Page 1

The Celebrating Thirty-Five Years of Excellence

American Indian

GRADUATE Spring 2004

Inside this Issue: •

Chronology of AIGC History

AIGC Fellows Update

Gates Millennium Scholars

Women of Vision

Four Centuries of Postsecondary Education

The American Indian Graduate


���������������� ��������������������������� ������������ ���������������� ����������������������������������� �������������������������������� ���������������������������������� ������������������������������������� ���������������������������������� ������������������������������������ ������������������������������

���������� ������������ ����������� ������������������������������������� ������������������������������������� ����������������������������������� ������������������������������������ ��������������������������������������� ���������������������������� ������������������������������������� ������������������������������������ ����������������������������

������������� �������������������������� ����������������

������������� ������������� ����������������

������������������������������ ������������������������������� ������������������������������� ������������������������������� ������������������������ ����������������������������� ����������������������������������� ������������������������

�������������������������������� ����������������������������� ����������������������������������� ������������������������������ ������������������������������� ������������������������������� �����������������������������������


��������������������������� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������������� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ���������������������������������

��������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������� ���������

�������������� ������������������������������ �������������������������������������

����������������������� �������� ��������������������������� �������������� ������������������������� ��������������


�������������������������� �����������

������������������� ������ ��������������������������� �������������� ������������������������� ��������������


Table of Contents


American Indian


The American Indian Graduate Volume 3, Number 2 A Publication of the American Indian Graduate Center 4520 Montgomery Blvd., NE Suite 1B Albuquerque, NM 87109 Phone: (505) 881-4584 Fax: (505) 884-0427

Volume 3, Number 2 • Spring 2004



A Perspective of Excellence


By Norbert S. Hill, Jr. A tribute to 35 years of growth, hope and dreams




Norbert S. Hill, Jr. Executive Director

By Teri Walker

Molly Tovar JoAnn Melchor Consulting Editors

Chronology of AIGC History Milestones to Native American self-sufficiency

10 12 16

Looking Back

Jim Weidlein Production Editor

By JoAnn Melchor Listening to an experienced voice

Carolyn S. Tate Design & Layout

A Leader’s Perspective

AIGC Board of Directors

AIGC Fellows Update

Alumni Connection

Ada Pecos Melton, President

By James C. Gabbard Highlights of AIGC Alumni: Where are they now?

Louis Baca, Vice-President

Jemez Pueblo

Santa Clara Pueblo

Steven Stallings, Treasurer

Leaders and Visionaries

Rincon Luisen Band of Mission Indians

Recognizing the Values and Wisdom of AIGC Leadership from 1970-2004

Joanne Sebastian Morris, Secretary Cayuga

Shenan Atcitty

By Teri Walker & Michelle Pasena Recognizing the board members and executive directors who have impacted AIGC’s growth



David Powless Oneida

About Giving

Libby Rodke Washburn

Faces of Philanthropy


Beverly Singer

By Joan Currier Some individuals who have helped make AIGC’s mission a reality


Santa Clara Pueblo/Diné

Kathryn Shanley

Gates Millennium Scholars

Nakota (Assiniboine)

Mother and Son Exhibit Scholarly Success

Cover Photograph Howard Rainer

By JoAnn Melchor The strength of family support and a connection back to their community

Continued on page 4

Cover: Feathers and Flutes are the essence of many rites, both private and public, in the Native American culture.

The American Indian Graduate


Table of Contents


Making a Difference

American Indian Advisory Board at the University of Arizona By Mary Jo Tippeconnic Fox, Ph.D. A commitment to the success of American Indians in Higher Education


Women of Vision

Investing in the Future of New Mexico’s Women Leaders By Molly Tovar Four American Indian women leaders


Words into Action

A Consortium of American Indian Graduate Education By Ray Kling Collaboration by Consortium members making a difference


Women Leaders

International Program Promotes Diversity and Excellence By Teri Walker Cultivating the next generation of women leaders


Contact Us Mailing List: If you are not currently on our mailing list and would like to receive future issues, please call or write to the address below. Advertising: To advertise in The American Indian Graduate, please contact Molly Tovar at (800) 628-1920 or send an e-mail to:, or JoAnn Melchor at Article Submissions: Submit all articles to Molly Tovar, Consulting Editor, for consideration. E-mail: Reprints and Permissions: Reprints of published articles or artwork is not allowed without permission of The American Indian Graduate Center. American Indian Graduate Center, 4520 Montgomery Blvd., Suite 1B, Albuquerque, NM 87109, (505) 881-4584 phone, (505) 884-0427 fax Visit us On-Line!

Four Centuries of Postsecondary Education

A History of American Indian and Alaska Native Postsecondary Education By Marveline Vallo List of dates and events that illustrate a timeline of American Indians in higher education

2002 AIGC, Inc. All rights reserved. Published submissions and advertisements do not necessarily reflect the views of AIGC, Inc.

Designed by Marveline Vallo

What Once Was a Vision Becomes Reality—Honoring Our AIGC Fellows


The American Indian Graduate


A Perspective of Excellence


reetings! I am proud to announce that 2004 marks the 35th anniversary of the American Indian Graduate Center (AIGC). The founders’ dream of providing assistance for American Indian graduate education has exceeded all expectations. Since the creation of AIGC by our co-founders, John Rainer and Bob Bennett, over 5000 American Indian and Alaska Native students have received fellowships to complete their graduate education. With the support of our partners, we are now positioned to achieve an even higher level of quality and greater impact. Norber t S. Hill, Jr. (Oneida ) AIGC’s strategies have proven to be successful in accomplishing our goals. Through use of three primary building blocks—increasing academic outreach, expanding our financial resources, and enhancing engagement of alumni—we continue to be able to expand our service to the American Indian community. In this academic year, we have the privilege of serving 425 AIGC fellows from 114 tribes and 546 undergraduate and graduate Gates Millennium Scholars, and I am pleased to report that the number of students continues to increase. Evidence of the success of AIGC support is reflected in the achievements of our alumni. Many have rewarding careers that encompass all fields: medicine, writing, science, education, law, engineering, administration, and the arts. Some of our alumni are featured in this anniversary issue of The American Indian Graduate. The American Indian Graduate Center is unique in the higher education landscape in the support and services provided and in having grown in its services by expanding partnerships with other agencies. We now collaborate with like-minded organizations and graduate schools that support many of our American Indian and Alaska Native students. We continue to expand our relationships with American Indian communities. We are also pleased with the growth of new initiatives such as the Council of One Hundred and the American Indian Consortium of Graduate Deans. We have expanded our opportunities through partnership with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation’s Gates Millennium Scholars Program, which has provided outstanding support to both undergraduate and graduate students. The Gates program alone has student applicants from 117 federally and state recognized tribal nations; these students are the hope and pride of their families and communities. With the education they receive, these students will be equipped to make positive changes throughout their Native communities and the world. Over the past 35 years, AIGC has grown in size but, more significantly, in quality. All of us at AIGC have reason to be proud and confident in our future. Thank you for your support, which helps make our dreams come true. We hope you enjoy this anniversary issue of The American Indian Graduate.  Norbert S. Hill, Jr. Executive Director

The American Indian Graduate



Chronology of AIGC History


Milestones on the Road to Native American Self-Sufficiency

By Teri Walker

1950 John Rainer is elected Director of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI). 1966 Robert Bennett is named commissioner of Indian Affairs by President Johnson and implements an innovative, open communication policy within the BIA and with Congress. 1967 The BIA reports 13 American Indian graduate students in the entire nation. 1969 John Rainer is selected to direct the New Mexico Commission of Indian Affairs. Bennett and Rainer establish the National Indian Scholarship Program at the University of New Mexico, on August 15. 1970 The American Indian Graduate Scholarship Program Committee, John Rainer presiding, holds its first meeting October 10. Members are Ada Deer, Overton James, David Warren, Leah Manning, Charles Trimble, Joe Sando and Francis McKinley. Members vote to set up an independent office, apply for taxexempt status and name Robert Bennett General Director. On November 14, John Rainer announces a $15,000 transfer from the Donner Foundation to provide direct scholarship assistance. The Donner grant leads to the development of the contract with the BIA. 1971 Robert Bennett, David Warren and Joe Sando sign the Articles of Incorporation under New Mexico law, and the program title is changed to “American Indian Scholarships, Inc.” 1974 AIGC moves to Taos; the office is in a garage on John Rainer’s property. 1975 The director of the UC Berkeley Master’s in Public Health Program requests assistance in meeting student needs and offers to work with AIGC to seek funding. 1976 To evaluate program effectiveness and collect information for future proposals, a questionnaire is sent to all past recipients. 1977 Sales of Indians of Today, a book donated by the Donner Foundation, net almost $8,000. 1978 AIGC and the American Indian Organization join in a fundraising venture to sponsor the premier showing of the film “Indian.”


The American Indian Graduate

1980 AIGC receives $186,000 from the Administration of Native Americans, for a Human Resource Mobilization Project to find sources of funding and document and classify alumni for a job referral service. 1981 Reagan administration reduces funding for all levels of Indian higher education, from $282 million to $169 million. 1982 AIGC survey indicates that it is providing financial assistance to less than one fifth of all the Indians in the United States attending graduate school. AIGC provides an average award of $3,700; the estimated minimum post-graduate annual cost is $5,000. Half of the current AIGC recipients are women. The National Indian Lutheran Board donates $10,000 as seed money to generate more funds. Exxon, Texaco, Arco & Syntex also contribute. In response to proposals submitted by Dr. Dean Chavers, $35,000 is generated. 1983 John Rainer recommends budgeting for an Office Manager, so the Director can concentrate on fundraising. He retires, effective December 31. 1984 New Director, Lorraine Edmo, proposes policy statements regarding applicant grievance procedures, a three-year maximum eligibility for funding and applicants seeking second and third Master’s degrees. AIGC decides to relocate to Albuquerque. 1985 The Coors Company prints the BIA-mandated AIGC brochure free of charge. The 1985-1986 BIA contract includes $15,000 for a new WANG computer system. 1986 AIGC adds a Development Officer, on a trial basis, to raise funds in the private sector. Program administrative costs are at 15.7%, well below the national nonprofit average. 1987 Although $1.6 million was awarded in fellowships, AIGC was unable to fund the remaining $500,000 requested. Students in priority area studies have increased to 87%, largely due to absorbing the law program. 1988 One hundred fifty-two women and 140 men receive funding; fields of study numbers are: law 103, health 83, education 63, business 32, engineering 7, natural resources 1, fine arts 1 and religious studies 2.

History The Board defines AIGC’s mission: “[Dedication] to financially assisting Indian graduate students in studies at the master’s and doctoral level… by trying to raise the funds to enable [them] to attend graduate school and then encourage them to return to their tribe, their community or a public or private agency providing service to American Indian people.”

1996 Due to budget cuts, only continuing students are funded for 1995-1996. Study areas with the most numbers are law and health areas, with 161 and 160, respectively, of the 538 recipients, followed by 59 in education and 49 in business.

1989 The organization name is changed to “American Indian Graduate Center” to reflect its expansion to become a national center dealing with expanded services and activities, and to better identify AIGC as working exclusively in graduate and professional education.

1998 AIGC launches its web page and updates from single- to multiple-user Internet access. One hundred forty-seven women and 117 men receive fellowships.

Four hundred people attend two days of twentieth-anniversary events, including a symposium on Indian graduate education, corporate table sponsorship and benefit art auction and dinner/ dance. John Rainer and Robert Bennett are honored. JoAnn Chase, Dorothy Fire Cloud and John Haupt receive the first fellowship awards from the Thomas W. Echohawk Memorial Scholarship. 1990 AIGC receives a $65,000 grant, from the Department of Energy, for a tracking project to develop a national database of all Indian college students, for use in identifying potential graduate students, making internship and employment opportunities available and identifying and documenting the needs of Indian students. 1991 AIGC receives 763 applications—the largest number ever —and awards 427 (237 women & 190 men) fellowships for 1991-92.

1997 A new four-year BIA contract begins.

1999 The AIGC board creates an Investment Committee and updates computer soft- and hardware to be Y2K compliant. A recognition banquet marks AIGC’s 30th anniversary. 2000 Norbert Hill becomes Executive Director. AIGC assumes administration of the Gates Millennium Scholarship Program for American Indians/Alaska Natives, resulting in the doubling of AIGC staff and office space. American Indian Graduate Center Scholars is formed to manage the program. 2001 The world looses a visionary when John Rainer passes away on September 22. The inaugural meeting of the Council of 100 is held in September. The Council is composed of distinguished leaders, scholars and traditionals, who will assist in mentoring and leadership training to AIGC fellows. AIGC begins publications of The American Indian Graduate magazine.

The Indian Nations At Risk Task Force identifies failure of schools to educate large numbers of Indian students as one of four reasons why Indian nations are at risk as a people.

With the addition of the Gates Millennium Scholarship Program, AIGC doubles its staff and office space, and Molly Tovar is hired as AIGC’s chief operating officer and director of AIGC Scholars.

1992 AIGC is the host and sponsoring organization for the 1992 NIEA annual conference in Albuquerque.

2002 Native Americans everywhere are saddened to learn of the death of Robert Bennett on July 11.

1993 AIGC is awarded a three-year, renewal contract to continue administration of the BIA’s Special Higher Education Program. The Year 1 award is $2,218,750. Expense allocation for 1993 FY is: 90% fellowship grants, 5% administrative overhead and 5% direct student services.

Ten business administration graduate students receive fellowships funded by the National Indian Gaming Association.

Due to the rapid rise on the number of applications, the maximum/average awards decline, from $10,000/$4,438 for 1990-91, to $6,000/$3,568 for 1993-94. AIGC begins restricting awards to a set number of students. 1994 The inaugural New Mexico Indian Golf Scholarship Tournament raises $6,000, but market instability causes a $58,000 decrease in the market value of AIGC’s investments. 1995 AIGC sends a survey to all federally recognized tribes to identify their future employment needs. The top ten professions reported as needed are (in order): business manager, lawyer, accountant, natural resource manager, doctor, teacher, counselor, financial analyst, engineer, computer technician. Additional survey information received gave estimates that 89% of tribal members earned $20,000 or less and 3% had a college degree.

2003 Dr. George Blue Spruce, the first full-blood Pueblo American Indian dentist, presents AIGC with a check to establish a scholarship for American Indian dental students. Two students receive the first John Rainer Memorial Fellowships. 2004 AIGC leases additional office space on the first floor of its building, providing access to guests that find the stairs challenging, a separate conference area and expanded in-house storage, as well as more efficient use of the second floor main office space.


For a more complete chronological history of AIGC please visit our website at 

The American Indian Graduate


Be a Part of the AIGC Connection! T

he AIGC Connection is a personal networking program designed to help AIGC alumni across the country build contact with each other. The AIGC Connection is a network of our alumni: Native American and Alaska Native professionals in a variety of fields and geographic locations.

Benefits include: • access to a network of other alumni; • exchange career contacts, advice, and support; • offer ways to give back to AIGC and community; • assist students through mentorship and internships; • free subscription to our bi-annual magazine “The American Indian Graduate”


Call the AIGC Connection at 1-800-628-1920; write to “AIGC Connection,” American Indian Graduate Center, 4520 Montgomery Blvd. NE, Ste. 1-B, Albuquerque, NM 87109; or email us at Please visit our website to update your information via the “Alumni Connection form” at Alumni and Friends/alumni-friends.htm to become part of the AIGC family! At AIGC, we believe that our Alumni are an important part of our organization. Since 1969, AIGC has provided over 10,000 fellowships to Native American and Alaska Native students in graduate studies. If you are an AIGC Alum, we need your help. Please contact us soon!

����������������������������� ����������������������� �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

������������������������������������������ �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �������������������������� �����������



� � � � � �

� � � � �� �


������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

���� ���������������� ��������������������������� ���������������������




�������������������� �����������������











�������������������������� �������������������� ������������������

��������������� ������������������� � ����������������� ������ ��������� ���������







�������� ������������������

Looking Back

A Leader Who Translated Vision Into Reality By JoAnn Melchor


A Profile of Lorraine P. Edmo, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Inc. of Fort Hall, ID

President Bill Clinton with Lorraine Edmo


orraine has been a long time advocate for American Indian students pursuing higher education. She is currently the executive director for the National Fund for Excellence in American Indian Education in Washington, DC. This fund was authorized by Congress to raise private support for schools that are a part of the Bureau of Indian Affairs school system. From December 1983 through July 1992, Ms. Edmo was the executive director of the American Indian Graduate Center. Lorraine was fortunate to have worked with co-founder John Rainer for three weeks at Taos


The American Indian Graduate

Pueblo, where the office was located, before succeeding Mr. Rainer as executive director. At that time, the organization was known as American Indian Scholarships, Inc. (AIS), and it was housed in Mr. Rainer’s garage. He lived next door and rented the garage to AIS for $500 per month. The staff consisted of five individuals, including Mr. Rainer. Lorraine’s first year at AIS involved many changes: rebuilding the organization and moving it from Taos to Albuquerque. When Lorraine came on board, the AIS grant from the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was

Continued from previous page

$978,000. The grant extension had not been renewed by December 1983, and her first order of business was making sure that AIGC had money to operate on through the fiscal year. In June 1984, Lorraine negotiated the award of a one-year grant with the BIA, which was renewed again in 1985. Memorable successes for Lorraine include competing for new two-year contracts for AIGC in 1986, 1988 and 1990. In 1986 the BIA made a decision to consolidate the Special Higher Education Grant Program and the Special Law Program for American Indians and put the contract out on bid. Lorraine successfully secured this contract. The overall contract in 1986 was $2.1 million; by the time Lorraine left AIGC in 1992, the annual contract was at $2.6 million. “A lot of hard work was accomplished over the years to build the AIGC organization and show visibility throughout the nation. I had traveled to Washington, DC every March to testify on the need for more graduate aid for American Indian and Alaska Native education.” Lorraine testified before the House Subcommittee on Interior Appropriations, which was then chaired by the late Sydney Yates (D-Ill), a great advocate for Indian education funding. Some of the accomplishments of which Lorraine is particularly proud are the fundraising activities such as the AIGC’s 20th anniversary celebration, which included a symposium, a silent auction and a well-attended dinner in Albuquerque. Noted artist Sam English donated a commemorative poster that was successfully sold at the celebration. Lorraine also prizes AIGC’s involvement with national organizations such as the National Indian Education Association and the National Congress of American Indians where she also served as an active member of the NCAI Education Committee. Lorraine spent nine years expanding the mission of the American Indian Graduate Center to further its national reputation. She wants to recognize the following staff who helped to achieve their AIGC goals: Oran LaPointe, Robert Sutton, Lovena Epaloose, Olivia Toledo, and Corina Lopez. Lorraine believes, “The fellowship program has been the primary source of funding for many Indian people who otherwise would not have the resources to go on and get an advanced degree. Through provision of funding for these advanced degrees, Congress has also increased the earning capability of several thousand Native people, and they have in turn contributed more to the U. S. economy. It is a valuable program that should be funded at a higher level.” Reflecting back on her journey as one of AIGC’s leaders, Lorraine can take pride in having translated her vision and passion into accomplishing the reality of what AIGC has become—an organization that continues to support American Indian students through the contributions of leaders like her. 

American Indian Science & Engineering Society

26th Annual National AISES Conference and Career Fair “Expanding the Circle” November 11-14, 2004 Anchorage, Alaska

�� Visit over 200 exhibitors at the Career Fair �� Join us for workshops and presentations by nationally recognized speakers �� Undergraduate and graduate student poster sessions �� Join us at our Traditional Honors Banquet recognizing AISES scholars

Discover, Experience, and Participate in the AISES Vision Today Support AISES �� Conference sponsorship �� Foundation support �� Scholarships �� Online giving

For more information, call (505) 765-1052 or visit

The American Indian Graduate


AIGC Fellows Update

The Alumni Connection By James C. Gabbard (Witchita and Affiliated Tribes) 2004 marks a milestone for the AIGC Fellowship Program: 35 Years of Success. AIGC takes pride in being “more than a check and a handshake.” The program’s goal is simple: increase the number of American Indians in graduate and professional school so they may acquire the knowledge and skills required to “give back to their communities.” The graduates and current fellows highlighted below testify to the program’s growth and success. Tassy Parker ’01 (University of New Mexico) Degree in Medical Sociology - Currently a Research Assistant at UNM Health Sciences Center. Cynthia Cartwright ’94 (University of Florida) Degree in Law Currently an Attorney for the city of East Point, Georgia. “I am very appreciative of the support AIGC gave me through Law School.” Leonard F.Mirabal ’82 (New Mexico Highlands University) Masters in Business Administration – Currently a Health Educator for New Mexico Department of Education. Katherine W. Lommen ’91 (Yale University) BA in Psychology – Currently Compliance Manager for Portland Brewing Company. Sarina Begay ’01 (Brigham Young University) Masters of Social Work – Currently a Residential Therapist for Florence Crittenton. “Thanks to the AIGC Fellowship, I am now helping teenage girls from diverse backgrounds to regain some stability in their lives.” Heather D. Whitemanrunshim ’02 (Harvard University) Juris Doctorate – Currently Associate Attorney with Nordaus, Haltom, Taylor, Taradash & Bladh, LLP. Walter G. Besio ’02 (University of Miami) Ph.D in Biomedical Engineering – Currently Assistant Professor for Louisiana Tech. University. Karen J Onco-Cash ’76 (University of Oklahoma) MS in Education – Currently School Counselor for Grand Prairie Schools. “The AIGC Fellowship allowed me to fulfill my goals of working with American Indian Students, as well as providing educational opportunities for all students.” Patricia Christine Aqiimuk Paul ’98 (University of Seattle School of Law) Juris Doctorate – Currently a Legislative Policy Analyst with the Tulalip Tribe. Recently co-coordinated a symposium titled “Indigenous Rights, Dialogy and Relations to National States” at the 51st International Congress of the Americanista in Santiago, Chile. Anne L. Susan ’94 (Univ. of Calif. at Berkley) Master’s in Public Health and Masters of Social Welfare – Currently working as an Area Planning Officer with the Indian Health Service. Has also 12

The American Indian Graduate

served as an Associate Professor with Johns Hopkins School of Public Health since 2001. Randall J. Cook ’94 (University of Washington) Master’s in Social Work – Currently Company Manager and Director for Salish Trust & Salish Fireworks. Renee C. Holt ’01 (University of Idaho) Master of Art – Currently Program Advisor for Scottsdale Community College. “Thank you AIGC, for my fellowship, which allowed me to obtain work within an American Indian studies program.” Daryl A. Melvin ’90 (University of California at Berkley) MS in Engineering – Currently Chief Executive Officer with the Indian Health Service. Delaine M Nagel-Snow Ball ’02 (Washington University) Masters of Social Work – Currently Mental Health Therapist with the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska. Jeral Ahtone ’75 (Dartmouth Medical School) MD – Currently Director, Emergency Medicine for Emergency Medical Consultants. Shanda R. Martin-Lohse ’01 (University of Minnesota Medical School) MD – Currently a Resident Physician with the Hennepin County Medical Center. “I was recently elected as Chief Resident for the Hennepin County Medical Center Family Practice Residency Program.” Audrey K. Montooth ’97 (University of Kansas) MD – Currently a Faculty Physician with the Forest Park Hospital Family Medicine Residency. Assistant Clinical Professor for St. Louis University Medical School where he serves on the Medical School’s Admissions Committee. Benjamin Ramirez-Shkwegnaabi ’87 (University of Wisconsin-Madison) Ph.D. Education/American Studies – Currently Associate Professor of History for Central Michigan University. “The Fellowship Program is a great program for the advancement of American Indian scholars.”

Continued on page 14

AIGC Fellows – The Many Faces of Success

Designed by Paul Duke & Marveline Vallo

The American Indian Graduate


AIGC Fellows Update Michael R. Cardwell ’90 (Eastern Washington University) MPA and Masters of Urban & Regional Planning – Currently Quinault Community Utilities/Public Works Manager for the Quinault Indian Nation. “I feel that our best natural resource is our youth and those that are committed to achieving an education.” John E. Sirois ’02 (University of Washington) MPA – Currently Cultural Preservation Administrator for Confederated Tribes of the Colville Indian Reservation. “The AIGC fellowship impacted my life tremendously and now it will impact my tribe in the future. I plan to initiate at the Colville Indian Reservation.” Lynne M. Columbe ’02 (University of Arizona) Master of Arts – Currently International and Tribal Teacher for Todd County School District, Rosebud Reservation. “I plan to attend Harvard in a few years to pursue a Ph.D. in Tribal Leadership.” Suzanne Drapeaux-Blue Star Boy ’94 (City University) MA in Applied Behavior Science – Currently the Indian Country Project Director for VDAY. Lucy M. Reifel ’75 (University of Calif. at San Francisco) MD Currently WIC Nutrition Coordinator and RST-MCH Pediatrician for the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. “This scholarship enabled me to complete medical school, debt free, and come home to work for my tribe.” Debra L. Montroy ’84 (Syracuse University) MS – Currently Director of Preschool Special Education with United Cerebral Palsy and Handicapped Children’s Center. “The AIGC Fellowship allowed me to service all children, specifically Native American Children in the public school sector.” James A. LeBlanc ’93 (Northern Illinois University) MS Marriage and Family Therapy – Currently Marriage and Family Therapist/ Health Therapist for Marinette County Health and Human Services. Elizabeth A. Laverdure-McDougall ’98 (University of North Dakota) Ph.D. in Education – Currently American Indian Projects Curriculum Coordinator for the University of Minnesota at Duluth. Edward F. Parisian ’77 (University of South Dakota) MA in Education Administration – Currently Director for Office of Indian Education Programs. “I am committed to ensuring that all BIA-funded schools comply with the No Child Left Behind Act in holding schools accountable for their student’s academic performance.” Constance M. Fox ’96 (University of Oklahoma) Master’s in Education – Currently Self-Determination Officer with the Dept. of Interior, BIA. Mary J Wilkie ’02 (Univ. of N. Dakota) Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology – Currently Child, Adolescent and Family Therapist for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Behavioral Health Center. John P. Lavelle ’90 (University of Calif. at Berkley) JD – Currently Professor of Law at the University of New Mexico School of Law. 14

The American Indian Graduate

Sweeney R. Windchief ’04 (University of Montana) Master’s in Education – Currently Minority Admissions Counselor at University of Montana. Vera J. Frances ’01 (University of Maine) Master’s in Education – Currently Doctoral Student attending Lesley University. “If it were not for the help of the AIGC fellowship I would have never Ventured too far from the beaten path.” Donald L Fixico ’80 (University of Oklahoma) MA & Ph.D. – Currently Director of Indigenous Nations Studies for University of Kansas and working on a book about American Indian leadership involving 50 leaders and their traits of leadership. Leslie L. Randall ’03 (University North Carolina) Doctorate of Public Health – Currently Senior Maternal Child Health Epidemiologist for the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. “My fellowship helped me immensely during my masters and early part of my doctoral program.” Candessa L. Morgan ’03 (University of Oklahoma) Master’s in Education – Currently Administrative Assistant for East Central University “AIGC was wonderful supporter of my education and I strive to be able to provide such positive support to other Natives seeking higher education. Tracy McClellan ’01 (University of Wisconsin, University of Arizona and University of California at Berkley) JD, MA in American Indian Studies and BA in Native American Studies – Currently the Legislative Director for the National Indian Health Board. Evelina Zuni-Lucero ’89 (University of New Mexico) MA in English – Currently Professor of Creative Writing for the Institute of American Indian Arts. Novel Night Sky, Morning Star was published in 2000 by the University of Arizona Press and won First Book Award by the Writer’s Circle of America. Robin S. Williams ’04 (University of Oklahoma) MHR - Currently a Summer Youth Counselor for the American Indian Education Training and Employment Center. “I will be on the National Dean’s Honor List and have continued to be a leader within our University and Native Community in Norman, Oklahoma.” Gene M. James ’03 (Oregon State University) MS Education & Counseling – Currently a Doctoral student attending Oklahoma State University. Jessica Jameson ’03 (San Diego State University) Master’s in Public Health – Currently Recruitment Coordinator for ACS/ UCSD – Health Eating Program. “Thank you so very much for the support needed to obtain my Masters in Public Health.” Veronica A. Boone ’04 (Arizona State University) BS in Family Studies – Currently Research Assistant/Program Coordinator for Tohono O’ Odham Nation. Shelley Hanson ’96 (Willamette University) MBA – Currently Grant Coordinator for Salem-Keizer School District. Continued on page 26

AIGC’S Successful Event at the NIEA Conference 2003


he American Indian Graduate Center held its annual reception for alumni, Gates Millennium scholars, and current AIGC fellows at the 2003 National Indian Education Conference in Greensboro, North Carolina on November 4, 2003. The evening featured remarks from special guest Mr. Greg Richardson, Executive Director of the North Carolina Commission of Indian Affairs, and Dr. Joan F. Lorden, Provost and Vice Chancellor at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte. In addition, Robin Emanuel, GMS scholar, and Ursula Tsosie, AIGC fellow, provided the closing remarks and prayer. The American Indian Graduate Center wants to recognize the following partnering institutions for their support of this event. Representatives from these institutions were also present at the reception.

Thank you for making this reception a success!


East Carolina University Lenoir Rhyne College North Carolina State University University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill University of North Carolina, Charlotte University of North Carolina, Greensboro University of North Carolina, Pembroke University of North Carolina, Wilmington Wake Forest University


��������������� ����������������������������������� ���������������������������������������

��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������ ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �����������������������������������������������


�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �����������������������������������������������

����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �����������������������������������



Leaders and Visionaries

Recognizing the Values and Wisdom of AIGC Leadership from 1970-2004 By Teri Walker & Michelle Pasena


ince the American Indian Graduate Center’s (AIGC’s) inception in 1969, its leadership has been comprised of visionary, passionate and professional individuals, dedicated to the higher education of future generations, ensuring the betterment of Indian communities. Some of AIGC’s early Board Members and Executive Directors have become nationally recognized leaders in American Indian and Alaska Native organizations and endeavors. We honor them for their vision, leadership and

significant contributions, both past and present, to the continued success of AIGC. The diversity of communities represented here reflects AIGC’s unique quality of being national in scope and outlook, and its role in creating the leaders of not only Indian Country but also the United States as a whole. We celebrate that diversity and recognize its contribution to strengthening AIGC’s national presence and reputation and our ability to better serve our constituents. 

Previous Board Members Alice Bathke ........................................Navajo Lionel Bordeaux...................................Rosebud Sioux Floyd Correa ........................................Laguna Pueblo

Lucy Covington1,2 .......................... Colville James M. Cox 2 .....................................Comanche Ada Deer1 ............................................Menominee Lucille A. Echohawk............................Pawnee Lorraine Edmo ....................................Shoshone-Bannock Marvin Franklin ..................................Iowa Tribe William A. Gollnick ............................Oneida LaDonna Harris ..................................Comanche Overton James1 ....................................Chickasaw David Lester ........................................Creek Maxine Lewis-Raymond 2 ....................Yurok Leah Manning1 ....................................Shoshone-Paiute Joseph Martin 2.....................................Navajo Charles McNeil....................................Alaska Native Marlaine Naranjo ................................Santa Clara-Navajo.....................................................Potawatomie James Overton .....................................Chickasaw Rose Robinson .....................................Hopi Joe Sando1 ............................................Jemez Pueblo James G. Sappier..................................Penobscot Osley Saunooke 2 ..................................Cherokee Martin Seneca......................................Seneca Rick St. Germaine 2 ..............................Lac Courte Oreilles .....................................................Ojibwa


The American Indian Graduate

Robert Stearns .....................................Aleut John Stevens ........................................Passamaquoddy Joy Sundberg 2 ......................................Yurok Georgianna Tiger.................................Blackfeet Charles E. Trimble1 .............................Oglala Sioux Darlena L. Watt...................................Colville David Warren1 .....................................Santa Clara Pueblo/ .....................................................Chippewa Jeanne Whiteing 2.................................Blackfeet-Cahuilla Rhonda Whiting 2 ................................Confederated Salish .....................................................& Kootenai Martha Yallup......................................Yakima Peterson Zah........................................Navajo Member of the first Board Served as Board President

1 2

Executive Directors 1969 - 1982 1984 - 1992 1992 - 1994 1994 - 1996 1996 - 1997 1997 - 1999 2000 - Present

John C. Ranier Lorraine P. Edmo Oran LaPointe Reginald Rodriguez Robert Sutton Hilton G. Queton Norbert S. Hill, Jr.

Taos Pueblo Shoshone-Bannock Rosebud Sioux Laguna Pueblo Kiowa-Seminole Oneida

About Giving

AIGC Faces of Philanthropy By Joan Currier


e warmly salute all of the individuals and institutions whose generous contributions have enriched the programs of the American Indian Graduate Center during the past thirty five years. A complete list of donors appears in AIGC’s Annual Report. Here is just a small sample of those whose ongoing support has enabled us to help over 10,000 AIGC alumni.

Alumni Benny Shendo, Jemez Pueblo, NM. “AIGC helped me in my pursuit of postgraduate education and I encourage our generations of college degreed students to continue education at the graduate level. Students need to be able to take advantage of education opportunities within the framework of being Native—their strength lies in who they are as Native people.” Robert Miller, Eastern Shawnee, AIGC alumni in Indian law. Mr. Miller has practiced and taught Indian Law and is active in tribal sovereignty issues with his tribe in Oklahoma and in the Northwest where he currently resides. His support of AIGC is reflective of his ongoing dedication to the causes of Indian people. Hazel Mullenbruch, Seneca Tribe “I was the first woman from my tribe to be sent off to school to pursue a graduate degree. The tribe recognized a need to educate tribal members in order to be effective in its own selfdetermination.” Hazel continues to take an active role in Indian education forums and supports current scholars through her contributions to AIGC.

Individual Contributors Joe Sando, Elder, Jemez Pueblo, NM. Founding member of American Indian Graduate Center’s Board of Directors and historian. “I supported Rainer and Bennett to change our common experience of not seeing Indian people in positions of leadership outside of traditional roles. Also…many times an organization wanted an Indian person to speak on a particular subject. I many times, agreed to speak about a foreign subject because there were no other Indians. I wanted to make sure that Indians were available to consult on variety of fields in which they are knowledgeable.” Eloy Barreda, IMO Grace Wall Barreda, Corpus Christi, TX. Mr. Barreda endowed a fellowship in 1997 in memory of his wife for one student each year to pursue a graduate degree in Public Health or Environmental Studies. Seven individuals have received this honor to date. Daryl Atchley, O’Fallon, MO. Witnessed the disadvantages faced by many Native Americans and believes strongly in education as a means to achieve tribal sovereignty. David and Carol Butler, Hermitage, TN “The reality of American history is horrendous as it pertains to American Indians. Our support is a way to acknowledge that and lend a hand. Of course we check the Better Business Bureau and Institute of Philanthropy ratings. AIGC ranks on top.” Jim Wizenburg, Denver, CO “To help Norbert Hill and his staff continue his good work with Native Americans in education.”

Foundations Union Carbide Foundation, Danbury, CT Endowment in support of one fellow in Science and Engineering each year. Continued on page 31

The American Indian Graduate


AIGC/Gates Millennium Scholars

Would you have survived without scholarships? Eligibility Criteria An individual is eligible to be nominated as Gates Millennium Scholars if he or she: • is African American, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian Pacific Islander American or Hispanic American; • is a citizen or legal permanent resident or national of the United States • has attained a cumulative GPA of 3.30 on a 4.0 scale • will enter an accredited college or university as full-time, degree-seeking freshmen in the fall of 2005; • has a significant financial need (i.e., meet the federal Pell Grant criteria; and • has demonstrated leadership abilities through participation in community service, extracurricular, or other activities.


The American Indian Graduate

“The Gates Millennium Scholarship has meant so many different things to me. It has allowed me to continue on my educational course. This greatly benefits not only myself, but also the future for my familiy and the quality of life I hope to provide for them.” –Jennifer Old Rock

“Because there are few things as important as a viable education, the Gates Millennium Scholarship allows students like myself the economic means to concentrate more directly on academics.” –Michael Sheyashe-Lell

“The Gates Millennium Scholarship has contributed to my lifetime goals of earning a Bachelor’s degree and a Master’s degree in mechanical engineering. It has enabled me to pursue a successful career to support myself and my family.” –Karen Max

Gates Millennium Scholars

Mother and Son Exhibit Scholarly Success By JoAnn Melchor



alerie Shangreaux, (Lakota Sioux) is a Gates Millennium Scholar at Oklahoma State University, as is her son, WiNunpa Sanchez. Valerie is pursuing a doctoral degree; WiNunpa, a bachelor’s degree in the College of Architecture. Valerie received her inspiration to pursue higher education early in life from her parents. While she was growing up, there was always discussion about college; in her family, it was never a question of “if” she would go to college, but “when.” She also received inspiration from a faculty member who became her mentor, Teresa LaFramboise. Valerie received her Bachelor of Science in Home Economics and Master of Arts in Educational Psychology from the University of Nebraska. She always dreamed of completing her doctoral degree, so when she learned about an exciting and new itiative called the Bill and Melinda Gates Millennium Scholarship, she decided to apply. Valerie was ecstatic when she was selected as a Gates Scholar during the 2000-2001 inaugural year of that program. She is now in the last year of her graduate program and is excelling academically. One of the main challenges she continues to face is balancing other aspects in her life—her career as a campus coordinator for the Louis Stokes Alliance and her responsibilities as a parent. In spite of these challenges, she has been successful in her academic work and family life. She, along with her husband, Jose, are wonderful mentors for WiNunpa. WiNunpa has always been motivated by his parents to do well in school. His grade school teachers also provided much encouragement. WiNunpa always knew he was going to go on to college. Currently, he is very focused on completing his degree in a rigorous program. WiNunpa says, “I am very grateful for the Gates Millennium Scholars program because I am able to focus on my studies without worrying about my finances.” He credits his parents for his commitment to education; he also has a wonderful mentor, Mohammad Bilbeisi, who

Valerie and her son WiNunpa during study break.

is an instructor at the College of Architecture. Like his mother, his biggest challenge is to manage his time and balance all of his community, school, cultural and home responsibilities. Valerie and her son are very close and share many successes as well as challenges. Valerie has instilled in WiNunpa the values given to her by her parents. A value that is equally important to Valerie and WiNunpa is giving back to community. Valerie does so through her work with students at the university. She also has helped other American Indian students apply for the Gates Millennium Scholarship. WiNunpa plans to give back when he completes his education and returns to their home community of in Oklahoma to design and build homes and address other community needs. Valerie and WiNunpa are good role models of what is expected of a Gates Millennium Scholar. But most importantly, they are good examples of how family members can support one another to face challenges and accomplish life goals. 

The American Indian Graduate


Making a Difference

American Indian Advisory Board at The University of Arizona By Mary Jo Tippeconnic Fox, Ph.D.


r. Peter Likins, President of the University of Arizona convened the first meeting of the newly formed American Indian Advisory Board (“AIAB”) on February 25, 2004. The board is composed of twenty-two members representing the university, tribal nations, Arizona community colleges—including the two Arizona tribal colleges, Tucson community members, alumni, students, and organizations. Under the draft by-laws of the AIAB, its initial goals are to serve in an advisory capacity to the President of the University of Arizona, the American Indian Studies Programs, and the Office of Native American Student Affairs; enhance the visibility and standing of ongoing programs that relate to American Indians; and to serve as a catalyst and coordinating body for new initiatives that relate to American Indians. The AIAB AIGC Fellow Gilbert will also be called upon to Brown (Navajo) visited advocate for Native students, AIGC to share his experi- faculty, staff, and administraences at U of A. tors; and identify qualified Native faculty, students, and professionals for recruitment to the University of Arizona. The President welcomed the board members and addressed the current status of the University of Arizona. A discussion followed with comments and questions by the board members. As to whether the American Indian Advisory Board could outlast the current administration, the president noted that while there are no guarantees, he is confident that this council and others like it will become an integral and natural component of this university’s culture. President Likins further advised that he “promotes diversity at the highest levels. Any responsible university president today should understand


U of Arizona American Indian students taking pride in their educational dreams.

that his or her job is to create an environment to prepare students for a world 20 to 30 years from now. A genuine multi-cultural, multi-racial environment is mandated.” Dr. Likins also addressed questions relating to the proposed tuition hike and its implications, continuing to enhance relations with Pima Community College, and striving to improve relations with the University of Arizona’s American Indian constituents. Members of the AIAB were also given the floor to express their thoughts and desires as to their service on this very important advisory board. Mr. Alan Jim asked for a stronger university presence within the Sunnyside Unified School District, which has a high number of Native students. The AIAB will be the primary point of contact and vehicle for addressing his and other community members’ concerns in the future. The AIAB’s task is to now review, revise and formalize its bylaws and develop a regular meeting schedule. The next meeting will take place around the University of Arizona’s spring 2004 convocation, during the week of May 10, 2004. 

The American Indian Graduate


Women of Vision

Investing in the Future of New Mexico’s Women Leaders By Molly Tovar



n summer 2002, we learned of an opportunity to request a grant from the New Mexico Women’s Foundation (NMWF), for projects to help New Mexico’s women achieve economic independence. NMWF gives priority to projects promoting leadership development, and AIGC regards its support of graduate students as a step toward creating the Native American leaders of tomorrow. A goal of AIGC is to provide additional education opportunities to Native Americans and my primary professional goal has been to provide the best possible educational opportunities to ethnic minority women; therefore, the chance to further both was very appealing. We submitted a proposal to provide training in leadership skills and professional development, plus a financial award, to New Mexico American Indian women graduate students. It was exciting to select the 2002-2003 recipients:

Victoria Zunie (Pueblo of Zuni-Navajo) Degree/Institution: master’s degree in health education, University of New Mexico. Career goal: Helping the youth of her community realize their potential and the elders conquer the diseases that afflict them through teaching health education in the Zuni schools. When asked about the greatest challenges to expanding her leadership experiences with others, Victoria stated, “I felt challenged with the Women of Vision project because I did not feel that I had much to share, but now I know that I can contribute to my community and assist my fellow women students. It has given me motivation, self-esteem and a networking system that will assist me in my future goals. I felt that I was no longer isolated as a native female graduate student and I am glad that the world has opened up for me. I will definitely remember the feeling of ‘being special for the past five months.’ Thank you for this opportunity!”


The American Indian Graduate

Celebrating completion of the NM Women of Vision program with Freida Arth.

Caryn Montoya (Navajo) Degree/Institution: master’s in special education, New Mexico State University. Caryn expressed her belief that her knowledge as a leader will be validated, she remarked, “When future teachers and/or colleagues in my field come to me for advice, or for my opinion on something related to our profession. For me, validation also comes from within. During the learning process, if I can take an idea, or a theory, and effectively apply and incorporate it into my philosophy of teaching, then I am confident in what I do.”

April Wilkinson (Kiowa) Degree/Institution: master’s in organizational management, University of Phoenix. Ms. Wilkinson shared her experience on the mentorship component of the project. She stated, “Mentoring took on a whole new aspect when I met Dr. Gloria Sly face-to-face. She is a dear woman and acted in her full mentor capacity when I asked her for job advice. I spoke with her about my reservations and the potential of my current job. She is very involved with Indian education. It meant a great deal to me that she thought about my future and asked me to change my perspective

Women of Vision from ‘ here and now’ to ‘what could be’. This has been the most rewarding aspect of my mentorship experience.” The overall goal is that the project be a catalyst enabling participants to complete their post graduate education, meet the challenges of a professional career and family life, achieve economic independence, promote leadership and work toward positive social change, and have a positive economic impact in their communities as well as the State of New Mexico. We held focus group discussions, leadership training and explored literature and opportunities to help the participants in their academic and professional careers and family life. Council of One Hundred members provided leadership and professional mentoring. The women completed pre and post-assessments to assist them, and us, in defining expectations and outcomes. A luncheon was held in May to honor them; attendees included Freida Arth, Treasurer of NMWF, and AIGC Executive Director, Norbert Hill, and Mrs. Hill.

The outstanding results of the program inspired us to apply for a second grant this year, which we received. The 2003-2004 recipients are: Heather Townsend, San Felipe Pueblo; Caryn R. Montoya, Standing Rock Sioux; Vickie K. Oldman, Navajo and Carolyn WasheeFreeland, Cheyenne-Arapaho. We will build on last year, concentrating on mentor-mentee relationships and assertiveness techniques as well as promoting a greater awareness of community connections and the concept of “giving back to community.” We thank the New Mexico Women’s Foundation for providing this opportunity to deserving New Mexico Native American women; we believe the results will be far-reaching and enduring. 


������������������������������������������� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ �������������������������������������������� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������ ��������������������� ���������������������������������������� ��������������������������������������� ���������� �������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������


The American Indian Graduate


Words Into Action


The Consortium for American Indian Graduate Education By Ray Kling


n fall of 2002, Molly Tovar from the American Indian Graduate Center invited twenty-one graduate school deans with outstanding records for promoting ethnic minority graduate education on their campuses as well as nationally, to join in an initiative to work together to ensure the success of American Indian students in obtaining graduate degrees. The primary objectives of the Consortium are to address the challenges American Indian graduate students face, eradicate racism within programs and classes, be a forum for understanding cultural traditions and practices, and to provide programs to assist with intervention and increase the number of Indians pursuing graduate studies. The desired end result is that these successful graduates will leave with plans to use their education for the betterment of their communities. The enthusiasm and advocacy of Consortium members has led to two highly successful meetings which were held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Council of Graduate Schools. To date nineteen additional institutions have requested to join bringing the total to forty Consortium partners. AIGC and CGS member institutions, individually and collaboratively, have held receptions honoring their American Indian graduate students. The large number of UNM administration personnel in attendance at a reception co-sponsored by the University of New Mexico’s American Indian Student Services and AIGC bodes well for recognition of Native graduate students. Member institutions were among several North Carolina colleges who co-hosted a reception with AIGC at the annual conference of the National Indian Education Association in Greensboro. Degree programs are tailored toward Native American students and those working in tribal agencies or colleges. South Dakota State University’s “Prairie Ph.D” directs coursework options and research opportunities toward Native students. Montana State has initiated a Master of Arts in Native American studies, and the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center has its Part-


The American Indian Graduate

nership for Native American Education in Public Health and Health Professions to increase the number of Native health professionals. Collaboration by Consortium members and events to introduce Indian students to graduate programs and to support current graduate students include: • Visit by AIGC executive director Norbert Hill to Arizona State University, where he met with its graduate college dean in conjunction with a program held for Native students • Call by Dr. Suzanne Ortega, University of Missouri at Columbia, for the nomination of juniors and seniors who are applying for graduate school to attend the Campus Visitation Program there. • Ongoing dialogue by Molly Tovar and Norbert Hill of AIGC with University of New Mexico Graduate Dean Teresita Aguilar and deans of several colleges within UNM regarding retention, support, and recruitment of Native American students in graduate studies programs at UNM. • A graduate school preparation program by AIGC, in partnership with College Horizons, set for July 17 – 20, 2004, at Washington University. Many of our consortium members’ institutions have supported this new initiative. Member deans have contributed several informative articles to this magazine. I encourage you to watch for more articles and advertisements from them that will showcase the successes envisioned by the Consortium. Publication of a statement of best practices is also in the works. Dr. Orlando Taylor, Dean of Howard University, and Dr. Ray Kling of the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at Oklahoma City co-chair the Consortium. At the invitation of Dr. Debra Stewart, President of CGS, future meetings will be held during the annual conference of the Council of Graduate Schools. 

Women Leaders

International Program Promotes Diversity and Excellence


By Teri Walker


n July 2002 American Indian Graduate Center’s (AIGC’s) Chief Operating Officer, Molly Tovar Ed.D became one of sixteen women world wide to participate in the Leadership Foundation Fellows Program of the International Women’s Forum (IWF). Dr. Tovar is the first fellow of American Indian/Hispanic descent ever to be selected for the program since its inception. IWF was founded in 1982 to enable women leaders to share knowledge and ideas, to provide a network of support, and exert influence. Members range from heads of state, business executives, and politicians to authors, artists, and television newswomen. The Leadership Foundation draws upon the expertise of IWF members for its training and mentoring program for women who are successful but can benefit from the program in realizing their total leadership potential and in turn be inspired to help other women. Molly’s participation was underwritten by a generous grant from the St. Paul Companies Foundation. During her year as a fellow, she received intensive training in requisite skills for women leaders from world renowned experts at prestigious institutions: public speaking, image, and mentoring in Mexico City; building relationships and branding strategies at the Carnegie Institute in New York; using case studies to diagnose and solve problems at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government; and sound business, and policy-making practices from the global perspective at the Judge Institute of Management at the University of Cambridge (England). TW: What have been the rewards of your fellowship year? MT: Meeting women who are outstanding in their professions. One requirement was using what we learned in a specific “Legacy Program.” With a grant from the New Mexico Women’s Foundation, I devised “Women of

IWF Fellows at Cambridge, England

Vision: Investing in the Future of New Mexico’s Women Leaders,” patterned on my IWF experience. (See article in this issue.) We provide three American Indian women graduate students an award plus mentoring and training in leadership and educational and career success. As with me, participating in the program made a difference for these women. I met women who are world players. I sought and received valuable, on-target advice about personnel policy from a “fellow fellow,” the director of human resources for a large manufacturer. I am more comfortable and competent in providing advice to colleagues inside and outside AIGC, and it pleases me that I am contributing to the IWF goal of benefiting a wider circle of women. Continued on page 26 The American Indian Graduate


Women Leaders TW: What were the highlights of the mentoring segment of the program? MT: First, the thrill of discovering that I had the perfect mentor. At the initial session in Mexico City, we discussed where we wanted to be in five years in terms of career, goals and interests, and mentor assignments were based on that. My mentor is Dorothy Ridings, President and CEO of the Council on Foundations, an organization of some 2000 grant–making/giving organizations— appropriate for me since I do many proposals each year. She suggested innovative pairings of projects and founding sources and introduced me to heads of foundations such as Curtis W. Meadows, Jr. and Lou C. Kerr. TW: What other implications will your experience have for the American Indian/Alaska Native Community?

I hope I provided insight into the Native American perspective and the issues we face. In keeping with AIGC’s mission of helping educate the Indian leaders of tomorrow, we are planning leadership workshops for our funding recipients. What I learned will be part of the curriculum, be it about self-esteem and confidence for freshmen, or success in a profession. Women comprise eighty percent of AIGC’s staff, and I plan to replicate much of my knowledge with them. On a personal level, my professional skills have been tremendously enhanced. As with AIGC, there will be extended benefits for others to whom I can impart what I have learned—from my daughter to the American Indian students who receive the scholarships that AIGC awards, and other Indian women with whom we work in fulfilling our mission to make a difference in Indian Country. 

AIGC Fellows Update Continued from page 14 John L. Johnson ’02 (University of Great Falls) MS – Currently Health Planner for Rocky Boy Health Board. Monique L. Vondall ’04 (University of North Dakota) Law – Currently Summer Law Clerk/Codification Specialist for Turtle Mountain Band Of Chippewa. Completed term as Area 2 Representative for National Native American Law Students Association and elected President for the UND NALSA Chapter for 2003/2004.

Michael A. Duran ’93 (Colorado State University) Master’s in Health Physics – Currently Accelerator Health Physicist for Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Vanesscia Bates ’02 (Washington State University) MSW – Currently Outreach Coordinator for Indian Health Center of Santa Clara Valley.

Anthony J. Stancampiano ’99 (University of Oklahoma) Doctor of Philosophy in Zoology – Currently Professor of Biology for Oklahoma City Community College.

Natasha D. Bordeaux ’03 (University of South Dakota) MA – Currently Journalist for Rapid City Journal. “The program allowed me to feel supported and valued as a future contributor to the Native American community.”

Larry T. Allen ’92 (Lincoln University, Missouri) M.Ed. – Currently Licensed Professional Counselor for Solid Rock Christian Counseling, Inc. “I currently own seven Mental Health Centers in Southeastern Missouri.”

Marlene Naranjo ’99 (National American University) MBA – Currently doing contract work and serving as President of the New Mexico Chapter of the North American Indian Women’s Association.

Daniel L. Dickerson ’01 (Western University of Health Sciences) Doctor of Osteopathy – Currently Resident Physician-Psychiatry for Loma Linda University Medical Center “I’m very grateful for AIGC, their inspirational assistance and commitment towards the future of Native Americans nationwide is tremendous.”

Tolani I Francisco ’90 (Kansas State University) Doctor of Veterinary Medicine – Currently Public Health Officer for United States Air Force. “I have just completed my first year as a Captain in the USAF.” Jonny l. Stiffarm ’90 (University of Minnesota, School of Law) JD – Currently Deputy Director, Office of Contract Compliance for City & County of Denver.


Karissa White ’02 (University of Washington) MA – Currently Museum Curator for Squaxin Island Tribe. “Thank you AIGC for helping me fulfill my goal of using the knowledge I gained to assist tribal communities in preserving and promoting culture and heritage.”

The American Indian Graduate

Amos E. Black ’02 (University of Tulsa) JD – Currently Attorney for Black & Zynda Law Office. Connie K. Wilkerson-Page ’98 (University of Tulsa) JD, Masters of Biological Science – Currently Assistant Public Defender for Tulsa County Public Defender. “I am working on my Ph.D. in Environmental Sciences.” 

��������������� Heinz School ��������������������� ����������������������

��������������� ���������� Tribal Affairs Fellowship To promote the advancement of the American Indian population and tribal affairs, the Heinz School offers full-tuition fellowships with a research assistantship for the Master of Science in Public Policy and Management (MSPPM) program. The number of fellowships awarded varies depending on the number of qualified applicants. The deadline for applying is January 15, 2004. For more information, visit our website at

The Heinz School’s current Tribal Affairs Fellow, Clara Pratte, was selected to participate in the Udall Native American Congressional Internship Program in Summer 2003. Clara’s strong interest in public policy combined with her desire to work on important legislation for the Native American community is a perfect match with the Heinz Tribal Affairs Fellowship and the Udall Internship Program. In her Udall Internship, Clara worked with Congressman Raul Grijalva’s office on the Tohono Oodham bill, which is seeking to get Tohono Oodham tribal members living in Mexico recognized as U.S. citizens.


Four Centuries of Postsecondary Education

Four Centuries of American Indian and Alaska Native Postsecondary Education By Marveline Vallo


he following are lists of dates and events that illustrate the history of major Congressional acts that impacted the opportunities of the American Indian in post secondary education. Early history indicates the involvement of religious organizations of America and early contact with European settlers were instrumental in educational changes. This chronology will also demonstrate that the involvement of Indian tribes in formal educational process(s) throughout the history of the United States. 1618


Harvard college was founded to educate English and Indian students.


An Indian College was constructed on the campus of Harvard College.


The College of William and Mary were founded with a mission to Christianize the Indians included in its charter.





The British monarchy set aside land to establish a college for American Indians in Virginia. A rebellion by the Native population ended the English plans.

The Reverend Eleazer Wheelock, a Congregational minister, founded Moore’s Charity School to convert the Indians. Reverend Eleazer Wheelock founded Dartmouth College to provide higher education opportunities for American Indians. The institution never became a predominantly Indian school. The first treaty between the United States and an Indian Nation to include provisions for

The American Indian Graduate

federal funding of Indian education in exchange for Indian land was signed. 1819

Congress appropriated funds to provide for the education and civilization of the American Indians.


The Choctaw tribe opened Choctaw Academy. The institution provided the most advanced academic and vocational training available to American Indians. It survived the 1840s.

1830s The Cherokees, Choctaws, and other members of the five civilized Tribes organized their own educational systems using tribal, federal, and missionary funds. These schools provided the American Indians with a literacy rate that was temporarily higher than that of their white neighbors. These educational systems lasted until the late 1800s when the federal government became increasingly involved with Indian Education 1860

The Federal government established the first off-reservation boarding school for American Indians. It was located on the Yakima Reservation in Washington Territory.


The U.S. government gave contracts to Protestant missionary societies to operate Indian schools.


The Federal government established the first off-reservation boarding school for American Indians in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. These federal boarding schools emphasized agricultural, industrial and domestic arts rather then more academic subject areas,

Four Centuries of Postsecondary Education 1880

The Baptists used a land grant from the Creek tribe to establish Indian University in Muskogee, Oklahoma. The institution was renamed Bacone College in 1910 and has continued to have a strong commitment to educating Native Americans in the 1990s.


The North Carolina General Assembly created the Croatan Normal School. It later became Pembroke State College for Indians when it started offering 4-year degrees to Indian students.


The Merriam Report was delivered to Congress highlighting the lack of opportunities in higher education available to American Indians.


In response to the Merriam report, the Indian Reorganization Act, also known as the Indian Bill of Rights, gave Indian tribes the right to form a constitution, have self-government, and form tribal corporations. It also stopped further losses of Indian lands and provided some federal loan for money for American Indians’ college expenses.


Also in response to the Merriam Report, amendments made to the Johnson-O’Malley Act authorized contracts between the federal government and the states for the provision of Indian higher education.


The Bureau of Indian Affairs established the higher education scholarship grant program.


Arizona State University established the Arizona State Indian Education Center and became the first institution to offer undergraduate and graduate Indian education courses.


Title III of the Higher Education Act provided grants to strengthen developing institutions of higher education, especially institution serving minority students. These funds aided in the establishment of the tribally controlled colleges via their association with sponsoring 4-year institutions.


University of New Mexico opened the American Indian Law Center to increase the supply of Indian Lawyers. The center became a separate, Indian controlled institution in 1976. The Senate established a subcommittee to study Indian Education. Its report, released in 1969, reaffirmed many of the findings of the Merriam Report and called for greater control by Native Americans over their own education.


The Navajo Nation established Navajo Community College in Arizona. This institution was the first tribally controlled community.


Haskell Institute, originally founded as an offreservation boarding school in 1884, changed its name to Haskell Indian Junior College when it began to offer postsecondary courses.


Congress passed the Navajo Community College Assistance Act providing Navajo Community College with a federal appropriation based on its enrollment as well as providing limited amount of funding for capital construction.


The Indian Education Act created an Office of Indian Education within the U.S. Department of Education and established the National Advisory Council on Indian Education (NACIE) The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) was created by six tribal colleges to provide technical assistance and undertake advocacy efforts. AIHEC played an instrumental role in securing additional funds for the tribal college movement and in aiding in the development of new tribally controlled colleges.

Late 1950s Twenty-four tribes offered scholarship funds to Native Americans. 1962

The Santa Fe Boarding School, originally founded as an off-reservation boarding school in 1890, was renamed the Institute of American Indian Arts and began offering postsecondary training in the arts to Indians.


Congress passed the Indian Self-Determination Act and the Education Assistance Act. Continued on page 31

The American Indian Graduate


Thank You

Thanks to our outstanding and dedicated ambassadors for making a difference to many exceptional Native young people and their communities.

AIGC Staff meet at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for a GMS advisory board meeting. (Special remarks made by Melinda Gates)


The American Indian Graduate

Four Centuries of Postsecondary Education Continued from page 29


Navajo Community College became the first tribal college to gain full accreditation as a 2year college offering associate’s degrees.


Congress passed the Tribally Controlled Community College Act, providing funding for the establishment and improvement of tribally controlled colleges.


Oglala Lakota College and Sinte Gleska College became the first two tribal colleges accredited to offer bachelor’s degrees.


Congress reauthorized the Indian Education Act and called for a White House Conference on Indian Education.


Sinte Gleska College was the first tribal college to receive accreditation to offer master’s degrees.


The Indian Nations at Risk Task Force, established by the U.S. Secretary of Education, released its report emphasizing the need to improve

financial aid programs for the Native American students, encourage Native American students to become teachers, and develop a national database on Native American education. 1992

The White House Conference on Indian Education led to 114 recommendations concerning Indian education.


The No Child Left Behind Act unveiled by President Bush includes “Reaching out…Raising American Indian Achievement.” Stating that “… public education has failed to deliver the promise of a quality education for American Indians,” the ACT proposes to “Attack the soft bigotry of low expectations, and demand that schools close the achievement gap between American Indians and white students.” 

Sources: National Center for Education Statistics, Demographic and Historical Overview, October 1998. Montana Office of Public Instruction, Linda McCulloch, Superintendent, February 2001.

AIGC Faces of Philanthropy Continued from page 17

The Christian Johnson Endeavor, New York, NY. General operating support, also start up funding for The American Indian Graduate and AIGC’s Council of 100 Leaders, Scholars and Traditionals. The Frees Foundation, Houston, TX. Helped in the creation of The American Indian Graduate and AIGC’s Council of 100 Leaders, Scholars and Traditionals. The Johnson Scholarship Foundation, Albany, CA. To support American Indian and Alaskan Native pursing graduate degrees in business and organization management. The Lucille and David Packard Foundation, Palo Alto, CA. To support American Indian and Alaskan Native graduate students in math, science, engineering and technology fields.

Barbara Grimes, San Felipe Pueblo is the American Indian Educational Outreach Coordinator for the Los Alomos National Laboratory. Barbara exemplifies AIGC’s philosophy of “giving back”. In addition to her professional endeavors, she has been a faithful AIGC donor, providing support for new classes of graduate students. Noted artist Sam English, Turtle Mountain Chippewa supports AIGC through generous contributions of artwork for promotions, fundraising, and celebrations. 

The American Indian Graduate


��������������� ���� �������� ��������� ������� ������� ���������������������������������� ����������


������������� ��������� ������������ ���� ������� ���������� ��������� ���� ���������

� ���������������������������� ������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������

�������������������������������� ���������������������������������������������� ���������������������������������������������� ��������������������������������������������� �������������������������


The American Indian Graduate Center 4520 Montgomery Blvd., NE Suite 1-B Albuquerque, NM 87109


American Indian Graduate Magazine Spring 2004