation and the creation of powerful modern state. I wish all of us, Ukrainians worldwide, the responsibility, progressive objective actions to preserve national, economic, territorial and human resources, solidarity, understanding, harmony, life-giving forces in indomitable quest for consolidation in creaming of state-building progress in building undivided, independent, self-sufficient Ukraine.


Колонка редактора Вельмиповажна українська громадо! Шановні колеги, друзі, автори журналу та читачі! Вийшов у світ другий номер міждисциплінарного періодичного видання «Американський журнал фундаментальних, прикладних і експериментальних досліджень» / «American Journal of Fundamental, Appliedand Experimental Research», заснованого у США організацією «Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad» у партнерстві з Товариством психологів України, Інститутом психології імені Г. С. Костюка Національної академії педагогічних наук України. Маючи амбітні плани стати науковим вісником української спільноти в Світі, урочисто презентуємо дійсне видання, яке охопило актуальні теми психологічних, педагогічних, філософських та іших наук в дослідженнях та пошуках українських вчених. У випуску презентовано фундаментальні, прикладні та експериментальні дослідження. Разом з тим, усвідомлюючи історичний та епохальний контекст буття, редакційна рада акцентує увагу на особливій події, яка об’єднує українців в усьому світі – святкування 25-річчя незалежності суверенної України. Довгі десятиріччя між українцями «вдома» і українцями у діаспорі вибудовувалися обставини роз’єднання народу: фізичного, економічного, соціального, духовного. Зараз родини, раніше розділені нездоланними кордонами, можуть нині святкувати разом. Духовне осмислення власної національної ідентичності – повернення до аутентичних форм самоусвідомлення, притаманних українцям різних епох та історичних контекстів цінностей, набуває активних самодостатніх проявів державотворення, свідками та носіями яких є ми з Вами. У спектрі світової цивілізації ми посідаємо достойне місце славетних синів роду людського. Славетних талантами, уміннями, працелюбством, жагою жити прогнозованим життям у економічно і соціально стабільному суспільстві. 25-річчя суверенності України, попри найважчі зовнішньополітичні та найболючіші внутнішні зради, кризи та розчарування, не знижують нашої впевненості пройти славетний шлях відродження нації та творення сучасної могутньої держави. Хочу побажати всім нам, українцям в усьому світі, відповідальності, прогресивних предметних дій щодо збереження національного, господарського, територіального та людського ресурсу, згуртованості, розуміння, злагоди, життєдайних сил у незламному прагненні до консолідації у відстоюванні державотворчого поступу до розбудови нероздільної, самостійної, самодостатньої України.

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Serhii Maksymenko Chief Scientific Editor Academician of NAPS of UA, Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor, Ukraine, Kiev Rethinking of the national achievements, state-building potential and the development of civil society inevitably leads to a breach of the primordial questions of movement, selfrealization of personality and self-awareness of our belonging to humanity - in general abstract context, and to ethnicity, to nation and state - in particular. Social and political events that are taking place in Ukrainian society and disturbance of global geopolitical context encourages Ukrainian scientific elite to search not only individual ideas, but the mechanisms and behavior patterns of self-sufficient citizen of Ukraine, personality, full of dreams and concrete plans for its implementation in life. The said above requires an adequate philosophical interpretation, social and psychological instrumentation. It should be noted that the realization and implementation of the national idea in life of state and society is a dynamic nonlinear process that has particular emphasis both in times of society crisis and in the time of national pride growth and glorification of the nation. For Ukrainians all over the world 2016 is the year of Jubilee celebration of the 25th anniversary of Ukraine’s independence. In this regard, by the support of the public organization UKRAINE AND UKRAINIANS ABROAD INC., the editorial board of the journal «American Journal of Fundamental, Applied and Experimental Research» and by the initiative of Ukrainian scientists of NAPS of Ukraine, the new column «Ukrainian nation: reconsideration, overcoming, achievements» is launched in the journal, which will present both already issued scientific publications and new articles, monographs, etc., the contents of which will have a strong motivational potential of Ukrainian self-realization and state-building. By the numerous reasons, philosophical and methodo-logical expediency and practical significance, we have honor to begin the column «Ukrainian nation: reconsideration, overcoming, achievements» with scientific papers of the prominent founder of Ukrainian science, the president of NAPS of Ukraine, Academician Vasily Grygorovych Kremen. An article of Аcademician V.G. Kremen «Humanism and information being of modern civilization» will be presented in the current issue of the journal. There also will be promoted his scientific monograph «PHILOSOPHY OF NATIONAL IDEA: PERSON, EDUCATION, SOCIETY», which since its first printing has got a wide range of readers. From myself personally and on behalf of the Editorial Board of the journal I would like to congratulate Ukrainians worldwide on the occasion of the 25th Independence anniversary of our native Ukraine!

Переосмислення здобутків нації, потенціалу державотворення та розвитку громадського суспільства неминуче призводить нас до порушення споконвічних питань руху, самоздійснення особистості та самоусвідомлення своєї належності до людства – в загальному абстрактному контексті, та етносу, нації і держави – в конкретному. Соціально-політичні події, що відбуваються в Українському суспільстві, та неспокійний глобалізаційний геополітичний контекст спонукає наукову еліту України до пошуку не лише окремих ідей, а й механізмів, патернів поведінки самодостатнього українця, громадянина України, особистості, сповненої мрій та конкретних планів щодо їхнього втілення в життя. Зазначене потребує адекватної філософської інтерпретації та соціально-психологічної інструменталізації. Слід зазначити, що усвідомлення та втілення національної ідеї в життя Держави і суспільства є динамічним нелінійним процесом, який набуває особливого акцентування як в часи криз у суспільстві, так і в часи піднесення національної гордості та возвеличення нації. 2016 рік для українців в усьому світі є Ювілейним роком святкування 25-річчя незалежності України. У зв’язку з цим за підтримкою громадської організації UKRAINE AND UKRAINIANS ABROAD INC., редакційної колегії журналу «American Journal of Fundamental, Applied and Experimental Research», та за ініціативою українських науковців НАПН України, започатковується нова рубрика дійсного журналу «Українська нація: переосмислення, подолання, здобуття», в якій будуть представлені вже видані та новітні наукові видання, статті, монографії тощо, зміст яких матиме потужний мотиваційний потенціал українського самоздійснення та державотворення. З численних міркувань, філософсько-методологічної доцільності та практичної значущості, маємо за честь розпочати видання рубрики «Українська нація: переосмислення, подолання, здобуття» з наукових праць та постаті видатного фундатора української науки – президента НАПН України академіка Василя Григоровича Кременя. В поточному номері журналу буде представлено статтю академіка В.Г. Кременя «Гуманізм та інформаційне буття сучасної цивілізації» та здійснено промоушен його наукової монографії «ФІЛОСОФІЯ НАЦІОНАЛЬНОЇ ІДЕЇ: ЛЮДИНА, ОСВІТА, СОЦІУМ», яка з моменту виходу в друк здобула широке коло читачів. Від себе особисто та від імені редакційної ради журналу вітаю українців в усьому світі зі святом 25-річчя незалежності рідної України!


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Vasily Kremen President of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine Honored Scientist of Ukraine, laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine in Science and Technology. He is awarded by the Order of Yaroslav the Wise, V degree; Orders "For Merit", I, II and III degrees.

Кремень Василь Президент Національної академії педагогічних наук України Заслужений діяч науки і техніки України, лауреат Державної премії України в галузі науки і техніки. Нагороджений орденом князя Ярослава Мудрого V ступеня, орденом «За заслуги» І, II та III ступенів. RETHINKING OF BEING OF THE NATION: PRESENTATION OF SCIENTIFIC MONOGRAPH OF PRESIDENT OF NAPS OF UKRAINE V.G. KREMEN "PHILOSOPHY OF NATIONAL IDEA: MAN, EDUCATION, SOCIETY"


Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Academician of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, member (Academician) of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, foreign member of the Russian Academy of Education, Member of several scientific societies, honorary doctor of many Universities, national deputy of Ukraine of the 3rd convocation (1998-2000), Minister of Education and Science of Ukraine 2000-2005, President of the Society "Knowledge" of Ukraine, President of Sport Student Union of Ukraine, Deputy Chairman of the Committee of the state prize in science and technology, Deputy Chairman of the Committee of the state prizes in education. Outstanding Ukrainian scientist in field of Social philosophy, Philosophy of education, Pedagogy and Politology. The author of many fundamental researches, prominent organizer of Education and Science, state and public figure.

Доктор філософських наук, професор, академік Національної академії наук України, дійсний член (академік) Національної академії педагогічних наук України, іноземний член Російської академії освіти, член ряду наукових товариств, почесний доктор багатьох університетів, народний депутат України 3-го скликання (1998–2000 рр), Міністр освіти і науки України 2000– 2005 рр., Президент Товариства «Знання» України, Президент Спортивної студентської спілки України, заступник Голови Комітету з державних премій в галузі науки і техніки, заступник голови Комітету з державних премій в галузі освіти. Видатний український вчений у галузі соціальної філософії, філософії освіти, педагогіки, політології. Автор багатьох фундаментальних досліджень, відомий організатор освіти і науки, державний і громадський діяч.

Kremen V.G. Philosophy of national idea: Man, education, society / V.G. Kremen. - Kyiv: Gramota, 2010. - 576 p.

Кремень В.Г. Філософія національної ідеї : людина, освіта, соціум / В.Г. Кремень. - Київ : Грамота, 2010. - 576 с.

From the summary of the book: The book examines the most important problem of Ukrainian being and process of state building - the problem of national idea. The author offers his vision of its solving in unity of history, philosophy and education, that is, in the context of theory and practice. The logic of study provided an opportunity to discover the genesis of the Ukrainian idea - from forming of national identity to becoming independent State and civil society, from cultural identity to spirituality. Education – is the practical implementation of strategies of development of the Ukrainian idea into the European civilization. A special place in the book takes the concept of Humanocentrism - the author's creativity on Ukrainian humanism, which synthesizes philosophical reflections on the meaning content of national idea.

З анотації до книги: У монографії досліджується найважливіша проблема українського буття й процесу державотворення – проблема національної ідеї. Автор пропонує своє бачення її вирішення – у єдності історії, філософії та освіти, тобто в контексті теорії і практики. Логіка дослідження надала змогу виявити ґенезу української ідеї – від формування національної ідентичності до становлення незалежної держави й громадянського суспільства, від культурної самобутності до національної духовності. Освіта – практична реалізація стратегій поступу української ідеї в європейську цивілізацію. Особливе місце в книжці займає концепт людиноцентризму – авторський креатив українського гуманізму, який синтезує філософські міркування про смислове наповнення національної ідеї.

"The current need for identification of Ukraine caused by the necessity to understand ourselves, to strengthen our position and to acquire allies, and ultimately, to reflect the world in the system of ordered images and meanings. The society will be able to successfully overcome the "devastation in the heads" only in those circumstances where the identity will be interpreted through the structure of images and meaning of community historical fate, of high spirituality and culture, through the expression of the collective "We" as the community that strengthens civil society and implements a project of humanistic transformation". «Нинішня потреба в ідентифікації України викликана необхідністю усвідомити себе, зміцнити свої позиції й набути союзників, врешті-решт — відобразити світ у системі впорядкованих образів і смислів. Суспільство матиме можливість успішно подолати період „розрухи в головах” лише за тих умов, коли ідентичність інтерпретуватиметься через структуру образів і смислів спільності історичної долі, високої духовності й культури, через вияв колективного „МИ” як спільноти, що утверджує громадянське суспільство й реалізує проект гуманістичного перетворення».


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Vasily Kremen President of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine Honored Scientist of Ukraine, laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine in Science and Technology. He is awarded by the Order of Yaroslav the Wise, V degree; Orders «For Merit», I, II and III degrees.

In the projection of existential-phenomenological philosophy person is a finite being where the finiteness defines its entire life situation. The regulative principle of human life is the desire to alleviate and overcome the fear of its finiteness. As a result, a person strives to the fullness of existence, to complete self-forming in planning and implementation of life plans. Human studies, raised by modern informational and technological (instrumental) paradigm, are based on measurement operations, tool control of the data, and analytical knowledge on the functioning of communication processes. They represent strategies calculation of instrumentally rational actions. Active (practical) mind limits the integrity of relationship “person - world” and replaces it with the antithesis of “subject - object”. Practical intelligence, aimed at the conquest of reality, reproduce in this relationship natural principle of domination and therefore remains “natural”, suppressing the human “Self”. In what form does the person appear in such situation? This issue should be considered in the context of projects of social improving which always correlate with the problem of improving of human nature. The concept of “human nature” is an expression of the complex of established properties of social individual which are reproduced in all times and among all peoples, that indicates on their predetermination by our biological organization. These properties are known to be formed on the basis of genetic factors and modified by external conditions - physical and social. They display needs, desires, skills, human behavior and activities. From the perspective of public morality they can be considered in terms of antinomies of selfishness and altruism, of their certain balance. We can accept as a constant the most common thesis on biosocial nature of human. Numerous studies, scientific and mathematical models convincingly show that by mid-century, our civilization will enter a phase of bifurcation, will come to the singular line, after which it can happen or degradation and destruction of humanity, collapse of

human civilization, or output to a new level of social self-organization. The unequivocal answer on how to output to that “qualitatively new” level of social selforganization does not exist. Only two possibilities are offered: either to change the biological human nature through genome reconstructions so as to change the mentality, needs and ways of life, or to go through the embodiment of mind and personality in the social system, i.e. by antropo-technological transformation, evolution of transhumanism. Theoretically both of options are thought possible. However, it should be noted that the first way appears as complex and risky that can cause uncontrolled chain reaction of mutations. The second way appears more attractive because: does not touch the radical intervention in the human genome; based on a relatively well-developed theoretical basis of computer science, robotics; can use the achievements of social and humanitarian disciplines, psychology, genetics and neuroscience in research of phenomena of consciousness and personality self-organizations; is in line with the convergentive development of NBICS (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information, cognitive, social technologies and their corresponding areas of scientific knowledge). In this connection we must recognize and approve the main role of the socio-humanitarian component of NBIСS designed to solve the moral and legal issues. It creates a new anthropological perspective, a system of meanings and values that overcomes the biologically limited horizon of human mentality; opens real possibilities for replacing subject and energy consumption by informative consumption, which could radically change the attitude of society to the environment, stop its destruction; facilitates parallel processes of study natural biological systems and support conditions for preserving life on Earth. These provisions define general problems of evolutionary transhumanism, the essence of which is to stimulate a fundamentally new type of understanding and realization of human life in the world. Central place in the solution of this fundamental issue 7

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occupies problem of change of mass consciousness and thus - the transformation of the entire system of social communications. The functioning of the mass consciousness shows it’s established, determined by culture and tradition, self-organization. Means of mass communication and information is constantly forming media map of the world for “mass man”, create and recreate those views, values orientation and creeds that meet the needs, expectations and tastes of “mass man”, interests of “consumer society”. Mass culture - is a way of life of modern civilization, it is “flesh and blood” of industrialization, urbanization, development of Internet technology, informational world in general. Under market economy conditions “mass culture” aimed for realization of any needs - they should be expressed and identified. The “mass culture” by itself is neither good nor bad. It has both obvious negative consequences (psychology of consumerism, infantilism, manipulation), as well as significant achievements (standards of comfort, stimulation of mass production, healthy lifestyle, effective socialization, etc.) [7, p. 50]. As noted by E. Morin, in this context the word “culture” is a “real conceptual chameleon: it can mean anything that must be obtained and learned during training, and not initially innate in man; it could mean the customs, values, beliefs, ethnic group or nation. It can mean all the things that make humanities, literature, art, philosophy “[4, p. 80]. The foregoing considerations confirm the need for attentive attitude to the problem of transhumanism, which is generated by intellectual culture. We can agree that a guided (programmable) human evolution is a process of interdependent changes in its consciousness and arrangement of society - the process of co-evolution of body consciousness and social environment. At present this process is actively implemented yet in the form of establishment of “global ethos - the general conduct rules, general moral and life meaning foundations for representatives of all national cultures, religions and peoples. By adopting even such a position, we must admit the possibility and reality of significant changes at the higher levels of holistic and meaning structure of consciousness “[1, p.10]. In the context of these considerations it is emphasized that transhumanistic evolution is not an easy process that is determined by the presence in unity of technological, communicative and social factors. This evolution is also anthropo-technological revolution that leads to the transformations of human physicality. They are organically linked with techno evolution of environment which find their expression in the physicality and the environment, and thus - in “expanding of physicality” and forms of individual activity, in the “expansion” and transformation of its mind. The point is that on a new stage of human 8

anthropo-technological evolution it can be expected the emergence of a qualitatively new type of consciousness - the planetary consciousness (based on networked information structures and new ways of communication). However, it does not negate personal and individual. It is about the paradigm shift of humanities towards “post-human” and “post-human personology”. The term of “post-human” means the person of informational computer reality. However vaccination, heart and brain surgery, organ transplantation etc. have already raised the question of limit beyond which even medical and humanitarian purposes cannot justify further technologizing of biological nature of human. But nobody could stop this technologizing, so quantity is now beginning to shift to quality. In accordance with this quality these mentioned achievements of biotechnology, genetic engineering, medicine - are growth of freedom that does not need any restrictions. But if this growth goes beyond the certain rules, may it require some regulatory restrictions? Today, we have reality of changing the criteria according to which we are aware and realize themselves as the authors of our own life and equal members of a democratic society. These realities put into question the human’s ability to consider oneself as the master of own life and respect others as equals. On the one hand, the new reproductive technologies, euthanasia, genetic engineering, using of stem cells, etc, extend the personal autonomy and freedom, on the other freedom is clearly and strictly limited, moving to the plane of genetic engineering. The point is not so much in biotechnology but rather in department of selfidentity from its physical nature, which depends on this self-identity. A serious moral and legal problem arises in genetic engineering concerning the protecting of the integrity of gene structures from unacceptable manipulation - the problem of sovereignty of biological basis of personality, its natural, physical identity to outside influence. Actually, a modern lifestyle has formulated and established a new foundation for human anthropology. This lifestyle leveled usual seasonal and daily cycles of time, did amorphous not only genitive, but traditional family also, rehabilitated unconventional sexual relationships, separated love from procreation, and procreation has already almost separated from reproductive abilities (from artificial fertilization and cultivation of embryos in test tubes to the further cloning). But the main thing - “it intensified dynamics of moving within the earth’s surface and the near space so that the ability to instantaneous orientation and to switch codes of perception and behavior became the key factor not so much of a luck and success but rather a condition of life competence” [7, p. 53] Of course, it sounds tendentious, but at the

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same time it is proving the difference between modern life and the usual, traditional. These facts and trends should be multiply by the revolution in information technology that has created a new reality (“Galaxy Online”). In this reality Internet addressee gets rid of any age, sex, ethnicity signs, which are assigned him naturally, socially and culturally. One internet profile can conceal several persons and behind a few ones can be the same person. The main character of modernity is a person as the author’s project, which is constantly used by the author - performer. In the situation of modern socio-cultural reality one of the dominant of which is “mass culture”, project choice comes in foreground, authored by person himself. It is about specific technology of design and implementation of the project, covering choice of life strategy, formation, positioning and promotion of certain personal image and reputation. Actually this is marketing technology, which involves the formation of own necessity and demand for ourselves not only in the job market, but also in social relationships, careers, personal and everyday life. In addition, the Living term of the personal project coincide with the Living term of goods and related brands. Is necessary to not wait for the destiny and assert ourselves, express ourselves in the information, social, economic, political and cultural space. Opportunities for such self advancement are exceptional today. Information technology in the context of globalization creates the huge prospects for initiation of personal and progressive contacts. It is clear that in this case total abandonment of the role and status identifications does not happen. However identities become as certain characteristics used in development technology and branding as well as biological, external appeal plays an important role in a society that is at a higher stage of evolutionary development. The status and role are not the goal and final result of identification but rather the means of project implementation. It should be noted that each stage generates its own form of socialization: the rejection of tribal status clears the field for the career advancement; exemption from the omnipotence of the bureaucracy creates opportunities for free play of economic, political and cultural forces; empowering identity, including by modern means of communication, stimulates new perspectives of personal fulfillment. The modern specialist increasingly appears as a “free agent.” Personal freedom comes into the foreground for such a person, the ability to remain oneself, the individual responsibility, with one’s own criteria for success and achievement. Requirements that were important in the late twentieth century (collective or tribal consciousness, corporatism) became less acceptable for such employee. Person’s work motivation and work ethic in general are hardly related to Protestant ethics, asceticism, self-denial.

He/she is not a human of organization, no carrier of corporate culture and corporate spirit. Person works for oneself, takes on the risks and chances. Does this mean that the culture of commitments is changed into culture of rights? Rather, the point is: now the work ceases to be a forced evil, and even a punishment. It “really becomes a resource of self-fulfillment and selfdevelopment” [7, p. 55]. In such context the problem of human nature changing has received extremely wide possibilities today (from plastic surgery and transplantation to genetic engineering). The urbanized technological civilization leads to loss of physical limitations. Beingness of human physicality, forms of existence become multivariate. The body is converted to analog of clothing that can be demonstrated and changed. The possibilities of genetic engineering are directly related to fertility, life extension, cloning, etc., which mediates different moral, legal, religious nature of human existence. However these features led to the emergence of a variety of answers to the question of the nature of the individual. Modern genetic engineering, medical advances have created not just bioethics and led to previously unimaginable moral, legal and religious incidents. As noted by E. Morin, «there is not only innovation and creation, but destruction also. The latter can occur as a result of innovative processes. Thus, the development of technology, industry and capitalism caused the destruction of traditional civilizations [4, p. 70]. In our case it is the destruction of the traditional understanding of human and its lifestyle. In the given context it is clear that essence of problem is not just a moral and ethical. It is about the limits of the individual, which in the European tradition coincide with boundaries of freedom and responsibility, creating the possibility of free will manifestation, self-consciousness and mind. But where and when “Self” begins and ends for today, and where the personality starts and ends? In fact, according to some researchers, the current representative of the majority of mankind is a “mass man”, who alienated from nature, society and its own living. It is a managed object, or rather, an object of manipulation, which feels itself as a subject only in such moments of its life, when it feels and goes beyond the total control and manipulation. But then such person is “able to act contrary to the needs of not just its own development, but also the whole society, demonstrating the facts of destructive, negative impact on nature and its social environment” [4, p. 44]. In the XX century such issues sound quite nontrivial. Already now as a result of injection into the structure of living matter not inherent for biota’s asymmetrical structure organic isomers such as food additives, medicines and so, the biogenic constant, for example, the cleanliness of living substance of the 9

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biosphere, has been essentially broken. It changes not only the structure of certain components of living organisms, but the biogenic basis of life existence on Earth. Humanity has not yet fully realized the negative consequences of using the genetically modified organics, various physical fields, radiation, chemicals, etc., which change the internal structure of living organisms and can finally lead to global vital catastrophe. In this context it is important to state that “today not only the society at large but also a particular person who owns modern technical facilities is able to change the social and natural evolution of the universe” [4, p. 43]. This trend is also confirmed by the pointed interest in recent decades to the so-called transpersonal (i.e. beyond personal) psychology, irrational spiritual practices, eastern religions etc. Common to them is the search for organic connection between man and the infinite field of consciousness (“universal mind” or “cosmic consciousness”), that is the search for output of a particular person beyond space-time and causeeffect limits. The thought is increasingly argued that the discovery of mirror neutrons and based on the achievements of quantum information theory, the hypothesis of quantum nature of consciousness will soon move from the category of metaphors to the status of one of the ontological basis of reality. In this situation, the limits of freedom and responsibility, especially for the future of man and humanity, lose their clarity and precision that they have acquired in new and modern times. The limits of freedom and responsibility in past centuries were largely limited by the property of the individual, in the literal sense, by the destiny (volume) of life. Like the irrational numbers, “substance” of freedom and responsibility in our time is becoming virtual, distant from common sense and everyday practice. What does it mean in that case the freedom and responsibility? Backbone factor and, therefore, the core of humanities and of all doctrines of a human there is a freedom - the existence in possibility. Freedom - is the source of creation of a new reality, the revelation of new worlds. The only carrier of freedom (so far) is the person, the being endowed with the cogitative ability for transition to a new state. This ability is detected through consciousness, thoughts, mind, through all that is traditionally associated with intellectual, spiritual activity. The carrier of freedom and spiritual experience of consciousness is not just the person, but personality, the limits of which (temporal and spatial) are determined and set in boundaries of freedom as responsibility. Personality, human, its consciousness - is not a static structure, but always is a process, action, a process of opening the completeness and integrity of connections and relationships of life - involvement in the integrity. And the responsibility for the 10

implementation of this integrity - a responsibility that we get from the others, pulling out from causality and locking on ourselves. The freedom that comes from responsibility is an epiphenomenon of development of socio-cultural experience. Mind and consciousness are secondary to the original responsibility. They are the measure and way of comprehension of responsibility as a rootedness in life. Expanding of knowledge circle reveals all the great horizons and depth of causality that exist in the world. “Consciousness of Self” - is the result of the responsibility that always comes after actions. [7, p. 47]. Opponents of “informational post-human reality” argue that its creators have intends to construct some new global, anthropological, anti-humanist positions, trying as soon as possible transform it into reality. The result is a perversion of basic values of our world, creation of theoretical foundation of human self-denial and replace it with artificial manmade mind ... Finally, the only true reality remains, “the network and nothing but it” (B. Loture). Anyone who wants to remain human should not resist the progress. It is necessary to drift because if we do not become part of the technical shaft rolling, it will turn us into a part of the road on which it rolls. In particular, we should be based on the understanding that biotechnology, genetic engineering, etc. - is a huge source of best and worst features. “Genetics and manipulation with human brain at the molecular level will open the possibility for construction of the human species according to common norms and standards, which have never been able to successfully implement through agitation and propagation. However, the new biotechnologies will also eliminate the physical weaknesses of individuals, which prevent their normal life, and also hinder to carry out the control over their own brain through mind”. [4, p. 64]. The desire of part of mankind to solve all the problems, based on the principle of Deus ex computatore (God from computer), and thus gradually get in a machine believing it is the immortality, it is impossible to prohibit. Representatives of the “post human informativeness” does not want to move forward only personally, but to make “tehnoinformatsionizm” as a thinking paradigm of humanity in general, considering “the virtual world as more initial, significant than the world of objects” [3, p. 97]. The main striving of communication technologies is to ensure information as quickly as possible. Through ongoing involvement in this world of communication technologies we are getting used to measure information by speed of obtaining it, forgetting that the main thing in it - is the content [6, p. 23]. As a result, that was dreamed by philosophers of Enlightenment and reduced to the chief ideal of the concept of the information society - an access to information - has become absolutely uncontrolled now.

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It is clear that for ordinary user not all the information is available, but even that which is available, is enough to get lost in it. As noted by famous Italian philosopher U. Eco, we are getting used to that at any moment we can get any information on the Internet without straining the memory. Eventually we have forgotten how to memorize something. From a view of philosopher, the trouble is that understanding that a computer can answer our questions at any time decreases the desire to memorize information. However, if you stop walking, you can become a person forced to move in a wheelchair. Another problem is valuation of information, and differentiation of reliable information and false. Results of this ease obtaining of information the capacity for learning is reduced, and especially for its critical comprehension. Scientific and critical search is a creativity, an active work to create not just information but rather knowledge, but in modern society we train only in its consumption. Certainly it makes no sense to criticize scientific and technical progress because it opposes “nature”, as it serves for continuation of life, helping to defeat the disease, thus contributing to fuller disclosure of human potential. In this sense, the genetic correction of human at the birth does not arise as something negative, provided that it can form the best “material” for the emergence of human (save it from genetic diseases, defects in development, etc.), that is to create a “perfect” person from natural perspective. However, what does arise, developed on the basis of this material, is of greatest interest. The point is that people are not improved in terms of morality, intelligence and other personality traits; the norms of human coexistence are only improved. It happens not because the evolution of moral or intellectual nature is carried out, but because, firstly, the material conditions of life are changed (life, food, travel, etc.), and secondly, the most optimal form of human interaction in society is produced (eg, the abolition of slavery was not because people suddenly became better, but because slavery as normal social relationships ceased to be effective at this stage of society) [6, p. 24-25]. In this context, it is clear that by focusing on the technology development, the humanities must not be forgotten. It is they that contribute to the development of new social relations, which promote the improvement of human. They represent value primarily as guardians of the human spirit manifestations. Nobody is denying the value of scientific advances, through which the improvement of quality of life and health are achieved. However, quality of life and health depends not only from the financial and physical well-being, but also from the filling of life by the meaning. It is in the humanities, we are faced with different approaches for searching the meaning of life. The humanities perform among

other a prognostic function. Future should not to be just an image, but to be clear, predictable and manageable. In addition, it is necessary to look further, to focus on the future border and goals, to understand the long-term consequences of our actions. Reflection on possible, essential and desirable option for the future must be one of the main objectives of the humanities. That it overcomes our belief based on the dependence on technology that is implemented in our mind in the form of technological thinking. The emphasis is on a philosophy which should provide a way out of the contradictions that have arisen as a result of auxiliary development of modern technologies. Modern science and technology, which forms (generates) the “knowledge society” - is a challenge for philosophy. At present the role of philosophy is not just to be an “Experimental Metaphysics”, a basis that is beyond the value construction of possible worlds. A human prospect is largely due to the role which philosophy can play in comprehending of a new world, created by science and technology, as well as in value orientation in it. Science and info world (new reality), generated by it, - is the main problem field of philosophical research now. Philosophy should not avoid the analysis of this issue referring to the fact that science has not justified expectations, entrusted to it. Because of fact that modern “techno science” can get out of human control the essential need for philosophy is recognized. We are talking about the fate of the human itself complete, knowing, thinking, full of high meanings. References: 1. Beck U. Society of risk. On the way to second modern [Text] / William Beck. - M.: Progress Tradition, 2000. - 384 p. 2. Dubrovsky D. Human nature, mass consciousness and the global future [Text] / D. Dubrovsky // Philosophical science. - 2013. - № 9. - P. 15-14. 3. Kutyrev V.A. Human and other: war of the worlds [Text] / V.A. Kutyrev. - SPb .: Aletheya, 2009. - 264 p. 4. Morin E. Education in the future: seven urgent problems [Text] / E. Morin // Synergetic paradigm. Synergetics of education. - M.: Progress - Tradition, 2007. - P. 24 - 96. 5. Oleynikov Y. The social aspect of the modern technical and technological modernization [Text] / Y. Oleynikov // Philosophical sciences. - 2010. - № 9. - P. 37-49. 6. Science. Technologies. Man [Text]: materials of “Round table” // Problems of Philosophy. - 2015. - № 9. - P. 5-39. 7. Tulchinskiy G. A new anthropology: the person in the future post humanity [Text] / G. Tulchinskiy // Problems of Philosophy. - 2009. - № 4. - P. 41-56. 11

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research


Pasichnyk Igor Demydovych

Voloshyna Viktoriia Oleksandrivna

Kalamazh Ruslana Volodymyrivna

Doctor of Psychology, Professor of the Department of Psychology and Pedagogics, Rector of the National University of Ostroh Academy Ostroh

PhD, Director of Cognition Lab, Lecturer of the Department of Psychology and Pedagogics of the National University of Ostroh Academy Ostroh

Doctor of Psychology, Professor of the Department of Psychology and Pedagogics, Vice-rector of Teaching and Education of the National University of Ostroh Academy, Ostroh

This study investigates to what extent Ease of Learning (EOL) judgments, immediate and delayed Judgments of Learning (JOL) tap the same underlying cognitive processes. The present experiment (i) compared item-by-item EOLs and JOLs under time pressure with those made without time pressure, with regard to the inter-correlation between them; (ii) examined the predictive validity of these judgments towards later cued recall; and (iii) investigated whether people use extrinsic cues when making EOLs, immediate and delayed JOLs. The results show that participants actually do not use extrinsic cues for making any type of metacognitive judgments; moreover they do not take into account that some word pairs are studied 5seconds and some 10 seconds. Key words: metacognition, metamemory, memory performance, metamemory monitoring, accuracy of metamemory monitoring, Ease of Learning Judgments (EOLs), Judgments of Learning (JOLs).

У статті викладено основні положення щодо організації та результати експериментального дослідження когнітивних процесів, що лежать в основі метапам’яттєвих суджень про легкість вивчення (EOL), миттєвих суджень про вивчене та відкладених суджень про вивчене (JOL). Завданнями експерименту було (1) порівняння рейтингів суджень EOL, миттєвих та відкладених JOL в умовах обмеженості часу їх здійснення та без обмеження; (2) порівняння прогностичної валідності цих суджень щодо продуктивності відтворення; (3) визначення, чи досліджувані орієнтувались на зовнішні сигнали (тривалість запам’ятовування 5 та 10 секунд) при здійсненні EOL, миттєвих та відкладених JOL суджень. Ключові слова: метапізнання, метапам’ять, продуктивність відтворення, метапам’яттєвий моніторинг, точність метапам’яттєвого моніторингу, судження про легкість вивчення (EOL), судження про вивчене (JOL).

Metacognitive processes play a significant role in everyday life, aiming to supervise and control various aspects of individual’s memory. Metacognition is a broad term that encompasses both knowledge and regulation of cognitive activity [1]. When people attempt to retrieve information from memory and therefore may judge what they already know or what do not know, this knowing of memory performance signals to one that some information is indeed available in memory

and worth searching for. Metamemory judgments probe people’s awareness of their own memory processes. The main reason of this research is to find what is important about such subjective feelings, and how this knowledge controls and affects memory performance [3; 7; 8]. There are a lot of different types of metamemory judgments in the contemporary terminology of cognitive psychology [2; 5; 8]. The first type of metamemory judgments that are


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explored in the current study is Ease of Learning (EOL) [3]. These judgments are made before the items are studied and estimate subject’s probability concerning the difficulty of learning of each item. For example, when one starts to study any new material he or she judge how easy or difficult different parts of it will be to learn before the actual beginning of learning. The process when one makes judgments how well he or she will learn the material depends on several factors such as familiarity, accessibility of related information, etc. In previous research it was found that EOL judgments are less predictive of later memory performance than JOLs because EOLs cannot be based on mnemonic cues [4]. The second type of Judgments of Learning (JOLs) are metamemory judgments being made when knowledge is acquired. Son and Metcalfe [9] suppose that JOLs made at a delay are based on two different processes but do not rely only on the single retrieval process. Additionally, researchers provide confirmation that JOLs may involve two distinct phases. The first phase is a fast pre-retrieval stage which is based on the cue familiarity. The second phase the metamemory judgments are based on is an assessment of the ease of retrieval. As a result of their study, they identify that JOLs are based only on the process of retrieval of the target information. Therefore, we can assume that the underlying basis for JOLs is the result of searching information in the memory whiles the process of evaluation of metamemory judgment. Additionally, Nelson and Dunlosky [7] found that JOLs were particularly accurate when they are delayed rather than are made directly after learning. Even after a small delay individuals could worthy judge of how well they had remembered the material. But they were not so accurate when they were tested immediately after reading information. Consequently, better strategy for memorizing of new material is waiting after remembering and only then we have to make JOL, in such a way we will show more accurate knowledge about future memory performance. Similarly, Metcalfe & Finn [6] found in their experiments that there are two sequential processes that underlie JOLs at a delay. As it was already mentioned, the first process is recognition of the cue, and it occurs rapidly, especially when very fast reaction time is set to some ‘do not know’ answers. For investigation processes underlying cognitive processes the authors implemented fast JOLs or allowed them to be slow. The relative accuracy of the JOLs in expected memory performance was higher for the slow JOLs than

for the fast JOLs. The slow JOL conditions matched with the fast JOL conditions revealed enhanced recall. Finally, the fast JOLs were sensitive to influences that modified recall ability of the target, while the fast JOLs were selectively sensitive to experimental variants in the cue familiarity. And the consequences of the two processes which potentially underlie delayed JOLs were proved in that research. Also, when we combine this study with theories of Jacoby and Brooks [2], Koriat et al. [5], we can assume that fast judgments are similar for nonanalytic judgments [2] or even for EB judgments [5], and slow JOLs are similar for analytic metamemory judgments [2] or for IB metamemory judgments [5]. Hence, in our study, we defined following objectives. First, we aimed to find out whether EOLs, immediate JOLs and delayed JOLs under time pressure vary from those metamemory judgments that are made without any time pressure in terms of its predictive validity; second, we wanted to examine the inter-correlations between different types of metamemory judgments such as EOLs, immediate JOLs and delayed JOLs. Materials and Methods The experiment program was designed for further finding cognitive processes which underlie EOLs, immediate and delayed JOLs. The manipulation with speeded and unspeeded condition was admitted for getting EB and IB judgments. Time information condition was proposed as an extrinsic cue, and word pair variables were proposed for measuring intrinsic cue. In addition, we look at the interrelation between the different types of judgments for better understanding the role of the underlying cognitive processes. Participants. Forty Ukrainian-speaking students (32 women and 8 men; mean age = 18.98 years, SD = 1.53) participated in the experiment. The participants were divided into two groups: Speeded and Unspeeded. Items consisted of 40 Ukrainian-Swedish word pairs (e.g., влада – makt) standardized to vary on the following variables: concreteness (e.g., олень – hjort), the familiarity with the first word in the word pair (e.g., супутник – satellit), and paired relatedness (e.g., міміка – mimik). We let students make EOL judgments on 40 UkrainianSwedish word pairs. Moreover, they studied word pairs and made an immediate JOL on each word pair, which was then followed by delayed JOLs. Finally, after a filler activity, they tested their memory in the form of a cued recall test. 13

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Results All correlation coefficients were checked with the help of Goodman-Kruskal gamma correlations (G). For the Analyses of Variance (ANOVA), the variables of Group (Speeded and/or Unspeeded) and Study Time (5 s or 10 s) were used. The Group is a between-subjects variable and Study Time is a within-subjects variable. When relevant for the analyses of the JOLs, the within-subjects variable JOL type (immediate and delayed) was also encompassed. Response latencies for EOL and JOL judgments. One of the main manipulations of this study was to compare fast intuitive judgments with judgments where one have unlimited time to make it. To ensure that this manipulation was successful, it was necessary to analyze the response latencies for these judgments. There was a main effect of Group, F (1, 45) = 51, 54; p = 0, 00. As expected, the Speeded group (M = 2, 87 s, SD = 0, 54) made their EOL judgments reliably faster than the Unspeeded group (M = 4, 73 s, SD = 1, 37). The same analysis was made with immediate JOLs as the dependent variable. Immediate JOL response latency as the dependent variable was thus entered into a Group x Study Time mixed ANOVA. There was a main effect of Group, F (1, 45) = 4.21, p = .05. As expected the Speeded group (M = 1, 64 s, SD = 0, 58) made reliably faster immediate JOL judgments than the Unspeeded group (M = 2, 17 s; SD = 1, 04). Also it was found significant effect of Study Time in Unspeeded group, F (1, 45) = 4, 48; p = 0, 05. Thus, in the Speeded group, there was a small, but significant, difference in response time between the 5 s (M = 2, 36 s; SD = 1, 19) and the 10 s (M = 1, 99; SD = 0, 93) of study time. The identical procedure was made for analysis of delayed-JOL judgments. Delayed-JOL response latency as the dependent variable thus entered into a Group x Study Time mixed ANOVA. As expected, the Speeded group (M = 1, 72 s; SD = 0, 72) made reliably faster delayed-JOL judgments [F (1, 45) = 5, 32; p = 0, 03] than the Unspeeded group (M = 2, 21 s; SD = 0, 60). Also it was found similarity of significant effect of Study Time in speeded group, F (1, 45) = 3, 01; p = 0, 09. As a result of the analysis of the response latencies for EOL, immediate and delayedJOL judgments, it can be summarized that the manipulation of time condition was successful, but not enough because time response for speeded group was under 2 s (M ˂ 2 s) and for Unspeeded group – under 3 s (M ˂ 3 s) for JOLs. For future work for receiving stronger manipulation, we should 14

stronger motivate participants with instructions to give more informational based judgments. Are EOLs and/or JOLs sensitive to the amount of study? There was no significant effect of Group [F < 1], of Study time (F < 1), of JOL type (F < 1), nor any interaction. It can, therefore, be concluded that the participants do not take this type of extrinsic cue (Study Time: 5 s or 10 s) into account when they make their metamemory judgments. We found that participants actually didn’t use extrinsic cues when making EOLs and JOLs, which is consistent with previous findings. For example, Koriat [4] demonstrated that people do not take extrinsic cues into account when making JOLs as they focus more on intrinsic or mnemonic cues. In the literature it is also shown that massed repetition (for example, learning for 10s continually) is worse strategy than spaced repetition (learning for 5s, having a short break, and learning for 5s again), thus, it is possible that there is reason why it happens as weak manipulation for getting reliable effect of Study Time is an independent variable. Memory performance as a function of study time. Do the participants remember the word pairs better after studying them for 10 s than after 5 s? To analyze this, cued recall performance was entered into a Group x Study Time mixed ANOVA. There was no main effect of Group, F (1, 45) = 1, 96; p = 0, 17, that is, the Speeded group did not perform better or worse than the Unspeeded group. Such results are expected because the study time does not differ between two groups. However, there also was found no significant effect for Study Time (F < 1), that is, 10 s of the study do not lead to better memory than 5 s of learning. The speeded group didn’t have better memory after 10 s of study (M = 0, 39; SD = 0, 17) or after 5 s of study (M = 0, 35; SD = 0, 23). The Unspeeded group, conversely, did not differ in recall as a function of 5s (M = 0, 38; SD = 0, 27) or 10s (M = 0, 35; SD = 0, 32) of learning. Predictive validity of the metamemory judgments. ANOVA analyses showed no significant effect of Group (F < 1), of Study time (F < 1), of Judgment type (F < 1), nor any interaction. Therefore, the predictive validity of EOL judgments (0, 34), immediate JOLs (0, 33) and delayed JOLs (0, 43) did not differ reliably as a function of these variables. Of key importance is that the delayed JOLs were as highly correlated with the EOLs, as the immediate JOLs. This is surprising as EOLs are assumed to be primarily based on intrinsic cues, similarly to immediate JOLs, whereas delayed JOLs are supposedly based on diagnostic retrieval attempts.

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Mean gamma correlations among metamemory variables due to time manipulation of Speeded/Unspeeded group Speeded Group Unspeeded Group EOL Immediate Delayed EOL Immediate JOL JOL JOL 1 0.39 0.41 1 0.58

Table 1

Delayed JOL 0.68

Immediate JOL







Delayed JOL







Note. All entries are significantly differ from zero, p < .05 Inter-correlations between metamemory judgments. The inter-correlations between the three judgments ranged from 0.39 to 0.44 for the Speeded group, and from 0.57 to 0.68 for the Unspeeded group (see Table 1). This indicates that at least the judgments partially seem to be based on common sources. Discussion The present study was focused on founding underlying cognitive processes in different types of metamemory judgments. We investigated EOL and immediate and delayed-JOL judgments under time pressure with the aim to find any difference between these metamemory judgments due to their accuracy and memory performance. The main manipulation of this research was to observe the difference between fast and slow judgments. According to the results of response latency, we can conclude that this manipulation was successful, but not enough. The difference between time responses was higher for EOL rather than for immediate and delayed JOLs. It can be explained that participants studied to make judgments faster and did it automatically; therefore, it is needed to change instruction with a better motivation to give judgments more thoughtfully in the Unspeeded group. Next part we investigated was to find what cues metamemory judgments are based on. We found out that participants actually did not use extrinsic cues for making judgments. There is set of works in the literature due to our results. For example, Koriat [4] reported that people do not take extrinsic cues into account; they focus more on intrinsic or mnemonic cues. We also investigated if the participants making their immediate JOLs and delayed JOLs take into account that some word pairs were studied for 5s and some for 10s. That was not the case, which corresponds with the conclusion for

the EOLs. Hence, our results confront the results of Koriat’s research [4]. In all four experiments of that research, initial JOLs were highly correlated with the item difficulty measure. According to Koriat’s view, judgments of learning utilize a variety of cues and apply different heuristics and beliefs to infer the future recall ability of the studied information. One mnemonic cue that was proposed to underlie judgments of learning is ease or fluency of processing [5]. This cue is generally diagnostic of the future recall ability of the studied item because easily processed items have better chance to be recalled or recognized in the future. The greater sensitivity of delayed JOLs to study time possibly reflects heavier reliance on mnemonic cues that are correlated with study time. It is unlikely that this effect is due to the direct use of the extrinsic aspect of study time (e.g., “I should recall this item because I have seen it for longer time”) because this implies better memory for the study history, but in our case, this effect wasn’t found. In our experiment we do not found any influence of extrinsic cue on EOLs and JOLs, and it can be explain that people cannot estimate a distance of time; it is easier for them to find analogy “several times”, “double time”. Additionally, Koriat [4] found that participants used extrinsic cue when they estimated how well they will learn if they see the presentation several times. Therefore we can use another formulation of how much time participants have for learning with a meter to help them estimating the time distance they will have for study. Also, we found that participants used intrinsic cues, especially ones called “associated relatedness”. Therefore people when making their judgments think more about associations which exist in their minds while studied material is in the process of memorization. When people make EOLs they retrieve the information they already know and associate it with new material, and different JOLs are based on these thoughts. That’s 15

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why the expectation that associated relatedness is more correlated with EOL did not approve. To sum up, we can say that intrinsic cues are used as the underlying structure for all three metamemory judgments. Although, the advantage of the trace-access approach explains JOL accuracy: JOLs are accurate in predicting recalls because both JOLs and recalls are sensitive to memory strength. If that is correct, then any factor that enhances a degree of learning could have similar effects on both JOLs and recall [8]. Of course, the correlation between JOL’s and recalls performance is not expected to be perfect because recall possibly depends on other factors except for trace strength. Also, as it was already mentioned, time adding in a massed repetition fashion is a weak manipulation. Far better manipulation for future studies is to utilize a spaced repetition paradigm for getting effects on memory, thus, it is more optimal to choose spaced repetition as a reliable manipulation of study time. Conclusions As a general conclusion, we can summarize that metamemory monitoring is the process of estimation of the current status of cognitive activity, which is aimed to prognosticate future memory performance and to accurately assess its prognoses. Current experiment showed that EOLs are based more on nonanalytic cognitive processes rather than on analytic. When participants make judgments under time pressure, their faster judgments are more similar to each other, when they make judgments with the enough time, EOL judgments are different from other metamemory judgments. So we can presume that JOLs are more informative, conscious, and thoughtful, in contrast to EOLs. In our experiment people do not use extrinsic cues when making judgments, and it can be explained with the particularity of the given manipulation. Future studies should delineate whether people take into account intrinsic cues when making EOLs and JOLs, as well as to define more sensitive conditions for investigation of extrinsic cues in the metamemory judgments (e.g., the use of several levels of study duration definitions, etc).


References: 1. Flavell J. H. Perspectives on the development of memory and cognition / J.H. Flavell, H. M. Wellman // In R. V. Kail, Jr. & J.W. Hagen (Eds.), – 1977. – P. 3-33. 2. Jacoby L. L. Nonanalytic cognition: Memory, perception, and concept learning/ L. L. Jacoby, L. R. Brooks // Psychology of Learning and Motivation. – 1984. – Vol. 18. – P. 1-47. 3. Koriat A. Processes underlying metacognitive judgments: Information-based and experiencebased monitoring of one’s own knowledge. / A. Koriat, R. Levy-Sadot // In S. Chaiken, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology. – 1999. – P. 483-502. 4. Koriat A. Monitoring one’s own knowledge during study: A cue-utilization approach to judgments of learning / A. Koriat // Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. – 1997. Vol. 126. – P. 349-370. 5. Koriat A. Information-based and experiencebased metacognitive judgments: Evidence from subjective confidence / A. Koriat, R. Nussinson, H. Bless, N. Shaked // In J. Dunlosky, & R. A. Bjork (Eds.). A Handbook of Memory and Metamemory. – 2008. – P. 117-136. 6. Metcalfe J. Familiarity and Retrieval Processes in Delayed Judgments of Learning / B. Finn, Metcalfe J. // Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition. – 2008. - Vol. 34. - №. 5. – Р. 1084 –1097. 7. Nelson T. O. When people’s judgments of learning (JOLs) are extremely accurate at predicting subsequent recall: The “delayed-JOL effect” / J. Dunlosky, T. O. Nelson // Psychological Science. – 1991. - № 2. – Р. 267–270. 8. Nelson T. O. Metamemory: A theoretical framework and new findings. / L. Narens, T. O. Nelson, In G. Bower (Ed.) // The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances In Research and Theory. – 1990. - № 26. – Р. 125–133 9. Son L. K. Metacognitive and Control Strategies in Study-Time Allocation / L. K. Son, J. Metcalfe // JournаІ of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. – 2000. - Vol. 26, No. 1. – Р. 204 – 221.

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The article deals with technique of teaching economy in the content of a school course of the history of Ukraine in the 8-9th forms according to requirements of the competence approach. On the base of analyzed guidance literature it was proposed the content, forms, means, methods and ways of modern teaching economy in the school course of the history of Ukraine. It was determined that economy in the school course of the history of Ukraine is the base in forming entrepreneurial and social key competences and historical subject competence in all components (spatial, chronological, informational, logical and axiological competences). Taking into consideration of modern achievements in technique of teaching economy will help to master the history of Ukraine at all and especially to understand the economic history. Scientific effects are worth noticed in teaching history at school. Key words: economic history, competence approach, technique of teaching, guidance literature.

У статті представлено методика навчання економічної складової у змісті шкільного курсу історії України у 8-9 класах з врахуванням вимог компетентнісного підходу до навчання. На основі проаналізованої науково-методичної літератури запропоновано зміст, форми, засоби, методи і прийоми сучасного навчання економіки у шкільному курсі історії України. Визначено, що економіка у шкільному курсі історії України є основою при формуванні в учнів ключових підприємницької та соціальної компетентностей та предметної історичної компетентності в усіх її складових (просторова, хронологічна, інформаційна, логічна, аксіологічна компетентності). Врахування сучасних досягнень у методиці навчання історії сприятиме кращому засвоєнню як історії України загалом, так і розумінню економічної історії зокрема. Результати дослідження варто використати у навчанні історії у школі. Ключові слова: економічна історія, компетентнісний підхід, методика навчання, науковометодична література.

Introduction Last events in Ukraine affirm about the crisis in the educational system at all and especially in methods of teaching economy in the historical educational content of Ukraine. On the one side, modern technique inherited achievements of the Soviet methodical school. In the USSR methodologists and scholars created the system of teaching economy in the school course of the history according to the Soviet ideology. The formation approach was used in the base of this system of teaching. Nowadays modern state educational standard and history curriculum fix requirements as to realization of competence and civilization approaches in the process of historical teaching. The Soviet system of teaching isn’t topical

for today. That’s why it is necessary to create new system of teaching economy in the school course of the history of Ukraine. On the other side, economy is one of the main elements in historical school education that lays some knowledge, skills, attitude, which need for young generation. Teachers convince it is very hard to teach pupils to understand and to use economy from historical course in the future using traditional technique. Effects of questioning among pupils of the 8-9th forms showed the middle level, which they had. That’s why, we think it is necessary to propose new technique of teaching economy in the content of the history of Ukraine for 8-9th forms. K. Bakhanov, O.  Vagin, M.  Vynokurova, V.  Komarov, O.  Pometun and others wrote works 17

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and articles, which devoted to problems of teaching economy in the school course of the history of Ukraine. But, there aren’t enough modern guidance editions in teaching economy in the historical school course, which take into consideration requirements of the competence approach to the process of teaching. The article aim is to represent modern technique of teaching economy in the school course of the history of Ukraine for the 8-9th forms with requirements of the competence approach to the process of teaching. The results Changes in the educational content cause changes in the content of historical education. Today educational content is a system with requirements of modern society to young people in order to prepare them to realize acquired knowledge, skills, experience and positive attitude in their lives. The content of historical school education is a system-defined set of knowledge, skills, experience and attitude, which pupils get when they learn history at school. Nowadays in the content of historical school education there is an emphasis on human, where economy, politics or social sphere serve as a background in order to show circumstances of human life in some historical period. Accordingly economic component is one of the elements in the content of historical school education, which is the set of economic facts, tendencies or changes in human life. The technique of teaching economy is a single-minded process of personification, organization of educational pupils’ activity in order to acquire new knowledge, skills, experience or positive attitude when schoolchildren study economic past of Ukraine. The technique of teaching economy in the content of the school course of the history of Ukraine has its content, forms, methods, ways and means which help to teach economic history of Ukraine at school. The curriculum, the topic, aims and tasks for the lesson determine the content of historical and economic information. Also teaching economy in history lessons determines by logical and structural peculiarities of the lesson. For instance, when you teach economy you should take into consideration personal specific features of pupils from different classes, an individual approach to the process of teaching pupils, the ascertainment of connection with aims and tasks of other history lessons from the curriculum, the reality of its fulfillment. Generally, the content of economic information, which determines for teaching during one lesson, should be not so hard, be up to educational possibilities. The teacher should choose educational information individually. I. Unt, a scholar, convinces that teachers have some problems in this. Because curriculums, 18

textbooks, study guides are very standardized. In other words, they give theory and practical tasks inadequate according to individual approach in the process of teaching. Also native educational school system isn’t perfect because the frontal work predominates and there aren’t enough practical psychologists at school, who will help history teachers to better knowing of specific features and possibilities of modern pupils. So, I. Unt thinks we need individualization in the school education because it helps pupils for better mastering [1]. Nowadays requirements of modern times to the historical teaching are not only familiarized pupils with human experience in searching and finding positive attitude, but to create possibilities for self-dependent finding of this experience, develop their attitude to our environment. The process of forming creative person, who used to improve, communicate with others in order to do some important tasks, to show self-dependency, responsibility and take initiative, is a guideline of modern education. O.  Pometun, a famous Ukrainian scholar, suggests it is essentially for nowadays to get the set of vital competences by pupils which need for their lives in a quick-changing world. The competence of human is an ability and preparedness of person to make activity effectively and create communication with other people using received knowledge and formed skills. It allows affirming that the competence of human is a complete structured set of knowledge, skills, habits and attitude, which are acquired in the process of teaching. This set helps for pupils to solve problems in different spheres of human activity regardless of the situation. Modern Ukrainian pedagogy determines such levels of competences as: - Key competence – a competence that has some set of knowledge, skills, habits and attitude, which are acquired by pupils from all contents of the school education; - Branch competence – a competence, which acquires from the content of some educational branch in all classes of the secondary school; - Subject competence – a competence, which forms during learning of some school subject in all classes of the secondary school [3, p. 4]. School graduates of the general education have to master such key competences as: learning to learn, cultural awareness, sense of entrepreneurship, social, civil, digital and health-saving competences [3, p.  4]. Obviously that economy is the element of the entrepreneurial competence, which, in the interpretation of the European scholars, is the human ability to realize ideas in practice and also is an integral quality which is based on creativity, innovation, the ability to risk, to master and to organize the entrepreneurial business [4, p.  11]. G.  Nazarenko, a

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methodologist, thinks the process of acquirement of the entrepreneurial competence has subjective and objective character. It means every human creates his or her own attitude to some economic realia, forms his or her own opinion as to economic relations and their perspectives in the future. Yu. Bilova, another scientist, created the structure of the entrepreneurial competence, which has such components as: - Motivational and value component, which helps to create internal ground that stimulates person to do the entrepreneurial business, attitude to the enterprise in the professional and day-to-day activities; - Knowledge component, which includes knowledge of main concepts, methods of the entrepreneurial activity; - Activity component, which helps to form practical skills in the entrepreneurial activity; - Emotional and volitional component, which includes the ability to understand person’s own emotional condition in the entrepreneurial activity. But modern Ukrainian historians pay attention to the economic history which is more connected with the analysis of social problems. That’s why specialists from this sphere combine the analysis of economic processes with the explanation of dynamics of social improvements. In such a way we think the economic component is a part of the social competence. Thus, the social competence is the human ability which causes and applies flexible response to different requests [5, p.  79-80]. T.  Smagina, a scholar, created main components of the social competence as: - Knowledge component, which includes knowledge about society and social laws, processes in taking a decision, the base of cooperation and communication; - Value component, which is the ability to cooperation, social responsibility, the determination of own attitude; - The component of behavior, which is the ability to communicate depending in situation, be responsibility, can effectively cooperate with others. In fact, structures of social and entrepreneurial competences concur with the structure of the content of the economic culture, which were created by V.  Radaev. Thus, this scholar distinguishes such components in the content of the economic culture as: - Cognitive component, which is the ability to get knowledge and skills; - Value component, which is the ability to adopt values; - Symbolic component, which is the ability to master ways of the identification and the interpretation of events [1]. That’s why, we suggest economic component in historical school education is the part of entrepreneurial

and social key competences. Common elements in economic component in historical educational course are: - Cognitive or knowledge component, which is the ability of pupils to get knowledge and skills in the process of teaching economic history; - Value component is the ability to adopt values, determine of own attitude as to the economic activity of people in the past, to find reasons, which cause people to have some economic activity; - Symbolic and action component is the ability of forming practical skills in the work with historical and economic information. Economy in the content of the history education at all and especially in the history of Ukraine is the background of development among pupils of historical competence in all its components (spatial, chronological, informational, logical and axiological competences) [2]. One of the main notions in the technique of teaching is expected results, which fix what pupils have to learn during some school course. Nowadays the curriculum in the history of Ukraine doesn’t select expected results after teaching economy separately. That’s why, we created these expected results according to requirements of the competence approach. So, we offer such expected results for the 8th form as: - Chronological competence (pupils call dates of enslaving peasants in Ukraine; correlate economic facts, processes or phenomena with the XVI – XVIII centuries); - Spatial competence (pupils correlate economic facts as the foundation of towns in the Slobozhanshchyna, Cossacks’ farms (zymivnyk), enslaving and liberation of peasants with historical and geographic regions of Ukraine; using the historical atlas describe and compare economic relations of different historical and geographic regions of Ukraine between each other, with other countries); - Informational competence (using historical sources of information pupils characterize specific features of the economic life in the Ukrainian lands; explain the content of historical sources of information with economic facts, processes or phenomena in them without assistance); - Logical competence (pupils explain and use notion «farm»; give examples of changes in the economic situation among inhabitants of the Ukrainian lands during the XVI – XVIII centuries); - Axiological competence (pupils judge the role of capitalism in the XVI – XVIII centuries; take an attitude as to the economic importance of the serfdom among inhabitants in the Ukrainian lands). As for the 9th form, we offer such expected results as: - Chronological competence (pupils call years of the 19

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serfdom liquidation in the Ukrainian lands, the construction of the first railroads, creating of the first monopolies; correlate economic facts, processes or phenomena with the XIX century); - Spatial competence (pupils correlate economic facts like «industrial revolution», «agricultural and industrial specialization», «serfdom liquidation», «construction of the first railroads», «creating of the first monopolies», «depriving of the land among peasants» with historical and geographic regions of Ukraine; using the historical atlas describe and compare economic relations of different historical and geographic regions of Ukraine between each other, with other countries); - Informational competence (using historical sources of information pupils characterize economic changes among inhabitants of the Under-Austrian and the Under-Russian parts of Ukraine; analyze, compare and take an attitude to the content of historical sources of information as to causes, essence and effects of the agrarian reform in the Ukrainian lands); - Logical competence (pupils explain and use such notions like «industrial revolution», «monopoly», «patron»; give and compare economic changes among inhabitants of the Under-Austrian and the Under-Russian parts of Ukraine); - Axiological competence (pupils judge the importance of work for inhabitants of the Ukrainian lands; take an attitude to activity of Ukrainian enterprises, who were philanthropists). In accordance to these we suggest in school lessons of the history of Ukraine it is necessary to form all components of historical subject competence, use interactive methods of teaching economy actively, use traditional and practical lessons as main forms in lessons of the history of Ukraine. Main types of lessons in teaching economy in the school course of the history of Ukraine are: the lesson of mastering new educational information, the lesson of forming and improving skills and experience, the lesson of fixing and using knowledge, skills and habits, the lesson of summarizing and systematization of knowledge, skills and habits, the lesson of controlling and correction of knowledge, skills and habits, the combined lesson. Main ways are the work with the historical atlas, textbooks, tables, diagrams, historical sources of information, problem tasks, discussion with pupils etc. Main methods in teaching economy in the content of the school course of the history of Ukraine in the general educational school are active, passive and interactive. Modern methodologists suggest main structure of lessons in teaching economy should have such elements as: actualization of basic knowledge and notions among pupils; motivation and determination 20

of aims; mastering and comprehending of new information; forming of skills and habits; summarizing and systematization of learning information; control, evaluation and reflection of educational effects; giving and explaining the hometask [1]. Conclusions In conclusion, we think modern education is in need of new technique of teaching economy in the school course of the history of Ukraine according to requirements of the competence approach. Economic element is the background of development among pupils of entrepreneurial and social key competences and historical subject competence in all its competence (spatial, chronological, informational, logical and axiological competences). The technique of teaching economy has its own content, forms, methods, ways and means. Taking into account of modern achievements in the technique of teaching history will cause better understanding both school course of the history of Ukraine at all and especially the economic history. References: 1. Balandyuk R. G. (2015).  Metodychni aspekty navchannya ekonomichnoi skladovoi zmistu istorii Ukrainy maibutnikh vchyteliv istorii [Methodical approaches of teaching economic component in the content of the Ukrainian history for the future history teachers]. Zbirnyk prac Rivnenskogo derzhavnogo gumanitarnogo universytetu – Proceedings of Rivne State University of Humanities, 12, 35-40 [in Ukrainian]. 2. Derzhavnyi standart bazovoi i povnoi zagalnoi serednoi osvity [State standard of basic and full general secondary education]. Retrieved from: [in Ukrainian]. 3. Pometun O.  I. (2007). Kompetentnisnyi pidkhid u suchasniy istorychniy osviti [The competence approach in modern hisrorical education]. Istoriya v shkholakh Ukrainy – History in Ukrainian schools, 6, 3–12 [in Ukrainian]. 4. Key Competencies for Lifelong Learning: European References framework. – Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2007. – 12 p. 5. Waters E. Social Competence as a developmental construct / E. Waters, L. Sroufe // Developmental Review. – 1983. – № 3. – P. 79–97.

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UDC 159.964 EMIGRANTS ADAPTATION AS THEIR MENTAL HEALTH GUARANTEE Nadiya Burmaka Ph.D. in Psychology, Professor at the International Academy of Sobriety, full Member of EuANH (Scotland, UK)

This article is devoted to the review of scientific concepts concerning the problem of emigrants’ adaptation to permanent residence in another country. The notion of ‘an emigrant’, ‘migration’ and ‘immigration’ is found and outlined. The characteristics of an emigrants’ ‘social adaptation’ and ‘social exclusion’ as well as their phases and factors are fully presented. The categories that are difficult to adapt like elderly people and teenagers are defined. The basic psychological problems of emigrated people are analyzed. They include, but are not limited to, mental or cultural difficulties; adaptation to new conditions of life; and loss of emotional ties. It has been found that such factors as communication, motivation, dedication, perseverance, self-control, resistance to nerve stress etc. play a vital role in the adaptation of an emigrant. The process of adaptation is diametrically characterized by rapid adaptation and lowering the emotional spirit, deep depression might be followed along with alcoholism, drug addiction, mental disorders and somatic diseases. There was proof of efficiency by using the method of active social-psychological training within the context of adaptation of emigrants to their new environment. By analyzing the tendencies of unconscious psyche (infantile tendencies, tendencies towards psychological death and psychological impotence), we found the subject to adapt to the harsh conditions. It is found that the group activities aiming to clarify the deep psychological preconditions of difficulties in adapting emigrants helps to identify the unconscious problems that exacerbate in critical situations and create cases of maladaptive behavior. Key words: emigrant, migration, social adaptation, social exclusion, unconscious, psychological impotence, psychological death, alcoholism, drug addiction, gambling addiction.

Ilona Kalashnik, Ph.D. in Psychology, docent of psychology Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy

Стаття присвячена огляду наукових концепцій щодо проблеми адаптації емігрантів до іншої країни проживання. Розкрито поняття «емігрант», «міграція», «імміграція» та окреслено їх сутність. Представлено характеристики «соціальної адаптації» та «соціальної дезадаптації» емігранта, її фази та чинники. Визначено категорії суб’єктів, що найбільш складно адаптуються в еміграції, серед яких люди похилого віку та підлітки. Проаналізовано основні психологічні проблеми суб’єктів, що знаходяться в еміграції, до яких відносяться: ментальні або культурні труднощі; адаптація у нових умовах життя; втрата емоційних зв’язків. З’ясовано, що суттєву роль в адаптації емігранта відіграють такі чинники як: комунікативність, вмотивованість, цілеспрямованість, наполегливість, самоконтроль, стійкість до нервових перенапружень тощо. Для процесу адаптації характерні полярності від швидкої адаптації до зниження емоційного тонусу і глибокої депресії, яка може виявлятися у залежностях (алкоголізм, наркоманія, ігроманія тощо), психічних розладах та соматичних захворюваннях. Доведено ефективність використання методу активного-соціально психологічного навчання у контексті адаптації емігрантів до нового середовища. Шляхом здійснення аналізу несвідомих тенденцій психіки (інфантильні тенденції, тенденція до психологічної смерті та психологічної імпотенції) суб’єкт стає більш адаптованим до плинних умов життя. Встановлено, що групова діяльність, яка спрямована на з’ясування глибинно-психологічних передумов труднощів адаптації емігранта, сприяє виявленню неусвідомлюваних проблем, які загострюються у кризовій ситуації та створюють виникнення дезадаптивних форм поведінки. Ключові слова: емігрант, міграція, соціальна адаптація, соціальна дезадаптація, несвідоме, психологічна імпотенція, психологічна смерть, алкоголізм, наркоманія, ігроманія. 21

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The problem of emigration in the scientific literature The question of emigration has not lost its relevance for many years; this is the subject of a great number of historical sources. Immigration processes for Ukrainian people is a common phenomenon that can be traced for centuries, it describes the Ukrainians as one of the most dispersed nations in the world. In emigration there was a large number of prominent Ukrainians such as P. Orlik, M. Drahomanov, M. Hrushevsky, P. Skoropadskyi, D. Dontsov and other significant figures. In emigration numerous academic and creative achievements were and are being created both by immigrants and their descendants, which unfortunately are scarcely explored. Determinants of psychological adaptation phenomenon in emigration is not disclosed enough, although the scientific literature raised many questions on the issue of “psychological readiness to emigrate”, “adaptation to emigration,” “depression in emigration,” “preservation of national identity in emigration” and so on. These studies are characterized by selectivity of the defined phenomena and the absence of single view on the issue of psychological adaptation. The presented article aims to theoretically summarize and reveal issues of adaptation in emigration and its background, and outline the consequences of exclusion. These consequences include: depression in their various manifestations, so called “alcoholism of immigrants” and other various kinds of addictions and psychological problems associated with separation and loss of emotional ties with family and others. The problem of emigration is investigated by such scientists (S. Gurieva, G. Zborovskyy, E. Shirokova, O. Mykhaliuk, Yu. Platonov, etc.), foreign researchers (L. Blum, S. Vilpert, K. Ginsburg, B. Dorevend A. Cropley, E. Layer, G. Talinos, E. Hamberg) and others. Research of scientists is characterized by discontinuity and highlight only partial migration issues. Scientists have claimed that in today’s society (former Soviet countries) there has formed generally negative attitude towards immigration: demographic crisis; the phenomenon of “child abandonment”, negative image of miserable migrant worker abroad, and so on. There is advocated the view that such an image occurs frequently and causes emigrants to break social ties and eventually lose their national identity. As is stated in scientific sources, emigration, particularly of Ukrainians, is a behavioral stereotype that was formed during a long period of time and has formed a certain readiness of the subjects to resettlement. Let us try to reveal the concepts: “emigrant”, “migration”, “immigration”, “emigration”, “re-emigration.” Emigrant - “a person who has moved to another country for various reasons (economic, political, religious)” [11, p. 248]. The term “migration” is outlined in the dictionary as “the resettlement or 22

relocation, and is a complex social phenomenon, which is distinguished by considerable scale and diversity” ... “resettlement of the working population, due to economic reasons.” Immigration - “entry into the country for permanent or temporary, usually long-term stay from another country.” Emigration “leaving the country for permanent or temporary, but long-term residence in another country.” Re-emigration - “return of emigrants to the homeland for permanent residence” [11, p. 432]. Thus, the outlined above concepts describe the changes in the life of the subject or group. Such changes may occur on a variety of grounds, including: migrants who move for permanent residence; persons employed under the contract; illegal immigrants. These people are united by a number of factors including: economic, political instability, the desire for changes, personal reasons and more. Emigrating or departing for a certain time (leaving relatives, friends and dwelling) they set their hopes in some positive changes. As a result, the subject sometimes does not realize how difficult could be the process of adaptation, especially if not to pay attention to his own mental health. The consequences of an unsuccessful adaptation may be such manifestations as: mental and physical illnesses, different addictions (alcohol, drug, gambling), divorce and more. Exclusion in emigration and importance of a psychologist’s assistance In the scientific literature they define the concept of “social adaptation” as “an individual adaptation to the conditions of the social environment, forming of adequate system of relations with the social objects, role plasticity of the behavior, integration of the individual into social groups, activities in assimilating in stable social conditions, acceptance of norms and values of new social environment, forms of social interaction “[6, p. 501]. Thus, the process of interaction of personality and environment consists in search and use by the subject of adequate ways to meet own needs by adjusting to social norms, traditions and general requirements of the society. In general, in the problem of adaptation in emigration the issues of alcoholism, divorce and suicidal behavior appear to be very serious. Emigrant alcoholism: social, psychological and social isolation, a sense of loneliness, loss of social status associated with professional and social disorderliness of emigrants. Most often these are the personalities who had in their homeland high social, professional, financial status, the loss of which creates a sense of “psychological death.” Such “psychological death” finds a manifestation in the sense of loss of hope for a better life, self-actualization, helplessness and meaninglessness of existence, loss of taste for life and so on. The outlined above anxieties may lead to the

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emergence of destructive tendencies, because the subject is in a constant stress situation. The problem of adaptation of emigrants has been raised in the scientific quests. A. Shurupova, Shaygerova L.A., L. Rybakovskyy have outlined this process as “an adaptation of a subject to changing environmental conditions” ... “type of interaction between the individual or social group with social environment in the course of which there are coordinated their mutual requirements and expectations “[19, p. 54]. Researchers have determined the following basic forms of social adaptation of an emigrant: progressive - is characterized by a general increase in life activity of individuals; idioadaptation - forced or impulsive change of scope of activity; regressive – is characterized by a general decrease of energy of the life activity [9, 18]. Thus, the process of adaptation is characterized by varying the polarity from progressive rapid adaptation to the changed conditions, and reduced emotional tone and depressive position. The conducted analysis of scientific research in the context of adaptation allows to note that there is defined a large number of forms, kinds of adaptation and its consequential effects for the subject of emigration. An important contribution to the problem of adapting of emigrants was made by N. Khrustaleva, T. Stefanenko, O. Mykhaliuk, Yu. Platonov and others. T. Stefanenko, N. Khrustaleva write that one of the important internal factors of the exclusion of an emigrant is a cultural shock that the individual feels at the initial stages of adaptation. Such exclusion may be manifested in the phenomena of marginalization, anomie, various psychopathologies and so on. In the context of the presented article valuable is the understanding of the adaptation in emigration by N. Khrustaleva, who determines the following phases thereof. As the first phase the is defined “euphoric” or “honeymoon” during which there is no change in the subject’s activity, and only the emotional sphere of the psyche turns to be enabled, which causes contemplative and passive mood. This mood lasts from several days to several months, depending on individual typological characteristics of an emigrant. It should be noted that this phase is a prerequisite for adaptation, especially when cultural differences are quite large. For example, like emigration from Europe to USA. The next phase, according to N. Khrustaleva is “Tourism”, which involves comprehension of the outside of the situation, the construction of its image and the subsequent inclusion of this image in a holistic representation of the subject of himself and the environment “[16, p. 54]. That is, in this period there is the construction of the painting “I’m in this world” when the emigrant is trying to imagine himself, his activities and life in another country. Next phase, according to the scientists, is

the “orientational” one, when the emigrant has to understand not only external, but also internal bureaucratic, socio-political, economic order of a new society. At this stage, there is a constant overcoming of the stress, which is caused by a variety of problematic situations of the gap between the desired and actual” [16, p. 55]. Overcoming of this phase is important for the subject because it precedes the “crisis”. The “critical phase” depends on the successful passage of this stage, which is notable for vulnerability both physiological and psychological. The researcher stresses that at this stage a person is most vulnerable to physical and mental illnesses. The next and equally important phase is “depressed” that is experienced by all the immigrants regardless of the level of success in overcoming difficulties of previous phases, and its duration depends on a number of objective and subjective factors. The last is the “action” phase following the depressed one and depending primarily on the extent of the individual’s activity and its social adaptability. This phase is inherent of immigrants with low levels of cognitive and motivational rigidity and an adequate level of claims [16]. Thus, the identified by the researcher phases of emigrant’s adaptation to modern environments are fairly substantial, but the nature of some stages is not represented widely. Important in the context of adaptation processes in our opinion, are all presented stages, but particularly dangerous, and one that needs support is the critical and the depressive phase. Such phases may last for long period of time, which has negative impact on the life activity of the subject of emigration. O. Mykhaliuk, Yu. Platonova stressed that adaptation is impossible without assimilation, which implies the loss of own language, culture and identity of representatives of the people, who are in the environment the other people. Acquisition by ethnic minority of models and norms of the dominant culture envisage the loss of their own cultural customs. Such assimilation envisages duration since the first generation of emigrants typically preserve the traditions of its own nation. Researchers determine the following stages of adaptation of emigrants: purposeful conformism (migrants know how to act in the new environment, but do not internally recognize the value system of the new environment and follow the old system); mutual tolerance (mutual tolerance to values and forms of behavior of each side of the migrant and the environment in which he has got to); accommodation (is characterized by concessions on the part of an emigrant); assimilation (complete adaptation, in which the individual completely renounces his former values, and accepts the value system of the new environment) [see: 8]. Thus, the described above forms of adaptation of an emigrant are quite informative in the context of the development of tolerance, flexibility and so on. Let us 23

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note that the process of assimilation, which is stated above, envisages a full merging and integration of an emigrant, but such a process, after the results of our study, is not always fast. As an example, serve national quarters in big cities such as New York, Munich (Ukrainian, Polish, Italian, Chinese, etc.) quarters or districts where the generations emigrants do not know the language of the country of residence. Such the inability to integration determines low level of development of people and their inability to maintain the required standards of living in emigration. Lowskilled job because of language barriers, difficulties in integration into the training environment, limiting of communication by his national range creates a certain vacuum to come out of which to the emigrant over the years is increasingly difficult. In the scientific literature there is also given an explanation of such a phenomenon as “exclusion in emigration” and is defined a number of subjective characteristics that contribute to adaptation. Thus, T. Stefanenko to the important subjective factors of adaptation includes: high communicative potential of the individual as the subject of communication; availability of intellectual and volitional complex, which provides the learning capability, critical thinking, readiness to change the course of individual development, purposefulness, perseverance, responsibility, discipline, self-control; resistance to nervous and mental overloads, self-regulation of labor conditions, high level of efficiency and vitality. [12]. To similar opinion adheres N. Palagina: the scientific notes that psychological adaptation - is a adaptation of person as a social being to the norms, conditions, principles of etiquette in the society. Adaptation serves as the indicator of the state of a human, reflecting his ability to fulfill certain psychological functions as: adequate perception of reality and his own body; adequate system of relationships and communication with others; ability to work, to education, to organization of leisure and recreation; variability (adaptability) of behavior according to role expectations of others [8]. Listed above factors of adaptability of personality play almost a leading role since the psychological adaptability consists in lability, flexibility of personality. Significant role in the adaptation is played by the ability of the subject of emigration to adapt to emotionally difficult, sometimes traumatic situations, such as: radical change activity (from a director of the enterprise to a nurse or maid, etc.); temporary separation from the family (children, spouses, parents are left); loneliness (lack of friends and limited communion with relatives); poor living conditions (usually the first months of emigration may envisage life not in a comfortable environment) and others. N. Freinkman-Khrustaleva, N. Novikov, A. Miloslavova, I. Stefanenko define adaptability 24

categories of individuals, which is also valuable. Individual differences, which include age. More quickly adapt little children of preschool age. The older the schoolchild is, the more difficult for him is the adaptation, as they should be in all things like their peers (appearance, manners, language). This process is most difficult for older people, who, after the researchers’ convictions, are not able to adapt, because they do not need to assimilate the culture and language. N. Freinkman-Khrustaleva, A. Novykov based on the conducted study, assert that women have more problems in the process of adaptation than men. Education to their conviction also affect the success of adaptation, more successfully adapt the young, intelligent and educated people [see: 15]. Thus, G. Triandis believes that “cognitively complex individuals” usually set more short social distance between themselves and the representative of other cultures. Persons that are authoritarian, rigid, not tolerant of uncertainty less effectively acquire the new social norms, values and language [see: 17]. So important is the emphasis of researchers that a significant role is played by the age of personality and its overall cognitive development. The importance gain conditions in which the emigrant gets, such as: language environment, the environment and the level of psychological comfort, personal settings to change etc. A number of researchers: G. Bezyuleva, G. Stefanenko define various forms and ways of adaptation of an emigrant. Thus, G. Bezyuleva determines such forms of adaptation: “closed – this is a compensatory adaptation: resistance, balancing, neutralization; open – this is modification adaptation: survival, learning, mastering”… “the most “optimal” variant of adaptation are intermediate variants where an individual preserves his own “I”, while integrating into a new society” [5, p. 45]. L. Phillips says that the emigrant’s adaptation is manifested in two ways. The first method implies acceptance of social norms and effective adaptation to those social expectations, with which a person meets according to its age and sex. In a second, more specific sense, adaptation is not limited merely to the adoption of social norms, which means flexibility and efficiency in meeting new and potentially dangerous conditions, describing the ability of the individual to give events desirable for himself direction that is successfully to use created conditions for realization of his goals and aspirations [8]. Ways or forms of adaptation in emigration play one of the leading roles in the life of emigrant, although depend on a number of personal characteristics, physiological parameters, past life of a person. On these features depends the individual psychological well-being of a person in emigration, the speed of passage of crisis stages. Rigidity of personality, conflictness, dependence on the opinions of others may lead to

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mental illness of a person, his exclusion etc. So, let us try to identify the main psychological factors affecting the difficulty of adaptation of the emigrant in a new country of residence and their possible effects on the psyche of the individual. Major psychological problems of subjects which are in emigration Mental or cultural difference is a serious psychological barrier, especially for those people who for the first time came to the country of emigration. The language barrier, peculiarities of communication, etc., - this may be the first psychological factor which leads to misunderstanding and emotional instability. During this period the emigrant is passively observing, studying the environment. During this period, there is a comparison with past life, traditions, and sometimes arise thoughts of the wrong choice and return home. At this stage, there is almost no aggravation of personal problems, but the first difficulties may provoke emotional instability. Individuals with diverse types of dependencies can “therapy” themselves with tobacco or alcohol. Adapting to new conditions of life Arriving to a new place, a person or a family is immersed in daily problems, including search for housing, jobs, new contacts and acquaintances, tries to understand the structure the life of another country. For the average Ukrainian such a process may be difficult and sometimes psychologically traumatic. Misunderstanding and sometimes rejection of a factor that rarely an emigrant can apply for work of equal value (because corresponding profession may be missing or it is necessary to prove the competence and to start to work with a lower stage, etc.) is able to psychologically injure a person. The difference in the structure of activity and requirements for its quality and speed – all this is the adaptation process. The destruction of some habits as: close friendly links, gatherings with friends disappear, and living space is filled with other troubles. There occurs depression, a sense of loneliness and uselessness, injustice of life and more. Loss of emotional ties is one of the most important factors of stress. Departure abroad for a Ukrainian is a radical change. First of all, it could be another continent, the time difference, a different way of life and almost complete break of emotional ties with the past life. Friends and acquaintances are no longer interested, relatives remain in Skype, and to enter new friendly connections is rather difficult. Such a complex emotional situation is most difficult for people who arrive alone and have no family support. Often it is possible hear the following, “I do not even have anyone to call”, “I am here alone, face to face with life”, “I am needless to anyone “ and so on. Such

experiences can cause deep depression, addictions (alcoholism, drug addiction, etc.), mental disorders and somatic diseases. Having presented major problems it should be noted that the experience of such emotions is characteristic for almost all newly arrived emigrants. As was highlighted above, this period may last from six months to one and a half year because it depends on psychological characteristics of person. There is also a number of factors that affect the experience of the emigrant’s crisis such as: the desire of a person to join the cultural community of the country, high communicativeness, making acquaintances, presence of willpower when it is necessary to make an effort and overcome negative feelings, commitment, perseverance, self-control, resistance to nervous overstrain, high resilience and desire for change. Using the method of active social-psychological training in the context of adaptation of emigrants to the new environment As numerous scientific studies demonstrate, the problem of exclusion in emigration as a social phenomenon has deep psychological roots associated with the unconscious sphere of the psyche of the subject. Actualization of such unconscious aspects as infantile tendencies, a tendency towards psychological death and psychological impotence may cause conflictness in relationships with others, feeling of inadequacy, a sense of humiliation, inferiority, futility of life, the absence of new life perspectives, orientations, feelings, frustration, apathy and conservatism in actions and thoughts, rigidity, programmability of behavior, skeptical attitude towards future, the desire to return to the past, social exclusion, depression and suicide. Method of active social-psychological training ASPT was developed by T. Yatsenko from the perspective of psychodynamic theory, and has high ability in the context of psycho-depth study of psychological aspects of the psyche of the subject. This method is described in detail in the works of T. Yatsenko [20 - 22] and рук followers S.Avramchenko [1], K. Babenko [2], L. Bondarevskaya [3], I. Sergienko [10], and others. As was outlined above, the problem of immigration, along with its social significance has deep psychological aspects, so the use of deep methods of cognition is actual. Such work can be carried out in a group, and with a separate subject what needs help. Under conditions of group work important for deep psychological cognition is providing conditions of freedom of behavior of the participants of the group. Psycho-correction work in the group is focused on finding out deep psychological preconditions of communication difficulties, generated by the personality problem the subject. Personality problem is not realized by the subject and causes 25

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the appearance of exclusion of the subject, which escalates in a crisis situation and manifests itself in a feeling of inner disharmony, frustration, hopelessness, a sense of loneliness and more. Let us briefly outline procedural aspects. Psychodiagnostics within the limits the aforementioned method has a procedural nature, providing multilevel process. The findings of a psychologist are based on the material of interaction between the members of the group, which is free and easy and not specified in advance. Psychodiagnostic hypotheses gradually are deepening and accompanied by verifications and specifications. During psychodiagnosis there is objectified emotional significance for the subject of this or that event that is related to fixation, emotional experiences, injuries. In view of the above acquires weight a spontaneous activity of the person that promotes cognition of the internal determinants of the psyche in its contradictions. Procedural diagnostics envisages involvement of the subject in the process of self-cognition and cognition of other members of the group, which takes place in cooperation with the psychologist on the material of spontaneous group interaction. Such an approach facilitates understanding by the participants of a group of natural conditionality of the psyche and its deep psychological origins [20]. In the process of work with persons who are in the process of adapting to a new environment there could be used certain techniques of ASPT method, including: psychoanalysis of complex of thematic pictures, method of psychoanalysis “Tales of the own life,” psychoanalytic work with non-authorship drawing and subject models, work with stones and various art techniques. The phenomenological approach, implemented in the method ASPT allows to objectify the irrational individual and unique logics of the unconscious considering author’s contents of symbolism of psycho-drawings and its archetypal significance. Deep psychological origins of difficulties of adaptation could be objectified using the method of psychoanalysis of thematic drawings, which is the method of active social psychological training. It enables to touch individual and unique logics of the unconscious and provides a complete cognition of the psyche in its conscious and unconscious manifestations. Through analysis of complex of psychodrawings becomes possible the detection of logic of the unconscious, which is unique to each case. The drawing allows to project unconscious content of the psyche through symbols, which promotes the cognition of internal determinism of personality problems of the subject and sources of the problem of exclusion. Psychoanalysis of the drawings is carried out by means the phenomenological approach that envisages taking into account understanding of content of the drawing by the author himself. 26

Analysis is performed in the course of the dialogue that has psycho-diagnostic orientation that contributes to understanding by the author of deep psychological origins of destructions of behavior. Such understanding is possible due to objectification of internal contradictions of the psyche that absorbs the energy of the subject [21]. Working with the non-author drawing may also be used in group and individual work, as well as in combination with other methods. This type of work allows to objectify the underlying trends destruct the psyche of the subject. Such trends are objectified by mental projection of the subject’s own problems in the context of trends to self-punishment, alienation, domination, destruction of relations with the environment and so on. Application of this methodology allows to detect analysand’s projections that have infantile-sensual nature, preserve tendency to transfer the social interaction upon the situation and generate destructions of interpersonal relationships. Psychoanalytic work with the tale is also effective in the work of a psychologist with the problems of adaptation of the subject to new environmental conditions. A significant role is played by metaphoricalness that performs a creative function by linking concepts distant in time and space, creates a reality that does not actually exist. Thanks to the metaphor there is ensured the possibility of objectification of the content of the unconscious that stores emotional load and is subjectively meaningful to the individual. Providing a “sanctioned” separation from concrete reality, the metaphor allows to detect well-established trends of the psyche through the disclosure of relationships between separate elements of spontaneous behavioral material of the subject. The stated established trends are often associated with infantile period of life of the subject, when in severe (traumatic) moments for him there appeared the desire to disappear, to reincarnate, destroy something - it could be objectified in the process of creation of a tale. This method allows you to see the individuality of course of life of a person, presented in symbolic and metaphorical forms. The events experienced by the subject may acquire metaphoricalness and may be replaced by fairy topics. Telling tales about his own life or work with a toy are carried out by way of retreat into a fantastic reality that is important in the context of our study. Protagonist can use fairy tale characters, overcome difficulties on the way of the chosen hero, which allows to present his inner world, etc. [22]. Conclusions Thus, the use of ASPT in work with the individuals changing the place of residence and experiencing exclusion can be effective, as it allows objectifying the underlying factors. Psychotherapeutic procedure

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consists in focusing on system characteristics of the psyche, personality programs of a person, manifested in the trends of his behavior. Timely assistance to a subject, which consists in revealing maladaptive tendencies, allows to objectify them and to direct the psyche of the subject toward constructive actions. Such actions consist in accepting another culture and people with their peculiarities, positive attitude towards success and overcoming difficulties, understanding of peculiarities of the lives of others and the desire to adapt, preserving his own culture and so on. Understanding of own problems provides personal and structural changes of the subject that is in a crisis situation, increasing its adaptability in any situations of life. The subject burdened with destructive tendencies toward psychological impotence and death, unconscious focuses his activity towards the destruction of relations with the environment. On the behavioral level it is manifested in aggression, feeling of worthlessness, loneliness, depression and more. Psycho-correctional process is intended to harmonize personality, to reveal the libido channels through the identification of conflicting trends of the psyche. References: 1. Аврамченко С. М., Євтушенко І. В., Сивопляс Н. В. Архетипна символіка у процесі пізнання внутрішньої суперечливості психіки: Навч. посіб. – Слов’янськ: ПП “Канцлер”, 2007. – 224 с. 2. Бабенко К. А. Взаємозв’язок механізмів символізації змісту несвідомого (на матеріалі психоаналізу комплексу тематичних психомалюнків): Автореф. дис. ... канд. психол. наук: 19.00.07. – К., 2007. – 20 с. 3. Большой психологический словарь / под ред. Б. Г. Мещерякова, В. П. Зинченко. Новосибирск: АСТ, 2010. - 811 с. 4. Бондаревська Л. Л. Переживання у структуруванні системних характеристик підсвідомого (на матеріалі АСПН): Автореф. дис. ... канд. психол. наук: 19.00.07. – ІваноФранківськ, 2007. – 20 с. 5. Безюлёва Г.В.. Психолого-педагогическое сопровождение профессиональной адаптации учащихся и студентов/Г.В. Безюлёва: монография. – М.: НОУ ВПО Московский психолого-социальный институт. 2008 – 320 с., 6. Крысин Л.П. Толковый словарь иноязычных слов. – М.: Эксмо, 2008. – 944 с 7. Мілославова, І. А. Поняття та структура соціальної адаптації: автореф. дис. канд. філософ. наук. / І. А. Мілославова – Л., 1974. – 295 с. 8. Палагина Н.С. Специфика психологической помощи вынужденным мигрантам в процессе их психологической адаптации / Н.С. Палагина

//. Журнал прикладной психологии. – 2006. – № 6-2. – С.50-52. 9. Рыбаковский Л.Л. Миграционный потенциал. Понятие и критерии оценки // СОЦИС. – 2009. – № 2. – С. 29 – 36 10. Сергієнко І. М. Глибинно-психологічні передумови ставлення суб’єкта до інших людей (на матеріалі активного соціальнопсихологічного навчання): Автореф. дис. ... канд. психол. наук: 19.00.07. – Івано-Франківськ, 2004. – 20 с. 11. Большой экономический словарь: 26500 терминов / авт. и сост Под ред. А.Н. Азрилиян Сер. Соц.-экон. науки. - 2014. - Т.14, вып.3. С.130-137 12. Стефаненко Т.Г. Методы подготовки к межкультурному взаимодействию // Стефаненко Т.Г., Шлягина Е.И., Ениколопов С.Н. Методы этнопсихологического исследования. М.: Изд-во Моск. ун-та, – 1993. – С. 55 13. Стефаненко Т.Г. Этнопсихология. –– М.: Институт психологии РАН, «Академический проект», 1999. – 320 с. 14. Тюптя Л.Т., Іванова І.Б. Соціальна робота: Теорія і практика К.: ВМУРОЛ «Україна», 2004. – 408 с. 15. Фрейнкман-Хрусталева Н. С, Новиков А.И. Эмиграция и эмигранты: История и психология. – СПб.: Государственная академия культуры, – 1995. – С. 111-148. 16. Хрусталева, Н; С. Психология эмиграции (социально-психологические и личностные проблемы): дисс. доктора психол. наук : 19:00.05 / Н. С. Хрусталева. – М., 2002. – 332 с. 17. Хохлова, О.П. Міжособистісне сприйняття як один з психологічних механізмів адаптації особистості в групі / / Проблеми комунікативної та пізнавальної діяльності особистості / А.П. Хохлова - Ульяновськ, 1981. - 368 с 18. Шайгерова Л. А. Психология идентичности личности в ситуации вынужденной миграции : дис. … канд. психол. наук. – М., 2002. 19. Шурупова А.С. Адаптация и приживаемость мигрантов // СОЦИС. – 2006. – № 6 – С 44 – 56 20. Глибинне пізнання психіки – основа професійної підготовки психолога / Т. С. Яценко, О. В. Педченко // Науковий часопис НПУ імені М. П. Драгоманова. Серія 12 : Психологічні науки. - 2014. - Вип. 45. - С. 3-18 21. Яценко Т. С. Теория и практика глубинной психокоррекции: Шестая Авторская школа академика АПН Украины Т. С. Яценко [Сост. В. П. Андрущенко, А. В. Глузман] – К.: Изд-во НПУ имени М. П. Драгоманова, 2012. – 226 с. 14. 22. Яценко Т. С. Глибинна психологія: діагностика та корекція тенденції до психологічної смерті / Т. С. Яценко, О. В. Глузман, І. В. Калашник. – Ялта : РВВ КГУ, 2008. – 204 с. 27

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research


Serhiy Maksymenko

Psychology PhD, Professor, Dnipro Humanitarian University Dnipro

Full member of the NAPS Ukraine, Psychology PhD, Professor, Director of the Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of the NAPS of Ukraine Kiev

This article describes how international and cross-cultural contributions of Ukrainian psychologists could be purposefully integrated into undergraduate global psychology education through internationalized psychological literacy. Psychological literacy is an umbrella term which is widely used to describe the attributes or capabilities of psychology graduate. [7]. Within Ukraine, psychology elite and students seek greater contact with psychology programs of foreign educators, academics and students to be flexible and better prepared for the changing world. In addition, the article suggests an integrated approach which is synthesizing, on the one hand, the Psychology of a Pesonality Vital Energy (needs) [27], and the method of its study - Genetic and Modelling Approach and, on the other hand, the Theory of Personal Constructs [19] to build a theory about the Psychology of Independent (Autonomous) learning of future psychologists for managing one’s way of learning and living through global psychological literacy. Key concepts and the principle tenets of the theory were identified and defined, leading to overview of the knowledge, skills, values and competencies developed. The study also focuses on ways a discovery learning in the form of problem-based autonomous and a scientist-practioner learning provides facilities to transfer global psychological literacy from classroom to real world. Key words: global psychological literacy, vital energy, attribute, genetic and modeling method, personal constructs, scientist-practioner learning, development.

У наведеній статті висвітлюються шляхи і досвід реалізації міжнародних та крос-культурних психологічних досліджень українськими психологами у процесі навчання студентів – психологів, можливості цілеспрямованої міжнародної співпраці завдяки глобальній психологічній грамотності. Дослідження широкого кола проблем психологічної грамотності як концептуального поняття, що має свою структуру та компоненти, є вельми актуальним та дискусійним в закордонній психології. Психологічна грамотність в широкому контексті - це термін, що використовується для опису атрибутивних характеристик або здібностей випускника, особистості [7]. Українська психологічна еліта та студентство прагнуть до більш тісних наукових зв’язків з психологічними програмами закордонних психологів задля взаємозбагачення наукового досвіду, отримання гнучких знань, бути краще підготовленими до світу, що постійно змінюється. В статті також запропонований інтегративний підхід до навчання майбутніх психологів, що синтезує, з одного боку, досягнення українського психолога С.Д.Максименка та концептуальні засади його теорії психології життєвої енергії (нужди) [27]; з другого боку, психологію персональних конструктів – Дж.Келлі [19; 20; 21] з метою створення теоретичних засад психології самостійного навчання студентів-психологів завдяки глобальній психологічній грамотності. Основні поняття та принципи теорії визначені, прогнозовані результати сформованих знань, умінь, цінностей та компетенцій надані, перспективи подальших досліджень окреслені. Ключові слова: глобальна психологічна грамотність, життєва енергія, атрибутивні характеристики, генетико-моделюючий метод, особистісні конструкти, науковий підхід до навчання, розвиток.

Introduction At the start of the 21-st century Ukraine which gained its independence in 1991 faces a great number of problems in quality training human capital which meets European (Bologna) standards and requirements. The current research presents the interdisciplinary approach to innovating quality

education of Ukrainian future psychologists. The innovative power of the paradigm is founded in the integrated approach that combines four major aspects of the training both psychologists - scientists and practioners, and emphasizing: • the role of the integration: University - government - country (Psychological Services) in formation,


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developing and assessing global psychological literacy, global citizenship, competence and professionalism in Ukrainian psychology students; • the integration of Psychology of a Vital Energy [S.Maxymenko, 2014], Personal Construct Theory (PCP) [G.Kelly, 1995] and Psychology sub-fields in implementation of the innovative approach to reforming psychologists’ training in this country; • the present status and future prospects of psychologists’ education in Ukraine, in comparison with the reforms in the USA, Europe, Australia and elsewhere; generational differences in political socialization of Ukrainian psychology students, their adaptability to political changes and outcomes; • the integration of business and its context with University Psychology Faculty needs through psychological, moral, ethical, educational, social and organizational areas. Therefore, the given article focuses on the ways of using psychological literacy throughout the curriculum to develop students as scientists – practioners to bridge theory-practice gaps in educating highly qualified psychologists for a better world. Relatedly, attention is also paid to promoting psychological literacy within the community. With all these considerations in mind we posed some principle questions, namely: How can psychology educators and students maximize the value of psychology education for learning and living in the real world? Why does psychological literacy matter? What is the difference between global psychological literacy and psychological literacy itself? Where did the term(s) come from? In order to provide a literary review on the problem, it is worth analyzing the European, American, Australian and elsewhere experience on psychological literacy and global citizenship in comparison with the Ukrainian System of Psychology Education. It is also desirable and invaluable from the angle of intended outcomes that were achieved over the last twenty years by global psychologists. Literacy is a fundamental human right, “an instrument of empowerment to improve one’s health, one’s income and one’s relationship with the world” proclaims United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO, 2016]. The notion that literacy is the power of knowledge and can improve the quality of one’s living and learning has appeared in many ways in the literature. During the last decade, the literature on psychological literacy has been growing rapidly [1; 2; 6; 7; 12; 13; 14; 15; 18; 24; 28; 29; 33; 38; 40]. Along with it, an extensive growth of literature on National Standards for Psychological Literacy and global citizenship [12; 26; 28; 31; 32; 33; 39] was also published. This is where the concept of psychological literacy comes in.

The term psychological literacy was coined by Alan Boneau [2]. Remarkably, that the study was motivated by a desire to identify 100 psychological terms and concepts of sufficient importance that they should be a general knowledge within the psychological community, especially to students [24]. In other words, Boneau’s research was aimed at investigating aspects of the discipline that future psychologists should know about. Later on T. McGovern and a group of undergraduate professors from the U.S.A [28] adopted a similar stance, developed it terminologically more precise, and concluded that psychological knowledge is for something taking actions, helping others, improving the lives we lead. They invited teachers to develop psychological literacy by using scientifically sound and reflective pedagogies. McGovern and colleagues stressed that…” It is at the juncture of the humanities where students gain the human-focused values and the scientific tools necessary to see and to care about the human condition and to improve it” [28, 25]. At the same period of time a new development of the concept of psychological literacy was introduced by Halpern [13]. He expanded the scope of meanings of the given term and proposed the notion of psychologically literate citizen. It presupposed that the psychologically literate citizen possessed basic knowledge of psychology, and who can and will apply the knowledge to a broad range of situations [13, 7]. Further development of the concept was proposed by Cranney and Dunn [6; 7]. The novelty of their definition of psychological literacy focused on the assertion that it is “psychological knowledge that is used adaptively” [7 ,8]. The researchers introduced a new type of literacy which was called the adaptive application of psychological literacy. According to Cranney & Dunn [7], adaptive application represents a form of action research, requires the capacity to reflect widely and critically on experience and disciplinary knowledge to exhibit metametacognition which is, in view of Cranney & Dunn, is an indicator of psychological literacy. Therefore, elaborating National Standards for psychological literacy and global citizenship Cranney et al defined it as “the general capacity to adaptively and intentionally apply psychology to meet personal, professional and societal needs.” [6, 11]. In a further development and application of psychological literacy the concept “captures the ability of a psychology student to apply the knowledge and skills that they acquire during their education to all aspects of life: the workplace, their personal lives and the wider social context” [15, 932] . Future perspectives and implications of the concept, as seen by J. Hulme [15], are as follows: “as such, psychological literacy may provide a lens through which we can view the wider benefits of psychology education.” [15, 932]. 29

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At this point of our speculations we shall address the concept of global psychological literacy for the purposes and aims of our study. It is evident that literacy in psychology education has a great significant potential to benefit the global community. However, the predominantly Western and European cultural influences of psychology do not always fit indigenous and other cultural perspectives, and yet psychology is “still being taught within the dominant knowledge constructions” [12, 74]. The same idea is supported by Wagner [40] who states that “many of the present dominant social psychological theories do not fit non-western people” [40, 59]. It is our strong belief and desire that it is high time and urgent both for the Western, European, Australian, Ukrainian and elsewhere paradigms to join efforts of global psychologists in mutually enriching our knowledge and promoting quality psychological education. We are also sure that under the given circumstances it will channelize and widen scientific horizons of our creative thinking and competencies that draw on professional experience and practice through global psychological literacy. Thus, we have attempted to coin our vision of global psychological literacy as: the ability of a student to apply the bulk of international psychology knowledge and socio-cultural mental processes to personal, family, occupational, community and societal challenges in diverse cultural contexts in order to maximize the value of psychology education for learning and living in the real world [L.Derkach]. There is an increasing evidence, for instance, for the need to unify globally accreditation criteria for undergraduate psychology programs as to the concept of psychological literacy and psychologically literate citizenship. As Taylor [36] explains, the increased interest in these topics was in part driven by changes to the British Psychological Society (BPS) accreditation criteria for undergraduate psychology programs [36, 6]. As we stated earlier, this study presents a synthesized overview of Western literary sources and Ukrainian evidence for the efficacy of global psychology literacy. As the literary review demonstrates, there is no agreed definition of the term [6; 12; 13; 14; 16; 18; 24; 29]. At the same time, various definitions have one thing in common which is clearly expressed in the J.Taylor and J.Hulme [36] statement which goes like this: that “… the skills acquired through the study of psychology at undergraduate level represent a coherent set of knowledge, skills and values that underpin students’ psychological literacy and which enable them to apply psychology to real life contexts. These scientific, critical thinking and ethical skills encapsulate the contributions a 30

psychology graduate can make to the workplace and to society more generally” [36, 6]. Australian and American researchers B.Heritage, L.Roberts, and N.Gasson [14] assume that “psychological literacy, a construct developed to reflect the types of skills graduates of a psychology degree should possess and be capable of demonstrating“ [14, 1]. In our view, the state of art in Europe is explicitly represented in the study conducted by P.Reddy et. al [32].The authors describe the ways how 16 experts, European members of the European Network for Psychology Learning and Teaching (EUROPLAT) and the European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations (EFPA) Board of Educational Affairs answered the set of questions after the establishment of a common European qualification framework for psychologists, the European Certificate in psychology (EuroPsy). These questions [32, 928] concerned the information on: How are psychologists educated in their countries? How are they integrated into the workforce? What are the most pressing issues in educating the next generation of psychologists? The information received from psychology experts made it possible to conclude that “… in every country most students want to practice as professional psychologists, especially in clinical psychology or in the health sector” (e.g. Germany, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, the Czech Republic [32, 931]. One more conclusion which is correspondent with the aims and goals of our article regards future career opportunities of psychology students. It is shown that in such advanced countries as France, the UK, and Spain there is a strong competition for professional entry [32, 932]. It is also suggested by experts that, “… it is helpful if psychology students combine their study program with other academic and professional skills and training, because “ pure psychology is less compatible with the labour market…” (A Swiss experience) [32, 932]. And what matters greatly from the work by P.Reddy, is posing a fundamental question: how can we prepare students to accommodate the needs of tomorrow’s society and the changing demands of the labour market? To sum it up, the above mentioned investigators offer the description of three major challenges looking at the education in Europe, namely: 1.Self-reflection; 2.Self-presentation; 3. Self-balance. In contrast to western psychologists’ view on the problem, the Russian psychologist V.Karandashev [18] considers psychological competence or individual psychological culture of behavior as alternatives to the concept of psychological literacy, as the desired outcome for psychology undergraduate education [18, 1]. Thus, psychological literacy in various psychological paradigms is most commonly defined as “the general capacity to adaptively and intentionally apply psychology to meet personal,

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professional, and societal needs” [6, iii]. According to McGovern [28], it consists of nine facets, namely: psychological knowledge-scientific thinking; critical thinking; application of psychological principles; ethical behavior; information literacy; effective communication competence; respect for diversity and insight. It is interesting to note that the diversity of opinions among Ukrainian psychologists on the issue of psychological literacy reflects the complexity of the issue itself. Education reforms in higher education are wide-ranging and provide the facilities to bring Ukrainian Universities into alignment with the Bologna Process and, in this way acquire global psychological literacy as well. The draft plan “A Strategy for the Reform of Higher education to 2020” [31] sets goals to achieve some efficiencies across the system and to bring academic programs into better alignment with labour market requirements. In view of this, we shall treat Ukrainian psychological approaches to the notion under discussion, that is, the concept of psychological literacy. Using the literature as the source of evidence in Ukrainian psychology paradigm, it presents key themes and issues, presenting the concept of psychological literacy and is usually discussed in dispensed arenas and under different headings. A scan of the literature related to the issue identified the usage of the term as a synonym to related concepts, such as: ”professional culture” [4]; “professional creativity”[17], “professional competence” [38]; “professional orientation for future psychologists” [34], “professional consciousness and self-determination” [35]; “professional orientation” [16] etc. So, the development and application of psychological literacy in the Ukrainian context is less topical than in other cultures but combines a wider covering of its structure and components, we believe. Thus, the comparative analysis of the conceptual and methodological approaches to the notion of psychological literacy in European, Western and Ukrainian paradigms makes it possible to conclude that: 1. Psychology educators, scientists, undergraduates acquiring global psychological literacy as the capacity to intentionally use psychological knowledge and skills to achieve personal, professional and societal goals [7] have different theoretical and methodological opportunities to become psychologically literate; 2. There is a sharp diversity of views on the notion of the psychological literacy both in Western and nonWestern paradigms. Its facets range substantially from the number of components to the content and nature. 3. Relatedly, a high level of psychological literacy necessarily entails psychologically literate citizenship, which involves behaving in a way that

reflects a consideration of the long-term needs of local and global communities at measuring levels of psychological literacy [14]. 4. What is still lacking of the processes involved in modern undergraduate psychology education globally is gaining employment, and, consequently, it is the burning issue of the continuing, independent (autonomous) learning during a career growth with the measurement of global psychological literacy. Thus, the psychological literacies of cultural competence and respect for diversity of opinions on the issue under the discussion, are complex and multi-faceted concepts. And as John Dewey concluded “…all genuine education comes about through experience” [11, 25]. It suggests us the idea of collaboration in interdisciplinary teams of psychologists that requires to work well with different disciplinary paradigms. Current educational practice is largely based on the works by Leo Vygotsky [39] as a constructivist learning which is associated with active, thought – provoking learning. At present, the research literature [1; 24; 25; 26; 29; 32;34; 35; 36] worldwide provides relatively detailed descriptions of embedding psychological literacy in the Psychology curriculum (i.e., Cognitive, Educational, Biological, Developmental, Social, Individual Psychology, Research methods, etc.). As to Ukraine, it is one of the priorities to introduce it into the Psychology Curriculum as a model which necessarily requires careful theoretical and methodological research. The proposed methodological basis for constructing the innovative paradigm of educating future psychologists in Ukraine is based on the synergy of the theoretical basis of Psychology of Personality Vital Energy (needs) [25; 26; 27] and Theory of Personal Constructs (PCP) [19; 20; 21] for promotion and development of global psychological literacy. And it is essential to ask: how Psychology of Personality Vital Energy and Personal Consrtuct Theory and Practice could be effectively applied at the process of managing and being managed future psychologists? In accordance with S. D. Maxymeko’s views [27], personality is considered as a form of existence of the human psyche, which is integrity, capable of self-development, self-determination, the conscious objective activity and self-regulation and has its own unique and inimitative inner world. The author proposed a genetic and modelling method which aims at exploring the personality in his/her development. Principles of method construction reflect the nature of the existence of the study object. Technology of the method (the principle of the unity of the genetic and experimental lines of development) means a study in the most “ natural conditions of existence of a personality and the creation of the actual personality’s space for realizing 31

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the numerous modelling capabilities of his/her own development and existence. In accordance with the original theoretical paradigm, the vital energy, as a genetically basic unit of human development and existence, constitutes the basis of the personality development. Being an information and energy flow, vital energy specifically connects the biological and social determinants and is the original driving force of self-development of personality as a certain human being. Constant energetic stress of vital energy creates real conditions for the formation of mechanisms that are based on the powerful social influences and are transformed into biological (morphological) and psychic structures in the process of ontogenesis. The attributive characteristics of the vital energy of a personality are described. Among them the common graduate attributes or capabilities that students should acquire while majoring in psychology are as follows: a) a scientific way of thinking; b) acquiring discipline knowledge (critical thinking, research skills, moral values, ethics, competencies, communication). Therefore, the proposed Psychology of Personality Vital Energy (need) by S. Maxymenko makes well to the spiritual transformations and accompanying shifts of future psychologists in formation, development and measurement of their global psychological literacy. Establishing empirical evidence of the Theory of Personal Constructs by Kelly [19; 21] for the benefits of global psychology literacy development in Ukraine, its impact on educational reforms, one must state that it is a relatively neglected area of investigation yet. Moreover, little has been done in this area. Therefore, the given report touches on the ways of learning and living in Ukraine basing on the latest thinking and empirical research in PCP, proposed reflections by practicing PCP postulates and conceptual analysis of issues pertaining to current and emerging theoretical issues in PCP. Current research on PCP, Wang [41]; Caputi, Foster, Viney [3]; Koch [22]; Dalton [8]; etc. extensively continue to study concepts, cutting-edge research and scholarship in the field of PCP and related constructivist, social constructivist and other approaches to the problems mentioned above. In order to maximize the effects of the optimal individual strategy instruction, the future psychology students should be provided, in our view, with the information on advances in PCP as well as with new directions and perspectives for providing quality training and formation competencies. In this context, interdisciplinarity creates the necessary conditions for the all-round deep insight into the issue under the study, we believe. Kelly (19, 46) explains that “a person’s processes are psychologically channelized by the way in which he anticipates events”. In view of this, to provide efficiency improvement in self32

education and independent student’s work, to achieve quality optimization and performance management at Dnepropetrovsk Humanitarian University, we have posed a question: How Personal Construct Theory and Practice could be effectively applied at the process of managing and being managed of future psychologists? Hence, we have analyzed and probed a new paradigm of  independent (autonomous) learning based on determining a student’s system of constructs through which to construe student’s learning and life events. It is common knowledge that universities teach students to solve a problem by breaking it down into smallest components. On the contrary, businesses and the person’s essential constructs that represent very strong and unchangeable beliefs solve a problem by integrating the solution into all facets of operation. Bearing this in mind, we have suggested four ways to create an adequate academic environment necessary for the progress and development of global psychological literacy. Thus, the four ways of learning presupposed integration of University, country and industry regarding opposite POLAR constructs: a future psychologist -  business active psychology specialist. Nikolayenko S.M. [30], a former Minister of Education and Science of Ukraine, put in and clearly defined the major educational problems the country faced in the year 2007. Many of them remained unsolved, namely: • Creation of Quality Assurance System for higher education, which would correspond to the European standards and norms; • Provision the students and teaching staff mobility in the international education area; extension of the social partnership practice of the higher education institutions with employers, citizens and public associations, involving them into process of elaboration of higher education. In this context, the basic structure of Personal Construct Theory and the higher education reform in Ukraine, offers a framework for the Ukrainian students and people to understand beliefs they have about their own personal development. It also helps to explore the way they lead their lives in the context of a personal construct view of development. It is remarkably well – known that Kelly does not refer to learning at all, but to changes in constructs over [Kelly, 1955]. In other words, the major priority of the educational reform is to produce changes in the creation of general education and scientific area. It also presupposes the development of the unified criteria and standards in the field of education and science. Thus, the basic principles that cause changes and development of the higher education system of Ukraine are as follows: a) creation of innovation environment on the basis of educational and scientific support. The essence of the principle is that a life - long education

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is defined by the innovative ways of the society development. In its turn, it is really possible, if a new generation of people is formed on the basis of the innovative, creative thinking and behavior. From this angle, in our view, PCP can provide resources and stimuli as ways of learning fresh approaches to training future competent specialists, namely, psychologists, for the developing Ukraine which gained its independence. This approach, according to our position, gives rise to a greater attention to the ways of formation in students-psychologists the active approach to life and professional life in shaping the events of their own future; b) the second principle that causes higher education reform in this country is adaptation of the higher education system of Ukraine to the norms, standards and basic principles of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Method This brought us to the idea of a new paradigm of training psychologists which is based on the following principles: 1) the Constructionist Principle that is the power of language with the emphasis on anticipation. What does the phenomenon have to do with training psychologists? Kelly [19; 21] says that our anticipations give us a degree of control of future events. Kelly also emphasized that our anticipations give us a degree of control when extended into our behavior which becomes our questing or questioning act. As he suggests “… just as all questions are anticipatory, behavior is anticipatory too” [21,18]. Finally he outlined the aspect of his theory under the coined word-combination “actual events anticipating” which states: “…questions are restless bed – fellows. When they are behaviorally activated they disturb all sleep nestled in foregone conclusions and elicit dreams of unprecedented replies. Ask the most foolish question you can imagine, and sure enough, someone will offer an answer” [20]. That is, the fundamental Postulate of the Psychology of Personal Constructs runs, that a person’s processes are psychologically channelized by the way in which he anticipates events. Thus, the art of asking and crafting questions for a future psychologist is crucial. Making use of Appreciative Inquiry Approach (AIA) to the concept of training specialists in the field of Psychotherapy, we applied the second principle; 2) the Anticipatory Principle in which the following three steps form a continuing cycle for training: • Discover: Appreciating that which gives you life being a psychology student. • Dream: Creating shared images of a preferred future, professional carrier, professional ladder. • Deliver: Sustain the change (s) that occurred in your professional training since implementation the measures for the improvement of synergism

between higher education (University), country (government) and industry (psychology specialists). Results The experimental data obtained (320 subjects - University psychology students, aged 18 - 28 of both sexes) have proved that the usage of the above mentioned methodology of training psychologists provided self-directed, discover learning, critical reflection of the state of art, and, what matters greatly, – experiential learning with the emphasis on psychology experience as a defining feature of adult learning. As it is well-known our experience is culturally framed and shaped [39]. Psychology students learned to experience events, change to the language and categories of analysis they used in accordance with moral, cultural and ideological standards and norms. Basing on Kelly’s theory, they attempted to construct their experience by asking the questions: How we sense? How we interpret what happens to us in a learning environment and to the world around us? Is experience the function of constructs providing understanding and perceptual filters? How to become a skilled psychologist at learning in a range of different situations and through a range of different styles? And other questions. Yet, of the four areas of the independent learning research discussed, learning how to learn independently through global psychological literacy was the most complicated area of psychology education, especially for starters. This may be because the function of helping students how to learn is often claimed as the function of the school than the University. Further Research Three important issues should be addressed if research on how PCP education and training should be conducted, namely: 1. The interaction of the student’s system of constructs and emotions that is the development of emotional intelligence in future psychologists. 2. The understanding of inter-cultural differences in industrialized societies of Europe and Ukraine. 3. The predominant focus in the study of instrumental skill development needs to widen a student’s personal learning in various workplaces of Psychology Industry (Services).At present, Ukrainian industries face problems and constraints which widen the gap between higher educational establishments and the country. In our case, the lack of linkage unit suggested us the idea of creation Higher Education Institution – Industry Resource Integration Center (IREC) which serves as the way to solve the problems the Ukrainian industries are facing (psychological, organizational, communicative, intellectual, etc.).So, the aim of IREC is to enhance the acceleration of industrial development and to provide technology transfer in the sphere of 33

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Psychological Research. In the triple helix technological facilitators were identified, namely: • at the University level – Dean of Psychology Faculty; • at the government level - Ministry of Education and Science, a Special Department in the Sector of Licensing in the State Accreditation Commission); • at the industry (Psychology Service) – psychology consultants, coaches, psychotherapeutists, etc. who make decisions on technology selection in Psychology Research and Practice Implementation. The unity provides the link of intellectual capabilities of theory and practice, innovation and stable contacts with the centeres of relevant technological developments and industries. It results in promotion of a healthy skepticism of current claimed advances and alert to the changes of being overwhelmed by a rapidly changing technology. In addition, facilitators are responsible for ensuring the transferred technology in Psychology and its optimal use of human resources in this country. Let us set an example of how IREC explores the major postulates of Kelly’s theory in shaping business active psychology specialists. Psychology students at Dnepropetrovsk Humanitarian University are proposed the Quality Education Plan to achieve the efficiency improvement both in self – education and independent work. Quality Education Plan (Independent Education) 1. An exploration of the psychological heritage and culture of Psychology of Personality Vital Energy (needs) and Personal Construct Psychology (PCP). 2. A working definition of self – education and independent work from the standpoint of two paradigms: Psychology of a Vital Energy (need) and of PCP. 3. An examination of resourceful perspectives in Genetic and Modelling Method, PCP and functional asymmetry of the brain. 4. A look at psychological research of neurological profiles of psychology students built on PCP’s heritage. 5. An experimental study of the structure of global psychology literacy regarding self – education and independent work with reference to self – characterization and anticipation of possible events. To sum it up, it is believed that some ground work has to be accomplished in order to establish a sustainable University – Industry Linkage. To this effect, Psychology Faculty at DHU started a Psychology Faculty - Industry Linkage Unit. (PFILU) on its premises. Its main objective is to pave the way for establishment of cooperation programs to learn the success and shortcomings of their experience acquiring global psychological literacy. The following is the list of the activities to be realized in the coming 2016 – 2020 year: 34

Experimental research on “Survey On Skill Needs and Capabilities of Psychology Faculty, the Industrial Sector for promoting global psychological literacy; • Measurement of the levels of global psychological literacy with IT technology information dissemination for students - psychologists; • Preparation, organization and realization of international projects “Summer Courses on Global Psychology Literacy in Ukraine”; • Organization of seminars and workshops on recent innovative industrial issues ; • Organization of international educational visits and vacation jobs for psychology educators and students; • Conduct and coordination research activities on identified problems of industry (e.g. measurement of Emotional Intelligence) and promotion of co– ordinate research activities in Psychology Faculty. Evaluating recent developments, it is worth saying that Ukrainian industries (namely, Psychology Services) are operating in the business environment characterized by unprecedented global competition and technological change. And it is evident that industries could survive and be competitive in order they have stable links with higher education research institutes so as optimally use the available human resources of the country. The next way of training future psychologists in the framework of a new paradigm of Constructivist Psychology dealt with profound integration of Psychology sub-fields. The goal was to provide psychological internal ideas of Ukrainian socio-economic reality with capital idea to better understand the world around. Under these circumstances, Psychology of Vital Energy and Psychology for Living – PCC, offer a framework for Ukrainian psychology students to understand themselves more fully and to consider how their own outlook may be preventing them from personal problems [8]. Kelly’s theory sets out with the assumption that the world is in a state of a continuous movement and change. This assumption obviates the task how a person is “prodded into action” by one postulated force or another. In this sense, our construction of the world and then our behavior bridges the gap between them. As a result, our behavior is seen as a way of posing questions about our constructs of the world. As Kelly states [20, 22] behavior is “the instrument of its own exploration”. In this context there is a sharp interest of Ukrainian psychological elite to the problems of: • Organizational Psychology (power and politics; conflict and negotiation; stress and time management; helping employees balance work and other responsibilities); • Self - Management Psychology Behavior Change (reinventing one’s life: how to break free from negative life patterns and feel good again). •

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Consequently, theories, strategies and practices of increasing effectiveness through situational Self – Leadership are at the focus of psychology students training as it provide interdisciplinary subject links and promotion of global psychological literacy. The third way was realized due to the integration of the mentioned above theories and practice of Personal Construct Psychology developments. This perspective in training future psychologists deals mainly with generational differences in political socialization of students. It also was inseparably connected with adaptability of youths to political change and the length of time necessary for significant change to occur in terms of the Ukrainian situation. From Kelly’s point of view of the personality as a scientist, each person has his own hypotheses, anticipations and expectations, He explains that the individual differences that we observe in our standpoints are alternative and especially these are the differences that lead us to different experimental enterprises. In his theory, in our view, there is an invaluable piece of advice to the developing democracies which goes like this: there are times “when a person hesitates to experiment because he dreads the outcome. He may fear that the conclusion of the experiment will place him in an ambiguous position where he will no longer be able to predict and control” [20,14]. In this connection, it is vital for the Ukrainian people, psychology elite and future psychologists to learn how can citizens assimilate the attitudes and behaviors necessary to become loyal and effective citizens of the new democratic regime. Consequently, the rapid emergence democracy in Ukraine has revived interest in processes of political learning and re-learning with the help of specialists in the field of Political Psychology. Regarding the issue of generational differences in political socialization mentioned above, it is worth mentioning that early adaptation of youths – future psychologists to political change and the length of time necessary for that is one of the priorities of Political Psychology courses taught. Students are provided the possibilities for the analysis of various patterns of political behaviors of the country’s leaders, voting process, group behavior, genocide, leadership, terrorism and their psychological origins. And finally, the fourth way was aimed at integration of business and its context through psychological and moral areas as well as educational, social and organizational ones. Conclusions To sum it up, the research opens a new paradigm of learning basing on Maxymenko’s and Kelly’s postulates on what, how and why Psychology Faculty needs to teach psychology students to reflect the world outside. The ways of learning and living in contemporary Ukraine are various and unique as a result of tremendous economic, political and social changes that have occurred in the last years. They

clearly show and demonstrate an interesting contrast between current and former system of Psychology Education and Training in Ukraine which results in more tight connections of globalized Higher Education, Transnational Universities with industries and governmental sectors. It is more than ever essential to develop global psychological literacy as the 21st century requires highly qualified psychologists to be helpful in many fields of professional, social and private life. To our mind, it also opens a cross-nation dialogue about innovating education models in Transnational Universities in the 21-st century, strategies, Psychology Services and products regarding new ways of learning and living of future specialists in the field of Psychology, basing on accomplishments of Psychology of Personality Vital Energy and Constructivist Psychology to make the world better. References: 1. Akhurst, J. (2013). Enhancing psychology students’ employability through international communitybased work placements. Higher Education Academy. Retrieved 30 September 2014 from 2. Boneau, C.A. (1990). Psychological literacy: a first approximation. American Psychologist, Teaching Psychology, 45 (7), pp.891-900. 3. Caputi, P., Foster, H., Viney, L. (2006). Personal Constructs Psychology: New Ideas Book Description. – John Wiley Sons. - 340 p. 4. Chepeleva , N.V. (1997).Professional culture formation in future psychologists-practiones. In Methods of training specialists in professional communication. Cherkassy. Book 1, pp.35-41. 5. Country Program Action Plan (2006 - 2010). Between The Government of Ukraine and The United Nations Development Programme 17.08.2006. 6. Cranney,J. Botwood,L., Morris S. (2012). National standards for psychological literacy and global citizenship: Outcomes of undergraduate psychology education. Sydney, NSW: Office for Learning and Teaching. 7. Cranney, J& Dunn, D.S. (2011). Psychological literacy and the psychologically literate citizen: New frontiers for global discipline. In Cranney , J. & Dunn, D.S.(eds.) The psychologically literate citizen: Foundations and global perspectives. Oxford University Press, New York. 8. Dalton P., Dunnett. A (2005).Psychology for Living – Personal Construct Theory for Professionals and Clients. – The British Stammering Association. 9. Derkach, L. & Minka P. Ways of learning and living in Ukraine .In Collective Monograph.- PCP and Constructivism: Ways of Working, Learning and Living.- Libri.- Firenze.-2012.-pp.547-554. 10. Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Heath, Boston. 35

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11. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education, Coolier Books, New York. 12. Dudgeon,P, Darlaston-Jones, D& Clark, Y.[2011]. Changing the lens: Indigenous perspectives on psychological literacy. In Cranney , J & Dunn, D.S.(eds.), The psychologically literate citizen: Foundations and global perspectives. Oxford University Press, New York. 13. Halpern, D.F. (2010). Undergraduate education in psychology: A blueprint for the future discipline. (Ed.). APA, Washington Dc. Viewed 3 November 2015, psycBOOKS, http://dx.doi. org/10.1037/12063-001. 14. Heritage,B, Roberts, L and Gasson , N. (2016). Psychological Literacy Weakly differentiates students by discipline and year of enrolment. Front. Psychol. 7: 16210.3389/fpsyg.2016.00162. 15. Hulme , J. (2014). Psychological literacy – from classroom to real world. The Psychologist, 2016. Vol.71, No.12. pp.932-935. 16. Ivanova, I.F. (2013). The influence of the level of development of communication skills on the formation of a professional orientation in psychology students. In Collection of Scientific Works. Psychological Sciences. Mykolaїv State University. Vol.2, 10(91), pp.121-125. 17. Karamushka, L.M . (2013). Psychological basics of organizational development. Monograph, Kirovograd, 216 p. 18. Karandashev, V. (2011). Psychological literacy goals in psychology teaching in Russian education. In Cranney, J & Dunn, D.S. (eds.). The psychologically literate citizen: Foundations and Global perspectives. Oxford University Press, New York. 19. Kelly, G.A. (1955). The Psychology of Personal Constructs. Vol.1: A Theory of Personality. N.Y. Norton. 20. Kelly, G.A. (1969).Ontological Acceleration. In: Clinical Psychology and Personality. The Selected Papers of George Kelly. Ed. Macher, B. New York. Wiley. 21. Kelly, G.A. (1970). A Brief Introduction to Personal Construct Theory. In: Perspectives in Personal Construct Theory. Ed. Bannister, D. London. Academic Press, p. 18. 22. Koch, E (2006). Personal Constructs and Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A Case Study. – Psychoanalytic Psychology. NO.23, pp. 554 – 578. 23. Kuchai, O.V. (2013). Teacher Training Technologies in Poland and Ukraine. American Journal of Educational Research. 1(11). pp.566-570. 24. Mair, C., J. Taylor and Hulme, J. (2013).An Introductory Guide to Psychological Literacy and Psychologically Literate Citizenship.New York: Higher Education Academy. 25. Maxymenko, S.D. (2015). Genesis of Personality Existence. Accent Graphics communication Publishing House, Montreal, Canada. 26. Maxymenko, S.D. (2013).Psychology of learning of a person: Genetic and Modelling Approach. 36

Monograph, Kiev, Publishing House “Slovo”, 2013. 592 pp. (In Ukrainian). 27. Maxymenko, S.D. ( 2014).Theoretical basis of psychology of a vital energy (need). Nauka i Ocvita.No.9,2014, pp.14-21.(In Ukrainian). 28. McGovern, T.V, Corey, L. Cranney, J. Dixon et al. (2010). Psychologically literate citizens. In Halpern, D.F. (ed.), Undergraduate education in psychology: A blueprint for the future of the discipline, APA, Washington D.C. Viewed 3 November 2015, psyBOOKS, http://dx.doi. org/10.1037/12063-001. 29. Morris, S, Cranney, J. Jeong, M. & Mellish, L. (2013). Developing psychological literacy: student perception of graduate attributes. Australian Journal of Psychology, 65, pp.54-62. 30. Nikolayenko, S.M. (2007). Higher Education Reform in Ukraine and Bologna Process: Information Materials – K.: KNLITE, 2007, p. 46. 31. Psychology 2020. (2011). The 2011 -2012 Presidential Initiative on the future of psychological science in Australia. Australian Psychological Society, pp.57-65. 32. Reddy, P, Dutke, S, Papageorgin, L, Balker , H .(2014). Educating Europe, Vol.27, pp.928-931. 33. Semychenko, V.A. (1997). Ways of optimizing the efficacy of psychology learning. Kyiv., pp 112-116. (In Ukrainian). 34. Shevchenko, N.F. (2013). The research on professional orientation of future psychologists. Visnyk of Dniepropetrovsk University named after Alfred Nobel. Series” Pedagogy and Psychology.” 2013, NO. 1(5), pp.95-101.(In Ukrainian). 35. Stasiuk, U.L.( 2009). Self-determination in future psychologists. In Current problems of modern psychology.Vol.6, Part 2.Collection of scientific papers of Institute of psychology after G.S.Kostiuk , NAPS of Ukraine. (In Ukrainian). 36. Taylor, J and Hulme, J.A. (2015). Psychological Literacy: A Compendium of Practice. Available at : // 37. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) 2016. Literacy, UNESCO . Available at: http://www.unesco. org?new/en/education/themes/educationbuilding – blocks/literacy/ 38. Virna, Zh. (2003). Motive and content regulation in a psychology professionalization. Monograph. Lutsk, 2003, 320 p. 39. Vygotsky, L.S. (1993). The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky: Vol.2 J.Knox & C. Stevens (Trans.), New York: Plenum. 40. Wagner, W. (2013). Indigeneous psychology and overarching representational systems. Journal of Group Dynamics, 30, pp.59-71. 41. Wang, W (2004). How University Students View Online Study: a PCP perspective – Campus – Wide Information Systems Journal. Vol.21. Issue NO.3, pp. 108 – 117.

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UDC 159.9. 303.094+63.50 SPECIFICS ETHNIC INDIVIDUATION AND IDENTIFICATIONS OF THE NATIONS OF UKRAINE Mykola L. Didukh Specifics ethnic individuation and identifications of the nations of Ukraine. PhD in Psychology, National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv

The article addresses the notion of the ethnic individuation, its stages, levels and mechanisms, interrelation of the process of individuation and ethnic identification. Empirical cross-cultural study of the dynamics of the ethnic individuation and identification under the influence of the events of Maidan was carried out. Key words: Individuation, identification, Ukraine, cross-cultural study.

У статті розглядається поняття етнічної індивидуації, її етапи, рівні та механізми, взаємозв'язок процесу індивідуації та етнічної ідентифікації. Емпіричне кроскультурне дослідження з динаміки етнічної індивідуації та ідентифікації, що проводилось під впливом подій на Майдані. Ключові слова: Індивідуація, ідентифікація, Україна, крос-культурне дослідження.

Introduction Our research is addressing the study of the social and psychological regularities of individuation which is identified as a process aimed at the comprehension and achievement of the integrity with self and nation. Analytical psychology founded by C. G. Jung [1,2,], where the notion of individuation was identified for the first time, is characterized by rather intensive development resulting in appearance of three main concepts — classical, concept of development and archetypical concept. The works of Marie-Louise von  Franz can be undoubtedly referred to the classical school [3,4]. She skillfully combines the analysis of the archetypical images in the literature with the records of the therapeutic sessions and her own medical case studies. Her attention is focused on the individual and often abnormal implementation of the archetypes. Е.  Neumann [5], a representative of the same concept, considers that the archetypes are experiencing cultural influence and should regenerate in every generation; in the result of the broadening of the human consciousness they endure their own history of formation and obtain new features. J. Hillman [6,7], a founder of the school of archetypal psychology, when analyzing artistic legacy of C.  Jung [1] considers the concept of

archetypes to be fundamental as it defines the most underlying mechanisms of the human functioning, which serve as means of orientation of a human in the world around and means of communication with the last. J. Hollis [8] pays his attention to the availability of the unconscientious cultural values and beliefs. Supraliminal values are corporified in the cultural and ethnic norms, and in the system of justice, in the traditions and sense of the national identity. Also, J. Hollis [7] introduces the notion of mythologemas, uniting archetypical images with established behavioral patterns reflected in the myths. The author considers that any unconscientious diversion from these mythologemas can cause unfavorable development of the personalistic crisis. At the same time, the works on the analytical psychology do not concentrate on the subjective and vitality of a person in the process of individuation. The first stage of the individuation is characterized by the identification of the consciousness with the world around without realization of the limits. Consciousness and the object are mystically united into the unified whole, where the mechanisms of the identification, introjection and projection are prevailing. It is this level of the weakly differentiated consciousness that is present in ethnic communities which are the parts of the broader state or ethnic 37

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communities. To a certain extent it can be referred to the state of nations within the Soviet people. At the level of official propaganda there existed a new type of the human community — Soviet people united by the state, territorial, economic and ideological features. The second stage of the ontogenetic development is the stage when a child differentiates itself from the world around and the meaningful parent images are distinguished and transforming into the units of projection. In future other members of the family, school, teachers and other social institutions can transform into such units too. The researchers emphasize that it is this level of the development of the consciousness that is typical of many adults, although it does not prevent them from adaptation to the society and healthy state. At the level of the collective agents the process of the ethnic individuation developed under the influence of the collapse of the Soviet Union and formation of the separate states. This caused the necessity of the ethnic differentiation and need to search the units of projection of the archetypical images to the meaningful figures within the nation – that is the second stage. In Ukraine the process of mythologization of the national history and culture, search of the great ancestors – bearers of the Ukrainian mentality developed rapidly. At the third stage a human starts recognizing the nonidentity of the projection and of the unity. Pansophy and omnipotence are separated and form vision and religious beliefs about God, Truth, Justice etc. This stage forms a number of traditional values and imperatives adhered by the bearers of the religious morale. The corresponding stage of the ethnic individuation results in the spread in the society of the ideals and idealization of the individuals and historical periods. At the fourth stage the projections of such type are recognized and disappear. The space previously occupied by the faith is devastating and the decisions are rendered on the basis of the pragmatic and realistic outlook. The principles have become circumstantial and depend on the cultural system of regulations and expectations. The fourth stage causes to some extend exaggerated percepts of the human ego and a human become a lord for her-/himself. Possibly it is this pragmatic stage of the ethnic individuation is typical for the Ukrainian today and the necessity of the transfer to the next stage creates social and political opportunities for the ethnic individuation at the collective and individual levels. At the fifth stage conscious and 38

unconscious are integrating. A human ceases using mechanisms of the projection outwards and instead pays more attention to the personal artistic potential, personal system of the dialogue and balance between conscientious and unconscientious. This stage of the development of the ethnic self-comprehension must be a result of the goal-directed activity at the level of the collective unity of the ethnic individuation. The process of the ethnic individuation can develop both at the level of the individual and collective unity owing to the following mechanisms: comprehension, assignment, reconsideration, differentiation, internalization, creative realization and integration. The aim of this article is a study of the ethnic identity and processes of individuation within four ethnic groups: Ukrainians, Russians, Jewish and Crimean Tartars. The research was conducted in two stages – in 2012 and in 2014 (after the events of Maidan). The total number of the respondents of the first stage is 1200, and of the second stage – 160 Ukrainians. The dynamic study of the factors within the representatives of the ethnic minorities has still being carried out. The following authoring techniques were used: «Mechanisms of the ethnic individuation» and «Stages of the ethnic individuation» as well as the scale developed by H. U. Soldatova «Types of the ethnic identity». There are six types of the ethnic identity distinguished in the study of the scientist H. U.  Soldatova. Ethnic nothingism being one of the forms of the disorder of the ethnic identity is manifested through the negative attitude towards the own ethnic community and search of the steady social and psychological niches which are not featured ethnically. Ethnic indifference — is a splitting of the ethnic identity manifested through the ambiguity of the ethnicity and irrelevance of the ethnic personal identity. Positive ethnic identity is a combination of the positive attitude towards the own people and positive attitude towards other people. In the multi-ethnic environment a positive ethnic identity is a norm and typical of the majority of the population. It creates an optimized balance of tolerance in relation to the different ethnic groups and this factor allows considering it as a precondition for the independent and steady existence of the ethnic group as well as a precondition for the peaceful intercultural cooperation in the multi-ethnic environment. Destructive interethnic relations are stipulated by the alterations of the ethnic selfcomprehension by the type of the hyper-identity which can appear in three variants. Ethnic individualism represented in the relatively safe

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українці росіяни росіяні євреї татари











Ukrainians українці 21,8424 9,13587 9,08696 10,9185 14,6304 9,52717 Russians росіяні

21,2462 9,15385 9,17483 10,8881 14,6573 9,6014

Jewish євреї

20,7978 10,5056 9,2809 10,9775 14,7303 11,0225

Tatars татари

19,7917 10,6667 10,5417 10,9306 11,6111 9,36111

(Ukrainians, Russians, Jewish, Tatars) 1 - positive ethnic identity, 2 - isolationism, 3 - ethnic nothingism, 4 - ethnic fanaticism, 5 - indifference, 6 - ethnic egoism Pic.1. Types of the ethnic identity form of the comprehension of the events in the light of the interests of the own people, and recognition of the right of the own people for the solving of the problems at somebody else’s expense. This can cause a conflict and break multi-ethnic communication. Ethnic isolationism manifests itself through the preassurance about the highness of the own people, the necessity of the «cleanup» of the national culture, negative attitude towards the interethnic marriages and zenophobia. Ethnic fanaticism is connected with the commitment to do all possible to realization of the own understanding of the ethnic interests, denial to the other people of the right to use resources and human rights and liberties. In accordance with the proposed by H. U.  Soldatova technique of the study of the manifestations of the different types of the ethnic identification, used in our study too, the range of the manifestations could vary from 5 to 25 points, where points from 5 to 8 corresponds to the low level, points from 9 to 12  — to the under average level, points from 13 to 16  — to the intermediate level, points from 17 to 20 — to the upper intermediate level and points from 21 to 25 — correspond to the high level. The results of the comparative analysis of the average factors are shown on the picture 1. It is noticeable that in our sample group, similar to the results received by H. U. Soldatova,

a high level and an upper intermediate level of the positive identity are prevailing. These factors testify the successful consolidation of the Ukrainian society and rather effective interethnic communication. Such deviated forms of the ethnic identity as ethnic isolationism, nothingism and fanaticism are manifested in all research at the under average level. An average level of the ethnic indifference recorded among the Ukrainians, Russians and Jewish can cause a slight concern. Among Ukrainians and Russians the level of ethnic egoism is higher than in the other groups and a combination of ethnic isolationism and ethnic nothingism is rather strange. It is illustrative that such a deviated form of the ethnic identity as ethnic fanaticism within the research groups is at the under average level and this indicates to the high level of the tolerance among the groups under study. Thus, the study conducted in 2012 did not reveal any preconditions for the interethnic conflict in Ukraine and a positive, normative ethnic identification was prevailing in all groups. Re-examination was conducted in March 2014 and the respondents were ethnic Ukrainians and residents of different regions of Ukraine. The peculiarities of the ethnic identity and the development of the stages of the ethnic individuation were studied. We supposed 39

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that the events of Maidan, detachment of the Crimea could influence the ethnic identity of the Ukrainian study group. The manifestations of the ethnic fanaticism and ethnic isolationism have intensified. Empirical study did not reveal any credible differences (by Mann â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Whitneyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s criterion) between the factors of the types of ethic identity within two study groups. At the level of the tendencies enrichment of the positive identity up to 22,5 at the simultaneous retention of all the other factor at the same level was recorded. This allowed supposing that social identity formed in the result of the socialization is an underlying personal component and does not undergo any transformations even when depends upon prominent social and political events. The theoretical and empirical data received testify that the processes of individuation and identification are not identical. The mechanisms of the ethnic individuation manifest irrespectively of the level of the positive ethnic identity whereas there is an undeniably negative correlation relationship with deviated forms of the ethnic identity. As the measures of prevention of some kinds of the impairment of the ethnic identity different mechanisms of the ethnic individuation are used. Comprehension promotes damping of the manifestations of the ethnic nothingism, ethnic fanaticism and ethnic egoism. Assignment negatively influences ethnic isolationism and ethnic indifference. Reconsideration is not producing the same effect: preventing

manifestations of all the deviated variants of the identification within some individuals this mechanism can induce enrichment of the manifestations of the ethnic fanaticism. (This tendency was especially noticeable in the group of the Crimean Tartars and some groups of the Ukrainians, primarily residents of the western regions.) Differentiation prevents manifestations of nothingism, isolationism and egoism as it arouses interest in the differences between own and alien culture. Internalization doe not almost manifest any influence upon the deviated forms of the ethnic identity and instead favor formation of the positive ethnic identity. Creative realization prevents manifestation both of the indifference and fanaticism. Integration cannot secure against deviated manifestations although can promote bursts of the ethnic egoism as this mechanism is focusing on the approximation of the own interests and interests of the ethnic community. Connection between the manifestations of the ethnic individuation and identification is shown in the Tableâ&#x20AC;Ż1. Thus we can draw a conclusion that the development of the processes of the ethnic individuation can serve as effective techniques for the prevention of the deviated variants of the ethnic identity both in its excessive and deficient variants. This program is particularly topical for the representatives of the ethnic communities (Crimean Tatars and Jewish) and Ukrainians considering the manifestations of the ethnic fanaticism recently registered in mass media Table 1

Connection between the factors of the ethnic individuation and identification Positive ethnic identity


Ethnic nothingism

Ethnic fanaticism

Ethnic indifference

Ethnic egoism

Comprehension Assignment Reconsideration Differentiation Internalization

0,101 0,083 0,101 0,077 0,221**

0,039 -0,157* -0,063 -0,228** 0,079

-0,079 -0,041 -0,016 -0,316** -0,018

-0,184* 0,143 0,154* 0,089 0,091

0,084 -0,362** -0,319** 0,048 0,017

-0,230** -0,036 -0,146* -0,176* 0,108

Creative realization Integration Positive ethnic identity

0,023 0,078 1

-0,033 0,093 -0,223**

0,214** -0,064 -0,211**

-0,156* -0,194** -0,068

-0,268** -0,302** 0,001

-0,055 0,147* -0,119








Ethnic nothingism Ethnic fanaticism Ethnic indifference

-0,211** -0,068 0,001

0,289** 0,450** -0,250**

1 0,114 -0,027

0,114 1 -0,151*

-0,027 -0,151* 1

0,307** 0,354** -0,056





Ethnic egoism -0,119 0,321** Note: * sampling accuracy 0,05; ** sampling accuracy 0,05.


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Table 2 Influence of the ethnicity on the manifestations of the mechanisms of the ethnic individuation Te s t S t a t i s t i c s a , b Creative












realization 38,247









Asymp. Sig.








and corresponding events which are totally not typical of the Ukrainians and as a result are not registered among our respondents. The mostly loaded are reconsideration and internalization. We can suppose that they are the reconsideration of the history of the own people and formation of the sense of the personal responsibility for the events of the nowadays which are the starting mechanisms of the process of individuation where the mechanisms of comprehension (as a larger part of the individuation is developing on the subconscious level) and assignment (which becomes part of the reconsideration and integration). The cross-cultural study of the process of individuation revealed credible differences by some mechanisms between the study groups (Table 2). There were no differences revealed within the study groups by such primary mechanisms as: internalization and reconsideration; at the same time less important mechanisms are differentiated. Among Russians and Ukrainians there were no differences by the manifestations of the ethnic individuation registered. The Crimean Tartars demonstrated to some extent lower factors by reconsideration and the Jewish showed higher level of manifestations of the ethnic individuation by all the parameters under study. This can be explained by the fact that individuation is more important for Jewish, where this process is connected with the change of the way of life or even the country of living. Absence of the credible differences between Ukrainians and Russians residing on the territory of Ukraine testify to the significant similarity of the development of the processes of the ethnic individuation within these ethnic communities. The study of the dynamics of the stages of ethnic individuation during 2012-2014 revealed reliable changes in the comprehension by the respondents of the stage typical of them. In 2012 the first stage (unification) and the fourth stage – stage of the pragmatic outlook were prevailing, but the revolutionary situation caused significant changes in the distribution of the factors – lessening of the importance of

Integration 14,118

the first stage, significant (sampling accuracy 0,05) enrichment of the manifestations of differentiation, significant strengthening of the feelings of the mythological outlook typical of the third stage. It is possible that these needs for the personal development at the level of the collective agent could, to some extent, cause revolutionary events – owning to the desire for the detachment and dissociation from the former undifferentiated «family of nations» and strengthening of the heroic mythological tendency. Conclusions The study revealed that irrespective of the ethnic background the process of individuation and ethnic identification develops similarly in all study groups. There is a connection between these processes. The transfer to the second and the third stages of the ethnic individuation among Ukrainians in 2013 could promote appearance of the current revolutionary situation which is a manifestation of the desire for the dissociation and mythologization, but in no case a manifestation of the ethnic fanaticism. Referenses: 1. Jung, C. G., & De Laszlo, V. S. (1959). Basic Writings. New York: Modern Library. 2. Jung, C. G., & Franz, M.-L. v. (1964). Man and His Symbols. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday,  ISBN 0-440-35183-9 3. Franz, M.-L. Interpretation of Fairytales. Spring Publications, Dallas, 8th Printing, 1987. ISBN 0-88214-101-5 4. Franz, M.-L. Light from the Darkness: The Paintings of Peter Birkhäuser ISBN 3-76431190-8 (1980) 5. Neumann, Erich. Depth Psychology and a New Ethic. Shambhala; Reprint edition (1990).ISBN 0-87773-571-9. 6. Hillman, James Archetypal Psychology, Uniform Edition, Vol. 1 (Spring Publications, 2004. Original 1983.) 7. Hillman, James The Force of Character (Random House, New York, 1999) 8. Hollis, James Swamplands Of The Soul: New Life in Dismal Places. Inner City Books, 1996 41

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UDC 159.9. 614.254.3 (075) METHODOLOGY OF FAMILY - ORIENTED PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSISTANCE TO CHILDREN WITH EMOTIONAL-VOLITIONAL DISORDERS Dushka A.L. Ph.D. in Psychology, Professor, Leading Research Fellow of G.S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of NAPS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

We can state that relations inside of the family, family structure, roles of the parents within the family, direct participation of mother and father in the upbringing of the child as well as the surrounding environment have a dominant influence on the development of emotional and volitional sphere of a child(Thus, it is possible to note that the relations in a family, structure of a family, a part that assignment to parents, direct participation of mother and father in the course of education of the child,and a direct environment have the dominating influence on development of the emotional-volitional sphere of the child). Psycho-pedagogical and medico-social programs of correction and adaptation should be directed not only on children but also on the harmonizing of family relationship in general, formation of positive and efficient inner circle of influence. Special programs foresee involving psychologists, teachers, special family therapists, speech pathologists and other professionals in the process of rehabilitation (In special programs are involved psychologists, teachers, special family therapists, speech patholo-gists and other professionals in the process of rehabilitation). All of them should work in coordination, adjusting the chosen methodology in accordance with the dynamics of the development of emotional -volitional sphere of a child. It should be noted that the factors that lead to the emotional disorders of children (ie, biological, psychological and socio-psychological) have a fairly wide range. Category of children with disorders of emotional and volitional sphere is also extremely heterogeneous. Therefore, complex changes in the social environment of a child can remove the unwanted

Автор констатує, що відносини всередині сім`ї, структура сім`ї, ролі батьків в сім›ї, безпосередню участь матері і батька у вихованні дитини, а також навколишнього середовища мє домінуючий вплив на розвиток емоційно-вольової сфери дитини. Автор стверджує, що психолого-педагогічні та медикосоціальні програми корекції та адаптації повинні бути спрямовані не тільки на дітей, а й на гармонізації сімейних відносин в цілому, формування позитивного та ефективного внутрішнього кола впливу. Слід зазначити, що фактори, які ведуть до емоційних розладів у дітей (наприклад, біологічні, психологічні та соціально-психологічні) мають досить широкий діапазон. Категорія дітей з порушеннями емоційно-вольової сфери, також дуже неоднорідна. Запропоновано рекомендації щодо оптимізації відхилень і труднощів у розвитку емоційно-вольовоїї сфери дітей. Ключові слова: емоційно-вольова сфера дитини, затримка розвитку (порушення розвитку), психологічна допомога.

Statement of the social problem. In the psychological literature of emotional disorders with children considered as a negative condition, occurring against a background of hard to solve conflicts (Zaporozhets, A. C., Zakharov A. I., [14, 15, and 16]). Traditionally there are three groups of factors leading to the emergence of emotional disorders in children: biological, psychological and social-psychological. Biological prerequisites emotional disorders include:

- genetic factors; - individual-typological characteristics of the child’s personality, - somatic abatements are to common disorders, helps arose of various reactive state and neurotic reactions mainly with asthenic component (Gurevich, K. M., Kovalev V. V., [12, 18]). Psychological causes: - features of the emotional-volitional sphere of the child;


variations and difficulties in the emotional sphere and help to avoid the affective behavior (For this reason exclusively complex changes in a surrounding social situation of the child allow to remove undesirable deviations and difficulties in the emotional sphere, to avoid affective manifestations in behavior). Key words: emotional-volitional sphere of a child, developmental delay (violation of development), psychological help.

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- namely breach of the adequacy response to the impact from the outside; - the lack of development of skills of self-control behavior. Disturbances in emotional contact with the child with adults cause her internal discomfort, causing a feeling of inferiority, threatening the stability of his relationship to the world, which ultimately can lead to significant distortions in the development of the child (Breslav G. M., Buyanov M. I., Varga A. Y., Lebedinsky K. S., Zakharov A. I., [6, 7, 8, 20 and 16]). Problem statement. The purpose of the study is to determine the content, methods and techniques of correction of the emotional-volitional sphere of preschool children. The study of the emotional-volitional sphere of children of preschool age 5-7 years. Subject of research - particularly the emotional-volitional sphere of preschool children. To achieve the purpose, the following objectives: - to conduct a theoretical analysis of the problem of violations of the emotional-volitional sphere of children; - create a program of assistance and correction of the emotional-volitional sphere of children; - to develop methodological recommendations for teachers and psychologists working with children with disorders of the emotional-volitional sphere. The author’s concept or original idea. In psychological literature widely are available, results of research on issues related to the emotional and volitional preschool children. However, the emotionalvolitional sphere of preschool children still was not an independent of study subject. But the study of these problems it is necessary to address issues such as the definition of the content, methods, methods of psychological correction and rehabilitation works for the development of therapeutic and educational treatment and correctional programs, which compensate for adverse experiences and life circumstances of children this category. Preschool children with disorders of the emotional-volitional sphere require special organized psychological help to ensure that age, individual characteristics, right approach to them. The level of professional competence of psychologists and educators who work with such children also requires qualitative changes in the system of training and retraining of specialists. The last researches and publications analysis. Psychological characteristics of children with disorders of the emotional-volitional sphere have become the subject of psychological analysis (Vygotsky L. S., Božović, Lydia I.,Lubowsky I. I., [9, 4 and 23]). In studies Leontiev, A. N., Božović L. I., Kotyrlo C. K. are shown that the insufficient level of development of the emotional-volitional sphere of children can be one of the reasons underlying the

failure, inability to comply with the norms and rules of behavior [22, 4 and 19]. Problem correction of deviations in the behavior of preschool children was considered in Abrahamian L. A., Breslav G. M., Dulnev G. M., Lubovsky V. I., Sinev V. M., [1, 6, 13, 23 and 28]. According to their data, changes in the surrounding social environment of the child allow you to remove unwanted deviations and difficulties in the emotional sphere, to avoid affective manifestations in behavior. A number of scientists (Freud, A., Rutter, M., Zakharov, A. I., Spivakovskaya, A. S., [32, 26, 16 and 29]) note that one of the reasons for difficulties in behavior is the presence of acute emotional reactions, leading to the emergence of fear in children and the destruction of the products of their activity. The allocation unsolved parts of the studied problem. We offer a program consisting of the following stages: installation-and-diagnostic, corrective (including the stage of updating, correctionforming and reconstructive stage), establishing and revealing changes in emotional states and behavior of children. Installation-diagnostic stage contributes on the one hand, the actualization of positive feelings and experiences of children and to establish positive contact “psychologist - child”, on the other hand, the gradual unification of the children in the group, the formation of installation in collaboration with peers gaming activities. The correction stage performs diagnostic tasks: allows you to define a conflict situation, the behaviors of children in communicating with peers and adults and features of communication between children in during play activities. This gives children the opportunity to consult their own emotional experience and contributes to the creation of conditions for their expression. The single-stage provides expansion of sphere of realization of feelings and experiencing; reduction of amount is open aggressive behavior, negative attitude toward coevals; increase of playing activity; creation of friendly atmosphere of mutual help and self-awareness their capabilities (on this stage more steady emotional relationships with partners with predominance of positive and mutual elections and declines of negative reactions of child, arising up within the framework of business relationships in the process of games). Exposition of basic material. Among children with disabilities, that is, those who have a different variance in psychophysical and socio-personal development and require no special camping assistance are children who have come to the fore disorder in the emotional-volitional sphere. The category of children with disorders of the emotionalvolitional sphere is extremely heterogeneous. The main feature of such children is violation of or delay in the development of higher socialized forms of behavior, including interaction with another person, 43

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his thoughts, feelings, and behavioral reactions. When this activity is mediated by social interaction (game design, fantasy, solving intellectual tasks alone, etc.), may be at a high level. In home pedagogical science question of forming emotional-volitional sphere investigated in the context of humanizing of education. Wide distribution the idea of development of emotional-volitional sphere got in 20th of the last century in theoretical and practical researches of V. P. Kashchenko, A. S. Makarenko, V. A. Sukhomlinsky and other researchers. Out of foreign researchers of this problem are the following scientists: R. Assagioli, Bandura A., Bowlby D., Izard K., Levin K., Lorenz K., Mei R., Rank  O., Spielberger Ch., Svancara Y. and. etc. In 1994-2005 ..., in the domestic literature published on the formation of the emotionalvolitional sphere: Oleksandrovskaya E. M., Bryazgunova І. P., Garbuzova V. І., Dubrovina І V., Іvaschenko F І., Ilyin E. P., Kolominsky Ya. L, Matyugіn І. Yu., Mikhaylova V. P., Ovcharova R. V., Rogov E. І., Semago M. M., Semago N. Ya, Troshikhin E. G., Chistyakova M. I., and etc. According to the common classification of behavioral disorders in children and adolescents R. Jenkins, we can distinguish the following types of behavior disorders: hyperkinetic reaction, anxiety, avoidance by autistic type, flight, not socialized aggression, group offenses. Sukhareva G. E. [30] considers pathogenesis of violations of development of the personality and allocates three types mental illness: the delay in development, corrupted development and distorted development. According to Ushakov G. K. and Kovalyov V. V. [18], the main clinical type mental illness are: - retardation, that is delay or steady mental underdevelopment, as the general, and partial; - inharmonic development, the including signs of a retardation and acceleration. According to Lebedinsky V. V. [21], mental illness it represented by the following options: - underdevelopment; - the delay in development; - corrupted development; - deficit in the development; - abnormal development; - mental illness. The basis of this classification by regulations on a mental illness in Sukharevoy G. E. and Kanner’s L. theories. Lebedinsky V. V. considered it appropriate to present as independent options - the delay in development, deficit in the development and mental illness. Classification differentiates the various options of anomalies because of a basic quality impairment development. There is a group of anomalies caused 44

by a delay development: distorted and mental illness development, and the group of anomalies caused by damage to, losses of various functions: corrupted development and deficit in the development. Violation of the emotional-volitional sphere, this type of mental illness, different from other types of impaired mental and physical development and from a scientific and from a practical point of view. Types of emotional-volitional sphere are studied not only from the standpoint of correctional pedagogy and psychopathology, but also from the position of general pedagogy, age-related, pedagogic, social and practical psychology. While every branch of science, describing the same phenomena of behavior and feelings of the child, is different categorical apparatus, treats of their nature in different ways (for example, the understanding of the essence of early infantile autism, mental retardation differs in medicine, pedagogy, psychology, and such a phenomenon in the behavior of the child as disinhibition, inability to self-control it has a different name - «The minimal brain dysfunction syndrome», “attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)”, «impulsive behavior», «disruption of nervous processes», and so on [21]. Despite fact that, in the defectology there is no unanimity of views concerning classification of types of violations of the emotional and strong-willed sphere and their place among other diseases. So, Semenovich A. V. [29] considers that «adverse neuropsychological effects of ontogensees in general are violations and distortions withing and subcortical-cortical and inter-hemispheric interactions, including dysontogenesis functional specialization of the right and left hemispheres of the brain. On the mental level it looks, in particular, as options dysontogenesis of severe speech disorders (SSD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the background of increased epi- availability, the lack of voluntary self-regulation». According to the classification Sinev V. M.: - child with asthenic, jet states and conflict experiences; - child with the contiguity disorder of behavior; - сhild with early signs of mental illness (epilepsy, schizophrenia). On modern classification of Semago N. Ya., Semago M. M., [28] allocate to such types of frustration of the emotional-volitional sphere: - insufficient development - partially not formation of the highest mental functions with prevalence of insufficiency of a regulatory component; - asynchronous, disharmonious development extra punitive, intro punitive and atypical types; - asynchronous abnormal development - distortion development primarily emotional-volitional sphere. In the modern sense of the correctionaleducational work is a system of psychologicalpedagogical and medical interventions aimed at

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overcoming or weakening of the deficiencies in mental and physical development of children. Correctional-educational work characterized such features as - integrity (all the activities are addressed to the childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s personality in General); - consistency (all events are held in the system, in relation to each other and designed for a long time); - the complexity of (all used tools provide the ability to provide corrective influence on the physical development of the child, and the development of mental processes and functions, the emotionalvolitional sphere of the childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s personality in General) - the relationship with the social environment (the expansion of the boundaries of the conducting correctional-educational work outside of the institution, and the inclusion of the social environment in which brought up the child). The research of scholars such as Vygotsky L. S., Graborov A. N., Dulnev G. M. [9, 11 and 13] and the existing experience of correctional work show that the basis of such work should be based on the following principles - the principle of adopting a child (the implementation of the principle involves creating the proper atmosphere in an environment where educated child. Respect for the child, next to reasonable demands, faith in his development opportunities and the desire in the greatest degree to develop his potentialities are fundamental in creating the most child-friendly atmosphere; - the principle of assistance (this principle is applied to the upbringing of any child, but when working with children with disabilities he has a special significance, because such a child without specially organized assistance will not be able to achieve the optimal level of mental and physical development); - the principle of individual approach (principle shows that the child has the right to develop in accordance with their mental and physical characteristics. Its implementation provides opportunity to achieve the childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s potential level of development through the implementation of content, methods, means, organization of the processes of education and training in accordance with their individual capabilities); - the principle of unity influences medical, psychological and pedagogical (medical activities create favorable conditions for psychological and pedagogical influence and only in combination with them can provide high efficiency correctional-educational work with each child); - the principle of cooperation with the family to create a comfortable atmosphere in the family, the presence of the correct relationship to the child, the unity of the requirements of the child to contribute to a more successful his physical and mental development).

The construction of the correctionaleducational work with children in accordance with these principles will provide the most complete disclosure of the potential development of each child. We offered system of the correctional program of lessons in optimization of changes of the emotional sphere of the child that instead off: - initial diagnostic examination of the level of formation and characteristics of the emotional sphere of the child; - directed corrective influence to optimize disturbed emotional reactions and of these conditions of children; - recommendations to parents on the implementation of the correctional-educational influences on children; - final psychodiagnostic testing examination to determine the effect of the intervention. For determination of efficiency of intervention of a psychodiagnostic testing, have be carried out before and after the program. The approach to the causes of disorders implies the type and the sphere of therapeutic impact. One method is nondirective therapy, game theory, developed by Virginia M. Axline based on of which is the setting warm and friendly relations between therapist and child. Fundamentals of nondirective play therapy based on the concept of nondirective therapy of Carl Rogers. In the process of applying this type of therapy the child has the opportunity openly give voice to their feelings and to manage the process of the meeting. Important limitations, such as the prohibition on the destruction of things or an attack on others persons. Nondirective therapy also covers the elements of art therapy (painting, sculpture, collage, etc.), games with different objects and substances. Another method is a psychotherapeutic game, the goal of which is to help the child to reach a state of mental equilibrium. In the process of conducting psychotherapy games, you can: - to help your child relieve tension; - minimize the manifestation of affective outbreaks, make them controllable; - to teach the child to express emotions adequately. For psychotherapeutic games, the following features are characteristic: 1. Psychotherapeutic game is not organized, and occurs spontaneously in connection with the status of the child. Therefore, the psychologist must be prepared to conduct such games if necessary. 2. Psychotherapeutic group conducts and supervises psychologist experimenting with your child certain emotions, commented on the situation, helping the child to understand him own behavior. 3. In psychotherapeutic group is obligatory to eat object, which directed the actions of a child are there can be things and subjects. One of the 45

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components of mental child’s readiness for school is emotional readiness (availability of cognitive motive, emotional stability, striving to achieve the result of their work, and so on). Feature of children of the older preschool age of 5-6 years is the insufficient formation of differentiation of emotional states and self-control; the small volume of mimic means (expressive movements of face muscles) and pantomimic means (expressive movements of all body), weakness of an articulation and thin motility, - all this reduces communicative opportunities of children. It is necessary to notice that communication with contemporaries becomes more and more attractive to the preschool child, as during this period сензитивен for formation of a situational and business form of communication with other children. The object leading activity at this age is the role-playing game. In this kind of game the identity of the child is improved, develops motivational necessity spheres, randomness in behavioral, mental capacities, the informative and emotional egocentrism is overcome, and by means of expressive actions also the sensual sphere is formed. Children as young as preschool age have problems in terms of emotions associated with the ban adults. It is a ban on loud laughter in an improper situation (on understanding of adults), a ban on tears (especially for boys), a ban on expression of fear, aggression. Control from adults in education of children, of course, is necessary, but control should not pursue only interests of parents. According to Alexander Lowen, excessive prohibitions in expressions of feelings carry along limitation of vitality, spontaneity and charm, which is the loss of the inherent naturalness, grace, owned by the child since birth. Partially the games aimed at the development of the emotional sphere [28] help to cope with this problem. These games can be with children in any free time along one or on several occasions. Basic purposes of games and exercises: 1. Training of recognition of emotions on external manifestations; 2. Formation at children of moral representations; 3. Correction of behavior through role-playing games, performances, games dramatizations; 4. Decrease in an emotional pressure; 5. Training in methods of relaxation for the purpose of ability to distinguish tension and relaxation of muscles. If to consider the family atmosphere in general, it will be possible to understand how these or those conscious or unconscious motivational and emotional structures of the personality refract, expressed, staticized in concrete forms of behavior and interaction with children. The inattention of parents to feelings and needs of the child interferes with their, to healthy 46

development. People whom ignore, tease, humiliate, whose ridicule he believes that treat him as insignificant person. Such relationships (contacts) between father and child lead to the pathology of the individual. Beating is an extreme form of neglect. Unlike physical contact, which rarely require these victims from their parents, the ability to think carefully according to R. Campbell [18], it takes time and suggests that parents need to drop the cases and the pleasure that they prefer to deal with at moment. The close attention allows the child to feel the feature. The crucial role in development of a self-assessment of the child, his ability to interact with other people is assignment to this knowledge. The child deprived of close attention, as a rule, is worse developed, are broken its emotional and mental development. It is more closed, it is more difficult for it to communicate with contemporaries, he copes with any conflict situation worse, completely he depend on the teacher or other adult. At the same time some children, especially girls, are deprived of close attention of parents, on the contrary, speak, are able to manipulate dexterously people, are allocated with the vivacity, they are attractive. Thus, it is possible to note that the relations in a family, structure of a family, a part that assignment to parents, direct participation of mother and father in the course of education of the child, and a direct environment have the dominating influence on development of the emotional-volitional sphere of the child. Conclusions and prospects of further researches. As scientific innovation, it is possible to define testing of the program for development of the emotional and strong-willed sphere and the personality, children with autism. Practical significance of the research is that its results formed the basis for the development and implementation of programs for the correction of the emotional and volitional sphere of children diagnosed with autism, the use of which showed high efficiency of this procedure for psychological assistance and correction of child development. It is necessary to develop methodical recommendations for psychologists and teachers on the organization of work with children of this category for the purpose of prevention and correction of violations in emotional and volitional, and personal spheres. References: 1. Abrahamian L. A. The role of games in education of children with difficulties in emotional development // Emotional development preschooler / Ed. A. D. Kosheleva - M.: Education, 1985, p. 136 - 171. 2. Assagioli R. Psychosynthesis: theory and practice / Assagioli P //. - M.: “REFL-book”, 1994. - 314 p. 3. Bandura A. the Theory of social learning. / A. Bandura // - SPb.: Eurasia, 2000, - p. 320.

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research 4. Božović L. I. Selected psychological works: Probl. The shaping of personality. / Edited by Doctor of historical Sciences of Feldstein // M.: Proc. PED. Acad., 1999, - p. 209. 5. Bowlby J. The creation and destruction of emotional ties. /J. Bowlby // : Academic project, 2004. - p. 232. 6. Breslav G. M. Problems of emotional regulation, communication at pre-school-lenicov / G. M. Breslau // Questions of psychology, 1984, No. 3. - p. 53-59. 7. Buyanov M. I. Child from a dysfunctional family: notes children’s psi-Chitra. / M. I. Buyanov // - M.: Education, 1988, - p. 207. 8. Varga A. Ya. Structure and types of parent relations /A. Ya. Varga: author. dis. Kida. Sciences. // - M, 1987, - p. 20. 9. Vygotsky L. S. the Development of higher forms of attention in children Text. An anthology of attention / L. S. Vygotsky // M.: MGU, 1976, p. 184-256. 10. Garbuzov V. I. Nervous children: advice from your doctor / V. I. Garbuzov // - M., 1990. - p. 176. 11. Graborov A. N. Fundamentals of mental retardation /A. N. Graborov // - M.: The Classics Style, 2005. - p. 248. 12. Gurevich K. M. Psychological diagnosis / K. M. Gurevich // - The tutorial. M, - 1997. 13. Dulnev G. M. Educational work in the secondary school / G. M Delinv, Ed. by T. A. Vlasova and C. G. Petrova // M.: Education, 1981. - p. 176. 14. Zaporozhets, A. V., Neverovich Ya. Z. To the question of the Genesis of the functions and structure of emotional processes in the child / Century A. V. Zaporojets // questions of psychology. 1974. No. 6. - p. 59-73. 15. Zaporozhets, A. V. etc. Social emotions in children of preschool age /A. V. Zaporojets // - M., 1986. 16. Zakharov, A. I. To study the anomalies of family education in the pathogenesis of neuroses in children / Neuroses and border States // Ed. by V. N. Myasishchev, B. D. Karasunskogo, A. E. Licko etc. - L., 1972. - p. 53-55. 17. Isaev D. N. Experience of application of tests of anxiety in the study of children with mental retardation /A. N. Isaev // Defectology. - 1999. No. 4. 18. Campbell R. How to really love children / R. Campbell // - M., 1992. 19. Kovalev V. V. Psychiatry of childhood. Guide for the enemy-whose / V. V. Kovalev - M.: Medicine, 1995. 20. Kosheleva, A. D. Emotional development of preschool children: a manual for students of higher pedagogical educational institutions / C. I. Pereguda, O. A. Shugraeva, Kozlov, S. A. // - M.: Academy, 2003, - p. 176. 21. Kotyrlo V. K. Individual approach to children in the educational process of the school /V. K. Cotillo - Kiev, 1989. 22. Lebedinskaya K. S. degrees of mental subnormality in the mental retardation/ K. S. Lebedinskaya / Selection of children in a special school: a Handbook for teachers // T. A. Vlasov, K. S. Lebedinskaya, V. F. Machihin M: Education, 1983, p. 18-22. 23. Lebedinsky V. V. Centuries mental development in children / V. V. Lebedinsky // M.: MSU - 1985, p. 167.

24. Levin K. Dynamic psychology / K. Levin // M: Meaning, 2001, - 572 C. 25. Leontiev A. N. The mental development of children in preschool the age. - In collection: the psychology of the child of preschool age / Ed. by A. N. Leontiev, A. V. Zaporojets // - M., 1995. – p. 13-25. 26. Lubowski V. I. Psychological problems diagnosing abnormal child development / V. I. Lubowski // M: Longman, 1989, - p. 104. 27. Mamaychuk I. I Abnormal mental development of the child / I. I. Mamaychuk - SPb.: Publishing house of St. Petersburg state University, 1996. 28. Minaev V. M. Development of emotions preschoolers. Classes. Games / V. M. Minaeva // - M: ARCHI, 2001, - p. 48. 29. Carroll E., Psychology of emotion / E. Carroll // Izard Moscow, St. Petersburg, 2007, - p. 464. 30. Rutter M. The help of difficult children Trans. from English / Edited by A. C. Spivakovsky // - M., 1982. 31. Semago N. Ya., Semago M M Troubled children: fundamentals of diagnosis and correction work of a psychologist / N. Ya. Semago, M. M. Semago // M: ARCHI, 2000, - p. 232. 32. Semenovich A. V. Introduction to ne uropsychologia children: manual /A. V. Semenovich - M.: Genesis, 2005, - p. 319. 33. Sinev V. M. the construction of a General theory correction pedagogy: the definition of the subject of science / V. M. Singov. Scientific honey NPU M. P. Drahomanov, Correctional pedagogy and psychology: collection of scientific essays.To. : NPU M. P. Drahomanov // 2004, - p. 3-22. 34. Spivakovskaya A. S. Prevention of childhood neuroses (complex psychological correction) / A. Spivakovskaya // - M.: Moscow state University press, 1988, - p. 198. 35. Sukharev G. E. Lectures on psychiatry of childhood / G. E. Sukharev // M. - 1974. 36. X. Heckhausen Psychology of motivation achievement / H. Hekhauzen – SPb: Speech, 2001, - p. 256. 37. Svancara J. Diagnosis of mental development / J. Svancara. - Prague: Medical publishing house of Avicenum, 1978. 38. Freud A. The theory and practice of child psychoanalysis / A. Freud, TT 1-2. M., 1999. 39. Tolak K., Sybilski A. Zespуł Aspergera - autyzm łagodny czy odrębna jednostka chorobowa? Ped Pol. - 2013. p. 33–38. 40. Skripnik T. V. FenomenologIya autizmu / T. V. Skripnik. - K. : Vidavnitstvo “FenIks”.- 2010. - 388 s. 41. Skripnik T. V. YakIsne porushennya komunIkatsIYi pri autizmI / T.V. Skripnik // Naukoviy chasopis NPU ImenI M. P. Dragomanova. SerIya 19 “KorektsIyna pedagogIka ta psihologIya” : zb. nauk. prats. – K. : NPU ImenI M. P. Dragomanova, 2010. - S. 253-266. 42. Dushka A.L. Psihoemotsionalnyie sostoyaniya roditeley detey s psihofizicheskimi otkloneniyami: kontseptualizatsiya, diagnostika i korrektsiya: Monografiya / Alla Lukinichna Dushka. Odessa: ONU im. I.I. Mechnikova, 2014. - 463 s.


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

UDC 925 : 159.923 SOCIAL INTELLECT AS THE BASIC PERSONAL CAPACITY OF A TEACHER Е.Z. Ivashkevych Candidate degree in Psychology, Professor’s assistant of the Department of General Psychology and Psychological diagnostics of Rivne State University of the Humanities (Rivne, Ukraine)

In this article there were analyzed psychological theories and conceptions revealing the nature and structure of the person’s social intellect. For example, N.Cantor and J.F.Kihlstrom described the conception of M.Hendricks, in which the author proposed such abilities the name of which is “creative social intelligence”. Six divergent production abilities are: divergent production of behavioral units; divergent production of behavioral classes; divergent production of behavioral relations; divergent production of behavioral systems; divergent production of behavioral transformations; divergent production of behavioral implications. Also it was analyzed the theory of R.L.Thorndike, who wrote, there were three types of intellect, among which the important place was given to the social type: an abstract intellect as the ability to understand abstract verbal and mathematical symbols and carry with them certain desired actions; specific intellect as the ability to analyze the objects of the material world and carry with them certain transactions; social intellect as the ability to understand people and interact with them. Studying the ability to “be understood by people”, G.W.Allport describes eight personality traits that facilitate the effectiveness of interpersonal interactions. Also with social intellect is often identified wisdom as a form of intellectual giftedness. In particular, M.L.Smulson, M.M.Nazar, N.M.Mekhtihanova believe that the result of the acquisition of wisdom is human formation in its mental models. Key words: intellect, social intellect, cognitive, mnemonic and emphatic substructures of social intellect.


У статті було запропоновано авторську концепцію соціального інтелекту педагога. Показано, що соціальний інтелект педагога вміщує когнітивну, мнемічну та емпатійну підструктури. Наголошено, що когнітивна підструктура соціального інтелекту включає в себе сукупність досить стійких знань, оцінок, правил інтерпретації подій, поведінки людей, їх взаємовідносин і т.д. В статті наголошується, що мнемічна складова соціального інтелекту педагога характеризує наявність у індивіда здатності до інтерпретації явищ, подій життя, поведінки інших людей і свого власного як суб’єкта цих подій. Зазначено, що мнемічна підструктура базується на особистісному досвіді суб’єкта, де суб’єктивні статистики утворюють особистісний інтерпретаційний комплекс. Емпатійна складова соціального інтелекту більшою мірою залежить від того, яку форму поведінки педагог обирає в якості пріоритетної, що очікує від оточуючих його суб’єктів, який ціннісний інтерпретаційний комплекс у ставленні до навколишнього світу сформувався у людини, які можливості є у даного індивіда в плані використання механізмів антиципації у розв’язанні різних проблем професійного та соціального життя тощо. Ключові слова: інтелект, соціальний інтелект, когнітивна, мнемічна та емпатійна підструктури соціального інтелекту.

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Introduction In recent decades, the formation and education of the person raise an important social task. In connection with this outstanding relevance to the issues of the ways of training of future teachers to realize their professional functions in accordance with the new ideas, goals and values ​​plays the most important role. Thus, the development of social intellect in the process of education and teachers’ selfdevelopment in the future life and careers ranked the first place. In such a way, changed circumstances which appear finally demanded a high level of intellect and especially – a social intellect. The ability of the teacher is to influence other people, facilitate the development of spiritual powers and abilities (social potential of students), and all these can not be implemented without well-developed social skills, a high level of productive communication, communication capacity, professional competence of the teacher. Last psychological researchers according to this problem show us that one potentially important difference between the social and nonsocial intellect domains, first of all, in that the social cognition of the object (or the person) is represented in the observer’s mind by his/her intellect and conscious. Thus, the person being perceived may try to control the impression formed by the perceiver through a variety of impression-management strategies [3-5]. To complicate things further, the perceiver may well be aware of the possibility of strategic self-presentation, and thus adjust his or her perceptions accordingly, while the person being perceived may modulate his or her impression-management activities so as to minimize these corrections. Such interaction rituals [3] are not likely to occur in nonsocial perception and cognition. In addition to experimental and psychometric evidence, N.Cantor J.F.Kihlstrom also assume that qualitatively different forms of the person’s intellect which show distinctive developmental histories. From the ontogenetic point of view, the hypothesis is that the acquisition and mastery of competencies in the social domain follows a different developmental trajectory, from infancy through adolescence and adulthood to old age, than other abilities. Similarly, from a phylogenetic point of view, the hypothesis would be that personal and interpersonal abilities trace different evolutionary pathways as well. Thus, N.Cantor and J.F.Kihlstrom [3], H.Gardner [5] underline that humans and chimpanzees, but not other primates (and not other mammals) pass the mirror-image test of self-recognition. Finally, H.Gardner argues that each form of intellect is encoded in a unique symbol system by which the ability in questions can be manipulated and transmitted by a paradigm of culture. For some of proposed types of intellect, the existence of the symbol system is fairly obvious: written language,

mathematical symbols, and musical notation are clear examples. And within Western culture, structures like the classic fourfold classification of person’s temperament (melancholic, phlegmatic, choleric, and sanguine) and the Big Five personality dimensions (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) are commonly employed to capture and communicate the gist of another subject’s personality [3]. Although some fundamental questions still remain in the scientific literature. In particular, the structure of social intellect of a teacher, characteristic of its components and functions are also outstanding. Thus, the objectives of this article are: 1. To analyze psychological theories and conceptions revealing the nature and structure of the person’s social intellect. 2. To describe social intellect as one of the most important abilities that ensures the implementation of effective interpersonal interaction and successful social adaptation of people in the process of dialogical activity. 3. To propose and describe the author’s conception of social intellect of the teacher. The main material of the research We describe some conceptions of social intellect. For example, N.Cantor and J.F.Kihlstrom described the conception of M.Hendricks, in which the author proposed such abilities the name of which is “creative social intelligence”. Six divergent production abilities are: - divergent production of behavioral units: the ability to engage in behavioral acts which communicate internal mental states; - divergent production of behavioral classes: the ability to create recognizable categories of behavioral acts; - divergent production of behavioral relations: the ability to perform an act which has a bearing on what another person is doing; - divergent production of behavioral systems: the ability to maintain a sequence of interactions with another person; - divergent production of behavioral transformations: the ability to alter an expression or a sequence of expressions; - divergent production of behavioral implications: the ability to predict many possible outcomes of a setting [5]. As R.L.Thorndike wrote, there were three types of intellect, among which the important place was given to the social type [6, p. 229]: - an abstract intellect as the ability to understand abstract verbal and mathematical symbols and carry with them certain desired actions; - specific intellect as the ability to analyze the objects of the material world and carry with them certain transactions; 49

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- social intellect as the ability to understand people and interact with them. So, R.L.Thorndike considers social intellect as an ability that provides effective interpersonal subjectsubject interaction [15]. Studying the ability to “be understood by people”, G.W.Allport describes eight personality traits that facilitate the effectiveness of interpersonal interactions [2, p. 45]: 1. Significant personal and professional experience. 2. Understanding the similarities of other people. 3. Sufficient level of IQ. 4. The capacity for self-reflection. 5. Ability to build a complicated relationship with others. 6. Ability to resolve situations of cognitive dissonance. 7. Ability to esteem moral values ​​intended for others. 8. Social Intellect, which is so-called “social gift of smth.” is essential for ensuring balance of people’s behavior. Social intellect of the person is associated with the ability to express hidden (implicite) judgments about other people. However, as G.W.Allport notes, social intellect is more connected with behavioral (conatyve) aspect of the person, that is, their behavior than individuals do with the ability to implement operating concepts; therefore, product formation of social intellect is a social human adaptation to the environment [2, p. 46]. Therefore, social intellect is seen as the ability, which is necessary to make the process of successful interaction with other people. Also with social intellect is often identified wisdom as a form of intellectual giftedness. In particular, M.L.Smulson, M.M.Nazar, N.M.Mekhtihanova believe that the result of the acquisition of wisdom is human formation in its mental models that depend “... the specific cognitions and meta-cognitions, the subjects of semiotic system, which preferred specific language and speech, as well as the components of non-pivoted components of the intellect” [1]. With the purpose to achieve successful interaction with other people a future teacher has to develop his/her relationship skills. Whether it is a brief encounter or a long-term relationship, focusing on certain skills can make any interaction more productive. Therefore, relationship skills are an important part of developing or teaching life skills. Relationships skills, in general, are built on solid personal strengths, especially good character, which includes honesty, trustworthiness, self-discipline and self-control. Kindness and patience also go a long way in building strong relationships. In every interaction or relationship, each person has a number of rights and responsibilities. And the success of every one of these interactions and relationships is totally dependent on how well each person recognizes and implements their rights and responsibilities. Also, the rights are: • to expect an appropriate level of trust (honesty 50

/ dependability) and respect for personal values, opinions, choices; • to maintain personality within the interaction or relationship; • to set personal abilities in areas such as physical contact, respect, honesty; • to expect a level of influence from the other person that furthers the goals of that particular interaction or relationship. The responsibilities to achieve successful interaction with other people are: • to control personal actions, reactions, emotions and attitude. • to respect the other person’s rights, as outlined above. As stated, both commitment and individuality are important parts of every relationship. As individuals, we should never give up our personal dreams and goals to become part of a relationship. We must be willing, however, to balance our needs and goals with the needs and goals of the relationship. Even in relationships that demand a great deal of commitment – spouses, partners, parents and children – each individual needs down-time, to enjoy interests and activities that are particularly nurturing to him or her. To be strong for someone else, we must be strong ourselves. Therefore, communicative skills are an important part of a healthy relationship. Some degree of self-reliance is also a good idea, because change is a part of life. Any relationship can change or end, for one reason or another. Children grow up and become involved in other relationships. Close friends may move out-of-state. And sad as it may be, one member of the relationship may die. If we do not have some degree of self-reliance, it may be impossible to envision a worthwhile and productive future. Exploring the following statements, which are very important in basic communicative skills of teachers and pupils, may also be helpful in developing strong relationship skills: • Image and Perception are not always as they appear. As an individual we want to project a certain image. For example we may want to be seen as intelligent, confident, kind, caring, energetic, wealthy, tough, athletic, strong and/or competent. Other people have that same desire. Unfortunately, image (what is projected) does not always match perception (how the image is interpreted). Sometimes we project an image that is misinterpreted and sometimes we misinterpret the image someone else is projecting. In either case, there is a breakdown in communication and the interaction or relationship can suffer. The best way to avoid these misinterpretations is to stop assuming and ask questions. We can’t always assume what we say is what is heard. Neither can we assume our first impressions of someone are correct.

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They very well might be, but then again they may not be correct. Asking questions to confirm our thoughts is usually a good idea (of course, this is not true in extreme circumstances. If someone pulls a knife, it is safe to assume he or she is dangerous). Spending time building a strong image and allowing for variations in perception is an important part of building relationship skills. • We all have different perspectives. Differences such as gender, age, race, culture, religion, background, experience and personality type gives each of us a truly unique perspective with regard to other people and the world. So it is easy to understand that no two people are going to see everything the same way all of the time. Good relationship skills allow for differences in perspective and opinion. Although we may be able to influence or persuade, we cannot make someone think what we want them to think. They have to make their own decisions, just as we do. Therefore, having said all we want to say, sometimes it may be best to simply agree to disagree and move on (even if the other person does not agree with us, they may still value our opinion). Cooperation with others, especially in the workplace is difficult if different perspectives are ignored. If a variety of perspectives are encouraged and considered, however, outcomes that result from these interactions are generally more positive. Strong relationship skills allow for flexibility when working with different perspectives. • Assertiveness prevents others from making decisions for us. One definition for this statement would be “standing up for yourself and the things that are important to you, while respecting the position and opinions of others”. In other words, an assertive people respect themselves enough to speak out, but also respect the right of others to be heard. In contrast, passive people may not show respect for themselves, when they believe their opinions don’t matter and allow others to make decisions for them. Aggressive people, on the other hand, believe their opinions are the only ones that matter and therefore have no respect for the position or opinions of others. Good relationships and productive interactions should include two generally assertive people. Specific situations, however, may require more of a passive or aggressive approach (if we have no real stake in the outcome, it’s OK to stay quiet; and sometimes the actions of others may cause us to lose some respect for them). Problems can occur when people use one of these responses all the time: - never expressing an opinion may result in not having needs met and increase the chances of being manipulated by others; - always expressing an opinion can be tiring and

annoying to other people; - always dictating the outcome can result in being isolated by others. • Conflict is inevitable, but can be beneficial. Whenever two people are together for a period of time, conflicts will occur. And this is not necessarily a bad thing. If handled correctly and in a timely manner, conflicts can actually strengthen an interaction or relationship. This is true because calmly discussing a problem can deepen one person’s understanding of the other’s position and the changes made as a result of that discussion can benefit both participants. Good relationship skills enable us to better identify potential areas of conflict and address these areas as soon as possible. Successful communication involves the following steps: 1. Stay calm and focus on the current problem. 2. State personal position and opinions clearly and concisely. 3. Listen to the other person’s position and opinions. 4. Find common ground. 5. Compromise, if necessary. 6. Restate final solution to avoid misunderstandings [7]. So, our conception of social intellect of a teacher shows us that this intellect includes cognitive, mnemonic and emphatic structures. Cognitive substructure of social intellect involves a set of fairly stable knowledge, assessment, rules of interpretation of events, human behavior, their relationships, etc. Social intellect is based on the existing system of interpretation on micro-structural and macro-structural levels. The microstructure of cognitive component of social intellect is determined by the features of the latter, namely cognitive evaluation, which determines the competent processing and evaluating the information that the subject perceives, his / her prediction, based on planning and forecasting of interpersonal interactions, communication, providing proper performance of the process of communication (this function is associated with an adequate perception and understanding of the process of communication of the partner). It is based on the mechanism of reflection which is reflected directly in self-knowledge. In turn, the macrostructure of cognitive component of social intellect manifests itself in the attitude of the person to himself/herself as a value, in the valuable semantic position in interpersonal relationships, as well as the updating of motivation and value orientation of the man with the purpose to reach axiological attitude in professional and other activities. The source of social intellect on micro-level is the continuous updating of functions noted by us. The results of integration can be considered a set of subjective scales which enable the subject to focus on the features of interpersonal interactions, identify and adequately evaluate the behavior of other persons. One of the main results of social intellect is the presence of a high level of individual statistics with 51

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different modalities. They are some space of psychosemantic subjective scales, symbols of nonverbal behavior, norms of language products, etc. The task of social intellect on macro-structural level is to provide opportunities to partners of social interaction to evaluate themselves and others as individuals. In this case, the value orientation of the person does not necessarily reflect generally accepted social norms and even enter in conflict with them. But there is always a particular society and its representatives, where individual vision of the world has personal values ​​and meanings for people. Mnemonic component of social intellect of the person describes the presence of the ability to interpret events, life events, behavior of others and their own as the subject of these events. Mnemonic substructure is based on the personal experience of the subject, where subjective statistics constitute personal interpretive complex. Polimodality in this case means that a person has different interpretative systems according to various aspects of life of a man/ woman. So, they may conflict with each other, but psychologically they consist of internal structures, providing based unity of mnemonic component and a social intellect. Mnemonic component has its own set of interpretations: I – other people – the world. Each of these levels of interpretation is represented at the level of mnemonic component in the form of its specific dependent substructures. The core of personal interpretations in the complex is the cumulative set of the person estimated himself/herself. This process of evaluative attitude is always subjectively unfinished, open. Analyzing the features of the interaction of the person with the society, the man can be shown as an integral characteristic of the person’s experience (selfrespect of the person, the concept of subjective value). Personal interpretive complex is characterized by the ability of the person to do interpretations of others, their behavior and actions. These interpretations allow their participants to expand continuously and adjust stock their interpretative personal experience, provide such kind of compatibility and similarity of different interpretational systems. In a space of the relations of the person there is a need to evaluate constantly other people, their behavior and actions, gradually produced a different strategies estimated the criterion of compatibility of people’s perception of the world and their perceptions by others. In turn, these strategies form the appropriate assessments and personal interpretive complex in the interpersonal sphere, which presents the dominant level of mnemonic component of social intellect. Emphatic component of social intellect is largely dependent on what shape of the behavior the person chooses as a priority that he / she expects his / her business associated with the complex of interpretative value in relation to the world of the person. 52

Conclusions Thus, we assume the main results of the integration of the functions of social intellect are the presence of individual statistics with different modalities. The first result is a space of psycho-semantic subjective scales, symbols and principles of nonverbal behavior and different norms of speech production. A list of these modalities can be complement, implying that statistics actually reflect various aspects of life because they are so different, based on depth, length, representativeness and others. At the same time statistics can be the units of social intellect, their structure, functions and genesis which are deep enough from one side, and so different from social stereotypes – from the other. If the stereotype is a stable structure, a fixed-level of mnemonic component of social intellect, is invariant in relations to various life situations, their statistics. Statistics and stereotypes can facilitate future organization of social intellect of each person. Unfortunately, not all the questions on this issue are resolved in the psychology. One of the most important problems in the current development of psychological science is the question about the relationship between the general and social intellect, and in general about the legality of the allocation of the latter in the structure of IQ of the person as well as characteristics of display and formation of social intellect of the teacher in terms of the performance of professional activity. Also, in more detail the structure of social intellect of teachers of different areas of professional activities will be analyzed at the following publications. References: 1. Smuĺson M.L., Nazar M.M. Mudrisť jak psycholohičný fenomen : [Elektronný resurs] / Maryna Lazarivna Smuĺson, Maksym Mykolajovyč Nazar, Natalija Mykolajivna Mechtichanova. – 2. Allport G.W. Personality : A Psychological Interpretation [Text] / Gordon Willard Allport. – N.Y., 1937. – 516 p. 3. Gardner H. Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligens [Text] / H. Gardner. – L. : Heinemann, 1983. – 294 p. 4. Hendricks M., Guilford J.P., Hoepfher R. Measuring creative social intel­ligence [Text] / M. Hendricks, J.P. Guilford, R. Hoepfher // Report from the psychological laboratory. – Los Angeles : University of Southern California, 1969. – 177 p. 5. Kihlstrom J.F., Cantor N. Social Intelligence / J.F. Kihlstrom, N. Cantor / http://istsocrates.berkeley. edu/~kihlstrom/social_intelligence.htm 6. Thorndike R.L. Intelligence and its uses [Text] / Robert Ladd Thorndike // Harper s Magazine. – 1920. – P. 227–235. 7.

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Yaryna Kaplunenko Psychologist, Research Fellow of G.S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of NAPS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

The article describe the results empirical study of personality factors of Social Intelligence among specialists of socionomic professions - working managers, psychologists and teachers; the relationship between different groups of personal factors and basic SI components; internal cues between the various indicators of social intelligence; highlighted and analyzed the main factors that contribute to the development of cognitive, emotional and behavioral items of social intelligence. Keywords: Social Intelligence, personality factors of Social Intelligence; cognitive, emotional and behavioral SI components; experts of socionomic professions.

У статті представлені результати емпіричного дослідження особистісних чинників соціального інтелекту у фахівців соціономічних професій – працюючих менеджерів, психологів, викладачів. Було вивчено вплив структурнодинамічних властивостей нервової системи, характерологічних особливостей, мотиваційних та смислових чинників на базові складові компоненти СІ; внутрішні взаємозв’язки між різники показниками соціального інтелекту; виділено та проаналізовано основні фактори, що впливають на розвиток когнітивного, емоційного та поведінкового компонентів соціального інтелекту. Ключові слова: соціальний інтелект; особистісні чинники соціального інтелекту; когнітивний, емоційний та поведінковий компоненти СІ; фахівці соціономічних професій.

Introduction Analysis of Social Intelligence (SI) research showed in spite of almost centenary history of its study and its importance for human social efficiency, this concept hasn’t unambiguous interpretation in psychological science, that indicates on the complexity and ambiguity of its structure and its manifestations. Emphasis on Social Intelligence, a special area of psychological research, is due to relative autonomy, complexity and ambiguity of this phenomenon, which causes success of social cognition and social interaction. It includes cognitive processes associated with the reflection of social facilities - a man as a partner in dialogue and activities, and groups of people; the ability to recognize and manage their own emotional reactions and emotions of others; the ability to implement a direct and indirect impact on social environment. As a cognitive component of interpersonal communication, SI provides selfknowledge, self-development, social learning, the ability to predict and plan the development of

interpersonal interactions, the finding of common ground with others, and is an integrated, cohesive group of capacities that ensure the success of social adaptation. Analyzing the history of ideas on Social Intelligence we can noticed the paradigmatic shift in views on this phenomenon from a purely cognitive abilities (E. L. Thorndike, 1920; Wechsler, 1958; Guilford, 1965; Keating, 1978; Eysenck, 1995, and others) to the socio-cognitive personal characteristic, which can include behavioral features also (Allport, 1937; O’Sullivan, 1967; Hendricks, 1969; Michel, 1973; Ford & Tisak, 1983; Gartner, 1983; Marlowe, 1986; Sternberg, 1988; Kosmitsky & John, 1993; Mayer & Salovey, 1997; Kihlstrom and Cantor, 2002; Kunitsyna, 2002; Ushakov, 2004; Savenkov, 2005; Albreht 2006; Goleman 2006; Lunyova, 2009, etc.). Therefore, the selection of personal factors of Social Intelligence and analysis their impact on the development of various components of social efficiency, which are combines in SI is actual and significant area of psychological 53

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research. This provides a better understanding of Social Intelligence relationship with personal qualities, allows constructing the reasonable approach to correctional and developmental programs for optimization of this ability and can be the basis for further research. Ensuring the effectiveness of social activities in the broadest sense, professionally fundamental this capability is for experts of professional environment “Person-Person”, whose activities are focused primarily on direct interaction with other people. The article highlighted research and analysis connections of personal factors with the performance of different units of Social Intelligence. Problem analysis Concept development of Social Intelligence has a long history, starting from the introduction of this concept into scientific circulation, which was defined as the person’s ability to understand, behave wisely with others and to be involved in adaptive social interaction [Thorndike, 1920]. If we consider intelligence as the capacity for learning and problem solving, for adapting to the environment, Social Intelligence, by analogy, is the ability for social leaning, solving social problems and is the tool of adapting to a exclusively human existence. The history of Social Intelligence research has more than 90-year, was held in several stages and actively continues in many countries [Lunyova, 2008, 2009]. The review of research history of this phenomenon in foreign and national psychology shows several main approaches to the concept of “Social Intelligence” [Turbina, 2014]. 1) Social Intelligence is understood just as a form of General Intelligence aimed on solving social problems (E.L. Thorndike (1920); Wechsler (1958); Anastasi (1972); Keating (1978); Riggio (1991); Eysenck (1995) and others). 2) Social Intelligence is understood as an independent Intelligence (O’Sullivan & Gilford, 1967; Ford & Tisak (1983); Yuzhaninova (1984); Brown & Anthony (1990); John & Kosmitski (1993); Kudryavtseva (1994); Selman (1995); Sternberg (2002); Ushakov (2004) and others. 3) Social Intelligence is considered as integrated ability to communicate with other people and includes cognitive characteristics, personal characteristics, characteristics of emotional-volitional self-control and level of self-consciousness. This approach is reflected in works of Greenspan & George (1997); Cantor and Kihlstrom (2000); Geranyushkina (2001); Kunitsyna (2001); Albrecht (2006); Savenkov (2006); Goleman & Boyatzis (2008); Lunyova (2009) and others. Thus, scientific and theoretical analysis 54

of modern researches of Social Intelligence shows departure from the understanding of this phenomenon as merely cognitive abilities, relatively independent from General Intelligence. A lot of researchers consider this phenomenon more as social-personal cognitive capability, which includes cognitive capacity to recognize the others’ behavior and integrative analysis of communication situations, ability to understand and control their own emotions and the emotions of others, capacity for reflection and effective interpersonal communication, and ensures successful social adaptation. Therefore generalized definition of Social Intelligence can be formulated as follows: Social Intelligence is integrated sociocognitive personal characteristics, which provides the performance and efficiency of social adaptation, interpersonal interaction and includes: ability to understand others and conduct complex analysis of communication situations; ability to recognize and manage own emotions and emotions of others; ability to implement organizational and communicative activities. The structure of Social Intelligence is not stable and develops throughout life [Ushakov, 2004; Lunyova, 2009]. It is a complex integrated system of capabilities, which consists of several components: cognitive, emotional and behavioral, or communicativeorganizational. Ternary SI composition noted Savenkov (2005), Bashyrov (2006), Sautina ( 2008), Lyahovets (2009) and others, highlighting cognitive (social knowledge, social memory, social intuition, social forecasting); emotional (social expressiveness, selfregulation, empathy) and behavioral (Savenkov) or communicative-behavioral (Bashyrov). Concerning functions of Social Intelligence, there aren’t unanimous opinions among researchers regarding their quantity and significance. The most holistic approach to definition of Social Intelligence functions was suggested by Odanovych (2002), based on the analysis of psychological-educational literature, who considering this phenomenon as personal human trait and highlighted the following main SI functions: Cognitive estimation, which manifests itself in the processing of information, in identifying individual opportunities for results achievement, in determination of interpersonal interaction and in forming judgments on the significance of what is happening; Communicative meaning, which is connected with needs of understanding others and of being understood by them, of establishing relationships between person and its social environment and with the process of finding content value of life; Reflective correction, which provide coherence with

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the environment, the finding of personal position, and determine personal actions and deeds [Odanovych, 2002]. Among factors that determine Social Intelligence development are distinguished external and internal factors. The external factors influenced SI developments include cultural environment, education, socioeconomic status, styles of parenting and education. The internal factors are: individual and typological characteristics - age, sex, some neural properties (sensitiveness, power, speed, plasticity of neural processes), temperament, attention attributes and neural predispositions; personal qualities (character, emotional-volitional selfcontrol, experience, self-estimation and empathy); individual psychological characteristics (motivation, directionality, cognitive abilities). Concerning personal factors of Social Inte lligence should be noted that SI concept is inseparable from the concept of the individuality because both, personality and SI are result and, at the same time, a tool of social development. As noted earlier, some scholars generally believe Social Intelligence as personal characteristics: Greenspan & Driscoll (1997), Cantor & Kihlstrom (2000), Geranyushkina (2001), Kunitsyna ( 2001), Lunyova ( 2009). Based on previous studies analysis, among personal factors of this ability can be selected four groups: structural and dynamic properties of the nervous system, characterological traits, motivation and meaning. Social Intelligence is not only an individual property, which contributes to person’s effective socialization, but also the leading professionally important quality, especially in areas where communication with other people and groups is main activity. Professional activities of socionomic professionals proceeds in constant interaction with others in uncertainty and transient condition of social situations, therefore the Social Intelligence development, such as the ability of correct understanding and effective interaction with others for the expert of professional environment “Personperson” has crucial value. The need to explore connection between different structural components of Social Intelligence and different groups of personal factors contributing to its growth among socionomic specialists for working out future developmental programs caused choice of subject and diagnostic tools for our research. Method Participants. Participants were 153 experts of professional groups «Managers» (n=53),«Lecturers» (n=53) and «Psychologists» (n=53), who lived in Kiev

(Ukraine) and engaged in practical professional activity of those specified occupations. The participants ranged in the age from 23 to 60 years old; 93 females and 60 males. The study was conducted in 2013-2015. General characteristics of the study sample are given in Table  1. Table 1 General characteristic of the study participants № Characteristics n % 1 Sex Men 60 39,2 % Women 93 60,8 % 2 Age (years) 23-30 38 24,8 % 31-40 62 40,5 % 41-50 44 28, 6 % ≥ 51 9 5,9 % 3 Occupation Psychologists 51 33,3 % Lecturers 51 33,3 % Managers 51 33,3 % Measures. To explore the structural components of Social Intelligence were used three methods that correspond to each component. For investigate cognitive SI component was used «Six factors’ test of social cognition» (Guilford & O’Sullivan (1967), in Russian version, adapted by Myhaylova (1996), which incorporate five traits: ability to understand the behavior, the ability to understand verbal expressions; ability to understand non-verbal expressions, ability for complex analysis communicative situations, complex estimation of abilities for social cognition). For studying the emotional SI component was used MSCEIT (Mayer et al., 2002; Russian form – Serhiyenko &Vetrova, 2010) which correspond for branches of abilities: emotion perception, facilitation, understanding and emotional management. We used the Russian version of MSCEIT v.2.0). For studying behavioral SI component was used «Organizational and communicative capacities test» – COS-2 (Sinyavsky & Fedoryshyn, 1997). For study four basic personality characteristics, taken for consideration, were used - Survey of formal-dynamic individual properties OFDSI (Rusalov, 2004), “Big Five» (BFQ-2, Caprara et al., 2000; Russian and Ukrainian form Burlachuk, 2010), Professional motivation determination test (Zamfir, in Rean’s modification, 2010) and Life-meaning orientation test (Purpose-in-Life Test, Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1981; Russian adaptation and modification Leontyev, 1992). Survey of formal-dynamic individual properties OFDSI (Rusalov, 2004) was designed to study the formal-dynamic properties of individual as the most fundamental individual differences that 55

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have biological determination (endurance, intensity, tempo, rhythm, flexibility, emotional sensitivity, etc.). Big five personality test (BFQ-2) which was used for personality investigation, incorporates five general personality traits: Activity (Extraversion); Friendliness (Agreeableness); Conscientiousness (Selfdiscipline) ; Emotional stability (Neuroticism); Openmindedness (Openness to experience). Professional motivation determination test based on the concept of internal and external motivation of professional activity and explores three characteristics: internal motivation; external positive motivation; external negative motivation. Life-meaning orientations test corresponds five branches of life orientation: purpose of life; life process; life result; control locus-Self; control locus-Life. Results analysis was conducted by SPSS 19, with statistic data processing methods, such as correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis.

analysis communicative situations on average and higher than average also (67,3% & 18,3 %). Comparing the results of research by this test among students of socionimic profile (Sytnik & Gelever, 2008) with obtained data, we can confidently noted that total capacity to recognize people’s behavior, verbal and non-verbal expression, ability to analyze complex situations of communication, increases and are formed by professional experience. These abilities are important professional skills of specialists of socionomic professions. Figure 1 shows a diagrams of specialists distribution (n = 153) by levels of performance of cognitive SI component characteristics (“Six factors’ test of social cognition” (Guilford & O’Sullivan (1967). 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5

Results and discussion Since male and female data performance in all professional groups in terms of cognitive, emotional and behavioral SI component weren’t significantly different, personal factors of Social Intelligence of all socionomic representatives analyzed and outlined in our study without differentiation by sex and specialty. Comparison of various age groups on SI indicators showed that most developed social skills for nearly all characteristics was observed in experts’ group of 23-30. It should be noted positive dynamics of the ability of using emotions and communication skills in specialists’ group of 31-40 years old. After age of 41 the majority SI indicators begin to decline, particularly this concerns the ability of understanding people’s behaviors and ability of emotion identification, but the most significant changes in reducing level of almost all SI indicators observed in experts’ group after 51 years. As a result of studying SI components in socionomic participants, it was found the most of them have an average developmental level of cognitive SI component (76.5% of the subjects) and emotional SI component (86.3%), namely, complex estimation the abilities for social cognition (CE) and overall emotional competence (Total EI score). The findings suggest the majority of working professionals developed ability to recognize people’s behavior at higher than average level (59.4% surveyed); ability to recognize non-verbal expressions on average and higher than average levels (72,4 % & 22,9 %); ability to understand verbal expression on average and higher than average (56,8 % & 29,5 %); ability for complex 56

0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0

Subtest 1

Subtest 2

Subtest 3

Subtest 4


Fig. 1. Distribution of surveyed socionomic experts by performance levels of Cognitive SI component.

Notes: Group 1 – low score; Group 2 - average; Group 3 above average; Group 4 - high; Subtest 1 - «The ability to recognize the results of conduct»; Subtest 2 - «The ability to recognize the nonverbal expression»; Subtest 3 - «Ability to understand verbal expression»; Subtest 4 - «The ability to analyze complex situations of communication»; CE – Complex Evaluation; composite score, the total capacity for knowledge of human behavior.

Exploring various traits of emotional SI component it can be noted that most of thestudied revealed average and higher than average ability to identify emotions (IE) - 70 % &16,3%; to use emotions to improve thinking and activity (FE) -77,8 % &15,7 %; to understand and analyze the emotions (UE) - 71,2% & 28,1%; for responsible management of emotions for personal development and improving interpersonal relationships (ME) - 71,9% & 22,8 %. Obtained data demonstrates relatively high level of emotional competence of socionomic experts and indicate significance of these skills for effective professional activity. Figure 2 shows a diagrams of specialists’ distribution (n = 153) by the levels of performance of Emotional SI component characteristics (MSCEIT, Mayer et al., 2002) .

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Total EI

Fig.2. Distribution of surveyed socionomic experts by performance levels of Emotional SI component.

Notes: Group 1 - low score, Group 2 - average, Group 3 above average; IE - identification, evaluation and display of emotions or emotion identification, FE - use emotions to improve thinking and activity; UE - understanding and analysis of emotions; ME - conscious management of emotions for personal development and improving interpersonal relationships; Total EI score - integral indicator of emotional competence.

Regarding the behavioral component, including the level of organizational and communication skills, the experts of professional environment “PersonPerson” discovered average (Organizational capacities - 37.3%; Communicative capacities - 37.5%) and higher than average (Organizational - 37.3% ; Communicative - 37.9%) manifestation level of these capabilities that are quite predictable in view of the character of their profession. Figure 3 shows a diagrams of specialists distribution (n = 153) by the levels of performance of behavioral SI component characteristics (Organizational and communicative capacities test – COS-2 (Sinyavsky & Fedoryshyn, 1997). 0,4 0,35 0,3

0,25 0,2 0,15 0,1 0,05 0



Fig.3. Distribution of surveyed socionomic experts by performance levels of Behavioral SI component.

Notes: Group 1 - low score, Group 2 – average, Group 3 above average, Group 4 - high; 1 diagram - organizational skills, 2 diagram - communicative skills.

That is, working socionomic professionals have a high enough developmental level of all structural

Social Intelligence components. The most significant positive dynamics observed concerning capacities of understanding others’ behavior and behavioral SI component, namely practical organizational and communicative skills. Based on correlation analysis of interdependencies between different SI indicators may be noted that all indicators of cognitive SI component positively correlated with total capacity of understanding human behavior and most indicators of Emotional SI component, which points out close relationship of these characteristics. Detailed consideration of interrelations between various SI indicators has enabled distinguish the following patterns: 1) The ability to analyze complex situations of communication positively associates with ability to identify emotions and use emotions for problem solving, that indicates importance of emotion differentiation for understanding others’ behavior, which in turn increases the ability to consciously use emotion for implementation of various social influences. 2) It is established interrelation of abilities to recognize nonverbal and verbal expressions and the importance of these abilities for conscious usage of own emotional potential. 3) Emotion sensitiveness and understanding of emotions are fundamental skills for acquiring communicative competence, understanding communicative subtleties and distinguishing emotional coloration of speech communication. 4) The complex analysis of communicative situations has a positive impact on overall ability to understand people and their emotional expressions, ability to manage own emotions and emotions of others. 5) General emotional competence, capacity of emotion perception, differentiation and understanding are fundamental for understanding others and ourselves and for the constructive usage of own emotion. 6) Fundamental for development of management abilities is general level of emotional competence and, in particular, the ability to manage both own emotions and emotions of others. 7) Organizational and communicative skills are interrelated and complementary. Based on the theoretical analysis of scientific literature, we have identified four personal factors of Social Intelligence that could cause its development among specialists in the professional environment “Person-Person”, they are: formal-dynamic characteristics of temperament, characterological properties, meaning and motivational factors. 57

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The first group of factors contributing the Social Intelligence development includes formaldynamic properties of temperament that have been studied with Survey of formal-dynamic individual properties OFDSI (Rusalov, 2004). By using correlation analysis was allocated 59 relationships (p ≤ 0, 05 - 0, 01 ), the largest number of them (34) are in the behavioral SI component (р ≤ 0, 05) - organizational and communicative skills. Summarizing the results of research by this method, can be noted the formaldynamic properties of temperament associated with all structural SI components. The most important factors of Social Intelligence are communication speed (CS) and individual index of general activity (GA). Largest contribution to the structure of relationships brings Communicative Speed (CS) associated with 7 indicators and has positive effect (p ≤ 0, 05) on the ability to recognize nonverbal behavior; ability to understand verbal expression; ability to understand complex communicative situations. And it also determines the level (p ≤ 0, 01) of integral factor of behavior cognition (CE); ability to consciously manage emotions (ME); organizational skills and communicative skills. The second most important factor is the general activity index (GA), which positively correlated with 5 indicators: capacity for understanding complex communicative situation, integral factor of behavior cognition (CE), ability to consciously manage emotions (ME) (p ≤ 0, 05); organizational and communicative skills (p ≤ 0, 01). Ergicity indicators, that is, characteristics of endurance and strength of the nervous system, interconnected with various components of the SI ambiguously. Positive causing communicative and organizational human activity (p ≤ 0, 01), on other indicators they create inhomogeneous impact. Psychomotor ergicity (PM) may interfere with the ability to understand verbal expressions and to identify emotions, and hinder development of general emotional competence (p ≤ 0, 05). Intellectual ergicity (IE) has a positive effect (p ≤ 0,05 - 0,01) on the ability to understand verbal expressions, the ability to manage own emotions (ME), but on general emotional competence (Total EI) and the ability to use emotions (FE) it causes negative impact, that often can be observed in people with high intellectual activity. All indicators of plasticity and speed (psychomotor, intellectual and communicative) positively correlated with behavioral SI component - organizational and communicative skills, but psychomotor plasticity (PPM), that is, the propensity to switch from one activity to another can impede to understanding of verbal expressions and emotions. 58

Intellectual speed (IS) positively affects on the ability to manage emotions (p ≤ 0,05). All kinds of emotional vulnerabilities or sensitivity (psychomotor, intellectual and communicative) may restrain or block practical organizational or communicative activity of personality. However, emotional sensitivity to the intellectual and communicative spheres promotes understanding verbal communication signals. Regarding cognitive SI component, the most significant effect of formal-dynamic temperamental features are experienced the ability to understand verbal expressions and to solve complex communication situations. Regarding emotional SI component, the largest numbers of positive relationships of formaldynamic temperamental properties are found with the ability to manage emotions (ME). For development of these skills are important: intellectual ergicity, intellectual and communicative speed, the overall level of intellectual, communicative and general activity. Regarding behavioral SI component, as already noted above, most of formaldynamic temperamental properties (ergicity, flexibility, speed, overall activity and adaptability), except emotional vulnerability for influences positively impact on communicative and organizational skills development among specialists such professional groups. Based on a comprehensive analysis of interrelations performance of various structural SI components and characterological traits of “Big Five2» (BFQ-2) may be noted that all the structural SI components of surveyed professionals way or another experiencing the impact of personality traits, due to the common origin both capacity for social cognition and personality as an instrument of adjustment to the social environment. Developing on the ground of temperamental characteristics and properties of the nervous system, personality traits become consolidated and grown in the social environment of the child. Overall, there were found 38 significant correlations (p ≤ 0, 05 - 0, 01) between Social Intelligence indicators and different characterological traits. The biggest impact is undergoing behavioral SI component, that is, in particular, practical organizational and communicative skills of professional activities are caused by personality traits of experts. Regarding cognitive and emotional SI components, especially it concerns abilities to recognize others behavior and outcomes of verbal expression, as well as abilities to identify emotions, to manage own emotions and others people’s emotions. Based on a detailed analysis of actual impact of personality factors on various Social Intelligence indicators, we can note the following:

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1) Factor Energy (E) positively affects (p ≤ 0,05 0.01) on the ability to manage emotions (ME), organizational and communication skills of socionomic experts. This correlates with data of OFDSI method, where the general activity leads to high estimates ​​ for same parameters. With regard to particular measurements, on the ability to manage own emotions and emotions of others affects personal dynamism (Di), while dominance (Do) may cause a negative impact to use emotions for problem solving. 2) Factor Friendliness (A) or consent has positive effect (p ≤ 0,05 - 0,01) on ability to understand the results of people’s behavior, to identify emotions, on general emotional competence and overall behavioral manifestations of Social Intelligence. Moreover, a greater contribution to these relationships falls on sociability dimension (Co), at the same time, it should be noted that cooperativity (Wed) correlated with organizational skills experts with higher value. 3) Factor Conscientiousness (C) or ability to selfregulation and self-control has positive impact (p ≤ 0,01) for understanding of verbal expression and organizational skills. Among its dimensions, pedantry (Sc) causes sensitivity to verbal expression, general ability to understand people’s behavior, to understand emotion, while as perseverance (Re) is a prerequisite for successful organizational performances. 4) Emotional stability factor (S) or neuroticism - found no significant correlations with SI indicators. 5) Factor Open-mindedness (M) significantly correlated with indicators of behavioral SI component. One of its dimensions, particularly, openness to culture (Ac), in addition positively associated with the ability to manage emotions (p ≤ 0,01). To investigate meaning factors and motivational factors of Social Intelligence among socionomic experts were used professional motivation determination test (Zamfir, in Rean’s modification, 2010) and Life-meaning orientations test (Leontyev, 1992). The results demonstrate the importance of motivation and meaning factors for the development of various components of Social Intelligence, but the impact of these factors is not clear enough. Found, for example, greater meaning factors significance compared with motivational factors, however, this study examined only general distribution of professional motives into internal and external. Motivational factors are significant mostly for emotional and behavioral SI components. Meaning

factors are significant for all SI components, particularly, for cognitive SI component important is the presence of life goals, that give meaningful life, direction and time perspective, while for both, emotional and behavioral SI components, important is to be satisfied of their own life productivity, that is, awareness of life competence. However, excessive focus on their own goals, complacency and overconfidence may prevent understanding others’ emotions in professionals (p ≤ 0, 01). Regarding motivational factors, there was marked significant links of external positive motivation (EPM) with capacity to control emotions (ME) and communication skills, i.e. worthy wages, desire to advance at work, necessity to achieve social prestige positively influence ability to regulate emotions and ability to communicate. While as an external negative motivation (ENM), i.e. the desire to avoid criticism and possible penalties can hinder overall ability to understand behavior and emotional states of others. Not found significant relationships between SI indicators and internal motivation (IM) of professional activities (focus on the activity content). It may indicate that satisfaction of process and possibility for the most complete realization of their own abilities alone does not encourage Social Intelligence development. More significant is the desire of positive reinforcement and social recognition from others. Considering the meaning factors group, we noted the unequal impact of various Life-meaning orientation indicators at manifestation of different Social Intelligence components: 1) Presence of life goals (Subtest 1) significantly (p ≤ 0,05 - 0,01) affects ability to understand verbal expression, general ability to understand others’ behavior, to manage emotions (ME), to develop organizational and communicative skills, however, may interfere with understanding of emotions (UE). One reason for this may be excessive focus on their own aims and problems, which sometimes leads to neglect of needs and emotions, both own and other people. 2) Life-process satisfaction (Subtest 2) besides organizational and communicative skills, promotes capacity (p ≤ 0, 01) to identify emotions, however, may also adversely affect ability to understand emotional states of others. 3) Self-realization satisfaction or satisfaction from life results (Subtest 3) positively (p ≤ 0, 05) correlated with ability to distinguish emotions (IE) and manage emotions (ME), and behavioral SI component indicators. Implementation and realization of personal potential, fruitfulness of own efforts promote attentiveness to general emotional state 59

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of others, add confidence in carrying out targeted emotional impact, and contribute organizational and communicative activities. 4) The idea of himself as a strong personality (Subtest 4) positively (p ≤ 0.05 - 0.01) affects ability to distinguish emotions, to manage emotions, organizational and communicative activities, however, can make a person extremely self-centered, and does not contribute to deep understanding of emotional states. 5) Confidence in manageability human life contributes (p ≤ 0, 01) development of ability to identify emotions, organizational and communication skills, however, can prevent (p ≤ 0, 05) accurate understanding verbal expressions of others and their emotional states. Summarizing the results by this method, we can determine overall positive impact of Lifemeaning orientations for the development of all Social Intelligence components. Regarding cognitive SI component, presence of significant life goals is motivating factor for understanding behavioral manifestations of others. As for emotional and behavioral SI components, it is understandable in view of connectivity of meaning factors with people’s emotionality (Langle, 2004) and their practical activities. According to our study, the greatest number of significant positive relationships were revealed with abilities to identify emotions (r = 0, 18 - 0, 25; p <0, 01) and to control emotions (r = 0, 16 - 0, 24; p < 0.01). Regarding behavioral SI component, significance of correlation level of meaning factors with organizational (r = 0,30 - 0,44; p <0,01) and communicative (r = 0,18 - 0,47; p <0,01 ) abilities is even higher. References 1. Bashirov I.F. Social intelligence as a factor of successful professional work of military psychologist. Dissertation ... cand. psych. sciences. : 19.00.05 «Social psychology»/ I.F. Bashirov. - M., 2006. - 210 p. 2. Сaprara, G.V., Barbaranelli, C., Borgogni L., Veccione, M. BFQ-2 “Big five -2” Questionnaire: Manual - Kyiv.:TOV “OS Ukraine”, 2010. - 50s. 3. Längle, A. (2011) Emotionality: An ExistentialAnalytical Understanding and Practice // (Eds) Trnka, R., Balcar, K, Kuska, M. Re-constructing Emotional spaces. From Experience to Regulation // Prague: Prague College of Psychosocial Studies Press. – 2011. – P.41-62 4. Leont’ev, D.A. Life-meaning orientations test (SZhO). - M .:”Smysl” - 1992 - 16c. 5. Luneva O.V. History of the study of Social 60

Intelligence (start) // Knowledge. Understanding. Skill. - 2008. - №4. - P.177-182. 6. Luneva O.V. History of the study of Social Intelligence (start) // Knowledge. Understanding. Skill. - 2009. - №1. - P. 223-229 7. Mikhailova E.S. Method of study of Social Intelligence: Adaptation of test Дж.Gilford and M.O’Sulliven:. Guidelines for use / E.S.Mihaylova - St. Petersburg, 1996. - 53. 8. Odanovich, M.V. Pedagogical conditions of formation of social intelligence of the senior teenager in the process of solving the educationalcognitive problems: Dissertation... cand. ped. sciences. : 13.00.01/ M.V.Odanovich. - Volgograd, 2002. - 166c. 9. Savenkov, A.I. Concept of Social Intelligence / AI Savenkov // A gifted child. - 2006. - № 1. - S. 6-18. 10. Sergienko E.A., Vetrova I.I. J. Mayer, &. Salovey, P. Caruso “Emotional іntelegence» test (MSCEIT v.2.0). - M .: Publishing House of the “Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences”, 2010. - 176 p. 11. Sytnik, S. A., Gelever O.M. Social Intelligence as part of the professional competence of psychologists. URL: journals/2008/NiO_8 9_2008/psihologija/sutn. htm 12. Rusalov V.M. Formal-dynamic properties of the human personality (temperament). Brief theory and measurement methods for different age groups: Manual. - Moscow: IP RAS, 2004. - 136 p. 13. Trubina, A.A. Study of the interrelationship of Social Intelligence with character accentuations in adolescents [Text]: Master’s thesis / A. A. Trubina // PFI, Institute of Social and Political Sciences. Ekaterinburg, 2014. - 98 p. URS: th_trubina_2014.pdf

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UDC 618.39 021.3 059. 159.922.1055.26 EARLY PREGNANCY LOSS ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL IDENTIFICATION PROCES Galina Katolik Head of Department of Psychology and Psychotherapy Ukrainian Catholic University

Olga Shishak assistant professor of psychology and psychotherapy Ukrainian Catholic University

Psychotherapeutic research of some implicit processes, which occur in case of early pregnancy loss is proposed in current article. This experience is very particular in woman life. It strikes at the core of her identity provokes deep guilt, anger, shame, despair, fear. Damage of self-understanding and relationships with closest people take place. Invisibility of loss makes keep it calm. That is why not big importance is given to this loss, opposite is in case with late pregnancy loss. That is why woman dispense with the farewell rituals. Especially it occurs in case of in vitro fertilization. This ambiguous connection between mental and body processes is in psychotherapeutic focus in current research. Examples of psychotherapeutic practice are analyzed in perspective of our psychotherapeutic experience. Key words: maternal identification, narcissistic, regressive, projective identification, acceptancerejection conflict, mentalization, body expression of psychic conflict, early pregnancy loss.

В пропонованій публікації пропонуються психотерапевтичні дослідження певних імпліцитних процесів, що відбуваються при втраті жінкою дитини на ранньому терміні вагітності. Це є особливим досвідом в житті жінки. Він вдаряє по ядру її ідентичності, провокує глибоку провину, злість, сором, відчай, страх. Відбувається ураження площини саморозуміння і стосунків з найближчими людьми. Невидимість втрати змушує затамовувати її.Цій втраті не надається такого значення, як це було б у випадку пізньої вагітності: тобто обходитися без ритуалів прощання. Нормальне опрацювання горя не має шансів відбутися повноцінно. Особливо це стосується випадку екстракорпорального запліднення. В даному дослідженні цей неоднозначний зв’язок ментального і тілесного опиняється в фокусі психотерапії. Осмислюючи власний психотерапевтичний досвід наводимо приклади з психотерапевтичної практики. Ключові слова: материнська ідентифікація, нарцисична, регресивна, проективна ідентифікація, конфлікт прийняттявідторгнення, менталізація, тілесне вираження конфлікту, рання втрата вагітності.

Early loss of a prenatal child: a psychological context A loss of a child in early pregnancy is a special experience in a woman’s life. It strikes the very nuclear of her identity, adds fault, anger, shame, despair, fear, shakes the foundations of her self-understanding and relations with the dearest people. Invisibility of a loss makes ignore it and therefore master without farewell rituals. The normal grief work has no chance to be fully completed. It is unknown how early such loss can be. Can we talk about a loss if a woman doesn’t even get to know about her pregnancy? How does a

woman mentalize what is happening to her body but beyond her consciousness? The following question comes next: does a mental process influence a loss? Can a spontaneous abortion be regarded as a body expression of a psychic decision? Or can we talk only about the correlation when the psychic catches up with and describes body experience? In case of IVF (in vitro fertilization) this ambiguous connection of mental and corporeal is in the focus of psychotherapy. Events of session were provoked by the signed paper about the transfer of two embryos, which had just been signed. ‘Let at least one survive!’ – with these 61

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words a patient simply held on to a psychotherapist, demanding the approval of her decision. Her anxiety was so big that her eyes seemed to be bulging, hands were pulling a scarf nervously, and the body seemed not to touch a chair. Slowly in the usual atmosphere she came to her senses, made herself comfortably in the chair and resorted to annoying description of events of the previous day. The therapist indicated that her hands went on pulling two bobbles. The patient smiled mechanically and tore off one of them sharply. There was a confused pause during which an old story came into her mind about a neighbor who was going to have twins and died giving birth to them. The fear of death was so obvious in the decision about the transfer of two embryos. The patient was afraid that she was too thin for twins and mother wouldn’t approve of her decision after that she started to persuade herself that she had the right to have a guarantee after two unsuccessful attempts: ‘Let at least one survive!’ Her manners of movements and speech resembled a heroine of a film in a scene before the execution. The therapist noticed that she seemed to plead for her own life. Suddenly the patient had a sense of de ja vu: she imagined her mother in deep despair at the moment when she was thinking about the abortion – ‘Either you or I’. In the scene with a torn off bobble the patient touched the identification with the imaginary cruel mother and threatened childish Self. She managed to put her fear beyond the limits of the situation and then connect it to the real context – a threat of abortion which she used to experience herself and knew about it from her mother’s words. It is likely that in such way she could give a possibility to have her own children because in 14 days her twin pregnancy was proved biochemically and in the next 2 weeks – clinically. Narcissistic identification with a baby and her nuclear conflict between acceptance and rejection If you tend to believe Jung the phenomenon of maternity is fully based on the archetypal splitting of Life and Death. Healing as well as destroying strength of a woman is deduced from a womb as a symbol of a feminine ability to store, to contain and to absorb. White and black witches are polar embodiments of the archetype of Great Mother who has a power to release and keep, to promote growth and to deaden, to give and take away. Further on we try to describe the maternal experience in the first weeks of pregnancy as a basic conflict between acceptance and rejection of a child. We also try to formulate the experience of a loss, its cause as well as a result of this conflict. First 62

of all we would like to mention that we connect the acceptance of a child with the involvement it in mother’s own narcissistic space while the rejection lies in an attempt of a mother to rebel against pressure which is caused by a child’s presence and protect her own identity. In our interpretations we rely on the concept of a prenatal connection in a dyad that in a phase of implantation takes place because of psychoimmunological struggle and is over either by nesting or early abortion (loss of pregnancy). Psychologically, the beginning of pregnancy is characterized by the work of protective identification: a hostile alien object within the body (embryo) becomes an inner object (a representation of a child) and later on, the relations with it are developing internally. The following mentalization takes place: mother finds a place for a fetus in her own representational world and therefore traps it in her own narcissism. A prenatal child becomes a convenient screen for projection of positive as well as unacceptable parts of maternal Self. During the period of pregnancy there is not any other connection in a dyad except a narcissistic merging. While a primary identification operates, the dominant psychic reality of an embryo is mother’s unconsciousness. A child plunges into mother’s wishes, becomes her continuation, serves as a self-object in her internal world, filled up with infantile anxieties. The younger the child is, the less degrees of freedom it has got, the more is spoken about the mother’s comfort. The maternal narcissism is a natural surrounding of a child’s existence and maternal projections become the beginning of its identity. Putting them into life, a child protects a mother from a probable psychic decompensation. Thus, the acceptance as well as the rejection is brought forth as a result of a narcissistic identification. The maternal narcissism can have a constructive as well as a destructive action, making the resistance less or bigger that her immune system causes for a fetus at early stages of pregnancy. Normally these events are taken place hidden from the consciousness on the level of a primary process, connected with the mentalization of first sensations of pregnancy in a body by means of images, plastic representations and dramatic scenes. The reflection of a prenatal conflict often takes place in dreams that becomes understandable after the analytical interpretation. The conscious construction of a child’s image starts later – seldom from the moment of a defined fact of pregnancy, mostly from first pushes of a child

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in a womb, sometimes only in childbirth when a real meeting of a mother with a child takes place. Together with it, due to the defensive processes of the Ego a woman is far from the realization of a whole drama of her relations with a baby. Unacceptable wishes are under strong but not reliable pressure, that’s why the maternal Self is in a state of permanent anxiety and regression. In case of IVF the consciousness is confronted with conflicts which take place in a body, moreover they keep a woman in terror rather clearly and without any compromise because the existential struggle takes place in front of her eyes when the inseminated egg (ovum) is divided into a test tube under a doctor’s gaze. The most difficult is a two-week waiting for a result of this struggle for a survival. A woman knows about a child’s presence in her womb and this fact is the unconditional confrontation and therefore the acceptance- rejection conflict is increasing to an unbearable point. A little, tidy and pure patient was very polite, friendly and elusive in contact. She showed anxiety being extremely talkative. She worked a lot and enthusiastically with dreams and visualizations, depicting images in detail. She symbolized her uterus as a crystal palace, decorated it by a prince and princess’ arrival. Just after the embrio-transfer she told in a gloomy tone about a dream in which she couldn’t get rid of worms. The aseptic crystal uterus in her fantasies suffered an invasion and became spoilt by ugly vermin. The mood disappeared. She lost her appetite: the patient was afraid to eat bad poisonous food. In a week she had a dream in which she could hardly got drowned in a dirty lake lost in ugly algae (worms). The dream captivated her mind and she had been under its impression for a long time. Associations led her to a desolate lake in a village where she used to bathe in a company of her favorite grandfather. The image of an ugly duckling appeared. The patient burst into tears, feeling pity for her and yearning for a dead grandfather. Later she remembered moving from her grandfather’s house into a new house of her parents when she suffered a shock – her mother turned out to be a bad hostess and the way of life wasn’t established properly. The family lived in a permanent state of repair (pigsty). She remembered when she together with her brother fled to her grandfather’s ‘crystal palace’, being punished for it afterwards and finally by means of her will efforts she was made to accept a new dwelling. At the next sessions the topic of a childbirth appeared spontaneously. Her mother told that the patient was born with dirty water. Then she told crying in despair

that the family joked that her mother didn’t believe doctors when a child was brought as it was very ugly. The usual sterility disappeared in a conversation and together with it the conflict between a crystal place and pigsty, a prince and a worm. The uterus turned into some dark space, warm, anxious and unknown. The embryo managed to be implanted and mother could complete pregnancy successfully. Body origin of narcissistic identification. Regression. Identification is of body origin as the quintessence of maternal narcissism, its spreading on a child is a womb of a pregnant woman. A woman’s body itself during pregnancy, childbirth and lactation becomes a place of creation and localization of a new maternal identity with its twofold identification emphasis: I am the womb, I am the fetus. The splitting of the body Ego largely takes place by means of hormones which fill a woman’s body up during pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. (For example, oxytocin supplies, connected with the production of milk in breasts coincide with peaks of a baby’s discomfort). Such significant expansion of maternal body Ego enables uninterrupted care about a child often by means of refusal of her own body needs but it is not so easy. The destabilization of a body takes place, it loses its outline and becomes flexible and able to contain somebody else in its space. Keeping the child in a womb physically leads to shifting a maternal self-experience onto a growing fetus that ensures the emotional merging. A feeling of narcissistic selfsufficiency is lost along with it as if a body doesn’t belong to itself. Hence a powerful regression and ‘a touch to psychosis’. A woman finds herself under pulsating attacks of her own unconsciousness. She has to maneuver in depth of the very early implicit memory, her body responds to the first and the oldest feelings of umbilical cord, mammary and tactile connection with a mother’s womb and hands. Except the effect of body memory awakening, a stream of infantile questions arises. The repressed material is floating on the surface now and the least irritant is enough to provoke the primary imaginations, affects and conflicts. The most primitive kinds of defenses – splitting and projection - are put into action and then disintegration and redistribution of identifications are getting deeper. In case of IVF the specific character of this procedure is added to the normative crisis. It requires the splitting of body and mental reactions: the adequate cooperation of a woman with a doctor is connected at the same time with her body 63

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Picture 1. The picture of body outlines with closed eyes (in the right a patient before IVF) resistance. A woman suffers a rape by a voluntary agreement. So, we speak about the general crisis of identity focused on a body nuclear, the maternal Ego is split into mature and infantile parts and resorts to the projective identification. Crystallization of narcissistic identification into maternal sensitivity or its disorders The maternal identification takes place when a mother gets rid of infantile anxieties projecting them on a child and behaves in such a way in order to protect it from her own experienced frustrations and discomforts. Hence, in her inner representative world she manages to take a position according to a child’s dependent status. In such a way the narcissistic identification in its essence serves as a holding – a mother’s creation of permanent supportive environment for the child’s development is impossible without it. In a prenatal case the identification creates unprecedented body resonance (effect) when each signal of an embryo is given an instant response, and the biological and mental are coherent to the greatest degree. After a childbirth the identification results in an alert tense disposition to a baby that enables a mother to respond to baby’s signals with a magical infallibility. The most obvious is a facial (mimic) identification: at some moment of a usual vis-avis game a baby makes a face and begins to show anxiety on which a mother reacts immediately: her pupils are enhancing abruptly, the vocalization is decreasing  and her body is approaching slightly. A 64

mother at once copies a child’s facial expression and sound and only then she resorts to a certain calming tactic. Due to a mother’s timely joining, a child gets a clear signal about a change of its state. A child recognizes herself in mother’s eyes. It is important that mother’s responses correspond to what a baby really experiences and signals nonverbally about. A mother’s reflection is like a mental frame to register non-differentiated excitement, recognize it as a kind of experience and keep its growth in some limits. Thus she intensifies in a child’s experience her own topics, especially when the observation of some details in a child’s behavior creates mother’s implicit associative memories connected with her own unjustified pain. A four-month baby is lying on its back, baby talking and maintaining an eye contact with its mum who is sitting nearby and bending over her baby, answering in response and smiling from time to time at joy manifestations. At some moment the baby averts its look from mother’s eyes and becomes quiet while mother increases the number and volume of sounds. The baby bends aside despite mother’s baby talking. Then she touches its shoulder and makes the baby turn back bending lower over it. The baby shuts eyes and starts whimpering. Mother takes it to her breasts and it falls asleep with pleasure. In this scene mother tries to stay in contact with her baby based on her own internal logic. She unconsciously associates taking away the sight as the rejection though objectively the child is overstimulated and tries to cope with the growing excitement. The image of a pushing child is created from the identification with the procedural representations of ‘leaving – left’, hence an attempt

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+ to keep a child in a desired proximity as if it can compensate somehow magically her own childish deficiency. The further a newly-born baby is moving ahead in its development, the greater his demands are and signals are getting more complicated and differentiated. So the narcissistic identification is getting less justified. But at the beginning mother’s and baby’s interests are fully complementary so, the further mother can reach a baby’s state, the better it is for both of them. Till a baby doesn’t recognize in its mother a separate person, it considers her as a part of itself with identical interests. From the point of view of libidinal distribution, mother gets and gives exactly the same as a child. Due to sensitive care they both get some emotions and resources. Mother’s satisfaction of a baby’s needs means the satisfaction of her own needs and the relations in a dyad are always on the edge of transformation in mother’s narcissistic communication with herself. In other words, mother uses these of potential possibilities of a newly-born child that meet her specific unconscious desires in the best way. After all, the essence of the maternal narcissism, as Freud wrote, lies in the fact that ‘a child has to get parents’ unfulfilled dreams come true’, ‘becoming the narcissistic continuation for them’. Difficulties, discomfort and failures connected with maternity are based on a primitive feeling of envy to ‘Her Majesty Baby’ that demands care and satisfaction. Moreover, the baby deserves satisfaction

even in those interactions, where mother didn’t experienced it or was hurt. In each mother-baby relations there are blind zones in which mother isn’t able to identify with a child from mature caregiving position. A woman is focused to prevent the affect connected with the conflict from releasing and flooding over her. Avoiding unbearable pain in contact with a baby, mother isolates and puts her childish worries out of her mind and therefore she isn’t able to stay sensitive and understanding to a child. The emotional relation in a dyad is maintained by means of the implementation of a woman in the image of an evil frustrating mother from her childhood. Instead of taking a child’s side, identifying with an internal image of the hurt childish Self, she is like an aggressor remembering her own old wrongs in relations with parents. In such a way ‘ghosts in a nursery’ appear – mother’s unconscious alliance with frightening figures from her childhood by means of betrayal of a baby’s interests. Identification choice in favour of acceptance or rejection For a young woman a temporary touch to the identification with an all-powerful fertile life-giving mother as well as to the narcissistic identification with a baby is a pleasant time favourable for individualization. She feels the influx of the highest satisfaction and pleasure as her libido is focused at most on her own Self and her continuation in a womb. 65

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On the other hand a steady regression can become a painful and frightening anxiety. The question arises if a woman will accept her own introjected mother or she will compete with her and gain satisfaction of infantile claims. The patient in the course of treatment developed the unusual symptome. She caught herself experiencing unpleasant sensations as if her lips were full of silicon and almost occupied the whole face. The analysis showed that a memory from the time when she was a five-year old girl was hidden under that symptom when the patient wasn’t able to bear a family idyll in the evening - a pregnant mother next to a happy father – in uncontrolled rage attack she hit a doll with a pen, damaging a soft rubber face. Parents told her off and threw away the doll while she was throwing a tantrum. The doll symbolized herself who wasn’t needed by her parents any more in her childish imagination and also a new child in her mother’s womb that was the reason of loss of parental love. Now a doll started to represent her own child and the patient hasn’t been able to take a non-infantile position concerning it so far. The loss of pregnancy on the deep level would indicate a wish to get rid of a sibling and return the desired status quo. The continuation of pregnancy in return would mean a refusal of envy and malice in favour of an attempt to restore relations with her parents, sharing mother’s experience. Then a prenatal child would have got another mental space for its development. Loss as a way of solving identification conflict In forming the maternal identity it is said about the unique story of a woman’s acceptance and awareness of irreversible change that happened in her life with a child’s appearance. From that time a private calendar starts for her, a new coordinate system appears in the internal and external world. Till that time the starting point of a woman’s ego-identity was the position of her kind or evil mother taken by her daughter. From that time a woman becomes a mother herself. Perhaps no other activity didn’t require and will not require the same emotional return from her as maternity. It means a kind of ultimatum about the responsibility about life, development and individualization of another person. Hence, pregnancy can be viewed as the initiative of a woman’s transition from the infantile childish world where other people take care or don’t take care of your security and welfare into the mature parental world where security and welfare are becoming your own duty before the next generation. Using the language of 66

archetypal psychology, a childbirth turns a young and perplexed Psyche, a goddess of potential femininity into Aphrodite, a goddess of femininity in a status that to give or take away life is in her power. Such an irreversible change of identity explains a number of ambivalent anxieties of a woman who gives a birth to a child: a feeling of happiness and pride for maternity which is connected with a feeling of sadness for forever lost childhood. The maternity is experienced at the same time as a loss and an achievement, as a disaster and a chance, as saying goodbye and meeting with mother. Pregnancy, on the one hand, strengthens the anxieties of a primary unity of a woman with her mother, on the other hand – provides a woman with unambiguous experience of separation and differentiation. In fact she becomes a mother:   cherished in her childhood functions of a woman’s body are available for her, a woman becomes physically mature, pregnant from her sexual partner that in her imagination is equal to her mother’s partner, she reaches her childish Ego-ideal and achieves the goal of her psychosexual development: on the one hand, it is said about the compensation for unfulfilled desire to own a penis, on the other side – about the identification with powerful life-giving mother from her own childhood. Together with it body changes put a woman before the fact of undeniable separation, confirming her own body possibilities and adult rights. So the price of such a narcissistic triumph is a powerful feeling of loss of maternal care and nostalgia for childish claims in relations with parents. The loss of childish status a woman can compensate successfully in relations with her own child, making role changes. The maternal empathy is based on the psychological mechanism of reversion. IVF gives a possibility to track how the maternal identification can’t take place. The patient in the course of treatment developed massive anxiety attacks. These were twinges of guilt and fear in which her child was involved in a magic way. She kept her first unprepared talk under a strong control in a psychotherapist’ room in order bad thoughts couldn’t be put into life. As a result a therapist felt a lack of space and air in a countertransference. The reflection helped to establish some working alliance but the patient tried to turn a  session into hunting for a therapist with the help of apt questions. It added some excitement, satisfaction and brought undifferentiated arousal in a contact. A topic of seducing and ability to achieve male attention appeared. The question about

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a child disappeared but at the next sessions there were no signs of fear and every time the patient provided a piece of information about herself doing it somehow unwillingly. The patient wasn’t married, she was lonely. The insemination took place by means of donor sperm. Her life was passing between a little dwelling that was a shelter of security and her childish dreams; her job full of stress and demands and also a parish church with an orthodox priest. In relations with a therapist a competition offer was intertwined with a request for care. As a result something like the anticipation of conspiracy and distrust appeared. Her imaginations revolved around God, Immaculate Conception and a sin. Pregnancy was aimed at challenging mother. A fear of punishment correlated with the patient’s attempt to have body rights because of mother’s imposed taboo. IVF pursued a compromise pleasure of the infantile wish and at the same time punishment for it. Her pregnancy had to confirm and refute the ban on oedypal desires. The attempt ended in failure followed by a reactive depression which led to restoring with a therapist a conflict-free pre-oedypal relation with mother. Psychotherapy of pregnancies with anamnesis of early loss Psychotherapy of early loss has its own specific tricks. A patient often comes to therapy posteriori but in thoughts about the next chance. She moves ahead of herself, dissociation reveals in a total insensitivity to herself, others, a therapist. Therefore a course should be taken to grounding in order to stop acting out process, turn her back to real feelings here and now. A patient uses words rather for magic than for a description of worries. A therapist runs the risk of being given a role of a powerful rescuer or being ignored. The main goal – to achieve a contact, reach a patient in her closed vicious circle and offer her a realistic alliance. Sometimes a sharp appealing to a child’s rights helps. Yes, the patient came with a frank dislike and polite underestimation. She held on to her reluctance to share her worries. She was interested only in a task – pregnancy and a therapist’s guarantee. Her loss was hidden away and got a status of immunity. The patient showed a positive thinking and any confrontation with her anxiety driven inside faced coarse resistance. The first real chance of a contact appeared when a therapist paid a patient’s attention to her own fixed position which her body took during 35 minutes of their session. The patient was taken aback. She supposed with bitterness that her child was perhaps

so unbearably bad in her uterus. The alliance was achieved and the patient could use the therapy. The peak of acute stress falls on the first trimester in case if the experience of an early loss was in anamnesis. The main meaning at this time has a supporting presence of an appealing object. Attention is very selective, consciousness is getting narrow sharply towards the only overvalued idea. Interoception is getting acute, Ego is becoming extremely corporeal, functional somatoform disorders appear. The patient’s body is in the state of constant readiness that simultaneously slows down hypothalamic-pituitaryhonadnic neuroendocrine axis. The containment of anxiety is possible through actual connection with a therapist. The ability of a patient to use a therapist as a reliable support is of great importance and also transfer this ability into a real situation of interaction. Secondly, it is necessary to expand a patient’s field of consciousness, switching an Observing Ego from corporeal sensations to worries. Dreams and pictures give a good field for switching from a body into mental. In the next 2 weeks after embryotransfer a patient’s anxious attention was paid to breasts – she watched nervously if they were getting bigger. Sometimes panic attacks annoyed her. She had a dream at first night after she had got to know that the pregnancy test was positive. An orange shawl which she was presented that day was direct daily impression in a dream. The patient had a scene at the entrance to the restaurant in a dream where she came across her friend in the same orange clothes and was depressed about her displeasure and claims. Instead of a pleasant evening the patient went along a park avenue, catching mothers’ contemptuous glances at her that were sitting on benches with prams. She seemed she suited a ‘cool’ company better that was hanging out and drinking beer nearby. The patient scornfully called them ‘sucklings’. The first thing that struck the patient in her dream is annoying orange color of clothes which she practically didn’t have in her wardrobe. The only thing she managed to remember was an orange sports jacket - an aunt’s present which she was almost never wore. Associations led the patient to the end of a park avenue where there used to be open-air discos. She remembered as she appeared to be the main character of a teen game of changing clothes and she ran away as she was afraid to show her flat breasts. Then she suddenly remembered her trip to Palermo where she fell in love with a curator of an exhibition. It was her first kiss and she wore her orange sports jacket. The further interpretation of the dream revealed a number of infantile imaginations about rivalry with her mother, 67

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Picture 3. Picture made by the patient after session envy a penis and inferiority that strengthen her anxiety and persistent attention to breasts that symbolically equated them with a penis. On the stage of therapeutic work when the alliance is strong and the reflexive functioning is sufficient the main task is the reconstruction of the real context of a patient’s actual fears. Pregnancy is always said to be a scene of renewal of relations which took place a generation before. A woman suffers a permanent depression and continues compulsive attempts to become pregnant. The impregnation goes easily, pregnancy proceeds normally to a certain moment and only at the late pregnancy she loses a girl for the third time. She does her job anyway using superiors’ indulgence and staying alone. She often has fantasies about her daughters. She imagines them being adult, waiting letters from them from Canada. Her husband and mother pay a woman a lot of attention, she finds herself in the position of a disabled father who was taken care of by everybody (including herself) after a sudden death of a young sister. A sister was a child from a father’s previous marriage. Her mother whom father loved very much left the family grasping the opportunity to go abroad and didn’t send the address. The identification with a lost father makes itself felt as the patient couldn’t return to life and replace him a sister. Then she resorted to the 68

identification with father’s first wife who broke up with her newly-born daughter and missed her watching her growth and studying from afar. If the patient can see that her pregnancy is at the intersection of past and present worries, then a child is taken away from the context of mother’s childish story and gets its own space for development and confirmation of its distinctiveness. Therapeutic relations create a triangle (therapist – patient – child). The deeper the therapy is, the more prenatal measurement manifests in fantasies. The work is focused on imprints of the patient’s own prenatal experience which are imprinted in her implicit memory and are given the imperative impact on a body. The body is said to be able not only to symbolize a conflict that took place in early object relations but edit a real memory fragment from own prenatal story. The prenatal technique of analytical therapy with an increased emphasis on monitoring of corporeal sensations in mode of current time and free association around them. Having closed her eyes and focusing on a body, the patient felt pulsation in a vagina and liquid heat. The image of lava which Vesuvius was erupting appeared. As lava was flooding Pompeii burying building and lives in them for ever, the familiar from previous training sessions and unbearable to pain sensation of a curve

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in the spine appeared which the patient described as a bridge. She felt pain in the extreme upper point which she called a castle stone that connected the structure of medieval arch. This picture invariably led to an image of a man who magnetizes a woman’s body with hands making it bend as he wishes. The pain was so sharp that she wanted to turn back and curve her back in a form of a hump as cats do. The expression of her face reminded a cat’s hissing at the moment when it warms up her paws and sneaks. Her fantasy ended with a feeling of excitement and satisfaction as if she had managed to move from a dead place (Pompey). Later the analysis of the picture in which the patient fixed some fragments of her experience revealed a dual temporal line of worries. Under sexual movements it was viewed a process of movements of a child in a childbirth, getting caught and breakthrough, the opened vagina, a newborn’s enlarged genitals and swollen mother’s breasts. The nearer the childbirth is, the more attention should be paid to the topic of separation not only on the level mother – child but also on the level of therapeutic relations as this topic is often ignored. The patient told that at school for pregnant she depicted herself and a child as a bee and honey. When a trainer asked to change something in the picture according to her wish the patient felt strong and vague anxiety. She understood that an empty space in the picture between honey and the bee was getting on her nerves and she had no idea what to fill it with. Due to association with honey – the colour of a childish unexpectedness – the patient’s infantile childish theories were watched. They were based on a conflict of purity and the patient was explained that her worries were connected with a childbirth as a dirty uncontrolled process which she tried to turn into an empty space. The possibility and an acceptable form of meetings after a childbirth are worth mentioning. The aim of postpartum nursing is to help mother to integrate these phantasies which she had during pregnancy with the image of a real child that has its neuro-psychic features. Conclusions Early experiences of pregnancy are ambivalent and based on disintegration, regression and narcissistic identification. Pregnancy is the final act of drama of merging and differentiation with a mother’s body. A woman physically apprehends her Ego-ideal becoming all-powerful, prolific mother in her childish fantasies and getting a chance to realize all her elusive desires.

She has to lose her childish position for ever being central in her identity till that time. It means she has to yield her infantile claims, to refuse from rivalry with her mother, revenge and claims. Then in an intra-psychic space she can be identified freely with mother’s representations from her childhood and her own childish Self. Later it will help her in the relationship with her own child to take a position according to its dependent status, to feel its signals with almost magic exactness and to react on them in order to keep a child from her own experienced frustrations. Such a deep contact with a baby becomes a source of unbearable pain as well as the highest satisfaction for a woman. She is on the verge of overworking, operates the deepest layers of her implicit memory, motherhood demands the biggest emotional investment from her psychic. As a result there are periodical reactions of exhaustion with a rapid recovery. Sometimes a woman cannot tolerate a normal regression any more relying on a mature part of her Ego and projecting the infantile one on a baby. Then she will steadily resort to defensive maneuvers which can directly contradict her maternal role: instead of acceptance a woman chooses rejection of a child. The conflict resolution takes place in a body and early prenatal loss is always a sign of an ID conflict. References: 1. Католик, Г.В. Аналіз зв’язку матір-дитина в пренатальний період / Г.В.Католик // Дитяча та юнацька психотерапія: теорія і практика / під ред. Г.В.Католик. - Львів: Астролябія, 2009. - С. 64-83. 2. Шишак, О.І. Материнська ідентифікація з немовлям як конструкт для емпіричних досліджень / О.І.Шишак // Проблеми сучасної психології: зб. наук. праць Кам’янець-Подільського національного університету імені Івана Огієнка, Інституту психології ім. Г.С.КостюкаНАПН України / За ред.. С.Д.Максименка, Л.А.Онуфрієвої. – Вип. 13. – Кам’янець-Подільський: Аксіома, 2011. – С. 700-710. 3. Abrams, S. Differentiation and Integration / S. Abrams // Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. – 1996. – Vol.51. - New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. – pp. 25-34. 4. Baradon, T. (2005). What Is Genuine Maternal Love? / T. Baradon // Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. – 2005. – Vol. 58. - New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. – pp. 47-73. 5. Baradon, T. Gousts and Angels in the Nursery: Windows of opportunities and remaining 69

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vulnerability / T.Baradon // In Relational Trauma in Infancy / ed. T.Baradon. – Routledge. – 2009. – pp. 209-219. 6. Beebe, B. Mother-Infant Research Informs MotherInfant Treatment / B. Beebe // Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. – 2005. – Vol. 58. - New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. – pp. 7-46. 7. Bergman, A. Love, Admiration and Identification: On the Intricacies of Mother-Daughter Relationships / A.Bergman, M.F.Fahey // In The Mother-Daughter Relationship: Echoes Through Time / ed. G.H.Fenchel. - Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1998. - pp. 7-28. 8. Bernstein, P. Mothers and Daughters from Today’s Psychoanalytic Perspective / P.Bernstein // Psychoanalytic Іnquiry. – 2004. – 24. – pp. 601–628. 9. Chodorow, N. The Reproduction of Mothering / N. Chodorow. - University of California Press, 1999. – p.263. 10. Donovan, M.W. Demeter and Persephone Revisited: Ambivalence and Separation in the Mother-Daughter Relationship / M.W. Donovan // In The Mother-Daughter Relationship: Echoes Through Time / ed. G.H.Fenchel, Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1998. - pp.135-154. 11. Fonagy, P. Measuring the Ghost in the Nursery: An Empirical Study of the Relation Between Parents’ Mental Representations of Childhood Experiences and Their Infants Security of Attachment / P. Fonagy, M. Steele, G. Morgan et al. // JAPA. – 1993. -Vol. 41:4. –pp. 957-989. 12. Fraiberg, S. (1975). Ghosts in the Nursery / S. Fraiberg // Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. – 1975. –Vol. 14. – pp. 387-421. 13. Freiberg. S. The Origins of Human Bond / S. Freiberg // In The Selected Writings of Selma Freiberg / ed. L.Freiberg. - Ohio State University Press: Columbus, 1987. – pp. 3-26. 14. Freiberg. S. Libidinal Object Constancy and Mental Representations. / S. Freiberg // In The Selected Writings of Selma Freiberg / ed. L.Freiberg. - Ohio State University Press: Columbus, 1987. – pp. 2764. 15. Jakel, B. Bipolar Self: body psychotherapy, spirituality and bonding – searching for identity / B.Jakel // International Journal of Psychotherapy - Carfax Publishing, London, UK, 2001.- Vol.6, Number 2 - pp. 115-132(18). 16. Joyce, A. The parent-infant relationship and infant mental health / A. Joyce // In The Practice of Psychoanalytic Parent-Infant Psychotherapy / ed. T.Baradon, C.Broughton, I.Gibbs et al. - London: 70

Routledge, 2005. - pp. 5-24. 17. Katz, R. Mothers and Daughters – The Tie That Binds: Early Identification and the Psychotherapy of Women / R. Katz // In The Mother-Daughter Relationship: Echoes Through Time, ed. G.H.Fenchel. - Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1998. - pp.245-264. 18. Mapping Out the Internal World / E. Berberich, A. Bergman, P.L. Janssen, H.C. Meyers // In The Internal Mother / ed. S.Akhtar, S.Kramer, H.Parens, - Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1996. - pp. 93-114. 19. Meyers, M.B. “Am I My Mother’s Keeper?”: Certain Vicissitudes Concerning Envy in the MotherDaughter Dyad / M.B. Meyers // In The MotherDaughter Relationship. – 1998.- NJ: Jason Aronson. - pp. 285-296. 20. Moran, G. From Maternal Representations to the First Relationship by way of Maternal Sensitivity: A Reconceptualization of the Developmental Model / G. Moran, D. Pederson // Psychology Publications. Paper 28. -1999. - Режим доступу : http://ir.lib. 21. Olds, D. Identification: Psychoanalytic and Biological Perspectives / D Olds // JAPA. - 2006. Vol. 54:1. - pp.17-46. 22. Papousek, H. Beyond emotional bonding: The role of preverbal communication in mental growth and health / H.Paposek, M.Papousek // Infant Mental Health Journal. – 1992. – Vol.13. –pp.43-53. 23. Pine, F. A Note on Some Microprocesses of Identification / F. Pine // Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. - 2006. - Vol. 58. - New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.– pp. 190-201 24. Рine F. Mahler’s concepts of “symbiosis” and Separation-individuation: Revisited, Reevaluated, Refined / F. Рine // Journal of American Psychoanalytic association. – 2003. – № 52 / 2. – P. 516–534. 25. Slade A. Minding the Baby / A. Slade // Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. – 2005. - Vol. 58. - New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. – pp. 74-100. 26. Stern, D. The Birth of a Mother / D. Stern, N. Bruschweiler-Stern. – Basic Books, 1998. – p.246 27. Surrey J.L. The Self-in-Relation: A Theory of Woman’s / J.L. Surrey // In Women’s Growth in Connection / ed. J.V.Jordan, A.G.Kaplan, et al. New York, London, The Guilford Press, 1991. - pp. 51-67.

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research


Y.E. Kokorina, Ph.D. in Psychology Odessa National Medical University

The article examines the psychological features of preventing and correction of existential crisis of personality, namely, group psychotherapy, which is based on the postulates underlying of existential therapy, psychoanalysis and art therapy. We identified the main existential givenness, which actualized during completion of the training, described existential meaning obtained during group therapy and defense mechanisms. Key words: existential crisis, group’s psychotherapy, existential approach, psychoanalysis, art-therapy, existential meaning, defense mechanisms.

У статті розглядаються психологічні особливості попередження і корекції екзистенційної кризи особистості, а саме групова психотерапія, яка спирається на постулати покладені в основу екзистенційної терапії, психоаналізу і арт-терапії. Позначені основні екзістенціали, яки актуалізуються під час проходження тренінгу, описані екзистенційні означаючи, отримані в ході групової терапії, а також захисні механізми психіки. Ключові слова: екзистенційна криза, групова психотерапія, екзистенційний підхід, психоаналіз, арт-терапія, екзистенційні означаючи, захисні механізми.

Introduction The issue of psychological support, assistance to a person in difficult life’s situations relating to various aspects of human existence, more actualized since modern person is under the influence of the much larger constant stresses and is forced to rely heavily on their internal capabilities for coping with the latter than the person previous epochs - epochs are much lower velocities of the historical process. Professional field of practicing psychologists concerns the range of issues delineated the bio-psychosocio-spiritual life of the entity contour. This four-life context in which a person exists simultaneously and continuously living their interconnectedness with the world, is noted by L. Binswanger. It is known that human life is determined by physical biological laws because personality is always to be in a particular context of the conditions of life. Beyond that we should consider the specific socio-cultural context in which a person born and lives, building interpersonal relationships. Human behavior is regulated by mental processes, emotions, character, complex psychodynamic mechanisms which constitute the psychological context of life. His, person, the most important choices are carried out under the influence of certain values with reliance on their own

understanding of the meaning / meaninglessness belief everything that constitutes the basis of worldview of personal vital philosophy in which the spiritual contour is articulated. The main part Continuing a research in the framework identification of effective ways of prevention and correction of existential crisis of personality we focus on the specific form of psychological help, namely, group psychotherapy which generates conditions where a person comes to a relationship with himself through the relationship with other people. The purpose of this training was to study the living space of the entity that experiences an existential crisis and finds ways of coping with that. The tasks we set for ourselves were related to: 1. Combining the principles of psychoanalysis (S. Freud, J. Lacan), existential (existential analytics of M. Heidegger) and the art-therapeutic approaches (applying of free association when considering the givens of existence and use drawings in a circle); 2. Eliciting of unconscious phenomena and deducing certain in a symbolic line (interpretation and awareness); 71

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3. Group regression (free floating in fantasies); 4. Work with metaphor; 5. Integration of the received therapeutic experience in life situation. Considering the tradition of existential therapy and contemporary psychoanalysis is an attempt to expand the understanding of the mechanisms of emergency development and regulation of the flow of psychic phenomena by using the theory and practice of these approaches. As each of the aforementioned approaches helps to consider one person from different perspectives, it is, in our opinion, can help to extend the context of psychological help and the person in it. Thus the existential approach understand the person not as an isolated psychic wholeness but the person as a being-in-the-world, in other words it pays attention to his life as an integrity of relations with the world with the existential givenness that affects the lives regardless of the person’s will, which makes it possible to eliminate the dichotomy of internal and external, as well as clarifies, reflects and understands the life in the context of bio-psycho-socio-spiritual contour inseparable from a variety of contexts of the world [9,10]. In its turn, the psychoanalytic approach enables to deploy a person’s thinking from personal symptom towards discussion of life situations in general. In other words, person’s thinking moves by analogy with the free associations – symptoms, being hidden, manifest and clear up and the possibility to speak of them appears and as a result offers an opportunity to discuss the problems of life misery of people [8]. And here the existential factor can come into effect. In psychoanalysis L. Binswanger saw, first of all, means of penetration on level of subjective meanings beliefs and values of the person. Not casually P. Ricker compared Freudianism to transcendental idealism as the reality of the unconscious is established by the psychoanalyst “in the sense that it is constituted by set of hermeneutical acts which decrypted it” [2]. Existential therapy as well as psychoanalysis is psychodynamic therapy inasmuch in this and other approach the concept of the dynamic conflict is essential: the main question is postulated of what contradictory forces, conscious and unconscious, form dynamics of the conflict and what the content of the conflict is that bases in confrontation of an individual with existential givenness and not only repressed desires of the person. In order to explore emerging “intrapsychic and intersubjective” (Green, 1996) phenomena the presented approaches make it possible to deploy subjectivity (internal content) of the person of 72

experience which helps the psychologist (here - entity providing psychological support and assistance) to provide emotional meaning and existential reversal of person (here the client) or a group of people in difficult situations that arise in the course of their personal and social life. Psychotherapeutic context unfolds through the interaction of the reality of the psychologist and the person who has addressed for psychological help which is possible in the case of building the setting during the formation of the dyad “psychologist-client”. It should be noted that in every moment the interaction and the way of experience and interpretation of both sides of psychotherapeutic process will be largely determined by the “meeting” of intrapsychic and intersubjective phenomena both of them: psychologist and client. As soon as psychologist becomes an important part of the emotional landscape of the client, his interpretation of experiences and processes client’s inner world allows the client to change the dynamics of the conflict, the space of the inner world, namely its subjectivity [3]. And here, in our view, as a soft way of human exploration of subjective space live situation their relationship to different life circumstances, the most appropriate is art-therapy because through using a drawing a person gets access to the personal unconscious bypassing the censorship of consciousness which in turn produces a rich diagnostic material for the psychologist, and for painting too. Drawing gives the opportunity to get closer to the use of symbols as a resource of healing. At the same time exploring the symbols we applied to the internal phenomenology of individual which provides conception of drawings by the author i.e. insertion to his study of the verbal material. The latter, in the same degree is required to work as the symbols of drawings because it gives a more profound interpretation of the drawings based on their author’s comprehension. Thanks to the analysis the symbols are enriched with various often contradictory content which creates a human ability to conceptualize themselves, develop adaptive coping behavior, to see life’s goals and perspectives, to understand their own capabilities and limitations in the various spheres of life, reflect upon their fears weaknesses leading to the development of self-awareness, a deeper understanding of themselves and the development of reflection. Analysis of the characters allows to explore the logic of the unconscious its relationship with the consciousness of the entity which contributes to the expansion of self-understanding. Thus the determining factor in this context are the language and speech of individual – “the abode of Being” (M. Heidegger), through which the person is

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looking at himself denoting and transcribing and that “... gives the person seeing for talking to each other ...”, “voice of Being” which gives an opportunity to “get into the lumen of the truth of Being” [10]. According to M.K. Mamardashvili the speech through the message in particular includes the human consciousness due to “the consciousness of one entity is taken a given for another” [7]. And as a special source of self-knowledge considers the consciousness of individual through which a person solves the problem of his way of being. It should be noted that understanding in a person is connected with the question: if there are such structures in him and his possession that are commensurated with the structures of the world and which enable him to understand the world. Here, for cognition and self-reflection entity uses the language that creates itself, organizes and by which it obeys, where the symbols of speech represent a certain type of relations with the world, forasmuch the speech and language fully reflects the whole range of meanings of phenomena that exists in and out of consciousness i.e. in the unconscious. Actually there is the possibility of opening the human unconscious through the language and speech a possibility of reading a person and arrange of communication with others, and therefore with oneself [4, 5, 8]. In practice the dialogue between the person experiencing an existential crisis and a psychologist (psychotherapist) work with a problem often leads out to the broader question of the value and meaning of life the internal and external constraints and the potential to live and feel more fully and freely. The turn towards group work was connected, first of all, with the fact that experiencing the crisis one is confronted with the social and psychological frustration, heightened sense of loneliness isolation meaninglessness. Therefore, the situation of joint experiences of a group of strong emotional states anxieties etc. can carry therapeutic character. The task of the leader of the group is the ability to direct the attention of not only to solve personal problems as the creation of life and better understanding of it, which is achieved by analyzing the life of each member of the group, and through this life in general. In other words, arousing problem crisis situation is not considered isolated from human life itself but rather strives to understand from within the logic of the individual human life: there was a problem as to why it could not come, and it is now possible to manage with it. Considering expected changes in the three planes – the cognitive emotional and behavioral, group psychotherapy each participant can obtain: a feedback from other participants, has the freedom to express or keeps silent about their feelings, emotions

and thoughts; a unique opportunity to determine what unconscious existential beliefs he/she has, and how they limit his/her life; can clearly see their limited life scenarios and changes lives. Thus, the problems of group psychotherapy focus on mentioned above three aspects which allows to determine the primary purpose of group therapy as the expansion of sphere of person consciousness. Thus, the existential-analytic training can be applied in groups of up to 10 people. Preferred is the heterogeneous composition of the group as it is provides maximum variety of methods and types of responses feelings and interpersonal relationships. The form of groups is closed with the same number of participants. The training program is designed for 10 sessions of 3 hours each. The total duration of training is 30 hours. It is recommended to exercise 1-2 times a week for a month. Each session is thematically defined by psychologist: 1st – Introduction; 2nd - Dissatisfaction; 3rd - Loneliness; 4th - Suffering, 5th – Sin; 6th - Fear of death; 7th – Meaninglessness; 8th – Responsibility; 9th - Freedom; 10th – Finality of the group. These themes are taken from the general procedure applied by us in the study of existential crisis − Diagnostic of Spiritual Crisis by L.V. Shutova and A.V. Lyashchuk. Each session is completed by a certain drawing the designated theme and the subsequent discussion of the drawn. To determine the effect of training on indicators of the spiritual crisis used the comparison sampling before and after exposure (training) using the Student’s t-distribution (t-test) for paired sample. This training was attended by 35 persons who at the time of passing the training have experienced an existential crisis. The analyses of the data are presented in the Table 1. Table 1 The effect of training on the variable “crisis” before






The spiritual crisis




The existential vacuum



The crisis in the past


The crisis in the present The crisis in the future















0,004 **













Note: ** - significance level p <0.01 73

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As it is seen from the table statistically significant differences were found in the variable as a “crisis in the past” (p<0.01). Analyzing the influence of training on indicators of “dissatisfaction”, “freedom”, “suffering”, “responsibility”, “death”, “meaninglessness” statistically significant differences in the variables were not found. Thus it is necessary noted that the semantic space mentioned above the existential givenness is defined by the following signifiers obtained in the course of group psychotherapy: - “Freedom” includes the following semantic units the most often presented in the stories of the respondents in order of importance: “make a decision (to choose)” (p<0.04), “do what I want” (p<0.04), “do not adjust to the other” (p<0.02), the “independence (without limitation)” (p<0.02), “my space” (p<0.01); - “Suffering” includes the following semantic units the most often presented in the stories of the respondents in order of importance: “the experience of negative emotions” (p<0.05), “pinching”, “lack of love”, “a sense of his own insignificance”, “selfincrimination”, “lack of anything”, “inability to sustain their environment”, “sadness” (p<0.01); - “Responsibility” includes the following semantic units the most often presented in the stories of the respondents in order of importance: “taking care of one another” (p<0.04), “to answer for their deeds” (p<0.03), “to answer for his life”, “execution of the order”, “understanding that something depends on me” (p<0.02), “the need for a moral life”, “serious attitude towards something” (p<0.01); - “Meaninglessness” includes the following semantic units the most often presented in the stories of the respondents in order of importance: “doing useless work”, “do not understanding the meaning” (p<0.03), “useless existence”, “lack of purpose” (p<0.02), “despair – sadness”, “no confidence in their actions” (p< 0.01); - “Fear of death” includes the following semantic units the most often presented in the stories of the respondents in order of importance: “threat to life” (p<0.03), “do not fear of death” (p< 0.02), “the fear of death of the relatives” (p<0.02 ), ”fear of the unknown” (p<0.02), “emptiness” (p<0.01), “fear not to have time to do something” (p< 0.01). So, due to represented signifiers it is possible to see how a person through the language and speech defines himself his place in inseparable connection with the world. And here the entity is necessary to carry out reconstruction and deconstruction of language and to speak in the language of Dasein which means re-define in its symbolic terms using language and speech, and this process is only possible by being 74

able to the state of loneliness and through personal responsibility. That was brightly presented in the indicators as “loneliness” and “sin”. The analyses of the influence of training on indicators of “loneliness” are presented in the Table 2. Table 2 The affect of training on the variable “loneliness” before






Loneliness in the past




Loneliness in the present



Loneliness in the future

















Note: * - significance level p <0.05 As it is seen from the table statistically significant differences were found in the manifestation of such indicators as “loneliness in the past” (p<0.05). Loneliness in terms of existential-humanistic paradigms is a reality that is rooted in the nature of man himself. “Loneliness – is suffering” (M. Mamardashvili), “the freezing horror of being abandoned” (K. Jaspers), “nostalgia for the escape” (E. Levinas), etc. which can be considered as a phenomenon that immanent to human existence and in this sense is a subjective. The content side of it is related to the following semantic units the most frequently mentioned by entity: “I ​​do not feel support” (p<0.04), “there are no people who think alike” (p<0.03), “I feel lonely (emptiness)” (p<0.02), “no one understands me” (p<0.02), “lack of self” (p<0.01), “a state of alienation” (p<0.01), “time to think about myself” (p<0.01), which reveals a certain experience (conscious or unconscious), contradictory relationship between “I” and the world, rejection autonomy non-participation of “I” which can have a stable negatively charged emotional and associative background. Thus the relationship of generality and objectivity with subjectivity qualifies as an ambivalent phenomenon of loneliness which is dual in its nature. The analyses of the influence of training on indicators of “sin” are presented in the Table 3. Table 3 The effect of training on the variable “sin” before






Sin in the past




Sin in the present



Sin in the future

















Note: * - significance level p <0.05

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was the application of regression analysis. The array data obtained during testing of respondents to the training was analyzed and the defense mechanisms their possible change after completions of the training were studied. Our attention was drawn to the fact that the level of this defense mechanism as a displacement was significantly increased. The data are presented in the Table 5. Table 5 Comparative analysis of defense mechanisms before


























































Reaction formation







Note: * - significance level p <0.05 Obviously, that the actualization of this defense mechanism may point to aspiration of the person to cope with the emotional distress associated with frustrating situations. With the help of regression analysis we have identified the system relationship between the index of “crisis in the past” and psychological defenses. The data are presented in the Table 6. Table 6 The regression coefficients for the variable “crisis in the past”

Before training

Model B

After training

As can be seen from the table statistically significant differences were found in terms such as “sin in the past” (p < 0.05). Sin from the standpoint of existential-humanistic paradigms refers to the internal self-existence of person and comes from his inner reality involving the opposition of the real world (the existence of extant) ideal world (symbolic existence). In this kind of comparison individual can face the experience of non-compliance lack of authenticity of betrayal to himself, his own being which illuminates in meanings of person: “do something bad” (р<0,04), “the Bible sin” (р<0,03), “life style” (р<0,02), “lack of moral”, “bad attitude to people”, “ sense of guilt in front of himself” (р<0,01). According to M. Heidegger, the process of indepth study “exposure” leads a person to a collision with the existential loneliness or isolation which is associated with the abyss between person and the other, the separation between the entity and the world [4, 9]. Existential isolation creates a situation of crisis, connected with the state of “thrownness” and is a kind of emotional response to the effect of lonelinesshelplessness when a person encounters a choice [1, 9, 10]. However, the intensification of awareness of our life can lead to the discovery of personal sin giving rise to sense of guilt which, according to M. Heidegger, is a fundamental part of Dasein. As noted by thinker, the guilt is “intimately connected with the possibility” when “the voice of conscience” is heard, a person is always “guilty” to the extent that he has failed the accomplishment of authentic opportunities [6, 9]. Summing up the foregoing it should be noted that the differences established for indicators “crisis in the past” (p <0.01), “loneliness in the past” (p <0.05), “sin in the past” (p <0.05) are highlighted through an existential paradigmatics where people, when confronted with existential givenness, can comprehend the events change, occurring to them and open personal meaning and purpose. Furthermore, cluster analysis (Ward’s method), mentioned above respondents (35 persons) were distributed in terms of “existential crisis” for three groups in which the crisis was experienced in the past, present or future. After the division of the respondents of the crisis groups have made a comparative analysis of the data which were obtained before and after completion of the training itself. Based on the identified results we can make a conclusion that the outcome of the training was the strengthening the links between the data of spiritual crisis existential vacuum crisis in the past and in the present. The next stage designed to investigate the effect of training to the system of defense mechanisms used by the entity experiencing an existential crisis

Non-standardized coefficients

Standardized coefficients






























standard error





Reaction formation





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As can be seen from the table for the crisis in the past the most relevant defense mechanisms are reaction formation regression and displacement. Based on the results we can make the conclusion that the aspiration of the person to cope with the crisis experiences, existential frustration through using above mentioned defense mechanisms is rather connected with the desire of the individual prevent, perhaps to avoid severe emotional distress. Applying the dispersion analysis for the variable “crisis in the past” it was found that up to completion of the training of the multiple correlation coefficient which reflects the relationship between the variable “crisis in the past” with a set of indicators of psychological defenses was R = 0,338, after training, R = 0,666. The coefficients of determination were R2 = 0,114 before training and R2 = 0,666 after training. Accordingly, 11.4% of the variation of the variable parameters “crisis in the past” was caused by variations of the psychological defenses. In a regression model before the training included the following psychological defenses reaction formation regression and displacement. In addition, these psychological defenses as a reaction formation and regression have a positive correlation, and the displacement has a negative one. After the training, the proportion of variance of the variable “a crisis in the past” which depends on the variation of psychological defenses is increasing to 66.6 %. In this case the model includes only displacement with a negative coefficient. Fisher Criteria Model training amounted before passage the training was F = 8,824, p <0,001; after training was F = 2,592, p <0,031, that indicating on the accuracy of models. Data are presented in the Table 7. Table 7 Dispersion analysis for the variable “crisis in the past”




sum of squares

standard error























average F square






The conclusions From this study the nature of the correlations in the regression model before the training shows that the experience of the crisis in the past is diffuse and 76

vague and is connected with the reaction formation regression and displacement. After the training the experience becomes sharper, is localized more precisely, loses contact with the reaction formation and regression and weakens with the displacement. Thus, the content of the existential crisis of the person is defined in the existential givenness such as loneliness and sin, and in presented defense mechanisms – reaction formation regression displacement. Thus, the existential-analytical training is an effective psychological support of the person experiencing an existential crisis. Combining the above mentioned approaches provides an opportunity to expand the context of human understanding, studies its vital space, mediated by speech and language, which makes it possible to find the most appropriate ways of coping with the crisis, and can be applied in the practical work of psychologists. References: 1. Adelman, H. S., Taylo, Lr & Nelson, P. (1989), “Minors’ dissatisfaction with their life circumstances”, Child Psychiatry and Human Development, pp.135-147. 2. Binsvanger, L. (1999), “Bitie-v-mire”, КPS+», М., «Yuventa», St.P, 300p. 3. Green, A. (2007), “The Intropsychic and Intersubjective in Psychoanalysis”, Terapevticheskie otnoshenia v psihoanalize, Kogito-center, pp.5-46. 4. Lacan, J. (2003), “Chetire osnovnie poniatia psihoanaliza, М., Genezis, Logos, pp: 300 5. Lacan, J. (1997), “Instancia bykvi i yazika v bessoznatelnom ili sudba razuma posle Frouda”, М., Russkoe fenomenologicheskoe obshestvo, Logos, pp: 184 6. Lengle, A., (2006), “PERSON: Erzistencialnoanaliticheskaia teoria lichnosty, Sbornik statei, М., Genezis, pp: 159 7. Mamardashvili, M., Pyaitigorskiy, A., (1997), “Simvol I soznanie: metafizicheskie rassujdenia o soznanii, simvolike I yazike”, М., Shkola Yaziki russkoy kulturi, pp: 534 8. Freud, Z., (1991), “Vvedenie v psihoanaliz: Lekcii”, М., Nauka, pp: 456 9. Haidegger, M., (2001), “Osnovnie problemi fenomenologii” , St. P., pp: 456 10. Yalom, I., (1999), “Ekzistencialnay psihoterapia”, Кlass, pp: 579

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research


UDC 378.1

Iryna Kolesnikova Lecturer of department of teaching methodology in Zhitomir Regional In-Service Teacher Training Institute, Graduate student of department of pedagogy in Zhytomyr State Ivan-Franko-University

In the article in the context of the study on media culture is outlined its impact on the social life of the individual and society as a whole. The subject of the work is theoretical substantiation of challenges of media-culture personality in the modern information-oriented society. The purpose of this nature is definition of key category such as “media culture”, the disclosure of the impact of media-culture on personality development. The article analyzes the sources of scientific and educational literature with the test questions. The actuality of media-culture personality information society is analyzed. There will be described the basic skills that are formed during the development of media-culture personality. Media culture in the modern world is treated as a combination of information and communication tools, material and intellectual values ​​by mankind in the cultural and historical development, contributing to the formation of social consciousness and socialization, which includes transfer of culture information and culture perception. Key words: media-culture, media space, information culture, mass communication.

У статті в контексті дослідження проблеми медіа-культури окреслено її вплив на соціальне життя особистості і суспільства в цілому. Предметом роботи є теоретичне обґрунтування проблеми розвитку медіакультури особистості в сучасному інформаційному суспільстві. Метою даної роботи є визначення сутності ключової категорії «медіакультура», розкриття впливу медіа-культури на розвиток особистості. У статті проаналізовано джерела науково-педагогічної літератури з досліджуваного питання. Обґрунтовано актуальність розвитку медіа-культури особистості інформаційного суспільства. Визначено основні навички, які формуються під час розвитку медіа-культури особистості. Медіа-культура в сучасному світі трактується як сукупність інформаційнокомунікативних засобів, матеріальних та інтелектуальних цінностей, вироблених людством у процесі культурно-історичного розвитку, що сприяють формуванню суспільної свідомості і соціалізації особистості, що включає в себе культуру передачі інформації та культуру її сприйняття. Ключові слова: медіа-культура, медіапростір, інформаційна культура, масові комунікації.

Introduction Modern society is characterized as the transformation of information into a global resource of mankind, the acceleration of technology, development of new information technology, transformation of the media in mass communication tools, globalization, and global information space. The emergence and development of the information society is inextricably linked with the knowledge of the fundamental role of information in

social development, consideration of a broad sociocultural context of such phenomena as information resources, new information technologies, and information. Over the past few decades the traditional media (the press, radio, television, various guides on the circuit basis) were added to the most modern one, among which emit electronic textbooks and manuals, multimedia systems, electronic catalogs, bank and databases, e-mail, Internet . 77

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Mass communication creates around each person a special information field, which is formed under the influence of social, moral, artistic, intellectual values ​​and interests. Modern man is so accustomed to vast amounts of information, the volume of which is increasing and one cannot imagine his life without media (these include the traditional press, television, radio, cinema, video, computer networks). It should be stressed that no new information technologies replace old ones, but rather complement and expand their opportunities, so as the priority it has to be the issue of human adaptation in the new information society. For further development of the information society, its operation is required concerted action on the formation of a special type of cultural identity media culture. The value of media culture in modern society is growing. Modernization of Ukrainian society and the education system in particular has actualized the issue of media-culture of personality. In recent years, the attention of researchers has been attracted by educational aspects of the information-oriented society. They are associated primarily with the analysis of the problems of the information-oriented society as a society that continually learns, because all members of a growing society need to continuous training, updating knowledge, learning new activities. However, today the information resources of Ukraine and of the world are still not fully used. One of the reasons is the lack of sufficient formation of consumer media and information culture. The aim of the article is to outline the meaning of “media culture” and clarify the meaning of mediaculture of personality in information society. This should solve the following challenges: to analyze the state of a challenge of media-culture of personality, to identify the characteristics of the development and importance of media-culture in the information society. The analysis of scientific sources indicates that the issue of media culture is reflected in the foreign history (R. Arnheym, A. Bazin, G. Barth, D. Bell, W. Benjamin, G. Deleuze, McLuhan, Herbert Marcuse, H. Ortega i Gasset, Charles Peirce, D. Saussure, A. Toffler, M. Castells, J. Kristeva, Levi - Strauss, J. Rashkofft and others) and domestic one (L. Naidenova, G. Onkovych, L . Masol, L. Boychenko, Gabor H., Y. Kazakov, I. Mischyshyn, B. Potyatynyk, N. Trohanyak etc.) researchers. The subjects of study in recent years in the field of media culture have been: integrated media education (Hudylina S., T. Zharkovska, A. Zhurin, L. Zaznobina, G. Novikov, K. Tikhomirov, I.A. Fomicheva), audiovisual media education (A. Baranov, A. Bondarenko, A. Burnashev, 78

K. Gribanova), creating and using on-screen learning tools (L. Bazhenova, M. Dukhovna, V. Egorov, M. Zhabskyy, L. Pressman), media education on the material press (A. Vaganova, C. Vietrov, D. Grigorova, A. Korochenskyy). As the Russian cultural expert N. Kirillov notes, thanks to media culture there has been “formed new media reality of the modern media environment, media market, media management, media critics, functions, status and scope of which are much more diverse than they have been before” [ 2 ]. It underlines that all types of media (audio, print, visual, audiovisual) include the transmission of culture information and culture perception; Media culture can be a system of personal development levels that can “read,” analyze, evaluate media text, engage in media creativity, acquire new knowledge through the media. Specificity of media culture, in its view, is defined by its semiotic nature and technical capabilities means of implementation [ 3 , 8]. Note that L. Masol examines media culture as a set of information and communication tools, material and intellectual values ​​that were made ​​by mankind in the cultural and historical development [ 7 , 349]. L. Naidenova defines media culture as innovation and knowledge absorption process of transformation at all levels - from the individual to society as a whole, which includes both components of the call, updating, generation, operation [ 9 , 163]. By definition of G. Onkovych media culture is a society’s ability to use media resources effectively and to apply advanced information technology [ 11 , 1]. The concept of “media culture” of N. Cherepovska defines two aspects: socio-cultural and psychological. First of media culture is a social phenomenon of production and consumption of media products, which involves the interaction, communication between the two conventional social groups. Communication between producer and consumer has being mediated by technical means of mass media communication [ 8 ]. We agree with the opinion of N. Konovalova that media culture is a way to interact with the information society, which includes values, technological, personal and creative components, leading to the development of interaction [ 4 , 27]. A. Sharikov supports the view that media culture “is part of the general culture related to mass communication”. On the one hand in social terms culture society is the media culture society. On the other hand in the personal human culture is the culture media rights, when accented human interaction with the world media, its perception and creative expression through mass communication, which ultimately provide the full inclusion of man in society” [ 12 , 132- 133].

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The Concept introduction of media education in Ukraine notes that “media culture is a combination of information and communication tools that operate in the community, sign systems, elements of cultural communication, search, collection, production and transfer of information and culture of its perception of social groups and society in general. On a personal level media culture means a person’s ability to interact effectively with the media to adequately handle in the information environment” [ 5 ]. Referring to the work of local and foreign researchers we tracked that the term “media culture” is constantly expanding its value and includes all the new social, moral, psychological and intellectual components. Its basis is the knowledge of the information environment, the laws of its functioning; the ability to navigate the information flows. Modern communication technologies have transformed significantly intensified and information processes in society. They entered into interaction with traditional means of creating and disseminating information, giving them a new quality. Media culture stimulated traditional information culture to new challenges such as: • The optimization of search and selection of information sources, their efficient and evaluation from the point of view of expediency; • The search of algorithms that minimizes laid first information and deployment; • The use of instructional techniques to produce new information, etc. The emergence of media culture seems quite a logical step to prior cultural and historical development of society [6, 8]. Media gradually increases its presence in the culture, its impact on the socio-cultural processes. Its true value media culture revealed when the society to the fore the challenges of information. The next step in this process was the development of computer technology, which integrated a communication capabilities both traditional printed texts and new media texts. Multimedia networking and computer technologies have made ​​information transfer extremely diverse, effective and still operational and global, thanks to their virtual communications. Modern media culture is a holistic system that formed a media space that functions on the basis of information exchange. Media space actively influences the cultural, social and psychological values, forming and changing settings and patterns of human behavior. As a specific culture, media culture includes a “culture of information transmission and culture of perception; can be a system of personal development levels, able to perceive, analyze, evaluate a particular media text, engage in media creativity, acquire new knowledge through the media” [ 2, 5]. Multimedia networking and computer

technologies have made ​​information transfer extremely diverse, effective, still operational and global, thanks to their virtual communications. Due to technical means (press, radio, television and cinema) information intense effect on modern man not only to fill one’s free time, not only educates, teaches and entertains, but also powerfully affect on the composition of thinking, worldview. Today the effects of media culture are in the social life of the individual and society as a whole. Media culture, especially media attracts people to participate in public life, its self promotes, development of various social roles and so on. It regulates human aspirations and actions, offers the opportunity to evaluate the actions of others and public life. New information and communication technologies, including satellite and digital TV, video, computer and mobile telephony, Internet and other media are transforming the environment, with a significant impact on public consciousness on traditional forms of culture, the functioning of libraries, theaters, and museums. It should be noted that the influence of media culture on personality development features have a comprehensive nature, culture media can influence the intellect, emotions can promote vision, creativity and critical thinking, different aspects of aesthetic consciousness (aesthetic perception, analysis). Media culture provides identity development in specific skills such as: • interpreting information; • understanding its essence; identify targeted orientation; • understanding the main information in the message; • finding information from different sources; • transforming information (change its size, shape, sign system and so on. etc.). • finding errors in the information and argumenting to correct them; • taking alternative perspectives on a problem and finding solid arguments for and against them; • establishing connections between messages; • having a personal opinion on the content of the message, to be able to prove the correctness of their own opinions on the problem. The values of media culture as means of man’s knowledge of the world increase in their social, intellectual, moral, artistic, psychological aspects of the society. Its intensive development has an active influence on public consciousness. The level of development of modern means of mass communication and the specificity of their full impact on the individual shows that media is one of the factors the practical implementation of the theory of dialogue between cultures. The important aspect 79

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of media culture is the interaction between different cultures of ethnic, national and civilizational levels, the ability to dialogue. This proves that media culture is a unique social institution information age, an important factor in intellectual production. However, the mass introduction of information and computer technology has expanded not only positive but also negative influence methods of mass communication, both on individual and on society as a whole. Globalized media culture is the result of complex processes influence global information links on standardization and synchronization of cultural models in different countries [10]. Currently, this problem has begun to be studied over new types of community information age: online, integration into social networks. Relations between people in the digital age have changed. Real communication is increasingly replaced with the online communication. Therefore the development of media culture of the person can be seen as a dynamic that continues throughout life. The dynamic process is determined by the variability of the information environment. Today media culture as a social phenomenon creates a new habitat, a new reality. Summarizing the above, we can state that the media culture in the modern world is treated as a combination of information and communication tools, material and intellectual values ​​by mankind in the cultural and historical development, contributing to the formation of social consciousness and socialization, which includes culture transmission information, culture and perception. It can act as an indicator of the level of the individual, able to perceive, analyze, evaluate media text, engage in media creativity, acquire new knowledge in the field of media. Media culture is an objective reality that exists and develops according to its own laws, an attribute of modern life, where the society and an individual can serve both consumers and creators of media culture. The presence of media culture is manifested in nearly every aspect of modern life. It changes the world of human relations, makes specific features in his mind. Media culture, especially media attracts people to participate in public life, it promotes self, development of various social roles and so on. Of course, the proposed analysis does not cover topical issues of investigated problem. Out of focus are relevant to the issue of professional development of teachers who are organically linked to ensuring their full preparation for the use of the media profession. Intensive development of society naturally leads to a change in vocational education teacher who enriched not only knowledge and skills but also the perception of the surrounding world. Therefore, one way to solve this issue is the development of targeted media culture teachers in postgraduate education. 80

References: 1. Grigorova D. E. Mechanism manypulyatyvnoho Impact in medyatekstah TV genre reality show [Text] / D. E. // Modern Grigorova trends in DEVELOPMENT Rossiyskogo medyaobrazovanyya. T .1 / Under Society. Ed. E. L. Vartanovoy, And. In. Zhylavskoy. - M., Ed., Moscow State University, 2010. - Pp. 45 - 49. 2. Kirillova N. B. That medyakulturu k medyalohyy // Kulturolohycheskyy magazine, 2011. - Number 4 (6). [electronic resource] / Kirillova N. B. - Regime Access: 98.html & j_id = 8 3. Kirillova N. B. Medyakultura: here modern k postmodern / Kirillov N. B. - M.: Academic design, 2005. - 448 p. 4. Konovalova N.A. Development medyakulturu studentov Teaching high school: Abstract Dis. ... Candidate. Ped. Sciences / Konovalov N. A. Vologda, 2004. 5. The concept of the introduction of media education in Ukraine [electronic resource] / approved by Decree of the Presidium of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine May 20, 2010, Minutes № 1-7 / 6-150. - Access: http://www.ispp. . 6. Kumelashvyly N. Y. History medyakulturу: samoopredelenye from Antiquities to New TIME // Culture and civilization. - 2011. - Number 1. 7. Masol L.M. Media culture / Masol Lyudmila // Encyclopedia Education / Acad. ped. Sciences of Ukraine; Goal. Ed. V. Kremen. - K .: Yunirkom Inter, 2008. - 1040 p. 8. Media culture and media education students School: Visual media culture / N. I. Cherepovska. K.: Shk.svit, 2010. - 128 p. 9. Naidenova L. A. Prospects mediaosvity in context Bologna process: procedural Model mediakultury [ electronic resource ] / L . A . Naidenova // Bologna process and Higher education in Ukraine and Europe : problems and prospects. - K ., 2007. - p . 162 - 168 - Regime Access : mediaeducation/default.asp?ob_no=30060 . 10. Novozhenina O.V. Internet as a new reality and a phenomenon of modern civilization [electronic resource] / O.V. Novozhenyna . - Regime Access : . 11. Onkovych A. V. Medialogy and its components [Electron resource] / Onkovych Anna Volodymyrivna. - Regime Access: http://franko. 12. Sharikov A. V. Media culture // In the book:. New Russian Encyclopedia T. X (2). [B.m.] INFRA - M, 2012. - P. 132-133.

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UDC 159.942.3 THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL BASIS OF EMPERICAL RESEARCH OF INDIVIDUAL STRESS RESISTENCE Valentina Korolchuk Doctor of Psychological Science, Professor, Department of Psychology, Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics Kyiv

The article is devoted to theoretical, methodological and practical results of research aimed at solving urgent problem of our time - stress resistence of personality. On the basis of theoretical approaches and research results we revealed stress resistence psychological content, its structural components, functions, determinants, proved the expediency of stress resistence psychodiagnosis for informative direct and indirect indicators. We consider stress resistence as structural-functional, dynamic, integrative quality of the individual as a result of transactional collision process between individual and stress factor, including the process of self-regulation, cognitive representation, objective description of the situation and requirements to the individual. Adequate assessment of the situation and personal resources determine the intensity of reactions directed by personality to change components of stressful situation, changing cognitive representations, attitude, motivational, willing orientation, coping behavior. They are carried out through a central function of cognitive-phenomenological perspective and functions of separate structural components that determine the level of stress resistence. Stress resistence of personality provides efficiency and reliability of activity, mental and physical health of the individual during and after traumatic events. Key words: stress resistence, direct and indirect indicators, structural components, initial stress resistence.

У статті представлено теоретикометодологічні та практичні результати досліджень, спрямованих на розв’язання актуальної проблеми сучасності – стресостійкості особистості. На підставі аналізу теоретичних підходів та результатів дослідження з’ясовано психологічний зміст стресостійкості, її структурні компоненти, функції, детермінанти, обґрунтовано доцільність психодіагностики стресостійкості за її інформативними прямими і побічними показниками. Ми розглядаємо стресостійкість як структурно-функціональну, динамічну, інтегративну властивість особистості, як результат трансактного процесу зіткнення індивіда зі стресогенним фактором, що включає процес саморегуляції, когнітивну репрезентацію, об’єктивну характеристику ситуації та вимоги до особистості. Адекватність оцінки ситуації та власних ресурсів визначає інтенсивність реакцій, спрямованих особистістю на зміну компонентів стресової ситуації, зміну когнітивної репрезентації, ставлення, мотиваційної, вольової орієнтації, копінгової поведінки. Вони здійснюються через провідну її функцію когнітивно-феноменологічної перспективи та функції її окремих структурних компонентів, що зумовлюють рівень стресостійкості. Стресостійкість особ-истості забезпечує ефективність і надійність діяльності, психічне і фізичне здоров’я особистості під час і після травматичних подій. Ключові слова: стресостійкість, прямі і побічні показники, структурні компоненти, первинна стресостійкість.

Introduction, actuality of the problem The problem of study of stress resistence of the individual is extremely actual as high stress resistence ensures successfull professional activity in extreme conditions, maintaining work efficiency and health of individual after influence of extreme environmental factors. Predicting human behavior in extreme conditions, determining the consequences

of their impact and preparing adequate strategies of individual behavior in stressful conditions is significant for psychological support of specialists who perform professional duties in extreme conditions, and also for providing assistance to victims of emergencies and traumatic situations. The aim of the article – on the basement of analysis of approaches to study of personal stress resistence and practical results of the research, 81

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present the conceptual foundations of structural and functional organization of the individual stress resistence. The object of the article: to carry out theoretical analysis of approaches to the definition of stress resistence; substuntinate the conducting of psychological diagnostics under the complex of direct and indirect indicators; characterize the conceptual basis of structural and functional organization of the individual stress resistence. The basic material research In scientific literature there is no clarity and accuracy in understanding the nature of stress resistence, and most of the authors use the term «emotional stability» as a synonym which mechanisms and nature are studied better. The terms which indirectly characterize stress resistence were proposed by A. Stolyarenko (extreme reliability, total extreme resistance); A.Maklakov (personal adaptive potential). In a direct statement stress resistence is referred to as an individual’s ability to maintain normal performance (K.Sudakov); necessary degree of adaptation to the effects of extreme environmental factors and occupation (V.Bodrov), as the capacity for social adaptation, for preserving meaningful interpersonal connections, ensuring the successful self-fulfillment, achievement of life goals, preserving performance ability, health preservation (G.Nikiforov); stress resistence characterizes the state of physical, emotional and mental exhaustion caused by long-term involvement in emotionally intense and meaningful situations (V. Ababkov M. Perret). According to Yu.Aleksandrovskii, A. Waldman, V. Lebedev, stress resistence – is a barrier of mental adaptation. Psychologists (L.Dyka, O. Konopkina V. Morosanova, R.Sahiyev) consider human selfregulation to be the basis of stress resistence , which consists of certain chains (O. Konopkina) and stylistically diverse (V.Morosanova, R.Sahiyev, L.Dyka). Other authors (L.Merfy, R.Lazarus, S.Folkman, D.Amirhan, N.Sirota, etc) refer to this characteristic the various cognitive mechanisms caused by overcoming the stressor (coping mechanisms) and mechanisms of psychological defense mechanisms (H.Haan). Coping strategies are affected by locus of control (D.Rotter), the ethnic factor (L.Taukenova), higher nervous activity type (L.Sobchyk), mental and physical illness (Ye.Chehlatyy, N.Syrota, V.Yaltonskyy). Stress resistence is compared with emotional resilience and ability to control emotions (Ye.Mileryan); the ability to cope with great pressure and successfully solve tasks in extreme situations (N.Danylova); ability to overcome the state of emotional excitement while performing complex activity (V. Marischuk); feature of temperament that allows to perform reliably target activities through optimal use of reserves of nervous and mental emotional energy (V.Plahtiyenko N. Bludov), stable orientation of emotional experiences for their content to a positive resolution of problems (O.Chernykova); persistent predominance of positive emotions (A.Olshannykova); integrated 82

personal feature, characterized by such interaction of emotional, volitional, intellectual and motivational components of human mental activity that provides optimal goals achievement of in difficult emotional situation (P.Zilberman). The main difficulties in determining human stress resistence are connected with assessing the specific of manifestations of personal reactions to psychological factors. The criteria of stress resistence to the stressors of physical or chemical nature (high or low temperature, physical stress, toxins, etc.) are determined, but to do so in relation to psychological stressors is much more difficult task. It is connected with different values, attitudes, needs, assotiation reflexes and experience of people (V. Ababkov M. Perret, J. Shcherbatykh, V. Marischuk). The system of scientific concepts allowed to specify the understanding of stress resistence of personality, which, in our view, was considered from the perspective of internal and external determinants and its social, typological, personal characteristics with adequate strategies for stress overcoming. So, if the conceptual content of the term «stress resitence» in the vast majority of scientific works regarded today mainly as a manifestation of post-traumatic stress disorder, reliability of activity, adaptation, in this study the searching mostly confined to structural components and functional elements, is conceived as a structural dynamic, functional feature of the individual. Thus, the term stress resistence is mainly considered as a state of physical, emotional and mental exhaustion, the capacity for social adaptation, ensuring the successful fulfillment, achievement of life goals, preserving performance ability and health, the effects of stressful situations that lead to maladaptive or psychosomatic disorders. Insufficient study of stress resistence problem and its actuality in modern conditions of life requires new approach to the definition of its nature, structural elements, features, diagnosis and formation. Generalization of available material enabled the author to present a holistic view of stress resistence due to its structural components and functional elements in its conceptual aspects on the basis of constructing an integrated systematic approach to understanding of stress resistence. Generalization of available material concerning the definition of stress resistence identified on the semantic level as a multi-concept, although for interpretation and understanding its contents, in our opinion, the full definition has not been done yet. Substantiating the complex of techniques for the study of stress resistence of personality we proceeded from the fact that stress resistence has structural elements with different levels of organization. During the test we used the regulated mandatory set of computer diagnostics methods for selecting experts to work in extreme conditions, we have added some techniques according to defined structural components of stress resistence. Such complex of studied variables allows not only to identify

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

individual structural components but also to clarify the functional role, the contribution of individual stress regulation and argue the integrative role of stress resistence. We substantiated the carrying out of psychodiagnosis of stress resistence on a set of direct and indirect indicators. The level of stress resistence was measured by direct indicators of techniques that determine self-esteem of stress resistence, the level of stress resistence, vegetative manifestation of stress, a comprehensive assessment of stress, behavioral strategies for overcoming stress. The study of indirect indicators, considered as manifestations of stress resistence in motivational, personal, social and behavioral spheres, should be done with the help of informative indicators of techniques aimed at understanding mental states, l ocus of control, the level of self-esteem, volitional qualities, level of activity, volitional self-regulation, situational and personal anxiety, maladaptive behavior and individual psychological characteristics: self-esteem, level of aspiration, motivation for professional activity, achievement motivation, motivation of approval, features of the nervous system. The study of primary (basic) stress was carried by the methods of evaluating the functional characteristics of the nervous system, that were conducted in conditions of intense sound and light effects. On the basis of analysis of theoretical, methodological and empirical research we found out the conceptual foundations of structural and functional organization of the individual stress resistence. We consider stress resistence as structural-functional, dynamic, integrative quality of the individual as a result of transactional collision process between individual and stress factor, including the process of self-regulation, cognitive representation, objective description of the situation and requirements of the individual. Adequate assessment of the situation and personal resources determine the intensity of reactions directed by personality to change components of stressful situation, changing cognitive representations, attitude, motivational, willing orientation, coping behavior. They are carried out through a central function of cognitive-phenomenological perspective and functions of separate structural components that determine the level of stress resistence. Stress resistence of personality provides efficiency and reliability of activity, mental and physical health of the individual during and after traumatic events. Stress resistence of the personality is formed on the basis of frequent clash with stress factors. This clash manifests in a complex process that includes evaluation of stressful situation, regulation of activity in stressful conditions, coping behavior, the impact on the individual of traumatic events and working out a traumatic experience. Stress resistence as integrative quality of the individual involves interaction with all t structural characteristics of mintality both during and after the exposure of stressful factors. The key components of the stress resistence of individual are social, typological and behavioral factors.

This multi-level approach to the study of structural components of stress resistence gives reason to think not only about the levels of stressresistence, their subordination and ratio, but also about the specificity of their functional roles, enabling argueing stress resistence as integral, structural-functional, dynamic characteristic. Individual features of stress resistence are determined by typological factor (level of primary stress resistence) and mediated by its effects on the behavior and activities in extreme conditions. Typological factor causes nervous system functional mobility, endurance, performance and reliability that are the basis of individual stress resistence and interact with its other structural elements. The process of gaining experience in coping with stressors, achieving new goals can promote formation of personal, social and behavioral components of stress resistence. This is connected with tranquility, confidence, will self-control, professional skills motive, motive of achievement, general internality, willingness to work, assertive actions, activity, social incline, search of social support, joining the social contact. Functional development of separate structural components causes stress resistence level of the person. Thus, the functional role of the personal factor, in our view, aimed to development of self-assessment processes, personal capability and stress provoking situation. In general, the functional role of personal self-conscious individual stress resistence regulation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; is to control goals setting and goals achievement that is obviously adopted by the subject, to control the interaction of the subject with the world, emotional and cognitive perception, assessment, attitude. The level of development of individual functions of integrated stress resistence system depends on peculiarities and intensiveness of factor components. The results of our studies showed that a high level of motivation forms a harmonious, high stress resistense profiles of personality. Social function generally expressed in the tendency to overcome obstacles, ensuring a high level motivation sphere, orientation to achieve the intended objective and subjective goals, achieve the highest possible outcome. The function of behavioral component is reduced to a mature and effective types of coping strategies. However, it should be noted that holistic system of stress resistence operates within 4-factor structural elements with a possible weakening or strengthening of some of them or as a regular change of ratio between strong and weak functional components in the structure of dominant typical profile. We concern stress resistence of the individual throught three focused interrelations: cognitive representation of a stressful situation and own ability to overcome it, the objective characteristics of the situation and the objective requirements that define adequate control over stress and determine the subjective and objective functional efforts to resist stress and overcome its negative effects. Consequently, stress resistence of personality includes the following features: the ability to adequacy 83

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of cognitive representation of stressful factors, the ability to analyze and link the perception of the real characteristics of the stressor with functionally adequate responses; availability of appropriate effective convictions or professional rules of conduct (as the realization processes are included in the range of ways to respond); availability of feedback on subjective and objective efficiency of coping. Thus, adequate cognitive representation, objective characteristics of situation and awareness of objective requirements lead to control over stress and determine the appropriate subjective and objective functional efforts to resist and overcome the negative effects of stress. The basis of the stress resistence is initial stress resistence which we define as its biological component, which includes the full range of functioning charecteristics of brain: emotional tone, endurance, accuracy, functional mobility, reliability, basic characteristics and features of the basic neural processes, the level of activation, complex constitutional genetic, physiological, endocrine and other systems which ensure adequate and stable functioning under stressful conditions. The level of initial stress resistence of the individual depends on the functionality of the basic features of the nervous system, which are defined by its functional mobility, endurance, reliability and lability of the basic nervous processes. Initial stress resistence affects the overall level of stress resistence. The higher initial stress resistence, the higher is probability of normal body functioning and operation efficiency while increasing the intensity of the impact of stressful environmental factors. The higher rates of initial stress resistance, the more person can successfully perform professional duties in the harsh conditions of extreme environmental factors. Initial stress resistence significantly affects the overall level of stress resistence. However, its personal, social and behavioral components and properly organized external influence may ,to some extent, compensate the weaknesses of nervous system characteristics. Although stress resistence depends on its typological factor, crucial importance in the formation of stress resistence belongs to personal, social, behavioral and training components as evidenced by analyzing the literature and own empirical research. Stress resistence of individual is multideterminated. High level of stress resistence is caused by tranquility, self-confidence, lack of shyness, low level of personal anxiety, will self-control; characteristics of motivational sphere – motive of social significance of labor, professional skills, achievements; high internal locus of control level, willingness to work. Stress resistence as an integral characteristic of mental development formed in the course of human ontogeny through genetically conditioned individual characteristics. Initial stress resistence is that base on which external influences are formed and transformed through. On the basis of our research, the most 84

importent is the speed of information processing, lability of nervous processes, reliability, endurance, precision and performance activity. The key strategies of stress overcoming that determine stress resistence are assertive actions, activity in interaction, social incline, personal activity, search for social support, joining the social contact. Stress resistence is determined by individual psychological training for actions in extreme conditions, personal and professional experience, support of social environment, efficient working out of traumatic experience. Stress resistence is caused by individual firm positive beliefs about the outside world and personal «Self». Working out of traumatic experience prevents the destruction of personal beliefs, contributes to stability and conservation. In other words, the resources for stress resistence are positive basic beliefs about the world, personal «Self» and the experience that fosters «Self» - Concept of personality. Conclusion Thus, we consider stress resistence as as structural-functional, dynamic, integrative quality of the individual as a result of transactional collision process between individual and stress factor, including the process of self-regulation, cognitive representation, objective description of the situation and requirements of the individual. Adequate assessment of the situation and personal resources determine the intensity of reactions directed by personality to change components of stressful situation, changing cognitive representations, attitude, motivational, willing orientation, coping behavior. They are carried out through a central function of cognitive-phenomenological perspective and functions of separate structural components that determine the level of stress resistence. Stress resistence of personality provides efficiency and reliability of activity, mental and physical health of the individual during and after traumatic events. The prospect of further research is in the study of stress resistence characteristics of entrepreneurs during the crisis period of society development. References: 1. Aleksandrovskij Ju. A. Pogranichnaja psihiatrija i sovremennye socialnye problemy / Ju. A. Aleksandrovskij. – Rostov-na-Donu : Feniks, 1996. – pp. 29–46. 2. Krajnjuk V. M. Psyhologija stresostijkosti osobystosti : monografija / V. M. Krajnjuk. – K. : Nika-Centr, 2007. – 432 p. 3. Lebedev V. I. Jekstremanaja psihologija. Psihicheskaja dejatelnost v tehnicheskih i jekologicheski zamknutyh sistemah : uchebnik / V. I. Lebedev. – M. : JUNITI-DANA, 2001. – 431 p. 4. Psihologija zdorovja / pod red. G.S.Nikiforova. – SPb : Piter, 2003. – 607 p. 5. Sudakov K. V. Individualnaja ustojchivost k stressu / K. V. Sudakov. – M., 1998. – pp. 3–168.

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research


O. I. Kudinova Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education Department of psychotherapy

The considerable growth of anxiety disorders consists paroxysmal phenomena contemporary happened. The panic disorder (PD) is the main in their structure. The emotional disturbances of 40 PD patients and 20 agorafobia patients. By were investigated with the clinic and pathopsychological methods. The high level of anxiety was shown. By pathopsychologically investigation the high level of personality anxiety and low level of neurotism and depression were indentified. The system of psychotherapy correction was established, with high efficacy in 68% cases. Key words: Emotional disturbances, panic disorder, psychotherapy correction.

В теперішній час помічається значний зріст тривожних розладів з пароксизмальними проявами. В їх структурі значне місце займають панічні розлади (ПР). Нами було проведено вивчення порушень емоційної сфери у 40 хворих з ПР та 20 хворих з агорафобією по даним клінічних и психопатологічних досліджень. Визначений високий рівень тривожної симптоматики. За показниками патопсихологічних досліджень визначено, що у хворих з ПР переважає високий рівень особистісної тривожності, на тлі відносно низьких показників нейротизму та депресії. Розроблена система психоневротичної корекції, що зазначила високу ефективність в 68% випадків. Ключові слова: емоційна сфера, панічний розлад, психотерапевтична корекція.

Paroxysmal disturbances are one of the most important problem of modern medicine. This is due to their significant prevalence. According to epidemiological researches up to 80% of the population suffers from paroxysmal and permanent vegetative symptoms that clinically manifested as vegetative dysfunction syndromes [1, 2]. One of the most common form of vegetative dysfunction is the panic disorder (PD), which manifested by paroxysmal disturbances as panic attacks (PA) with vegetative, emotional and ideatoryc components [3]. The modern concept of panic disorder had been formed in the middle of the last century in two areas: medical and psychological. The first detailed clinical description of the disease had been made ​​by American therapist J. M. Da Costa in 1981, although the author assessed the condition as a disorder of heart activity. After this appeared the term “Da Costa’s syndrome” [4]. In the psychological medicine panic attacks for the first time had been

described by O. Domrich (1849), who believed that they were caused by strong emotional reactions. PD had been acknowledged for the first time as separate diagnostic category “panic disorders” (PD) in the American classification DSM-IV [5]. There had been highlighted the following diagnostic criteria: a clear frequency of anxiety attacks (panic), the appearance of anticipatory anxiety in the “interictal period” and the frequent development of agoraphobia, an increased hereditary genetic risk for PD, marked relationship with depression and alcoholism; frequent presence of mitral valve prolapse; provocation of panic attacks by sodium lactate and carbon dioxide, high effectiveness of antidepressants, inefficiency of the traditional benzodiazepine tranquilizers and psychotherapy. Under the traditional nosological approach PD most frequently were described in the structure of neurosis as a “vegetative crisis” (often sympathicotonic, less often mixed or vagoinsularly), in the structure 85

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of which had been included a state of anxiety and fear. Later, in progredient development, arise phobic disorders such as agoraphobia, cardiophobia, insultofobia. At the same time, doubtless pathogenetic part of PD are emotional disturbances. In the ICD10 panic disorder stand out as a separate diagnostic unit (F 41.0), in a cluster of neurotic and somatoform disorders [7]. According to statistical research from 1 to 4% of adult population suffers from PA at stated periods of their life (Angst J. Wicki W., 1993). In a special epidemiological research were found that subsyndromal (not attained the diagnostic criteria of ICD-10 and DSM-IV), but defined as syndrome and required therapeutic intervention forms of PA found in 9-19% of the adult population (Angst J. Wicki W., 1994) . About 15% of people experience panic attack in their life. PA are more common among younger people (mostly women), appears at the age of 20-30 years, and very rarely under 15 and after 65 years (Wayne A. M. , 1998; Smulevich A. B. , 2000) [3, 4 , 5, 8]. PA usually occurs on the background of psychogenic (highpoint of the conflict, under influence of severe stress) and biological (hormonal changes, onset of sexual activity). At the same time, in conjoint diagnostic criteria of PD had pointed that PA develops without any connection with current psychological factors. All of the above was the rationale for the research, the aim of which was: to investigate the state of the emotional sphere of patients with panic disorder. Contingents and methods. In the main group were examined 40 patients with panic disorder F 41.0), and 20 patients with agoraphobia (A) (F 40.0), as the control group. All the patients underwent clinical, psychopathological and psycho-diagnostic revision using the Hamilton Depression Rate Scale, the scale of personal anxiety and reactive anxiety by Spielberger, Eysenck questionnaire, questionnaire of personal accentuation by Leonhard. Results and discussion Clinical and psychopathological research of patients with PD showed that the paroxysmal clinical manifestations fit into the pattern of PA symptoms complex. Paroxysm started on sudden feeling of intense fear, the intensity of symptoms increased critical. The 86

structure of paroxysmal vegetative symptoms include: tachycardia, sweating, dry mouth; vegetative-visceral symptoms: shortness of breath, feeling of choking, discomfort or pain in the chest, nausea or abdominal discomfort, flashes of hot and chill, paresthesia; ideatory-emotional symptoms: dizziness, instability, nausea, weakness, with elements of derealization, depersonalization, fear of madness, loss of selfcontrol or felling of coming loss of consciousness, fear of death. Permanent manifestations were detected mainly in the control group (A) and were characterized by asthenic, anxious and subdepressive symptoms, that submitted in a variety of syndromes: anxious-phobic - 31%, asthenic-depressive 16%, asthenic-hypochondriacal - 16%, asthenic, anxiety 21%, asthenic - 14%. Among patients with PD leading psychopathological syndromes were: asthenia (20% patients), anxiety and depression (33% of patients) and hypochondriac (46.66% of patients). Materials of pathopsychological research have shown the following. Patients with PD, according to Ayzenk scale in 55% of cases noted high level of neurotism, while patients with agoraphobia in 47% of cases had domination of average level. The average level of depression according to Hamilton scale in patients with PD was 16 points, which corresponds to moderate depression, and patients with agoraphobia had 20 points, i.e., correspond to high depression. According to Spielberger scale PD patients the average anxiety level score was 39, and patients with agoraphobia - 42 points. Indicators of reactive anxiety were significantly different: patients with PD average level was 33 points, and patients with agoraphobia - 54 points. By Leonhard scale were found that patients with PD overcame demonstrativeness - average score 17, torpidity - average score 16.5, exaltation - average score of 20. Patients with agoraphobia had: hyperthymia â&#x20AC;&#x201C; average rate 19, dysthymia - average rate 18, anxiety - average rate 21. We have developed system of psychological correction of patients with PD. Psychotherapeutic methods used on the background of stabilizing pharmacotherapy and continued after itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s t ermination. The best effectiveness had shown cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT by A.Beck).

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Therapy, developed by Aaron Beck, is a shortterm structured therapy that uses active cooperation between the doctor and patient to reach therapeutic aims, and focuses on current problems and their resolution. The theoretical basis of CBT is the idea that the affective and somatic-vegetative changes are interconnected and required cognitive correction. The main goals of therapy were: 1) the identification of false conceptions of the patients about their disease; 2) training of alternative methods of response; 3) enactment of new ideas and new cognitive behavioral reactions. CBT has performed 2 - 4 times a week, the duration of the course was from 4 to 6 weeks. CBT consisted of three main components: a didactic, cognitive and behavioral. The didactic component included a rational explanation of false conceptions and erroneous logic to the patient. Held clarification of the association of thinking, behavior affects and logical explanation of the therapeutic process. The cognitive component consists of four processes: 1) formation of new thinking stereotype, 2) testing of new stereotype, 3) identification of maladaptive provisions underlying the pathological symptoms, 4) changing the stereotype of maladaptive provisions. The behavioral component been used to modify maladaptive or faulty thinking and behavioral stereotypes. The main methods: creation of optimal activity scheme, retention of new stereotypes, selfesteem training, role-play and distraction techniques. The scheme has shown its significant effectiveness. Complete reduction of PD symptoms had achieved in 68% of patients, a significant improvement - in 20% of cases, no significant changes had detected in 12% of patients. References: 1. Табачніков С.І. Про удосконалення і подальший розвиток соціальної і судової психіатрії та наркології в Україні // Науково-практичний журнал «Архів психіатрії» – Т.16., вип.1(60) – 2010. 2. Михайлов Б.В. Стан і стратегія реформування психотерапії і медичної психології в Україні. // Медицинская психология.Т.6. №3(23)’ 2011. – С.44-47. 3. Михайлов Б.В., Сарвир И.Н., Мирошниченко

Н.В., и др. Соматоформные расстройства как междисциплинарная проблема современной медицины // Вісник психіатрії та психофармакотерапії, 2002, №1, с. 38-43. 4. Напрєєнко O.K. Депресії та тривога в загальномедичній практиці (соціальні. діагностичні та лікувально- профілактичні аспекти) // Вісник психіатрії та психофармакотерапії, 2002, №1, с. 7-12. 5. Гиндикин В.Я. Справочник: соматогенные и соматоформные психические расстройства. – М., «Триада-Х», 2000. – 256с. 6. Вейн А.М., Панические атаки // Международный медицинский журнал. ─1997. ─№3.─ С. 75 – 79. 7. Коркина М.В., Марилов В.В. Психосоматические расстройства//Психиатрия. – М.: Медицина, 1995. – С.501-502. 8. Sartorius N. The classification of mental disorders in the Tenth Revision of The International Classification of Diseases. – Sfera, – 1997.−104. 9. Manfred E. Beutel, Franz Bleichener, Friedrich von Heymann, Karin Tritt, Jochen Hardt: Anxiety Disorders and Comorbidity in Psychosomatic Inpatients. J Psychother and Psychosom 2010;79 (1):58. 10. Mergl R, Seidscheck I, Allgaier AK, Möller HJ, Hegerl U, Henkel V: Depressive, anxiety and somatoform disorders in primary care: prevalence and recognition. Depress Anxiety 2007;24:185195. 11. Bisson, J.L., Shepherd, J. P., Joy, D., Probert, R., & Newcombe, R. G. (2004). Early cognitive-behavioral therapy for post-traumatic stress symptoms after physical injury. Randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 814, 63-69. 12. Hunsley, J., & Lee, C. M. (2007). Research-informed benchmarks for psychological treatments: Efficacy studies, effectiveness studies, and beyond. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38(1), 21-33.


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Maksymenko K.S. Ph.D. in Psychology, associate professor, Bohomolets National Medical University

The author’s position is. Imbalance of emotive components in the structure of the internal picture of a disease is a specific mechanism of personal behavior violation introducing an imbalance in the following parameters “internality – externality”, aggravation of the defense mechanisms of denial and rationalization, worsening trends towards aggravation. The complexity of these problems solving is associated with the main difficulty connected with an absence of sufficient grounds to speak about a real maturity and efficiency of not only symptomatic, but also pathogenetic psychotherapy. If we proceed from the fact that the aim of psychotherapy in the clinic of concomitant neurotic disorders is an achievement of sanogenic effect through activating the mechanisms of personality transformation, even taking into account the generally accepted models of the patient personality changes(accepting interpersonal relations, a special nature of the psychotherapeutic interactions involving psychosocial learning, assistance in structuring coping strategies, and use of body-oriented methods for self-acceptance), the task of restoring the personal “I” remains both relevant and problematic. Given the importance of a patient personality and the above mentioned specifics of psychotherapy itself, particularly in somatogenic, we recommend clinical psychologists to work in close alliance with clinicians, bearing in mind that only a truly holistic,

in deed and not in words, approach to the patient in a situation of chronic disease provides really optimal conditions for his/her adaptation and recovery in every sense of the word. Key words: pathogenetic psychotherapy, clinic of concomitant neurotic disorders, patient personality.

Analysis of psychotherapeutic research and specific processes of psychotherapy in the former Soviet Union on the whole and among Ukrainian psychologists and psychotherapists in particular suggests: more and more researchers are trying not to copy the traditional paradigms and schemes of psychotherapeutic work borrowed in the West but in fact, set the theoretical reflective tasks to determine

exactly which models of psychotherapy, traditional and new, and how exactly could form the most effective arsenal of combating psychological suffering of a person on a background of chronic and severe somatic and psychosomatic diseases (Amosova, Samar, Vynnikov et al., 1995; Babych, 2008; Vorobyov, 2009; Voronov, 2004; Gaskov, 1995; Grinvald, 2010; Ilchenko, 2001; Kanishchev, 2003; Korosty, 2009, 2011;


У статті викладена авторська позиція щодо особистісно-орієнтованої психотерапії. Стверджується, що дисбаланс емоційних компонентів у структурі внутрішньої картини хвороби є специфічним особистісним механізмом порушення поведінки, оскільки вводить дисбаланс системні параметри «інтернальність екстернальність», загострює захисні механізми заперечення і раціоналізації. Враховуючи значимість особистості пацієнта і описану вище специфіку психотерапевтичного впливу, зокрема при соматогеніях, ми рекомендуємо медичним психологам працювати в тісному союзі з лікарямиклініцистами, пам›ятаючи про те, що тільки воістину цілісний, на ділі, а не на словах, підхід до пацієнта в ситуації хронічного захворювання забезпечує реально оптимальні умови для його адаптації та одужання у всіх сенсах цього слова. Ключові слова: патогенетична психотерапія, клініка невротичних розладів, особистість пацієнта.

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Koryagin, 1996; Kraynikov, 1999; Kudinova, 2011; Kulakov, 2007; Maksymenko, 2011; Maksymenko, Shevchenko, 2007; Mendelevych, 2001, 2005; Mykhailov et al., 2002, 2011; Moroz, 2010; Obukhov, 1997; Prostomolotov, 2007; Sarvir, 2004; Sviridova, 2009; Thostov, 1993, 2008; Fedak, 2011; Yavorska, 2009; Von Wietersheim and Kessler, 2006; Bitton et al., 2003; Garcia-Vega, Fernandez-Rodriguez, 2004 and others). However, it should be noted that the vast majority of these and similar studies suffer empiricism, lack of methodological and theoretical validity of the basic assumptions which are traditionally assigned the status of axiomatic, but that does not stand up to scrutiny under non-tendentious, ideologically non-affiliated meta-theoretical study. Thus, a famous survey of A. F. Bondarenko dedicated to the reconstruction of professional consciousness of postSoviet psychologists has proved that there is a large discrepancy between the declared methodological and theoretical bases of activities of psychotherapists and psychologists practicing psychotherapy and actually applied methods of action (Bondarenko, 2007). At the same time the overseas studies suffer from abuse of the case method according to which a therapist always triumphs over disease or conventional attempts of psychoanalytically targeted treatment, although at the moment it can be regarded as a universally accepted axiom that psychoanalysis is not and could not be a method of treatment itself. Therefore, the actual problem of modern psychotherapy is a meta-theoretical study of major trends and concepts reflecting the true logic of the native psychological and clinical thinking development in adapting the theory and practice of psychotherapy to the problem of suffering in which a human can not be deformed as a result of biochemical or organic brain damages and nervous system affections but as a result of psycho- and somatogenic caused by heavy, becoming chronic and disabling physical illnesses. In our opinion, namely this problematic field requires special attention at the present stage of the home medical psychology development. Based on these considerations, the object areaof our review includes the concepts of personality-oriented psychotherapy in the clinic of somatogenic and non-psychotic personality disorders associated with the chronic psychosomatic diseases, and the proper subject of the study is a potential of personality-centered psychotherapy in the treatment of somatogenic neuro-psychotic syndromes and nonpsychotic personality disorders induced by somatic diseases getting chronic. According to our intention the purpose of this study can be summarized as follows: selection of the main trends and concepts in post-soviet

psychotherapy of somatic diseases and related somatogenic issues, generalization of logic of searching the most effective ways of reconstruction of personal “I” of the patients suffering from psycho-emotional and personality disorders of non-psychotic genesis induced by the stressors of severe physical illness, and the most important – the study of pathogenic (causal) capabilities of modern personality-oriented psychotherapy from the point of medical psychology. The issue of personality psychotherapy in modern medical psychology puts scientifically current question about the specificity of the model of multidimensional fully healthy “I” as the foundation of psychotherapeutic work with patients/clients. The multidimensional “I” – cognizing and knowable – in W. James scientific approach toward psyche investigation is one of the most important paradigms of personality psychotherapy in modern medical psychology. Psychotherapy as a major component in the overall structure of clinical psychology in conditions of coexistence of the two models with different methodologies – medical and psychological, and in implementation of the study and creation of psychological methods of influence on the human psyche with medical and practical purposes should be based on psychological studies of a human “I”. Recognizing the fact that psychoanalysis development has contributed to a variety of theoretical branches and forms of psychotherapeutic practice we could note that in order to solve practical problems of psychological and psychotherapeutic care of the patients/clients and suffering chronic and severe somatic diseases it is necessary to conduct a psychological research aimed at finding new clinically relevant facts and phenomena of reconstructive psychotherapy. In our opinion, a serious scientific psychological research is required by the issue of causation in explaining psychological determinants of personality disorders associated with the painful states of the body. Due to the fact that the causation of mental disorders is complex, the point appears necessary is a solution of the problem concerning differentiated understanding of specific reasons. We think psychological research should be focused on understanding the specificity of multicausation, namely what psychological factors operate in the same plane and which ones are located in different planes. Understanding peculiarities of mental disorders is contributed by the scientific study of factors existing in somatic, psychic, social and environmental dimensions. It is particularly important to study the question of how the separate planes influence each other and how the factors interact. One of the urgent problems is defining peculiarities of social psychological factors activity in combination with other factors of influence. 89

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It is worth to keep in mind the important fact that social and psychological factors effect mental and physical disorders or diseases in a variety of planes. This should always be a critical approach to the issue of the causal relationship. Actual individual psychological and personal factors should be considered when forecasting physical and mental disorders. Internal and external resources play a stimulating or inhibiting role in coping with difficulties. The essence of a variety of issues of causation of disease states of the body is to examine the features of the complex interactions of pathogenic and protective external and internal factors. Methodology and psycho-techniques of a personal â&#x20AC;&#x153;Iâ&#x20AC;? reconstruction in the clinic for diseases of various spectrum should be based on understanding cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of the attitude towards disease; knowledge of health psychology and personality characteristics of human resources in those who are suffering from a disease; understanding relationship of clinical, psycho-physiological and psychological mechanisms of personality disorders in a choice of appropriate techniques of personality-oriented and symptomatic therapy. Analysis of historical stages of the home medical psychology and psychotherapy development in the XX-th century and at present shows that the main lines and directions here can be considered independent in the following dimensions: personalityoriented Leningrad, Moscow and Ukrainian schools, and also developmentally-oriented or reconstructive conductive school. The main representatives and the developers of the home medical psychology who stood at its forefront were I. A. Sykorsky, B. A. Chyzh and G. I. Chelpanov in Kyiv, V. M. Bekhterev and I. P. Pavlov in St. Petersburg, P. I. Botkin, S. S. Korsakov, P. B. Gannushkin, S. I. Konstroum, Y. V. Kannabykh, L. S. Vygotsky, A. R. Luriya, P. P. Basov in Moscow, N. I. Lange in Odessa and others. V. M. Myasishchev, B. D. Karvasarsky, A. M. Svyadoshch, A. I. Zakharov, Y. N. Yemelyanov, S. I. Konstroum, V. E. Rozhkov, M. E. Burno, L. A. Petrovskaya and others revived the home psychological science after the crisis in the 70-s of the XXth century. The initial psychotherapeutic phenomenon caused an interest among the home psychologists and psychotherapists, was a phenomenon of group psychotherapy in its personality-oriented form. The methodological basis for the personality-oriented psychotherapy (POP) was V. N. Myasishchev concept of neurosis. The central element of personality in the framework of this concept is recognized an attitude as an active, conscious, integral and selective connection with 90

the various aspects of personal reality based on an experience. Considerable attention in the POP is paid to psychological conflicts in the field of self-relation and in relationships with others. It takes into account the underlying intrapersonal conflicts, understanding their role and meaning in development of neurotic reactions and provoking conflicts and traumatic situations. The main task of the POP acts as a common system of goal-setting based on self-understanding, self-relation and self-regulation. At the present stage of development of the home medical psychology and psychotherapy there are three lines of actual psychological research presented in the works of pure theoreticians (D. A. Leontyev, A. I. Sosland, V. N. Tsapkinand others); theoreticians who connect theory and practice (F. E. Vasilyuk, A. B. Orlov, A. F. Tsapkin and others); theorists combining theory with practice (F. E. Vasilyuk, A. B. Orlov, A. F. Kopyev and others) and practitioners (A. M. Korol, E. A. Lopukhina, E. T. Sokolova, A. V. Chernykov and others). N. I. Lange, A. I. Sykorsky, V. A. Chyzh, L. S. Vygotsky, A. N. Leontyev and A. I. Sokolyansky were at the forefront of the personality-oriented Ukrainian school of psychotherapy. Among contemporary representatives of medical psychology and psychotherapy we could mention such outstanding figures of Ukrainian school as A. P. Slobodyanik, S. D. Maksymenko, A. V. Mikhalsky, A. I. Shinkaryuk, V. I. Goncharov, I. V. Ivanin, A. I. Kudinova, V. V. Babych, Y. A. Koryagin, V. I. Korostiy and N. S. Karvatskaya. At the present stage of development of Ukrainian school of psychotherapy the most important researches are conducted in the field of psychosomatic disorders and diseases (cardiovascular and gastroduodenal systems). Considerable attention is paid to the problems of psychological assistance both in clinical and non-clinical fields (A. F. Bondarenko, P. V. Lushin, A. S. Kocharyan, P. G. Gornostaiy, Y. L. Obukhov, Z. G. Kisarchuk and others). At the same time a significant role belongs to the existential-phenomenological approaches. Considerable efforts are made for developing clinically oriented psychotherapy (V. F. Prostomolotov, E. A. Poklytar, A. V. Mykhailov, E. V. Kryshtal, O. S. Chaban, A. P. Chuprikov). Prospects of research in Ukraine are in the field of psychosomatic and somatic diseases as well as in developing programs of psychotherapeutic work for optimization of psycho-emotional states of the patients seeking for psychological assistance. Empirical research of emotional correlates of physical diseases with a tendency to chronicity using a range of projective and psychometric techniques showed that the possible psychological manifestations of somatic clinic seven at a wide range of somatic nosology (cardiovascular, endocrine, respiratory,

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gastrointestinal, cancer as well as spinal cord injuries, amputations, ectomies, transplantations etc.) have a number of common psychological reactions. They are anxiety and depression, avoidance reactions, end omorphichypo-manic nosogenic reactions, anxiety turning to panic, feeling of helplessness, a wide range of depressive states, and un conditional development of hypochondria. An increasing attention to the mentioned clinic andin particular to somatogenic states in diseases with the potential chronicity and disability testifies an understanding of the fact that the patient mental state has both sanogenicand pathogenic potential. Special attention is devoted to the logic of aggravation processes as if namely pathogenic experiences of this type cause diverse pathogenic effects on the bod yof a patient generalized in the accepted term “nocebo”. Our own experimental studies show that the rate of patient emotional attitude to the disease and its manifestations, treatment and self-control procedures, as well as to the important areas of life on the background of chronic diseases related to cardiology and gastroenterological nosology subordinates to certain conditional proportion in which a painful condition and its manifestations consistently holds a leading position. Wherein, the objects connected with the disease primarily associated with the black color, while the objects connected with spheres of vital activity often associated with bright colors. Characteristically the main associative color for the major part of concepts in the patients with chronic cholecystitis was yellow, and in the patients with chronic heart failure– brown. Without claiming to improve the traditional interpretation of the famous Lüscher test we need to note that the second response indicates the sense of weakness and deficiency of energy potential, as well as the first one attests a greater confidence in life and belief in a positive perspective for the future. It should be noted that the patients with heart failure showed a tendency to overestimate the severity of their disease, while patients with chronic chole cystitis treated their own illness more adequately. In our opinion, it indicates an unbalance of emotional components in the structure of internal picture of the disease in which knowledge of the illness and understanding of the rules of self-control lose the function of regulating patient real activity on their health protection. Apparently, the mention edun balance is considered to be a specific mechanism of violation of a notional self-regulation. The method “Locus of Subjective Control” (LSC) has revealed that in general the patients XX differ moderately by internal locus of control, but the patients CH–moderately external locus of control. Statistically meaningful differences between the patients XX and CH were obtained on a scale of

“fail” (p <0.01), general internality, “relations of production” (p <0.05). Kellerman-Plutchik method in common with the Non-Existent Animal Drawing Test (NEADT) where the graphic aspects and projective stories of the patients were the basis for diagnosis of defense mechanisms, showed the following results. Statistically meaningful differences between the group of norm and the group of patients with XX were found in the parameter of rationalization defense mechanisms (p <0.01) and denial and compensation (p <0.05), between the group of norm and the group of patients with CH – in the parameter of rationalization (P <0.05), and between the groups of patients with XX and CH – regression, denial, projection, compensation and rationalization (p <0.05). Thus, the leading defense mechanisms of both patients with XXand CH are denial and rationalization. The received data of the first phase of our study provided us with a preliminary orientation in the actual symptoms and phenomenology of mental states of the patients of somatic hospitals which allowed approaching to the deepening and extension of our research more conscious. Besides, it was important to understand how our empirical findings correspond with the overall picture related to somatic on the whole in other investigators. There is a clear link between characteristics of the nature and manner of response under the influence of psychological trauma in the clinical picture of psychogenic: intensity and severity of emotional and personal response depends on the innateconstitutional and character traits of the individual. Effect of traumatic events provokes decompensations fixing neurotic behavior and exacerbating pathological features. Reaction to a psycho-traumatic event can be expressed in the dominance of vegetative and somatic symptoms when over shadowed the actual psychopathology. Somatogenic in this issue have not found an adequate display up to now. Psychological specifics of non-psychotic disorders are expressed: Ø firstly, in extremely intense and inadequate emotional reaction which is inappropriate to stimulation strength. This emotional reaction provokes behavioral disorders followed by neurotic and psychopathic symptoms; Ø secondly, in non-pathological cognitive impairments having significant influence on behavior, adaptive capabilities of personality and the nature of interaction with others; Ø thirdly, in violation of the system of individual relationships: to self, to others and the worldin general. The aim of psychotherapeutic influence in the clinic of non-psychotic disorders is achieving sanogenic effect through activation of the basic 91

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mechanisms of the patient personal transformation which occurs due to specific psychotherapeutic influences and interventions. The mechanisms of therapeutic effects of psychotherapy are the internal conditions of psychotherapeutic situation which provide factorization of all sanogenic influences in the process of psychotherapy, and serve a sex planatory models of effectiveness of psychotherapeutic impacts. The prospect of psychotherapy development consists in finding general mechanisms of the rapeutic effects for all psychotherapeutic schools and directions, regardless of their theoretical orientation in perception of the basic principles of psychotherapeutic process. Models of universal psychotherapeutic mechanisms have been offered by many foreign and home authors. The basic mechanisms of therapeutic effects and specific interventions are the following: confrontation, understanding, insight, interpretation, provision of information, corrective emotional experience, catharsis, acceptance (acceptance, empathy and positive attitude), learning, coping skills development, activation of resources, self-discovery and selfexploration. These basic mechanisms cover all three planes of a patient personal transformation–cognitive, emotional and behavioral. We have outlined the possibilities of personality-oriented psychotherapy and other areas of reconstructive psychotherapy applied for the treatment of systemic diseases (somatogenic). The objectives of psychotherapy for the patients with somatic diseases include correction of in efficient psychological defense mechanisms, correction of the internal picture of illness and adaptation to the disease, correction of the disease effects on psyche as well as formation of adaptive behaviors. However, the main aim of a psychotherapeutic aid in somatogenic is in restoring personal “I” of a patient. The content of the complaints, the characteristics of a psycho-emotional state, as well as subjective evaluation of personal emotional balance in patients with gastroenterological diseases spectrum in five experimental groups before the start of psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment have the following common features: • a high-level of anxiety in patients is conditioned by existing deep unconscious fears by reason of uncertainty and lack of information in predicting their own future which creates a constant background sensation of in security and vulnerability, neurotizes and disorients personality of a patient; • reduced activity in the expressed need to restore the usual way of life; • conversion of psychological problems into somatic disorders; • decreased frustration tolerance, passive attitude 92

to life, elevated level of alexithymia, blocking requirements for affiliation with increased interpsychic activity. After finishing psychotherapeutic influence, the mostly expressed reliable positive dynamics of psycho-emotional state is seen in the patients who got a combination therapy. Significant positive changes were found on the scales of lie, hypochondria, hysteroid, depression, psychopathy, paranoia and psych asthenia. The defense mechanism of the type “escapes to illness” when the disease is a screen masking the desire to shift responsibility for the current problems on the others reduced strength of manifestation in this patient group. The indicators of hyposthenic circle revealing predominance of the passive-suffering position have also decreased. After passing the combination therapy the patients rated their health status as good and see the prospect of the treatment. The threshold of tolerance to stress has been raised. Frequency of social contacts has increased that affected positively their emotional sphere and allowed to get satisfaction in personal life and professional activity. State of maladjustment reflecting in the profile through the increasing of the 7th scale characterized by sleep disorders, obsessive fears, sense of confusion, anxiety and feeling of impending disaster has improved. According to the results of the second diagnostic with Lüscher and Sondy Color Test, significant differences have been elicited in the groups of patients received the course of group art therapy and a combined therapy. Among such indicators as increased anxiety, tendency to self-analysis, restraint in expression of feelings, intention to avoiding conflicts we have found a tendency to decrease in performance of these psychological symptoms. With a high degree of reliability we could formulate a conclusion based on the obtained research results. The most important results in a clinical sense are related to health improvement, reduction in overall stress, reduction an option “aggravation of state”, reduction of scales peak indicating severity of reactive state of the patients and accompanied by the improvement of dynamics of the laboratory tests. They have been observed in patients received complex (psychological, pharmacological and nosologicaloriented) therapy. Thus, there is no evidence for making categorical judgments about the adequacy of psychotherapy itself, especially about its pathogenetic mission in all those situations where the processes related to psychogenic are not mentioned. However, note worthy is the fact that different psychotherapeutic approaches somehow perform auxiliary functions related to the processes of emotional acting out, switching attention from the dominant of physical suffering to the patient personal

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resources, as well as affecting the image of “I” and the processes of self-presentation. In other words, it is extending the consciousness of a patient which deprives the experiences associated with the disease their dominant significance. The last circumstance, we believe, contributes into releasing a patient’s resources both at the level of organism (nervous, endocrine and immune systems) and at the level of personal “I”. It also offers additional opportunities for ensuring efficiency of the treatment process and restoration of health in every sense of this complex phenomenon. All these data, found detailed description in our work, allow making an experimentally substantiated conclusion about the real possibilities of personalityoriented psychotherapy in relation to psychogenic. We claim that currently there is no evidence to suggest of the importance and sufficiency of psychotherapy in those situations where we don’t speak about the processes specifically related to psychogenic. At the same time it is noteworthy that the various psychotherapeutic approaches more or less serve important psychological functions promoting emotional abreaction, returning attention, for example, from a dominant of physical suffering to the patient personal resources, as well as expanding the range of personal consciousness in his motivational-semantic, motivational-targeted and reflective aspects. Given the importance of a patient personality and the above mentioned specifics of psychotherapy itself, particularly in somatogenic, we recommend clinical psychologists to work in close alliance with clinicians, bearing in mind that only a truly holistic, in deed and not in words, approach to the patient in a situation of chronic disease provides really optimal conditions for his/her adaptation and recovery in every sense of the word. References: 1. Amosova K. M. Vykorystannja psyhoterapii’ v kompleksnomu likuvanni ta reabilitacii’ revmatologichnyh hvoryh / K.M. Amosova, S.A. Samar, D.M. Vinnikov ta spivavt. // Pytannja diagnostyky ta likuvannja. – K., 1995. – S. 83. 2. Bohucharova O.I. Zdorov»ya osobystosti u psykholohichniy perspektyvi. Monohrafiya. - K.: Kyyivs’kyy natsional’nyy universytet imeni Tarasa Shevchenka, instytut pislyadyplomnoyi osvity. 2004 - 283s. 3. Brown J. Incident-related stressor, locus of control, coping, and, psychological distress among firefighters in Northern Ireland / J. Brown, G. Mulhern, S. Joseph // Journal of Traumatic Stress. – 2002. – V.15. – P.161-168. 4. Klinichna psykholohiya v ekspertniy diyal’nosti: praktykum : [Navchal’nyy posibnyk]: druhe vydannya / K.V. Aymedov. V.Ye. Lun’ov, L.R.

Nikohosyan / zah. red. V.Ye. Lun’ova – Donets’k: «Skhidnyy vydavnychyy dim», Odesa: ONMedU. – 2015 – 301 s. 5. López-Navas A. Psychological characteristics of patients on the liver transplantation waiting list with depressive symptoms [Електронний ресурс] / A. López-Navas, A. Ríos, A. Riquelme et al.// Transplant Proc. – 2011. – V. 43(1). – P. 158-160 – Режим доступу до журналу: http://www.ncbi. 6. Maguire G.P. Psychiatric problems in the first year after mastectomy / G.P. Maguire, E.G. Lee, D.J. Bevington et al.// British Medical Journal. – 1978. – V 1. – P.963 – 965. 7. Maksymenko K.S. The origins and current state of personality-centered psychotherapy of Ukrainian psychotherapy school / K.S. Ma ksymenko // Problems of Modern Psychology : Collection of research papers of Kamianets-Podilskyi Ivan Ohienko National University, G.S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology at the National Academy of Pedagogical Science of Ukraine / scientific editing by S.D.Maksymenko, L.A.Onufriieva. – Issue 28. – Kamianets-Podilskyi : Aksioma, 2015. – Р. 306–320. 8. Makine C. Psychological Issues and Education Symptoms of depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress are associated with a negative appraisal of insulin therapy in insulin-naïve patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A study from the European Depression in Diabetes [EDID] Research Consortium/ C. Makine, C. Karşidağ, P. Kadioğlu et al. // Diabetes UK. Diabetic Medicine. – 2009. – V. 26. – P.28 – 33. 9. Tekhnolohyy sokhranenyya y ukreplenyya psykhycheskoho zdorov’ya: uchebnoe posobye / B.V. Ovchynnykova, H.P. Kostyuk, Y.F. D’yakonov. SPb.: SpetsLyt, 2010. - 302 s. 10. Fundamental’nye y prykladnye psykholohycheskye yssledovanyya v praktykakh vedushchykh nauchnykh shkol: realyy y perspektyvy: [Mezhdunarodnaya kollektyvnaya monohrafyya] ; Red.sost. V.E.Lunev / Makeevka: MEHI-Institution Is Certified by International Education Society, London, Great Britain,. - 2012. – 765 s.


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UDC 159.96 THE INFLUENCE OF THE GREAT FAMINE ON THE FUTURE GENERATIONS’ LIFE SELF-REALIZATION Andriy Maslyuk Ph.D., Senior researcher G.S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

The attempt has been made to interpret the problem of the long-term physiological deprivation from psychological point of view. The reflection mechanism in the person’s conscience of the famine traumatization consequences in multigenerational ties is described. The events of the long-term physiological deprivation form in the person’s consciousness the unlimited-in-time negative emotional experiences that are embodied in the tragic images, inherited by a person due to the sophisticated mechanisms of family and ethnocultural influences. The method for study the person’s emotional experience of the long-term physiological deprivation (based on the information about the Great Famine in Ukraine) is tested. The modeling influence of multigenerational translation of famine nature on life stability and life self-realization is set. Key words: The Great Famine, multigenerational relationships, self-realization, consciousness, trauma.

Здійснено спробу психологічного осмислення проблеми довготривалої фізіологічної депривації. З’ясовано механізм відображення у свідомості людини наслідків травматизації голодом у міжпоколінних зв’язках. Події довготривалої фізіологічної депривації формують у свідомості людини необмежені в часі негативні переживання, які об’єктивуються в трагічних образах, успадкованих сучасною людиною через складні механізми сімейних, етнокультурних впливів. Апробовано методику вивчення переживання людиною довготривалої фізіологічної депривації (на матеріалах голодоморів в Україні). Встановлено моделюючий вплив міжпоколінних трансляцій сутності голодомору на життєву стійкість та самореалізацію людини. Ключові слова: голодомор, міжпоколінний зв’язок, самореалізація, свідомість, травма.

The historical memory of any nation is a vital source of functioning in the contemporary life. Ignorance of one’s family history can be resulted in mimicry (mimesis) of a personality and a loss of person’s identity in the world. This problem is crucial for every common Ukrainian citizen at a present time. In our opinion, the social and political crisis gave a rise to a human spiritual immaturity, that’s why the study of one’s family history will be a pledge for the formation both the whole nation and the every individual in particular. The artificial physiological deprivation of the first half of the last century requires urgent investigation, as the number of witnesses to those events diminishes. The first scientists who stated to research famine were historians (Robert Conquest, V. Marochko, James Mace and others). However, the Great Famine events require the deeper

psychological analysis to understand the consequences of the long-term physiological deprivation and its influence on the life selfrealization of the grandchildren of the survivors. Identifying how the long-term physiological deprivation (famine) affected the grandchildren of the survivors is the aim of this paper. In order the artist could create a good image on the canvas; he has to make some sketches, which will direct the overall movement of the artist. Thus, the first stage of the research is based on the historical facts. We can often hear from parents: “Are you hungry?” – said a mother to a child who was at the university, army, work abroad. For a mother it is important to keep her child from hunger. The observations of personality’s behaviour who survived a long-term hunger are described


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in the literature sources [2; 3; 5]. Thus, the story of Jack London “Love of life” refers to the man who survived after the terrible famine. The man who endured famine in the back of others made the provisions of bread till the end of his life. My late grandmother also survived famine had been keeping food provisions, especially bread. In most villages the old people behave this way. With the implementation of collectivization the peasants understood its inevitability and rushed en masse to the cities, where there were work places. Most of peasants brought Ukrainian culture, traditions, language to the cities that indicated at their ability to do the Ukrainian policy. Stalin and his milieu decided to starve peasantry to prevent the development of Ukrainian policy, at the same time the Russian people were brought to the Ukrainian villages. The authorities implemented their plan in the SouthEast of Ukraine. In our opinion, after the famines the Ukrainian villages were seized with casual visitors’ fear in front of the local hosts – Russian people. Under such circumstances, the fear forced Ukrainian people to mimicry (mimesis). Mimesis was traced in the Ukrainians’ behaviour in their shyness to speak Ukrainian language in the cities and, on the contrary, in their usage Russian boldly and loudly. One of the famines consequences is the biological survival domineering over the language loss, cultural space, freedom as the secondary factors. Thus, the fear of famine came into the life of the Ukrainian people, which led to the mental and physiological trauma space of each person. In our opinion, the study of the devastating effects of hunger is possible using the theory by Murray Bowen dedicated to a system of emotional relationships. Bowen summarized his theory using eight interlocking concepts, i.e. differentiation of self, triangles, nuclear family emotional system, family projection process, emotional cutoff, multigenerational transmission process, sibling position, societal emotional process (regression). Let’s consider the emotional cutoff and the multigenerational transmission process in details as our research is mostly based on these concepts. “Multigenerational transmission process”. This concept describes the dysfunction process resulted in differentiation level decreasing over many generations. There are two main factors, i.e. the family projection process and the choice of a person with the same differentiation level. As a result of these factors, some children within the

family will probably show lower differentiation level than their parents. Accordingly, those parents’ children will demonstrate less differentiation level. For example, M. Bowen thought that there is enough time for schizophrenia development in eight or ten generations. According to theoretical concepts, the individual differences in functioning of several generations the families are naturally associated. Respectively, the variations of family members functioning do not differ from each other in a short period of time, for example, in three generations. Thus, the process of multigenerational transmission process can affect the family members relations, culture, traditions, ethnos. «Emotional cutoff» is the mechanism people use to reduce anxiety from their unresolved emotional issues with parents, siblings, and other members from the family of origin. The people try to make it through the distance (geographic or psychological) through the illusion of “freedom” of the family. However, this is not a real separation: children’s relationships are incomplete, they are only suppressed. The internal emotional life is still full of parents, and it is natural that they will play an important role in the children’s new close relationship. That’s why the anxiety can be associated with closeness and the person will try to avoid close relations. This, Emotional cutoff is not the problem solution; it is an indication of the problem. The intensive emotional cutoff must correlate with the complicated psychological, social and physiological problems. On the contrary, the adequate autonomy and relations over generations are connected with adequate family problems. So, in terms of M.  Bowen’s theory, the adults ought to have adequate level of differentiation in comparison to the parents’ family. V.  Satir stated that the children copy their parents’ behaviour that is reflected in the conscience as a definite model, which transmits the main problems in their families. [4]. For examples, the person’s family deprivation can have a broader meaning, i.e. “I do not remember (do not have) my parents at all” to “I have lost them recently”, that’s why this facts have significant influence on the family relations renewal. Based on M. Bowen’s theory, there is an assumption that the families who are emotionally distant from their family members – survivors in the Great Famine, would demonstrate lower level of self-realization in their grandchildren. On the contrary, the families that keep the relations 95

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with the Great Famine survivors, keep memories about them, would show much life success in the grandchildren’s generations. In particular, we focused on the preservation and transmission of relations in three generations, family identity, values that people keep in emergency situations. The Great Famine still exists in the specific themes in the history of the Ukrainian people. The aim of this research is to inform people about the multigenerational consequences of the tragedy. The reconstruction of mistakes in the history is a step ahead to the future of Ukraine. The empirical research results were studied with the help of a developed questionnaire that was filled-in by the Great Famine survivors’ grandchildren. Besides the demographic information the questionnaire showed the level of respondent’s life success, the objective awareness of a totalitarian regime, the level of emotional cutoff from the family roots, moral, ethical and personal attitudes. The research was carried out during the period of 2006 to 2009 in Chernigiv and Kyiv regions. The experimental group consists of older people (aged 52-62): 28 respondents resided in Chernigiv region, 32 respondents lived in Kyiv and Kyiv region. The choice of participants was determined by the theoretical basis of our research focused on “family memories” [1; 4; 6]. The Association of Famines Researchers in Ukraine helped us to carry out the research. Total number of respondents is 60 (42 females/18 males): 58 % – before 1952 and 42 % – after 1952. The respondents were grandchildren of the victims who had experienced a long-term physiological deprivation in the first half of the XX century in Ukraine. There wasn’t any control group; therefore the main comparison was made within the sample based on the study of different families’ reactions to the Great Famine in Ukraine. As the Ukrainian people in the XX century survived several famines, we focused on the Great Famine of 1932-1933. The respondents (the grandchildren of the members of The Association of Famines Researchers in Ukraine) were more open than rural respondents. They gave the detailed answers to the questions and took the investigation procedure seriously. Conversely, people who lived in villages expressed removal, sometimes indifference, closeness, misunderstanding (why do we have to do that? What can it change? it would be better think of the alive, etc.), shyness, 96

high emotionality, even a stupor. The emotional state of the majority of respondents was generally indifferent as if a living wound. The correlation, factor and comparative analyses were used. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package IBM SPSS Statistics 17.0. The factor analysis showed five factors, the dispersion is 70,6 %. A Spearman coefficient was used. The positive correlation between «basic functioning» and «disagreement-protest» (r = 0,46; р ≤ 0,05) is set. This result shows a correspondence of life success with the latent attitudes or the counteractions to the external challenges. Protest to the authorities is a form of survival in a deprivation conditions of a totalitarian regime. In most cases it was a passive protest that defended person’s “Self-concept”, because leveling of the internal values may result to the violations of sustainable lifestyles and the destruction of the mental world typical to the person. It is confirmed that the process of life success in Great Famine survivors’ grandchildren is determined by the protest attitudes and the counteractions to the external challenges. The obtained results gave a new view at M.  Bowen’s theory concerning the concept of “cutoff”: the intense emotional cutoff correlates with the complex psychological, social, physiological problems and, conversely, separating, the loss of relations between generations combined with family problems. Thus, the “disagreement-protest” is a part of a person’s complex inner world and it transmits over generations. These facts were proved by the respondents’ answers concerning the loyalty or the protest to the totalitarian regime. Such a small percentage (6.6%) of an open protest can be explained by a total annihilation of national conscious people by communists. We can state that these are real consequences of the nation’s spirit destruction that reflected in total fear, submission, mental numbness, loss of personality’s value, self-humiliation, apathy, “dullness”, impersonality as the inability to overcome the criminal actions of the authorities. A passive protest, a hidden resistance (80.1%), identified using the questionnaire, were confirmed by Great Famine survivors’ narrative stories. A positive correlation between «social functioning» and «family memory (cutoffoblivion)» (r = 0,36; р ≤ 0,05) was set. It means that the grandchildren in families who kept the sacred memories about the Great Famine demonstrated

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higher level of life self-realization. This differ them the families, in which the information about the Great Famine was concealed, hidden, where relations among relatives were lost. Such families are characterized by a low level of the grandchildren’s life self-realization. The dysfunction process takes place in differentiation level decreasing over generations. V. Satir, who had a rich psychotherapeutic practice working with families, stated that in close system (in deprived families) people can’t be successful, in better case they can only exist but in fact they need more [4]. This, emotional cutoff is not the problem solution; it is an indication of the problem. The intensive emotional cutoff must correlate with the complicated psychological, social and physiological problems. On the contrary, the adequate autonomy and relations over generations are connected with adequate family problems. So, the transmission process of culture, traditions, and ethnos takes place over generations. It is important to mark that none of the respondents call cannibalism as a resource of survival. This fact is quite natural (table. 1). Table 1 Distribution of respondents’ answers concerning the resources of survival during the Great Famine Variants of answers % respondents Help of other people 46,6 Natural resources 56,6 Thefts 3,3 Cooperation with authority 3,3 Cannibalism Note: some respondents answered several times

The deprived person’s motivation was characterized by the vital needs satisfaction. There is an insignificant percentage in “cooperation with authority” and “thefts” graphs. In most cases the first factor didn’t have much influence as the authorities aimed to fulfill and overfulfil the plan no matter how terrible it was. For the second there were constraint factor, for example fear, fear of punishment by people, and the most important by God. The Ukrainians have always been deeply religious nation and to violate the commandment “Thou shalt not steal” was considered as a mortal sin. So, it is better to lose a body than to lose a soul. The life values had changed in time under the influence of atheism, people’s own life experience and observation

of the power, which could steal, rape, murder without any punishment. The rapid XX century distorted the Ukrainians’ mentality; we reduced the inherent steadfastness, humanity, kindness, generosity, sincerity and emotional openness, but it generated the criminalization of social consciousness, contempt for the individual, intolerance, aggressiveness and the motto “the end justifies the means”. In the 20-30s the people survived due to the nature and to the help of the same hungers. There no point is describing the natural resources as we know that people ate roots, leaves, wheat made of the bark of a tree. Help of other people is to be stressed. What does it mean? Being in difficult situations connected with death, the Ukrainians helped to others, loved them. Doesn’t it indicate at the highest level of morality in Ukrainians as a nation? Most of people were like that. These facts are confirmed by the survivors’ narrations. The Ukrainians were the whole nation who loved freedom that was one of the main reasons to their annihilation. The research showed that most of the respondents know the history of their family well, have been interested in it even during the totalitarian regime. Thanks to these saved memories we were able to carry out our research. The question was: «What do you think if there is any connection between the experience of famine by your family and what your life is at present? The following results were obtained: Positive correlation (respondent 18). Yes, in my opinion there is such a connection, because the relatives who survived the Great Famine taught their children that bread is sacred, it is above all. Negative correlation (respondent 3). I think, yes, there is a connection. My father was eight years old when the people from the authorities came and took everything but my grandmother hided a jar with the pumpkin seeds in the oven. One of those men took all the seeds. The grandmother started to cry and said: “Leave these seeds for the child, he will die from hunger.” The man looked at her and answered: “Let he dies”. After the WWII my father was on his way home, he looked very handsome in a nice uniform. While he was crossing the field where the cows grazed, the cowherd asked him: “Whose son are you?” The father looked at the old man eyes and replied: “Someone to whom you once said – let he dies” – after this the father came away. The father’s attitude to people changed, 97

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he became distrustful, fearful. Probably I also inherited some of these features. Mixed correlation (respondent 4). Grandfather Andriy in the portrait put out Stalin’s eyes. Because of this fact, the grandfather was repressed and his family persecuted. The famine was but it passed, that’s all. There is nothing to recollect. I was satisfied with life during the Communist regime, but now I am not satisfied. No correction (respondent 21). There is no connection. The famine was natural. The main mechanism of survival during the famine and in the concentration camp was the sense of life. A person who had a purpose in life could endure any difficulties of his/her existence. Woe to someone who didn’t see any purpose, any meaning of existence, and thus he lost every foothold. Someone who didn’t believe, he perished soon. [5, 183–184]. So, what was the explanation of such a survival of many common people? The latent belief in God, the support of others helped them to survive. A personality, who perceived sufferings in his/her own life and overcame them, strengthened his/her life stand. Such a personality stood on his/her right for spiritual life, tradition, success in life etc. It is important to mark that there is a connection between the Great Famine survivors and their grandchildren (according to M. Bowen’s theory). In this paper we tried to highlight the most significant research results of multigenerational relations between the Great Famines survivors and their grandchildren. Thus, the fear of famine came into the life of the Ukrainian people and led to a mental and physiological traumatic space of each individual. It is proved that the process of life success of the Great Famine witnesses’ grandchildren is determined by the characteristics of the protest attitudes or by the counteractions to the external challenges. At the same time, most of people felt a passive protest, which defended a person’s “Selfconcept”, because leveling of the internal values may result to the violations of sustainable lifestyles and the destruction of the mental world typical to the person. The modeling influence of the multigenerational transmission of the nature of famine on life stability and life self-realization is set. Most respondents, who kept the memories about the Great Famine in their families and inherited the family relics, showed higher level of psychological well-being and better level of 98

offsprings’ (grandchildren) self-realization in comparison with families where the information about the Great Famine was concealed, hidden, where relations among relatives were lost. Besides, one of the famine consequences is the domineering biological survival over language loss, cultural space, freedom as the second factors. The perspective of this work is to study the psychological factors of person’s emotional experience of deprivation as result of the Great Famine in Ukraine from the genetic approach that can be valuable both at the personality level and at the level of different social groups. References: 1. Beiker K., Bouэn  M. Teoryia semeinыkh system Miurreia Bouэna. Osnovnыe poniatyia, metodы y klynycheskaia praktyka / K.  Beiker, M. Bouэn. – M.: Kohyto-Tsentr, 2008. – 496 s. 2. Kulish A. F. Henotsyd. Holodomor 1932–1933. Prychyny, zhertvy, zlochyntsi / A. F. Kulish – K., Kh.: Prosvita, 2001. – 88 s. 3. Masliuk  A.  M. Perezhyvannia liudynoiu dovhotryvaloi fiziolohichnoi depryvatsii (na materialakh holodomoriv v Ukraini) : monohrafiia / A.  M.  Masliuk. – Nizhyn: PP Lysenko M. M., 2011. – 180 s. 4. Satyr  V. Psykhoterapyia semy / Vyrdzhynyia Satyr. – SPb.: Yuventa, 1999. – 284 s. 5. Frankl V. Doktor y dusha / Vyktor Frankl / [per. s anhl., predysl. A. A. Boreev]. – SPb.: Yuventa, 1997. – 285 s. 6. Bowen  M. Family therapy in clinical practice / Murray Bowen. N.Y.: Jason Aronson, 1993. – 584 p.



American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

UDC 37.026 DIALOGIC METHODS IN PEDAGOGICAL ACTIVITY Olena Merzliakova Ph.D., doctoral candidate of the Institute of Pedagogical and Adult Education NAPS of Ukraine

The author emphasizes the importance of using by the teacher of a dialogical method in the interaction with the pupils or students. An algorithm of the using of the “Socratic dialogue” method together with information and communication technologies had shown. There is an example of the using of noticed method in the interaction with students of the course “Psychology of professional self–realization.” The implementation of the method includes a number of consecutive steps. Step 1. Making of the contact with the audience with the help of open–ended questions. Step 2: Creating in small groups of the list of issues topical to the subject of the lesson. Step 3: Modeling of the key points of the current information space. Step 4: Schematic representation of the created model. Step 5. Discussion of models created by students. Step 6. Identify the problematic points of the model. Step

7. Approval of the educational material with the mentioned problem fields. Key words: Socratic dialogue, educational practice, educational activities.

Using dialogic methods for the interaction with students is not a novelty for modern educators. We can remember the social crisis in 80 years of the last century, so it caused appearance famous pedagogical innovation, including that, where the dialog is the basic element. The period, that we have remembered, became initiation of development terms as “cooperation”, “co–creation” in pedagogic. There are A. F. Ivanov’s, I.P. Ivanov’s , M. P. Shchetinin’s, T.I. Goncharova’s, E.N. Ilyin’s , V. F. Shatalov’s, V. N. Dubinina’s, I.P. Volkov’s, O. S. Lysenko’s, M.M. Chistyakova’ s concepts. An active discussion, the subject of which were forms of work with students, education methods, are pedagogical communication, basics of social pedagogy in the new society conditions etc., was being revolved around the methods of teachers innovators, “pedagogy of cooperation”, “pedagogy of creativity and co–

creation”, “subject–subjective relations in pedagogical communication” etc. All these concepts have the connection with the dialogic culture of a teacher. The bright manifestation of the pedagogical idea in space of understanding of dialogic culture, teacher’s practice became “School of dialogue of cultures”, that, essentially, is the projection of V.S. Bibler’s philosophy of dialogue of cultures.

Автор наголошує на важливості застосування викладачем діалогічного методу спілкування з учнями або студентами. Запропоновано алгоритм застосування методу «Сократівського діалогу» в поєднанні з використанням інформаційно-комунікативних технологій. Надано конкретний приклад застосування названого методу у роботі зі студентською молоддю, курс «Психологія професійної самореалізації». Ключові слова. Сократівський діалог, освітня практика, педагогічна діяльність.

“Socratic dialogue” as an educational practice The practice, which we are presenting in this publication has more ancient roots. The method of dialogic co–operation between a tutor and a pupil, which is known as “Socratic dialogue”, was proposed by this ancient Greek philosopher. The method of Socratic dialogue is being actively developed and adapted to modern educational conditions in many countries. 99

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Because using methods of “Socratic questions” by teachers is the guarantee to the development of teacher’s critical thinking. Before presenting this practical work with pupils audience, we have some questions: 1) What do you most remember from the time of school or student life? 2) Have you just remembered some specific lesson, lecture or seminar? Which lecture or seminar would you like to return now? 3) If you have remembered your teacher or teachers, who we would you like to speak to again now– what feathers of this people do attract? Why is the conversation with them so desirable to you even after many years? Such questions promote developing of space of individual memories and impressions space of individual experience. The main idea of the method of “Socratic dialogue” is focusing on a person’s own experiences, personal emotion, personal conclusions. The ability to ask questions right is a knowing instrument of teachers’ practice [1]. The algorithm of educational practice “Socratic dialogue” Step 1. The organizing of the contact with an audience using open questions. Questions are selected according to the theme of studies. It is better to have the list of some questions. The first thing that does usually members is trying to guess what is “right”, and often give some standard, but safe answers. If the one who organizes the discussion calmly perceives every answer and every thought – the audience becomes more sincere and open. This “group polling” is the fastest way to focus the audience’s attention in the necessary direction. Step 2. Create in small groups a list about the actuality of theme of the lesson. At this step, participants have to allocate in a group. Every of them has tree person. The first five minutes one person voiced their thoughts about the subject of the discussion, the second person listens attentively and writes down questions which arise. The third member of the group follow time and makes video conversations on the mobile phone. Members of a group change their role three times so that everyone can speak to everyone. At the end of the exercise, mini–groups write a list of topical questions according to conversations and present this list to public. If the number of mini–group is very big, only 2–3 groups present their work. Lists of questions, written at this stage, help to know what inquiries are in an audience. Step 3. Modeling the main moments of the actual information space. On this stage members may unite in larger groups (5–7 persons) for collective processing lists of questions. The main aim of this step is distribution all the questions in that way so that they will concern 4–5 main ideas trends, concepts of 100

topical themes. This step promotes to development skill to distribute information. Step 4. The schematic representation of a model. The elements of this model were fixed on the last step of the idea. The main thing is to draw relationships between these elements. In this way, the actual information that is drawn becomes more accessible and understandable. Step 5. Discussion of models that groups made. If it is possible, all models can be united into some common “information model” or presentation of alternative models, which differ in certain, fundamental feature. It is important to give to understand that every phenomenon may have several variants for modeling. Step 6. Studying and discovering problems of the model. Each participant chooses the model that he likes. Then group circle talks about difficulties that may arise during the realization of the model that you chose. This step is finished by the presentation of each group lists of “problematic situations and difficulties. If there are many groups – these lists can be written on a smart board. Members see the place of personal difficulties in the general space of created models. Step 7. Coordinating educational material on chosen theme with the problems that were fixed. It is the most difficult step for a leader of a discussion because he/she needs coordinating his/her available information with real inquires of the audience. It is important that information which is given by the presenter (teacher, coach) will become an answer to those questions and the real problem points that the participants fixed. If some information falls, the coach might work more to establish relationships new educational material and possible audience’s “field of inquiries”. Now we going to illustrate the abilities of the proposed practice to discuss high school pupils’ or the first year students’ professional future. As an example, we can offer the real discussion of the topic with the second year students of the Humanistic Institute(the course of “Psychology of professional self–realization”). “Socratic dialogue” for critical thinking by students their own professional future – an example of the practice Step 1. Establishing contact with the audience with open questions. The approximate list of questions that promoted working the audience’s attention. ●● What professional tasks do you set for your future? ●● How do you think is your own learning successful? ●● What mean does professional success have? ●● What factories does achieving professional success depend on?

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●● What can you do in present to strengthen your own ability to become a successful person? ●● There may be more or fewer questions. This polling may take 15–20 minutes. ●● The main possible conclusions after this step: ●● Everyone lives in a world of their own imagination and dreams; ●● Person’s imaginations that don’t correspond to a real situation don’t end to the effective action. ●● To increase an efficiency of activity – a person ought to optimize his/her ideas about himself/ himself and an actual situation and the world. ●● Person’s watching and optimization ideas foresee their reflection and critical thinking. ●● The method of questions is the fastest way to direct attention to that thing that were out of attention it is the main conclusion. Step 2: Writing the list of questions of the actual topic of a lesson in small groups. After discussion in mini groups own professional future of students, members ought to create a list of questions (3 and more mini groups presents examples). Mini Group 1. What is the reason for choosing your profession? What country would you like to work in? What direction will be chosen by your from a wide range of specializations? What is yours parents influence on your choice of profession? Have you planned possibility of professional realization in another branch, except chosen? Do you think that getting more than one higher education is necessary? Mini Group 2. What methods are you using to reach your goals? What was the reason to choose this profession? Will entering university have an important influence on the further professional development?

What moment of your life did became important in the choice the profession? Do you like what are you doing now? How your professional choice is is in resonance with the feeling of “I”? Do you see alternatives to using chosen profession? Which? Mini Group 3. What meaning does the expression “To be professional of your business” have? How do you want to realize yourself in the profession? People doesn’t’ always work in a field of their specialization. Why? What do you expect from your professional future? Would you like to have few high educations? Do you limit yourself in your profession? What should people do to fell like someone important? As we can see from the list of questions students are excited about the wider range of questions than you can imagine being a teacher. The question expediency of higher education, choice of a particular specialization in the format of a professional branch, continuous training and the opportunity to get a few education, choice of a country, the life and the activity, individual methods to achieve goals – youth trouble about this problems. Teachers do not always understand and see how younger generation’s needs are wider than adults imagine about this period. Young people are carriers of the challenges of the modern era of globalization and continuous information. Their questions about professional choice and the further professional development – this are innovative challenges modernity to the obsolete and traditional past. Step 3. Modeling the main moments of the actual information space. The lists of questions of professional future were structured in this way:

Model 1. The schematic representation of students’ understanding of the professional formation, variant 1. 101

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Model 2. The schematic representation of students’ understanding of the professional formation, the second variant. Model 1. 1) Development. 2). Education. 3). “I”. 4). Influence Model 2. 1). The road to self-development; 2) Basic elements; 3) Internal factors. 4) Challenges There can be two and more models. And then it will be difficult to study and integrate them. The most important thing is to understand that everyone models the surrounding world according to his/her notion about it, basing on his/her own experience and including in the model questions and challenges that he/her want to decide. Step 4. The schematic representation of a model. In our case, discussing models of successful professional, students done these two principally different models: 1) Model of an expert of the certain branch who has specific professional knowledge and skill. Tasks of professional school and professional forming is to “pull” yourself o the level of competence that profession demands (model 1). 2) Model of creative active person who constantly develops herself and uses space professional activities as one of the areas of self– improvement (model 2). Step 5. Discussion of models that groups made. Everyone chooses the most comfortable algorithm of his development and formation. It may be 102

structured “extension” algorithm of certain professional skills in a given format or the lack of strict algorithms and the format of “free artist”. Each method of development has its own “pros” and “cons”. The discussion can be devoted to awareness of the characteristics of each of the proposed models. Step 6. Identification of “model issues.” At this stage, there may be several possible aspects. The first aspect is the detection of complex, uncoordinated points containing in the model itself. For example, a model of a particular specialist with a certain list of specific competencies is somewhat artificial. It does not take into account individual specificities of each person. But the lack of some qualities may be overlapped by the presence of others. Such model can serve as a previous guidance of development. And yet it is desirable to create the development presence / absence criteria on the comparison of competence range expand of the individual (what was earlier – what is now) rather than comparing the existing competence of the individual with abstract model competency (what the individual has – what may be under the model). The second possible aspect is the person’s own difficulties identifying. Thus, students who participated in the discussion talked about the inability to distribute their own time, the lack of sustained motivation for a particular activity, inability to move from the world of fantasy to reality and practical steps.

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A prerequisite for such discussion is participant’s perception of psychological safety because the sufficiently painful moments are brought to the public space. It’s not only the presence of positive support of the leader and other participants but also certain tips – what may a pupil do with a particular complexity. Step 7. Educational material coordination according to the selected topics with the identified “problem fields”. In addition to the coordination of educational material with the identified “problem fields” on this step, it is possible to design further student’s activity that will solve the current difficulties. This design can be individual or collective. For those who can’t allocate their time, the training on time management can be proposed. Also, a plan that would have focused on the development of self–organization can be developed. To develop motivation it will be good to invite students to perform creative tasks which are in the area of their real interest. The transition from the world of fantasy to reality facilitates student projects that need to get specific, concrete results. If these projects are related to scheduled professional activities of the student the project will appear to be the first professional experience, student’s “professional exploring”. Samples of such training for students can be reviewed in the materials of Polish researcher Małgorzata Olzhak who has developed diverse classes on the development of creative skills and creative problem solving, skills to identify and achieve goals, develop motivation, will and emotional intelligence, team building and team interaction [2]. According to our experience, such areas of learning are most relevant for today’s students, and after the procedure “Socratic dialogue” students called select these areas as their own demand for further training information. This is a thesis presentation of the method. Also in the mode of theses, there are objections or questions that often come from colleagues. 1. The number of an audience. The optimum number of the audience for this approach is 15–25 persons. A large audience also allows all the steps of the method, but it is more difficult to present developments of each mini–group to all public. In this case, media tools are useful. It is enough to write down the achievements of each group working on any resource. We have used the site GOOGLE to which the course of discussions and their results were laid out. 2. The information to be conveyed to the students is independent of their request. It just needs to be known. If the students do not have the motivation for such “compulsory knowledge” it is transformed into “information for the show.” In this case, it is much easier to make a record of video lecture which does not require a feedback of audiences. Students can view this material at any time and as many times as they need to remember. Precious time of teacher

and student communication is better to spend on live communication and real mentoring. 3. Not all information can be communicated in this way. Clear technical information requires the same clear technical communication. In fact, for a clear structured information, there are the same structured algorithms of its laying out. The method of the Socratic dialogue is appropriate during motivation of students to master such an important, clear and structured information. The pedagogical skill of the teacher is to demonstrate which troubled “fields” of the future specialist the proposed information is “overlapping”. The method of “Socratic dialogue” can be used in any industry presenting new information or new material. The principal distinction of such construction of information space is creation “from the audience”, on audience request, not imposing information from the presenter. As a conclusion, it is proposed the personal reflections on questions that were proposed at the beginning. 1). Information that provides answers to the current issues of the individual is the only useful information. We do not remember what was considered important to our teachers. We remember what was important to us. 2). Emotional experiences are an important component of perception and memory. Emotionally colored information is more likely to be noticed and appreciated. 3). It is important not that the teacher told or shown. It is important what the student wanted to hear, to perceive, to understand. To know this you must ask questions. We all live in a world of our own imaginations. Teachers are not the exception. So a dialogue is an extension of the semantic field of students and a teacher. 4). A teacher who is “in dialogue” with a pupil or student becomes an adviser in many important points and issues of a young man. Such teacher often affects his career choice and further development. 5). A teacher who initiated the dialogue with a student will forever remain in the memory of the latter as a guide, counselor, and mentor. The study and implementation of the principles of interaction of the teacher with the pupils are our further research interest. References: 1. Richard Paul The Art of Socratic Questioning / Richard Paul and Linda Elder/ – Foundation for Critical Thinking. 2007. – 96 p. 2. Olczak M. Warsztaty samodoskonalenia / M. Olczak. – Łódź: Politechnika Łódzka, 2009. – 133 s. 3. Merzliakova O. Dialogue Culture in Education / Olena Merzliakova, Galina Pokhmelkina , Elian Fitze // 2015 Global Education Conference, webinar. – on-line resource . – access: page/2015–recordings.


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research


E.E. Ivashkevych

Doctor of Psychology, Professor, the head of the department of English practice of Rivne State University of the Humanities (Rivne, Ukraine)

Translator (Kyiv, Ukraine), Ph.D. student in Rivne State University of the Humanities (Rivne, Ukraine)

This article deals with the problem of psycholinguistic grounds of strategies of art translation. There were analyzed the researchers done by V.N.Komisarov, R.K.Min’yar-Byeloruchev, Ye.I.Passov, I.Y.Revzin, Ya.Y.Retsker, V.Yu.Rosenzweig, with the help of which were shown that to translate spoken text features the translator has to consider what details significantly affects the context, such as the situation of communication, other factors that determine communicative behavior and whether the extent contribute to the process of understanding the text, which is translated. In the researches done by M.M.Bahtin, V.S.Bibler, S.D.Maksymenko was shown that the most important is communication between information sources (those who say, or those who wrote) and its receptor (those who hear or read). The researches done by T.O.Fesenko, L.V.Kolomiyets, V.N.Komissarov, R.K.Min’yar-Byeloruchev, O.D.Shveytser and others describe such strategies of the translation of novels: the inclusion of additional elements into the text (author’s inclusions into the translation); the omission of items which are nonproductive as the reader thinks; the transformation of the semantic structure of words and phrases; compromise solution in the translation; the usage of adequate replacements (interpretation, antonymic translation, compensation); finding functional equivalents; the author’s translation. Key words: translation, colloquial and everyday vocabulary, a strategy of art translation, the strategy of amplification, the mechanism of anticipation, a strategy for updating lexical items which underline human emotions.

У даній статті представлені стратегії перекладу романів. В статті проаналізовано особливості відтворення перекладачем Олексою Логвиненком розмовної та побутової лексики роману Джерома Девіда Селінджера «Над прірвою у житі». Авторами публікації було запропоновано додаткову стратегію з перекладу розмовної і побутової лексики – стратегію ампліфікації. Ця стратегія має місце, коли розмовна та побутова лексика в тексті оригіналу є пропущеною, а перекладач пропонує ці слова, використовуючи свою уяву. У цьому випадку маємо справу з механізмом очікування – передбаченням, заснованим на контексті прочитаного тексту, що, нарешті, сприяє посиленню експресії. Також в статті запропоновано стратегію оновлення лексичних одиниць, які наголошують на емоціях особистості. Запропонувавши цю стратегію, автори статті підкреслюють на тому факті, що завдяки цій стратегії було забезпечено не тільки обмін інформацією, а й рефлексію емоційного стану комунікантів. Запропонувавши цю стратегію, ми також виходили з того, що розмовна та побутова лексика за своїм змістом є емоційною, і, безумовно, виконує експресивну функцію. Ключові слова: переклад, розмовна і повсякденна лексика, стратегія художнього перекладу, стратегія ампліфікації, механізм антиципації, стратегія актуалізації лексичних одиниць, які наголошують на емоціях особистості

Introduction Translation means a way of ensuring the possibility of communication between people who speak different languages. So, for us it’s particular important to understand psycholinguistics data about the characteristics of the process of real communication, specific direct and indirect speech

acts on the ratio of the content of the statements that have been said, and that means companion in mind. To translate spoken text features, consider V.N.Komisarov [5], R.K.Min’yar-Byeloruchev [7], Ye.I.Passov [8], I.Y.Revzin [9], Ya.Y.Retsker [10], V.Yu. Rosenzweig [9], etc., the translator has to consider what details significantly affects the context, such as


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

the situation of communication, other factors that determine communicative behavior and whether the extent contribute to the process of understanding the text, which is translated. In each speech action, including speech actions of a translator, noted M.M.Bahtin [1], V.S.Bibler [2], S.D.Maksymenko [6], important is communication between information sources (those who say, or those who wrote) and its receptor (those who hear or read). Although each individual translator deletes a message for different amounts of information depending on their knowledge, degree of interest in the report and that the goals he/she sets himself/herself taking part in the communication. That is why the message if there are two forms that are not quite identical, the message transmitted by the sender (the text for the speaker), and messages perceived addressee (text to someone who listens). Some scholars, such as T.O.Dolha [3], I.I.Halyeyeva [13], A.S.Hornbi [14], P.O.Yakobson [16], believe that to translate special importance we need the fact that these forms of the same message are interconnected in the ways of communicative equivalence that is shown as follows: - between these forms potentially there is a high degree of similarity, since they consist of identical pieces of speech which represent mostly the same (or similar) information for all members of an audience; - between fact there is a sufficient degree of similarity that is able to provide the necessary interlocutors in understanding the specific conditions of the translation; - both forms the translator synthesized into a single unit; the differences between them are relevant for the participants of communication that are not aware of these differences, accepting a received message as being like an original, and vice versa. Thus, for participants who are involved in the process of translation, actually there is one single text which content in principle is available to everybody who speaks the language, through which the message is transmitted and perceived. When it comes about art translation, extraordinary importance plays the concept “the picture of the world” of the interpreter. The latter is one of the fundamental concepts that reflect the specific of the person, her/his life, her/his relationship with the world, the most important conditions for its existence in the world, etc. Currently, the term “the picture of the world” and the definitions close to it are

used in all areas of knowledge, the object of which is a person. Thus, the translation activity is not only determined by intercultural factors: the existence of a common culture and a common language do not mean homogeneity of culture-language space. Every society is characterized, for example, by territorial and social differentiation (professional, sex, age, etc.). Heterogeneity, which are expressed in the language use features of a particular group of people. In addition, the translator uses different languages in different situations, not only due to social factors, but also the originality of the individual and personal attitude. Thus, the optimal translation is due not only knowledge of algorithms of “other culture”, but also collision of mental spaces of the author of the original text and its interpreter, also, of individual personal characteristics of the author of the text and its translator. It is actual nowadays to study the peculiarities, psychological grounds of strategies of art translation of novels done by the interpreter. Therefore, the aim of our research is to study the explication of colloquial and everyday vocabulary in the translation of the novel “The Catcher in the Rye” by Jerome David Salinger” and also to determine the strategies of translation. We’ve analyzed the translation made by Oleksa Lohvynenko. Thus, the objectives of this article are: 1. To present strategies of the translation of novels. 2. To analyze the peculiarities of the translation of colloquial and everyday vocabulary of the novel “The Catcher in the Rye” by the interpreter O.Lohvynenko. 3. To offer the additional strategy according to the translation of colloquial and everyday vocabulary, which determines as the strategy of amplification. 4. To offer a strategy for updating lexical items which underline human emotions. The main material of the research So, according to the translation of colloquial and everyday vocabulary in the scientific literature (researches done by T.O.Fesenko [12], L.V.Kolomiyets [4], V.N.Komissarov [5], R.K.Min’yar-Byeloruchev [7], O.D.Shveytser [15] and others), there are such strategies of the translation of novels: - the inclusion of additional elements into the text (author’s inclusions into the translation); - the omission of items which are non-productive as the reader thinks; 105

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- the transformation of the semantic structure of words and phrases; - compromise solution in the translation; - the usage of adequate replacements (interpretation, antonymic translation, compensation); - finding functional equivalents; - the author’s translation. In the research the peculiarities of the translation of colloquial and everyday vocabulary of the novel “The Catcher in the Rye” by the interpreter O.Lohvynenko were analyzed. In the translation of the novel there are different strategies of translation. More often O.Lohvynenko uses a strategy “finding out the functional analogue”. This strategy anticipates the usage by the interpreter the spoken version of the word, or its translation as slang, vulgarism, jargon, curse, colloquial word, argot. As colloquial word combinations Oleksa Lohvynenko translates such sentences: - «all that David Copperfield kind of crap» [17, p.1] – «всю оту муру в дусі Девіда Копперфілда» [11, p.1]; - «my whole goddam autobiography or anything» [17, p.1] translates as «свою триклятущу біографію» [11, p.1]. So, Jerome David Salinger uses «or anything» at the end of the sentence to add the effect of expressivity, emotionality, affective stress; - like the word «goddam» Oleksa Lohvynenko translates «stupid»: «…on top of that stupid hill» [17, p.2] – «а надто на вершечку отої триклятущої гірки» [11, p.3]; - «сorny-looking or something» [17, p.6] is translated as «недорого вдягнена» [11, p.8]; - the sentence «It cost him damn near four thousand bucks» [17, p.1] is translated as «Вгатив у неї, кляту, мало не всі чотири тисячі» [11, p.1]. The word «кляту», which is a colloquial one, Oleksa Lohvynenko uses with the purpose to approach the situations from the text as close as it can be to the spoken Ukrainian language. he word «moron» has a meaning «idiot», «cretin». A colloquial word «moron» is translated as «imbecile»: - «I’m a moron» [17, p.6] – «Я на розум небагатий» [11, p.9]. - «What they did, though, the three of them, when I did it, they started giggling like morons» [17, p.30] – «Але ж вони, помітивши це, заходилися хихотіти, мов пришелепуваті» [11, p.42]. In the translation of Oleksa Lohvynenko there are a lot of words which denote everyday vocabulary. 106

For example, «…his big horny-looking nails» [17, p.10] is translated as «Не нігті, а кігті!» [17, p.14] Other example with the word «horny» is: «I was feeling pretty horny. I have to admit it» [17, p.27] – «Ніде правди діти: з голови не йшли кляті жінки» [17, p.38]. So often Oleksa Lohvynenko uses words denoting curse. «They don’t do any damn» [17, p.1] is translated as «Проклят буду» [11, p.2]. In the other example there is curse «паскуда»: «…that was the phoniest bastard I ever met in my life» [17, p.6] – «Другого такого паскуди світ не бачив» [11, p.8]. As curse «moron» is used in the meaning «кретин», «хворий на всю голову», «урод», «застуджений на всю голову». The word «sonuvabitch» in a sentence «I can’t stand that sonuvabitch» [17, p.10] is curse; it is translated as «сволота»: «Слухай, не можу я терпіти цю сволоту!» [11, p.14] According to the strategy “finding out the functional analogue” Oleksa Lohvynenko translates slang. Word combination «some hotshot guy» [17, p.1] is translated «такий собі хвацький жевжик» [11, p.2]. In the novel “The Catcher in the Rye” there are a lot of sentences with a word «horse». All of them are translated by Oleksa Lohvynenko in accordance with the meaning of slang «тупий», «дурень». In a sentence «You bastard, did you wake me just to ask me a dumb ques –» [17, p.22] – «Ти що, розбуркав мене задля своїх ідіотських...» [11, p.30] the word «dumb» is a slang (is translated as «дурість», «задурити голову»). Oleksa Lohvynenko translates slang as «ідіотських». In the novel “The Catcher in the Rye” and in its translation there are some cases of using jargon. The expression «for God’s sake» [17, p.27] is translated by Oleksa Lohvynenko as «трясця їхній матері!» [11, p.37], using jargon (generally employed variants of this expression is «заради всього святого!»). «I’m through with that pig» [17, p.13] is translated as «…я зав’язав з тою поторочею» [11, p.18]. «Cut it out, Holden» [17, p.13] is translated as «Відчепись, Голдене!» [11, p.18]. Word combination «booze hound» is translated as «алкан», that is jargon. Another strategy which Oleksa Lohvynenko uses in his translation is «the author’s strategy of translation». It is directed on the achievement of the most important goal of professional translation, such as displaying implicit and explicit meanings of the original text in order to preserve maximum freedom of interpretation.

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For example, «lousy childhood» [17, p.1] is translated by Oleksa Lohvynenko as «безголове дитинство» [11, p.1]. It was used «the author’s strategy of translation» because the explicit translation is «нікчемне дитинство» or «паршиве, «гидотне, «дряне дитинство». The expression «but I don’t feel like going into it» [17, p.1] also is translated with the help of «the author’s strategy of translation», so as «я не маю охоти закопуватись у той мотлох» [11, p.1]. In such a way Oleksa Lohvynenko translates «my parents would have about two hemorrhages apiece» [17, p.1] – «і батька, й матір моїх по двічі вхопив би грець кожного» [11, p.1]. For comparing the explicit translation of «to have about two hemorrhages apiece» is «ось тобі на», «оце так!», «ну треба же!» Word combination «madman stuff» [17, p.1] is translated as «ідіотська історія» [11, p.1]. The author’s strategy of translation is in a case «I left Pencey Prep» [17, p.1] – «…я чухнув із Пенсі» [11, p.2]. So, the word «чухнув» reflects the colloquial style of the text that is not incorporated in the original text. In the research it was shown that in a translation of Oleksa Lohvynenko there are author’s inclusions into translation. We tell about them when there isn’t everyday language in the original text, but in the translation it appears, creating enough natural view. So, it seems that colloquial and everyday words there are in the original of the text. For example, «if I told anything pretty personal about them» [17, p.1] is translated as «якби я почав роздзвонювати про їхні домашні справи» [11, p.1]. So, there isn’t a hint for the word «роздзвонювати» in the original of the text, the translator thinks about it implicitly in accordance with the implicit context of the text. Translating a sentence «He’s got a lot of dough, now» [17, p.1], Oleksa Lohvynenko add a colloquial word «полова», but there isn’t this word in the original text: «Тепер грошей у нього як полови» [11, p.1]. This choice of tangent to the context of colloquial words is explained, in our opinion, by the meaning of the word «dough». It is an American slang and it is translated as «гроші». We offer the additional strategy according to the translation of colloquial and everyday vocabulary, which determines as the strategy of amplification. This strategy takes a place when colloquial and everyday vocabulary is in the text of original, but the words which are in conjunction with colloquial and everyday vocabulary are missed, and the interpreter offers

these words using his/her imagination. In this case, the translator uses the mechanism of anticipation – that is prediction based on the context of the previous text, and finally, there is amplification of the expression. We think, that the example of such amplificated suggestion can be the translation «crumby place» [17, p. 1] – «занюхана лікарня» [11, p. 1]. An adjective «crumby» is a slang and it is translated as «брудний», «дешевий», «нікчемний», «противний», «товарний потяг», «паскудний», «огидний», «убогий», «вошивий», «низькоякісний», «жалюгідний». As a vulgarism «crumby» is used in the meaning «безпонтовий». When Oleksa Lohvynenko translates «crumby place» we have the example of using the strategy of amplification, because there is a complement of the text by D.D.Selindzher with the author’s sense with preserving lexical and syntactic structure of sentences. On the same principle «If that many» [17, p. 1] is translated as «якщо взагалі стільки нашкребеться» [11, p. 2]. In such a way Oleksa Lohvynenko translates «It was a terrible school» [17, p. 1] – «Одне слово, не школа, а дурдом» [11, p. 2]. Expression «at least where you can see a few girls» [17, p. 1] Oleksa Lohvynenko translates as «де бодай вряди-годи з’являються дівчата» [11, p. 2]. The sentence «she wasn’t exactly the type that drove you mad with desire» [17, p. 1] is translated as «Тільки ж вона не з тих, у кого можна вклепатися по самі вуха» [11, p. 2]. «She was a pretty nice girl, though» [17, p. 1] Oleksa Lohvynenko translates as «Хоч загалом дівчина досить нічогенька» [11, p. 2]. Similar there are cases when colloquial and everyday vocabulary is stored only in the translated text and in the original it is omitted. For example: «It was the last game of the year» [17, p. 1] – «Ще б пак – останній матч року» [11, p. 2]. Other example: «right next to this crazy cannon that was in the Revolutionary War and all» [17, p. 1] is translated as «і я став біля самісінької отої ідіотської гармати, що бовваніє там ще від Війни за незалежність» [11, p. 2]. So, the word «бовваніє» there isn’t in the text of original. To the group of amplified expression we also include those ones which in Dzh.D.Selindzher’s text have in their structure graphon – a stylistic device that herein enhances and emphasizes a conversational style and peculiarities of the usage of colloquial and everyday vocabulary by the author. Translator, from his side, successfully uses colloquial and everyday vocabulary of the Ukrainian language to show us the 107

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main context and yhe main sense of the text. For example: - «On the subway, for Chrissake! Ya lost them, ya mean?» [17, p. 9] – «Отуди к бісу! В метро? Загубив, чи що?» [11, p. 11]. - «Think they’ll make ya pay for em?» [17, p. 9] – «Чуєш, а тобі не доведеться платити?» [11, p. 11]. We also offer a strategy for updating lexical items which underline human emotions. Proposing this strategy, we had to underline the fact that was provided not only information exchange of speakers’ thoughts, but also we’d like to emphasize of the reflecting of speakers’ emotional state. Proposing this strategy we also came from the fact that colloquial and everyday vocabulary in its content is emotional, and certainly fulfills the expressive function. With the aim to gain emotional effect of the expression Dzh.D.Selindzher uses «or something» or «or anything». Translating such kind of sentences, Oleksa Lohvynenko uses a strategy «updating lexical items which underline human emotions». For example, «if they’re only scratching their arms or blowing their noses or even just giggling or something» [17, p. 1] is translated as «хай навіть вони просто собі стовбичать, чухаються та шморгають носами чи хихотять» [11, p. 2]. But there isn’t the word «стовбичать» in the English language, «scratching their arms» was translated using colloquial «чухаються», «blowing their noses» – using colloquial «шморгають носами». Only «giggling» was translated as everyday word «хихотіти», in spite of this there is a colloquial one «хиханьки та хатоньки». With such kind of purpose Dzh.D.Selindzher uses «and everything» at the end of the sentence, so, the translation done by Oleksa Lohvynenko is: «Oh, I’ll be all right and everything!» [17, p. 25] – «Та пусте! Я скоро вичухаюсь» [11, p. 35]. Also, to gain emotive and emotional effect expression Dzh.D.Selindzher uses «and all» at the end of the sentence. For example, expression «about Life being a game and all» [17, p. 4] is translated by Oleksa Lohvynenko as «життя, мовляв, – це гра й таке інше» [11, p. 5], using colloquial word «мовляв», facilitated by word combination «and all». Also with the aim to underline additional expressive meaning Dzh.D.Selindzher uses the adjective «pretty», which is translated by Oleksa Lohvynenko as «добре-таки»: «…it was getting pretty dark out» [17, p. 2] – «уже добре-таки посутеніло» [11, p. 2]. 108

In the novel “The Catcher in the Rye” the meaning of words and word combinations significantly amplifies with the help of «sort of», that is translated by Oleksa Lohvynenko as «трохи»: «She was sort of deaf» [17, p. 3] – «Місіс Спенсер трохи недочувала» [11, p. 4]; «…and I sort of brushed my hair back with my hand» [17, p. 3] – «…а я тим часом прилизав долонею чуб назад» [11, p. 4]. Other example: «just to be polite and all» [17, p. 3] is translated as «просто з ввічливості, для годиться» [11, p. 4]. In this case expressiveness is underlined with the help of words «just» and «and all». Also there are a lot of sentences in the novel “The Catcher in the Rye” with «as hell» at the end of the sentences, for example, «they’re also touchy as hell» [17, p. 1]. The last is translated as «тільки ж вразливі – страх» [11, p. 1]. So, in Ukrainian translation of the novel “The Catcher in the Rye” in 36,57% cases Oleksa Lohvynenko uses a strategy “finding out the functional analogue”, in 22,46% cases – a strategy «the author’s strategy of translation», in 17,13% cases – a strategy «author’s inclusions into translation», in 15,68% cases – a strategy «of amplification», in 4,19% cases – a strategy «a strategy for updating lexical items which underline human emotions», in 3,97% cases – a strategy «compromise translating solutions» and «the omission of excess details of the text». Such strategies, as a strategy «of amplification» and «a strategy for updating lexical items which underline human emotions» are the most psychological according to their content. Conclusions Thus, art translation of colloquial vocabulary is very difficult, step by step process in which social vocabulary is severely marked by the analyzes, and the interpreter in the most cases just can not act on the pattern. Translating colloquial vocabulary translator has to take into account the style of the author, the scope of use of vernacular in two languages. Also, the translator should take into account ethical and cultural features of the peoples of those languages involved into the process of translation. Translation should call the reader’s emotions such as the original language. The task of the translator is to search match that would not differ stylistically from the original lexical unit, would have the same or at least social and emotional coloring. Translating colloquial

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

vocabulary a translator is often confronted with the fact that there are not always adequate equivalents in the original language and the target language. In this case, the interpreter must use other methods and techniques of the translation: inclusion of additional elements; the omission of elements of excess in terms of foreign readers; converting the semantic structure of words and phrases; compromise translation solutions; usage of adequate replacements (interpretation, translation of antonymous, compensation, etc.). The perspective of further researches is to study the psychological characteristics and strategies of translation of colloquial and everyday vocabulary in other fiction, in particular – of the modern period. We should also read up the issue of expanding the scope of use of colloquial and everyday vocabulary, such as at the theater and in cinema. We should also study the questions of functioning of colloquial and everyday vocabulary in the system of Internet. References: 1. Baxtin M.M. E’stetika slovesnogo tvorchestva / Mixail Mixajlovich Baxtin [sost. S.G. Bocharov ; tekst podgot. G.S. Bernshtejn i L.V. Deryugina ; primech. S.S. Averinceva i S.G. Bocharova]. – M. : Iskusstvo, 1979. – 424 s. 2. Bibler V.S. Ot naukoucheniya – k logike kul’tury : dva filosofskix vvedeniya v dvadcat’ pervyj vek / Vladimir Solomonovich Bibler. – M. : Politizdat, 1991. – 413 s. 3. Dolha T.O. Zahaĺna charakterystyka usnoji perekladaćkoji dijaĺnosti osobystosti / Tetiana Oleksandrivna Dolha // Zbirnyk naukovych prać Kamjaneć-Podiĺśkoho nacionaĺnoho universytetu imeni Ivana Ohijenka, Instytutu psycholohiji im. H.S. Kostiuka APN Ukrajiny / za red. S.D. Maksymenka, L.A. Onufrijevoji. – Vyp. 8. – Kamianeć-Podiĺśký : Aksioma, 2010. – S. 271–280. 4. Kolomijeć L.V. Perekladoznavči seminary : Aktuaĺni teoretyčni koncepciji ta modeli analizu poetyčnoho perekladu : navčaĺný posibnyk / Lada Volodymyrivna Kolomijeć. – K. : Vydavnyčopolihrafičný centr «Kýivśký universytet», 2011. – 527 s. 5. Komissarov V.N. Teoriya perevoda (lingvisticheskie aspekty) : ucheb dlya in-tov i fak inostr yazykov / Vilen Naumovich Komisarov. – M. : Vyssh. shk., 1990. – 253 s. 6. Maksymenko S.D. Psycholohija v sociaĺnij i pedahohičnij praktyci (Metodolohija, metody,

prohramy, procedury) : [navč. posibnyk dlia vyščoji školy] / Serhij Dmytrovyč Maksymenko. – K. : Naukova dumka, 1998. – 224 s. 7. Min’yar-Beloruchev R.K. Teoriya i metody perevoda / Ryurik Konstantinovich Min’yar-Beloruchev. – M. : Moskovskij licej, 1996. – 207 s. 8. Passov E.I. Kommunikativnyj metod obucheniya inoyazychnomu govoreniyu : [posobie dlya uchitelej inostr. yaz.] / Efim Izrailevich Passov. – M. : Prosveshhenie, 1985. – 208 s. 9. Revzin I.I. Osnovy obshhego i mashinnogo perevoda / Isaak Iosifovich Revzin, Viktor Yul’evich Rozencvejg. – M. : Vyssh. shk., 1964. – 243 s. 10. Recker Ya.I. Teoriya perevoda i perevodcheskaya praktika: ocherki lingvisticheskoj teorii perevoda / Yakov Iosifovich Recker. – 2-e izd., ster. – M. : R. Valent, 2007. – 240 s. 11. Selindžer Dž.D. Nad prirvoju u žyti : [povisti, opovidannia] / Džerom Devid Selindžer // [v ukr. perekladi Oleksy Lohvynenka]. – K. : Moloď, 1984. – 272 s. 12. Fesenko T.A. Konceptual’nye osnovy perevoda / Tamara Aleksandrovna Fesenko. – Tambov, 2001. – 307 s. 13. Xaleeva I.I. Podgotovka perevodchika kak “vtorichnoj yazykovoj lichnosti” : auditivnyj aspekt / Irina Ivanovna Xaleeva // Tetradi perevodchika : [nauch.-teor. sb.] / [pod red. S.F. Goncharenko]. – Vyp. 24. – M. : MGLU, 1999. – S. 63–72. 14. Xornbi A.S. Konstrukcii i oboroty anglijskogo yazyka / Al’bert Sidni Xornbi / [per. s angl. A.S. Ignat’eva]. – M. : AO “Buklet”, 1992. – 336 s. 15. Shvejcer A.D. Teoriya perevoda : status, problemy, aspekty / Aleksandr Davidovich Shvejcer. – M. : Nauka, 1988. – 215 s. 16. Yakobson R.O. O lingvisticheskix aspektax perevoda / Roman Osipovich Yakobson // Voprosy teorii perevoda v zarubezhnoj lingvistiki : [sbornik statej] / [per. s angl., nem., franc.] / [vst. stat’ya i obshh. red. perevoda V.N. Komissarova]. – M., 1978. – S. 16–24. 17. Salinger J.D. The Catcher in the Rye / Jerom David Salinger. – OCR & Spellcheck : Aerius, 2003. – 91 p.


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research


V.B. Mykhaylov

B.V. Mykhaylov

Assistant of the Department of Psychiatry, Narcology and Medical Psychology of Kharkiv National Medical University, Kharkiv, Ukraine, MD, PhD.

Head of Psychotherapy Department of Kharkiv National Academy of Postgraduate Education Kharkiv, Ukraine. MD., PhD., Medicine

I.V. Zdesenko

GI «Institute of neurology, psychiatry and narcology NAMS», Kharkiv, Ukraine.

In research, based on the systematic approach of evaluating results of complex clinicalpsychopathological, psychodiagnostical investigation myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke patients the clinical structure features, regularities in the formation, development and course of somatogenic depression and associated disorders on these patients was determined. At patients with cardiac infarction in acute period the pain syndrome is the main one, leads to severe psycho-emotional disorders. Against the background of cognitive function preservation phobic, anxiety and depressive symptoms prevail, their intensity depends on the severity of pain. Subsequently, the primary psycho-emotional constituent element disappeared and anxiety-depressive disorders developed along with hypo- and anozognostical type of personal condition perception. At cerebral stroke patients disorders of level of consciousness were primary with cognitive and asthenic disturbances with subsequent formation of psycho-emotional disorders, anxiety and depressive disorders with hypohondrical elements on the basis of persistent cognitive impairments. Key words: Somatogenic depression, anxiety, psychotherapy, myocardial infarction, cerebral stroke.

На основі системного підходу в оцінці результатів комплексних клініко-психопатологічних, психодіагностичних дослі-джень осіб, що перенесли ІМ та МІ, було визначено особливості клінічної структури, закономірності формування, розвитку та перебігу соматогеної депресії та асоційованих розладів у даних хворих. У хворих з ІМ в гострому періоді провідним є больовий синдром, що призводить до виражених психоемоційних розладів. На тлі збереження когнітивних функцій превалює фобічна, тривожно-депресивна симптоматика, вираженість якої безпосередньо залежить від вираженості больового синдрому. У подальшому первинний психоемоційний вітально зумовлений компонент зникає, формуються тривожнодепресивні порушення, гіпо- і анозогностичний типи сприйняття свого стану. У пацієнтів з МІ первинним є порушення рівня свідомості з когнітивними і астенічними порушеннями з подальшим формуванням психоемоційних розладів, тривожно-депресивних порушень з елементами іпохондризації на тлі збереження когнітивних розладів. Ключові слова: соматогена депресія, психотерапія корекції, інфаркт міокарда, мозковий інсульт.

The end of XX and beginning of XXI centuries characterized by a large number of studies in the field of human pathology, conducted at the intersection of different disciplines. The growth of pace of life, changes in demographics, bad habits, scientific and technological progress,

constant exposure to stress determine not only an increase of somatical pathology, but also increase the level emotional stress, a significant increase of mental and behavioral disorders, a special role among which takes violations of depressive spectrum.


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Herewith increase of depressive disorders is not due to endogenic forms, but due to psychogenic, reactive, masked, mixed forms, including somatogenic which characterized by primarily somatic manifestations. This trend continues in the world and in Ukraine. The problem of cardiovascular diseases takes a special place in the range of psychosomatic pathologies [2]. It is connected with their significant incidence, also in productive age, high mortality and disability rates. Every year cardiovascular diseases caused 4300000 deaths in Europe, in particular, there are more than 2 million fatal cases in the European Union [5, 8, 11, 13] In Ukraine mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases occupies the first place and the hardest complications of cardiovascular diseases are Myocardial infarction (MI) and Cerebral stroke (CS). MI and CS are the main causes of mortality, accounting for 55% of all fatalities [5, 10, 11]. The majority of patients (60 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 85 %) with MI and CS suffered from depressive spectrum disorder that complicated the course of treatment, the outcomes of the disease, the recovery and rehabilitation processes [4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12]. Approximately 10-15 % of patients with depression prone to suicidal attempts [7, 8, 10, 11]. That is why the main objects of our research were: To study clinical structure, patterns of development, pathophysiological formation mechanisms of somatogenic depression and associated disorders in patients with MI and CS. To conduct comparative analysis of depressive spectrum disorders and associated disorders in MI and CS patients. To create multimodal based system of psychotherapeutical correction of depressive spectrum disorders and associated disorders in MI and CS patients. For conducting the research 120 patients were involved and they were divided into 2 supervision groups (60 patients with MI and 60 patients with CS). Examination of the patients was carried out in four stages: Stage 1 - within 28 days after MI or CS (acute phase), Stage 2 - 3 months after the event (subacute phase), Stage 3

- 6 months after the event (the recovery period), Stage 4 - 1 year after the event (consequences period). Throughout the period of the survey on the background of basic therapy patients have been conducted by psychotherapeutic correction and psychological support. Methods of research: Clinical methods, psycho-diagnostical methods (Hamilton scale of depression (HDRS), Beck scale of depression (BDS), Spylberger scale of personal and reactive anxiety, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), quality of life test (Mezzich I., Cohen N., Ruiperez M., Lin I., and Yoon G., 1999), statistical methods [1, 3, 13]. Dynamic of leading depressive spectrum and associated disorders in patients with MI and CS illustrated on pic. 1 and pic. 2 of Supplement â&#x201E;&#x2013; 1. The obtained results demonstrated that the most frequent syndromes in MI patients in the acute phase were: pain (86,7 %), phobic (83,3 %), asthenic-anxious (43,3 %) syndromes. Development and severity of panic and phobic symptoms depend on pain syndrome severity. Asthenic symptoms in this group of patients were part of the asthenic-anxiety, asthenia, depression (16,7 %), asthenic-hypochondriac (10,0 %) syndromes. Hysteria syndrome and cognitive deficits were observed in 6,7 % of cases. In 13,3 % of MI patients anozognostical attitude to the disease manifested as appropriate response impairment, denying hospital admission and treatment, decrease in critical assessments of their own state, complete disregard as to the severity of their condition. Disorders of consciousness in their superficial form, obnubilation, were observed in 6,7 % of patients. During the second stage of our research the MI patients demonstrated a decrease in pain (50,0 %), phobic (40,0 %) and asthenic - anxiety (33,3 %) syndromes. On the contrary, incidence and severity of asthenic-depressive (26,7 %), hysterophorm (10,0 %) and asthenic-hypochondriac (10,0 %) syndromes increased. The number of patients with cognitive impairments (10,0 %) and anozognostical attitude to the disease (16,7 %) increased as well. During the third stage of our research the most frequent were asthenic-depressive (33,3 %), 111

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pain (30,0 %) syndromes, anozognostical attitude to the disease (23,3 %). Asthenic-anxiety (23,3 %) and phobic (13,3 %) syndromes were also frequently diagnosed in MI patients but their intensity decreased. The incidence of cognitive impairments (13,3 %) increased, especially in depressed patients. During the fourth stage of our research the incidence and severity of psychopathological syndromes decreased after psychotherapeutic support. Thus, pain syndrome was observed in 23,3 % of cases, asthenic-depressive syndrome in 21,7 % of cases, asthenic-anxiety syndrome in 13,3 % of cases, phobic syndrome in 10,0 % of cases and attitude to the disease in 16,7 % of cases. The incidence of cognitive impairment (10,0 %), hysteroform (10,0 %) and asthenic-hypochondriac (6,7 %) syndromes remained on the same level.

Altered consciousness syndrome was the primary one in all cerebral stroke patients in the acute phase. Superficial forms of consciousness disorders, such as somnolence (10,0 %), obnubilation (46,7 %), torpor (33,3 %) were prevalent. 10,0 % of patients developed more intensive consciousness disorders (stupor). Subsequently they developed cognitive disorders syndrome (83,3 %) and asthenic syndrome (66,7 %). During the recovery period, on the second stage of the study, cognitive impairments intensity (66,7 %), pain syndrome (53,3 %), asthenic syndrome (40,0 %), anozognostical disorders (10,0 %) decreased. Psycho-emotional disorders became the main ones. Asthenic syndrome remained the basic one, developing

Table 1 Multimodal based system of psychotherapeutical correction of somatogenic depression and associated disorders in MI and CS patients Stages Diagnostical


Orientation of psychotherapy

Examination of the patients per- Diagnostic sonality

Methods of psychotherapy

The numbers and forms of sessions

Personal â&#x20AC;&#x201C; orientated, ra- 5-7 sessions during tional 2 weeks CBT


Setting psychological, emotional Mostly symptomatical, contact with the patient; Trust formation to the doctor; Adequate Partially - pathogenical treatment, positive attitude to psycho â&#x20AC;&#x201C; therapeutic process

Rational, Inderect, CBT

2-3 individual and 2-3 group sessions During 2 weeks


Achievement of positive dynamics Mostly pathogenical, For MI patients- rational, 5-6 individual and of the patients emotional state, personal - orientated, CBT 8-12 group sessions - Autogenic (AT). learning and transformation Partially During 9 weeks personal reactions of the patient, symptomatical For CS patients â&#x20AC;&#x201C; his relations system, scale hypnosuggestive, cognitive experience of illness and its social training, AT, CBT significance, correction psychoemotional disorders of the patient


Consolidating process of thera- Mostly preventive, peutic results, skills of psychological self-regulation, correction of Partially - pathogenical the system of life goals, values, attitude to the disease

Psycho-preventive Consolidating process


theraputical Mostly preventive, Partially - pathogenical

AT, rational, personal 3-5 individual and orientated, self - 6-7 group sessions hypnosuggestive, cognitive During 8 weeks training, CBT AT, rational, personal - ori- 6-12 individual and entated, cognitive training, 6-12 group sessions CBT During 6 month

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Supplement â&#x201E;&#x2013; 1

Pic 1. Dynamic of leading depressive spectrum and associated disorders in patients with MI

Pic 2. Dynamic of leading depressive spectrum and associated disorders in patients with CS

depressive (33,3 %), hypochondriac (10,0 %), anxious (16,7 %), hysterophorm (6,7 %) features. In the third stage of the research the intensity of psycho-emotional disorders and depressive reactions was increasing in CS patients. Pain syndrome (40 %), asthenic-depressive syndrome (40,0 %), cognitive impairment syndrome (80,0 %) were the main ones. The number of patients with isolated asthenic syndrome decreased to 20,0 %. Asthenic syndrome was part of the asthenicdepressive (40,0 %), asthenic, anxiety (23,3 %) and asthenia-hypochondriac (16,7 %) syndromes. Representation of hysterophorm syndrome at this stage of the research was the same. Incidence of anozognostical attitude to the disease decreased to 6,7 %. Depression and anxiety correlated with the intensity of neurological deficit and its impact on quality of life. In the fourth stage of the research against the background of psychotherapeutic correction, the intensity of psycho-emotional disorders and depressive reactions remained unchanged against cognitive impairments, although quantification

of major syndromes decreased. So, asthenicdepressive syndrome was observed in 33,3 % of patients, asthenic-anxiety in 23,3 % of patients, asthenic-hypochondriac in 13,3 % of patients, phobic syndrome in 16,7 % of patients, anozognostical disorders in 5,0 % of patients. At this stage of the study the incidence of cognitive impairment comprised 73,3 %. A decrease in cognitive impairment syndrome representation was associated with the reduction in the incidence and severity of psycho-emotional disorders. The multimodal based system of psychotherapeutical correction of somatogenic depression depressive and associated disorders in MI and CS patients were developed (table 1). For MI patients this system includes personal - oriented, rational, and autogenictraining therapy, for cerebral stroke patients hypnosuggestive, cognitive - behavioral therapy, cognitive and autogenic-training therapy. The proposed system demonstrated a significant improvement in 80 % of MI patients and 77 % of CS patients, a partial 113

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improvement in 10 % of MI patients and in 13 % of CS patients. The main conclusion of our research is that among MI patients in acute period the pain syndrome is the main one, leads to severe psycho-emotional disorders. Against the background of cognitive function preservation phobic, anxiety and depressive symptoms prevail, their intensity depends on the severity of pain. Subsequently, the primary psychoemotional constituent element disappeared and anxiety-depressive disorders developed along with hypo- and anozognostical type of personal condition perception. In CS patients consciousness level disorders are the primary ones with cognitive and asthenic disorders with subsequent formation of psycho-emotional disorders, anxiety and depressive disorders with hypochondriac features against the background of persistent cognitive impairments. References: Belova A.N. Scales and questionnaires in neurology and neurosurgery/A.N. Belova.- M., 2004.-432 p. Carney RM, Blumenthal JA, Freedland KE, et al. Depression and late mortality after myocardial infarction in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) study. Psychosom Med. 2004; 66:466–474. Clinical scales and psychodiagnostic tests vascular brain diseases diagnostic/ Compiled by T.S. Mishchenko, L.F. Shestopalova, M.A. Treschinskaya - Kharkiv 2008. - 36p. – Guidelines. Davidson KW, Burg MM, Kronish IM, et al. Association of anhedonia with recurrent major adverse cardiac events and mortality 1 year after acute coronary syndrome. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67:480–488. Dolzenko M.N. Depressive and anxiety disorders in cardiovascular diseases/ M. N. Dolzenko// Practial angiology. -2006.- Vol. 2, № 1.- pp. 17-23. Frenneaux MP. Autonomic changes in patients with heart failure and in post-myocardial 114

infarction patients. Heart. 2004;90:1248 –1255. Gehi A, Musselman D, Otte C, et al. Depression and platelet activation in outpatients with stable coronary heart disease: findings from the Heart and Soul Study. Psychiatry Res. 2010;175:200 –204. Lincoln N.B. Cognitive behavioral psychotherapy for depression following stroke. A randomized control trial. / T. Flannaghan //Stroke 2003; 34: 111-115. Markus H., Pereira A., Cloud G. (2010) Stroke medicine. Oxford University Press, 567 p. Mast В. Т. Post-stroke and clinically-defined vascular depression in geriatric rehabilitation patients. / S. MacNeill, Р. Lichtenberg // Am J Geriat Psychiat 2004; 12: 1: 84-92. McGrady A, McGinnis R, Badenhop D, et al. Effects of depression and anxiety on adherence to cardiac rehabilitation. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev.2009; 29:358 –364. Ming, L. Stroke: encouragement and disappointment in clinical trials / L. Ming // Lancet Neurol. — 2008. — V. 7(1). — p. 5—7. Mishchenko T.S. Clinical scales and psycho-diagnostic tests in the diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases / T.S. Mishchenko, L.F. Shestopalova // News of medicine and pharmacy. - 2009. № 277. - pp. 62-74. Sowden G, Mastromauro CA, Januzzi JL, et al. Detection of depression in cardiac inpatients: feasibility and results of systematic screening. Am Heart J. 2010;159:780 –787.

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UDC 001.894.2:616-085,616-08-07 INVENTIVE ACTIVITY TEACHING PARADIGM IN ADDICTOLOGY: PRIORITIES OF UKRAINIAN NEUROSCIENCE Sosin I.K. MD, Professor, Head of Addiction, Honored inventor of Ukraine, Academician of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences

Chuev Yu.F. The candidate of medical Sciences, associate Professor Department of Addiction KhMAPE

Burmaka N.P. Ph.D. in Psychology, Professor at the International Academy of Sobriety, full Member of EuANH (Scotland, UK)

Goncharova E.Yu. The candidate of medical Sciences, associate Professor Department of Addiction KhMAPE

The proposed concept of ‘inventive activity teaching paradigm’ (using addictology as an example) supposes synergetic integration of the teaching process oriented on strengthening of inventive activity undertaken by the teaching staff of the university departments, interns, postgraduates, candidates for a degree, residents and postgraduate medical retrainees. Addictology department of Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education experience and successes in creative activity (107 patents), as well as the plot and evolution of professional creative idea, aimed at novelty search and its realization, are presented. The problems which inventor confronts with in routine creative activity are listed. Algorithm description of 15 up-to-date Patents of Ukraine which present a fragment of intellectual property of the authors of the article is given. Key words: Teaching paradigm, inventive activity, academic process, psychiatry, addictology, medical doctors retrainees, postgraduate education, creativity.

Запропонована концепція «дидактичної парадигми винахідницької діяльності» (на моделі наркології), яка передбачає синергетичну інтеграцію навчально-педагогічного процесу, орієнтованого на активацію винахідницької діяльності професорсько-викладацького складу кафедри ВНЗ, інтернів, аспірантів, дисертантів, клінічних ординаторів та лікарів-слухачів циклів післядипломної підготовки. Представлені досвід і успіхи кафедри наркології ХМАПО у творчій діяльності (107 патентів), фабули та еволюція професійної творчої думки, спрямованої на пошук новизни та її реалізації. Перераховано труднощі, з якими винахідник стикається у своїй щоденній творчій діяльності. Дано алгоритмізований опис 15 сучасних Патентів України, які є фрагментом інтелектуальної власнлістю авторів даної статті. Ключові слова: Дидактична парадигма, винахідницька діяльність, навчальний процес, психіатрія, наркологія, лікарі-слухачі, післядипломна освіта, творчість

The data of specialized literature and integrated experience prove that final effectiveness of postgraduate medical education depends considerably on the degree of the department’s activation-oriented teaching the creativity in trainers and retrainees, on

curriculum updating in accordance with quick changes in current information situation [1,2,4,5,9,12,13]. At the same time, the academic process has to reflect both the world’s medical science and practice achievements and the own department’s scientific 115

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research results, including those performed at level of novelty and protected with inventor‘s certificates, certificates for utility models, patents [4,6,7,14]. It was established that up to 70% of just new information received by retrainee medical doctors at specialization and improvement training courses contributes to further introduction in health care practice [3,8,10,11,15] . The aim of the present study is to carry out a structural technological analytical review of the experience, benefits and prospects of creative team of Addictology department of a modern Ukrainian university in solution of integrated teaching and scientific problems in postgraduate medical training at the world’s and national novelty levels. Material and Methods of research Based on the own inventive activity, a database of personified intellectual property protected with authorship certificates, certificates of utility models and patents (total of 107 units up to 2016) served as an object of the work. In this work we used the desk research method. To update the educative component of modern inventive activity, the recent Patents of Ukraine (15 patents) created by the authors of this article are presented as bibliographies and formula annotated descriptions. Results The Addictology department of Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education (KhMAPE) regards the inventive activity as integral, priority, elite sphere of duties in the structure of numerous functional responsibilities of the teaching staff. All staff of the department, all candidates for a degree, postgraduates, residents, medical doctors of the clinical base of the department and retrainees interested in creativeness are involved into the search of novelty in addictology theory and practice by means of realizing the inventive activity technological aspects. The protected inventor’s certificates, utility models, patens give the department an access to the Innovations Branch Register of Ukraine, Information Letters and a lot of other kinds of innovations that results in upgrading the rating of Addictology department and University on the whole. Having regard to the inventive activity as definitely the world’s novelty, prestige, moral creative satisfaction, certain leadership in science and, by all means, rating upgrading of an inventor, his department and, consequently, his university, this article states considerations which reflect some technological aspects of inventive activity, its difficulties and problems as well as algorithmic process of inventor’s thinking. To a considerable degree, the success depends on initially well-grounded selection of the most topical 116

scientific direction of the department, the state research topic choice. We chose as a research direction for our Addictology department of KhMAPE, which determined the further inventive activity themes, the problem that had practically not been developed: search of new drug-free and pharmacological ways of treatment for alcohol and drug addiction. The carried longitudinal research resulted in the development of a new drug-free complex of treatment modalities in addictology, and as well their conceptual interpretation and recommendations for differential application were given. Therapeutic benefit of superficial controlled modes of craniocerebral hypothermia which require no premedication and anesthetic support was grounded scientifically and used in practical addictology. Administration of local extracranial hypothermia demonstrated marked antihypoxic and detoxification effects, and as well a specific control (relieving) effect on pathological addiction to alcohol. For the first time, alcohol addicts were examined by intracellular microelectrophoretic technique which allowed to identify disordered bioelectric activity of cellular nuclei. This phenomenon was analyzed and a pathogenic link concept of ethanol damaging action on cellular, subcellular and genetic (RNA, DNA) levels was proposed, and alcoholism diagnostic technique was worked out. No direct correlation of abstinent alcohol syndrome development and severity with the rate of ethanol elimination from the body was revealed. Hemosorption detoxification adopted for in-patient and out-patient narcological practice conditions (“mini-hemosorption”) was developed as a modified variant. A new enterosorption detoxification method was grounded experimentally and tested clinically, and the results of these examinations served as a basis for permission to use СКНМ hemosorbent as an enterosorbent in clinical addictology. An acupuncture treatment modality for alcohol polyneuropathy was worked out. With regard to the cohort’s specificity, some non-perforative reflexotherapy options (d’Arsonval, laser, cryoextremal, etc.) were adapted. The first systemic directory of acupuncture points recommended for specific application in practical addictology was compiled and published. Craniocerebral hypothermia and hyperbaring oxygen therapy sobering express-effect was established. Clinical pathophysiological predictors of craniocerebral hypothermia and hyperbaring oxygenation benefits were developed, outcome mathematical prediction algorithm was developed. For the first time in addictology ultraviolet and laser (“quantum”, “nanotechnology”) autohemotherapy (intravasal, paravasal, transdermal) techniques, vacuumultraviolet therapy and extracranial hyperthermia were used for the first time in addictology. A new sphere for medical application of hypothermogenerator as

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established. Modified transcerebral electrophoresis modalities for urgent addictology, Pyrroxan electric sleep-electrophoresis, laserophoresis, microwave resonance therapy and intravascular laser paravasal and transdermal blood irradiation, membrane plasmapheresis were developed. All developed methods were protected with certificates of authority and are protected as intellectual property widespread in medical practice of addictology centers of Ukraine. On the basis of the performed R&D work, curricula for special postgraduate topical improvement courses “Drug-free treatment modalities in addictology” (which lasts 1.5 month) and “Reflexotherapy in addictology” (2.5 month), “Urgent addictology” (1 month), “Efferent therapy in addictology” (1.5 month), Pre-certification training “Addictology” (1 month) were developed. Curricula and training programs for these courses, as well as educational process, are managed to allow the retrainee medical doctor to master specific drug-free or pharmacological treatment modalities in addictology to follow all stages in creative process occurring at the department: from selection of invention topic, aim and ideas how to solve them, choice of prototype and analogues - till obtaining the patent or inventor’s certificate. Concurrently, the methods of individual and team creativity (“individual generation of ideas”, “small groups” and “brain storm”) are being acquired, the basics of inventive tasks solving, approaches to novelty and utility determination concerning the proposed invention are being studied, the basics of its description and creation of formula, formal requirements for the author’s application are given. Grading of the possible results of creativity is being decoded: innovation (rationalization proposal) (novelty within university + utility); invention (world’s novelty + utility); utility model (novelty on national level + utility), discovery (establishment of unknown before phenomena, patterns). Completing the training program of topical improvement, retrainee medical doctors overcome psychological inertia elements which are present in majority of them concerning possible and real finding novelty in addictology, making an invention, becoming an inventor. By the way, many trainers, including those creatively gifted, are not free of such psychology either. Via special examples, the possible simplicity of the invention topic selection, the “world’s novelty” concept accessibility, economic and moral benefits of invention introduction are demonstrated. Retrainees are given the proofs that addictology, as many other clinical specialities, hasn’t at its disposal any absolutely perfect methods of treatment, but creative professional approach may improve each of them to attain invention and rationalization proposal levels. While training at addictology department, attending lectures, practical classes and workshops, our retrainees receive ideas about unsolved addictlogy

problems, get information about the spheres of our specialty where creative activity, with regard to conditions and specifics of practical addictology, may turn out to be available and positive, i.e. inventive activity general and specific ideas, directions are suggested and discussed among retrainees in reality. For example, we thoroughly ground purposefulness of scientific practical search and inventive activity concerning differentiated prescription of drug-free treatment modalities for addictive diseases, and also their integrate application with pharmaceuticals, i.e. addictology aspect, which recently got status of independent therapeutic section. The conviction in validity and correctness of such recommendations is formed in trainees on the assumption of recent literature data and clinical evidence. Thus, it is known that traditional patterns of treatment for addictive diseases include multistage and long-term administration of massive drug therapy. Among numerous drugs, prescribed to this cohort of patients, there are still little such targeted for, e.g., anti-craving effect, which could have certain pathogenic links of the disease. More often these are symptomatic remedies. There is a certain clinical pathomorphosis of addictive diseases with tendency to a more severe course, therapeutic (pharmacological) resistance, rapid chronic transformation. It results in an increased share of patients with final stages of addictive diseases and severe somatic consequences of chronic intoxication which present contraindication for pharmacological treatment. Drug treatment which is prescribed at all stages of the diseases, increasingly frequently causes the patient’s sensitization, serious complications including those life-threatening. Habituation to pharmaceuticals with forming addiction, age factor, individual intolerance, patient’s unwillingness (absence of set) to take medications, etc. are the common restrictive moments for administering drug treatment in medical practice of addiction specialist. Besides it, drug treatment gives no assurance against intoxication relapse in the patient while therapy. Interaction of alcohol, drugs, other psychoactive substances with pharmaceuticals, for example, disulfiram, tranquilizers, antidepressants or neuroleptics in the patients’ body also may cause complications due to the pharmacotherapy. Various options are proposed to solve the problems connected with clinical course, treatment and prevention of side effects and complications caused by drug therapy in addictology clinic: deepening the knowledge in pharmacokinetics, biotransformation and compatibility of pharmaceuticals, making more precise comprehension of pathophysiological and clinical preconditions of pharmacotherapy, reducing the dosages of medications, their periodical withdrawal or changing in the patients with signs of predisposition to drug addiction, development of 117

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the so-called ‘multiform drugs’ with various ways of administration, as they were established to prevent or inhibit habituation to pharmaceuticals. It becomes popular in addictology to alternate drug therapy with administration of placebo, phytotherapy and introduction as well new organizational forms of specialized medical aid which increase quality and benefit of the treatment, prescription of rehabilitation program system, including drug-free stages, etc. Thorough rendering this information, demonstration of certain clinical cases showing side effects and complications of drug therapy persuade the audience in necessity of goal seeking and introduction of such new more effective and preserving ways of medical influence on addictive patients which could allow to exclude or limit massive pharmaceutical therapy, rationally interchange them with drugfree methods, raise the efficiency of their inclusion in complex of medical measures. Thereupon, an old sentence “Medica mente non medicamentis” (“Treat with mind not with drugs”), hasn’t become outdated. Drug-free methods of treatment are based on considering pathogenetic and sanogenetic effects of various artificial and natural efferent biophysical factors (cryogenic, UV-radiation, laser, ultrasound, electromagnetic, oxygen, ozone, membrane plasmapheresis, etc.). So far as this direction appeared to be new in addictology, new unlimited possibilities for scientific and practical developments on level of inventions, utility models, patents have become available. In psychiatry and addictology, treatment technique for psychoses, in particular, for severe alcohol delirium initiating hypoxic cerebral edemaswelling formation, is known which prescribes cryotherapy: craniocerebral hypothermia with cerebral structures protection against hypoxic lesion. While cooling down to medium and deep modes, the brain necessity in oxygen decreases considerably since metabolic processes speed are inhibited under cryogenic treatment. Cryogenic medical treatment development and improvement at our addictology department resulted in three inventions and two rationalization propositions. Our first inventor’s certificate “Method of alcohol abstinence syndrome management” (co-authorship with a former resident and candidate applicant of Addictology department M.K. Filatov) consists of the treatment with same biophysical factor – cryo-transcranial effect of preserving superficial (initial) modes which under conditions of drug-free neuro-vegetative blockade (which is not necessary in this case) activates physiological generalized temperature adaptation mechanisms (muscular tone thermoregulation, papilomotor response, noncontractile thermogenesis, cryo-tremor, cryo-rigor). It was established that under this conditions the body 118

oxygen consumption increases (in average, a 87% increase), heat production increases (25-45%), effects of general and cerebral hemodynamics increase and stabilizing are seen, metabolic processes catalyzing rise dramatically (dozens of times), hypoxic state is removed. In connection with it, the proposed method of superficial controlled craniocerebral hypothermia, compared as for its medical effect mechanisms with specifically disordered homeostatic parameters in alcohol addicts, proved to be highly effective even for drug-free management of acute alcohol intoxication, alcohol impulse suppressing. Our following invention (I.K. Sosin, A.N. Zosimov) resulted from the first one: “Method of benefit prediction of alcohol abstinence syndrome management by superficial cerebral hypothermia” (Certificate of authority №1556660). The third invention in the field of cryotherapy was developed on the basis of possibility to relief acute symptoms caused by pathological impulse to alcohol by ultralow temperature (minus 170Со) local effect. This method (Certificate of authority №1782583, I.K. Sosin, Yu.G. Vasilevskiy) is distinguished with influence on corporal acupoints by liquid nitrogen treatment (device КД-З) on the the general effect and detoxification points during 1-2 seconds in measured degree of pressure contact controlled by the device scale. Studying the literature concerning the ways of medical impact on thermal homeostasis, comparing it with drug therapy (sulphosin, pyrogenal) clinical experience, we received some evidence that biophysical hyperthermia may produce generalized responses similar to those caused by superficial hypothermia. Basing on this information we built and realized idea of medical application of superficial discrete craniocerebral hyperthermia for relieving alcohol abstinence symptoms (Certificate of authority №1370847, I.K. Sosin, Ya.L. Gurevich, S.G. Lomakin). Showing our retrainees a particular possibility to find novelty applying common medical drug-free method in addictology, we demonstrate our patents, two inventions and several rationalization proposals based on oxygenotherapy modalities: Patent №КО45227 “Efficiency prediction technique for acute alcohol intoxication treatment” (co-inventor I.K. Sosin, Certificate of authority O.S. Volkov, A.N. Zosimov, Ya.L. Gurevich); invention “Method of treatment for acute alcohol intoxication” (Certificate of authority №1296157) and second invention - also “Method of treatment for acute alcohol intoxication (Certificate of authority №1747069). But the ideas of possibility to develop drug-free treatment modalities in addictology, in particular, detoxification with extracorporal and intravasal influence on blood by biophysical factors (UV irradiation, laser rays, hemosorbent), and as well their alternative non-invasive modifications, revealed

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for us (I.K. Sosin and his co-inventors) the most novelty-effective: Certificate of authority №1135476 (co-inventor O.S. Slabunov); Certificate of authority №1186221 (co-inventor V.M Postrelko); Certificate of authority №1202587 (co-inventor S.G. Lomakin); Certificate of authority №1474915 (co-inventor V.M. Postrelko, V.G. Nickolaev, G.M.Zilberblat); Certificate of authority №1503089 (co-inventor Academician of NAS of Ukraine V.V. Strelko., Prof. N.T. Kartel, Yu.G. Bespalov); Certificate of authority №1405842 (co-inventor Prof. A.B. Beresnev); Certificate of authority №1659050 (co-inventor Prof. V.S. Krutko, Ya.L. Gurevich); Certificate of authority №1437028 (co-inventor Ya.L. Gurevich, O.S. Volkov). The so-called “small hemosorption”, quantum UV autohemotherapy, vacuum quantum therapy enterosorption detoxification are the most popular techniques among those in the proposed detoxification complex. On the basis of UV autohemotherapy we developed “Treatment method for depressions of alcohol genesis” (co-inventor D.V. Saikov). Small hemosorption which is a mini-system of perfusion of small blood volumes is simple and available and suggests neither complex hemosorption equipment, operating theatre conditions nor surgical team required for its reproduction, but only well-known devices: single-use blood sampling and transfusion kits, hemosorbent, slot-type filter nozzle, vials (0.5L), physiological solution, anticoagulant, holder; paracentetic switching (connecting) of the patient to mini-system. Quantum autohemotherapy method is also easy and may be realized with potable unit BOP-4 adapted specially for sampling, UV (ultraviolet) irradiation and immediate reinfusion of the patient’s autoblood. Method of enterosorption detoxification includes oral administration of special enterosorbents. Academic process provides retrainees with demonstration of possibilities to obtain inventions as unexpected, “incidental” findings. Thus, studying the condition of cellular nuclei bioelectric activity in alcohol dependent patients, we established the general tendency and regularity as a considerable decrease of mobile in electric field nuclei (“isoelectric effect”). The most considerable disorders of electric kinetic properties of the nuclei were registered in the patients with marked clinical manifestations of alcohol abstinence syndrome. While relieving the abstinent disorders these nuclei kinetic properties recovered partially. Under conditions of continuous therapeutic remission the level of nuclear mobility remains in average 32.5% lower than normal. In period of acute alcohol intoxication this homeostatic parameter was recovered in the patients up to normal, and in control group of healthy individuals the observed acute alcohol intoxication suppressed nuclear mobility. At re-examination which was carried

out the following day when no alcohol drunkenness was observed in healthy individuals, but in patients developed abstinence syndrome, we registered dramatic 80-90% decrease of nuclear motility in the patients, and normal age nuclear motility recovery in those healthy controls examined. The obtained data served as basis for the invention “Method of diagnosis of alcoholism” (Certificate of authority №1242124, co-inventor Prof. V.G. Shakhbasov, L.A. Artamentova, T.B. Zgonnikova). The disordered bioelectric activity of cellular nuclei established at other intoxications allowed to obtain as well the other invention “Method of diagnosis of the organism intoxication” (Certificate of authority №1425541). It was revealed that in addictology it is possible to find novelty, when one uses creative ways for the old sciences and widely known methods of treatment, such as acupuncture reflexotherapy, physiotherapy, psychotherapy. Certificate of authorship (“Method of treatment of alcohol polyneuropathy”) was obtained (co-inventor G.N. Mysko) concerning the application of 2-stage acupuncture pattern according to dynamic acupuncture formulation. As opposed to those techniques of acupuncture for polyneuropathy proposed before, our way excludes the stage 1 treatment of the so called ‘local’ (i.e. which are located in affected area) points. These points, according to our idea, are used only at stage 2, i.e. when mediated acupuncture effect of the first stage results in relative recovery of several functional parameters of these points. Seemingly, there is no novel to be proposed either by application of Bourguignon transcerebral electrophoresis in addictology, or of those methods used by psychotherapy? But it turned out that it is possible to raise considerably transorbital electrophoresis benefit of the treatment for alcoholism if the interhemispheric asymmetric features and cerebral functional location association which are present in the patients are taken into consideration: to expose electrophoretically 2 different drugs (for example, sulfate magnesium and sulfate atropin) from right and left orbits. The obtained effective modification was registered at national level as an invention (Certificate of authority №1299590, co-author Associate Prof. V.I. Sioma). As it is known, such therapeutic approach also was proposed by Prof. A.P. Chuprikov, but on the basis of asymmetric photostimulation of visual analyser. The known property of liquid crystals to change their color depending on the environmental temperature was used in the invention “Method of determination of hypnotic susceptibility” (Certificate of authority №1451262). Teaching process at the department which is oriented on activation of creative individual and team inventive activity is equipped with a invention information board, slides, catalogue of special literature. Practical classes are carried out in 119

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numerous “subject rooms” (hyperbaring oxygenation; ozone therapy, craniocerebral hypothermia; microwave resonance therapy; acupuncture therapy; bioadaptation regulation, Biofeedback, membrane plasmapheresis, etc.). At the same time, our training courses give the trainees either common idea of “technological aspects” concerning the search of new treatment modalities transforming the search results into the application for invention or proposal, or also description of the difficulties and problems arising while solving creative tasks at all stages - from the idea development to protecting the property with certificate of authority or patent. As the accumulated experience proves, the most essential problem is attainment of originality and utility of the method, rationale of criterion of its novelty. The second problem, which pursues inventive activity, is proving the evidence of advantage and attainment of the more effective clinical result (e.g., “reduction of time for treatment”) in the proposed method compared to those known, described in literature. Thus, developing and proposing the next method to control alcohol abstinence syndrome, it is necessary to reduce this pathological state more effective than the preceding, common technique. Quite often rashness in publication of plot which discloses the essence of idea becomes an insuperable obstacle for successful passing the stages of application for an invention. Despite the fact that each of the mentioned inventions were followed up to stage of introduction in practice, and they really work in all regions of Ukraine, all the spent energy was turned out to be assessed as a “volunteer”, “by enthusiasm”, “prestigious”, “priority of the author and the state”, i.e. with moral support emphasized only. It is difficult to list all obstacles which arise on the way leading to an invention, especially as those which are far away from intellectual activity. The experience demonstrates that clinical tasks at level of inventions may be solved easier in a team, not alone. Inventions developed by KhMAPE addictology department are of priority for us in statement of ideas, which bank is disproportionate as for technical possibilities to complete all of them promptly and attain the level of invention and patent. But, their purposeful and quick realization, especially of those concerning technical problems, would be more effective at the more wide cooperation with colleagues from the related departments, institutions, i.e. with usage of huge scientific potential available in Kharkiv city and all Ukraine. So far, the current web search system for objects of intellectual property is not perfect. As a conclusion, we adduce proofs for the benefits given by inventive creativity oriented teaching 120

process. Our retrainee, medical doctor, addiction specialist V.A. Nelipa, on completion the postgraduate improvement introduced and improved the invention developed by our department concerning quantum autohemotherapy via changing the construction of flask with the aim to rise the UV blood irradiation degree. His “Device for ultraviolet irradiation of liquid” was registered as an invention (Certificate of authority №1576721). Then, at the base of our two inventions, combining the process of hemosorption and quantum hemotherapy, having modified other methods, he got 2 certificates of authority more, and currently he continues his inventive activity. He contributed creatively and is a co-author of an invention with our addiction specialist L.I. Pandaevskiy. Psychiatrists A.F. Bortsov, V.N. Bartsevich also realized the obtained practical skills. Three inventions in the field of addictology, by “our submission” pertain to doctors V.M. Postrelko and G.M. Zilberblat from Kyiv, etc. It is of importance that all dissertations, including those written by medical practitioners, performed at the department, are brought to inventions. Currently, inventive activity potential in KhMAPE, as well as practicability of correspondent corrections in training programs, new oriented teaching emphasis at the departments demonstrate a considerable increase, firstly, in connection with the successful activity of patent and licencing unit, headed by an expert specialist N.A. Gur, and secondly, due to a possibility to use the accumulated effective experience and great inventive production of KhMAPE on the whole. It should be noted, that institutional foothold for intensive development of inventions and patents in KhMAPE was founded by Prof. N.I. Khvisuk, at present Lord Recror of KhMAPE, creative ideas of inventive activity chronologically first were realized by Prof. V.A. Nikitin (department of therapeutic dentistry), Prof. M.A. Napadov (department of orthopedic dentistry), Prof. G.P. Petunin – Honoured Inventor of Ukraine (department of forensic toxicology). Here we give some annotated information about 15 Patents of Ukraine, which were recently obtained by the authors of this article. Directions of products concerning addictology and, in particular, improvement of diagnosis of addiction conditions, integration of drug-free and pharmacotherapy approaches in treatment, prediction and stabilizing remission conditions at alcohol and drug addiction, designing devices to increase efficiency of treatment. 1. Patent 9886 Ukraine, IPC: A61K 31/415. Method of treatment for nicotine addiction / I.K. Sosin, V.V. Shapovalov, I.V/ Kuprienko, V.O. Shapovalova N.P. Burmaka, G.M. Mysko, L.I. Sosina, Z.S. Galavan, G.M. Vishar. - №u200503588; Claimed 15.04.2005; Published 17.10.2005; Bulletin №

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10/2005. Method of treatment for nicotine addiction which consists of the following: at every rise of impulse to smoke, at the background of psychotherapeutic suggestion and mediation, an influence on oral mucosa with medication solution is carried out; the technique is distinguished with Ketanov 2.0-2.5 mg per treatment as medication, herewith at first 1-2 days of therapy irrigation with solution of ampouled drug is done, which is followed with 2-3 days of Ketanov in a dosage of a quarter suckable tablet which is followed in 5-10 minutes by smoking a cigarette, with Ketanov total daily dose of 20-30 mg for a 3-5-day course. 2. Patent 14047 Ukraine, IPC: A61M 21/00. Device for increasing of the stable aversion effect producing at psychophysiological correction of human body pathological dependence on psychoactive substances or other forms of addiction / I.K. Sosin, N.P. Burmaka, O.I.Pisanko. - №u200601747; Claimed 20.02.2006; Published 17.04.2006; Bulletin № 4/2006. 1.” Device for increasing of the stable aversion effect producing at psychophysiological correction of human body pathological dependence on psychoactive substances or other forms of addiction ”, it is distinguished with an included accumulative capacitor with entrance electrodes for charging from the DC power supply source, electrodes which serve for transdermal electric myostimulating, and switching appliance to connect accumulation capacitor with a DC power supply source, set between one of entrance electrodes and accumulative capacitor, and a button for a single procedure of transdermal electric myostimulating by short single impulse of electric current in the prescribed moment of time, located between one of entrance electrodes and accumulative capacitor. 2. Device in item 1, is distinguished with scheme of a controlled DC voltage transformer set in the entrance electrodes, and its exits are connected to accumulating capacitor. 3. Patent 15918 Ukraine, IPC: A61K 31/455, A61K 35/62. Method of hirudotherapy in addictology / I.K. Sosin, O.S. Volkov, V.O. Shapovalova, V.V. Shapovalov, T.V. Kuznetsova, N.P. Burmaka, O,V, Vereshchak, V.O. Skobelev. - №u200601170; Claimed 06.02.2006; Published 17.07.2006; Bulletin № 7/2006. Method of hirudotherapy in addictology, which includes application of leeches on the patient’s body, directly preceded by procedures of local mechanic (manual), local superficial pharmacological (alcohol) and physical (heat) stimulation of skin microcirculation; is distinguished with additional intravenous administration of 1-2 mL nicotinic acid 1 % solution, in 1-3 minutes a marked skin hyperthermia appears; leech application preocedure is carried

out according to prescription, correspondingly to the patient’s condition. 4. Patent 15919 Ukraine, IPC: A61K 31/015, A61K 31/215, A61P 39/06. Method of metabolitedetoxification therapy of alcohol addiction patients at withdrawal syndrome acute signs manifestation/ I.K. Sosin, O.V. Druz B.A Plish , I.V. Zatovskiy, V.V. Dolgiy, N.P. Burmaka. №u200601171; Claimed 06.02.2006; Published 17.07.2006; Bulletin № 7/2006Method of metabolite-detoxification therapy of alcohol addiction patients at withdrawal syndrome acute signs manifestation, which consists of complex scheme of pharmacotherapy which is distinguished with additional prescription of bioactive additive with metabolic effect – compound of organic dicarboxylic acid, Cartol, dosage 0.35 g in oral capsules, 3-5 times daily for 4-5 days. 5. Patent 16072 Ukraine, IPC: A61M 21/00. Method of treatment of the human body pathological addiction to psychoactive substances and other clinical forms of dependence / I.K. Sosin, N.P. Burmaka, О.І. Pisanko. - №u200601748; Claimed 20.02.2006; Published 17.07.2006; Bulletin № 7/2006. 1. Method of treatment of the human body pathological addiction to psychoactive substances and other clinical forms of dependence - by production of aversion to a particular psychoactive substance or clinical form of dependence which includes preliminary psychotherapeutic influence on human body and electric myostymulating of reflexogenic acupuncture zones and/or points, which is distinguished with provision, after preliminary psychotherapeutic influence, a single differentially mediated procedure of transdermal bilateral electric myostymulating of reflexogenic acupuncture areas and/or points, in location of superciliary arches, with a single impulse of electric current with harmless parameters for tissue, organs and systems structure. 2. Method of item 1, which is distinguished that for increasing the efficiency of the produced stable aversion to alcohol addiction, during psychophysiological correction of human body, transdermal electric myostymulation of reflexogenic areas in superciliary arches is provided with a single short monopolar impulse of electric current with amplitude of voltage of no more than 300 V and exposure up to 0.2 s. 6. Patent 16168 Ukraine, IPC: A61K 36/00. Method of treatment of pathological dependence on psychostimulators / I.K. Sosin, O.V. Druz, B.A, Plish, I.V. Zatovskiy, V/V/ Dolgiy, N.P. Burmaka. - №u200602638; Claimed 13.03.2006; Published 17.07.2006; Bulletin № 7/2006. Method of treatment of pathological dependence on 121

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psychostimulators which includes traditional complex pharmacological and drug-free therapies and is distinguished with additional prescription of oral biologically active substance – aqueous solution of Coral-activin in dosage 15 mg twice a day for 7-10 days, and then for 2 years intermittent courses of anti-relapse therapy - 20 mg/day for 10-15 days with a two-month interval are prescribed. 7. Patent 30189 Ukraine, IPC: A61K 31/00, A61N 5/067. Method of complex anti-relapse treatment in remission period at opioid addiction / I.K. Sosin, Yu.F. Chuev, V.O. Shapovalova, V.V. Shapovalov, L.O. Brazhnik, E.Yu. Chueva, I.M. Skvira, O.V. Druz, N.P. Burmaka, A.O. Gudzenko, V.V. Bondarenko. - № u200712931; Claimed 22.11.2007; Published 11.02.2008; Bulletin № 3/2008. Method of treatment for diseased addiction to psychostimulators, that includes usage of traditional complex pharmacological and drugfree therapy that is distinguished with additional prescription of oral biologically active substance – aqueous solution of Coral-activin in dosage 15 mg twice a day for 7-10 days, and then for 2 years intermittent courses of anti-relapse therapy 20 mg/day for 10-15 days with a two-month interval are prescribed. 8. Patent 41156 Ukraine, IPC: A61K 31/00, A61N 1/02. Method of control of drinking bout in patients with alcoholic addiction / I.K. Sosin, G.M. Mysko, Yu.F. Chuev, V.O. Shapovalova, V.V. Shapovalov, Yu.V. Vasina, V.O. Skobelev, O.V. Druz O.V. Kioseev I.M. Skvira, N.P. Burmaka. - № u200813499; Claimed 24.11.2008; Published 12.05.2009; Bulletin № 9/2009. Method of control of drinking bout in patients with alcoholic addiction by pharmacological therapy which is distinguished by prescription as analeptic Galopril 1 mL i/m 1-2 times a day for 3-7 days, therapy is given at the background of intravasal or transdermal laser therapy with wavelength of 0.63 mcm, irradiation intensity of 2 mWt, exposure of 30-40 min, once a day, 3-5 treatment course, and at the oral intake of Enterosgel sorbent dosage of 15 g, thrice a day, 1.52 hours before or 2 hours after meals and intake of medications at a course of treatment during 7-14 days. 9. Patent 45926 A Ukraine, IPC: A61M 21/00. Method of psychophysiological correction of alcohol addiction / N.P. Burmaka. - № 2001128330; Claimed 05.12.2001; Published 15.04.2002; Bulletin № 4/2002. 1. Method of psychophysiological correction of alcohol addiction that includes group suggestive impact, stress therapy hypnotic session, effect on reflexogenic zones with simultaneous anti-alcohol code suggesting and medication administration, which is distinguished as the 122

group suggestion is being continued till emotional fatigue of the patient, self-consciousness formula is being formed individually, anxiety level is being raised by verbal suggestion with simultaneous irritation of middle upper part of surepciliary arches to produce pain reaction and acupoints which cause dizziness and dysphagia to vegetative reaction manifestation, and at this background the suggestion is continued, the self-consciousness and anti-alcohol code formula are reiterated repeatedly, oral sedative herbal decoction with absinth is administered as medication. 2. Method for item 1, which is distinguished with selfconsciousness formula reflecting psychological combination of personal features with a taken decision and includes name, age, name of pathology which the patient intends to get rid of and the term of coding. 3. Method for items 1 and 2, which is distinguished as to cause vegetative reactions with acupuncture or acupressure the meridian points of triple heaters TR-18, 22, 23, posterior medial meridian VG-18, 22, gall-bladder meridian points VB -7, 14, 21, 24, stomach meridian points Е-2, 7, 11, 12, small intestine point IG -17 and liver meridian points F -13, 14 are stimulated. 4 Method for items 1, 2 and 3, which is distinguished that a herb composition which includes, %: mint (leaves) 30, quinquelobate motherwort (herb) 20, valerian medicinal (root) 20, absinthium (herb) 30 is used as a herbal decoctum. 10. Patent 46685 A Ukraine, IPC: A61M 21/00. Method of treatment for alcohol addiction / N.P. Burmaka. - № 2002031787; Claimed 05.03.2002; Published 15.05.2002; Bulletin № 5/200. 1. Method of treatment for alcoholic addiction that includes determination of the patient’s selfconsciousness, which is distinguished that promt formation of conditional reflex dominance of alcohol rejection is reached by consecutive usage of pre-treatment information screening of the patient and/or his microsocial surroundings, group rational psychotherapy, determination of selfconsciousness formula, testing for susceptibility to hypnotic suggestion, coding procedure, and the consolidation stage includes training of the relatives as “co-therapists”, after which an antirelapse individual preventive medical psychological correction is performed. 2. Method for item 1, which is distinguished with the development in the patient no negative consequences, health complications at unconscious accidental alcohol intake. 11. Patent 61065Ukraine, IPC: A61B 5/00. Method of alcohol tremor reduction in abstinence syndrome structure/ I.K. Sosin, V.O. Shapovalova V.V. Shapovalov, V.V. Shapovalov, V.O. Skobelev, O.V. Shuvera, O.V. Druz O.V. Kioseev I.M. Skvira,

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

N.P. Burmaka. - №u201014328; Claimed 30.11.2010; Published 11.07.2011; Bulletin № 13/2011. Method of alcohol tremor reduction in abstinence syndrome structure with usage of complex pharmacotherapy and electrophoretic detoxification and symptomatic therapy, which is distinguished with transcerebral electrophoretic introduction of medications in ionic form during 5-7 days – from positive bilateral located on eye fovea electrodes – Magnesium sulphate 5 % solution 2-5 mL is administered from one eye fovea, and from other eye fovea (also from positive electrode) - atropine sulphate 0.1 % solution 0.5-1.0, indifferent electrode is located under inion, wet with Sodium chloride isotonic solution, in 30-40 minutes transcerebral electric sleep – elecrtophoresis Pirroxan from anode is realized, overnight the latter is repeated and the mentioned combined treatment is carried out at the background of oral intake of ozonized vegetative olive oil for internal usage with starting bubbling concentration of ozone in ozone-oxygen mixture of 4000-5000 microgram/l 1 teaspoonful 3-4 times. 12. Patent 64376 A Ukraine, IPC: A61N 1/00. Method of relieving of alcohol withdrawal condition / I.K. Sosin, I.V/ Kuprienko, O.A. Osipov, V.I. Sioma G.M. Ivanilova, O.V. Druz N.P. Burmaka. - №u 2003054633; Claimed 22.05.2003; Published 16.02.2004; Bulletin № 2/2004. Method of relieving of alcohol withdrawal condition that includes transcerebral electrophoresis according to orbital bilateral technique, by active positive electrodes introduced into area of left eye fovea 5 % solution of magnesium sulphate, and in area of right eye fovea – 0.1 % atropine sulphate are administered, which is distinguished with a recurrent transcerebral electrophoresis with current of 2-4 mА, 20-30 min exposure is provided with 5 % magnium sulfate solution from one anode, and 0.5 % рyrroxan solution from the other, and during the interval between these treatments a short-term relaxing psychotherapy is realized. 13. Patent 65396 Ukraine, IPC: G01N 33/48, A61B 10/00. Method of integrated diagnostic identification of alcoholic addiction in general somatic practice / I.K. Sosin, V.M. Mitsura, I.M. Skvira, O.Yu.Goncharova, Yu.F. Chuev, O.V. Kubrak, O.S. Volkov, O.A. Osipov, N.P. Burmaka. - № u201104235; Claimed 07.04.2011; Published 12.12.2011; Bulletin № 23/2011. Method of integrated diagnostic identification of alcoholic addiction in general somatic practice which is realized by psychological testing and combined usage of laboratory research, which is distinguished by tandem usage for addiction testing two valid international questionnaires «CAGE» and «MAST», in blood serum value of

liver enzymes gamma-glutamattransferase (GGT), aspartataminotransferase (AST) and alaninaminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamiltransferae (GGT)>3.4 norm; GGT/ALT>1; AST/ALT>1; AST>2 norm, and mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes (MCVE)>99 vial; and their ratio are determined; besides liver rheography and transdermal thermovision liver examination are carried out, and each pathological alteration of the parameters of the mentioned diagnostic complex is assessed as 1 point and according to the results of quantitative complex assessment, starting from 3 points «CAGE» or 5 points «MAST» and to maximum possible (eventual) 33 points, a positive result is given concerning alcohol addiction of the examined patient, then on the ground of discrete assessment the stage of alcohol addiction is determined: 3-5-11 points – stage 1, 12-22 points – stage 2 and 23-33 points – stage 3. 14. Patent 67150 Ukraine, IPC: G01N 33/48, A61B 5/16. Method of prediction of pseudoabstinence syndrome at remission in opioid addicts / I.K. Sosin, M.O. Ovcharenko, L.L. Pinskiy, O.Yu.Goncharova, I.M. Skvira, Yu.F. Chuev, N.P. Burmaka. - № u201105936; Claimed 12.05.2011; Published 10.02.2012; Bulletin № 3/2012 Method of prediction of pseudo-abstinence syndrome at remission in opioid addicts, that includes diagnostic clinical psychopathological screening, which is distinguished by additional ultrasonic determination of the liver condition, quantification assessment of relapse risk factors, the revealed mathematical values (prediction coefficients) are assessed with the aid of system of two discriminant equations (№1 and №2, respectively): F1=4,32* a + 1,19* b + 1,13 * c - 056* d – 1,84* e -18,13; F2=2,54* a + 04* b3 + 1,53* c – 0,02* d – 1,26* e – 5,96, where: F1 – total scores of discriminant equation № 1; F2 - total scores of discriminant equation № 2; numerical values in formulas – constants in discriminant equation and discriminant coefficients; а – total value of affective component (score); b - astenia (score); с - hepatomegaly (score); d - splenomegaly (score); е – icteritiousness of mucosa (score); * - sign of multiplication and if absolute value of F1˃ F2, development of pseudoabstinence syndrome is predicted in following 3 months and anti-relapse therapy is to be administered. 15. Patent 74888 Ukraine, IPC: A61M 1/36, A61K 31/00. Method of treatment for alcohol polyneuropathy with usage of complex pharmacological therapy (detoxificating therapy, vitamin therapy, vasotropic vegetostabilizing, antioxidative therapy) / I.K. Sosin, O.O. Sushinska, O.Yu.Goncharova, O.V. Klimenko, Yu.F. Chuev, O.V. Druz N.P. Burmaka, V.O. Skobelev, 123

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O.V. Kioseev O.Yu. Khudyak. - № uu201206113; Claimed 21.05.2012; Published 12.11.2012; Bulletin № 21/2012. Method of treatment for alcohol polyneuropathy with usage of complex pharmacological therapy (detoxificating therapy, vitamin therapy, vasotropic vegetostabilizing, antioxidative therapy), which is distinguished by additional usage of intramuscular injection of Cocarnit, 1 ampoule every 24 hrs, 3-10 injections for a treatment course, and synchronous membrane plasmapheresis – once every 3 days, course of 1 – 3 treatments with blood plasm dosed exfusion volume 600.0-1000.0 mL. Conclusions Inventive activity teaching paradigm concept of the department of addictology supposes integrated synergetic unity of training and activation of creative (inventive) activity contributed by all participants of undergraduate and postgraduate medical education (teaching staff, medical students, postgraduate medical retrainees, postgraduate students, candidates for a degree, interns, medical residents). Ukrainian neuroscience “Addictology” proved to be a beneficial and prospective field for scientific patent designs at innovation intellectual property level either of the world’s or national scale. References: 1. Волосовець О. П. Стратегія євроінтеграційного реформування вищої медичної освіти України  / О.  П.  Волосовець  // Проблеми медичної науки та освіти. — 2006. — № 1. — С. 5—12. 2. Гримблат С.О., Сосин И.К. Проблемы оптимизации высшего образования (на модели менеджмента и психологии). Харьков: Факт, 2004. – 720 с. 3. Довженківські читання: Редукція вживання алкоголю – нова наркологічна парадигма: матеріали ХVI  Укр. наук.-практ. конф. з участю міжнар. спеціалістів, 7—8 квітня 2015  р., Харків / ред.: П. В. Волошин; ДУ «Iн-т неврології, психіатрії та наркології АМН України». — Х., 2015. — 281 с. — ISBN 978-966-8922-26-8 4. Клигуненко Е.Н., Ехалов В.В., Слива В.И., Станин Д.М., Лященко О.В. Перспективы оптимизации подготовки врачей-интернов по модулю «Неотложные состояния». // Медицина неотложных состояний, №5(44), 2012. – с. 71-74. 5. Кожина А. М. Подготовка врачей-психиатров в Украине (проблемы, пути решения) [Текст] / А. М. Кожина, В. И. Коростий, А. А. Черкасова // Український вісник психоневрології. — 2014. — Т. 22, вип. 4 (81). — С. 5—9.  6. Морозов П.В., Алімов У.Х., Алтинбеков С.А., Волошин П.В., Галако Т.І., Євсєгнєєв Р.А., 124

Ісмаілов Н.В., Кожина Г.М., Коростій В.І., Марута Н.О., Незнанов М.Г., Скугаревський О.О., Согоян А., Ходжаєва Н.І., Хотіняну М.А., Чконія Е. Профессиональная подготовка врачей-психиатров в странах ВосточноЕвропейской зоны WPA: проблемы и решения. Український вісник психоневрології. 2015. Том 23, випуск 3 (84). – С.16-20. 7. Морозова Н.А., Квашенко В.П., Демина Т.Н., Могилевкина И.А., Морозова Н.И. Постдипломная подготовка в формировании квалифицированных специалистов. «Медикосоциальные проблемы семьи» №1, (Том 18), 2013. –С.129-130. 8. Наркологія: Національний підручник з грифом МОН та МОЗ [Текст]  / Сосін І.  К., Чуєв Ю.  Ф., Артемчук А.  П. [та ін.]; за ред. І.  К. Сосіна, Ю. Ф. Чуєва. — Х.: Вид-во «Колегіум», 2014. — 1500 с. 9. Соколова И.  М. Психофизиологические механизмы адаптации студентов  : монография  / И.  М.  Соколова.  — Харьков  : ХГМУ, 2007. — 412 с. 10. Сосин И.К. Наркология. [Текст]  / И.К.Сосин, Ю.Ф.Чуев. – Харьков.: Коллегиум., 2005. – 800 с. 11. Сосін І.К., Гончарова О. Ю., Чуєв Ю. Ф. Стандартний імітаційний модуль «опіоїдна залежність» у системі післядипломної підготовки лікарівнаркологів // Матеріали XIII Всеукраїнської науково-практичної конференції з міжнародною участю «Актуальні питання якості медичної освіти» (з дистанційним під’єднанням ВМ(Ф)НЗ України за допомогою відеоконференц-зв’язку) 12–13 травня 2016 року, м. Тернопіль. У двох томах. Том 2. Тернопіль, ТДМУ, «Укрмедкнига». 2016. – С. 309 – 311. 12. Campion J. EPA guidance on prevention of mental disorders [Text] / J. Campion, K. Bhui, D. Bhugra // European Psychiatry. — 2012. — Vol. 27. — № 2. — P. 68—80. 13. EPA guidance of the quality of mental health services [Text] / W. Gaebel, T. Becker, B. Janssen et al. // Ibid. — P. 87—114. 14. EPA guidance on the role and responsibilities of psychiatrists [Text] / D. Bhugra, A. Ventriglio, M. R. Kuzman et al. // Ibid. — 2015. — Vol. 30. — № 3. — P. 417—423. 15. Mental Health Policy and Practice across Europe [Electronic Resource] / M. Knapp, D. McDaid, E. Mossialos, G. Thornicroft (ed.). — Maidenhead U: McGraw Hill Open University Press, 2007. — 452 р. — Mode of access : URL : http://www.euro.who. int/__data/ assets/pdf_file/0007/96451/E89814. pdf

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UDK 316.454.3 PSYCHOLOGY OF HANDICAP COMPLEX: AGE ASPECT Oleg Stavytskyi Doctor of Psychology, Professor Head of the Department of Psychology of the International University of Economics and Humanities named after Acad. Stepan Demianchuk Rivne city

The article is devoted to the psychological analysis of age peculiarities of handicap complex manifestation in humans with disabilities. The paper clarifies the concept of «handicaps» as a social phenomenon that is updated by the negative perceptions of disabled people and the category of «handicap complex» is revealed. The introduced results of empirical research of handicap complex manifestationwere received with the help of the author’s questionnaire which is certificated and tested. While determining the features of handicap complex manifestationin people of all ages it has been found that it appears mostly in young and elderly people, who suffer from severe depressive states about the presence of disabling defect, increased anxiety and fear of the future, while these figures are expressed much less in the respondents of the middle age. Key words: society, disabled, handicap complex, fear, disgust, depression, anxiety, self-isolation, aversion to himself, rejection of himself.

Стаття присвячена психологічному аналізу вікових особливостей прояву комплексу гандикапу у людей з особливими потребами. У статті уточнюється поняття «гандикапізм», як суспільне явище, що актуалізується за рахунок негативних уявлень про неповносправних та розкривається категорія «комплекс гандикапу». Представлені результати емпіричного дослідження проявів комплексу гандикапу, отримані за авторським опитувальником, який пройшов стандартизацію та апробацію. При визначенні особливостей прояву комплексу гандикапу в осіб різного віку встановлено, що він проявляється більшою мірою у молодих людей та осіб похилого віку, в яких вираженими є депресивні стани з приводу наявності інвалідизуючого дефекту, підвищена тривожність та страх майбутнього, в той час, як у респондентів середнього віку ці показники виражені значно менше. Ключові слова: соціум, інвалідизований, комплекс гандикапу, страх, відраза, депресія, тривога, самоізоляція, відраза до себе, неприйняття себе.

As at 1 January, 2014 in our country there are 2.8 million people with disabilities, it is 6.1 % of the total population [1]. It was two years ago and today the number of disabled in Ukraine is growing rapidly due to military operations (besides physical injuries, over 80 % of ATO participants get post traumatic stress disorder), economic difficulties, impoverishment of major part of the population, the aggravation of migration processes. Increase of the number of disabled people becomes a problem of the state level. Society was divided into two groups by the criterion «disabled – healthy». The relationship between them is quite complex and ambiguous: on the one hand the presence of physical disability causes empathy, respect for courage, self-sacrificein

a healthy part of the population, on the other hand – disabling bodily deficiency Is accompanied by PTSD and the reforemental disorder «pushes away», creates psychological barrier between disabled and healthy parts of society. Among lots of phenomena which fix discrimination, the existence of prejudice and destructive attitudes, particularly dangerous is handicapism that has a negative pattern in relation to disabled people. D. Vetlib [3] in the “Encyclopedia of Psychology” (R.  Corsini and A.  Auerbach) interprets the term «handicapism» as prejudices concerning persons with deviations from the norm, i.e. it becomes a kind of racial and gender stereotypes that exist in society 125

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Fig. 1. Manifestation of the high level of handicap complex in disabled (%) both in public, individual and institutional, and in the hidden, latent forms. We agree with this opinion and interpret «handicapism»as a social phenomenon that is updated by the negative ideas about the disabled. Such views are in the public consciousness and are revealed at the unconscious level as the collective unconscious (archaic stereotypes), which operate by means of archetypes [4]. The concept of handicap and handicapismis at an early stage of the scientific formation and virtually unexplored. There are different interpretations of «handicap» (from Eng. Handicaps). It is defined as the sport events, racing, where weaker members, in order to increase their chances of success, are given the handicap; the way of leadership display in the previous stages, which is expressed in an earlier start at the next stages [4]. In the context of psychology, this concept is explained as a condition when a combination of physical, mental, psychological and social qualities of people with disabilities makes it difficult to adapt, not allowing them to reach the optimallevel of development and operation [4]. Accordingly, the handicap is defined as a psychological complex, individual, internal rejection himself like a human with disabilities, deformed image of “I” under the influence of functional limitations of a personality. L. Vygotskyi called this phenomenon “full imperfection or social disability” [2, 73]. In psychological science a lot of attention was paid to the issue of disability (L.  Vygotskyi, A.  Luria, L.  Wasserman, T.  Parsons, V.  Radaiev, A.  Shkaratan, O.  Yarska-Smirnova and others), growth of disabled population, research of social and economic causes, mechanisms and factors that determine this problem. Meanwhile psychology of handicapism in the scientific 126

tradition is not developed neither in a theoretical nor practical, applied area. The aim and objectives of the article is to clarify the psychological characteristics of handicap complexflow in disabled of all ages that in future will allow a differentiated approach to the prevention and correction of the appearance of the complex. For the purpose of empirical study ofhandicap complex formation in the disabled part of the population, we have created, standardized and tested a questionnaire [5]. The methodology allows determining a set of peculiarities of handicap complex which are typical for disabled of different age groups. Indicators of 7 scales have been analyzed in terms of three levels: high, medium, low.The study was conducted in five regions of Ukraine from 2008 to 2010. The sample met all the requirements to recognize it is representative. Its number totaled 1200 people. We divided all respondents into three age categories: 18 – 29 years, 30 – 59 years and 60 years and more.The age distribution is due to the generally recognized (P. Blonskyi, L.  Vygotskyi, D.  Yelkonin, E.  Ericson, L.  Kohlberg, G.  Kostiuk, A.  Petrovskyi and many others) common social and psychological characteristics of age groups: young people, middleaged and senior (elderly) people. The presentation of results we start with an analysis of high-level indicators of psychological peculiarities of handicap complex manifestation in disabled people (see Fig. 1). On the scale «embarrassment» high rates are observed in 45.4  % of young people and 35.3  % of the elderly. These respondents feel uncertain, feel discomfort and anxiety because of the disabling defect, and perceive themselves inadequately, considering themselves worse than healthy people. Among middleaged people fewer (20.6 %) were detected, which are

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characterized by uncertainty in the interaction with society. Results on the scale «depression» that point out its high level are prevalent in older respondents (17.5 %), which could be influenced by negative emotions, often experience frustration and suffer from depression. They believe that nothing goodis expectedahead of them,look to the future with pessimism, they see there only pain and suffering. Slightly lower rates (12.4  %) are observed in young people. These respondents perceive themselves as inferior people, incapable for self-realization. They believe that they cannot be happy, build their lives as if they wanted because of defects, so they are often depressed, suffer from predominance of asthenic emotions. Another lower figure (8.5  %) is typical for middle-aged people who suffer from that they do not see any ways for self-realization, limited by the influence of functional defect, do not know how to increase the level of their life. On the scale «anxiety»the high level is prevailing in pensioners (46.5 %) and youth (44.2%). Such testees feel uncertain when interacting with others, perceive themselves as inferior people, and expect rejection and negative attitude of the society. High rates are less expressed in the middle-aged (26.7  %) group, which feel lack of confidence, stress about their rejection, inability to integrate into society and be included into group activities. Indicators on the scale «fear»that point out its high level are prevalent in younger people (21.4  %). They suffer from obsessive fear of interaction with a healthy part of society;they are frightened to be objectionable, reived. Anxiety causes the expectations of ridicule from healthy people, underlining inferiority of optant. Virtually the indicator of elderly (18.3  %) optants does not differ from the previous one. Such testees are afraid of the future, feel fear to be a burden for relatives. Slightly lower figure (12.6  %) is observed in middle-agedoptants where fear is caused by the thoughts about the future, the possibility of the disease development, the complete deprivation of capacity. On the scale «aversion to himself» the high level is revealed in 14.6 % of young people. Optants show rejection of themselves, lack of self-esteem, inability to see their positive features and opportunities for self-realization. Among the olderrespondents 11.2  % of people are foundthat show negative self-attitude. They focus only on their own shortcomings and weaknesses, are depressed and not able to assess their own personalityadequately. Even the lower

figure (6.3 %) is resulted in middle-aged people under study which show low self-esteem, inability to see their positive traits. Indicators on the scale «rejection of himself»that point out its high levelis more expressed among young (28.6 %) and elderly (22.3 %) people. They are characterized by low self-esteem, underestimation of their own advantages and positive features, inadequate self-attitude. Slightly lower figure (12.5 %) is observed in middle-aged respondents who demonstrate an insufficient level of self-esteem and auto-affection, they are focused on their own defects. The results obtained on the scale of «selfisolation» that point out its high levelare prevalent in 16.4 % of pensioners, which have a tendency to limit their contacts, to be reserved. They do not want to communicate with a wide circle of people since they suffer from low self-esteem and feelings of inferiority. Among young adults under study 11.2 % is found who seek for solitude and isolation because of fear to be objectionable in a healthy part of society, they are afraid of ridicule and scorn from others. A somewhat lower rate (7.7 %) is received in a middle-aged group who seek for solitude, because they believe that there is no sphere in which they could express themselves and be self-realized. The further analysis of the survey results we continue with characteristics of mid-level manifestation of psychological features of handicap complex in disabled people (see Fig. 2). Indicators of the average level of manifestation are typical for disabled people in almost on all scales (from 37.7 % in the scale «anxiety» to 65.7 % in the scale of «aversion to himself»). Indicators of percentage are very significant that’s why they could not be thought to be a norm. That is, all disabled are characterized by psychological features that are assonant with the names of diagnostic scales. Accordingly, almost all persons with disabilities have a peculiar behavior with the featuresof handicapcomplex, but not always. Handicap complex of such disabled is in a latent state, it seems «tobe dozing». And the state of calm and dozing in the manifestations of complex disappears when it «runs» by the influence of some external or internal factors, which include: - some situations of interaction with unfamiliar people; - adverse effects, emotionally rich external and internal factors that resemble the traumatic situation; - a period of adaptation while entering a new group; - stress; 127

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Fig. 2. Manifestation of the average level of handicap complex in disabled (%) - situations

whendisabled feel humiliation, hostility from nearby people, discrimination and rejection. It should be noted that in indicators of all ages: firstly, data of mid-level manifestation of handicap complex are dominated; secondly, statistically significant differences in these parameters in terms of the scale were not found. And the further analysisof these figures on all scales is meaningless. We continue the further analysis of the survey results with the characteristic of low-level manifestation of psychological features of handicap complexin disabled people (see Fig. 3). On the scale «embarrassment» the low level is revealed in 30.7 % of middle-aged respondents who feel comfortable when interacting with others, do not feel anxiety and restlessness. 23.6 % of elderlyrespondents also feel concern and uncertainty when dealing with healthy people. 15.3  % of young people show a low level of embarrassment because they do not pay much attention to the presence of disabling defect, consider themselves no worse than healthy people, do not have complex about defects perceiving it as their individual trait. The low level on the scale «depression»is typical for 42.3  % of middle-aged people who do not suffer from depression, able to adapt to the conditions changed because of disabling defect, keepself-esteem and positive self-attitude. A somewhat lower rate is observed in young people (36.8 %). These respondents believe that they can accomplish in life the same as a healthy person, convinced that physical defect is not importantobstacle to settle their lives. Even the lower figure (27.7 %) is typical for elderly optantswho perceivephysical defects granted, they do not focus their attention on it and try to continue to live a full life. 128

On the scale«anxiety»the low level is prevalent in middle-aged (29.7 %) people who do not suffer from high anxiety, feel comfortablewhen interacting with others, do not pay much attention to the presence of defects and areeager to bring their life to lives of healthy people. 17.3 %among young peopleare found to have the low level of anxiety and lack of negative feelings about disabling defect. Such optantsdo not have difficulty in establishing contacts, they have no communication barriers. Even the lower figure (15.8 %) is typical for elderly respondents who perceive themselves adequately, do not feel extra excitement because of defects. The low level on the scale «fear»is typical for 42.2 % of middle-aged people who do not experience fear and anxiety about their rejection, they are not afraid to be objectionable in society, and optimistic about the future. Lower rates are characteristic of older respondents (29.5 %) and young people (26.3 %) who do not experience anxiety while communicating with others; assess their position in society and prospects for self-realizationwithout fear. On the scale «aversion to himself»the low level is prevailing in middle-aged respondents (31.2  %), which are characterized by positive selfattitude, ability to see a significant amount of positive characteristics, focusing on their advantages. 25.3 % of optants are foundamong the elderlypeople which feel a peculiar satisfaction and have high selfestimation. They do not pay attention to disabling defect and not allow it to affect their own self-esteem. Even the lower figure (19.7  %) is characteristic of youth. Such people under the study are oriented to their strong points; believe in themselves, their abilities and capabilities.

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Fig. 3. Manifestation of the low level of handicap complex in disabled (%) The low level on the scale «rejection of himself» isobserved in 47.3 % of middle-aged who demonstrate a high degree of acceptance of themselves, adequate self-esteem is typical to them, as well as the ability to highlight their own individual strengths and many advantages. Slightly lower figure (34.4 %) is shown in elderly optants, which have high self-esteem and a sufficient level of auto-affection. Even the lower figure (29.7 %) isprevailing in young people who are positive about themselves, focus on their positive features, and believe in their own ability. The low level on the scale «self-isolation» is observed in 39.3  % of middle agedpeople who have a wide circle of friends, do not suffer from loneliness and are not eager to be isolated from others. Slightly lower figure (31.6 %) is typical for young people who were able to adapt to life conditions caused by the presence of disabling defect, demonstrate sufficient socializing and high need of communication that is realized. 25.3  % of elderly peoplealso have a high ability to establish contacts with others, maintain the relationship with healthy people, and with other disabled. While determining the features of handicap complex manifestation in people of all ages it has been found that it appears more in young and elderlypeople, who suffer from severe depressive states about the presence of disabling defect, increased anxiety and fear of the future, while, the figures of the middleaged respondents are expressed much less. We consider the prospects of the further research on this issue in the study of sex, education and other aspects of handicapcomplex manifestation.

References: 1. Bakhteieva T. 80 % invalidiv v Ukraini – tse liudy pratsezdatnoho viku / Tetiana Bakhteieva [Elektronnyi resurs]. – Rezhym dostupu :http:// 2. Vihotskyi L.  S. Problemy defektolohyy / L. S. Vyhotskyi ; [sost., avt. y byblyohr. T. M. Lyfanova ; avt. koment. M. A. Stepanova]. – M., 1995. – S. 71 – 77. 3. Korsyny R. Эntsyklopedyia psykholohyy [Elektronnii resurs] / R. Korsyny, A. Auэrbakh. – Rezhym dostupa : html. – Nazvanye s эkrana. Data obrashchenyia 01.08.2008. 4. Stavytskyi  O  O. Psykholohiia handykapizmu. Monohrafiia. / O.  O.  Stavytskyi – Rivne, „PryntKhaus”, 2011. – 376 s. 5. Stavytskyi O. O. Psykholohiia proiaviv handykapizmu ta yikh rehuliatsiia: dys… na zdobuttia nauk. stupenia doktora psykhol. nauk : spets. 19.00.01 «Zahalna psykholohiia. Istoriia psykholohii» / O. O. Stavytskyi. – K., 2014. – 595 s.


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UDC 37.014.5 : 378.4 (477:4) THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDYING THE PEDAGOGICAL HERITAGE OF A. S. MAKARENKO THROUGH THE PRISM OF INTEGRATION PROCESSES IN EDUCATION Ninel Sydorchuk Doctor of Pedagogic Sciences, Professor, Professor at the Department of Pedagogy, Zhytomyr Ivan Franko State University

The article raises the need to rethink the achievements of national pedagogy as well as the key concepts of home pedagogics in the frames of updating the higher education system based on integration processes. In this context the emphasis is made on the importance of systematic study of the scientific and pedagogical heritage of outstanding Ukrainian pedagogue of the twentieth century, Anton Makarenko. In this respect the specific features and ways of using the original ideas of Anton Makarenko at socio-psychological faculty of Zhytomyr Ivan Franko State University due to the example of studying the course of “Pedagogy” is analyzed. Step-by-step implementation of the mentioned task in education process is given. This process is based on the development of the stages of studying the creative heritage of Anton Makarenko, based on theoretical, practical units and individual work of the students. The theoretical unit contains such issues: Anton Makarenko and his contribution to the development of pedagogical science; the actual problems of formation of the collective; the concept of the collective, its characteristics, types and structure; the dynamics and stages of collective development; the means and methodological basis for the organization and education of the collective in educational institutions; general methods of upbringing and education. Within each unit the specific practice-oriented forms of activities of the teacher and the students during the educational interaction (lecture with audio-visual support, the reading of primary sources, their analysis, preparation of free notes and the like) are developed. For each of the proposed forms the effective local technology (algorithm) of their introduction in the practice of the work of higher school is developed. The necessity of their use for obtaining the best results of training activities aimed at the study of original ideas of Anton Makarenko is grounded. The value of the pedagogical heritage of Anton Makarenko for understanding the ties between theoretical pedagogical models and their development in real conditions of educational practice is proved. Key words: domestic pedagogical heritage, creative heritage of Anton Makarenko, step-by-step rethinking of the creative heritage of Anton Makarenko.


У статті актуалізовано необхідність переосмислення здобутків вітчизняної педагогіки, ключових концепцій видатних вітчизняних педагогів у межах оновлення системи вищої освіти на засадах інтеграційних процесів. Наголошено на важливості у зазначеному контексті систематичного вивчення науково-педагогічної спадщини видатного українського педагога ХХ століття Антона Макаренка. У зазначеному контексті проаналізовано специфіку та шляхи використання оригінальних ідей Антона  Макаренка на соціальнопсихологічному факультеті Житомирського державного університету імені Івана Франка на прикладі вивчення курсу «Педагогіка». Подано покрокове впровадження поставленого завдання у навчальний процес, в основу якого покладено розробку етапів вивчення творчої спадщини Антона Макаренка з опорою на теоретичний, практичний блок та блок індивідуальної роботи студентів. У теоретичний блок включено відповідну проблематику: Антон  Макаренко та його внесок у розбудову педагогічної науки; актуальні проблеми формування колективу; поняття колективу, його ознаки, структура і типи; Динаміка і етапи розвитку колективу; засоби та методичні основи організації та виховання колективу у загальноосвітніх закладах; загальні методи виховання та навчання. У межах кожного блоку розроблено конкретні практико-орієнтовані форми діяльності викладача та студентів у ході навчальної взаємодії (лекція з аудіовізуальною підтримкою, читання першоджерел, їх аналіз, складання вільного конспекту тощо). Для кожної із запропонованих форм розроблено ефективні локальні технології (алгоритми) їх впровадження у практику роботи вищої школи, обґрунтовано необхідність їх використання для отримання оптимального результату навчальної діяльності, спрямованого на вивчення оригінальних ідей Антона Макаренка. Доведено цінність педагогічного доробку Антона Макаренка для осмислення зв’язку між сучасними теоретичними педагогічними моделями та їх розвитком у реальних умовах освітянської практики. Ключові слова: вітчизняна педагогічна спадщина, творча спадщина Антона  Макаренко, поетапне осмислення творчого доробку Антона Макаренка.

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According to the “Strategy of Ukraine integration to the European Union”, approved by the decree of the President of Ukraine, along with other aspects of European integration (political, economic, legislative) a special place in the implementation of integration processes is given to cultural and educational sphere, which involves not only the implementation of European norms and standards in education and science, but also the spreading of their own achievements in the field of education in the European educational space. In the light of mentioned tasks the topical task is the rethinking of the achievements of the prominent figures of the pedagogical science. A. S. Makarenko has special place among these figures. Scientific and theoretical heritage of A. S. Makarenko is connected not only with the activities of outstanding teacher of the past being limited with the time frame of 20-30th of XX century. It is a scientific pedagogy for current and future generations of the teachers. The experience shows that pedagogical heritage of the outstanding teacher is an extremely valuable material for understanding the relationship between theoretical pedagogical models and their development in real conditions of educational practice, the absence of which was a very serious problem for the outstanding teacher [3]. The creative heritage of A. S. Makarenko is studied in higher educational institutions, on the post-graduate pedagogical courses. Let us analyze the specifics and the possibilities of its use in socio-psychological faculty of Zhytomyr Ivan Franko State University with the help of the example of the course “Pedagogics”. This course is studied during the first year of study at the university. The mentioned discipline within the curriculum for the specialty “6.010106 social pedagogy” consists of four modules of content: “General principles” (two modules), “Theory of education” (one module), “Didactics. Education management (one module). The teaching of these models presupposes the gradual understanding of the creative heritage of A. S. Makarenko (see table. 1). The analysis of the activities of the outstanding teacher by the students of these professions is realized not only from the point of view of the originality of his ideas, but also on the ground of the proximity of his heritage to future professional activities of the students, since for the basis of his system of education is laid a number of principles of socio-pedagogical character. The acquaintance of the students with A. S. Makarenko and his pedagogical legacy is realized in the study of the first topic of the course “The subject and tasks of pedagogy” where the presentation of historical stages of the development of pedagogy is based on outlining the actual phenomenon of an outstanding teacher due to his contribution to the

development of pedagogy as a science, the core of which is his doctrine of the collective. A. S.  Makarenko developed his pedagogical ideas in the beginning of the twentieth century; his pedagogical innovation was organically intertwined in the search for the contemporary pedagogics and became its part. At that time the pedagogics was full of reformist ideas. The idea of a new school was very successfully implemented and developed in the M. Gorky Colony and in the F. Dzerzhinsky Commune by the outstanding teacher. The traditional pedagogy has always put forward the studying process, whereas the upbringing was considered as a certain byproduct. Makarenko put the upbringing process in the first place, and the study was seen as a component of upbringing. He believed that the task of the school is to bring up the democratic attitudes and the ability to live according to democratic principles [5, p. 334-340; 8]. As a result of communication, the students come to the conclusion that the pedagogy of A. S. Makarenko is the science of upbringing. The mentioned concept is continued under the topic “The collective as the main form of socialization”. Overall, Anton Semenovich considered the collective as a way that provides the effective upbringing and personality development. The system of Makarenko was focused on the upbringing of the man, who harmoniously combines the personality and social interests. He created such conditions when the pupils fulfilled the teachers’ functions. He gave them broad powers through the system of self-government. Among two persons on duty (the teacher and pupil) the pupil was the leading element of the team. And any member of the Council of the Commanders order was obligatory not only for the pupils but also for all educators and engineers of the factory which employed the children. The self-government was quite efficient and effective [5, p. 340-358]. An important aspect of the comprehension by the students of this subject is examining the actual problems of the theory of the collective through the prism of the history of its formation and development, the positive feedback from the colleagues and critical views of the opponents. The performance of the presentation of the material during the lecture is determined by the juxtaposition of certain alternatives: the critical insights of the Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor, the member of two academies (the creative pedagogical unit and the unit of economic security), the member of the Union of writers of Russia Yu.  P.  Azarov [1] in contrast to the infinite network of Makarevsko centers on the world map, identifying the specific interest to the heritage of Anton Semenovich by the teachers of Germany, Japan, the United States and many other countries. It is known, that the international Association of Makarenko study in Germany, a research center 131

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Table 1 The stages of studying the creative heritage of A. S. Makarenko in the course “Pedagogy” The Form of represemtation


The theoretical unit

Practical unit

Individual work

Content module 1. General principles of pedagogy The theme 1.1. The subject and tasks of pedagogy. 1. A. S. Makarenko and his contribution to the development of pedagogical science

Fragment of the lecture with video presentation.



Content module 2. General principles of pedagogy Theme 2.2. Collective as the main form of socialization of the personality. 1. Actual problems of the formation of the collective.

The fragment of the lecture with video presentation.

2. The concept of the collective, its characteristics, structure and types.

The fragment of the lecture with video presentation.

3. The dynamics and stages of the development of the collective. 4. Means and methodological foundations of organization and upbringing of the collective in educational institutions.

The fragment of the lecture with video presentation. The fragment of the lecture with video presentation.


The reading, notetaking, analysis of the work of A. S. Makarenko «Pedagogical poem».

The features of the formation of the collective in the work of A. S. Makarenko “The methodology of organizing the upbringing process”

Content module 3. Theory of education The theme 3.1. Pedagogy as the science of education. 1. General methods of upbringing


A. S. Makarenko: the author’s methods of upbringing


Content module 4. Didactics. Education management Theme 4.2. The content of education in the national school. Methods and means of teaching _


studying the life and works of A. S. Makarenko – the laboratory “Makarenko-referat”; all-Ukrainian Association of Makarenko study (with its location in Poltava V. G.  Korolenko state pedagogical University, and others are actively working [3]. The statement of Anton Semenovich: “All problems as resolved with the mastership based in the skills and qualification” became the slogan of the Japanese Corporation “Toshiba”, since this very approach, according to Japanese managers, develops in the workers the creative potentiality. The methodology of the internship being the shortest path of transferring the experience between people is used by all highly civilized and democratic communities of the world. The Germans, British, Japanese lead their “national pedagogy” by the way blazed by our countryman. In Cuba, all teachers are called “macarroni”. In 1988, the Hope recommended that the teachers of Catholic schools study and creatively use the upbringing experience of Makarenko and Sukhomlinsky – our fellow countrymen [2]. Although, of course, Makarenko was first of all the man of his time and offered the upbringing of 132

A. S. Makarenko: the author’s teaching methods


socially problematic children in the context of Soviet society, however, as it is proved by the experience of the use of his theoretical positions, our compatriot put forward a lot of new things to the world pedagogical heritage. His ideas are relevant to the problem of upbringing the current generation of children. The teaching experience is an inexhaustible source of life-giving and at the same time is a way of improving the scientific knowledge as well as the criteria of their truth. For the teacher-contemporary such a source is the classic of the pedagogy who was a veritable revolutionary in pedagogy, an outstanding bright professional, a talented writer who left a rich pedagogical heritage of more than 150 works (novels, short stories, plays, scripts, scientific and journalistic articles, and the like). His experience and pedagogical views are placed in the works: “The march of the 30th”, “The pedagogical poem”, “The book for parents”, “The flags on the towers”, “The methods of upbringing”, etc. On the example of the work of A. S. Makarenko “The pedagogical poem” [6], which is proposed for consideration, The students learn not only to

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read primary sources, but also to analyze them, increasing the level of theoretical thinking and professional consciousness with an orientation to future professional activities. The performance of the mentioned task is accompanied by the use of the deployed algorithm, what is suggested below. A detailed algorithm of work with primary sources The purpose of work with primary sources: deepening of knowledge of specific issues of the topic; developing the ability to summarize and organize the information. The general rules of familiarizing with the book 1. Preliminary familiarizing starts with a title page. This is an important element of publishing decoration with such information: name of the institution or organization that issued the book; the names of the authors involved in the publication; the type of publication; the frequency of publication. You can define the interest of the people to the book with the help of its title. 2. The study of annotation which helps the formation of first impressions about the content of the material in the book. 3. The familiarization with the preface, where you can find important guidelines: at which chapters must be paid attention in the first place; which chapters cam be possibly skipped; what prompted the author to write (finish) the book; the general plan of presentation of the book. The successfully written introduction covers all the contents of the book and its objectives. 4. The study of the content of the book. Then, without reading the text, you can see the general plan, the main headings, topics, content. 5. If the book has a section “Epilogue”, it is possible to find the main idea of the book, conclusions, summary. 6.  It is especially important to train yourself to work with the scientific-reference apparatus of the book, which is available at the end (index of the names, the applications, references, illustrations, comments, glossary). 7.  Accustom yourself to the need to work with a dictionary, if the primary source has unfamiliar terms, words. The forms of note-taking of the printed primary sources: • The plan is a list of the problems covered in the book; a kind of scheme of the publication (a typical example of the plan – the contents of the book). A plan can be simple (only basic questions) or complex (deployed). A detailed plan has only a list of questions, but also reveals the main ideas of the source and may include the excerpts from it. A plan helps to better focus the content of the text, during a short time to find a certain fragment in the text. A plan may be compiled while reading the original or, as the conclusion, after reading the whole text. If the

plan consistently reflects the thinking of the author, it can be called structural. And if the author describes the problem from different sides reiterates his ideas, then the plan unites different arguments. Such a plan is called a logic one. • The notes are the record of the most important semantic parts of the text (the actual material). • The quotes are the literal writing. While quoting one must indicate the corresponding page of the original. • The theses are the main ideas of the author formulated in the form of small suggestions, clear and understandable ones. • The abstract is a very brief summary of the book keeping a general idea of the book, booklet, article. • The summary is a brief assessment of the book. If the annotation briefly describes the contents of the book, the summary covers its conclusions, the main outcomes. • The synopsis extracts (synopsis) is a concise, systematic, coherent account of the contents of the source in written form (for example, articles or monographs). In contrast to extracts or abstracts, the synopsis, besides the main provisions and conclusions, contains the facts, evidences, examples, illustrations and the like. Its purpose is to provide in a short time recalling the content of the heard or read. The types of the synopsis: 1. The textual one saves the logic and structure of the work that is analyzed. • This type the synopsis enables to find in the text the concrete material that is being studied. • Having the task is to find the answers to the questions one can readily rewrite them, finding in the text. • Textual notes should be brief and detailed. • In this form of the synopsis the logic and structure of the studied text is maintained. 2. The themed synopsis stems from the content of the problem under study, and does not follow the logic of a material in the text. • This is making notes of several works that are similar in theme with the aim to comprehensive study of a particular problem and prepare the material for the report, and lectures. • When writing this type of the synopsis one should first make a special plan for studying a specific theoretical material. • Great importance has the selection of literature on the subject and preliminary (visual, superficial) acquaintance with her. • Outlining the main ideas from multiple sources can be in the form of responses to the questions (the questions can be the points of the plan). • The basis of the thematic synopsis can be one, main, source, and the extracts from the others can supplementing it. • The text of the synopsis is made arbitrarily. In contrast to the abstracts besides the main ideas the synopsis 133

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contains the actual material. 3. The free synopsis is based on logic being defined by a person. • This kind of the synopsis requires the ability to express the thoughts of the person in his own words. • During the writing of the synopsis all secondary things are omitted. • The skill to select only of the main ideas is created. • For further holistic perception of the synopsis one should prevent the preparation of the continuous text of the same color. • The structuring synopsis, the use of different sizes of letters, records of multiple colors facilitates easy restoration of written memory. 4. Basic synopsis presupposes the encoding of educational material with symbols, charts, graphs, tables. Requirements to the form of the synopsis • The synopsis should be readable for the author and for third-party, that is written in a legible handwriting, neat and clear. • One must leave a certain part of the page to put down his own thoughts, evaluations, fixing obscure or important. • It is appropriate to use the principle of clarity, that is, the text should highlight, color-code, to systematize in the form of lists, tables, to separate one part from another by using one blank row or cell, etc. • The volume of the synopsis should not exceed 1/3 of the original text. The algorithm of making the task • Read the text to be summarized (the first time, not going into details). • Put down basic details. • Using the principle of “hermeneutical circle”* (the [principle of understanding the text) read the text a second time for separate structural parts (paragraph, subparagraph, paragraph). • Make a plan (simple or complex). • For each plan item, highlight the main ideas of the problem, which is discussed in the source. • In the course of understanding the smallest structural components of the text, select key ideas and formulate them in the form of abstracts, citations, concise statements. • Find the meaning of incomprehensible concepts and information about unknown names of the researchers you meet in the text in reference books. • Your own considerations, evaluation, seen contradictions, etc. lock in the margins of your notes. • Review your notes and consider whether its content corresponds to the source text. * Hermeneutical circle – the principle of the understanding of the text according to which “the whole understanding is to be achieved in terms of its individual parts, and the individual parts –in terms of the whole...” (V. Dilthey). So, in order to understand 134

the text as a whole, it is necessary to understand the nature of its individual elements, and individual elements will become clear only in the context of the whole text. A permanent return from the whole to parts and vice versa enables to give new meanings to the text and therefore to understand better. Only under this condition it is possible to interpret the text and explain its meaning to others. The details for printed work • Date of preparation; • Bibliographic data for the source: - Surname and initials of the author; - Title (title); - City, publisher, year of publication (if book) or title of the newspaper or journal, year of publication, number (if periodical); - The number of pages or pages where the article is located. • Text (the materials should be submitted in the original language). The use of expanded algorithm gives the students an opportunity not only to structure the text, but also to give answers to the cross-cutting issues: “to Illustrate the stages of the development of the collective with examples from the work “The pedagogical poem”, “Given that, according to A. S. Makarenko, collective formation is based on the inclusion of the children in productive labor, to outline the dynamics of working in the community according “The pedagogical poem”, “To characterize the stages of inclusion of the colonists in the educational activity”, “To characterize the stages of aesthetic upbringing of the colonists, “To characterize the stages of the activities of the teacher-tutor through the prism of the work “The pedagogical poem”, “The formation of the teaching collective according the work of A. S. Makarenko “The pedagogical poem”, “the formation of interaction between teachers and pupils in the colony”, “The formation of the technique discipline: explanation, persuasion, public opinion, authority of the elders, the personal example of the teachers and parents, good school traditions, the clear daily routine at school, various forms of encouragement and punishment, “To analyze the successes and failures of the teachers-educators” and the like. Study content module №2 “General bases of pedagogics” is completed by the students with fulfilling a series of individual tasks, including the analysis of the works of A. S. Makarenko “The methods of organizing upbringing process.” As we know, this paper presents a theoretical substantiation of the basic provisions of a technique of formation of the collective, worked up by the outstanding teacher [4]. When performing this task the students not only learn the specified source as for the subject of the highlighting features of the formation of the collective, they also structure the work content on the basis of self-chosen abstract, the

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

form of its presentation (text, flowchart, etc.), but also correlate it with the work “The pedagogical poem” at the tactical and strategic levels, with differentiation general and distinctive characteristics. One uses the works of A. S.  Makarenko during the study of the content modules “Theory of education” and “Didactics. Education management” while examining the author’s methods of education and upbringing. A.  S.  Makarenko called the method of upbringing “the tool of touching to the individual.” Contemporary teacher can find many such “tools” in the process of cooperation with the students. The practice of upbringing uses primarily the proven path – general methods of upbringing. However, in many cases, such general methods of upbringing may be ineffective. Human interaction is always accompanied with deep psychic processes which in the process of solving a problem influence to a certain extent the internal world of the students. The teacher cannot but ignore them. So he is looking for new ways that meet the specific conditions of interaction, allowing faster and with less effort to achieve the intended result. Such methods are called authors ones. Despite the fact that A. S. Makarenko claimed that no special methods as for the homeless children should be applied [7], we know his method of “explosion”, the method of critical order, the method of requirements, the method of combination of demanding respect, the method of indirect upbringing impact, and the like. The system of A. S. Makarenko is called upbringing one, but special place in the work with the colonists was given to mental upbringing and education. The teacher repeatedly stressed the importance of the game as the method of education, group readings on interests and the like. The analysis of author’s methods of upbringing and education according to the works of A.  S.  Makarenko presupposes their systematization on the basis of generally accepted criteria: for the methods of upbringing – the methods of formation of consciousness of the personality; the methods of organization of the activities and formation of experience; the methods of stimulation of the activities and behavior; the methods of control, selfmonitoring and self-evaluation; for teaching methods – the methods of organization and realization of educational activities; the methods of stimulating the learning activities of the students; the methods of monitoring and self-learning. The study of the unique experience of the outstanding teacher who was ahead of his time, is going on in senior courses within specific disciplines (“Social pedagogy”, “Social work in Ukraine” and the like). With the help of such a comprehensive approach a substantial base of future professional activities is created taking into account the implementation of the

tasks of socio-pedagogical nature in the future that enables to accumulated the experience of overcoming negative social phenomena, the correction of deviant behavior of the students, to replenish the database of pedagogic tasks with practical effects, and the like. The results of the work with the source database of outstanding teacher enables to formulate a statement that generalizations and conclusions of A. S. Makarenko are to be actualized in modern pedagogy and actively used in educational process of higher pedagogical schools as the foundation of improving the quality of professional training of the prospective specialists in the field of education. References: 1. Azarov Yu.  P. Ne podniatsia tebe, staryk [romanyssledovanye] / Yu.P.  Azarov. – M.: Molodaia hvardyia, 1989. – 302 s. [in Russian] 2. Besarab M. N. Tvorcha spadshchyna A. S. Makarenka na sluzhbi suchasnykam / M.  N.  Besarab, Yu.  O.  Levytska, Yu.  M.  Melnyk [Elektronnyi resurs] / S. – Rezhym dostupu: http:// – 14.04.2013  r. – Zahol. z ekranu. [in Ukrainian] 3. Karpenchuk  S.  H. Pedahohichna tekhnolohiia A. S. Makarenka v konteksti suchasnoi pedahohiky: dys. ... doktora ped. nauk: 13.00.01 / Karpenchuk Svitlana Hryhorivna. – K., 2003. [Elektronnyi resurs] / S. – Rezhym dostupu: http://www. – 14.04.2013 r. – Zahol. z ekranu. [in Ukrainian] 4. Makarenko  A.  S. Metodyka orhanizatsii vykhovnoho protsesu / A. S. Makarenko; pereklad z ros. vydannia / APN RRFSR; A. S. Makarenko; za red. H. S. Makarenko. – K.: Radianska shkola, 1951. – 100 s. [in Ukrainian] 5. Makarenko A. S. O vospytanyy / [sost. y avt. vstup. staty V.  S.  Khelemendyk. – [2-e yzd., pererab. y dop.]. – M.: Polytyzdat, 1990. – 415 s. – (B-chka semeinoho chtenyia). [in Russian] 6. Makarenko  A.  S. Pedahohycheskaia poema / A. S. Makarenko. – M.: Sovetskyi pysatel, 1955. – 631 s. [in Russian] 7. Sotsialno-pedahohichni idei A.  S.  Makarenka // Istoriia sotsialnoi pedahohiky / Sotsialnoi roboty (Lektsii) [Elektronnyi resurs] / S. ua. – Rezhym dostupu: content/category/35/181/114/ – 15.04.2013  r. – Zahol. z ekranu. [in Ukrainian] 8. Yarmachenko  M. Anton  Makarenko – klasyk ukrainskoi pedahohiky XX st. / M. Yarmachenko // Pedahohichna hazeta. – Liutyi. – # 2. – 2003. – S. 3. [in Ukrainian]


Genocide by Famine

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

0 5 4 4 = p ? / t e n . k s a h c


У 1932-33 роках в Вінниці і Вінницькій області від гололу вмерло більш чим 1,5 мільйона людей, з них біля 500 млн. - діти. Нинішня кількість населення у Вінницькій області приблизно дорівнює числу закатованих голодом. З відомих на наш час документів випливає висновок про свідому організацію керівництвом СССР винищення голодом саме українців. Голод організовувався на всіх їх етнічних землях, а не лише в межах УРСР. Спланована конфіскація врожаю зернових та усіх інших продуктів харчування у селян представниками радянської влади впродовж Голодомору 1932-33 років безпосередньо призвела до вбивства селян голодом у мільйонних масштабах. Упродовж десятиліть масове вбивство людей штучним голодом не лише навмисно замовчувалося радянською владою, а й взагалі заборонялося про нього будь-де згадувати. 1986 року Іван Драч перший в Україні публічно вжив запозичене у діаспори слово «голодомор», яке походило від слів голод і мор. В Україні вперше голод 1932—1933 років почали визнавати лише в 1988 році.

exemplary republic. The money do not matter “. Stalin, in a letter to Kaganovich of 11 August 1932.

t t

as soon as possible to a real fortress of the USSR; to an


we may lose Ukraine ... to make it a goal to turn Ukraine



"If we do not straighten out the situation in Ukraine,



In 1932-33 in Vinnytsa and Vinnytsa region over 1.5 million people died from famine, about 500 million of which - are children. The current population in the Vinnytsia region is approximately equal to the number of murdered by famine. With known nowadays documents follows the conclusion of conscious organization by USSR leaders the deliberate extermination of Ukrainians by famine. The famine was organized in all their ethnic lands, not only within the USSR. Planned confiscation of grain yield and all other food from the peasants by the representatives of Soviet government during the Great Famine of 1932-33 led directly to the murder of millions of peasants from hunger. For decades, the mass murder of people by artificial famine was not only deliberately suppressed by the Soviet authorities, but was forbidden to anyone even to remember about it anywhere. 1986 Ivan Drach first in Ukraine publicly used borrowed from Diaspora the word "famine" – “Holodomor”, which originated from the words “famine” and “pestilence”. In Ukraine the famine of 1932-1933 was begun to recognize for the first time only in 1988.



«Якщо не візьмемось нині за виправлення становища в Україні, Україну можемо втратити… Поставити собі за мету перетворити Україну у найкоротший термін на справжню фортецю СРСР; на справжню зразкову республіку. Грошей на це не шкодувати». Сталін, з листа до Кагановича від 11 серпня 1932 року.

Голодомор... Всього лиш тільки слово, Але волосся піднімається з чола. І постаті голодних й очманілих Неначе йдуть до нас із небуття. Старі , малі … За що вони віддали Свої надії, мрії та літа?! За що вони голодні умирали На чорноземах косячи жита? Людмила Палагняк

In memory of Holodomor victims (Ukraine, Vinnytsia region, Pogrebysche district, village Dovhalivka) 136

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research My great-grandmother Maria Ivanivna Slobodyanyk was born in 1895 in the village Bdzhilne, Vinnytsia region. The family, like many other Ukrainian families in those days was considerable: the father - Mykhaylo Slobodyanyk, the mother (my great-grandmother) - Maria Slobodyanyk and six children: the daughters Polina, Nadiya, Valentyna and the sons Vasil, Serhiy and Sashko. The family was at the time quite wealthy because from traditionally all in the family were good hosts, not lazy to work, so the children were taught. The father of my great-grandmother, his name was Yosyp, had his own mill, livestock and big house. Under Soviet rule such hosts were called “the kurkuls”. Memories of my great-grandmother of her childhood were positive only to the period until there has begun the dispossession and forced compulsion people to enter the collective farm. To the end of her life she disliked the Soviet power very much, though she carefully concealed it. But from my childhood I remember that she was never a party member and did not want to have any symbols of the Soviet power in the house or yard. She said: “Would we live like this if this power would not come?” During short, fragmentary memories she added: “How much misfortune has it brought to us!” Only in the 1990s when the Soviet Union has collapsed, the great-grandmother began to openly tell me the whole truth about how her life was destroyed. She has told how her father, Yosyp, was taken away to Siberia. Great-grandma was telling me: “I heard people crying out: “They lead them, they lead them!” So I myself ran into the road too. And there among the others like him who at work have not seen of the God’s world in the shackles there is my father. I wanted to run up to him, but my legs were paralyzed with fear for the lives of my children. Because also I myself could be taken away. I stood and stared silently, and my heart was bleeding”. Great-grandma was telling me that she had later to publicly deny her own father for the sake that she all her family were not sent after him like a kurkul’s daughter. This refusal was public and envisaged “voluntary” transfer of all property to the power. My great-grandmother’s father, Yosyp, who was deported to Siberia, has returned (run away) from there in two years very ill. In Siberia he lived in a small settlement, where the deported had almost nothing. Happened that for several days did not hold food in his mouth and drank melted water. Almost all of those deported with him, died, he himself buried them, because there was nobody. He got home by miracle, very exhausted, with frostbitten feet, as he fled on a cargo train. By that time his wife, the mother of my great-grandmother, Maria too, has died, having not lived to see for her husband. Everything happened together – she was suffering hardly for her husband, a hunger on her, as on all the others, has put its black seal, and also she has caught a cold, and could not stand that terrible winter of 1933. And the great-grandmother’s father was hiding at home for almost a year, but the frostbitten feet would not recover, so he died of gangrene. These were the first memories of my great-grandmother - about her parents. It hurt her for a lifetime. Then she started to tell about the Holodomor, already with more details. It has always been difficult for

Witnesses language

Моя прабабуся Марія Іванівна Слободяник народилася в 1895 році у селі Бждільне, Вінницької області. Родина, як і багато інших українських родин у ті часи, була чимала: батько - Михайло Слободяник, мати(моя прабабуся)Марія Слободяник і шестеро дітей: доньки Поліна, Надія, Валентина і сини Василь, Сергій та Сашко. Сім’я була на той час досить заможною, бо з діда-прадіда у родині всі були гарні господарі і до праці не ліниві, чому й дітей навчали.Батько моєї прабабусі, його ім’я Йосип, мав свій власний млин, худобу та великий будинок. За радянської влади таких господарів назвали куркулями. Спогади прабабусі про її дитинство були лагідними лише до того періоду, поки не почалося розкуркулення та насильницьке спонукання людей вступати до колгоспу. Радянську владу вона сильно не любила до кінця свого життя. Звісно, своє ставлення до радянської влади моя прабабуся сторожко приховувала, але з мого дитинствапам’ятаю, що вона ніколи не була партійною та немала ніякої символіки радянської влади. Тільки в 1990-х роках, коли розпався Радянський Союз, прабабуся почала відверто розповідати мені всю правду про те, як зруйнувалося її життя. Першим найважнішим її спогадом було, як забирали батька до Сибіру. Прабабуся розповідала: «Пам’ятаю, як стояла на дорозі, а по ній вели людей у кайданах. Серед облич цих людей я розгледіла мого батька. Хотіла підбігти до нього,але життя моїх дітей було важливішим. Я зробила вигляд, ніби незнаю його. Стояла і мовчки дивилася, а серце обливалося кров’ю». Прабабуся розповідала, що їй прийшлось згодом публічно відмовитися від рідного батька, щоб її і всю її родину не вислали услід за ним як доньку куркуля. Така відмова була публічною та передбачала добровільну передачу всього майна владі. Батько моєї прабабусі Йосиф, якого було вислано до Сибіру, повернувся через два роки дуже хворим. У Сибіру він жив у маленькому поселенні, де у висланих не було майже нічого. Бувало так, що декілька днів не тримав їжі у роті та пив талу воду. Майже всі, кого разом з ним пригнали по етапу, померли, він сам їх хоронив, бо нікому було. Додому він дістався чудом, дуже виснажений, з обмороженими ногами, бо втікав на вантажному потязі. На той час його дружина, мати моєї прабабусі, теж Марія, померла, так і недочекавшись чоловіка. Склалося все докупи – за чоловіком тяжко страждала, голод на ній, як і на всіх, теж поставив свою чорну печатку, і ще й застудилася, і не витримала тої страшної зими 1933го року. А батько прабабусі переховувався вдома майже рік,але обморожені ноги не відходили, і він помер від гангрени. Це були перші спогади прабабусі – про своїх батьків. Воно їй боліло все життя. 137

Witnesses language

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

her to recall that period of life. She was telling by separate episodes, so they stuck in my memory. The year 1933 was the most terrible in the life of my great-grandmother. She recalled that before this entire livestock, inventory and practically everything that have been collected on a vegetable garden - everything was given to the collective farm. She said: “Under the slogan “Everything for the people!” we had to give the last.” She told: “I remember how the livestock was taken, I begged to leave at least one cow or a pig, and they said: “No!”. They have taken away everything to the bitter end. I stood in the yard with the kids was and crying of hopelessness. Then I suckled a one month old baby, and after a week the milk was over, because there has started a famine. The baby was undernourished, cried hungry and day and night, I gave her water, and begged for milk remains among neighbors. My daughter (Polina) has survived thanks to a neighbor, who also had a breastfed baby; so for some time she fed mine as well until she had milk. And then, poor woman, she began to pine away of hunger, and eventually died. She died of famine, leaving six little children. I adopted two, two more were taken by neighbors, two died. Her children grew up together with mine as my own. But in 1943, when the Germans retreated, they have poisoned half of the village. They gave out to children and scattered on the road the poisoned sweets. Those kids also got the poisoned “goodies”. We did not succeed to save them, but that is another painful story.” Great-grandma told that they came from “the Soviet power” not once to collect the tribute. After their regular visit in the bitter cold of 1932-33, the family was left without a bit of bread in a winter of famine. She recollected: “Once into our yard came some people and said to the mother: “Write everything that you have and give to the collective farm!” They took away everything that they have found: plows and equipment, and clothes (they took away all the warm clothes and shoes).” It was nice that when the great-grandmother’s mother was alive, she hid something of former wealth, including the warm clothes. Probably she guessed that this would happen and hid some things. Due to this family has survived as a whole, except for the mother of my great-grandmother. Great-grandma recollected that they in the family had saved in that winter three pairs of felt boots, which they have hidden in good time. So in winter they could go outside. She told: “The winter happened to be as rarely it was very snowy and very cold. So the felt boots saved.” Great-grandma told that repeatedly she has seen people in 30-degree frost barefoot; their feet were black, frostbitten. Because by no means all were able to hide in time something of the gained or, if something was left, then everything had already been exchanged for foods. And it was necessary to put something into furnace to heat or just a famine drove from home in search of food. Great-grandma recalls how she exchanged products for the apparel and fabric, but still there was not enough food. They starved severely. She told me that they were constantly undernourished. “There were days when there was not even a bit of bread in the house. We ate everything that happened: the bark of the trees, we caught birds, cooked old


Потім вона почала розказувати про голодомор, вже докладніше. Їй завжди було важко згадувати про той період життя. Розказувала окремими епізодами, так вони мені і запам;яталися. 1933 рік був найстрашніший у житті прабабусі. Вона згадувала,що до цього майже все, що зібрали на городі, худоба, інвентар - все було віддане до колгоспу. «Під гаслом «Все для народу!»ми змушені були віддати останнє». Вона розповідала: «Пам’ятаю як забирали худобу я просила залишити хоч одну корову чи порося, а вони – ні, все до останнього вибрали. Я стояла на подвір’ї з дітлахами та плакала від безнадії. Тоді я годувала груддю місячне немовля і вже через тиждень молоко скінчилося, адже почався голод. Дитя недоїдало, кричало голодне і день, і ніч, я давала їй воду, та випрошувала залишки молока по сусідах. Донька (Поліна) вижила дякуючи сусідці, яка теж мала грудну дитину, то якийсь час годувала і мою, поки сама не стала чахнути від голод, а тоді і померла. Померла з голоду, залишивши шістьох маленьких діточок. Ті діти були довгий час без води та їжі, я прийняла двох, ще двох забрали сусіди, а інші померли. Я зрощувала тих діточок, як своїх, але у 1943 році, коли німці відходили, вони потруїли половину села. Роздавали і розкидали цукерки потруєні. А ті дітки сусідчині знайшли на дорозі ті цукерки з отрутою і з’їли їх. Врятувати їх так і не вдалось, але то інша тяжка історія». Приходили од «совєцької власті» не один раз збирати данину. І після чергового їх візиту в лютий холод 1932-33 року родина залишалися без крихти хліба в голодну зиму. Прабабуся згадувала: «Раз було прийшли до нас у двір якісь люди та й кажуть матері:«Записуй все що в тебе є та віддавай до колхозу». Відібрали все, що знайшли: і плуги, і інвентар, і одежу (забрали весь теплий одяг та взуття)». Ми були люди небідні, мати, мабуть, здогадувалась, що так буде, і сховала деякі речі. Завдяки тому, що залишилися певні статки, родина вижила у повному складі, окрім матері моєї прабабусі. Прабабуся згадувала, що у них у родині збереглося у ту зиму аж троє пар валянок, які вчасно приховали. Тому взимку вони могли вийти на вулицю. Вона розповідала: «Зима видалася, як рідко коли було, дуже сніжною і дуже холодною. Тому валянки рятували». Прабабуся розказувала, що не раз бачила людей у 30-градусний мороз босих, ноги у них були чорні, обморожені. Бо далеко не всі змогли вчасно сховати щось з нажитого, або, якщо й дещо залишалося, то все вже виміняли на продукти. А треба було і до печі щось внести, щоб протопити, або просто голод гнав з хати у пошуках їжі. Прабабуся згадує, як вимінювала продукти на одежу та тканину,але все одно їжі не вистачало. Голодували дуже. Розповідала, що недоїдали постійно. «Були дні, коли і крихти хліба не було в хаті. Їли все, що

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Witnesses language

frozen-through potatoes, dug burrows of ground squirrels looking for grain, as food there were used pulp and fodder flour. We had kept some hidden grain for the chickens, on it somehow we survived. My husband was fishing, although it was forbidden. Sometimes, brought only one or two fish, but even one small crucian carp prolonged a life for a day. And what there could be a catch, if he went fishing at night, secretly. Once, he was noticed by a guard. He was severely beaten, his arm was broken, though he begged to leave, and they were from the same village, they knew that he had children between life and death. The hand of my great-grandmother’s husband, my great-grandfather, was maimed from the time and the end of his life it did not function in full. And how they had to survive? Because of hunger they felt dizziness, their legs swelled, the body was covered with ulcers. They ate even their dog and cats. Great-grandma recalled it with a particular pain: “I liked our dog very much. He was like one of us, our own, he was a member of our family, but one day for the sake of salvation of our children we had to take difficult decisions. Only later I have told of this to the children. He prolonged our lives for a week. Then we caught rats, mice, and we were fortunate if we caught. So we survived. “ The famine was destroying human in people. I did not let anyone close to me, I was afraid that the last will be taken” – she said. She told how she was afraid to let children out of the house, because they could be stolen and eaten. Great-grandma told me the following story: “Once I went to a neighbor, and she complained that her son went to the pond and did not return. She later found out that the boy was eaten by a large family, they ate their children as well, and caught or lured children of others.” Great-grandma told me that often people were dying of hunger right on the road. Those who died by the specially designated people were collected throughout village, thrown on the cart, taken at the end of the village and there as garbage thrown all into a big hole, and when it was filled, were buried. In general, great-grandmother Maria not often told about those events, those memories were difficult to her and she spoke always carefully, she was afraid. In people of that generation a fear of terror is hiding in the hearts for a lifetime. When great-grandmother was telling, she added: “For you know that it was with us.” And at dinner she often stressed that the food is of great value. Great-grandma almost nothing ever threw away, and always demanded that we have eaten our portions to the end. I personally, studying information about Genocide by famine in 1932-33, found information that the famine prevailed in all the villages of Teplyk district. Thus, in the village Velyka Mochulka there died of starvation 687 residents, in the village Petrashivka- more than 300 residents, and in the village Bdzhilna, where at that time lived my great-grandmother with her, in spring 1933 more than half residents of the village lay in the cemetery.

траплялося: кору з дерев, ловили птахів, варили стару проморожену картоплю, розривали нірки ховрахів та шукали зерно, їли щурів та мишей, в їжу йшов жом та дерть. У нас залишилось трохи зерна для курей, на ньому якось і виживали. Мій чоловік ловив рибу, хоча то було заборонено. На рибалку ходив уночі, то який там міг бути улов. Траплялося, приносив всього одну чи дві рибки, але навіть один маленький карасик рятував хоча б на день. То було дуже небезпечно Одного разу, його помітили та жорстоко побили, поламали руку, яка до кінця його життя так і не функціонувала на повну. Від голоду крутилася голова, набрякали ноги, по тілу йшли виразки. З’їли навіть свого собаку та котів. Прабабуся згадувала про це з особливим болем: «Я дуже любила нашого собаку. Він був як один із нас, свій, рідний, він був членом нашої родини, але одного дня довелося намзаради спасіння дітей прийняти тяжке рішення. Дітям я лише потім про це сказала. Їли ми його майже тиждень, і завдяки цьому виживали.» Голод нищив у людях людське. «Я близько нікого до себе не підпускала, боялася, а то останнє заберуть» - казала. Розповідала, як боялася випускати дітей надвір, адже їх могли вкрасти й з’їсти. Прабабуся розповідала таку історію: «Одного разу пішла до сусідки, а та жаліється, що син пішов до ставка і не повернувся. Згодом вона дізналася, що того хлопчика з’їла багатодітна родина, вони і своїх дітей з’їли, і чужих ловили або заманювали». Прабабуся розповідала, що часто від голоду люди помирали прямо на дорозі. Тих, хто помер, спеціально призначені люди збирали по селу, закидали на підводу, звозили на кінець села і там, як сміття, скидали всіх у велику яму, а потім, як вона виповнювалася, закопували. Загалом, прабабуся Марія не часто розповідала про ці події, їй було важко від цих спогадів і вона говорила завжди сторожко, боялася. У людей того покоління страх перед терором зачаївся у душах на все життя. Коли прабабуся розказувала, додавала: «Щоб ви знали, що таке було з нами». І за обідом часто наголошувала, що їжа має велику цінність. Прабабуся майже ніколи нічого не викидала, ізавжди вимагала від нас їсти порції до кінця. Я особисто, вивчаючи інформацію про Геноцид голодом у 1932-33 роках, знайшла відомості про те, що голод панував в усіх селах Теплицького району. Так, у с. Велика Мочулка від голоду померло 687 мешканців, у с. Петрашівкапонад 300 жителів, а у с. Бджільна, де жила тоді з родиною моя прабабуся, весною 1933 року більша половина жителів села лежала на цвинтарі.

Report of Ilona Kalashnyk, Cherkasy

Повідомлення Ілони Калашник , м. Черкаси

(Address and biographical data concerning the witnesses are kept in the archive of editorial office.)

(Адреса та біографічні дані свідків зберігаються в архіві редакції.)



American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

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American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

About the Authors: Balandyuk Roman

postgraduate of the Institute of Pedagogy of NAPS of Ukraine Zhytomyr

Burmaka Nadiya

Відомості про авторів: Баландюк Роман

аспірант Інституту педагогіки НАПН України м. Житомир

Бурмака Надія

Ph.D. in Psychology, Professor at the International Academy of Sobriety, Full Member of EuANH (Scotland, UK), Honorary member of East European Scientific Analytics Federation of International Academy of Science and Higher Education (London, UK).

доктор філософії в області психології, професор Міжнародної академії тверезості, Дійсний член ЄАП (Шотландія, Великобританія), Почесний член Східно-Європейської федерації наукової аналітики Міжнародної академії наук і вищої освіти (Лондон, Великобританія).

Chuev Yu.F.

Чуєв Юрій Федорович

The candidate of medical Sciences, associate Professor Department of Addiction KhMAPE

Derkach Lydia

Psychology PhD, Professor, Dnipro Humanitarian University Dnipro

Didukh Mykola L.

PhD in Psychology, National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv

Dushka A.L.

Кандидат медичних наук, доцент кафедри наркології ХМАПО

Деркач Лідія Миколаївна

Доктор психологічних наук, професор каф.психології Дніпропетровський гуманітарний університет

Дідух Микола Л.

Кандидат психологічних наук, доцент Київський Національний університет імені Тараса Шевченка Київ

Душка А.Л.

Ph.D. in Psychology, Professor, Leading Research Fellow of G.S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of NAPS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

Кандидат психологічних наук,, професор, провідний науковий співробітник Інституту психології імені Г.С.Костюк НАПН України, Київ, Україна

Goncharova E.Yu.

Гончарова Олена Юріївна

The candidate of medical Sciences, associate Professor Department of Addiction KhMAPE

Ivashkevych E.E.

Translator (Kyiv, Ukraine), Ph.D. student in Rivne State University of the Humanities (Rivne, Ukraine)

Ivashkevych Е.Z.

Candidate degree in Psychology, Professor’s assistant of the Department of General Psychology and Psychological diagnostics of Rivne State University of the Humanities (Rivne, Ukraine)

Kalamazh Ruslana Volodymyrivna

Doctor of Psychology, Professor of the Department of Psychology and Pedagogics, Vice-rector of Teaching and Education of the National University of Ostroh Academy, Ostroh

Kalashnik Ilona

Ph.D. in Psychology,docent of psychology Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy

Kaplunenko Yaryna

Psychologist, Research Fellow of G.S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of NAPS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

Katolik Galina

Кандидат медичних наук, доцент кафедри наркології ХМАПО

Івашкевич Ернест Едуардович

Перекладач (м. Київ, Україна), аспірант Рівненського державного гуманітарного університету (м. Рівне, Україна)

Івашкевич Едуард Зенонович

кандидат психологічних наук, доцент кафедри загальної психології та психодіагностики Рівненського державного гуманітарного університету, науковий кореспондент Інституту психології імені Г.С.Костюка НАПН України (Рівне-Київ, Україна)

Каламаж Руслана Володимирівна

Доктор психологічних наук, професор кафедри психології та педагогіки, проректор з навчальної та виховної роботи Національного університету «Острозька академія» м. Острог

Калашник І. В.

доцент, кандидат психологічних наук, Черкаський національний університет ім. Богдана Хмельницького

Каплуненко Я.

науковий співробітник Інституту психології імені Г.С.Костюк НАПН України, Київ, Україна

Католик Галина

Head of Department of Psychology and Psychotherapy Ukrainian Catholic University

доцент, канд. психологічних наук,, завідувач кафедри психології та психотерапії Українського католицького університету

Kokorina Y.E.

канд. психологічних наук, Одеський національний медичний університет

Kolesnikova Iryna

викладач кафедри методики викладання навчальних предметів Житомирського обласного інституту післядипломної педагогічної освіти, аспірант кафедри педагогіки Житомирського державного університету ім. І.Франка

Ph.D. in Psychology Odessa National Medical University Lecturer of department of teaching methodology in Zhitomir Regional In-Service Teacher Training Institute, Graduate student of department of pedagogy in Zhytomyr State Ivan-Franko-University

Korolchuk Valentina

Doctor of Psychological Science, Professor, Department of Psychology, Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics Kyiv

Кокоріна Ю.Є.

Ірина Колеснікова

Валентина Корольчук

доктор психологічних наук, професор, професор кафедри психології Київського національного торговельно-економічного університету м. Київ


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research Kremen Vasily

President of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine Honored Scientist of Ukraine, laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine in Science and Technology. He is awarded by the Order of Yaroslav the Wise, V degree; Orders “For Merit”, I, II and III degrees

Kudinova O. I.

Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education Department of psychotherapy

Maksymenko K.S.

Ph.D. in Psychology, associate professor, Bohomolets National Medical University

Maksymenko Serhiy

Full member of the NAPS Ukraine, Dr.Sc. in Psychology, Professor, Director of the Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of the NAPS of Ukraine Kiev

Maslyuk Andriy

Кремень Василь

Президент Національної академії педагогічних наук України Заслужений діяч науки і техніки України, лауреат Державної премії України в галузі науки і техніки. Нагороджений орденом князя Ярослава Мудрого V ступеня, орденом «За заслуги» І, II та III ступенів.

Кудинова Елена Ивановна,

лікар-психіатр, психотерапевт, асистент кафедри психотерапії Харківської медичної академії післядипломної освіти.

Максименко К.С.

кандидат психологічних наук, доцент, Національний медичний університет ім..О.О.Богомольця

Максименко Сергій

дійсний член НАПН України, доктор психологічних наук, професор, директор Інституту психології імені Г.С.Костюка НАПН України

Маслюк Андрій

Ph.D., Senior researcher G.S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

кандидат психологічних наук, старший науковий співробітник Інституту психології імені Г. С. Костюка НАПН України, м. Київ, Україна

Merzliakova Olena

Мерзлякова Олена Леонідівна

Ph.D., doctoral candidate of the Institute of Pedagogical and Adult Education NAPS of Ukraine

Mykhalchuk N.O.

Doctor of Psychology, Professor, the head of the department of English practice of Rivne State University of the Humanities (Rivne, Ukraine)

Mykhaylov B.V.

Михальчук Наталія Олександрівна

Доктор психологічних наук, професор, Завідувач кафедри практики англійської мови Рівненського державного гуманітарного університету

Михайлов Борис Володимирович

Head of Psychotherapy Department of Kharkiv National Academy of Postgraduate Education Kharkiv, Ukraine. MD., PhD., Medicine

завідувач кафедри психотерапії Харківської медичної академії післядипломної освіти - д.м.н., професор

Mykhaylov V.B.

Михайлов Владимир Борисович

Assistant of the Department of Psychiatry, Narcology and Medical Psychology of Kharkiv National Medical University, Kharkiv, Ukraine, MD, PhD.

Pasichnyk Igor Demydovych

Doctor of Psychology, Professor of the Department of Psychology and Pedagogics, Rector of the National University of Ostroh Academy Ostroh

Shishak Olga

assistant professor of psychology and psychotherapy Ukrainian Catholic University

Sosin I.K.

MD, Professor, Head of Addiction, Honored inventor of Ukraine, Academician of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences

Stavytskyi Oleg

Doctor of Psychology, Professor Head of the Department of Psychology of the International University of Economics and Humanities named after Acad. Stepan Demianchuk Rivne city

Sydorchuk Ninel

Doctor of Pedagogic Sciences, Professor, Professor at the Department of Pedagogy, Zhytomyr Ivan Franko State University

Voloshyna Viktoriia Oleksandrivna

PhD, Director of Cognition Lab, Lecturer of the Department of Psychology and Pedagogics of the National University of Ostroh Academy Ostroh

Zdesenko I.V.

GI «Institute of neurology, psychiatry and narcology NAMS», Kharkiv, Ukraine.


Кандидат психологічних наук, докторант Інституту педагогічної освіти і освіти дорослих НАПН України

к.мед.н, ассистент кафедры психиатрии наркологии и медицинской психологии ХНМУ

Пасічник Ігор Демидович

Доктор психологічних наук, професор кафедри психології та педагогіки, ректор Національного університету «Острозька академія»м. Острог

Шишак Ольга

канд. психологічних наук, доцент кафедри психології та психотерапії Українського католицького університету.

Сосін Іван Кузьмич

Доктор медичних наук, професор, завідувач кафедри наркології, Заслужений винахідник України, Академік Української академії наук

Ставицький Олег

доктор психологічних наук, професорзавідувач кафедри психології Міжнародного економіко-гуманітарного університету ім. акад. Степана Дем’янчука м. Рівне

Сидорчук Нінель

доктор педагогічних наук, доцент, професор кафедри педагогіки, Житомирський державний університет імені Івана Франка

Волошина Вікторія Олександрівна

Кандидат психологічних наук, керівник науково-дослідної лабораторії когнітивної психології, викладач кафедри психології та педагогіки м. Острог

Здесенко Ирина Владимировна

к.мед.н, ведущий научный сотрудник ГУ «ИНПН АМН Украины»

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Dear Colleagues!

Вельмишановні колеги!

Serial interdisciplinary periodical «American Journal of Fundamental, Applied and Experimental Research» / «Американський журнал фундаментальних, прикладних і експериментальних досліджень» invites for publication of works scientists who have scientific and academic degrees, degree applicants and students, whose scientific achievements are approved by academic councils/faculty councils of higher education institutions and have the appropriate expertise. The magazine was founded in the USA for the realization of goals and objectives of the organization «Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad» and designed to guide the global scientific community with fundamental and practically significant achievements of professionals who are interested in theoretical and applied problems of the following research areas: Biological Sciences, Cross-Sectoral Research, Cultural Studies, Economic Sciences, Governance, Historical Sciences, Jurisprudence, Medical Sciences, Pedagogical Sciences, Philological Sciences, Philosophical Sciences, Political Sciences, Psychological Sciences, Social Communication, Social Sciences. Editorial Board is presented by scientists who have scientific degrees and titles in Austria, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Israel, Poland, USA and Ukraine. The manuscripts to the journal are accepted in English, and if the author wants, the article can be duplicated in Ukrainian in the electronic version of the journal (in such case author should send two manuscripts: in English and Ukrainian).

Багатосерійне міждисциплінарне періодичне видання «Американський журнал фундаментальних, прикладних і експериментальних досліджень» / «American Journal of Fundamental, Applied and Experimental Research» запрошує до публікації праць вчених, які мають наукові та академічні ступені, здобувачів наукових ступенів, а також студентів, наукові здобутки яких схвалені вченими радами / радами факультетів вищих навчальних закладів та підтверджені відповідними експертними оцінками. Журнал заснований у США для реалізації мети і завдань організації ”Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad” і призначений для ознайомлення світової наукової громадськості з фундаментальними і практично значимими напрацюваннями фахівців, які цікавляться теоретичними та прикладними проблемами з наступних наукових напрямків: Біологічні науки, економічні науки, історичні науки, культурологія, медичні науки, міжгалузеві дослідження, педагогічні науки, політичні науки, психологічні науки, соціальні зв’язки, соціальні науки, управління, фізикоматематичні науки, філологічні науки, філософські науки, юриспруденція. Редакційна рада представлена вченими, які мають наукові ступені та звання у США, Україні, Австралії, Австрії, Азербайджані, Грузії, Ізраїлі, Польщі. Рукописи до журналу приймаються англійською мовою і, за бажанням автора, стаття може бути продубльована українською мовою (у такому випадку автор надсилає два рукописи: англійською та українською мовами).

The quality of scientific material and its presentation should meet modern international standards. Articles are thoroughly checked for plagiarism. Editorial Board takes articles fully prepared for publication and submitted electronically. The author is responsible for the accuracy of information, relevance of links in the text, adherence to the provisions of the law that protects the copyright and property rights, adherence to general codes of ethics and research ethics. Editorial staff reserves the right to amend the articles without changing the basic content. Accepted for consideration by the editorial staff: • Author’s articles that meet the demands of modernity, original text, the essence of which is submitted for publication in a special edition in an article for the first time. • Author’s articles that have been published in another periodical, the originality and authenticity of the text representation of which allows to recommend to reprint this article (if not restricted by copyright) that is reasonable in relation to relevance and practical importance of content of the article, the novelty of which has not decreased over time (if the research of other authors do not refute the results). • The original experimental works, which give a complete picture of the evidence obtained and contain materials that characterize their authenticity. • Methodical articles containing original methodological developments and ways of application in social, humanitarian, health, natural areas. • Review articles - in addition to what has been discussed before, and with the need of verification metatheoretical comprehensive analysis of new scientific research (opinions, achievements, generalizations). Review article should be devoted to the dynamics and prospects of development of a particular science industry or market segment / practice, cover and integrate the experience of several scientific paradigms / schools, or have an interdisciplinary approach. • Short reports about inventions or outstanding events in various scientific fields.

Якість наукового матеріалу та його подання мають відповідати сучасним міжнародним вимогам. Статті ретельно перевіряються на плагіат. Редакція приймає статті, повністю підготовлені до друку і подані в електронному варіанті. Автор несе відповідальність за точність надання інформації, відповідність посилань у тексті, дотримання положень Законів, що оберігають авторські та майнові права, Кодексів загальнонаукової етики та етики проведення наукових досліджень. Редакція залишає за собою право вносити поправки до статей, не змінюючи основного змісту. Редакцією до розгляду приймаються: • Авторські статті, які відповідають вимогам новітності, оригінальності тексту, основний зміст яких подається до друку в спеціалізованому виданні у вигляді статті вперше. • Авторські статті, які вже були надруковані в іншому періодичному виданні, оригінальність та автентичність подання тексту яких дозволяє рекомендувати статтю для передруку (якщо це не обмежено авторськими правами), що є доцільним у зв’язку з актуальністю та практичною значимістю змісту статті, новизна якої з перебігом часу не знизилась (якщо дослідження інших авторів не спростовують отримані результати). • Оригінальні експериментальні роботи, які дають повне уявлення про отримані фактичні дані і містять матеріали, що характеризують їх достовірність. • Методичні статті, які містять оригінальні методичні розробки та шляхи їх використання у соціальних, гуманітарних, медичних, природничих сферах діяльності. • Оглядові статті – як доповнення до того, що було розглянуто раніше, і з необхідністю верифікації, метатеоретичного комплексного аналізу нових наукових досліджень (поглядів, досягнень, узагальнень). Оглядова стаття повинна бути присвячена динаміці і перспективам розвитку певної галузі науки або сегмента ринку / практики, охоплювати та інтегрувати досвід кількох наукових парадигм / шкіл, або мати міждисциплінарний підхід. • Короткі інформаційні повідомлення про винаходи або видатні події у різних наукових галузях.

All materials are considered and reviewed by our editorial board, as well as independent experts prior to publication. By submitting a manuscript and an application to the:, the author agrees with the procedures of admission and review of manuscripts, that the Editorial Board put forth for consideration. The magazine «American Journal of Fundamental, Applied and Experimental Research» is published quarterly, four times a year, within the last month of the current quarter.

Всі матеріали перед публікацією розглядаються і рецензуються нашою редколегією, а також незалежними експертами. Надсилаючи рукопис та заявку на адресу: , автор погоджується з процедурами прийому та розгляду рукописів, що висуваються редколегією до розгляду. Журнал «American Journal of Fundamental, Applied and Experimental Research» виходить щоквартально, чотири рази на рік, не пізніше останнього місяця поточного кварталу.

More detailed information on the structure and sequence of articles’ organizing can be found on our website:

Більш детально ознайомитися зі структурою та послідовністю організації статті ви можете на нашому сайті:

170 West 82 Street New York, NY 10024 USA; Tel .: 1 (919) 536-9702, 1 (929) 444-1684, 143

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Scientific Journal


Multidisciplinary Approach

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied and Experimental Research Founders and Publishers:


170 WEST 82 STREET NEW YORK NY, 10024 Tel.: 1 (919) 536 9702 +380 (68) 701 71 50 E-mail: Web: 144

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research. Issue: 2 (2)  
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