Folk Art (Fall 2004)

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ricco maresca gallery 529 west 20th street 3rd floor new york ny 10011 212.627.4819

the finest American country antiques and folk art oropuromumo-


Patrick Bell! Edwin HiId P.O. Box 718, New Hope, PA 18938-0718 By Appointment 215-297-0200 fax: 215-297-0300 e-mail:

Our annual catalogue is now available. Please contact us for a copy Plan a visit to our gallery or see us online.

Luy American, 4th quarter 19th century. Carved and painted wood and metal. 17.5 inches high, 18 inches long. provenance: Kennedy Galleries, Joseph B. Martinson Collection, Kahn Collection. literature: Kennedy Quarterly, January 1974, p. 26; Folk Sculpture USA, p. 83; Small Folk, p.1 35. exhibited: Museum of American Folk Art, "Wood Sculpture of New York State", 1975; Brooklyn Museum, "Folk Sculpture USA", 1976: Museum of American Folk Art and New York Historical Society, "Small Folk", 1980

Passing Trains • oil on canvas • Pennsylvania • c. 1880 • 26 x 33.5

DAVID WHEATCROFT Antiques 26 West Main Street, Westborough, MA 01581 • Tel:(508) 366-1723




Untitled, not dated found paper, soot, 41/4" x 53/4"

The Intuit Show, Chicago October 1-3, 2004


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3 Crist is the primary representative for the work of James Castle

Trotta Bono

Photograph: Luigi Pelletti

Antique Native American Art Art of the Frontier and Colonial Periods

Katchina Hopi Late 19th C.

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Very fine carved mahogany eagle, with superb original patination, mounted on a turned base cap. American mid 19th century. 16" high, 16" wingspan, 9" diameter base.

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Stacy C. Hollander

Evidence of Abridgment in Eddie Arning's Art, and Its Importance


Pamela Jane Sachant

David Augur: Little-Known Vermont Folk Painter


Arthur and Sybil Kern

Howard Finster's "First Picture Book"


Tom Patterson


Cover: FATHER AND DAUGHTER OF ELIZABETHTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA (detail) Jacob Maentel c.1815-1820 American Folk Art Museum, promised gift of Ralph Esmerian, P1.2002.10b (see page 45)

Editor's Column


Director's Letter

Update:The Henry Darger Study Center



Henry Darger Film Premiere




Books ofInterest


The Collection: A Closer Look


The American Antiques Show


Wit Weekend


Museum News


Clarion Society




Museum Information: Exhibition Schedule, Hours &Admissions


Portraits Symposium


Space Rental


Membership Special


Museum Reproductions Program


Update:The Library


Public Programs




Index to Advertisers


MIMI Folk Art is published four times a year by the American Folk Art Museum.The museum's mailing address is 1414 Avenue ofthe Americas, New York,NY 10019-2514,Tel.212/977-7170, Fax 212/977-8134.Prior to Fall 1992,Volume 17, Number 3,Folk Art was published as The Clarion. Annual subscription rate for members is included in membership dues. Copies are 0 73 mailed to all members. Single copy $8.00. Published and copyright 2004 by the American Folk Art Museum,45 West 53rd Street,New York, NY 10019.The cover and contents ofFolk L._ Art are fully protected by copyright and may not be reproduced in any manner without written consent. Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those ofthe American Folk Art Museum.Unsolicited manuscripts or photographs should be accompanied by return postage. Folk Art assumes no responsibility for the loss or damage ofsuch materials. Change of address: Please send both old and new addresses to the museum's mailing address at 1414 Avenue ofthe Americas, New York,NY 10019-2514,and allow Svc weeks for change. Advertising: Folk Art endeavors to accept advertisements only from advertisers whose reputation is recognized in the trade,but despite the care with which the advertising department screens photographs and texts submitted by its advertisers, it cannot guarantee the unquestionable authenticity ofobjects or quality ofservices advertised in its pages or offered for sale by its advertisers, nor can it accept responsibility for misunderstandings that may arise from the purchase or sale ofobjects or services advertised in its pages.The museum is dedicated to the exhibition and interpretation offolk art and it is a violation ofits principles to be involved in or to appear to be involved in the sale ofworks of art. For this reason,the museum will not knowingly accept advertisements for FolkArtthat illustrate or describe objects that have been exhibited at the museum within one year ofplacing an advertisement.The publisher reserves the right to exclude any advertisement.






he primary medium for the two thousand or so drawings that Eddie Arning created over a period of ten years was an oil pastel manufactured by the Japanese company Cray-Pas, which was developed during the 1920s through a desire to encourage unhampered creativity in Japanese children,following a period ofcultural upheaval. Cray-Pas offered a drawing tool that was soft and fluid and produced vivid colors.These same qualities made oil pastels an ideal drawing tool for use in art therapy classes, such as those offered in the Austin nursing home where Arning lived and created from 1964 until 1973. Arning's Three Birds Flying, below, can be seen in "Blue," Senior Curator Stacy C. Hollander's stunning exhibition that will open on October 20. For other works richly imbued with this most evocative color, and the fascinating history ofthe development ofblue pigments, see our cover story beginning on page 38.The work of Eddie Arning is also the subject of an essay by Pamela Jane THREE BIRDS FLYING! Eddie Arning (1898-1993)/ Austin, Texas / Sachant,who has done 1969 / oil pastel on brown wove paper / 22 32" / American Folk extensive research on the Art Museum, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Sackton, 1985.1.6 artist and the emphatic, decisive way in which he interpreted his source materials. For our third essay, Arthur and Sybil Kern, contributing their research to this magazine for the seventeenth time, have tracked down twenty-seven works by David Augur, a Vermont schoolteacher and farmer who penned family records,essays and epistles, and poignant decorated letters. And finally, writer and curator Tom Patterson examines a notebook of early drawings by Howard Finster that offers a revealing glimpse ofthe prolific artist's inherent optimism,even as a teenager living on a hardscrabble farm. We've added two new columns,which will report on recent developments in the museum's Shirley K. Schlafer Library and the Henry Darger Study Center. And "The Collection: A Closer Look"showcases two objects currently on view in the museum's Cullman/Danziger Family Atrium in a handsome installation of works relating to a most cheerful late-summer bloom: the sunflower. Last issue, in addition to"The Collection," we introduced "Conversation," a column devoted to informal discussions with museum friends and colleagues. This time I had the pleasure ofengaging in a lengthy dialogue with Director Gerard C.Wertkin, who is preparing for his retirement later this year."Mentor" is an attribute frequently and easily applied to our leader, and with good reason: This museum would not be what it is today without his careful guidance,encouragement,and support. My own dedication to the field is in no small part a reflection of Gerry's integrity and infectious drive for excellence. An expanded and very interesting "Conversation" begins on page 30.1 hope you enjoy this issue, and I look forward to seeing you again in December.


8 FALL 2004


PUBLICATIONS/FOLK ART Tanya Heinrich Director ofPublications/Editor and Publisher Lori T. Leonard Production Editor Vanessa Davis Assistant Editor Eleanor Garlow Advertising Sales Erildca V. Haa Copy Editor Jeffrey Kibler, The Magazine Group,Inc. Design Cenveo Printers ADMINISTRATION Gerard C.Werticin Susan Conlon Linda Dunne Robin A. Schlinger Madhultar Balsara Angela Lam Irene ICreny Robert J. Saracena Alexis Davis George Y. Wang Wendy Barbee Anthony Crawford Daniel Rodriguez Beverly McCarthy ICatya Ulhnan

Director Assistant to the Director ChiefAdministrative Officer ChiefFinancial Officer Assistant Controller Accountant Accounts Payable Associate Director ofFacilities Facilities Associate Director ofInformation Technology Manager of Visitor Services Assistant Manager of Visitor Services Office Services Coordinator Mail Order/Reception Administrative Assistant/Rmeption

COLLECTIONS & EXHIBITIONS Stacy C. Hollander Senior Curator/Director ofExhibitions Brooke Davis Anderson Director and Curator of The Contemporary Center and the Henry Darger Study Center Ann-Marie Reilly ChiefRegistrar/Director ofExhibition Production Elizabeth V. Warren Consulting Curator EDUCATION Diana Schlesinger Janet Lo Lee Kogan

Director ofEducation Manager ofSchooland Docent Programs Director ofthe Folk Art Institute/Curator ofSpecialProjects for The Contemporary Center

DEPARTMENTS Cathy Michelsen Christine Corcoran Pamela Gabourie Katie Hush Radhika Natarajan Dana Clair Danelsi De La Cruz Wendy Barrtto Susan Flamm Alice J. Hoffman Marie S. DiManno Richard Ho Janey Fire James Mitchell Jane Lattes Caroline Kerrigan

EVA AND MORRIS FELD Dale Gregory Ursula Morillo Kenneth R. Bing Bienvenido Medina Treenia Thompson

Director ofDevelopment Manager ofIndividual Giving Manager ofInstitutional Giving SpecialEvents Manager Development Associate Membership and Development Associate Membership Assistant Membership Clerk Public Relations Director Director ofLicensing Director ofMuseum Shops Manager ofInformation Systems, Retail Operations Director ofPhotographic Services Librarian Director of Volunteer Services Executive Director of The American Antiques Show GALLERY STAFF Gallery Director Weekend Gallery Manager Security Security Security

MUSEUM SHOPS STAFF Managers:Dorothy Gargiulo, Louise B. Sheets, Marion Whitler Book Buyer: Evelyn R. Gurney; Staff Eddie Bang,Sandy B. Yun; Volunteers: Angela Clair, Millie Gladstone, Elizabeth Howe,Judy Kenyon, Hiromi Kiyama, Nancy Mayer, Judy Rich, Phyllis Selnick American Folk Art Museum Book and Gift Shops 45 West 53rd Street New York, NY 10019 212/265-1040, ext. 124 Two Lincoln Square (Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th Streets) New York, NY 10023 212/595-9533, ext. 26 MAILING ADDRESS American Folk Art Museum 1414 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10019-2514 212/977-7170, Fax 212/977-8134,,

ALLAN KATZ Americana

Folk Art Bone Carving Conrad Grasshoff (1847-1927), Altamont, Illinois 13" h Grasshoff served in the Civil War with the 24'" New York Cavalry

Allan & Penny Katz By Appointment 25 Old Still Road Woodbridge, CT 06525 Tel.(203) 393-9356


Cigar store Indian c. 1850, height of Indian 43 in., ht. on original base 70 in.

AARNE ANTON ART & ANTIQUES 25 years discovering folk art of the 19th-20 centuries BASES-custom mounting of art and antiques

American Folk Art Sidney Gecker

RARE PORTRAIT OF A CHILD ATTIUBUTED TO EMILY EASTMAN •NEW HAMPSHIRE CIRCA 1820•15 4 INCHES X 13INCHES(FRAMED SIZE) 226 West 21st Street New York, N.Y. 10011 •(212)929-8769•Appointment Suggested Subject to prior sale.


Northern New Mexico La Muerte Skeletal figure with bow. Penitente culture. Mid to late 19th century. 36 1/2"high. Carved wood with gesso and paint.


W E. CHANNING & CO . 805 Apodaca Hill. Santa Fe. NM 87501 . 505 988 1078 .





his is a time oftransition at the American Folk Art Museum. Among several changes in leadership, Dr. Laura Parsons, a trustee since 1999, has been elected president ofthe board. Dr. Parsons will succeed Dr. L.John Wilkerson, whose fifth consecutive term ofoffice ends on September 22. John Wilkerson has served with distinction as a trustee since 1994,successfully guiding the museum through the most demanding and complex period in its history. A seasoned business leader, he is a founder and general partner of Galen Partners, one ofthe largest and most influential private equity investment firms to focus solely on the healthcare industry.The museum's building program and plans for expansion required a board leader ofimpeccable business credentials, skills, and experience. Wilkerson, the holder of a Ph.D. degree from Cornell University in managerial economics, brought these qualities to the challenges that faced the institution, serving first as treasurer and since 1999 as president. It was a pleasure for me to work closely with him;indeed, all of us have benefited from his analytical and strategic expertise, his thoughtfulness, and his kind and genere ous interest in every aspect of Board President L John Wilkerson the museum's operation. As president, Wilkerson,and his wife, Barbara, often served as genial hosts of special events for the benefit of the museum in their homes in New Jersey and New York,and did so with aplomb,great style, and warm hospitality. They helped forge a sense ofcommunity among trustees and staff Fortunately, Wilkerson—who recently was elected chairman ofthe board of Atlantic Health Systems,a New Jersey multihospital consortium—remains a very active member ofthe board, having accepted several new assignments. On behalfofthe Board of Trustees and professional staff, I extend sincere thanks to him for his outstanding record ofservice to the museum.


Laura Parsons is the holder of a Psy.D. degree in child/school psychology from New York University and an in early childhood special education from Teachers College, Columbia University. Active in the private practice ofpsychology,she also provides services in evaluation, parent counseling, and staff training for public and private agencies serving the needs ofyoung children in Manhattan and the Bronx.Involved in many philanthropic and professional endeavors, Dr. Parsons is a member of the Board ofTrustees ofBank Street College ofEducation here in New York;Big Brothers Big Sisters ofNew York City;the New York City Department of Mental Health,Mental Hygiene, and Alcoholism Services; and other institutions. Parsons and her husband, Richard, are avid collectors of African American art. Since joining the board, Laura Parsons has assumed increasingly significant roles, serving on the Executive Committee and other board committees and task forces and providing leadership in several critical areas. Her election as president was a unanimous affirmation of confidence from her colleagues.I wish her well as she assumes responsibility for the important tasks that lie ahead. Continued growth ofthe museum's Board ofTrustees speaks to the institution's strength and vitality. Now consisting ofthirty active members, the board recently welcomed Michelle L. Lasser of Brookline, Massachusetts,to its membership. Michelle Lasser has been a psychologist at Children's Hospital in Boston and an adjunct professor ofpsychology at Boston College, as well as a school psychologist,speech pathologist,

Board President-elect Laura Parsons

Trustee Michelle L. Lasser

FALL 2004




and teacher. A person of diverse talents and experience, Dr. Lasser also founded a computer hardware and software company. She is the holder of an M.S. degree from California State University and an M.B.A. degree from Northeastern University and earned a psychology from the University of Southern California. In addition to her impressive academic and professional attainments,Lasser brings a longstanding interest in the arts to her board service. She is currently a member ofthe board of Historic New England (formerly the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities), having previously served in the same capacity at the Farnsworth Art Museum in Rockland, Maine. She is a member of the Visiting Committee for Art of the Americas at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Her other public-spirited commitments include service as a trustee of the Boys and Girls Clubs ofBoston and as a member of the Visiting Committee of the Harvard University School ofPublic Health. Michelle Lasser and her husband, Lawrence, are collectors of traditional American folk art, modernist paintings, and painted furniture. I congratulate her on her election to the board and thank her for her willingness to contribute her talents and experience to the continued growth and development ofthe institution. Even as I welcome a new trustee to the leadership ofthe museum,it is my responsibility to publicly bid farewell to two great friends,Trustee Emeritus Joseph F. Cullman 3rd and Paul Martinson, both of whom died recently in their 90s after many years ofindividual accomplish-

14 FALL 2004



Trustee Frances S. Martinson and Paul Martinson (1907-2004)

Trustee Emeritus Joseph F. Cullman 3rd (1912-2004) and Trustee Lucy C. Danziger

ment and generous commitment to the museum and other causes. Martinson's roots in our institution may be traced to its first decade. His cousin,Joseph B. "Burt" Martinson,was one of our six founding trustees and the first board president. After Burt's untimely death in 1970,Paul and Frances Martinson accepted responsibility for the Martinson legacy at the museum.With Frances serving as a trustee and officer, Paul acted as a wise counselor and trusted adviser. A distinguished attorney, with a passion for political and social justice, Martinson was a valued member ofthe leadership team that saw the museum through its challenging early years to the realization ofits most important goals. Joseph F. Cullman 3rd, a consummate sportsman,business leader, and philanthropist,came into the life of the museum much later than Martinson,but his is also a story offamily commitment.The uncle ofTrustee Lucy C.Danziger, Cullman provided important counsel and encouragement to us as our capital campaign was entering its critical stage. Elected to the board in 1998, he brought a generous spirit and well-honed business acumen to his service as a trustee. In electing him a trustee emeritus in 2001,the board recognized him as a catalyst for the building ofthe museum's new home.Without his participation,it is unlikely that we could have achieved so much. The museum family will miss Paul Martinson and Joe Cullman,but will remember them always with profound respect and deep affection. As many readers ofthis column already know, I have announced my intention to retire from the directorship ofthe American Folk Art Museum at the conclusion ofthe current year. Although the torch is yet to be passed,it is appropriate for me to acknowledge with thanks the support of the entire museum family through the twentyfour years I have served the institution as assistant director, acting director, and,for the last thirteen years, as director.This has been the most rewarding period of my professional life, most especially because ofthe friends and colleagues I have had the pleasure ofcoming to know. Now that the museum's new building is in its third year and so many of the institution's long-held objectives have been realized, it is time for a new generation ofleadership to chart the museum's direction for the coming decades.I am deeply gratefid for the opportunity to have led the American Folk Art Museum through a period ofgreat transformation;for the coming months I look forward to remaining involved in the full range of planning, programming, and operations, while helping to ensure a smooth and seamless transition in leadership.I hope to see many of you at the museum in the months ahead and extend my abiding gratitude to you all. *

Felipe Jesus Consalvos Cuban-American, active 1910-1940

Debut exhibition of collage and sculpture, October 2004. Works viewable online. ,

1111 Of THE 111111,10 October 15, 2004 - January 5, 2005

1 liTilihiflhl 111E1111 Navajo and Pueblo Spoons Drawn from the Wheelwright Museum's Carl Lewis Druckman Collection

11111J0 i11DDLE Textiles to Ride in the American West Organized by the Travelling Exhibitions Program of the Museum of New Mexico

THE MENNELLO MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART 900 E. Princeton Street • Orlando, Florida 32803 407.246.4278 • Fax: 407.246.4329 HOURS: Tuesday - Saturday 10:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. Sunday noon - 4:30 p.m. • Closed major holidays The Mennello M is o r,e nd op

of American Folk Art by the City of Orlando.


A rimiki"


Offering a comprehensive selection of his drawings


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Boro (Cotton Futon cover), Japan, 19th C. 67 x 36 in

Photographs by D. James Dee

World Textiles for Folk and Outsider Art Collectors

Cavin-Morris Gallery 560 Broadway Suite 405 B Tel

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Figure A

Eddi( Arning $ I 0 61•r 6

Figure B


Please join us at these events:

The Intuit Show,Chicago

EA I I ,"Christina Ford and Friend," pastel on paper, 22 x 26 inches (Source: figure A)

October 1-3,2004

San Francisco Fall Antique Show


October 27-31,2004

Exceptional works by contemporary, visionary, self-taught and outsider artists. Early handmade Americana including carved canes, tramp art, memory jugs, quilts and whimseys. Bonnie Grossman, Director EA I 2,"The Guide was a Dude," pastel on paper, 22 x 32 inches

2661 Cedar St, Berkeley, CA 94708 tel: 510/845-4949 fax: 510/845-6219 email: online:

(Source: figure B)


HAITIAN ART SOCIETY CONFERENCE The Haitian Art Society ( is hosting their second mini-conference on Haitian art Sept. 24-26 in New York City The conference will include lectures by Randall Morris and Beate Echols at the American Folk Art Museum and visits to private collections, the Studio Museum in Harlem,and the Selden 8c Carole Rodman Collection at the Ramapo College Art Galleries in Mahwah,NJ.For more information, please visit the society's website.

WOMAN WITH TWO CHILDREN AND CAT Ernest "Popeye" Reed (1919-1985) Jackson County, Ohio c.1968 Carved gray sandstone 60 12 15" American Folk Art Museum, gift of Dorothea and Leo Rabkin, 1982.20.1

CALL FOR WORKS An upcoming exhibition on Ernest"Popeye" Reed, being organized by JeffWay and Michael Noland,is scheduled to be on view at the Columbus Museum of Art in Ohio in 2007. Anyone with pieces by Reed to be considered for the show should contact the curators. Write to Michael Noland at 416 Herrington Place,Woodstock,IL 60098; or e-mail

20 FALL 2004


INTUIT'S PERMANENT COLLECTION AND YARD ART Intuit: The Center for Intuitive and Outsider Art (312/243-9088; Chicago celebrates the inauguration ofits permanent collection. Since its founding in 1991,the nonprofit organization has presented more than 50 notable exhibitions of self-taught artists' work."Genesis: Gifts and Promised Gifts to the Permanent Collection," on view from Sept. 10 to Dec. 31,features gifts from artists, collectors, dealers, and other supporters. Works by Miles Carpenter,William Dawson,Minnie Evans,Howard Finster, Lee Godie,Ted Gordon,Johann BEFORE A GATE! Emily Richardson / Hauser,Dwight Philadelphia / 2004 / hand-quilted silk Mackintosh,Justin with hand appliquÊ and acrylic / 65 x 34" / collection of the artist McCarthy, David Philpot, Oswald CONTEMPORARY Tschirtner, Eugene QUILTS Quilt San Diego von Bruenchenhein, (, a non- P.M. Wentworth, profit international art organi- Willie White,Weszation dedicated to the ley Willis, and promotion and appreciation of Joseph Yoakum will the quilting arts through exhi- be on view. UNTITLED/ Eugene von Bruenchenhein (1910-19831/ bitions, workshops, and lecAlso at Intuit is Milwaukee / 1955 / oil on board /171 / 2 15" / Intuit: The tures, presents "Quilt Visions "The Art of Derek Center for Intuitive and Outsider Art, unrestricted gift of 2004," their 8th juried exhibi- Webster," on display Lewis, Jean, and Dan Greenblatt tion ofcontemporary art quilts until Oct.2. Born in since 1987. Forty-five quilts, 1934 in Honduras, chosen from more than 600 Webster was raised in Honduras and Belize; he immigrated to submitted,represent artists Chicago when he was 30. Fourteen years later, he was able to from 15 countries.The exhibi- buy a house for his family.This inspired him to embellish the yard tion will be on view at the and exterior of his new home with sculpture—creatures forged Oceanside Museum of Art from wood,glass,jewelry, and other found objects. Webster's yard (760/721-2787, www.omaart was an expression ofhis sense ofaccomplishment and his in Oceanside, tural roots Calif,from Nov. 7,2004,to within his Jan. 16,2005. A full-color catcommunity. alog will be available. In his first one-man museum show, he reaches an even wider audience.

UNTITLED (DANCE PARTY)! Derek Webster (b.1934)/ Chicago / n.d. mixed media / 25 . 12 10" / private collection



"A Joint Venture"

Lindsay Gallery 986 North High St. Columbus, OH 43201 Phone 614-291-1973 E-mail:

Austin T. Miller AlVIIE RICAI'


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The Art World of James Harold Jennings Atrium Gallery / Now - November 7 Green Hill Center for North Carolina Art Presented by At Home Gallery, Green Hill Center and the family of James Harold Jennings Call 336-286-0131 for info on CD catalog




PHOTOGRAPHY AND COLLAGE "Create and Be Recognized: Photography on the Edge," at Yerba Buena Center for the Arts (415/978-2787; in San Francisco from Oct.23,2004,to Jan. 9. 2005,is a survey of photobased projects created by selftaught artists. A selection of 19th-century albumen prints that merge the methods of collage, illustration, and painting with photographic imagery will set a historic precedent for many of the mixed-media works from UNTITLED / Alexandre Lobanov (1924-2002)! Mologa, Russia / c.1970 / color photograph the 20th century. Included are with collage /12 x 8"/ Yerba Buena Center for works by Steve Ashby, Morton the Arts, gift of Dominique de Miscault Bartlett, Charles Dellschau, Howard Finster, Lee Godie, William Hawkins, Alexandre Lobanov, C.T. McClusky,Joe "40,000" Murphy,Rudy Rotter, Richard Shaver, Eugene von Bruenchenhein, August Walla, and Robert R. Wilkinson.The exhibition is accompanied by a catalog published by Chronicle Books. FAMILY REUNION The subject of the popular portrait Miss Huston in the collection of the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum (757/220-7286; was reunited with her family through the recent donation of a trio of watercolor portraits. Though they bear no inscriptions, Barbara Luck, Colonial Williamsburg's curator of paintings and sculpture,found the three portraits and Miss Huston to have been painted as a set."These works appear to represent the two siblings and parents," said Luck."Identical, original framing and stylistic parallels in composition, props, and attire suggest they were created by the same unidentified artist."






Mike Smith At Home Gallery

athome05@earthlinknet A

22 FALL 2004


CRAFT FAIR The 2004 Craft Fair of the Southern Highlands takes place Oct. 21-24 at the Asheville Civic Center in Asheville, N.C. The show features the work of a juried group of the Southern Highland Craft Guild's (828/298-7928; members,who produce both traditional and regional heritage crafts as well as contemporary fine crafts. Highlights this year include ceramics fired by an innovative process using a methanegas kiln, in addition to TEAPOT! Terry Gess / Bakersville, North Carolina / marquetry,furniture, 2002 / wheel-thrown and hand-built white stoneware, canoes,jewelry, textiles, fired in residual salt atmosphere /9 x 8 x 3"/ baskets, and quilts. collection of the artist




CATS CRADLE COVERED BRIDGE WITH CARRIAGE / Anna Mary Robertson "Grandma" Moses (1860-1961)/ Eagle Bridge, New York /1946 / oil on Masonite / 27 21" / Shelburne Museum, Shelburne, Vermont


P.O. Box 51442 • Provo, UT 84605-1442 (801) 374-1832 Glen C. Rollins, Director

LOOKING AT THE LANDSCAPE A new exhibition of American landscapes by 19thand 20th-century artists is on view at the Shelburne Museum (802/985-3348; www.shelburnemuseum. org)in Shelburne, Vt. "American Visions of Paradise"features paintings by Washington Allston,Thomas Cole, Erastus Salisbury Field, Martin Johnson Heade, Grandma Moses,and others from the Shelburne's permanent collection.The show is on view until Oct. 31. While all paintings in the exhibition are landscapes, the subjects vary in tone from biblical to pastoral. Curator Henry Joyce organized the group of25 works because, when shown together, they express the artists'impulse to "react to, or retreat from, the material world in which we live."

LA SIREN / Nancy Josephson (b. 1955)/ Chicago / 1999 / sequins, rhinestones, and beads on mannequin / 71 / 2 4 2'/ collection of the artist

NEW AT AVAM The American Visionary Art Museum (410/244-1900; Baltimore is unveiling two new exhibitions.The museum's 10th annual exhibition,"Holy H2O: Liquid Universe," opens Oct. 1 and will run until Labor Day, 2005.The show will explore the many roles water plays in our daily lives. Highlights will include Tom Duncan's huge kinetic sculpture of Coney Island, complete with lights, trains, and moving carnival rides, and Nancy Josephson's intricately beaded altar to the mermaid goddess La Siren. Also on view will be Tapestries ofSurvival, a series of36 heavily embroidered needlework and fabric collages by Esther Krinitz, depicting how she and her younger sister survived the Holocaust by separating from their deeply religious Jewish family and posing as Catholic farm girls in Poland. Krinitz, who is trained as a dressmaker,conveys a nonstereotypical experience ofwar, family,faith, and childhood.

FALL 2004




More than just the gold standard for American quilts and textiles

STELLA RUBIN 12300 Glen Rd Potomac, MD 20854




by Judith Price, President of the National Jewelry Institute


24 FALL 2004


Antique Quilts • Decorative Arts Fine Design Jewelry

By Appointment •(301) 948-4187

IS LIKELY TO BE IN THIS BOOK Celebrating the unique attributes of American jewelry and its creators, Masterpieces of American Jewelry is the lavishly illustrated companion to the current exhibit of the same name at The American Folk Art Museum. Over 100 full-color photographs of stunning pieces by famous jewelers Tiffany, Harry Winston, and J.E. Caldwell as well as profiles of 11 "Icons of Style" - American women who set the standard for beauty through jewelry. Available at the Museum Shop and fine booksellers everywhere. Hardcover; 128 pages; $29.95; ISBN 0-7624-2118-5


An Overmantel Picture From The Gardiner Gilman House, Exeter, New Hampshire, Circa 1800 28 x 47 'bin. Sold for $220,300 in the sale of Important American Furniture, Folk Art, Silver, Prints and Self-Taught and Outsider Art on January 16,2004 at Rockefeller Center

'Important American Furniture, Folk Art, and Prints Auction


New York

October 8

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20 Rockefeller Plaza New York, New York 10020



October 2-7

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ddie Arning's sheer joy in repeated pattern, saturated color, and strong design is evident in most of his artworks. As with many contemporary artists who are self-taught, Mnmg's process usually involved borrowing images from popular culture, such as magazine advertisements, and then distilling the pictorial elements into simple forms and flat shapes. He further transformed the palette of his source, highlighting the bold, rich, saturated possibilities inherent in oil pastels and crayons. Sunflowers is an early drawing by the artist, and it illustrates his intuitive, punchy palette and confident compositional skill. An art teacher encouraged Eddie Arning to explore drawing in 1964. At the time, Arning was in his sixties and living in a nursing home in Austin,following a thirty-year stay in an institution for people struggling with mental illness. In this nurturing environment, where he lived until 1973, the artist created more than 2,000 works of art.*




Sunflowers and Sunflowers Quilt are currently on view in the museum's Cullman/Danz:ger Family Atrium. Seepage 48for an essay on Eddie Arning.

unflowers became a popular motifin the United States as a response to the tenets ofthe Aesthetic movement ofthe 1870s and 1880s. Oscar Wilde in particular was associated with the design, and he usually sported a sunflower in his lapel. Wilde's wellreceived American lecture tour (1882-1883)is said to have inspired a number ofsunflowerfilled "Oscar" quilts. The sunflowers in this vibrant example were made using a technique called stuffwork, which gives them a three-dimensional quality. It is not known whether the maker ofthis quilt was inspired by the widespread Aesthetic movement motif or simply by nature itself


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SUNFLOWERS QUILT Artist unidentified Possibly Pennsylvania 1860-1880 Cotton 82 661 / 2" American Folk Art Museum, gift of Cyril Irwin Nelson in honor of Laura Fisher, 2003.9.1

SUNFLOWERS Eddie Arning (1898-1993) Austin, Texas 1964-1965 Pencil, green marker, and wax crayon on pink wove paper 2313 / 4,, 18" American Folk Art Museum, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Sackton, 1985.1.1


NEW YORK, NY 10022


Mon-Sat llam-6pm Tel: (212) 838-2596 Alt: (212) 866-6033

website: e-mail:

New York City's largest selection of antique quilts, hooked rugs, rag carpet, coverlets, paisleys, Navajos, Beacons, home furnishings and American folk art.

"TARGET" quilt, pieced of American Flag bunting in red, white and blue cotton, Southern US., circa 1890.


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QUILT WEEKEND IN HONOR OF CUESTA BENBERRY FRIDAY AND SATURDAY, OCTOBER 1 AND 2, 2004 The American Folk Art Museum salutes quilt historian, author, and curator Cuesta Benberry, who for more than forty years has dedicated her life to quilt study and research. Benberry has recently donated her vast library to the museum's Shirley K. Schlater Library, where the archive will be called The Cuesta Benberry Quilt Research and Reference Collection. Join us in honoring this remarkable scholar with classes, workshops, a roundtable discussion, and demonstrations by several metropolitan-area quilt guilds.

WORKSHOPS Friday, October 1,10Am-4pm, $95 Tumbling Blocks: English Paper Piecing Workshop Instructor: Judy Doenias Saturday, October 2, 9-RAM, $45 Quilt Care and Restoration Instructor: Tracy Jamar

ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSION Saturday, October 2,11:15Am-12:30pm Curators, scholars, and artists reflect on Cuesta Benberry's influence on their lives and their work.

QUILT DEMONSTRATIONS Saturday, October 2,12:30-3:30pm


For more details, please call Lee Kogan, director of the Folk Art Institute, at 212. 265.1040, ext.105

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It was called the "City of Peace," a spiritual name suggestive of the Shakers' communal way of life, sheltered from the outside world. This lifestyle led to the Shaker preference for simplicity. See it in the clean lines and spacious, spare rooms of their buildings. See it in their inventive tools and practical furniture. And see it all brought to life today—at Hancock Shaker Village in the Berkshires. • 20 historic buildings housing a premier Shaker collection • Farm animals • Hands-on activities • Craft demonstrations

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Kids admitted FREE!

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LEAVE A LEGACY Through a bequest, you can provide enduring support for the American Folk Art Museum. The recognizes individuals who have remembered the museum in their wills and through other planned gifts. Members of the Clarion Society will be listed annually in Folk Art magazine and receive invitations to exclusive events throughout the year. If you have made a bequest to the American Folk Art Museum or would like to do so, please contact Radhika Natarajan at 212. 977. 7170, ext. 318, or AMERICAN

Lj MUSEUM MEMORIAL: GATE OF HEAVEN / artist unidentified / mid-19th century / possibly Maine / paint on wood /12 5/8 x 29 1/2 x 3 3/8 in. American Folk Art Museum, promised gift of Ralph Esmerian, P1.2001.342 / photo 0 2000 John Bigelow Taylor, New York

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Iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii111111111111111111111111111111111 American Hooked Ru

Wonderful patriotic hoohed rug depicting an American bald eagle with shield and arrows soaring over purple mountains and shining seas. Great acorn border. American,Circa 1910. Dimensions: Height:31", Width:61. Detail images below.

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Gerard C. Wertkin has been with the American Folk Art Museum for 24 years, serving as director since 1991. His background and personal interests have enabled his energizing leadership style, instilling his staff, several of whom have been with the museum for more than 20 years, with an irrepressible sense of can-do and commitment. As Gerry prepares to retire from the museum later this year, he and I took a fond look back and an eager look forward in July. Many thanks to my colleagues Sue Conlon, Marie DiManno, Janey Fire, Alice Hoffman, and Lee Kogan for their input. —Tanya Heinrich TH Your announcement of your intention to retire came as a surprise to your colleagues and the wider museum community Why now? GCW The time seemed right to me. As an institution, we've realized so many of our dreams. We've come through a cycle of building and expansion, and we've been operating in our new home for three years. With those accomplishments behind us, it's appropriate for a new generation ofleadership to take the helm and plan for the future. Besides, I believe in assuming new challenges in life—while I'm still young enough to do so. TH You came to the American Folk Art Museum by way of your involvement with the Shaker Society at

Sabbathday Lake,in New Gloucester, Maine. How did that happen? GCW For a while in the 1970s and 1980s, my predecessor as director, Dr. Robert Bishop, was deeply interested in Shaker furniture. Soon after coming to the museum in 1977, Bob invited Sister R. Mildred Barker, a trustee of the Shaker Society— and a great friend of mine—to address a museum audience on the "meaning" behind Shaker design. It was a memorable evening, held in the parish house of St. Thomas Church (the museum lacked a space large enough for the crowd), and Sister Mildred had asked me to be her escort. As a result I met Bob and some of the museum's trustees.

Sister R. Mildred Barker (1897-1990) and Gerard Wertkin at Sabbathday Lake, New Gloucester, Maine, October 1969

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TH Was that your first introduction to the Folk Art Museum? GCW Actually not. In late 1969, the museum presented "The Shaker Order of Christmas," an exhibition organized by our then director, Mary C. Black. My first visit to the museum was to see this beautiful installation.The museum published a little keepsake—an exquisite booklet, quite tiny—that contained the Shaker rules for observing Christmas, with illustrations from a 19thcentury Shaker "gift drawing" by Sister Polly Collins of Hancock, Massachusetts. I still treasure it. TH What first sparked your interest in the Shakers? GCW In the summer of 1966, an article appeared in the New York Times on the little village at Sabbathday Lake and the efforts of Sister Mildred to reclaim part ofthe Shaker material heritage by buying back objects that had been sold earlier in the history ofthe group. It reported how Sister Mildred attended country auctions in pursuit of Shaker furniture and other objects for the community's museum.I remember being touched by this description of the continued vitality of this religious community, and of its survival—very much against the odds. I began a correspondence with Sister Mildred and soon was a frequent visitor to the village. I became very close to the Shakers. Without having a specific intention in mind,I also developed an expertise in Shaker culture. TH But help me close the circle here. You were a practicing attorney for 15 years. How did you come to join the museum staff? GCW After Bob Bishop and I met,I asked him to join me on the Board of the Friends ofthe Shakers, a group that assisted the Shakers in the preservation of their historic village and which I

served for a while as president. Bob and I would speak from time to time, and in 1978 he asked me to assist in the development of an exhibition on the Shakers of New York State that was to be presented at the museum the following year. Bob also arranged for some auxiliary exhibitions; in 1979 I served as guest curator ofa presentation of Shaker manuscripts, drawings, photographs, and rare books at the New York Public Library. At the same time, I worked with Susan Flamm,now the museum's director ofpublic relations, on an exhibition at the Library for the Performing Arts at Lincoln Center. I also published my first essay in this magazine. The museum became an important part of my life. In late 1980,Bob—having introduced me to board president Ralph Esmerian and executive vice president Frances S. Martinson— asked me to come aboard as assistant director. TH Your background in law certainly aided in your responsibilities as director, but did you miss the profession? GCW No.I really never looked back. As I've observed frequently in recent months,the most fulfilling period in my professional life has been the 24 years that I've been at the museum. TH You have taught in the museum's Folk Art Institute for 18 years and have been an adjunct professor of art and art education in the New York University graduate program in folk art studies beginning in 1982. Many people use the word "mentor" quite seriously when they speak of you; teaching, and inspiring the pursuit ofknowledge,is your forte. Can you discuss the teacher/student relationship? GCW Teaching has been a joy—as much a process of discovery for me as for my students. It would only be fair to

Dr. Robert Bishop (center) with Trustee Daniel Cowin and Joyce B. Cowin at the opening of "City Folk," 1988

observe that I've often learned more from them than they have from me! Because so much ofthe field offolk art studies was new— uncharted territory, really—it's been rewarding to see the development of a reliable body of knowledge.I don't know that I've been as effective a mentor as I might have been,because ofthe demands ofserving as the museum's director. Lee Kogan, director of the Folk Art Institute, provides a much better model of a truly dedicated teacher. TH You've served as curator or co-curator of several exhibitions throughout your years at the museum,including "Millennial Dreams: Vision and Prophecy in American Folk Art"(1999);"City Folk: Ethnic Traditions in the Metropolitan Area"(1988); and "The Jewish Heritage in American Folk Art" (1985). Do you enjoy the curatorial process? Have your experiences as a curator had an impact on your role as director? GCW Yes, to both questions.The curatorial process is really at the heart of any museum's mission and is the key to its service to the public. I enjoy it immensely,but I'm acutely aware of the tremendous responsibility that it entails. A

deep knowledge ofthe field, supported by impeccable research; an eye for excellence, expressed in the choice ofobjects; accessible writing skills and the ability to tell a story; complete integrity; and a flair for the dramatic—it's "show business," really—all of these are necessary.There was a moment during the installation of my"Millennial Dreams"show,for example, when our senior curator, Stacy C. Hollander,looked approvingly at the exhibition and remarked to me that it was "beautiful." For me,it was a moment of complete affirmation. At least once in a long while, museum directors should be curators—to learn humility in face ofthe responsibilities that they impose upon their curatorial staffs. It certainly has had that impact on my service as director. TH Is there a show you'd like to organize in the future? Is there an exhibition you wish the museum had been able to present? GCW When I first became director in late 1991,I expressed the hope that we would organize an exhibition tracing the development of public and critical appreciation for American folk art and the parallel growth of modernism as a movement in the

history of art. In fact,I was quoted in the New York Times at that time on this very subject. This relationship is well documented, but there has never been a comprehensive exhibition devoted to it. For one reason or another, we never got around to organizing the show.Whether I'm directly involved or not is beside the question; it's still an exhibition that the American Folk Art Museum should undertake in the future. TH You've made contributions to numerous

books and exhibition catalogs over the years, too many to mention. Are there any that you're especially proud of? GCW I suppose that I continue to be pleased with TheJewish Heritage in American Folk Art, which I wrote with Norman L. Kleeblatt ofThe Jewish Museum and others in 1984. It remains the only comprehensive study devoted to that subject and brings together two poles of my interest. Although in some ways superseded and not especially handsome in its production, it still represents some remarkable original research. Ofcourse, there are others.The small catalog that I prepared in 1999 for "Millennial Dreams" is also a favorite of mine. But all of these pall when I consider the two magnificent volumes that the museum published for the opening exhibitions in our new building: American Radiance: The Ralph Esmerian GO'to the American Folk Art Museum and American Anthem:Masterworks from the American Folk Art Museum. My own contributions are far less central to these books than those of curators Stacy C. Hollander and Brooke Davis

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Anderson,but I'm proud ofthem. Even more significantly, the books showcase a truly renewed museum and demonstrate scholarly excellence and a permanent collection of transcending beauty and importance. Ofthose accomplishments,I'm even prouder. TH In the fall 1981 issue ofthis magazine you contributed an essay entitled "The Museum at Twenty: Challenges and Perspectives."In it, and a subsequent article 20 years later, you survey the ups and downs of an institution that occasionally had a hard time keeping its doors open. What do you see as the most difficult aspect of maintaining a museum? GCW As our board president, L.John Wilkerson, once said to me,"Happiness is having a positive cash flow."The financial pressures on our institution—and, indeed, on all museums—is great. The single most significant challenge facing us is financial in nature. For us as an institution, the building of an endowment is imperative. TH In that same 1981 article you referenced an ongoing

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academic debate as to what the field of American folk art encompasses—whether it is seen essentially as part ofa larger communal experience or as a form of highly individualistic expression.The American Folk Art Museum,you noted,"through exhibition and educational programs has sought to bridge the gap,to present folk art objects as works ofart without neglecting the environment which nurtured and gave them shape." Have there been difficulties in maintaining this link since you wrote the essay? GCW Although the various academic disciplines continue to view the field offolk art from differing vantage points, there has been somewhat less acrimony in the ongoing discussion—at least for the most part. I'm pleased about that. For its part, the museum continues to consider folk art broadly and within context, but with an emphasis on the art. I personally believe that an understanding of context enriches the experience of appreciating a work of art, without sacrificing the

emphasis on the achievements of Henry Darger Study Center. I've the individual artist. Our current always tried to be true to the misexhibition "Tools of Her Minsion ofthe museum in its historiistry: The Art of Sister Gertrude cal fullness—traditional and Morgan"is certainly proofof contemporary—and I believe that the staff has approached this that. When I wrote the essay in 1981,1 was concerned mostly question even-handedly and with with the folklore versus folk art great integrity. TH When you debate.Today we are more likely joined the staff, the museum was to be challenged by the debate located in an old townhouse on between the traditionalists, on the 53rd Street.In 1984 it relocated one hand,and the proponents of to temporary quarters on 55th the paintings and sculpture of Street.Two years later, when that 20th- and 21st-century selfbuilding was demolished,the taught artists—especially artists museum was left without permaliving at the margins ofculture— nent exhibition facilities.Then,in on the other. Although the 1989,the Eva and Morris Feld museum welcomed such artwork Gallery at Lincoln Square was as part ofits mission as early established—museum headquaras its first decade, both sides to ters until coming full circle and the debate have questioned its moving into a new home on 53rd place in the museum program. Street in 2001. You've served the With this in mind,I announced institution through all these formation ofThe Contemporary changes as well as many highs Center in 1998.This museum and lows. Did you ever lose hope? department, now under the leadGCW Never! It's quite remarkable ership ofBrooke Davis Anderson, that all of us on the staff its director and curator, has estab- remained resolutely upbeat,in lished a major role in this growpart because we shared a convicing field, one ofits most tion in the significance of our significant initiatives being the work.We were true believers. Besides,Bob Bishop was a gifted entrepreneur, and there was always something new up his sleeve.I enjoyed working closely with him,and his optimism was contagious. It's true that in the final years of Bob's tenure as director,the way didn't seem clear to a new home,but in another decade of hard work we accomplished it. Through all the early days, Ralph Esmerian,then board president and now chairman, provided welcome encouragement,as did a cadre ofloyal and committed trustees. Moving into the new building was a moment of unalloyed jubilation. TH Staff members who have been on board for a long time fondly recall the days of working in extremely cramped Museum officetctober 1984 quarters at 53rd Street in the

early 1980s.It sounds like a very invigorating,inspiring time. Is an esprit de corps, or team spirit,lost when a staffexpands to meet the demands of a growing institution? GCW Although veteran staffers may remember those early days fondly, none of us would want to return to them,believe me! It was rough to work in such inadequate quarters, but somehow we managed. Some desks actually served more than one department! Our shop director, Marie DiManno, was just about the only staff member to have a "private office," although it was little more than a closet. I guess it was a special time; we were all so young and eager.Today,the close working relationships we enjoyed then are more difficult to establish and maintain. As director,I have seen it as a principal responsibility to help members ofthe staff work together as a team.I think for the most part we've been successful. TH Is there a moment in your career you are most proud of? GCW That's tough to answer without sounding self-congratulatory, but there are moments that I do remember with pride. I'll tell you one story that's symbolic ofthem all. Two or three years after I became director, we were organizing an exhibition devoted to the work of the great 19th-century portrait painter Ammi Phillips. Stacy Hollander served as curator, and a friend ofthe museum's, Howard Fertig, worked with her as research curator.The show was to be presented in early 1994,but it was threatened by a lack of funding. In fact, we came within a few days of having to cancel the whole project. But fortune smiled on us.I had appealed to Joan Davidson,then president of the J.M. Kaplan Fund.When Joan telephoned me to respond,she asked whether I was sitting down,

because she was about to tell me that the trustees ofthe foundation had agreed to provide the lion's share ofthe required finding—almost everything we needed for the exhibition and catalog—in honor of a great collector and a former trustee ofthe museum,Alice M.Kaplan. Having made the case for the exhibition, I was ecstatic; it really was a thrilling moment for me. Exhibition planning now moved into high gear, and "Revisiting Ammi Phillips: Fifty Years of American Portraiture" opened to the public in February 1994. TH You are known to be a very measured, inclusive decision maker,always weighing the pros and cons of a situation. It's served your staff well—we know we'll have a fully deliberated response to any issues that arise.'What's the most significant part of the director's job? GCW Well,it is a bit of a balancing act—or that's the Libra in me.In general, a director must be the principal institutional burden bearer. He or she must set the agenda, underpin the work ofthe professional staff, provide the resources to get the job done, be an effective spokesperson for the organization, make certain it remains true to its public trust, and build and maintain relationships with significant constituencies. That's a large order, but it's all necessary and significant. No director will succeed without the support of a dedicated staff and a truly committed Board of Trustees. But it's all worthwhile—it's as fascinating a job as it is demanding. TH You've had the opportunity to meet some important figures in contemporary society: presidents and first ladies; kings and queens; artists, writers, and actors; business leaders; sports figures; and other celebrities. Do you have any

Gerard C. Wertkin Exhibition Fund he Board of Trustees of the American Folk Art Museum is pleased to announce the establishment of the Gerard C. Wertkin Exhibition Fund to honor its retiring director and the transforming role he has played in the life of the museum. Contributions to the fund will directly support the development and installation of new exhibitions. For further information, please contact Christine Corcoran, manager of individual giving, at 212/977-7170, ext. 316, or


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favorites among them? GCW It's been a wonderful privilege for me to meet so many distinguished people in various walks oflife. It really says more about the stature ofthe museum than about me. The hour or more that I spent escorting Laura Bush through the museum was especially memorable.I will never forget the visit of the king and queen of Norway or my investiture as a Knight of the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit. Peter,Paul,and Mary invited me to join them onstage during the taping of a television show before a live audience; and Robin Williams kept me laughing during the hour we spent together viewing our Adolf Wolfli exhibition. And visiting the White House for the first time under the Clintons was truly magical. I've been very fortunate, indeed. TH You've also had the opportunity to travel widely for the museum. GCW Yes,that's true. I've lectured throughout the country and I've also traveled in connection with our programs. My visit to Japan with Alice J. Hoffman,the museum's licensing director, and Elizabeth V. Warren, our consulting curator, as guests of our longstanding Japan-

ese licensee,Takashimaya,was nothing less than fabulous. TH Have you had "pet programs" through the years, aspects ofthe operation that especially spoke to you? GCW I am being candid when I say that I've enjoyed the full variety of responsibilities that fall to the director of a museum. I've been delighted by the growth ofthe permanent collection and library,for example. Clark Coe's Musician with Lute came to the museum through a complicated negotiation that I initiated with the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Museum of Modern Art. It was wonderful to work with Maxwell Anderson,then director ofthe Whitney Museum of American Art,and Bill and Millie Gladstone on the acquisition from the Whitney of Samuel Anderson Robb's figure of a baseball player. And nothing has meant more to me than a letter I received from Ralph Esmerian, asking me to remember always that his monumental gift to the museum of more than 400 masterworks came on my watch. As for the library, all one has to do is remember that it once consisted of a few shelves of books in the office that I shared with Bob

Opening of the Takashimaya store in New York City, 1993

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Bishop.Today, the Shirley K. Schlafer Library is a major institutional asset. TH How have your own interests in folk art evolved over the years? GCW That's almost like asking a father which child he loves most. My early interest in Shaker drawings and manuscripts led me to calligraphic drawings and decorated New England family records. From there it was an easy transition to watercolors, including Pennsylvania German fralctur. Many ofthese works ofart had roots in religious culture, and before long I was drawn to New Mexican santos and the work of such artists as John Perates and Howard Finster.Today, it would be fair to say that my interests extend to the entire field represented by the museum's mission and collection. All of it fascinates me. TH You've been an integral part of this institution for more than halfthe period ofits existence.Your staff really believes you've brought a certain "something" to the life ofthe museum. You've made your mark in a very individual way. Can you respond to that? GCW It's inevitable that anyone in a position of broad responsibility over many years will leave an imprint on an organization. I've always believed that an understanding offolk art— with its diversity and its roots in culture—can help address some of the divisions in our society. Our programming has reflected that conviction, and I'm pleased about that. I've also emphasized the need to recognize in everything we do our obligation to the public.That's why I've been so delighted with the effectiveness of our educational programming under Diana Schlesinger. I hope

MUSICIAN WITH LUTE Clark Coe (1847-1919) Killingworth, Middlesex County, Connecticut c.1900 Paint on pine and ash with metal 30 . 19 22" American Folk Art Museum, gift of the Museum of Modern Art from the collection of Gordon and Nina Bunshaft, 1995.1.1

that the museum always maintains its commitment to these core values. TH Retirement is a profound life change; anyone who knows you expects that you will engage in many active—and intellectual—pursuits. What would you like to do first? GCW Maybe try rollerblading? Beyond that, I've been invited to do some work for a foundation, and there are several books that I look forward to writing.I serve on the board of the United Society of Shakers at Sabbathday Lake, and I'd like to devote some more time to that organization as well. TH For many of your colleagues, especially those who have worked alongside you for many, many years, your impending retirement will be felt as a great loss.The last 24 years have been described as "an extraordinaryjourney." What will you miss most? For that matter, what won't you miss? GCW I can't begin to tell you how much I'll miss the daily interchange with my colleagues and friends in the field. I approach my retirement with great anticipation, but I'm saddened to contemplate the loss ofthat connection. I guess I won't miss the constant stress of problem-solving, but after having helped to guide this institution for so many years,"letting go" will be difficult. It's in the nature oflife that nothing is permanent, and I'm ready to embrace change.*

MID S I 1r M

American folk art—the artistic expression of the American spirit—are you interested?

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"COLLECTORS AND DEALERS TALK IT OVER" A full-day seminar on 19th-century American folk portraits

AMERICAN FOLK ART MUSEUM Saturday, October 23, 2004 Co-sponsored by The American Folk Art Society Panelists will include well-known dealers, collectors, and curators For the complete program, cost, and registration form, please contact Lee Kogan at 212. 265.1040, ext.105, or




45 W. 53RD ST, NEW YORK CITY MISS FRANCES A. MOTLEY (detail) / attributed to John S. Blunt (1798-1835) / probably Maine. Massachusetts, or New Hampshire / 1830-1833 / oil on canvas / 35 3/8 x 29 1/4 in. / American Folk Art Museum, promised gift of Barbara and David Krashes, P7.1999.1

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By Stacy C. Hollander

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hite light scatters all colors, but only blue holds in its changeable depths the mysteries ofthe human condition.The blueness ofblue contains the profundity offaith, life, grief, and joy; even the world is blue from a distance. Blue's importance in the modern era is telling in the many expressions that are used in language,words that invoke nuances ofmood and a wide range of meaning. Blue's rarity is likened to the moon. Its melancholy shades lend the blues to music, art, and sadness. Blue blood and blue books pay a nod to its aristocratic lineage;its shadowy side is evoked in the voyeuristic touch offlesh upon flesh as captured on celluloid. "Blue" contemplates some of these dimensions of the color blue through the museum's collection ofAmerican folk art from the eighteenth century through the present. Dyes,pigments,and glazes such as indigo,Prussian blue,and cobalt were among the primary blues used to create quilts, portraits, pottery, drawings, and other expressions. These works—at the crossroads of art, science, and industry—reflect the symbolic and cultural meaning of blue as it slowly ascended to its present status as one of the world's favorite hues.The story of blue can be traced from dyed cloths and glazed funerary statues in ancient Egypt to the profusion of modern blues that we now take for granted, but its presence in the United States is based upon relatively recent products. Prussian blue was not available in quantity until the 1720s. Indigo, though an ancient dye, was not legally imported into western Europe until the 1730s. Synthetic ultramarine was invented in 1828,and synthetic indigo was not in production until the turn ofthe twentieth century. By the time the new American republic was nationalized,the color blue had a long history; with the addition ofthe red,white,and blue ofthe American flag,it added enlightenment,liberty, and freedom to its attributes. Color is a subtle business: it is more than capturing light in a physical medium. It is dependent upon the three dimensions of color (hue, intensity, and brightness), the eyes

that receive the color, and the circumstances ofits perception.To a large extent,the possibilities ofart itselfand the cultural associations that accrue to color over time are reflective ofinnovations in color chemistry. The ancient Greeks honored a severe scheme of black, white, red, and yellow and conceived ofcolor in terms oflight and dark and gradations in between; blue was an aspect of darkness. To the Romans, blue was largely considered the color of eccentricity, when it was considered at all. In the non-Western world blue held greater currency. It was the ancient dyestuff of Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. The Japanese had a special name for each gradation ofblue produced by successive dips ofcloth in an indigo dye bath. But in the Western canon,it was the trinity ofthree special blues— ultramarine, indigo, and cobalt—and their qualities of luminosity and saturation that changed the course ofblue's history Ultramarine found its way into Italy, purveyor of color to the world, about 1200: Its name means literally "from across the sea." The pigment is derived from the stone lapis lazuli, found primarily in a remote region of Afghanistan. The great distance it traveled, the difficulty of its production, and the transcendence of its beauty contributed to the great costliness of the rare powder. There were no other blues so perfect in the medieval world, and its qualities deemed it appropriate for use in sacred art. The appearance of ultramarine capped a great theological debate over the nature ofcolor and the seemliness ofits use in a religious context.The cobalt stained glass ofthe great Gothic cathedrals had already brought divine blue light into the holy space of worship. The proponents of color argued that light, which belongs to the celestial sphere, the canopy of heaven, is the only aspect of man's world that is both visible and immaterial. If color is light without substance, then luminous colors, like ultramarine, literally illuminate divine presence and make it manifest in the physical realm of man.In the palette ofthe Middle Ages,ultramarine inspired awe. When Isaac Newton started to unravel the properties oflight and color in the seventeenth century his findings supported this theology ofcolor,though grounded in science. Visible yet immaterial, color had the power to negotiate the two spheres of God and man. In part because ofits luminousness, in part because it had no history of religious association prior to these revelations, blue rose through the color realm to reign as one of the purest in hue and in meaning. These ideas are of little use, however, without the very mundane act ofcreating the stuffofcolored light—pigment. The knowledge oftransforming stone into ultramarine was probably acquired through an alchemical process, as was much ofearly color manufacture.Alchemy,in part the mystical search for achieving the transmutation ofbase metals into gold, was an art oftransformation. And chemical transformations, wrought by the agents of time, vapors, fire, and water,were usually marked by changes in color.This magic lingers today in the acts ofconjurers who change one form into another behind a burst of colored smoke. Alchemy's transformations proved to have many practical applications:The technology ofcolor production is one ofalchemy's legacies. "I believe that in the future, people will start painting pictures in one single color, and nothing else but color." This pronouncement, made in 1954 by French artist Yves Klein, anticipated his exhibition "Proclamation ofthe Blue Epoch."The eleven works that composed this presentation required the invention of an entirely new blue—International Klein Blue—with the goal of recapturing the soul-shattering intensity of a very old one, ultramarine. Klein's spiritual quest for "pictorial immaterial states" through the sheer power ofcolor echoed the medieval beliefin the redemptive quality ofcolor. His desire for beautiful blues,however,was only a single voice in a centuries-long history ofyearning. The exhibition "Blue"will be on view at the American Folk ArtMuseumfrom October20, 2004,to March 6,2005.

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uring the Middle Ages, the dyer's art was quickly divided into two spheres—those who dyed in red and used mordants, and dyers in blues who used vats. Working in both colors was prohibited by tradition and bylaw. Vat dyeing involves the dipping ofcloth or yarn into a liquid containing a reduced dye. In its reduced form, however,indigo is not water soluble, and must be dissolved in an alkaline bath. Cloth immersed into this yellowish dye bath turns blue only when it is oxidized by being exposed to the air. This process fixes the color, and the blue deepens each time the process is repeated. The rich, permanent blue yielded by indigo has been used in India,Asia, Africa,and the Middle East since at least 2500 B.C. By the time this quilt was made,indigo dye was readily available in the American marketplace in the form ofsolid cakes called "junks" that were imported from Europe by way ofIndia and the East and West Indies. By 1740,a high-quality indigo was also domestically manufactured in South Carolina. Indigo was frequently used in whole-cloth quilts made from a tightly spun worsted wool with a shiny surface known as calimanco. Before the War ofIndependence,English calimanco was imported into Boston and other American urban centers. During and following the war years, however,the fabric was increasingly produced by domestic weavers. Scrollwork,S curves,and other quilting motifs typical ofthe rococo taste are indicative of an early date, although whole-cloth calimancoes were made through the early decades ofthe nineteenth century.This example is quilted with a simple overall diamond grid,suggesting it was made at a later date.


CALIMANCO QUILT WITH BORDER Artist unidentified Probably New England 1810-1820 Glazed wool 96 91" American Folk Art Museum, gift of Cyril Irwin Nelson in devoted memory of his grandmother Elinor Irwin (Chase) Holden, 1993.6.5

COPPERPLATE-PRINTED WHOLE-CLOTH QUILT Artist unidentified Probably England 1785-1790 Linen and cotton 96 93" American Folk Art Museum, gift of a museum friend in honor of Laura Fisher, 1995.13.3

his pattern has been identified as Bamboo Trails, a fabric produced by Bromley Hall, the well-known English textile manufactory.The fabric is a linen and cotton mix, printed using an incised copperplate. In this method of direct printing, the intaglio design in the plate is filled with the coloring agent. Pressure forces the fabric into the grooves and the color is transferred. Indigo, however,oxidizes immediately upon exposure to air, and a new method was needed to apply indigo in its paste—and insoluble—form and then reduce it directly on the fabric. About 1785 a process called China Blue was devised that accomplished just this. Ground indigo, mixed with gum and a small amount ofcopperas, was transferred to the fabric from the copperplate.The cloth was then dipped alternately in a copperas vat to reduce the indigo and a lime solution to dissolve it. When it was exposed to air, the indigo oxidized directly on the cloth and the pattern was fixed.

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rom ancient times until the turn ofthe nineteenth century, when it was synthesized as a pigment,cobalt was used primarily as the coloring agent in glass and glazes. Cobalt occurs in several minerals,such as the ore smaltite,which is a mixture ofcobalt and nickel arsenides. When exposed to air, a poisonous crystal called cobalt bloom is formed.The serious health effects ofthis arsenic compound led to the name "cobalt," derived from the German kobalt, meaning goblin or gnome.In the twelfth century it lent its intensity to the famous stained glass at the churches ofSaintDenis and Chartres. Cobalt provided the coveted blue in Chinese porcelains exported to Europe beginning in the seventeenth century. It flowed on English earthenwares and tin-enameled tiles in Delft. As cobalt was expensive and somewhat difficult to control,elaborate designs were indications ofcost and status.The blue residues from the ceramic glazes of the Sevres pottery provided one clue for synthesizing cobalt as an artists' pigment. In 1802 French chemist Louis-Jacques Thenard successfully created cobalt blue, a beautiful and stable pigment that led to additional cobalt colors: green,yellow, violet, and cerulean blue. This rare, early American stoneware punch bowl echoes Chinese export porcelains in the footed bowlform and the use ofcobalt to color the sinuous, undulating floriated designs. It shares design parallels with earlier Dutch and English ceramics that were also influenced by these Chinese prototypes. It is attributed to the renowned pottery of John Crolius Jr. ofNew York City(act. 1790-1812),located on Chatham Street in lower Manhattan.The inscription suggests it was made as a marriage or anniversary gift for members ofthe Crane family,for whom Cranetown(now Montclair)in New Jersey was named.

F WIDE-MOUTHED JAR Frey Family Pottery (act. 1810-1846) Freytown, Washington Township, Pennsylvania WO-1846


,Cobalt-glazed redware Mx9x 6%" American Folk Art Museum, promised gift of Maryann and aymond Warakomski with special thanks to their parents, Chester and Emily Warakomski and Joseph and Helen Sharkey, P1.1997.1

ariegated and irridescent blues resulting from the firing ofcobalt glaze on this beautiful widemouthed jar create a rippling, watery effect over its visible turnings. Occasional streaks of pure pigment in the glaze are possibly the result of hand-grinding,which leaves some irregularity in the size ofthe particles. Cobalt is usually applied as a calligraphic or representational element on American stoneware,and, because ofits high expense,was typically used sparingly. Its appearance on a redware clay body is in itself rare; the sheer extravagance ofthe overall cobalt glaze on thisjar is virtually unparalleled. Little is known about the Frey pottery, whose mark is impressed on the base.It was in operation by 1810,when Henry Frey moved onto his father-in-law's farm in a rural area of Washington Township. After Frey died in 1821,the farm was divided among his four sons.The pottery continued to be run by HenryJr. and George,and during this period the area was renamed Freytown.After HenryJr.'s death, George Frey maintained the pottery until 1846.


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JONATHAN KNIGHT Artist unidentified Connecticut c.1797 Oil on paperboard; mounted on Masonite 34 24" American Folk Art Museum, promised gift of Ralph Esmerian, P1.2001.3

PUNCH BOWL Attributed to John Crolius Jr. (1755-c. 1835) New York 1811 Salt-glazed gray stoneware " diam. 7/ 3 4 151 / 2 American Folk Art Museum, promised gift of Ralph Esmerian, P1.2001.93

russian blue was the most commonly used blue paint of the eighteenth century, as well as the first modern synthetic color. It was discovered accidentally about 1704, when a Berlin colormaker used potash contaminated with animal blood as one of the ingredients to make cochineal red lake.Through chemical reactions, he formed the compound iron ferrocyanide, and Prussian blue—known in colonial America as iron blue—was available as a house paint by the 1720s. Prussian blue is both the medium of this painting and one of its subjects.The Prussian blue interior is the ubiquitous "medium blew" found in early American homes; painters' manuals recommended applying it using hard pressure and a half-worn brush for good coverage. Jonathan Knight wears yellow striped pants under a dress coat dyed a lustrous indigo blue. It is not likely that it was painted using indigo pigment,however,as there was a longstanding resistance among painters against using a dyer's color.The combination ofa blue coat worn over yellow pants was adopted by the title character of Goethe's Sorrows of Young Werther(1774). By the 1780s,it had become de rigeur as the fashion for romantic young men in Europe and abroad.


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t has been said that the glory of the medieval palette was the triumvirate of vermillion, ultramarine, and gold. The relationship between the contrasting colors red and blue became especially profound, assuming dimensions of partnership and rivalry that were the yin and yang of the color spectrum:"festive versus moral; material versus spiritual; near versus far; masculine versus feminine." The distinctive aesthetic of Amish quilts developed largely in reaction to quilts made outside their community.The use of intensely saturated fabrics of a single color in large geometric forms respects an ancient taboo in Western culture against mixing colors: to do so was to adulterate or "deflower" their purity. It also adheres to a medieval scheme that equated integrity ofcolor with symbolic meaning. The display ofrare,luminous,and costly colors in flat, unbroken fields expressed devotion to God and inspired religious awe through codified associations. Immutable and transcendent, color actualized divine presence. Blue could represent the starry vault of heaven, the illumination of divine presence, or, by the thirteenth century, the color of Mary's robes. As Amish quiltmakers shun nonutilitarian decorative motifs by religious proscription, their primary focus becomes instead the devotional implication ofcolor.


DOUBLE INSIDE BORDER QUILT Artist unidentified Probably Ohio 1910-1925 Cotton 851 / 2 66" American Folk Art Museum, gift of David Pottinger, 1980.37.55

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FATHER AND DAUGHTER OF ELIZABETHTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA Jacob Maentel (1778-?) Elizabethtown, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania c. 1815-1820 Watercolor, gouache, ink, and pencil on paper 1034 81e (sight) American Folk Art Museum, promised gift of Ralph Esmerian, P1.2001.10b

lie primary printing techniques used with indigo dye in the nineteenth century were direct, resist, and discharge. In discharge printing, color is expelled or"discharged"from the dyed cloth using a bleaching agent that is applied to a wood block or copperplate.This is pressed onto the fabric and the bleach removes the dye,leaving a white pattern on the indigo cloth. This was most probably the method used for the patterned indigo dress worn by the daughter in this halfofa pair offamily portraits by Pennsylvania German artistJacob Maentel. A study ofpaints used in Pennsylvania German fraktur from the late eighteenth through the midnineteenth century gives a good indication ofthe pigments an artist such asJacob Maentel may have had access to early in his career. Philadelphia was a major center for the supply and distribution ofartists'colors,and as early as 1764James Peters,a druggist and chemist in Lancaster,Pennsylvania,advertised paints"just imported in the last vessels at Philadelphia from London....All sorts ofcolours neatly prepared either for house or face painting."Among the blues he offered were Prussian blue,verdigris, smalt, and ultramarine. By the time this watercolor was painted,a few additional blues were available in cake form,including blue verditers(a paint that included copper compounds to form a blue-green color), cobalt,and indigo. Several early watercolors by Maentel feature an eerie blue landscape that may be evidence the artist created green by mixing a lightfast blue with a fugitive yellow. Records from the Schaefferstown store of Abraham Rex indicate Maentel was a customer between 1825 and 1830.In 1826 he purchased two paintbrushes,one-halfounce each ofPrussian blue and chromic yellow, and twelve sheets ofpaper. Chrome yellow, a new pigment at the time this family portrait was painted,is"fly"(fades)in watercolor.


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lack and blue have a long history together. The color scheme ofancient Greece— black,white,red,and yellow—encompassed the polar extremes ofdark and light with intermediate levels ofdarkness and lightness in between. Blue seems to have been considered a type ofblackness rather than a distinct color. Although there were words to describe specific blues, unambiguous words that classed blue as a color family do not seem to have existed. In fact, blue was not recognized as a primary color in Western culture until the seventeenth century.The late recognition ofblue may be biological, at least in part.The receptors by which the human eye perceives color are divided into rods and cones that are sensitive to light and dark, and to color. Blue-light cones are the least sensitive: When blue is fully saturated it is seen as simply dark or black.


GIFT DRAWING FROM HOLY MOTHER WISDOM TO SALLY LOMISE Attributed to Sarah Bates (1792-1881) New Lebanon, Columbia County, New York 1847 Ink on cut paper diam. American Folk Art Museum, promised gift of Ralph Esmerian, P1.2001.301d

OCEAN WAVES VARIATION QUILT Artist unidentified Emma, LaGrange County, Indiana 1920-1930 Cotton 82/ 1 2x 713 / 4" American Folk Art Museum, gift of David Pottinger, 1980.37.43

U tnvk •


oti ,Ako kvieLov.,4,


74. 7 4

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sed as a background in works ofart, blue provides a sense ofinfinite, dimensionless space.This propensity was recognized as early as the ninth century, when blue was used in illuminated manuscripts to create a luminous space around holy and powerful figures, thus removing them from an earthly sphere. The use ofblue paper in many Shaker gift drawings enhances the profundity oftheir origins and meanings. It creates a celestial space for markings received by divine transmission.The drawings were made during a twenty-year period of intense religious revival known as the Era of Manifestations,or Mother's Work,when Believers accepted visionary experiences as a part ofdaily life. A little more than two hundred gift drawings are known today, all but a few ofthem the work ofwomen and created in the two neighboring communities ofNew Lebanon,New York,and Hancock, Massachusetts. A Shaker system ofcolor symbolism was devised by Elder Calvin Green,who combined Newton's discoveries ofthe properties oflight, the "purity and glory" ofthe rainbow,with the medieval beliefin light as divine presence.In his interpretation,"Every color has its peculiar meaning": Blue symbolized heaven,peace,or love,thereby corresponding closely to its medieval associations with illuminating divine presence, honesty,and purity.

PAINT BOX Belonging to Erastus Salisbury Field (1805-1900) Leverett, Massachusetts Nineteenth century Paint on wood, and powdered pigments 15 x 24/ 3 4 x 9" American Folk Art Museum, gift of Amicus Foundation, Inc., 1982.19.1

efore the invention of collapsible metal tubes in 1841, oil colors were stored in pig bladders that were pierced to dispense a small amount of paint; dry pigments were wrapped in leather or paper parcels. Artists purchased their colors from a chemist or colorman, but routinely ground and prepared these colors in their own studios. This paint box belonged to well-known nineteenth-century portrait painter Erastus Salisbury Field and gives wonderful insight into his palette. As a painter ofthe old school whose early apprenticeship with Samuel F.B. Morse probably included the grinding of pigments,it is likely that Field continued to make his own colors well past the period that tubes ofpaint were available. One drawer contains a powdered blue ofthe "unnerving vibrancy" that twentieth-century artist Yves Klein strove to replicate in his patented color, International Klein Blue.The pigment is natural ultramarine, an expensive color whose very presence indicates Field's awareness of himself as a serious artist. In 1390 the medieval craftsman Cennino Cennini wrote,"Ultramarine blue is a color illustrious, beautiful, and most perfect, beyond all colors."This wondrous color is extracted from the semiprecious mineral lapis lazuli, also known as blue stone. During the Middle Ages the mineral was mined primarily in Afghanistan. Distance,rarity, difficulty of extraction, and transcendent beauty made ultramarine one ofthe most expensive pigments ofthe Middle Ages—costlier even than gold. When oil began to replace tempera in the fifteenth century, ultramarine lost some ofits intense saturation.To recover its depth,it needed to be mixed with white lead, thereby violating its purity. As the inhibition against mixing relaxed, blue gained new shades and associations, but there were still no blues to rival ultramarine. Italy had long controlled the market for ultramarine, but despite the growing demand for new sources ofblue, a true synthetic ultramarine was not invented until 1828.


PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN (possibly Mrs. Fitzhugh Greene) Attributed to John Durand (act. 1765-1782) New York, Connecticut, or Virginia c.1768-1770 Oil on canvas 295As v 24Wle" American Folk Art Museum, promised gift of Ralph Esmerian, P1.2001.2

his portrait is purported to depict Mrs. Fitzhugh Greene of Newport, Rhode Island. Mrs. Greene's aristocratic bearing, rich jewels, and beautiful, lampas-weave silk dress suggest a level of wealth that is explained by the merchant vessel seen through the window of her husband's companion portrait. At the time her portrait was painted, the American colonies imported more English woven silk than all foreign markets combined, and Newport was a major port of entry and distribution. After the use ofindigo was legalized in Europe in the 1730s, blue became one of the most commonly worn colors in France, England, and Germany. Light blues, once the colors of peasant work clothing, rose to the ranks of European court society. The pale blue ofMrs. Greene's gown conveys several important attributes appropriate for a marriage portrait. Blue is the color of purity, and since the Middle Ages has been used to enrobe the Virgin Mary.It is a long-accepted symbol offidelity. And through its association with the European aristocracy, blue confers status on both the subject and her husband.*


Stacy C. Hollander is senior curator and director ofexhibitions at the American Folk Art Museum and the curator of"Blue." Selected Readings Ball, Philip. Bright Earth:Art and the Invention ofColor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. Carlson,Janice H.,and John Krill."Pigment Analysis of Early American Watercolors and Fraktur."In Journal ofthe American Institute ofConservation 18, no. 1 (1978): 19-32. Finlay, Victoria. Color:A NaturalHistory ofthe Palette. New York: Ballantine Books,2002. Moss, Roger W.,ed.,Paint in America:The Colors ofHistoric Buildings. Washington,D.C.: Preservation Press, National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1994. Pastoureau, Midiel. Blue: The History ofa Color. Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press,2001. Pettit, Florence.America's Indigo Blues:Resist-printed andDyed Textiles ofthe Eighteenth Century. New York Hastings House,1974.

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Evidence of Abridgment in

ARNI By Pamela Jane Sachant


nd Its Importance

Alexander Sackton, patron, friend, and benefactor of Texas self-taught artist Eddie Arning (1898-1993), was fond of telling a story about the time he gave Arning a color reproduction of a painting by Fernand Leger.1 Sackton, well aware of his friend's practice of basing his drawings on photographs and illustrations he selected from popular magazines, was curious if the artist would find it interesting to use the Leger as a model. However, that proved not to be the case; Arning examined the image and said, as he handed it back,"It's a good picture already."'•Arning's dismissal of Leger's work as already "finished" provides clues to understanding what he was trying to achieve in his own art. This is so, first, because while most of the images he used as models were created for the advertisements and articles in which they were featured, some were reproductions of fine and decorative art images. The drawings Arning based on such works stand apart within his oeuvre; their compositions differ from the norm he otherwise established in that he adhered to his source more closely, including the rendering of objects and the use of color, than when he consulted images designed for commercial or illustrative purposes. Second, as his comment indicates,from the outset Arning was guided by a clear concept of what constituted a work of art, from the subjects he chose to depict to the appropriate stylistic and compositional manner in which he elected to re-present them in his own drawings. Arning made no statements regarding his aims and means as an artist beyond his reply, when asked on another occasion about what he was trying to achieve with his art, that he wanted "to make a good picture." But the constant changes in and growth ofArning's style throughout his ten-year career—his experimentation with new means of representation and types of subject matter—were united by his driving notion of what,for him, made a picture good.

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Cover of What's New (February-March 1961), published by Abbott Laboratories, featuring a reproduction of Marsden Hartley's (Flowers) Roses from Hispania (1936)


VASE OF FLOWERS Eddie Arning (1898-1993) Austin, Texas 1968 Crayon on gray paper 22 16" Witte Museum, San Antonio, Texas

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This essay offers insights into Arning's artistic goals by examining the composition and subject matter of two drawings he based on fine art models in comparison with two others inspired by photographs and illustrations, in order to determine their differences and the significance of the artist's varying treatment of them. My discussion of these works centers around the concept of abridgment, by which I mean the process ofcondensation that Arning carried out in his

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drawings.' After selecting an image to serve as a model,the artist would alter it to suit his compositional needs; he selected elements within his source image and abridged—that is, reduced or simplified—them as he saw fit in his own work. The patterns or types of abridgment Arning most often carried out were centered around eliminating elements in his model that were extraneous to his compositional and narrative or emotive ends. This process of sim-

plification is often seen in the work of untrained and self-taught artists who do not have the technical ability or, perhaps, the desire to reproduce certain elements, such as linear perspective or foreshortening, in a given composition. When modeling his own work after a fine art image, however, Arning engaged in specific types of abridgment: In these instances, his drawings often more closely resembled the "original" than when he was following an advertisement or illustra-

MAN AND WOMAN ON COUCH 1970 Oil pastel and pencil on paper 199A0 251Y,6" High Museum of Art, Atlanta

don.' Looking into the anomalies represented by these drawings in Arning's otherwise consistent approach to choice of subject matter and method of composition is important because, through their resistance to compartmentalization or typification, they provide tools to better understand his artistic methods and intentions as a whole. Moreover, examining these works within the analytical framework of abridgment enables us to see patterns and seek classifications in Arning's art and in the work of other self-taught artists as well, thus introducing a new means of critical and aesthetic assessment to the field. In the Witte Museum in San Antonio,Texas, is a still life by Arning offlowers on a doilycovered table,the individual elements of which resemble and are in alignment with those in his model, a painting by Marsden Hartley, to a remarkable degree.' The composition of Hartley's painting, (Flowers) Roses from Hispania (1936), is dominated by the play of repeated shapes and colors. The upper two-thirds of the work is taken up by a floral arrangement consisting of irregular circular blossoms surrounded by teardrop-shaped leaves. The bright, flat red of the background is echoed in the red and pink flowers and, again below, in the ring of red surrounding the white circles of the doily. Those circles in turn push against the rippled, blue edges of the doily, which is set within a larger circle ofwhite,leading the eye to the border of blue at either edge of the piece. In his crayon interpretation, Vase of Flowers, Arning faithfully re-created each ofthese elements; the differences in the two works consist solely of his attempts to eliminate what little ambiguity existed in Hartley's composition. Arning addressed the spatial and visual dominance of the flowers in Hartley's work by giving equal attention to the vase and the tabletop as well. He stylized the shapes of the

leaves and flowers (while strictly but presses in around the barely conmaintaining their number and config- tained, overlapping forms to the point uration), and added a band of red ofthreatening to encase them. below the tablecloth; the entire comThe changes Arning chose to make position is bordered in bands of green in his interpretation, Man and Woman and blue,following the artist's conven- on Couch, are characteristic of his tional framing device. The decorative approach to composition and the patterning of the vase, only sketchily human figure and, at the same time, indicated by Hartley,is boldly empha- display certain innovations in relation sized in the same solid, deep blue and to his model.For example,the man and dark red that are present elsewhere in woman are guised in clothing and both works. accessories very similar in style and By comparing Hartley's composi- color to that appearing in his source tion, one that was itself rendered with image.Indeed,the artist's careful reprosimplicity and clarity, with Arning's,in duction of color charmingly extends to which its components are further con- including an arc of green under the solidated and made uniform, we can man's eye and one of orange under the see the importance of legibility and woman's,as they appeared in his source. lucidity to Arning.The abridgment of However, Arning made three alterforms he undertook in his drawing ations to the positioning of the figures: allowed Arning to better align a compositional ideal with the reality before him. In this light, his pronouncement that Leger's painting was already complete takes on new meaning. Similar to Hartley's still life, Leger's works are typically composed of distinct and discrete components arrayed across the surface, each ofwhich is enclosed by a solid, dark line and filled with color. In the painting Arning rejected as a model for his own, this was indeed the case: Leger had realized his subject with sufficient uniformity ofline, evenness ofhue, and explicitness of form to render any additional effort by Arning redundant and unnecessary, thus prompting the artist's "dismissal" of the work. A second example of a fine art reproduction used by Arning further supports the notion that he found a sense of order and comprehensibility in such images that DODO AND HER BROTHER Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938) complemented his desire for comGermany pletion in his own art. Ernst 1908-1920 Ludwig ICirchner's Dodo and Her Oil on canvas Brother(1908-1920) is a dual por671 / 4 377As" trait in which the height of the Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, Massachusetts, purchased 1955,0(for works by canvas and the figures within it are E.L. Kirchner) by Ingeborg & Dr. Wolfgang Henzeslightly exaggerated by the artist's Ketterer, Wichtrach/Bern treatment of their forms,the man's legs an arch of black and the woman's dress a bold column of yellow.' The uneasy proportions and They are seated on a green couch, the claustrophobic atmosphere of the heads are depicted in profile—his precomposition are further emphasized ferred means of representation—and, by its narrow width and a boldly col- most striking, while the two remain ored background that doesn't recede side by side, companionably linked by

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the man's outstretched arm, each is rendered as a separate and fully realized form,evidence ofthe artist's need for clarity and completion in his treatment of the human figure. Similarly demonstrating his desire for a harmonious composition, Arning abandoned Kirchner's strident verticality and unreadable background to create a balance of horizontals and verticals, centering his figures and dividing the scene into a solid foundation of orange surmounted by a lively striped wallpaper of blue and green, a blend of colors and shapes that is invigorating yet legible. In Arning's treatment of the works by Hartley and Kirchner, then, his desire to achieve compositional order without sacrificing a sense of spontaneity is clear. His drawings are

Photograph by Robert Phillips illustrating article "Magic with Mums" by Frank J. Taylor in Reader's Digest(October 19691

tightly constructed and highly organized,with crisply defined and delineated patterns and hues.The overall composition ofeach, however,is not static, due to the variety ofcolors,shapes,and motifs the artist either maintained or introduced in his re-presentation of his source image. Further, comparing Arning's drawings with the models on which he based them, it appears that the artist was correcting the compositional and stylistic flaws he perceived in each. His process of doing so was, first, to abridge the image, that is, to

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select from and reduce the composition to its most essential and significant elements. Arning then elaborated on his source,improving the "original" with colors and forms intended to enliven and clarify, and introducing a systematic and rational order that displayed not so much a horror vacui as a love of filling every available space. In the case of Hartley's flower still life, Arning's abridgment consisted ofplacing an even greater emphasis on the repeated colors and motifs already present. His treatment of Kirchner's dual portrait, however, was more expansive, as the artist sought a greater balance between the horizontal and vertical elements of the composition and an improved legibility of its background elements. The compositional, stylistic, and iconographical choices Arning exercised in altering his source images not only call attention to his process of doing so, but also to the issue of artistic intentionality in relation to his work. Intentionality encompasses the dual notions of that which originates with(in) the artist and that which is received from external sources, while, at the same time, it highlights the differences between these intertwined but separate handmaids of the creative process. My discussion owes much to Susan Stewart's notion of "lyric possession," that is, artistic creation as a combination of the conscious aims of the author and "the ways in which we are spoken through."'The image created is an accumulation of structures and meanings intended by its creator as well as those embedded within them and carried forward through the culture across time. Accordingly, the rhythm, juxtaposition, and integration offorms and colors speak of the dialogue between the artist's intention and his inheritance of this somatic meaning. Arning's use of fine art reproductions as models for his own drawings also raises the question of originality and its importance or relevance in relation to his work. To be clear, the majority of the artist's print sources were photographs and drawings created for the magazine advertisements and articles in which they were fea-

tured, not fine art reproductions. But when Arning did encounter the occasional fine art image in a magazine, the work's status or maker were not factors in his consideration of it as a model. Regardless of a work's origins, the artist chose a given image as a model for his own work based on two criteria: its compositional possibilities and its narrative appeal. Arning freely acknowledged that his drawings were based on existing images, but the identity of the artist, illustrator, or photographer and the status of the original work did not influence his selections. He not only viewed his drawings as reinterpretations of and improvements on the source images he used, but also considered his own drawings to be original works. In his essay on the differences in the meaning of the term originality in the classical versus the modernist traditions, Richard Shiff discusses how inventive imitation (as opposed to slavish copying) was considered a form of originality by pre-modern art theorists.' In fact, originality has traditionally resided in the very relationship between the imitative work and its source. In improving on and, at the same time, carrying forward the cultural values of artistic excellence, the artist was considered part of a seamless continuum of artistic genius. Originality is also related to artistic intentionality. Shiff states,"Classical originality has little to do with one's position in a sequence of 'geniuses' but depends instead on whether one participates in transmitting a culture's primordial values." This view coincides with Stewart's notion of lyric possession as the interplay ofthat which is invented and that which is internalized, or that which springs from the individual versus cultural norms/ideals, and the difficulties in distinguishing between them.'째 That Arning treated images he more commonly found in the magazines he had access to with the same aesthetic rigor as his fine art models can be seen by comparing two such

FLOWERS, FIGURES, AND TREES 1970 Oil pastel on light-green paper / 46" 21,5A6• 321 Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, Virginia, 1985/01.2

drawings with their print sources, photographs accompanying feature articles. The drawings are obviously related to the photographs on which they were based, but significant differences exist nonetheless. In the first, Flowers, Figures, and Trees, the source photograph is a heavily wooded landscape used to illustrate an article entitled "Magic with Mums" that appeared in a 1969 issue of Reader's Digest." Two tiny, indistinct figures walk down a sun-dappled path; the image is dominated by tall, thin trees in the background and dense clusters of large yellow flowers in the fore-

ground. In his drawing, Arning chose to reconfigure the scene into a horizontal format. The flowers, similarly positioned on the page, are large, distinctly formed yellow discs with raylike petals that tumble through the composition. Uniform trees line the background at evenly spaced intervals. His solution for the interplay of light and shadow was to punctuate the treepierced sky and the forest floor with evenly spaced diagonal hatches of white (highlighted with pink and brown). Arning's attention to detail extends to clarifying a dark blotch that may be a bird's nest in the original as a

distinct circular form inserted between two branches of the tree on the right side ofthe drawing(the tree maintains a different form from the others, perhaps to isolate the contour ofthe nest). The figures, flowers, and trees in Arning's drawing appear in his source, but in the original they are elements within the composition, not its dominant features. Arning's work is an abridgment of the photograph; by reducing its parts to those few he felt were essential to his re-creation of it, and by highlighting those components critical to the scene as he interpreted it, the artist completed the work

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according to his own visual and narrative ends. The second piece, Six Figures with Pigeons and Buildings, maintains the same horizontal orientation as its source, a photograph of Liverpool, England, by photojournalist Burk Uzzle that appeared in a 1970 issue of Lffe." The photograph contains six small figures walking,in pairs, across a large, snow-covered expanse, with a mass of hazy factory buildings spanning the distant horizon; nine birds on the wing jut in from the upper right. Arning was careful to reproduce all six figures and all nine birds in his drawing. The reconfiguration of space is established through size and placement.The figures, which are central to the composition, have fully articulated arms and fingers, and they appear to be gesticulating and in active communication. The foreground figures are larger and lower than the buildings in the background—two identical houseshaped forms—and the presence of the nine birds, some perched on the buildings and others swooping among the near figures, reinforces the spatial divide, with greater dynamism denoting proximity. Arning united the individual components of the work, however, by placing three horizontal bands oficy shades ofblue in the background and adding rhythmic black hatch marks, similar to those that appear in Flowers, Figures, and Trees, to indicate light and shadow on the snow. The relationship between this drawing and its photographic source displays an even more marked shift in emphasis

and meaning.In Six Figures with Pigeons and Buildings, It is less about the whole and more about the parts: It is no longer a landscape scene, as is the source photograph, but a narrative. The abridgments Arning made in transforming these two photographs reflect the ways in which he believed they could be made into better pictures,that is, more balanced and focused, in terms of their visual and their narrative contents. His changes in turn reflect his aesthetic and emotive aims. That Arning felt the need to carry out different types of abridgments when using fine art reproductions than he did when looking to commercial or journalistic print sources suggests he had specific artistic objectives in mind before beginning a drawing. The fine art images he occasionally modeled his drawings after were, in general, closer to the aesthetic ideal of a balanced and cohesive composition toward which Arning consistently strived. For their part, the illustrations and advertisements he more commonly used often provided him with a narrative moment on which to expand in his own drawing. Comparing examples of works based on "high" and "middle-brow" sources, it is clear that Arning selected his material from various types of images, taking

Photograph by Burk Uzzle illustrating "Gallery" section in Life (February 6,1970)

from each the components with the greatest potential for further development and refinement in his own drawing. Although he freely acknowledged his sources, Arning not only meant his drawings to be stylistic and aesthetic improvements but also considered them original. They were not the mindless repetitions of an individual incapable of self-reflection or rational thought, nor did they emerge fully realized from some nameless source of artistic inspiration. He selected images from a variety of print sources and, separate from the cultural systems of representation that

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SIX FIGURES WITH PIGEONS AND BUILDINGS 1970 Oil pastel on blue-green paper 217/e x 31/4" Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C.

were carried on through them, abridged them with skill and creativity to suit his own artistic vision. At the same time, Arning also worked within culturally learned systems ofimagemaking that imposed expectations and modes ofrealization on the artist. As such, his drawings were both original and part of a continuum of learned and unconsciously collaborative creativity.*

PamelaJane Sachant, who received her Ph.D. in art historyfivm the University of Delaware, wrote her dissertation on Eddie Arning. She is currently working on a history ofthe Texas Prison Art Show.

Notes 1 The Leger painting, Unefemme braune, une plante bleue (1959), was featured in an advertisement for Roche Laboratories that appeared in an unidentified publication. 2 In the earliest reference to the Leger anecdote contained in his files, Sackton stated that another, unnamed individual offered the print source to Arning:"In my letter ofJuly 23 I said Mr. Arning seems unconscious of the changes he makes in his copy. I have a foot note to add to that: Recently he gave me a magazine print of a Leger which someone gave him to copy. He has no idea who Leger is. He said I could have the print because 'it was already a picture' and he thought there was `no use doing it again.'I hope this story delights you as it does me." See Alexander Sackton,

letter to Herbert W.Hemphill Jr., August 5,1970,Alexander Sackton Papers, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum,Williamsburg, Va., gift ofJohn T,Margaret, and Elisabeth Sackton in memory of their father, Alexander H. Sackton. In some later references to the episode, however, Sackton stated that it was he who had offered the picture by Leger to Arning. 3 Sigmund Freud discussed "condensation" as the compression ofthe material of dreams that takes place when the myriad connections and wide range of dream thoughts are rendered incomplete and fragmentary in the (manifest) dream content. My use ofthe term condensation encompasses its definition as a reduction or an abbreviation, and shares with Freud the sense of a rich gathering of sources, elements, and associations that are then economically concentrated. See Freud, The Interpretation ofDreams(New York: Avon Books, 1965), pp. 312-339. 4 Arning based drawings on works by Antonello da Messina, Paul Gauguin, Pablo Picasso, Claude Monet,and Nicolas Poussin, among others. He also based drawings on a detail from an ancient Egyptian tomb relief, a page from a medieval illuminated manuscript, and a scene in an eighteenth-century tapestry 5 The reproduction of Hartley's painting was featured on the cover of the February—March 1961 issue of What's New,published by Abbott Laboratories. Fortunately, many of Arning's print sources are still extant, as Sackton numbered and kept them with the artist's drawings. 6 The reproduction of Kirchner's painting was in an unidentified magazine. 7 Susan Stewart,"Lyric Possession," CriticalInquiry 22(autumn 1995): 63. 8 Richard Shiff,"Originality" in Critical TermsforArt History, eds. Robert S. Nelson and Richard Shiff(University of Chicago Press, 1996), pp. 103-115. For a discussion of the shift in the perception of originality in the modern era, see Rosalind E. Krauss,"The Originality of the AvantGarde," in The Originality ofthe AvantGarde and Other Modernist Myths (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996), pp. 151-170. 9 Shiff, op. cit., p. 107. 10 Stewart, op. cit., p. 39. 11 The photograph is by Robert Phillips and was featured in Reader's Digest 95 (October 1969): 170. 12 Life 68 (February 6,1970): 6-7.

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By Arthur and Sybil Kern

AtLittle-Known Vermont Folk Painter For many years, the authors have from time to time come across brightly colored, highly imaginative mid-nineteenth-century watercolor-and-ink-onpaper written exercises, enhanced by pictorial representations, that often bore the name "David Augur." Despite the unusual nature as well as the quality of these paintings, a review of all standard references, such as dictionaries of American art, and all available books on early American folk art failed to disclose any references to the artist.

56 FALL 2004


LETTER TO PETER H. OUDERKIRK David Augur Marlboro, Vermont March 15, 1855 Ink and watercolor on paper 9/ 1 2 <73/4" Collection of Gary and Nancy State

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FAMILY RECORD FOR JOHN OUDERKIRK AND RACHAEL RADCLIFF Attributed to David Augur Probably Vermont n.d. Ink and watercolor on paper 191 / 4 141 / 4" Collection of Isobel and Harvey Kahn

A search for a published family genealogy was more successful. David Augur was the son ofJustus Augur of Marlboro, Vermont, and his second wife, Abigail Spencer.' Although it gives his date of death as December 1864, it does not report his birth date. However, the 1850 Vermont census for Marlboro gives his age as sixty in September of that year, indicating a probable birth year of 1790. In contrast, in the offices of the town clerks of Marlboro and Newfane,in Windham County, Vermont, were found two other records,"DEATHS registered in the Town of Marlboro for the year, 1864" and "DEATHS Registered in School District No. 11 town of Newfane for the year ending Dec. 31, 1864," both of which give David's age as eighty-two at the time of his death on December 20, indicating that he was born in 1782 rather than in 1790. However, it is more likely that the census is correct, since the information was probably obtained from David Augur himself, whereas the information in the death records would have been obtained from less reliable sources. Accordingly, his age at death would have been seventy-four rather than eighty-two. Although both records report his place of death as Newfane, neither give his place of birth. The available evidence indicates that he was born not in Vermont but in Connecticut. Justus Augur was born in Haddam,Connecticut, where David's half brother, Allen, was born on June 27, 1775.2 By 1784 Justus had moved with Abigail and their children to nearby Middlefield, Connecticut; death records for that town contain the entry "Augur, Justus' child, still born, March 9, 1784." School Society records indicate that the family was still living in Middlefield in 1790. According to the Vermont 1810 census the Augur family was living in Marlboro at that time, so the move from Middlefield to Marlboro must have occurred between 1790 and 1810. The final evidence of David's place of birth was found in the 1850 census of Marlboro, Vermont,which lists it as Connecticut.

Family Records

5. FAMILY RECORD FOR 1. OLIVE BASHABA WEATHERHEAD FAMILY RECORD FOR Attributed to David Augur WARD BELLOWS AND Probably Vermont SALLY WHEELOCK Attributed to David Augur n.d. Probably Vermont 101 / 4 x 93 / 4" Present location unknown; n.d. 11Y. x 9" illustrated in catalog for Collection ofthe Marlboro Skinner's sale, April 17, 1981, Historical Society, Marlboro, lot 216 Vermont Inscribed "Olive Bashaba Weatherhead was born April 5th 2. 1826."The Weatherheads were FAMILY RECORD FOR from Guilford, Vermont;see Almira E. Weatherhead, The JOHN OUDERKIRK AND Family of the First RACHAEL RADCLIFF Weatherheads to Settle in Attributed to David Augur Probably Vermont Guilford, Vermont (Montpelier: Vermont Historical n.d. 1 4" Society, 1976),pp. 50,51. Olive 19V. x 14/ Collection ofIsobel and Weatberhead was related through marriage to David Augur;see Harvey Kahn Ephraim H. Newton,The AJohn Ouderkirk, between 30 and 40years ofage, is recorded as History ofthe Town of residing in Rotterdam Township, Marlborough, Windham New York, about Smiles southCounty, Vermont (Montpelier: west ofSchenectady, in the 1840 Vermont Historical Society, U.S. census. 1930,pp. 131, 132. 3. FAMILY RECORD FOR APOLONIA SHARP Attributed to David Augur Probably Vermont n.d. Present location unknown The only name on this record is that ofApolonia Shalt On January 13, 1833,she married John Van Aernam in Guilderland Center, Albany County, New York. 4. FAMILY RECORD FOR JUDE S.TUTTLE AND CYNTHIA R. BLAKESLEE Attributed to David Augur Marlboro, Vermont n.d. 1 2" 131 / 2x 9/ Private collection Jude Tuttle and Cynthia Blakeslee were both born in Rowe, Massachusetts, about 20 miles southwest ofMarlboro.

6. FAMILY RECORD FOR SETH WHEELOCK AND SUSANNAH JERAULD Attributed to David Augur Probably Vermont n.d. 11Y. x 9" Collection ofthe Marlboro Historical Society, Marlboro, Vermont 7. FAMILY RECORD [family name illegible] Attributed to David Augur Probably Vermont n.d. X 10Y," Present location unknown; illustrated in catalog for Christie's sale,January 19, 2001,lot 153 Letters 8. AN EPISTLE ON LETTER WRITING David Augur Marlboro, Vermont Dated March 26(no year) 10 x 7" Present location unknown; illustrated in The Kennedy Quarterly 13, no.4(February 1975): 216 9. A LETTER ON EPISTOLARY CORRSPON'DENCE David Augur (signed "D. Augur") Marlboro, Vermont April 17, 1850 10 x 8" Collection ofthe Historical Society of Windham County, Newfane, Vermont

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An interesting comment concerning David Augur's younger life is found in the published family genealogy: "He was a very bright young man, well educated, and for some years a successful teacher. It was said that his having been rejected as a suitor by a young woman unbalanced his mind,and thereafter he was eccentric."'The source for this information is unknown, but an 1855 letter to a former friend, Peter H. Ouderkirk, confirms the fact that he had been a teacher. In it Augur wrote,"If you could light of a chaunch [sic] for me to instruct a school round near where you live, and write to me concerning it, I would be much oblidged [sic] to you for it. ...I would endeavour to come there, and ifI took the school, do the best I could in teaching it." In another letter to an old friend, Capt. Eli Coe, dated 1854, he wrote that since moving from Connecticut he had taught school for a number of years in Schenectady, New York,and elsewhere. Further evidence that he was a teacher is found in a 1968 letter from Gladys Bruce Manley of Brattleboro, Vermont,to the Historical Society of Windham County.4 In it she wrote,"I am in possession offractur painting on letters

58 FALL 2004




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and essays by David Augur who at one time lived with the Adams family, I believe, while teaching school in Marlboro.' Exactly where he taught school in Vermont is not known, but, since members of the Adams family lived in both Newfane and Marlboro, it could have been in either of these towns. However,in the files of the Marlboro Historical Society is a list of those who had been teachers there, and the name of David Augur is not included. The fact that he had been a teacher in the Newfane schools might also explain why the death of a Marlboro resident would be recorded in Newfane's eleventh school district. His father's last will and testament, recorded on October 26, 1843, when David was fifty-three, reflects the fact that David's status was very different from that of his siblings, Allen and Josiah.' He was willed the sum of fifty dollars, while the much larger remainder of the estate, including a house, furniture, and property, was divided between his two brothers and their heirs. Apparently, he had trouble getting work as a teacher when he was older, for the 1850 Vermont census, recorded when he was sixty years of age, lists his occupation as "laborer." In his later

MOST LIKE WASHINGTON David Augur Probably Vermont n.d. Ink and watercolor on paper 9% 7./.2" Collection of Gary and Nancy Stays

years he was employed as a farmer, according to both of the previously noted death records. His work as a farmer is also mentioned in his letter to Captain Coe, and in that to Elihue J. Miller (undated), he wrote that after leaving Middlefield he had taught school and "likewise at times farmed it some." Most significant is the note on the "DEATHS Registered in School District No. 11 town of Newfane for the year ending Dec.31, 1864" that indicates he was a single man and a pauper. Justus Augur is buried in the South Newfane Cemetery; although one published report states that David is buried next to his father, this was not confirmed by the director of the cemetery. A search ofburial records ofother Windham County cemeteries was also unsuccessful, and an obituary for David Augur could not be found in the local newspapers of the time, which is not surprising in view of the fact that Augur was single and a pauper.' Although nothing is known of the location of his remains, the body of unusual work that he left speaks for him. Early in the course of this investigation, the authors wrote to the Historical Society of Windham County requesting any relevant facts concerning the life and work of David Augur.In reply,Joan Marr, society curator, sent a photocopy of Augur's A Letter on Epistolary Corrspon'dence, a drawing in their own collection. In addition she sent a copy of the previously noted letter from Gladys Bruce Manley. In it Manley wrote that she was in possession of"two copy books, containing 13 and 15 fractur paintings each, on letters and essays."This was exciting news because at the start of our study our files contained only sketchy references to no more than eleven. Other examples of his work were sought through letters to museums, historical societies, dealers, and collectors, by reviewing auc-


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LETTER TO ELIHUE J. MILLER David Augur Marlboro, Vermont April 3,1855 Ink and watercolor on paper 9/ 1 4 8" Collection of Jonathan Flaccus

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sons in severalparts ofour Country. Three orfour years recently pastI was much afflicted with the hemerrhoids, at times; but...Ihave got a good deal better ofthese atpresent;andI hopeIshould soon get entirely rid ofthem, and that you are allyet alive and enjoying good health. Please to write to me soon, and accept ofmy love and best respects, and present them to your family, andgive my compliments to all my enquiringfriends. Inscription: DAVID AUGUR to Capt. Eli DEAR FRIEND it is now aboutfortyfive years since Ihave Coe NEW-FANE APRIL... 1854. seen you,,IthoughtI would write tofind((you were still alive and to remind you Ialways 11. respected you as a kind neighbor LETTER FROM "SOUTHWICK E. and an exemplary goodfriend INQUIRER"TO Your Rife too was virtuous, "ELIPHALET D. amiable, industrious, wise and discrete, and your Daughter were FRIENDLINESS" . . andI used to love to be with David Augur (signed "D. Augur") your Boys, discourse, work,play Probably Vermont and entertain myselfwith them n.d. in innocentformations and in 1 4" 1 2 x 8/ agreeable conversation.Ialways 10/ Private collection considered that on account of their virtue,friendliness, good Inscription: behaviour, and industry they merited my best or highest respect Fabulous Composition by David Augur Last SEASON we had and imitation. Indeed,Ihave ever viewed you all in this light, very good CROPS HERE,and wished you well; and a thousand the WEATHER is pleasant at times wished to see you again, if present, andIhope you are equally blest in all those. SPIRIIconveniently could. My honTUAL and TEMPORAL oured Father always esteemed ENJOYMENTS. We are all and respected Capt. Coe;Ihave often heard him tell with pleasure very well thank GOD,and your FRIENDS desire to be what he and Capt. Coe used to REMEMBERED,to you. do together and seemed to be PLEASE to write as often as much delighted in thinking of you as a closefriend ofhis; and in OPPORTUNITYand leisure my mind no doubt Sir, you were willpermit, and be assured a letterftom you will always give and in every virtuous person with whom you were acquainted great satisfaction to your Friends here, butts none more than to Alas he died between ten and yours, Most affectionately. eleven years ago butI hope and trust that with the Grace ofGod Southwick E. Enquirer To he has gone to a happier state of Eliphalet D.FRIENDLINESS. This isfabulous, composed by D. existence; and is better offnow AUGUR.POETRY 'Not than he could be here... in southwardfar extend thy wangaining property, he made out tolerably well after he drawed his dering eyes, Wherefertile streams pension—that is with the help of the gard'ners vales divide, Rise that and hisfarm andgot a good distinguished amid the people's fields, Virginia towers, and livelihood and...some money. Charleston's [illegible]. Eng. He lived to quite an advanced age being 101 years 1 month and Foundation. 1 day old My mother died about 12. 19years before him, aged 91 LETTER TO DEAR MADAM years 5 months and 9 days.I hope and trust by her exemplary Attributed to David Augur good conduct andpiety she lived Probably Vermont n.d. a good Christian fife and that her Spirit is happy now, encircled Present location unknown This is supposedly a copy ofa in the arms ofher Dear Savior 1796 letterfrom SamuelJohnson Jesus.I have no consanguinity to Mrs. Susannah Thale of living. .. My Dear Brother Josiah should be yet alive,Idon't London; mentioned in letter by know whether be is or is not but Gladys Bruce Manley. I hope he is. Ihaven't heardfrom 13. him since he movedfrom York, LETTER TO ELIHUE J. Genesee County in the State of MILLER New York, Since Icamefrom David Augur Middletown (Conn)I have Marlboro, Vermont taught school a number ofyears April 3, 1855 in the [illegible] Ward ofthe 1 4x 8" City ofSchenectady and consid- 9/ erable on other places elsewhere. I Collection of Jonathan Flaccus havefarmed it too some at d!fferent times during various sea10. LEA I ER TO CAPT ELI COE David Augur Nevvfane, Vermont April 1854 Present location unknown; illustrated in Maine Antique Digest 15, no. 8(August 1987): 16-C; and mentioned in letter by Gladys Bruce Manley. The Cots were a largefamily in Middlefield, Connecticut.

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tion catalogs, and by placing notices of our research project in the Maine Antique Digest and in Antiques and the Arts Weekly. As a result, the number of known David Augur paintings has increased to twenty-seven. They appear in four forms: family records, letters, samplers, and essays. They are all characterized by two components: a written text, in ink, and bright watercolor-and-ink motifs—rising and setting suns, stars, hearts, crescents, ships, eagles, trees, flowers, shrubs, wreaths, buildings, and architectural columns. Many works additionally have peripheral lines of brightly colored geometric forms, rectangular and otherwise. In his Letter to Elihue J. Miller, these forms are the only decorative elements, perhaps because the written letter is so long that there is no room for embellishment. Augur's interest in and use of the written word is very evident. Several of his letters to friends, such as An Epistle on Letter Writing and A Letter on Epistolary Corrspon'dence, are essentially treatises on the proper way to write letters. Augur's treatment of family records can be traced back to that seen in the decorated certificates for birth, marriage, and death produced in Germany in the Middle Ages as required by law. These certificates, executed with a style of calligraphy known as fraktur and embellished with a variety of decorative and symbolic forms, influenced the

60 FALL 2004


great variety of family registers developed in the New World.' Because of its combination of calligraphy and decorative and symbolic forms, some authors have referred to the family record itself as fraktur.9 However, the calligraphy of the typical fraktur of the Pennsylvania Germans,in the style of lettering found in manuscripts of the Middle Ages,is very different from that of the New England family record. Nevertheless, there is a marked similarity of his paintings to those of William Murray, whose work has been referred to as New York fraktur. Since Augur had spent time in Schenectady, he may have come across paintings by Murray, who was active there about 1799 and 1818." Each of Augur's seven known family records includes a section on which is inscribed the names of the family members and the dates of their births, marriages, and deaths. In four of the registers the genealogical data, under a large arch, is recorded in four columns, below the headings of names, births, marriages, and deaths. In three others, the same four columns are present, but a large diamond-shaped form replaces the arch, as seen in the Family Recordfor Seth Wheelock and Susannah Jerauld. Close scrutiny of the inscriptions on these records uncovers the fact that they bear no similarity to one another or to the style of Augur's writing. In addition, dates added later in

LETTER TO MISS ROSALTHA M. ADAMS David Augur Probably Vermont n.d. Ink and watercolor on paper Dimensions unknown Present location unknown

the Wheelock-Jerauld record are done by different hands, and one of these is dated after Augur had died. It must, therefore, be concluded that the genealogical details were not recorded by the artist but were added later by descendants. His letters are often long, rambling, and pedantic and are written as a teacher might instruct a child. He frequently writes on the proper technique of writing, and in other instances on how to properly behave. Some of his letters, in contrast, are warm, showing love and respect for those he has known. In his 1855 letter to Elihue J. Miller he writes, "I shall always affectionately remember you, MY DEAR FRIEND, with much love and esteem." Augur's samplers demonstrate his ability to artistically represent numbers and letters of the alphabet in a variety of ways. Two similar works, both entitled Most Like Washington, are essays singing of the glory of the nation's first president: "A heart warm with the best affections; a mind prompt and wise; the whole crowned by piety." Only nine of Augur's known paintings are dated with a year, the earliest being April 17, 1850; the others date to April 1854 and March and April 1855. However, the undated family records for Seth Wheelock and Susannah Jerauld and for Ward Bellows and Sally Wheelock, although demonstrating the typical Augur characteristics, are a little more primitive in execution, lack many of the symbols seen in the later works, and were probably painted prior to 1850.They were the work of a "traveling schoolmaster," according to descendant Louise Bellows, who donated them to the Marlboro Historical Society in 1978. The paintings are approximately ten by eight

14. LETTER TO ELIHUE J. MILLER David Augur Probably Vermont n.d. Present location unknown This is very much like the other letter to ElihueJ. Miller, except for thefact that it lacks the symbolicfigures at the top ofthe paper and is not dated. 15. LETTER FROM "SETH DOOLITTLE"TO "MISS AMIABLENESS" David Augur Probably Vermont April 15, 1854 77x x 9%." Present location unknown; illustrated in The Kennedy Quarterly 13, no.4(February 1975): 216. Inscription: A Letter composed by David Augur to a Lady; on condition &c. DE/1R FRIEND,I have had but two worn out oldpens to write these letters with, no compass Covet out theportraying, nor any brush norpaints tofix them offIknow the composition is poor:Idid not have so much time to quick[?] and cull my thoughts as Icould desire; though VII had had thus, Jam too sensible ofmy inability to think thatIcould have worded them completely. Idid not expect to ever let any body see them, 'tillI wrote the penultimate one. ButI thought,perhaps, it might be the only opportunityIshould ever have to write and draw any more. Therefore my dear, Iconeluded that I would endeavour to achieve afewfor you immediately. lash yourpardon in their not being as well done asIcould wish:forIcould not very well avoid it under the disadvantageous circumstancesIthen laboured; andfrom the good sense and natural disposition which you always appear to bepossessed off hope and trust, My dear, you will blease[sic] to excuse one, Yours with much Respect, Seth Doolittle. to Miss Amiableness. NEWFANE,near Williamsville Apri115th 1854 16. LETTER TO A FRIEND IN MIDDLETOWN,CON. David Augur Probably Vermont n.d. 97. x 77." Private collection

17. LETTER TO MISS ROSALTHA M.ADAMS David Augur Probably Vermont n.d. Present location unknown; seen previously in a private collection Rosaltha Minerva Adams, related to David Augur by marriage, died ofdiphtheria at 14 years of age in 1860. Inscription: DR. Watts on Education. PRUDENCE.Prudence consists injudging well what is to be said and what is to be done on every new occasion; when to lie still and when to be active; what to avoid, and what to pursue. How to act in any eqjcculor; What means to make use of to compose such an end. How to behave in every circumstance of life, and in all companies:How to gain thefavour ofmankind, in order to promote our own happiness, and do the most service to God, and the mostgood to men, according to that station we possess, and these opportunities we enjoy. DEAR MISS. ROSALTH21,Ithink herein it would be well to learn perfectly by heart the whole oftheseparticulars ofprudence, and when we have occasion to act upon any or all ofthem we should endeavour to learn to take the DRs noble advice. He should certainly lose nothing but it; but most probably gain thereby much consolation, wisdom, and reputation. Thisfrom your Friend with much respect. DAVID AUGUR TO MISS. ROSALTH4 M. ADAMS 18. LETTER TO MR.MATHER ADAMS Attributed to David Augur Newfane, Vermont 1854 Present location unknown Mather Adams was a relative of Rosaltha Adams;this work is known only because ofits mention on the sheet appended to the letter by Gladys Bruce Manley. 19. LETTER TO ALFRED LYMAN Attributed to David Augur Newfane, Vermont 1854 Present location unknown This work is known only because ofits mention on the sheet appended to the letter by Gladys Bruce Manley.

FAMILY RECORD FOR JUDE S. TUTTLE AND CYNTHIA R. BLAKESLEE Attributed to David Augur Marlboro, Vermont n.d. Ink and watercolor on paper 131 / 2 91 / 2" Private collection

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OLD ENGLISH Attributed to David Augur Marlboro, Vermont March 15, 1855 Ink and watercolor on paper 10 8" Private collection

A LETTER ON EPISTOLARY CORRSPON'DENCE David Augur Marlboro, Vermont April 17, 1850 Ink and watercolor on paper 10 8" Collection of the Historical Society of Windham County, Newfane, Vermont

inches in size, the exception being the larger family records, measuring between approximately eleven by nine inches and that for David Ouderkirk, which measures nineteen and a quarter by fourteen and a quarter inches. Many of his works carry an inscription suggesting they were painted in Newfane or Marlboro, and many are inscribed "D.Augur" or "David Augur." In those instances in which a painting does not bear a helpful inscription, attribution can be made on the basis of repeatedly used, brightly colored, and distinctively rendered symbols, such as a bald eagle, ships—including the Constitution and Fulton's steamboat—public buildings, and the moon and the sun; on the frequent employment of diamond-shaped forms; on script that is presented in different colors and varied types; and by the use of pencil lines drawn with a straightedge, such as a teacher might have his students use, to promote neatness. Because Augur was a resident of Marlboro, it is not surprising that so many of his paintings were executed there. That many were done in Newfane can be explained in two ways. First, he taught school there, and second, he probably received his mail at the Newfane post office, which was closer to his home than was the Marlboro post office. It is known that a Francis Chester Adams, who lived on Adams Brook Road in Marlboro, close to the home of the Augurs, received his mail at the South Newfane post office." It is likely that the Augur family did the same. Although done primarily for those living in Windham County, some of David Augur's paintings were executed for others more distantly located. His undated letter to Elihue J. Miller, the old friend from Middlefield, begins, "DEAR FFRIEND [sic], I believe I haven't heard from you, nor seen you during forty years past. Indeed I have


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LETTER FROM "SOUTHWICK E. INQUIRER" TO "ELIPHALET D. FRIENDLINESS" David Augur Probably Vermont n.d. Ink and watercolor on paper 101 / 2 8/ 1 4" Private collection

not been much acquainted with you since at various times we used to go to school together at the South and West schools." In an 1854 letter to one Alfred Lyman, Augur mentions that he is "old and ailing."" There was no Alfred Lyman living at that time in Marlboro or Newfane, but there was one living in Middlefield." Capt. Eli Coe was another Middlefield friend for whom Augur did a painting.' Because Augur had taught school in Schenectady, it was also not surprising to discover that he had done a letter for a Peter H. Ouderkirk and a family record for John Ouderkirk, both of whom resided in or near that eastern New York city." He also painted a family record for Apolonia Sharp of Guilderland, a nearby town." There are some decorated letters that Augur apparently rendered for his own amusement, as they are signed by a fictitious name or addressed to an unlikely recipient. Among these are A Fabulous Answer by David Augur to Dr. Benj. Franklin Letter To His BrotherJohn Fr. On the Death of Their Relative, his letter to "Samuel I. Speculator," and that of"Southwick E. Inquirer" to "Eliphalet D. Friendliness," which is followed by the inscription "This is fabulous, composed by D.Auger." In conclusion, let us return to the 1968 letter of Gladys Bruce Manley in which she wrote that she was in possession of "two copy books, containing 13 and 15 fractur paintings each." Augur's total output was probably much greater than these twenty-eight; many may have yet to be discovered and many may been destroyed over the years. How to explain the fact that the Augur paintings, executed from about 1850 to about 1855, would still be in copybooks some 118 years later? It is likely his family records were given away as gifts or sold; as pointed out previously, he had completed only the decorative parts, with the

genealogical data entered later by the recipients. Those in the copybooks would have been the letters, samplers, and essays that Augur kept for his own amusement. Was such behavior in a single man of about sixty-five years of age, and a pauper, a manifestation of loneliness, eccentricity, or dementia? * Arthur and SybilKern are researchers, writers, and lecturers on early Americanfolk art. They are contributors to The Art of Family: Genealogical Artifacts in New England, edited by D. Brenton Simons and Peter Benes(Boston:New England Historic Genealogical Society in association with Northeastern University Press, 2002),and to Encyclopedia ofAmerican Folk Art(New York Rout/edge, 2004). Their work has also appeared in Antiques and the Arts Weekly,Antiques World,The Magazine Antiques,and New England Ancestors. This is their seventeenth articlefor this magazine.


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FAMILY RECORD FOR SETH WHEELOCK AND SUSANNAH JERAULD Attributed to David Augur Probably Vermont n.d. Ink and watercolor on paper 111 / 4 9" Collection of the Marlboro Historical Society, Marlboro, Vermont

Notes 1 Edwin P. Augur,Family History and Genealogy ofthe Descendants ofRobert Augur ofNew Haven Colony(Middletown,Conn.:self-published, 1904), p.53. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid, p. 79. 4 Collection ofthe Historical Society of Windham County, Newfane,Vermont. /775. 5 With the letter is a second sheet bearing the heading "David Augur"followed by notes relating to Augur and his paintings. 6 Probate records for Marlboro, District Court,Brattleboro, Vt. 7 The Vermont Phoenix and the Vermont Record, both newspapers ofWindham County,did not carry an obituary for David Augur in their issues of December 1864 through February 1865. 8 See Gloria Seaman Allen, Family Record: Genealogical Watercolors and Needlework(Washington,D.C.: DAR Museum,1989), p. 7; and Peter Benes, "Family Representations and Remembrances: Decorated New England Family 0,14'00440.1.4, Registers, 1770 to 1850,"in The Art of frpg,n,iftrdsok Family: GenealogicalArtifacts in New England, D.Brenton Simons and Peter Benes,eds.(Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society in association with Northeastern University Press, 2002),pp. 13-59. 9 Philip Isaacson,"Records ofPassage: New England Illuminated Manuscripts in the Fraktur Tradition," The Clarion 6, no. 1 (winter 1980/1981): 30-32. 10 Arthur and Sybil Kern,"Painters of Record: William Murray and His School," The Clarion 12, no. 1 (winter 1986/1987):28-35. 11 Atlas ofWindham County, Vermont(New York: F.W. Beers,A.D. Ellis & G.G. Soule, 1869), p. 31. 12 Noted in letter by Gladys Bruce Hanley. 13 Lyman Coleman, Genealogy ofthe Lyman Family(Albany, N.Y.:J. Munsell, 1872), p. 213. 14 In his 1854 letter to Captain Coe, Augur writes that it was about fortyfive years since he had seen him.In 1809 Augur was living in Middlefield, as were many members ofthe Coe family. 15 Augur addresses his letter to "Peter H.Ouderlcirk,living in the 3rd Ward ofthe City of Schenectady."John Ouderlcirk is listed in the 1840 federal census as living in the township of Rotterdam (about five miles southwest of Schenectady). 16 Hudson-Mohawk Family Memoirs,vol. 3(Hudson-Mohawk Family Histories, n.d.), p. 1,221.

20. LETTER TO PETER H. OUDERKIRK David Augur Marlboro, Vermont March 15, 1855 9Y. x 7Y." Collection of Gary and Nancy Stan

22. A FABULOUS ANSWER BY DAVID AUGUR TO DR. BENJ. FRANKLIN LETTER TO HIS BROTHER JOHN FR. ON THE DEATH OF THEIR RELATIVE David Augur n.d. 11 x 8/ 1 2" Inscription: Present location unknown; October 12,2003 David Augur illustrated in an advertisement Letter to Peter H. Ouderkirk A in Antiques and the Arts Weekly Letter composed by David Augur (July 7, 1989) to his Friend Peter H. Ouderkirk, living in the 3d Essays Ward ofthe City ofSchenectady, or Rotterdam. DEAR FRIEND, 23. As it has been aboutfive years MOST LIKE WASHINGTON and a haffsince Isaw you last, David Augur and ever after Ibecamefamiliar Probably Vermont with you,I have respected and n.d. esteemed you much; and, likewise, x 7Y." your Parents and relation whom Collection of Gary and Nancy I used to be acquainted with Stars there. Ithe I would write a few lines to you, and inform you 24. thatIhave notforgotten you in MOST LIKE WASHINGTON an affectionate remembrance.I Attributed to David Augur should be very glad to see you all Probably Vermont again, butIcould not commodi- n.d. ously afford to go on purpose to Present location unknown; visit you. Ifyou could light ofa seen previously in a private chaunchfor me to instruct a collection school round near where you live, The top haffconsists ofan essay and write to me concerning it, I on George Washington while the would satisfy youfor your troubottom haft'contains a letter to ble, and be much oblidged[sic] to 'Henry.'It is very similar to the youfor it;!would endeavour to other piece ofthe same title. come there, and fI i took the school, do the best!could in 25. teaching it. But, however, should VIRTUE IS MUCH you try tofind such an occupaADMIRED tionfor me, and could not at Attributed to David Augur present obtain it, Ishould be Probably Vermont quite willing to renumerate you n.d. for your services therein, when73/. x 10" ever!could; andgratefully Present location unknown; acknowledge it as a special listed in checklist of catalog favour ofyoufor your Kindness for the exhibition to me. Please to write to me as "Calligraphy: Why Not Learn soon as convenient and accept of to Write," American Folk Art my love and best respects, and Museum, 1975 give them to your honored PARENTS, who, as well as yourself Alphabet Samplers have always, since I became acquainted with you treated me 26. bospitally and munificently, and OLD ENGLISH whom!have ever as much Attributed to David Augur respected and esteemedfor yotsr Marlboro, Vermont good sense and virtue, asfur your March 15,1855 generosity and kindness to me. 10 x 8" Please to remember me to all my Private collection enquiring oldfriends, round you: and may you alllong—very long 27. enjoy the blessings ofhealth, THE ROMAN together with such others as will CHARACTERS contribute most to your happiness David Augur both here and here qfier. Yours Marlboro, Vermont most affectionately, David April 5, 1855 Augur. To Mr. Peter H. 10 x 8" Ouderkirk. Marlboro March Present location unknown; XV:MDCCCLV seen previously in a private collection 21. Inscribed'Marlboro." LETTER TO SAMUEL 1. Constructed like an alphabet SPECULATOR sampler and similar to Old Attributed to David Augur English, it presents the letters of Probably Vermont the alphabet in different styles. n.d. 10 x 7'/" Present location unknown; listed in catalog for Bourne sale, August 9, 1969,lot 19

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Howard FinstPr s An early expression of this American original's artistry prefigures his work as a self-taught visionary painter

By Tom Patterson -

FIRST PICTURE BOOK Howard Finster (1915-2001) Valley Head, Alabama 1933-1934 Pencil, colored pencil, watercolor, and ink on paper 81 / 2 . 6/ 3 4" Private collection

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Front cover

'First Picture Book" ne of the challenges of writing about folk and outsider artists is the task of separating the pertinent biographical facts from the fabric of myth in which many of these artists' identities are cloaked.This is a lesson I began to learn twenty years ago, while collaborating with Howard Finster (1915-2001) on his autobiography. In the cases of Finster and some other self-taught artists whose works had begun to interest me by that time,I found that the myths about their lives were often selfperpetuated, and in some cases selfgenerated. Once such tales begin circulating in print, I discovered, they tend to take on lives of their own, in some cases supplanting facts with which they don't coincide.' One such persistent myth about Finster is the oft-repeated assertion that he took up art late in his life, after retiring from the ministry. He encouraged this spin on his story by

frequently telling interviewers that he became an artist one day in January 1976, when a paint smudge on the tip of his forefinger took on the characteristics of a human face and commanded him to "Paint sacred art." That selective account of Finster's artistic emergence makes for an amusing sound bite, and it's accurate to the extent that in early 1976 he may indeed have had such an experience. The historical record confirms that it was about that time when he started making and signing enamel paintings. But, in fact, he already had a number of other artistic accomplishments to his credit well before 1976, the most highly visible of which had been his two environmental projects. The first of these was the otherwise unnamed "park" and "museum" that he created alongside a grocery store that he also built and operated in Trion, Georgia, during the late 1940s and the 1950s; the second is his more famous magnum opus, Paradise Garden, originally known as Plant Farm Museum. He commenced work on the latter site's small buildings,

assemblage, sculpture, handmade signs, and labyrinthine walkways in 1961, on two acres of swampland behind a house that he bought and moved into with his family in the nearby Pennville community. The myth of Finster's having become an artist overnight is also contradicted by his own testimony during more thoughtful moments of reviewing his past. In my interviews with him, he recalled a variety of visually oriented creative activities that he had pursued much earlier in his life. He reminisced about his childhood years of making cornhusk dolls and slapdash toys, and about the homemade lathe that he built as a teenager and on which he turned out ornamental wooden bottles, lamps, and furniture components. There remain surviving examples and photographs of the decorative clock cases and picture frames that he made during middle age and— in the case ofthe frames—well into his easel-painting years. Although he was forthcoming with information about his early art and craft activities, never during my

extensive sessions with him did Finster mention drawing, and for most of the rest of his life I remained unaware that he had made any significant efforts in this medium prior to the outset of his painting career. Then, less than a year before he died and a few years after I had last seen and talked with him, I was shown a timeworn notebook in which he had made a number of drawings much earlier in his life. Most of the drawings in this standard composition notebook of horizontally lined paper are dated (just as Finster would later inscribe each of his paintings with the date of its completion), and their dates range about eleven weeks, from the beginning of November 1933 to mid-January 1934, a period that included his eighteenth birthday. I briefly mentioned the notebook in the last essay I wrote about Finster during his lifetime, published in Raw Vision and illustrated in part with small color reproductions of four of these early drawings.' Otherwise, the notebook has remained unseen and unexamined by anyone else aside from its present owner, who became acquainted with Finster and collected examples of his art in the late 1970s. Repeated, detailed examinations of the notebook leave no doubt about its authenticity. In itself, there's nothing remarkable about finding proof that Finster

November 1, 1933

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Of special interest is the inside was drawing as a teenager. Most visual artists begin their artistic pur- front cover, on which Finster used his suits as children or adolescents, draw- pencil and wax crayons to more boldly ing in notebooks and on scrap paper. inscribe large, multicolored, uppercase What makes this seventy-year-old letters that fill the page and identify document worthy of special attention this as "THE. FIRST. PICTURE. is its singularity as the earliest surviv- BOOK.THAT. WAS. MADE. BY. ing example of Finster's artistry and HOW...." Although the last part of the extent to which its contents pre- his name has been lost along with the figure the signature painting style and rest of the torn-off cover fragment, imagery that he would develop more the lettering looks immediately familthan forty years later. In the latter iar to seasoned viewers of Finster's respect, and in what it tells us about body of heavily text-augmented his personality and outlook on the paintings. The punctuation of each world when he was at the threshold word with a period is an idiosyncracy of his adult life, it's a highly revealing that occurs in only a few of the notedocument that lends new insights book's other texts. into the roots of his art. Drawings and/or writings appear The notebook measures eight and on sixty-six of the notebook's 120 a half inches by six and three quarters pages. The drawings typically appear inches, and it's sewn and factory- on the right-hand pages, beginning taped down the spine, with well- with the book's first lined page and worn, red card-stock paper covers. following that format through an The back cover is imprinted with extended series of facing pages. Most tables of"Useful Information" and has of the imagery appears to have been been left unaltered, as has the inside rendered with a graphite pencil and back cover. The front cover is colored with wax crayons, although imprinted in black with a generic watercolors were used in the stenciled logo—"120 PAGE Corn . . ."—but drawings that appear on eight the remaining letters are missing, sequential pages more than halfway with a fragment torn off at an angle at into the notebook. The left-hand the bottom and presumably lost. pages, meanwhile, are in many cases Careful inspection reveals barely legi- entirely or partly filled with texts ble handwritten pencil inscriptions in handwritten in black ink or pencil. A the upper-left corner: "Howard Fin- few such pages are drafts of personal ster / Valley Head ... Nov.9, 19[33]." letters, and others contain various

November 23,1933


numerical calculations, one of which is "78,261,382,710,553,602 of beings in the United States." On this and other pages Finster repeatedly signed his name in a rather crude cursive script, evidently practicing his penmanship. But most of the text pages are devoted to what appear to be religious sermons, such as the one written on January 19, 1934, that begins: "My subject is going to be of how / helpless a man is." Their appearance in this context is consistent with the chronology that emerged from my interviews with Finster, in which he told me that he preached his first sermon in 1932, the year before he began recording his visual and spiritual ideas in these pages. During that same year, Finster began writing a semi-regular religious column for an area newspaper, the Fort Payne (Ala.) Journal, and as he had no regular church forum for his preaching, these texts were probably intended for that outlet. In any case, they constitute Finster's earliest known religious messages in his own hand, lending the notebook further significance. Such writings were eventually to become integral parts of his paintings, which he sometimes called "sermons in paint." As on the notebook's inside front cover, Finster's name appears prominently in almost every one of its

November 24, 1933

November 27, 1933

drawings, typically in a manner that reflects a sense of self-confidence and self-importance out of all proportion to his limited figure-drawing skills and lowly status in life. He was a poor, teenage kid with a grade-school education and apparently minimal prospects for future success. These early years of the Great Depression found him still living on the small, hardscrabble farm where he had grown up, in a relatively remote section of northeast Alabama's Valley and Ridge Mountains. Nonetheless, he highlighted his name in most of these drawings as if it were a star's billing on a movie-theater marquee, and he prominently identified this as his "first picture book," as if he had somehow foreseen his latter-day artistic fame. I'm not suggesting that he had any such premonitions; but the exuberant conviction reflected in these aspects of this early "picture book" did in fact prove to be one of his most useful qualities, in both his preaching career and his unlikely ascent to the singularly revered position he would much later come to occupy in the American art world. The attitude (demonstrated fifty years later before a broadcast audience of millions in his August 4, 1983, appearance on NBC-TV's Tonight Show, when he commandeered the spotlight from host Johnny Carson) is

evidently one that he was either born with or somehow developed very early in his life. In most of the notebook drawings, Finster has integrated his first and last names, rendered in uppercase, into the tops of decoratively patterned frames drawn around the page edges. The frames vary in color and/or pattern, and the styles of lettering used to inscribe his name are similarly varied,in ways that indicate his attention to that era's commercial signage and print advertising. The habit of decoratively framing his art would much later carry over into his paintings, which for many years he offered for sale in wooden frames that he adorned with burned-on floral and geometric patterns. The first of the drawings I saw on opening the front cover is one of two that have been torn from the notebook's binding, making their original placement somewhat uncertain. Blank on the reverse side and ragged along the bottom edge, it's dated November 30, 1933, and in it Finster didn't leave enough room for his full name at the top. Instead, only his first name and the first three letters of his last name appear, in green, crosshatched letters, with the N reversed, as is often the case in the notebook's uppercase passages. This page's hand-drawn frame surrounds a tight frontal view of a

November 28, 1933

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fancifully decorated, blue- architectonic drawings are of spetrimmed red building with a pair cial interest not only for their of double doors across the facade. resemblance to the World's Folk Windows in each of the door- Art Church, but also for their ways frame tiny pots or vases of role as prototypes for the multiflowers. A mushroom-shaped storied, elaborately ornamented chimney on the roof in the upper buildings that Finster called left emits dual plumes of smoke "heavenly mansions" and promiinto a white sky illuminated by a nently incorporated in his later radiant red sun. A hand-lettered visionary landscape paintings. line just below Finster's name Finster's earliest known landnear the top identifies the build- scape imagery appears in this ing depicted here as "Church of notebook, including a key drawFREE WILL BAPTIST" Since ing that happens to grace the first this isn't the name of any of the undetached page, probably the churches he has mentioned in original first page and possibly published accounts of his preach- the earliest drawing here. Unlike ing career, and because he didn't most of the others in the notebegin preaching regularly until book, this one isn't surrounded by the early 1940s, it's likely that a border, nor does Finster's name Finster was here envisioning appear boldly across the top. himself as the pastor of a church Instead, the name appears in of his own design. Many years crude block letters at the bottom, later, in the 1980s, he would alongside the date "Nov. 1, indeed design—and almost 1933"—which differs from the single-handedly build—his date in the upper-left corner, own "World's Folk Art Church," "Nov. 17, 1933." The position a fanciful three-tiered, spire- reserved for the artist's name in topped tower reminiscent of a big most of the notebook's other wedding cake, precariously rising drawings here contains the title atop a previously existing single- "THE DAY OF SILENSE [sic]," story, wood-frame building that written in the sky near a couple of he claimed to have purchased clouds and a radiant sun. with funds granted to him by the The imagery that fills most of National Endowment for the page below is organized in the Arts. four tiers, with the topmost tier Elsewhere in the notebook are occupied by a frontally depicted, other drawings that more obvi- gable-roofed house at the left, an ously prefigure the World's Folk outlying barn at the right, and Art Church, including one dated between them a potted flowering December 8, 1933, that depicts a plant, two crudely outlined trees, building whose tiered-pyramid and a quadruped that could reproof is ornamented with candle- resent a dog, horse, or cow. Paths like forms. But the sign on its lead downward at outwardtopmost tier identifies it not as a tapered angles from the doors of church but as a "GARAGE." In both buildings, in a rudimentary the sky overhead, two tiny images attempt at approximating fourof U.S. flags with five-pointed point perspective. Close inspecstars above them flank a few dec- tion reveals, in the upper right oratively stylized flowers and a and immediately above the barn's central, radiant sun."HOWARD roof, a tiny, sticklike airplane that FINSTER / AUTOMOBILE is Finster's earliest surviving SERVICE," reads the marquee- depiction of an aircraft—a like text at the top. Here it favored subject in his later paintappears that Finster was imagina- ings.(A tiny Goodyear blimp tively envisioning a future sideline that's a precursor of the extratercareer for himself to augment restrial spacecraft in his later what would prove to be his mea- paintings appears in the sky in ger income from preaching in the another drawing of a house, surrounding rural hill country. dated almost one month later, The notebook's more fanciful December 16, 1933.) The second

November 30, 1933

December 2, 1933

December 3,1933

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tier consists of a row of seven lov- eight horizontal rows stacked one ingly detailed flowering trees or above the other, with one disproshrubs, each distinct from the portionately small truck squeezed other. Extending across the page into the lower-right corner. This below the foliage is a freight train drawing and another similar one on a track, its boxcars and tankers in the notebook, depicting emblazoned with corporate names "THINGS THAT ARE such as "AGS SOUTH" and NEEDED ON [A] FARM," "COAL USA." Finally, at the bot- reflect the fascination with techtom of the composition, a lone nology that was also to figure humanoid stick figure stands prominently in his later artwork, alongside a diagonally oriented including his garden environstretch of roadway traversed by a ments. Plant Farm Museum was, car, a motorcycle,and a truck. after all, originally envisioned as a All of the details in this early showcase for Finster's growing landscape have counterparts in collection of "the inventions of paintings that Finster made fifty mankind," previously displayed in and more years after he drew this his garden in Trion. scene, but what renders it even Limitations on editorial space more significant in terms of his preclude detailed discussion of all later work is the hand-lettered text of the drawings from the early that threads its way above the train Finster notebook in this context, before spilling down into the but several ofthem deserve at least page's lower-right corner:"MEN a brief mention here. Among these INVENTED HOW TO USE is a bird's-eye view of a smokeWATER AND COAL / MEN belching cottonseed-mill complex LEARNED HOW TO USE like those that were operational GAS AND RUBBER BUT across much of the American GOD MADE ALL. . . ." The South at the time. This work, remainder of this text has been dated November 24, 1933, may, in torn off with a small bit of the fact, represent Finster's attempt to page in that lower-right corner, depict the Riegel Company cotton but it probably included one addi- mill in Trion, where he was to tional word—most likely "MEN." work as a janitor and mechanic This drawing is thus not only Fin- during the late 1930s and early ster's earliest landscape image but 1940s. also his earliest picture-sermon. The Old Testament account of Tiny images of motor vehicles the great flood and Noah's Ark is like those that appear in this and the subject of several paintings that several of the notebook's other Finster made in his later years, landscape drawings—and in a including the first painting ever number of Finster's later paint- puchased from him,in 1976.These ings—are the primary subject of paintings have their earliest counanother drawing here whose title terpart in the December 6, 1933, and date he wrote near the top: drawing of"AN ARK,"as it's titled "THE METEREL [sic] THAT at the top—a waterborne craft IS USED TODAY / 19 HUN- closely resembling those in the DRE [sic] AND 33. NOV. 23, later paintings, except that it hap1933." Finster's name appears pens to be flying a U.S.flag. immediately above the title, inside Like the "garage" with the a yellow rectangle that's bracketed tiered-pyramid roofin the drawing by tiny U.S. flag images and inset of December 8, 1933, the elabointo the top of an orange frame rate, ten-story structure identified delineated with a straightedge. as"THE HAY BARN"in a drawInside the frame, Finster sketched ing dated nine days earlier can be and colored twenty-five tiny seen as a prototype for the towerimages of vehicles—including ing "heavenly mansions" in many pickup trucks, transfer trucks, of Finster's landscape paintings, as motorcycles, train cars, and mule- well as for his World's Folk Art or horse-drawn wagons and Church. Another drawing here plows—organizing them into that in some ways prefigures the

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towered church and landscape "man- image in this notebook is in Finster's sions" is the particularly vivid one that hand. One drawing, dated November he drew on his eighteenth birthday, 28, 1933, is distinguished from the December 2, 1933, and labeled "MY others not only by stylistic details but BIRTHDAY ON THE CLOUDY also by the name that appears in DAY." A radiant sun shines amidst uppercase yellow letters surrounded dark storm clouds above the elabo- by decorative floral and vinelike rately ornamented, double-winged motifs—"DURELL W." And the building that fills the lower half ofthis notebook's last right-hand page is a drawing—a structure further distin- signed note to Finster from his elder guished by three levels of round, port- sister Susie. But there's no question hole-style windows across the front that the drawings and writings that and a large central shape that suggests appear on almost all of this notebook's other pages are indeed those of a decorative letter H. Several other landscape drawings the future "Man of Visions" and revisit a bustling farmstead scene with "Stranger from Another World." Might Finster have continued to houses, barns, vehicles, and crops situated along a meandering tree-lined draw after early 1934, and have other river—a cheerful, idealized portrayal such notebooks possibly been lost to of what Finster undoubtedly knew to posterity? Or did he become involved be a rigorously labor-intensive with other activities that left him no lifestyle. Notable too is the fact that time to draw? Any speculative answers many of the drawings, created from to those questions must take into late fall to early winter, depict spring account the fact that 1934 was also the and summer scenes with inscrip- year in which he met and began courttions such as "COMMOND [sic] ing Pauline Freeman, whom he marDAY OF SPRING," "MIDDLE ried the following year. In 1936 she SUMMER,""THE PLEASANT gave birth to the first of the three chilLANDSCAPE,"and "BUSY DAY." dren they would have together over the Some of the drawings bear evi- next ten years (their fourth child, dence of stenciling or tracing—from daughter Beverly, was born in 1956). coloring book images of farm animals By the second half of the 1930s, Finor paper doll fashion plates, as seen in ster was no doubt busy doing whatever an undated page with two fancily he could to support his growing family attired female figures labeled"RUBY" and is unlikely to have had much surand "MARIE." Not every word and plus time or energy to spend drawing.

Employed in those years at physically demanding menial jobs, he also occasionally served as a guest preacher at small churches near his homeplace in Valley Head, Alabama, and in nearby Trion, Georgia, where he and his family moved in 1937. Although the imagery and handlettering in this early notebook are crude considering they represent the efforts of an eighteen-year-old, the attention to detail, interplay of colors, and compositional innovation in the drawings mark them clearly as the work of a budding artist. And although they lack the visionary urgency and the feeling for human suffering reflected in Finster's paintings of the 1970s and 1980s, they nonetheless contain the visual seeds of that substantial,later body of work. If Finster wasn't born an artist, this recently uncovered evidence shows that he was well on his way to becoming one by his late teens. Fortunately, it appears likely that his "first picture book" will eventually be housed in a museum collection, where it can provide scholars and other viewers with useful information and insights into the work of one of the late twentieth century's most important American artists—not to mention something of the visual delight that he obviously took in making these drawings.*

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December 21, 1933

70 FALL 2004

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evea Ig t e Vfasterworks Tom Patterson is an independent writer, critic, editor, and curator living in WinstonSalem, North Carolina. His earliestpublished book is St. EOM in the Land ofPasaquan (Jargon Society, 1987), and his most recent is

Contemporary Folk Art: Treasures from the Smithsonian American Art Museum (Watson-GuptillPublications, 2001). His curatorialprojects since 2002 have included 'High on I4fe: Transcending Addiction,"at the American Visionary Art Museum,Baltimore, and afifty-year retrospective of Bernard G.("L-15")Schatz's art, at the Anderson Gallery, Virginia Commonwealth University SchoolofArt, Richmond.

Notes 1 Howard Finster and Tom Patterson, Howard Finster, Strangerfrom Another World(New York: Abbeville Press, 1989),

is the source for all biographical information referenced in this article, much of which is additionally documented in J.F. Turner, Howard Finster, Man ofVisions:

Lehigh University Art Galleries September 29-December 15, 2004

Three separate simultaneous exhibitions Organized by curators Norman Girardot, Diane LaBelle, and Ricardo Viera 420 E.Packer Avenue, Bethlehem,Pennsylvania 610/758-3615 Revealing the Masterworks and The Finster Cosmology: Howard's Brain Zoellner Art Center, Main Gallery Howard Finster: Prints and the Cloud Portfolio Siegel Gallery,Iacocca Hall Howard Finster: Paradise Garden Dubois Gallery, Maginnes Hall Accompanying catalog and DVD available.

The Life and Work ofa Self-taughtArtist

(New York Alfred A. Knopf, 1989). Also relevant to this article for its documentation of Finster's outdoor art is Paradise Garden:A Trip Through Howard Finster's Visionary World(San Francisco: Chronicle

Books,1996)by Robert Peacock with Annibel Jenkins. 2 Tom Patterson,"Paradise Before and After the Fall," Raw Vision 35(summer 2001);see pp. 50-51.

Opening and Gallery Talk Friday, October 1,2004 6:00-8:00Pm THE WAY OF JESUS #12573 Howard Finster (1915-2001) Pennville, Georgia 1982 Enamel and glitter on plywood 72 411 / 2" Lehigh University Art Galleries, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Wilson Endowment Purchase, 87.1008

Symposium "The Measure and Meaning of a Master: Outsider Art and Howard Finster" Zoellner Art Center, Lower Gallery Friday, November 5,2004 1:30-4:45Pm

featuring: "Masters, Mistresses, Classics, Outsiders—Who Cares?" Colin Rhodes, professor, Loughborough University, England "This Is Not a Masterwork: Defining the Extraordinary by Way of the Ordinary" Jerry Cullum,senior editor, ArtPapers "Revealing Qlialifications: Questions of Value and Selection in the Exhibition of Howard Finster's Masterworks" Norman Girardot, University Distinguished Professor, Religion Studies, Lehigh University

Introduced by Ricardo Viera, director, Lehigh University Art Galleries, and followed by a panel discussion moderated by Diane LaBelle, art consultant, and George Viener, collector, with Phyllis Kind,founder and director, Phyllis Kind Gallery, New York; Lynne Spriggs, executive director, Paris Gibson Square Museum of Art, Great Falls, Montana;Thomas Scanlin, collector; and Rick Berman,collector and artist

FALL 2004




GIVE THE GIFT OF MEMBERSHIP . • • Purchase a gift membership and mention this ad to receive $10 off any membership. Contact the membership office at 212. 977. 7170, ext. 346,, or Membership categories include a subscription to Folk Art magazine, free admission to the museum, and a 10 percent discount in our book and gift shop. Current members receive a complimentary set of notepads featuring images from the museum's collection with the purchase of a gift membership.



SALE PRICE $75 Patron Membership starts at $150 and patron members enjoy a host of special events and programming. Call 212. 977. 7170, ext. 346, for more details!


TIN MAN / David Goldsmith (1901-1980)/ Long Island City, New York / c.1930 / paint on galvanized sheet metal / 72 x 25 x 11" / American Folk Art Museum, promised gift of Ralph Esmerian, P1.2001.355

)> 0 --I MUSEUM




The Collection of Jim Dawson Corbin, Kentucky Fine Early American Furniture & Accessories Folk Art PREVIEW TIMES: Tuesday, October 19, 10:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Wednesday,October 20,10:00 5:00 P.M. Thursday, October 21, 10:00 8:00 P.M. Friday, October 22, 10:00 A.M. to 2:00 P.M. Saturday, October 23, 9:00 A.M. to 10:00 A.M. Full Color Catalogue Available $30.00 15% Buyer's Premium Absentee Bids Accepted On the premises of Garth's Auctions,Inc. 2690 Stratford Rd.,P.O. Box 369 Delaware, Ohio 43015 Phone: 740-362-4771 Fax: 740-363-0164 Web Site: Auctioneers: Tom Porter &JeffJeffers Helen Porter & Steve Bemiller PICTURED: Fine New England child's size Chippendale chest, all original; Enfield, N.H. Shaker bucket in green; Connecticut cherry pipe box; Maine decorated hanging shelves; Hen &rooster carvings by DeTurk,illustrated "Just For Nice"; Fiske running horse weathervane of Patchen, Ex Alan Daniels Collection; Carved and decorated canes from The Hemphill Collection; Pennsylvania incised redware bank, Ex Dyerly; Exceptional American stoneware presentation vase; Rare Edgefield, S.C. grotesque jug;Important folk art painting of "The Curtis Place*(Maine); wood carved and polychrome painted cornucopia, late 19'or early 20th Century.

Friday, October 22 2004. 2 p.m. • Saturday, October 23, 2004 10 a.m.







Representing more than 300years ofAmerican design, from the late 1600s to thepresent, the American Folk Art Museum Collection n"brings within reach ofthe public the very best ofthepast to be enjoyedfor generations to come.


News from Museum Licensees Share our legacy;look for new products from our family of licensees,featuring unique designs inspired by objects from the museum's collection. *Chronicle Books Love in Every Stitch ... Wedded Bliss! In celebration oflove and marriage, Chronicle Books created Wedding Quilts, a set of note cards featuring five quilt designs from the American Folk Art Museum's masterpiece quilt collection: Michegamee's Wild Rose, Sunflowers and Hearts, and three Double Wedding Ring quilts. Weddings have long been a favorite theme for American quilters; flowers and hearts grace many wedding quilts, and the never-ending circle figures prominently, whether as concentric rings or in the Double Wedding Ring pattern ofinterlocking circles, symbolizing everlasting love. Wedding Wks incorporates each ofthese sentiments,creating a perfect expression oflove and dreams of happiness for all heartfelt occasions.The set of20 cards,four of each design,is available nationwide and in the museum's Book and Gift Shop. Contact Chronicle Books for a store near you. * Henredon Living Artfully! The American Folk Art Museum's America Collectionirm offurniture, manufactured by Henredon and designed by Tricia Foley, continues to rank No.1 among the "new"furniture collec-

74 FALL 2004


tions available exclusively at Bloomingdale's stores from coast to coast. Since its debut at Bloomingdale's New York City flagship store in March 2004,the America CollectionTM has been featured in the New York Times, ArchitecturalDigest, and Country Home. Drawn from the museum's permanent collection and its archives, each ofthe 27 pieces currently available at Bloomingdale's honors America and its history offine furniture "by looking within—to the wealth ofcraftsmanship that originated here in this country," notes Lester Gribetz, Bloomingdale's vice president of Home Furnishings. Inspired by designs from the American Federal period and adapted for today's lifestyle, the America Collectionlm boasts the authenticity and versatility that are certain to make its pieces cherished today and for generations to come. * MANI-G'Raps A Traylor Sampler! MANI-G'Raps created a coordinated group of gift-wrap products incorporating images from five drawings by Bill Traylor in the American Folk Art Museum's permanent collection. The Traylor Sampler demonstrates the artist's whimsical and witty approach to life's everyday routines.Images from Traylor's Man with a Plow reveal the artist's ability to imbue his drawings with a sense ofoptimism. A touch of humor and vitality can be observed in his Man with a Walking Stick, a portrayal of a

The America Collection' dining suite by Henredon

male figure bent over a cane yet pressing forward, buttocks thrust out, hand on hip. Ross the Undertaker's austere stance and clothing is offset by the fanciful red and black dots and strokes on his detachable shirtfront. Dog, a classic Traylor image,is alert and perhaps ready to pounce.Its animated eye and ears bring the dog to life. Traylor's Figures and Construction with Blue Border provides levity and a sense ofjoy to the sampler through the unrealistic scale ofthe animals in relationship to the jaunty,jumping, and swinging human figures.The Traylor Sampler is available

nationwide and at the museum's Book and Gift Shop. Contact MANI-G'Raps for a store near you. Dear Customer Your purchase of museumlicensed products directly benefits the exhibition and educational activities ofthe museum.Thank you for participating in the museum's continuing efforts to celebrate the style, craft, and tradition of American folk art. If you have any questions or comments regarding the American Folk Art Museum Collection, please call 212/977-7170.

Family of Licensees Andover Fabrics(212/760-0300) printed fabric by the yard and prepackaged fabric craft kits. Chronicle Books(800/722-6657) note cards.* Crossroads Accessories,Inc. (800/648-6010) quilted fabric totes, handbags,travel cases, and cosmetic bags. Denyse Schmidt Quilts(800/621-9017)limited-edition quilt collection, decorative pillows, and eye pillows. Fotofolio(212/226-0923) are postcard books and boxed note cards.* FUNQuilts(708/445-1817)limited-edition quilt collection.* Galison (212/354-8840) portfolio and boxed note cards and jigsaw puzzle.* Henredon (800/444-3682)wood and upholstered furniture. LEAVES Pure Teas(877/532-8378) loose tea in decorative tins.* MANI-G'Raps(800/510-7277) decorative gift wrap and coordinating accessories.* Mary Myers Studio (757/481-1760) wooden nutcrackers, tree ornaments,and table toppers.* On The Wall Productions,Inc.(800/788-4044) Magic Cubes." Organic Lands(607/544-1090) organic deli items. Ozone Design, Inc.(212/563-2990) socks.* Pfaltzgraff(800/999-2811) By Request•The America Collection.'" dinnerware. Takashimaya Company,Ltd.(212/350-0550) home furnishings and decorative accessories (available only in Japan). 'Available in the American Folk Art Museum Book and Gift Shop.

FishDecoys A new collection celebrating the art of the American woodcarver, the definitive online source for information and images of classic American fish decoys, brings the golden age of ice fishing vibrantly to life with new products that showcase the creations of the most important American fish decoy carvers. Printed in six color offset lithography on heavy stock, each item is a beautiful, unique keepsake that will thrill everyone who loves American folk art or practices the fine art offishing. \

/ -\

Posters Available in six exclusive designs, these oversize 22"x 28" posters enliven any room with the works of master carvers Hans Janner, Sr., Oscar Peterson and Yock Meldrum. Special printing and varnishing techniques allow the highly detailed images to float on the poster's surface.

Playing Cards Two custom-designed Poker-size decks are perfect for the card room, board room or fishing lodge. One deck highlights the sleek creations of Hans Janner, Sr. and the other, the whimsical carvings of Oscar Peterson. See the designs online and play to win with some of the most imaginative card designs ever produced.


• 9

Note Cards Four different sets of four exclusive designs, sixteen in all, presented in extraordinary keepsake gift boxes. Heavy museum stock and impeccable printing make these cards a charming and thoughtful way to keep in touch with friends and acquaintances.

American Fish Decoys hundred of the most presents over one This major new book from the firstdecoys, including many important American fish American held at the ever major museum show of the art form Folk Art Museum in New York. Written by Steven Michaan, the co-author of"Beneath the Ice, The Art of the Fish Decoy," this oversize, 10 x 12", 208 page book is available in hardcover hardcover or slip-cased leatherbound deluxe editions.

Available exclusively online at or toll free, 1-888-396-FISH






hanks to the generosity of Trustee Barry Briskin and his wife, Edith,the museum's Shirley K. Schlafer Library has acquired the following rare books as a memorial tribute to the late Paul Martinson, husband ofTrustee Frances S. Martinson:


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Campbell,Orson. Treatise on Carriage, Sign, and Ornamental Painting. Scott, N.Y.: Russel R. Lewis,1841.


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Gandee,B.F. The Artist or, Young Ladies'Instructor in Ornamental Painting, Drawing,Etc. London: Chapman and Hall, 1835.

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One Thousand Valuable Secrets in the Elegant and UsefulArts. Philadelphia: B.Davies and T. Stephens, 1795. First American edition. Instruction manuals ofthis type were often used by non-professional artists in the United States who lacked ready access to formal artistic training.The books provided recipes for paints,lacquers, and other materials, as well as rudimentary instruction in style and composition.These books will greatly enhance the library's collection ofearly American art and craft manuals. Most notably they will complement the rare copy of Rufus Porter's Select Collection ofValuable and Curious Arts, andInteresting Experiments (1826),a gift from the Historical Society of Early American Decoration. From its founding in 1961,the American Folk Art Museum began developing an outstanding research collection of materials related to its interests.The library is committed to developing comprehensive collections ofresearch material. Supporting material is

76 FALL 2004


also collected for interdisciplinary research, with substantial holdings in areas such as early American decorative arts and material culture, European folk art and nonwestern art, and the cultural and social history ofgroups such as the Pennsylvania Germans and early American utopian communities. In 2001 the museum's newly opened building on 53rd Street provided spacious quarters for the Shirley K. Schlafer Library, named in honor ofa generous patron. The library's collections now include more than 7,000 books and exhibition catalogs as well as significant holdings ofimportant periodicals, auction catalogs, and audio-visual material. Extensive vertical files contain additional smaller publications, offprints, photographs,and ephemera, organized by artist and topical subjects. Microfilm and microfiche holdings include a copy of the museum's complete manu-

script collection ofthe artist Henry Darger. The library is open to the museum's stag members,students ofthe Folk Art Institute, and the general public during its regular weekday hours,10:30 AM-5:30 PM. Users are encouraged to make an appointment in advance,to guarantee access. Admission is free. Library materials do not circulate and must be used on site. Special handling guidelines apply to all materials. The museum is pleased to make the Shirley K.Schlafer Library open to the general public without charge.Your financial or material support is greatly appreciated. Although contributions at all levels are welcomed,a gift of at least $50 will support the purchase ofone new art book for the library's collection. Books may also be purchased in honor or in memory ofan individual and will be recognized on a per-

sonalized bookplate.In addition, a wish list is maintained for those who would like to support the purchase of specific rare or outof-print items. Endowed book funds can also be established in the donor's name for ongoing collection development in specific subject areas.

Book Sale The Shirley K. Schlafer Library will hold its third annual fall book sale on Wednesday, October 13. Hundreds of books and catalogs will be offered at bargain prices, with all proceeds benefiting the library's Book Acquisitions Fund. The sale will run all day during the museum's regular hours, 10:30

AM -5:30 PM.

For more information, or if you would like to donate additional materials for the sale, please call 212/265-1040, ext. 110, or e-mail

Showcasing over 150 of the most prestigious dealers and artisans in the nation!

Showcasing 18th to mid 19th century Americana, presented in room settings that reflect our American "melting pot" of tastes and budget preferences. This show will educate visitors about the traditions, period style, architecture and history of American and English antiquity

Showcasing over 100 craftsmen who have been selected over the past decade as America's finest artisans in the nation. These artists, are dedicated to preserving the early American lifestyle and share the beauty of our heritage from textiles and silversmithing to brass, iron works and woodworking. They will also be presenting the finest in reproduction furniture, pottery, original artworks, fine art and traditional crafts.

September 24, 25 & 26, 2004 Valley Forge Convention Center • King of Prussia, Pennsylvania Friday: 6pm-9pm • COLLECTORS EARLY BUYING EVENT: $20.00 per person Saturday: 10am-5pm • Sunday: llam-4pm • GENERAL ADMISSION: $12.00 per person ($2.00 offgeneral admission with this ad. One per person. Not valid with any other offer.) GOODRICH & COMPANY PROMOTIONS,INC. FA M



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r • 462 Seventh Avenue New York, NY fooi8 1.800.223.5678





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Morefabulous "Home Sweet Home" hooked wool rug reproductionflannels from Andover Fabrics' designer Kathy Hall, and the American Folk Art Museum.

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NEW ENGLAND'S 21st ANNUAL FOLK ART SHOW & SALE! Museum-quality reproductions of American antique furniture and accessories, both country and formal, & contemporary folk art by America's most talented artisans.

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78 FALL 2004


***NOTE OUR NEW DATES & TIMES*** Friday, October 29th, 5pm - 10pm Saturday, October 30th, 10am - 6pm 2-DAY ADMISSION: S8.00 Travel & Lodging Information (888)-543-9500


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EARLY BUYING: Saturday 8 — 10 $25 includes Continental breakfast GENERAL ADMISSION: Sat. & Sun. 10-5 $10 per person, $9 with ad Call for information about accommodations and directions.


150 of America's finest makers offurniture in the style of the 18th and 19th centuries; exciting folk art, both traditional and contemporary; useful and stylish objects to furnish traditional or modern homes;and wonderful holiday Santa's and figures, whimsies and gifts. PRODUCED BY MARILYN GOULD

Wilton Historical Society, 224 Danbury Road, Wilton, Connecticut 06897 Phone 203 762-7257 • Fax 203 762-3297 • •








enry Darger created a rich imaginary world through his writing and painting. His work was discovered in 1972 by his Chicago neighbor and landlord, Nathan Lerner. His masterful texts include the epic 15,000-page The Story ofthe Vivian Girls in WhatIs Known As the Realms ofthe Unreal, ofthe Glandeco-Angelinnian War Storm As Caused by the Child Slave Rebellion. Darger created an astounding body of artwork to accompany this manuscript: It is these fantastic mural-size watercolors,executed in lyrical hues, for which he is best known. In 2000 the American Folk Art Museum established the Henry Darger Study Center to foster open inquiry and multidisciplinary research into the life and work of the Chicago artist. This effort received substantial encouragement from Nathan Lerner's widow, Kiyoko Lerner. She generously donated to the museum Darger's personal archive— including diaries, correspondence, notebooks, studies, tracings, photographs, books,and paper ephemera—and the manuscripts and typescripts of his vast literary works. Today,the Henry Darger Study Center is one ofthe most active areas in the museum's permanent collection. Since the establishment ofthe center four years ago,the museum staff has been consistently exhibiting, studying, and conserving the Henry Darger Collection.The staff also works regularly with a large audience eager for information on the artist,fielding frequent requests to view the vast archive and to borrow Darger's work for exhibitions around the world.


80 FALL 2004


In an ongoing effort to educate visitors about the artist, the museum has created thematic displays of his work—highlighting, for example,the role of war in influencing Darger or his devotion to Catholicism and the church—in an installation currently on view in the fifth floor galleries. Organized by Director Gerard C.Wertkin,this presentation includes several watercolor paintings as well as items from the archive being exhibited for the first time: Darger's personal diaries, correspondence with his priests and nuns,and private journals. Wertkin selected the ephemera because it highlights Darger's conflicts with religion as well as his rich and rewarding relationship with members of his church. Future thematic displays will explore Darger's infatuation with weather and fire and his use ofcoloring books as teaching tools and artmaking instruments. Several sister institutions have recently exhibited or are currently exhibiting works from the museum's holdings. Coloring-book sheets and drawn studies were lent to

"Henry Darger: Art and Myth," at the Galerie St. Etienne in New York for a beautiful, one-person show early in the year. A few of our paintings are included in the popular traveling exhibition "Splat Boom Pow!The Influence of Cartoons in Contemporary Art," organized in 2003 by the Contemporary Art Museum, Houston,and on view at Henie Onstad Kunstsenter in Hovikodden, Norway,through Sept. 19. One volume from In the Realms of the Unrealis presently on view at the Collection de l'Art Brut in Lausanne, Switzerland, as part of its exhibition exploring text and the written word,"Ecriture en &lire," through Sept.5. Finally, three large-scale watercolors are part of an exciting group show at the Landesmuseen in Linz,Austria, entitled "Andererseits: Die Phantastik," which roughly translates as "Otherwise: Fantastic Art."In this show,Darger's work is highlighted alongside the work of artists Lee Bill, Daniel Lee, and Patricia Piccinini. Lending objects from the American Folk Art Museum's

AT JENNIE RICHIE 57. THEY SEIZE A GLANDELINIAN OFFICER WHO IS IN SWIMMING DURING HEIGHT OF STORM (detail) Henry Darner (1892-1973) Chicago Mid-twentieth century Watercolor, pencil, carbon tracing, and collage on pieced paper 22 - 82" American Folk Art Museum purchase, 2003.10.2b

collection is a key objective ofthe Henry Darger Study Center; so, too,is making the artwork available to students,scholars, and people from the creative community for further research into contemporary self-taught artists and their work.The Henry Darger Collection is proving to be very popular in this regard, with more than a dozen people(from Japan, Europe,and the United States) currently accessing the archives. In the next issue, this column will report on some ofthese creative endeavors.* This artwork is currently on view in the museum's Cullman/Danziger Family Atrium.



NEW YORK CITY FILM PREMIERE & DINNER AT THE TIME WARNER CENTER SEPTEMBER 22,2004 6:00PM Film screening and discussion with filmmaker Jessica Yu 8:00PM Dinner honoring Museum trustee Sam Farber



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TICKETS $250 Film screening and discussion $1,000 One ticket to dinner, film screening, and discussion $4,000 Recognition as an Adopt-a-Darger Sponsor (contribution acknowledged on a Henry Darger sketch from the Museum's collection), two tickets to dinner, film screening, and discussion TIME WARNER CENTER IS LOCATED AT 60 COLUMBUS CIRCLE AT 60TH STREET. SEATING IS VERY LIMITED. FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT KATIE HUSH, 212. 977. 7170, EXT. 308.

0 Detail of CHILD-HEADED WHIPLASH-TAIL BLENGINS, BLENGIGLOM-ENEAN INLAND! Henry Darger (1892-1973)/ Chicago / mid-twentieth century / watercolor, pencil, and carbon MUSEUM

tracing on paper / 18 1/4 x 23 1/4" / American Folk Art Museum, promised gift of Sam and Betsey Farber, P10.2000.2 /0 Kiyoko Lerner




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7 1'.


Get on board

A world of wonder awaits at the Kentucky Folk Art Center.

4 AFTER THE FLOOD Hugo Sperger, 1990 acrylic on canvas 36 x 23.5 inches Available at the KFAC museum store,price $5,000 VOW Kentucky Folk Art Center • 102W.FhtStreet • Morehead,KY 40351 I 606.783.2204 KFAC is a cultural, educational and economic development service of Morehead State University.


1)4:Folk Air



Available at


Bp Anton iictardt I cc Kivu

2858 Magazine Street New Orleans, LA 70115 (504) 891-9080 gallery@antonart.corn

FALL 2004






T he following publications are great gift-giving ideas. All titles are available at the American Folk Art Museum's Book and Gift Shop at 45 West 53rd Street, New York City.To order, please call 212/2651040. Museum members receive a 10 percent discount.* New titles American Anthem: Masterworksfrom the American Folk Art Museum, Stacy C. Hollander, Brooke Davis Anderson, and Gerard C. Werticin, American Folk Art Museum in association with Harry N.Abrams,2001, 432 pages,$65 *American Fancy:Exuberance in the Arts, 1790-1840, Sumpter T. Priddy III, Chipstone Foundation,2004,250 pages,$75 American Radiance: The Ralph Esmerian Gift to the American Folk Art Museum, Stacy C. Hollander, American Folk Art Museum in association with Harry N.Abrams, 2001,572 pages,$75


American Vernacular:New Discoveries in Folk, Self-Taught, and Outsider Sculpture, Frank Maresca and Roger Ricco, Bulfinch Press, 2002,304 pages, $75 *ArtAgainst the Odds:From Slave Quilts to Prison Paintings, Susan Goldman Rubin, Crown Publishers,2004,50 pages, $19.95 The Art ofAdolf Milli:St. AdolfGiant-Creation, Daniel Baumann and Ellca Spoerri, American Folk Art Museum in association with Princeton University Press,2003,112 pages, $29.95

84 FALL 2004


Art ofthe Needle: One Hundred Masterpiece Quiltsfrom the Shelburne Museum, Henry Joyce, Shelburne Museum,2003,140 pages, $24.95 Baseballfor Everyone:Stories from the Great Game,Janet Wyman Coleman with Elizabeth V.Warren,American Folk Art Museum in association with Harry N.Abrams,2003,48 pages,$16.95 * Coming Home:Self-Taught Artists, the Bible, and the American South, Carol Crown,ed., University Press of Mississippi in association with the Art Museum of the University ofMemphis,2004, 304 pages,softcover $30, hardcover $65 * Create and Be Recognized:Photography on the Edge,John Turner and Deborah Klochko,Chronicle Books,2004,156 pages, $40 Critters A to Z, Barbara Lovenheim,ed., American Folk Art Museum in association with BIL Charitable Trust,2003,80 pages, $12.95

Danger:The Henry Darger Collection at the American Folk Art Museum, Brooke Davis Anderson,American Folk Art Museum in association with Harry N.Abrams, 2001,128 pages, $29.95

The Perfect Game: America Looks at PERF1C7 GAME Baseball, Elizabeth V. Warren,American Folk Art Museum in association with Harry N.Abrams, 2003,150 pages, $29.95

*A DeafArtist in Early America: The Worlds ofJohn BrewsterJr., Harlan Lane, Beacon Press,2004, 208 pages, $35

*Phaidon Atlas ofContemporary World Architecture, Phaidon Press, 2004,842 pages,$160

Encyclopedia ofShaker Furniture, Timothy D. Rieman and Jean M. Burks, Schiffer Publishing,2003, 576 pages, $125 *Henry Darger:Disasters of War, Henry Darger,ICiyoko Lerner, and Klaus Biesenbach,ICW Institute for Contemporary Art,2004, 213 pages,$29.95 Henry Darger:In the Realms ofthe Unreal,John McGregor,Delano Greenidge Editions,2001,680 pages, $85 Henry Darger:Art and Selected Writings, Michael Bonesteel, Rizzoli,2000,254 pages, $85 *James Castle:Art and Existence, Chris Schnoor,J. Crist Gallery, 2004,52 pages, $15 * Masterpieces ofAmerican Jewelry,Judith Price, Running Press, 2004,128 pages, $29.95 *North Carolina Pottery: The Collection ofthe Mint Museums, Barbara Stone Perry, ed., University of North Carolina Press, 2004,400 pages,$39.95 Painted Saws:Jacob Kass, Lee Kogan, American Folk Art Museum,2002,56 pages,$14.95

Raw Vision Outsider Art Sourcebook, John Maizels, Raw Vision, 228 pages,2002,$29.95 * Tools ofHer Ministry: The Art of Sister Gertrude Morgan, William A.Fagaly, American Folk Art Museum in association with Rizzoli, 2004,120 pages,$35 Uncommon Legacies:Native American Artfrom the Peabody Essex Museum,John R. Grimes, Christian F. Feest, and Mary Lou Curran, American Federation of Arts in association with University of Washington Press,2002,272 pages, $60 Vernacular Visionaries:International Outsider Art, Annie Carlano, Museum ofInternational Folk Art in association with Yale University Press,2003,156 pages, $45 Work Life, Tod Williams and Billie Tsien, Monacelli Press, 2000,270 pages, $60 * You Are Here:Personal Geographies and Other Maps ofthe Imagination, Katharine Harmon, Princeton Architectural Press, 2004,192 pages, $19.95




THE AMERICAN ANTIQUES SHOW Thursday, January 20—Sunday, January 23, 2005 Show open to public For more TAAS 2005 information, e-mail or call 212.977.7170


Managed by Keeling Wainwright Associates WWW.FOLKARTMUSEUM.ORG




THE AMERICAN ANTIQUES SHOW 2004 his January The American Antiques Show (TAAS),the museum's annual four-day benefit event,was an enormous success. Visitors, dealers, decorators, and the press all concurred: The third year ofTAAS was the year the show established itself as an important fixture in the New York antiques scene,earning the designation of"the place to be during Americana Week in New York City."The Keeling Wainwright management team did an amazing job over the last two years, with this year being no exception, and once again the result was a smooth-running, seamless show. According to Alice J. Hoffman,TAAS 2002-2004 executive director, "This year's TAAS exceeded our most optimistic expectations." The gala opening-night celebration, a preview of the show held on Wednesday,Jan. 14, drew serious buyers, collectors, designers, and museum supporters. Patrons from across the United States and abroad braved this particularly cold New York winter to see and buy the "best ofthe best" American folk art. Interior Designers Committee co-chairs William Diamond and Anthony Baratta were the consummate hosts, welcoming their peers at the opening night awards ceremony. Dominique Browning, editor ofHouse & Garden,was the recipient ofthe 2004 American Spirit Award in recognition of her contribution to the appreciation of American art and home design. Jerry and Susan Lauren graciously served as TAAS 2004 honorary co-chairs and received the firstannual American Angel Award, presented to folk art connoisseurs and outstanding supporters of the museum.



The energy generated on opening night continued throughout the four-day show,a reflection ofboth word-of-mouth buzz and press and media coverage. Stacy C. Hollander, senior curator and director ofexhibitions, was interviewed by WCBS radio,toured TAAS live on television with the weatherman from ABC's Saturday Morning, and appeared on NBC's Weekend Today in New York. Alice Hoffman previewed several ofthe items available at TAAS when she was interviewed live in-studio on CBS's Saturday Morning Early Show. On Thursday,the first day TAAS was open to the public, Oprah Winfrey celebrated her 50th birthday with a folk art buying spree. Accompanied by Ellie Cullman,a renowned decorator and the TAAS 2003 Interior Designers Committee chair, Winfrey's purchases included a superb cast-zinc firehouse dog, several quilts, a bronze dove, a running-horse weathervane, and a charming trade sign, advertising "Rooms for Rent." Dealers noted that, despite less-than-perfect weather—freezing rain,snow,and arctic temperatures—the selling momentum continued for the entire run ofthe show. Many dealers noted that while Sunday is usually an extremely quiet day, this year it turned out to be the best day ofthe show.Thanks to the efforts of the TAAS team and to public relations experts Richard Rubenstein and Ayrn Lieberman, the advance,show-time, and follow-up publicity in both the trade and consumer press was lively and extensive. Grace Glueck,writing in the New York Times, noted a life-size pair of wooden emperor penguins and other sculptural creatures that brought consider-

Oprah Winfrey and TAAS Execu Director Alice Hoffman Dominique Browning and Jerry and Susan Lauren

Arie Kopelman and Trustee Lucy Danziger

able charm to TAAS,and observed that the show's appeal is found not only in "the lure ofits wares ... but also in its intimacy." Among the objects of desire were examples of American folk art that spanned four centuries. There was an amazing array of weathervanes,carvings, quilts, and needlework. Furniture ranged from painted and rustic examples to high-end Philadelphia high-

boys. Early Native American art took pride of place alongside contemporary paintings and iconic pieces of American folk art by such luminaries as William Edmondson,Bill Traylor,Ammi Phillips,and that perennial folk art favorite, Anonymous. Jeffrey Pressman served as guest curator of a special loan exhibit ofpolitical art,"Lame Ducks and Other Political Ani-

Mark Leavitt and Trustee Taryn Leavitt

David and Jane Walentas, Edie Briskin, and Trustee Barry Briskin

Betsey Farber and Trustee Sam Farber

Drs. Jeffrey Pressman and Nancy Kollisch with daughter Mindy

mals:The Art ofPolitics," which featured photographic blowups of an extensive collection ofpolitical buttons. Complementing the installation were political memorabilia on loan from TAAS dealers. Special events included a Young Collectors &Art Enthusi-


Julie Spivack, Paul Reiferson, and Rebecca Gamzon

asts Night as well as various educational programs,such as the popular appraisal clinic, a walking tour ofbooths,and a wine tasting generously hosted by Morrell and Company. The museum thanks Honorary Chair Dominique Browning;

Honorary Co-chairs Susan and Jerry Lauren; Executive Chair Barry D.Briskin; Interior Designers Committee Co-chairs William Diamond and Anthony Baratta; Interior Designers Committee members Robin Bell, Solis Betancourt, Karin Blake, Sam Blount, Elissa Cullman, Mariette Himes Gomez,Susan Zises Green,Victoria Hagan, Inge Heckel/New York School of Interior Design, Ned Jalbert Interior Design, Hermes Mallea and Carey Mahoney, Richard Mishaan, Campion A.Platt Architect, Matthew Patrick Smyth,E.Starr Interiors, and Bennett and Judy Weinstoclq Americus Chairs Courtney E. Booth,Rebecca and Michael Gamzon,E.Angela Leemans, Margot Rosenberg,and Julie Spivack and Paul Reiferson; TAAS 2004 Regional Chairs Robert and Katharine Booth, Barbara Gordon and Steve Cannon,Lindsey and Bruno LaRocca,Lawrence J. and Michelle L. Lasser, George Meyer and Kay White Meyer,Jeffrey H. Pressman and Nancy Kollisch, Elizabeth and Irwin Warren, and Rob and Michelle Wyles. Special thanks goes to the heroic efforts of Alice J. Hoffman,executive director ofTAAS 2002-2004, her associates, Sara Dobbis,Sara Evans,Eleanor Garlow,Laura Greene,Paulette Kauffman, Sandra Wilkie,and Jane Zierer, and Katie Hush,special events manager. SAVE THE DATE

TAAS 2005

Jan. 20-23, 2005 Gala Opening Night Preview Wednesday, Jan. 19, 2005 Exciting new venue: Time Warner Center





HOURS AND ADMISSIONS American Folk Art Museum 45 West 53rd Street (between 5th and 6th avenues) New York City 212/265-1040


__.1 0 Li_ MUSEUM

MUSEUM HOURS Now open Tuesda ys! 10:30Am-5:30pm Tuesday—Sunday 10:30Am-7:30pm Friday Closed Monday SHOP HOURS Saturday—Thursday Friday ADMISSION Adults Students/Seniors Children under 12 Members Friday evening 5:30-7:30pm

10:00Am-6:00Pm 10:00Am-8:00pm $9 $7 Free Free

Group tours available, call for information 212/265-1040 Public Transportation Subway: E or V to 5 Avenue/53 Street F to 47-50 Streets, Rockefeller Center Bus: Ml,M2,M3,M4, M5,M6,or M7

Free to all

On view at the American Folk Art Museum Tools ofHer Ministry:The Art ofSister Gertrude Morgan Floors 3 and 4 Through Oct. 10 A Collection Sampler: Recent Gifts to the Museum Floor 5 Through Oct. 17 Masterpieces ofAmerican Jewelry Floor 2 Through Jan.23,2005 Blue Floor 3 Oct. 20,2004—March 6,2005 Folk Art Revealed Floors 4 and 5 Opens Nov. 16

Traveling Exhibitions Painted Saws:Jacob Kass Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art, Winston-Salem, N.C. 336/725-1904 Through Sept. 26 Tools ofHer Ministry:The Art ofSister Gertrude Morgan New Orleans Museum of Art 504/488-2631; Nov. 13,2004—Jan. 16,2005 Intuit: The Center for Intuitive and Outsider Art, Chicago 312/243-9088; Feb. 11—May 28,2005 American Anthem:Masterworks from the American Folk Art Museum Frist Center for the Visual Arts, Nashville 615/244-3340; Jan. 20—May 1, 2005

EVENTS PRIVATE AT THE AMERICAN FOLK ART MUSEUM Host a private event in the museum's awardwinning building at 45 West 53rd Street in midtown Manhattan. ° Cocktail receptions for up to 300 guests ., Seated dinners for up to 120 guests ° Auditorium with full range of audio/visual technology for meetings and conferences AMERICAN

For more information and to arrange a site visit, please contact Katie Hush at 212. 977. 7170, ext. 308, or MUSEUM




2/20 GALLERY 220 W. 16th St. New York NY 212.807.8348 NOVEMBER 4-27

GARDE RAIL GALLERY 110 3rd Ave. South Seattle WA 206.621.1055 ALSO AVAILABLE



986 North High St. Columbus OH 614.291.1973

718 N 3rd St. 2nd Fl. Philadelphia PA 215.888.4813



305 Decatur St. New Orleans LA 504.581.1706

5831 Ellsworth Ave. Pittsburgh PA 412.441.6005 Beulah in Beckley : 9" x 9"



INSTITUTE COMMENCEMENT AND DOCENT CELEBRATION he museum's Folk Art Institute commencement and docent award ceremony was held on June 7. Richard C. Nylander,senior curator at Historic New England,gave the annual Esther Stevens Brazer memorial lecture and spoke about the collection ofBertram K. and Nina Fletcher Little at Cogswell's Grant. Lee Kogan,director ofthe Folk Art Institute, and Trustee Frances S. Martinson awarded certificates ofgraduation to the newest group ofFolk Art Institute fellows: Janet K.Deutmeyer, Deborah Dwyer,and Leslie May. Fellows have completed a total of 36 credits at the Folk Art Institute,studying a variety of topics within the field of American folk


art. A special part ofthe ceremony was reserved for Director Gerard C. Wertkin,who was presented with a certificate ofrecognition for his 18 years ofinspired teaching at the institute. Eight docents were honored for their 15 years of service as volunteer educators at the museum: Mercedes Bierman,Joyce Eppler, Nancy Fischer, Millie Gladstone, Arlene Hochman,Jeanne Riger, Marilyn Schwartz,and Sarah Snook. Without their excellent work and sense of dedication to the museum,it would be impossible for the institution to complete its educational mission.The museum

is grateful for their tremendous efforts over the years. Along with the 15-year docents, Dena Bock and Su-Ellyn Stern were recognized for their contribution of five years as museum docents. Graduates and guests alike enjoyed a tea organized by insti-

Newest Folk Art Institute fellows Deborah Dwyer, Janet Deutmeyer, and Leslie May

tute fellow Deborah Ash ('99) and her committee ofstudents, docents, and volunteers.




AND THE GOOD TIMES ROLLED ... he American Folk Art Museum brought a little bit of the Crescent City to Midtown on June 3 at its annual Spring Benefit, which honored Joyce and George Wein.The evening's theme,"Sights and Sounds of New Orleans," was inspired by the important role the city has played in the lives of the Weins(George Wein founded the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival), and Sister Gertrude Morgan,whose work is on view through Oct. 10 in the museum's exhibition "Tools of Her Ministry."The Spring Benefit was chaired by


Dr. Akosua Barthwell Evans, Lucy and Mike Danziger,Taryn and Mark Leavitt, and Laura and Richard Parsons. Festivities began at the museum with Cajun hors d'oeuvres and New Orleans—flavored music by Stanley King and the Washboard Kings. Guests mingled on exhibition floors before being paraded—literally—by the Washboard Kings to the nearby Hilton New York for dinner. The hotel's Trianon Ballroom was transformed for the evening into a swinging hot spot, with decor designed by Renny & Reed and music by the

Trustee Lucy Danziger, Charles Atkins, Trustee Kristina Johnson, and Mike Danziger

Director Gerard Wertkin and Trustee Jacqueline Fowler

Honoree Joyce Wein and Trustee Laura Parsons

Trustees John Wilkerson (left) and Laurence Fink, with Lori Fink

Linda Dunne, chief administrative officer, and Trustee Taryn iteavitt

41Ir: -mak

Trianon Ballroom, Hilton New York

90 FALL 2004


Trustee Joyce Cowin placing a bid at the silent auction


Edie Briskin examines the hit of the evening, flashing rubber rings from the museum's shop

Kendra Daniel, John Hays, and Allan Daniel

Stacy Hollander, senior curator, Sandra Jaffe, and Lee Kogan, director of the Folk Art Institute

E.T. and Lynn Williams and Brooke Davis Anderson, director and curator of The Contemporary Center

Edgar Cullman Sr., Rebecca Gamzon, and Susan Cullman


Sherri Bronf man (center) with honorees Joyce and George Wein

Jr. celebrating his winning bid

Preservation Hall Jazz Band, whose special appearance direct from New Orleans was made possible by Sandra Jaffe. In addition to lending works to "Tools of Her Ministry," the Weins have been longtime supporters ofthe performing and visual arts. They were presented with a commemorative tambourine painted by artist Malcah Zeldis that depicts the Weins with Louis Armstrong.Twentyfive artists graciously created and donated original work for the evening's silent auction, transforming ordinary tambourines into the perfect expression of sight and sound. After dinner there was a spirited live auction, led by C.Hugh Hildesley of Sotheby's. A dazzling Statue of Liberty, made with 42,583 Swarovski crystals by Jimmy Crystal, was the object offrenzied bidding. It was generously donated to the Benefit Auction by Trustee Emeritus Joseph F. Cullman 3rd (1912-2004).Joe Cullman was a good friend ofthe

museum and his gift made a spectacular centerpiece for the room.The second lot ofthe live auction was an untitled sculpture by renowned self-taught artist Thornton Dial Sr. Made expressly for the museum's Benefit Auction, the mixed-media piece was well received by eager bidders. There is a saying popular in New Orleans: laissez les bon temps roulez, or "let the good times roll." On this special evening celebrating the museum and its accomplishments, they most certainly did.

The museum thanks the following artists for their donation of artworks to the Benefit Auction: Charles Benefiel, Susan Brown, Rex Clawson, Brandon Collins, Jimmy Crystal, Thornton Dial Sr., Anthony Dominguez, Tom Duncan, Dolores Furnari, Keith Goodhart, Anne Grgich, Ken Grimes, Linda Carter Lefko, Charlie Lucas, Leon McCutcheon, Laura Craig McNellis, Donald Mitchell, Stephen Mulhauser, Marguerite Patti, Kevin Sampson, Judith Scott, Rubens Teles, Gregory van Maanen, Pascal Verbena, Myrtice West, and Malcah Zeldis

FALL 2004







MORGAN 0 "God is in every shout and jangle here: there is no room for anyone else ... this is a divine minimalism; a meaty hallelujah." —Rolling Stone

LET'S MAKE A RECORD „led by Sister 14 songs record—A

;, 1071

n May 7, the museum hosted a panel ofcollectors and artists who knew Sister Gertrude Morgan during her artmaking years in New Orleans. Poet Rod McKuen shared some work by the artist that he recently discovered in his home in an envelope that had remained unopened for about 30 years. Sandra Jaffe, cofounder ofPreservation Hall in New Orleans, spoke about the first time she met Sister Morgan. Writer

Rosemary Kent reflected on interviewing Sister Morgan for the first issue ofInterview magazine in 1973. And Susann Craig, a collector, gave an engaging talk on falling in love with the artist's paintings. Brooke Davis Anderson, director and curator ofthe museum's Contemporary Center, moderated the panel.The lively evening was generously sponsored by Janet Winston in honor of her late husband,Dr.Joseph M.Winston.


Available at the American Folk Art Museum Book and Gift Shop for $15.95 Members receive a 100/0 discount on all shop items




---1 MUSEU



From left: Brooke Anderson, Janet Winston, Sandra Jaffe, Rod McKuen,Susann Craig, Rosemary Kent, and Diana Schlesinger, director of education

VOLUNTEER PARTY rustee Joyce B. Cowin graciously hosted the museum's annual volunteer recognition party on April 12. One hundred guests were treated to the collection that she and her late husband,Daniel, had built over the course of many years. She graciously guided the rapt audience through an apartment filled with exquisite paintings, prints, sculpture, and historic furniture. The highlight ofthe party was the gathering ofthe many volunteers who contribute their individual efforts to ensure the success ofthe institution. As Cowin said in her welcome, "Volunteers make the Folk Art



Museum go 'round. We couldn't do anything without you." From docents in the education department to curatorial interns, 110 volunteers participate in all aspects of the museum. Thank you to all ofthe volunteers for your commitment and your hard work! The museum is currently looking for more volunteers eager to share their enthusiasm and knowledge ofboth folk art and New York City with visitors at the membership/information desk. If you are interested, please call Jane Lattes, director ofvolunteer services, at 212/977-7170,ext. 330,on Tuesdays or Wednesdays.

29 African-American Quilts circa 1950-1970's Made by

Birdie Lee Woods

Improvisational Bow Tie, ca.1960,cotton

Coreen Riley/R. Ege Antiques 773.772.6102


Exhibiting at The Intuit Show in Chicago - October 1-3, 2004

American Primitive New York, NY The Ames Gallery Berkeley, CA Andrew Edlin Gallery New York, NY Angela Usrey Chattanooga, TN Ann Nathan Gallery Chicago, IL Aron Packer Gallery Chicago, IL Carl Hammer Gallery Chicago, IL Cavin-Morris Gallery New York, NY Corrine Riley Chicago, IL Creative Growth Art Center Oakland, CA Elliott & Elliott Harbor Springs, MI Esperanza Chicago, IL Fish Out of Water Chicago, IL Fleisher/Oilman Gallery Philadelphia, PA Galerie Bonheur St Louis, MO Galerie St. Etienne New York, NY Gold Goat Rhinebeck, NY Harvey Antiques Evanston, IL Hill Gallery Birmingham, MI Hypoint Antiques Barrington, IL J. Crist Gallery Boise, ID Judy A Saslow Gallery Chicago, IL Keny Galleries Columbus, OH Lindsay Gallery Columbus, OH Luise Ross Gallery New York, NY Maggie Roche Chicago, IL Marion Harris New York, NY Norman Brosterman East Hampton, NY Odd Fellows Antiques Mt. Vernon, ME The Pardee Collection Iowa City, IA Phyllis Kind Gallery New York, NY Praiseworthy Antiques New York, NY R. Ege Antiques St. Louis, MO Ricco/Maresca Gallery New York, NY Ridge Art Oak Park, IL Russell Bowman Art Advisory Chicago, IL Clifford A Wallach Art & Americana Dumbo, NY Yard Dog Austin, TX Yukiko Koide Tokyo, Japan

The Intuit Show of folk and outsider art October 1 - 3, 2004 847 W. Jackson Boulevard Chicago A sale of folk and outsider art, Americana, and ethnographic art featuring top dealers from across the country Benefit preview Friday, October 1, 6 — 10 pm $150 public, $125 Intuit members Show hours Saturday, October 2, 11 am — 7 pm Sunday, October 3, 11 am — 6 pm General admission: $10 Open house, continental breakfast, and gallery talk at Intuit: The Center for Intuitive and Outsider Art on Sunday, October 3, 9 am — 11 am Bill Traylor, Black Bull, c. 1939-43, 11.25" x 17.25, Courtesy Carl Hammer Gallery

Intuit: The Center for Intuitive and Outsider Art 312-243-9088


NEWS Gale Gregory and Bert Sugar

RUG DAY nthusiasm was at a high pitch on Saturday,March 14, as more than 400 people attended the museum's second annual Rug Day,organized by the Folk Art Institute. Rug hookers from New York and New England gathered to share ideas, tips, techniques, and fine examples oftheir creative and technical virtuosity with like-minded colleagues. Performing demonstrations in the atrium of the museum were the Goodwives Chapter ofthe Association of Traditional Hooking Artists (ATHA),Pound Ridge, N.Y.; the Green Mountain Rug Hooking Guild,Tinmouth, Vt.; the Nutmeg Chapter of ATHA,Connecticut; the Peconic Ruggers, Suffolk County, N.Y.; and the Central Park Ruggers,from New York City.


Tracy Jamar, a New York City textile conservator and restorer, led a packed workshop on rug conservation and restoration. Fiber artist Patty Yoder spoke about her rugs from a group called "Sheep Series." Rae Harrell, Linda Rae Coughlin, and Linda Freedman Schmidt, other artists who work in thematic series, gave illustrated talks about their rugs.Tours of the museum's exhibition "Talking Quilts" completed the day's multiple activities. To complement Saturday's Rug Day,Folk Art Institute instructor Marilyn Bottjer, a rug-hooking expert,led a daylong workshop on traditional rug hooking on Friday, March 13. Rug Day was a huge success; look for the next rug celebration in March 2005.

A NIGHT OF MAGIC: BERT SUGAR CONJURES UP HOUDIN! special evening program on the life of Harry Houdini was presented at the American Folk Art Museum's Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Two Lincoln Square in Manhattan on March 30."A Night of Magic: Bert Sugar Conjures Up Houdini" was part of a series ofcommunity events organized by gallery director Dale Gregory that dip into neighborhood history, culture, and personalities. Through grassroots cultivation, a new museum audience has emerged, bringing together local residents, businesses, cultural leaders, and government officials. Bert Sugar, co-author of Houdini:His Life and Art(1976),is better known as a sports historian and boxing authority Director Gerard C. Wertkin's welcoming remarks to a packed house of more than 150 guests noted that Harry Houdini's 130th birthday occurred one week from the eve of the program. Houdini's first American performance after gaining fame in Europe took place on Oct. 3, 1905, at the Colonial Theatre Music Hall on Broadway and 62nd Street, a few blocks from the Feld Gallery. L.John


Wilkerson, president ofthe museum's Board ofTrustees, donned a Bert Sugar lookalike fedora and presented the evening's host with a certificate of award for his contribution to the museum. Sugar has participated as host and speaker in this popular series since it began in October 2002 with "A Night at Sharkey's," followed by programs on Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig in 2003. New York City architectural historian Tony Robins presented a slide show and talk on the evolution and design ofvaudeville theaters in Manhattan.The evening was topped off with Houdini's famous straitjacket act, with magician Bob Friedhoffer and his "assistant,"John Wilkerson. Special thanks to local merchants 67 Wine and Spirits and Maya Schaper Cheese and Antiques. In addition to museum docents and staff, volunteers from WABC News,Yankee Stadium, the Yogi Berra Museum at Montclair University in Little Falls, NJ.,and the Non-Profit Coordinating Committee of New York City helped the evening run smoothly.The event was sponsored by the Athena Group.

FALL 2004





Folk Art Explorers at the Kenny Hill environment

FOLK ART CIRCLE his spring,Trustee Nancy Mead shaped and spearheaded a new program of donor recognition called the Folk Art Circle. Since membership dues cover only 6 percent of museum operating expenses, annual giving plays a crucial role in raising the additional $2.5 million needed each year to keep the museum's lights on and its doors open. The Folk Art Circle's menu of naming opportunities encourages donors to personalize their commitment to the museum with gifts of $2,500 to $25,000 for special projects that range


from sponsoring the display of an object from the collection to underwriting an issue of Folk Art. Supporters at the $5,000 level and above are eligible to host a private event at the museum.To further thank participants, a list of Folk Art Circle members will appear in the museum's Cullman/ Danziger Family Atrium and in Folk Art. For more information about these and other giving opportunities, please contact Christine Corcoran, manager ofindividual giving, at 212/977-7170,ext. 328, or

STAMP AND STITCH nspired by the idea of combining language and quiltmaking,two family workshops called "Stamp and Stitch," led by Folk Art Institute instructor Frances Phillips, were held in March in conjunction with the museum's exhibition


96 FALL 2004


"Talking Quilts." Using alphabetletter stamps, participating family members—grandparents, parents, and children—wrote their names and favorite words or sayings on fabric and then stitched the fabric onto little "talking" quilt pillows.

FOLK ART EXPLORERS VISIT LOUISIANA n April, the Folk Art Explorers traveled to Louisiana in celebration of Sister Gertrude Morgan,the New Orleans artist featured in "Tools of Her Ministry." Reaching out to its extended family all over the United States and beyond is crucial to the museum's mission. Twenty-three museum members from around the country toured an antebellum plantation and a bayou (with alligators!), sampled Creole and Cajun cuisines, listened to traditional New Orleans jazz at Preservation Hall, and, of course, visited exquisite public and private collections of folk art. Highlights of the trip included visits to the recently renovated Ogden Museum of


Southern Art, the Kenny Hill environment at the Nicholls State University Folk Art Center and Sculpture Garden,and the historic Madame John's Legacy in the French Quarter. Among the Louisiana artists seen in private collections were Ivy Billiot, Roy Ferdinand, Clementine Hunter, Charles Hutson, Sister Gertrude Morgan,and Herbert Singleton. A heartfelt thank-you goes to all the kind hosts who opened their homes to the Explorers and shared their enthusiasm, their expertise, and their excellent collections! If you are interested in receiving information about future tours, please contact the membership department at 212/977-7170 or





The 2004 Show will coincide with an Historic Deerfield Decorative Arts Forum on 18th Century Connecticut Valley Furniture with lectures and hands-on workshops. Columbus Day weekend is peak fall foliage season in western Massachusetts. Our Show has been planned for all of us to enjoy this most picturesque season p in Historic Deerfield. We suggest that you make your reservations early to avoid any disappointment. Hotels, Motels and Inns in the area: FOX INN Route 10, 71 Northfield Road Bernardston, MA 413.648.9131

DEERFIELD'S YELLOW GABLED HOUSE 111 North Main Street South Deerfield, MA 413.665.4922

HOLIDAY INN EXPRESS HOTEL 400 Russell Street Hadley, MA 413.582.0002

THE CHARLEMONT INN Route 2, Mohawk Trail Charlemont, MA 413.339.5796

RED ROOF INN 9 Greenfield Road South Deerfield, MA 413.665.7161

AUTUMN INN 259 Elm Street Northampton, MA 413.584.7660

THE OXBOW RESORT Route 2, 1741 Mohawk Trail Charlemont, MA 413.625.6011

SUPER 8 MOTEL 21 Colrain Road South Deerfield, MA 413-774-5578

THE HOTEL NORTHAMPTON 36 King Street Northampton, MA 413.584.3100

THE DEERFIELD INN 81 Old Main Street Deerfield Village, MA 413.774.5587

BRANDT HOUSE 29 Highland Avenue Greenfield, MA 413.774.3329

BEST WESTERN NORTHAMPTON — 117 Conz Street Northampton, MA 413.586.1500

LORD JEFFREY INN 30 Boltwood Avenue Amherst, MA 413.253.2576

HOWARD JOHNSON HOTEL 401 Russell Street Hadley, MA 413.586.0114

FRENCH KING INN Route 2, 129 French King Hwy. Millers Falls, MA 413.423.3328

For more information call: 413.775.7177 -



CRAIG FARROW Cabinetmaker

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL WORKSHOP pproximately 60 students from P.S. 3 in Brooklyn visited the museum this spring to explore the exhibition "Talking ()silts" and the work ofvarious self-taught African American artists, such as Sister Gertrude Morgan and Sam Doyle. Artist and art teacher Michael Cooper led classroom workshops in which students


learned about the artistry of quiltmaking and experimented with sewing. Cooper also introduced the students to the work ofJimmy Lee Sudduth and provided them with the opportunity to create their own paintings using unusual materials like those favored by the artist: mud,sugar, spinach, and berries. A P.S. 3 student painting with mud, strawberries, and spinach

History and Artistry in Wood 17th and 18th Century American Furniture Reproductions P.O. Box 828 Woodbury, CT 06798

98 FALL 2004


Please call 203-266-0276

Abbey Flamm having her silhouette cut by Deborah O'Connor, with grandmother Susan Flamm (left), the museum's public relations director



ussell Carrell's Origi

nti In A CowPasture Sat Early General

am - lOarn, $20 n, 10am - 4pm, $6 n or shine to join over 100 and relive a tradition started de at t half a century ago by the hig respected Mr. Russel arrell. Loc ed at the original Carrell Ho stead at 92 Cana Road (Rte y 4)Salisbury,

SHOP THE BLOCK une 10 marked the third Shop-the-Block event, a collaboration with the museum's neighbors on West 53rd Street: the Museum of Modern Art and the Museum of Arts &Design. Members of any of the three museums enjoyed a 20 percent discount in the gift shops, as well as free admission and refreshments.

tember 11

Silhouette artist Deborah O'Connor was stationed in front of the American Folk Art Museum and cut freehand silhouettes for six hours. In response to enthusiastic demand, O'Connor returned to cut silhouettes on Sunday,June 20, for Father's Day. A fourth Shopthe-Block day is being planned for the fall.


This show benefits the Salisbury Visiting Nurs Association IN NOVEMBER


Silhouette of Dana Clair, membership and development associate

FALL 2004





Robert Cargo FOLK ART GALLERY Self-taught, visionary, and outsider artists of the South African-American quilts• Haitian spirit flags

Presidents and Politicians

Unless otherwise specified, all programs are held at the American Folk Art Museum,45 West 53rd Street, New York City. Programs are open to the public, and admission fees vary. For more information, please call the education department at 212/265-1040, ext. 102, or pick up the museum's Public Programs Brochure.

September 15 to November 15,2004 PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

An exhibition featuring selected works by Jimmy Lee Sudduth, Roger Rice, Fred Webster, Sandra Rice, Son Ford Thomas, Albert Freeman, Sam Martin, Larry Hamm, Artist Chucicie Williams, and others. Please join us for a weekend reception in our new Main Line Philadelphia location Saturday, October 2nd, lpm to 4pm Sunday, October 3rd, lpm to 4pm Open at other times by appointment only. Caroline Cargo • 110 Darby Road • Paoli, PA 19301 • 610-240-9528

MUSIC An Evening ofPiedmont Blues: Carolina Slim and Chris Cook Friday, Oct. 29 6:30-8:00 PM 1,10; $7 members,seniors, and students Carolina Slim is a veteran of the traditional Piedmont blues guitar style. He has played with masters like B.B. King, Big Maybelle, and John Lee Hooker; tonight he will be joined by friend Chris Cook. Refreshments will be served. FILM AND MUSIC

Songs in the Key ofZ Friday, Nov. 12 6:00-7:30 PM $10; 17 members,seniors, and students Irwin Chusid, author of Songs in the Key ofZ:The Curious Universe of Outsider Music, will present an evening of outsider music videos and discussion.

"Masterpieces of American Jewelry," hosted by the American Folk Art Museum; and the Museum of Arts & Design's "Seaman Schepps: A Century of New York Jewelry Design, 1904-2004" and "Treasures from the Vault." Light refreshments will be served throughout the day. AFTERNOON PROGRAMS

Let's Talk Folk Art Tuesdays, 12:30 PM This slide-talk series takes place at the Donnell Library Center,20 West 53rd Street; admission is free Women in American Folk Art Oct. 26 Lee Kogan The Contemporary Objects Represented in "Folk Art Revealed" Nov.9 Brooke Davis Anderson Feeling Blue? Dec. 14 Stacy C. Hollander


Inspired Design:Jewelry Through the Ages Friday, Dec. 3 12:30-6:00 PM $125; $100 members,seniors, and students This day's events will focus on the themes offine and costume jewelry. Following a lecture at the Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, Design, and Culture,join museum curators and experts for a full day ofintimate tours offour distinctive jewelry exhibitions: Bard's "The Castellani and Italian Archaeological Jewelry";


r A LL




In honor of Cuesta Benberry Friday, Oct. 1,10:00 Am-4:00 PM Saturday, Oct.2,9:00-11:00 AM Quilt workshops,guided tours, and demonstrations by area quilt guilds For more information, seepage 27. GALLERY TOURS

Take a Break for Folk Art Thursdays, noon-1:00 PM Contemporary Objects Represented in"Folk Art Revealed" Oct.28,Nov. 18,Dec.9,Jan. 13 Brooke Davis Anderson




FRIENDSHIP PIN WITH CLASPED HANDS/ artist unidentified / United States / c. 1830-1840 / watercolor on ivory set in metal pin 1% x 11 / 2"/ American Folk Art Museum, Joseph Martinson Memorial Fund, Frances and Paul Martinson,1981.12.31

Tuesdays through Fridays, noon and 2:00 Pis,4 Tours are facilitated by experienced and knowledgeable fellows of the Folk Art Institute, as well as docents. Please call the museum for more information, or check times upon visiting the museum.

This work is on view in "Masterpieces of AmericanJewelry."


Tangled Up in Blue Nov. 11, Dec. 2,Jan. 6 Stacy C. Hollander Viewing"Masterpieces of American Jewelry" Sept. 16, Oct. 14,Nov.4,Jan.20 Ralph Esmerian,guest curator

For information about booking school and other group tours, please call the education department at 212/265-1040, ext. 119.The museum is fully accessible and offers tours for groups with special needs. Additional lead time may be necessary to arrange these tours.





Sundays, 2:00-4:00 PM $10 family; $8 member family Friendship Bracelets and Heart-and-Hand Pins Sept. 12 BEADazzled! Sept. 26 Folk Art Stencils Oct. 10

The American Folk Art Museum gratefully acknowledges the support ofthefollowing findersfor its exhibitions andprograms:

OeeS 23emd Qit/lt Collect/Om FINE RUGS

"Folk Art Revealed"is made possible by leadership supportfrom the PeterJay Sharp Foundation and major supportfrom the Blanchette Hooker Rockefeller Fund. Additionalfunding has been provided by the Robert Lehman Foundation and by the Jean Lipman Fellows. Public programs are made possible in part by supportfrom Consolidated Edison Company, Citigroup

Tangled Up in Blue (tie-dye workshop) Oct. 24

Foundation, the NationalEndowmentfor the Arts, the New York City Department ofCulturalAffairs, and the New York State Council on the Arts. The museum is

Folk Art Animals Nov. 7

grateful to Nancy and Dana Meadfor their support ofevening events.

Shades ofBlue Nov. 21 Holiday Decorated Boxes Dec. 5 Folk Art Angels Dec. 19

"H Variation"

Classic Rug Collection,Inc.•Tel 212.249.6695/088.334.0063 235East60th Street, znd floor• New York NYloozz•

FALL 2004 FOLK ART 101






BOARD OF TRUSTEES Executive Committee Ralph 0.Esmerian Chairman ofthe Board L.John Wilkerson President Laura Parsons President-elect Frances Sirota Martinson,Esq. Executive Vice President and Chairman, Executive Committee Lucy C.Danziger Executive Vice President Joan M.Johnson Vice President Barry D. Briskin Treasurer Jacqueline Fowler Secretary

Joyce B. Cowin Samuel Farber Robert L Hirschhorn Members Didi Barrett Edward V. Blanchard Jr. Paul W.Caan Barbara Cate David L. Davies

Laurence D.Fink Susan Gutfreund ICristina Johnson,Esq. Michelle L. Lasser Taryn Gottlieb Leavitt Nancy Mead George H.Meyer,Esq. Cyril I. Nelson J. Randall Plummer Margaret Z. Robson

J. Bruce Antiques Fred &Theresa Buchanan in memory of Sybil Gibson Charles 8c Deborah Burgess Jim Burk Antique Shows The Burnett Group Joyce A. Burns Marcy L. Burns,American Indian Arts Paul &Dana Coon Lewis P. Cabot Elinor B.Cahn Mr. &Mrs.Donald Campbell Bliss & Brigitte Camochan John W.Castello in memory of Adele Earnest Caterpillar Foundation Donald N.Cavanaugh &Edward G.Blue Edward Lee Cave Virginia G.Cave Shari Cavin & Randall Morris Peter P. Cecere Sharon S. Cheeseman Christie's Richard &Teresa Ciccotelli Barbara L Claster Lori Cohen Alexis & George Contos Judy Angelo Cowen Foundation Mrs.Daniel Cowin In memory ofDaniel Cowin Jeanne D.Creps Mr.& Mrs. Edgar M.Cullman Elissa F. &Edgar M.Cullman Jr. Joe &Joan Cullman Susan R.Cullman Catherine G. Curran Kendra &Allan Daniel David & Sheena Danziger Lucy &Mike Danziger Peggy& Richard M.Danziger David L. Davies Joseph Del Valle Vincent &Stephanie DiCicco H. Richard Dietrich Jr. Mr.&Mrs. Charles M.Darer Patricia McFadden Dombal Colette &Jim Donovan Kathleen M.Doyle,Doyle New York Deborah &Arnold Dunn Ray& Susan Egan Gloria Einbender Sharon &Ted Eisenstat Elitzer Family Fund in honor of Anne Hill & Monty Blanchard David &Doris Walton Epner Joyce 8c,Klaus Eppler Ralph 0.Esmerian Susan H.Evans In memory of Heila D.Everard Sam &Betsey Farber Nancy Farmer &Everette James Mike 8c Doris Feinsilber Bequest of Eva 8c Morris Feld Elizabeth C.Feldmann M.Finkel &Daughter Fireman's Fund Insurance Company Deborah Fishbein

Alexander &Enid Fisher Laura Fisher, Antique Quilts &Americana Jacqueline Fowler Beverly Frank Gretchen Freeman &Alan Silverman Mrs.Albert D.Freiberg Susan 0.Friedman Alvin E. Friedman-Kien,M.D. Furthermore,the publication program ofthe J.M. Kaplan Fund Galerie St. Etienne,Inc. Gallery of Graphic Arts, Ltd. Rebecca & Michael Gamzon Judy &Jules Gard Rich &Pat Garthoeffner Garth's Auctions,Inc. Sidney &Sandra Gecker Nancy Gerber Morad Ghadamian Sima Ghadamian Merle &Barry Ginsburg James &Nancy Glazer Mr.&Mrs.Merle H.Glick Carla T. Goers Edith H.Goldberg Russ 8c Karen Goldberger Mrs.Toni L. Goldfarb Tracy Goodnow Art& Antiques Ellin &Baron Gordon Howard Graff Jonathan Green Nancy M.&Ben S. Greenberg Greene &Mays American Antiques Marion E. Greene Blanche Greenstein &Thomas Woodard William & Shirley E. Greenwald Peg &Judd Gregory Audrey Ellcinson Griff Bonnie Grossman,The Ames Gallery Pat Guthman Alan 8c Elaine Haid Robert&Linda Hall Cordelia Hamilton Ken &Debra Hamlett Nancy B. Hamon Jeanne & Herbert Hansen Deborah Harding Marion Harris &Jerry Rosenfeld Harvey Art &Antiques Audrey Heclder Donald Heller, Heller/VVasham Nina Hellman Jeffrey Henkel Mr.&Mrs.George Henry Mr.&Mrs.Samuel Herrup Ann Hickerson & Martha Hic_kerson Antonio Hidalgo The High Five Foundation Frederick D.Hill Pamela &Timothy Hill Kit Hinrichs Robert &Marjorie Hirschhom 8c Carolyn Hirschhom Schenker, The Hirschhorn Foundation Historical Society of Early American Decoration Arlene &Leonard Hochman

Selig D. Sacks, Esq. Bonnie Strauss Nathaniel J. Sutton Richard H.Walker,Esq. Trustees Emeriti Joseph F. Cullman 3rd (1912-2004) Cordelia Hamilton George F. Shaskan Jr.

CAPITAL CAMPAIGN DONORS The American Folk Art Museum is grateful to the following donors who have contributed a combined total of more than $33.8 million toward the construction and endowment of its new home at 45 West 53rd Street: Marjorie W.Abel James & Gail Addiss Dr.&Mrs. Karl P Adler Alconda-Ovvsley Foundation Judith Alexander George R.Allen & Gordon L.Wyckoff, Raccoon Creek Antiques American Capital Access The American Folk Art Society Barbara Anderson Ingrid & Richard Anderson Marna Anderson Marie T.Annoual Aame Anton Barbara Ardizone Marion Armstrong R.R. Atkins Foundation Lois S.& Gad Avigad Joan &Darwin Bohm Marcia Bain Lori Ann Baker, Baker &Co.Designs Ltd. Marianne E. Balazs Bankers Trust Company Barn Star Productions,Inc. Didi &David Barrett Jimi Barton,Rhinebeck Antiques Fair Joyce &Ron Bassin,Bird In Hand Denny Beach Patricia Beatty Mary F.Beck Judy &Barry Bell in honor of Alice &Ron Hoffman Philip &Leah Bell Laruine Hawkins Ben-Dov Mrs. Arthur M.Berger Julie M.Sermon Big Apple Wrecking 8c Construction Corporation Mrs. George P. Bissell Jr. Diana H.Bittel Edward V.Blanchard Jr. &M.Anne Hill Lenore & Stephen Blank Bloomberg L.P. The Bodman Foundation Booth Ferris Foundation Robert, Katharine 8c Courtney Booth Catherine & Chris Botta Marilyn W.Bottjer Ronald Bourgeault, Northeast Auctions Edith S.&Barry D.Briskin,The Shirley K. Schlafer Foundation Susan Brochsh Florence Brody Sheila 8c Auron Brog R. Scott Bromley The Brown Foundation,Inc. Curtis F. Brown,Hayden Goldberg Mr.&Mrs.Edward James Brown Gail Brown Marc Brown &Laurent Krasny Brown

102 FALL 2004


Mr.& Mrs.Joseph C.Hoopes Jr. Carter G.Houck Sr. Evelyn Houlroyd Ellen E. Howe Mr.&Mrs.Philip Howlett Allen &Barry Huffman Peter D.Hynson Antiques Paul Ingersoll In the Beginning Fabrics Thomas Isenberg In memory of Laura N.Israel Thomas & Barbara Israel Martin & Kitty Jacobs,The Splendid Peasant Johnson &Johnson Joan & Victor Johnson ICristina Johnson,Esq. Louise & George 1Caminow Julie & Sandy Palley and Samuel& Rebecca ICardon Foundation Allan &Penny Katz Edwin U. Keates, M.D. Steven & Helen Kellogg Jolie Kelter & Michael Make Richard Kemble & George Kom,Forager House Collection Mrs. David J. Kend Leigh Keno Amy Keys Phyllis Kind Joe K. Kindig HI Jacqueline &Jonathan King Susan & Robert E. Klein Nancy Knudsen Nancy Kollisch &Jeffrey Pressman Greg K. Kramer David &Barbara Krashes Dr. Robert &Arlene Kreisler Sherry & Mark ICronenfeld Robert A.Landau Bruno &Lindsey LaRocca Michelle &Lawrence Lasser William & Karen Lauder Jerry &Susan Lauren Wendy &Mel Lavin Mark &Taryn Leavitt The Edith and Herbert Lehman Foundation,Inc. In memory of HenryJ.8c Erna D. Leir John A. Levin &Co.,Inc. Morris Levinson Foundation,Inc. Bertram Levinston,M.D. Levy Charitable Trust Judy Lewis The Liman Foundation Lipman Family Foundation The 2000 Lipman Fellows Bruce Lisman In memory ofZeke Liverant Nancy MacKay Nancy &Erwin Maddrey Anne & Vincent Mai Maine Antique Digest The Jane Marcher Foundation Paul Martinson, Frances Martinson & Howard Graffin memory of Burt Martinson Mr. &Mrs.Christopher Mayer Mrs. Myron Mayer

In honor of Nancy Mayer Kerry McCarthy Milly McGehee Nancy and Dana Mead Mary 0.Mecagni Robert &Meryl Meltzer Charles W.Meads Evelyn S. Meyer George H.Meyer Jim &Enid Michelman Mrs. E.J. Milano Mr.& Mrs.Samuel C. Miller Judith &James Milne Jean Mitchell Sandra Moers JP Morgan Chase &Co.,Inc. Keith &Lauren Morgan Alden &Jane Munson Lucia Cirino Murphy Drew Neisser Cyril Irwin Nelson New York City Department ofCultural Affairs New York State Margaret&David Nichols Thurston Nichols Mr.&Mrs.Frank N.Norris Jr. Susan Nova Sally W.O'Day Odd Fellows Antiques Bequest of Mattie Lou O'Kelley Olde Hope Antiques Cheryl Oppenheim &John Waters The Overbrook Foundation Patsy Palmer &Talbot D'Alemberte Virginia Parks Paternostro Investments Eloise Paula Rolando &Karin Perez Jan Petry Philip Morris Companies Inc. Elizabeth A.Pile Harriet Marple Plehn Trust Carolinn Pocher &William Woody,Darwin Frank 8c Barbara Pollack Lucile 8c Maurice Pollak Fund Ronald &Debra Pook,Pook &Pook Inc. Wayne Pratt, Inc. Fran Puccinelli Jackie Radwin Teresa Ranellone Christopher T. Rebello Antiques Ricco/Maresca Gallery Julia & Leroy Richie Jeanne Riger Marguerite Riordan John &Margaret Robson Foundation Blanchette Hooker Rockefeller Fund Le Rowell Miss Virginia Carolyn Rudd Russack Antiques &Books,Inc. Selig D.Sacks Judith Sagan Mary Sams,Ballyhack Antiques Jack 8c Mary-Lou Savitt Peter L. Schaffer Carol Peden Schatt Shirley K.Schlafer Memorial Fund In memory ofEsther &Sam Schwartz Marilyn &Joseph Schwartz The Schwarz Gallery, Philadelphia Phyllis &Al Selnick Jean S.8c Frederic A.Sharf The Peter Jay Sharp Foundation In honor ofGeorge Shaskan The George and Myra Shaskan Foundation,Inc. Roz&Steve Shaw Arthur &Suzanne Shawe Harvey S. Shipley Miller &J. Randall Plummer Elle Shushan Jo Sibley John Sideli Eleanor R. Siegal Francisco F. Sierra Elizabeth Silverman

Skinner,Inc.,Auctioneers and Appraisers of Antiques and Fine Art Sanford L Smith &Patricia Lynch Smith Sarah Barr Snook Elliott & Grace Snyder Mr.&Mrs.Peter J. Solomon Sotheby's Maxine Spiegel Nancy T.& Gary J. Stass Frederick Stacker Stella Show Mgmt.Co. Su-Ellyn Stern Tamar Stone 8c Robert Eckstein Ellen Stone-Belic Rachel&Donald Strauber Bonnie &Tom Strauss The R.David Sudarsky Charitable Foundation Nathaniel J. Sutton Leslie Sweedler John 8c Catherine Sweeney William Swislow Takashimaya Co.,Ltd. Connie Tavel Richard & Maureen Taylor David Teiger Nancy Thomas Tiffany 8c Co. Jeffrey Tillou Antiques Peter Tillou Pamela P.Tisza Jean L.8c Raymond S.Troubh Fund Tucker Station Antiques Karen Ulfers John &Kathleen Ullmann Lee 8c Cynthia Vance Jacob &Ray Van Gelder Bob &Ellie Vermillion Joan &Clifford Vemick Joseph &Meryle Viener Robert E.Voellde I.H.8c Birgitta X.L.von Zelowitz David &Jane Wakntas Jennifer Walker Clifford A.Wallach Irene N.Walsh Don Walters & Mary Benisek Warburg Pincus The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Elizabeth &Irwin Warren Nani S. Warren Martha Watterson Weeden Brothers: Bill, Alan,Jack 8c Don Mr.& Mrs. Alan N.Weeden Weil,Gotshal &Manges LLP Frederick S.Weiser David M.Weiss Jay &Meryl Weiss Ed Weissman Julia Weissman Mr.&Mrs.Peter Wells Ben Werticin David Wheatcroft Harry Wicks Donald K.Wilkerson,M.D. John &Barbara Wilkerson The Jamison Williams Foundation Nelson M.Williams John Wilmerding Charles 8cPhyllis Wilson Robert N.Wilson &Anne Wright Wilson Dr.Joseph M.8cJanet H.Winston Susan Yecies J. Evelyn Yoder Valerie Young Shelly Zegart Antique Quilts Malcah Zeldis Bernadette Mary Zemenick Steven J. Zick Jon 8c Becky Zoler 27 anonymous donors

covIteri360 ‘:> , e

Berenberg Gallery 4 Clarendon Street Boston, MA 02116

''F-tau' it617.536.0800

Minnie Adkins

fND1610 ARTS

Jose Garcia Montebravo (Cuba), 2001

Popular and Folk Art from Asia, Africa and the Americas Haitian Paintings • Metal Sculpture • Vodou Flags Cuban Art• West African barber Shop Signs Latin American Folk Art & Paintings • Ethnographic Art 151 N. 3rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106 215-922-4041

FALL 2004



New York's Largest Antiques Show!


ANTIQUES NOV.13-14 & 20-21 OVER 600 DIFFERENT DEALERS EACH WEEKEND Selling 17th to 20th Century Furniture & Furnishings, Folk Art, Fine Art, Silver, Fashion, Jewelry, Americana, Ceramics, Quilts, Textiles, Collectibles & More PASSENGER SHIP TERMINAL

Piers 90/92/88 Saturday: 9/10/11 a.m. to 6 p.m • Sunday: 11 a.m. to 6p.m.

48th to 55th Street & 12th Avenue, NYC • Admission $15 Stella Show Mgmt. Co. 212-255-0020 •



West Rupert, Vermont 05776 (802) 394-7713 • 800-844-9416 Catalogues $3.00 each

104 FALL 2004



DONORS FOR EXHIBITIONS AND OPERATIONS The American Folk Art Museum is grateful to the following friends who provided generous support for museum programs and operating activities during the year July 1, 2003-June 30, 2004: $50,000 & up Carnegie Corporation of New York Horace W.Goldsmith Foundation The Leir Charitable Trusts Major League Baseball Margaret Z. Robson Blanchette Hooker Rockefeller Fund $20,000-$49,999 American Express Company Didi &David Barrett BIL Charitable Trust Edward V. Blanchard Jr. Bloomberg LP Edith S.&Barry D.Brislcin Dana &Paul S. Coon Cahill Gordon & Reindel Joyce B.Cowin Louise &Edgar M.Cullman Lucy &Frederick M.Danziger David L.Davies &John Weeden Deutsche Bank Vivian & Strachan Donnelley Ralph 0.Esmerian Betsey & Samuel Farber Lori&Laurence Fink Jacqueline Fowler Susan &John Gutfreund Marjorie 8c Robert Hirschhorn Joan 8c Victor L.Johnson Barbara 8c David Krashes Latham &Watkins Taryn &Mark Leavitt Frances Sirota Martinson Nancy &Dana G.Mead Kay 8c George H.Meyer National Endowment for the Arts National Financial Partners New York State Council on the Arts Laura & Richard Parsons J. Randall Plummer Angela & Selig Sacks Shearman & Sterling Sidley Austin Brown &Wood LLP Bonnie &Thomas W.Strauss NathanielJ. Sutton TimeWarner Utendahl Capital Partners Barbara &John Wilkerson $10,000-$19,999 Advent Capital Management LLC Bank of America Bank ofTokyo-Mitsubishi Trust Company Estate of Sylvia J. Berger Citigroup Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton Con Edison Cravath,Swaine &Moore Credit Suisse First Boston LLC Davis Polk Wardwell Debevoise &Plimpton Fried Frank Harris Goldman Sachs of New York HIP Health Plans of New York HSBC Securities Johnson &Johnson JP Morgan Chase 8c Co. Alma Lambert &Chauncey Parker LEF Foundation Lehman Brothers,Inc. Morgan Stanley &Co.,Inc. Pfizer,Inc. Dorothea &Leo Rabkin

SFX Sports Group The Peter Jay Sharp Foundation Kate Stettner &Carl Lobell TIAA-CREF TishmanSpeyer Properties Verizon Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen 8c Katz Well Gotshal &Manges Joyce & George Wein White &Case Tod Williams &Billie Tsien $5,000-$9,999 Angelo, Gordon &Co. Barbara &James A.Block Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Barbara &Tracy Cate Dorothy&Lewis Cullman Peggy & Richard Danziger The Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation Mark Goldman Historical Society ofEarly American Decoration Susan &Jerry Lauren Anne &Vincent Mai Manoogian Simone Foundation Linda &Christopher Mayer Raymond J. McGuire Merrill Lynch & Co.,Inc. Anne &J.Jefferson Miller Richard Miller Morgan,Lewis &Bockius,LLP Moses 8c Singer New York City Department of Cultural Affairs Pure Imaging Julia &Leroy Richie Robert A. Roth Myra &George Shaskan R.David Sudarlcsy John Tishman Suzanne &Lester Wunderman $2,000-$4,999 Bob Alexander Molly Ashby Gayle Perkins Atkins & Charles N.Atkins Deborah Bergman Virginia &William D.Birch Jill 8c Sheldon Bonovitz Katharine & Robert E.Booth Judy & Bernard Briskin Yolanda & Alvin Brown Marcy Carsey Simona &Jerome A.Chazen Churchill Family Ellie & Edgar Cullman Jr. Susan R.Cullman Kendra ICrienke Daniel 8c Allan Daniel Sheena &David Danziger Gary Davenport Susan & Raymond C. Egan Gloria Einbender Epstein, Becker 8c Green Evelyn Frank Marilyn Friedman &Thomas Block Rebecca &Michael S. Gamzon Merle &Barry Ginsburg Kurt Gitter & Alice Yelen Anne &Eric Gleacher Bruce Gordon &Tawana Tibbs Ann &James Harithas Halley K. Harrisburg 8c Michael Rosenfeld Audrey B. Heckler Catherine 84.Richard Herbst Stephen Hessler &Mary Ellen Vehlow Ruth Horwich House & Garden Ling &Thomas Isenberg Ned Jalbert Vera 8cJoseph Jelinek ICristina Johnson


Penny &Allan Katz Helen & Steven Kellogg Luise & Robert Kleinberg Dorothy C.ICrugman Jo Carole 8c Ronald S. Lauder Betty &John Levin Joyce &Edward Linde Estate of Ada Little Lower Hudson Conference Richard Lukins The Magazine Group Audrey &Danny Meyer Loree 8c Richard Meyer Cynthia 8c Donald B.Murphy Cyril I. Nelson JoEllen &David Oskin Anthony J. Petullo Jeffrey Pressman 8c Nancy Kollisch Audrey & Christopher T. Rebollo Ricco/Maresca Gallery The Grace Jones Richardson Trust The Ida &William Rosenthal Foundation Carol P. Schatt Donna 8c Marvin Schwartz Janet &Joseph D.Shein Peter L. Sheldon Linda 8c Raymond Simon Smith Richardson Foundation Gary Snyder & Kristen Accola Karen &David Sobotka Judy & Michael Steinhardt Patricia A.&Robert C. Stempel Steptoe &Johnson Elizabeth A. Stern Su-Ellyn Stern Donald & Rachel Strauber Claire Vanderbilt Sini von Reis Sue 8c Edgar Wachenheim III Jane &David Walentas Elizabeth &Irwin Warren Sue Ann &John L.Weinberg Sandra 8c Walter J. Wilkie Janet Winston The WRG Foundation $1,000-$1,999 A La Virile Aussie,Inc. Marshall Acuff Peg Alston Deborah &James Ash James Asselstine & Bette J. Davis The Atlantic Philanthropies Marie &John W.Baldante Jeremy L.Banta Anne H.Bass Jill &Mickey Baten Robin Bell Jose Solis Betancourt & Paul Sherrill Helen Bing Ira & Marilyn Birnbaum Lois R Broder &Marvin Broder Sherry Bronfman Marc & Laurene ICrasny Brown Margaret 8c Edward J. Brown Valerie &Jay Brown Marjorie B. Buckley John R. &Dorothy D. Capita Fund Sharon &Jeffrey Casdin Angela &James Clair George Colettis Judy 8c Aaron Daniels Deborah Davenport& Stewert Stender Jenny & Richard DeScherer The Echo Design Group,Inc. Barbara &Joseph H.Ellis Equity Resources,Inc. Judith &Anthony Evnin Helaine &Burton Fendelman Lynne 8c Donald Floater Forest Electric Corporation Frances J. Frawley

Jill Gallagher Alice &Bruce Geismar Georgia Pacific Corporation Gomez Associates,Inc. Barbara &Peter Goodman Barbara L. Gordon & Steve Cannon Victoria Hagan Interiors Connie &John A. Hays Inge Heckel Donald M.Herr High Five Foundation Stephen M.Hill John Howard Ellen E. Howe Stephen Huber Kelly &Webber Hudson Sally Humphrey Barbara &Thomas C.Israel Sandra Jaffe Penny 8c Alistair Johnston Karen Keane & Stephen Fletcher Leigh Keno Mary Kettaneh Stephanie 8c Ron Kramer Abraham Krasnoff Robert A.Landau Lindsey &Bruno LaRocca Wendy&Stephen Lash Michelle 8c Lawrence J. Lasser Karen &VVilliam Lauder Eugenia A.Leemans Stephen A.Levin Barbara S. Levinson Lone Cowen Levy Ed Lewis Judy Lewis Julie &Carl M.Lindberg Stephen Loewentheil Ninah &Michael Lynne M(Group) Ralph Mancini Michael Markbreiter Michael T. Martin Chriss Mattsson Mrs. Myron L. Mayer Gael 8c Michael Mendelsohn Virginia B.Michel Richard Mishaan Barbara G.Mulch David Muni.&David Lesnialc Joshua Nash &Beth Goldberg Natasi &Associates Olde Hope Antiques,Inc. David T. Owsley Pat Parsons Karin Eriksen Perez& Rolando Perez Deborah C.Quirk Roberta &Jack Rabin Jackie & Howard Radwin Richard Ravitch Lisa 8c Gregg Rechler Paige Rense John Roche Elihu Rose Margot Rosenberg Helene &Jim Rosenthal Alice Rosenwald Shelley &Donald Rubin Janet 8c Derald H. Ruttenberg Joan Safir Betty &Paul Schaffer Linda 8c Donald Schapiro Tess &Thomas F. Schutte Phyllis 8c Alfred Selnick Semlitz Glaser Foundation Harvey S. Shipley Miller Ruth &Jerome Siegel Mary Ann &Arthur Siskind Skinner Inc. Janine &Michael Smith Stephanie Smither Matthew Patrick Smyth & Rachel Etc


North Carolina Pottery


The Collection of The Mint Museums BARBARA STONE PERRY, EDITOR

• more than 400 examples from the collection • five original essays by authorities in ceramics • information on potters & potteries


oversize,232 pp., 384 color / 13 b&w illus. $39.95 cloth / $24.95 paper

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FALL 2004






NOW OPEN TUESDAYS Forbes & Turner Fall Antiques Shows

Antiques at Hildene Outdoor Show and Sale Saturday, September 25 10am to 4 pm • $5 A Benefit for the Friends of Hildene, Inc.(802) 362-1788 Hildene Meadowlands, River Road, off RT 7A Manchester Village, VT

FALL HARTFORD ANTIQUES SHOW October 2 & 3 The Incomparable Source of Period American Antiques Saturday, lOarn-5pm • $8 • Sunday, 10am-4pm CT Expo Center Hartford, CT • Rt. 1-91, Exit 33 Inquires: • 207-767-3967 Email: •

106 FALL 2004


Grace &Elliott Snyder Peter J. Solomon Jennifer Allan Soros Dorothy &John Sprague Craig Stapleton Ellen 8c David Stein Geraldine & Lionel Sterling Nonk &John Sullivan David Teiger Billie Tisch Dorothy C.Treisman Sandra 8c Howard Tytel Kristin E.Vickery Eve Weinstein Judith &Bennett Weinstock Suzanne & Stephen Weiss Barbara 8c Gerard C.Wertkin Janis &William Wetsman Jan Whitlock Lyn &E.T. Williams Woodard &Greenstein Michelle & Robert Wyles Nina &Tim Zagat Zankel Fund Rebecca &Jon N.Zoler Susan 8c Donald Zuckert $500-$999 Harvie & Charles Abney Ethel &Philip Adelman Charitable Foundation Mary Lou &Ira Alpert Peg Alston Linda Lee Alter Serena Altschul Jody &John Arnhold Ray Azoulay June 8c Frank Barsalona Serena 8c David Bechtel Judi &Barry Bell Lee &Paul Belsky Ralph Bermudes Joan & Robert Bernhard Max. George P. Bissell Constance Black Karin Blake Interiors Adele &Leonard Block Sam Blount Dena L.Bock Marilyn & Orren Bradley Nancy &James Braithwaite Linda &James H.Brandi Patty &Steve Brink Brenda Brody Mark Brossman & Roberta Holinlco-Brossman Barbara Bundy Guy K.Bush Miriam Cahn Gabrielle &Frank Casson Virginia G. Cave Sharon S. Cheeseman Marjorie Chester Circuit City Foundation Stephen H. Cooper & Karen Gross Katie Danziger &Steven Horowitz Ed &Pat DeSear Mary A. Donovan Maureen D.Donovan Cynthia E.Dozier Deborah &Arnold Dunn Charles P. Durkin Shirley Durst Claire & Alfred C. Eckert Sharon &Theodore Eisenstat Robert Ellison Elsmere Foundation,Inc. Margot &John L. Ernst Tania &Thomas M.Evans Bobbie Falk Pauline &Laurence Feldman Ron Feldman Thomas K.Figge Susan 8c Henry Fradkin Maxine & Stuart Frankel Foundation Margot& Norman Freedman James Friedlander &Elizabeth Irwin

Richard Gachot Daniel &Lianna Gantt Judy &Jules Garel Barbara Gimbel Mildred &William L Gladstone Edmund Glass Arthur Goldstone & Susan Goldstone Tracy Goodnow Art&Antiques Barbara L. Gordon Donald J. Gordon Ellin 8c Baron J. Gordon Nanette &Irvin Greifir. Nancy &Tim Grumbacher Samuel L. Guillory Anton Haardt Gallery Margery Hadar David H.Haffenreffer Marion Harris &Jerry Rosenfeld Anne &John A.Hernnann Jr. Sanford L. Herzfeld 8c Audrey I. Dursht Lisa W.Hess Walter Hess Jr. Frederick D.Hill Arlene &Leonard Hochman Nancy Hoffman &Peter N.Greenwald John Horvitz Michael T Incantalupo Jill &Ken Iscol Theodore Israel Helen &Martin Katz Emily & Leslie Keno Phyllis Kind John J. Kirby Jr. Marcy &Michael Klein Barbara S. Klinger John Koegel, Esq. Phyllis Kossoff Betty 8c Arthur ICowaloff Peter &Jill Kraus Sue-Ellen &Mark Laracy Robert Lerch Nadine &Peter Levy Robert A. Lewis Shirley 8c Sherwin Lindenbaum Randall Lott &Nancy McCall Stephan Lowentheil Nancy B. Ma.ddrey Eric Maffei Esperanza G.Martinez Barbie &John A.Mayer Jr. Ray &Judy McCaskey Patricia 8c Samuel D.McCullough Dianne &James Meltzer Lisa &Buxton S. Midyette Jean Mitchell Bettina P. Murray Museum Association of New York Ann &Walter Nathan David Nichols Randy Nielsen Elin &Michael Nierenberg Cinnie &Stephen O'Brien Stephanie &Robert Olmsted Kenneth R.Page Elbert Parsons Jr. Paul V.Patemostro Betty Pecore Jeffrey Peek James Pesando Janet Petry &Angie Mills Campion A.Platt Harold Pote &Linda E.Johnson Rene Purse &Stuart Zweibel The Quilt Complex Raccoon Creek Antiques Catherine &F.F. Randolph Irene Reichert Paul Reiferson &Julie Spivack Alyce &Roger Rose Stuart Rosen Lois & Richard Rosenthal Toni Ross Amy & Richard Rubenstein Nancy &Frank E. Russell Jeanne &Robert Savitt

Nancy 8c Henry Schacht Thomas Schloss Margaret Schmidt Sonia &Carl J. Schmitt Sue Schuck Cipora 0.&Philip C.Schwartz Jean &Frederic Sharf Geri &J.Peter Skirlcanich Me Sklar-Weinstein Stephanie 8c Richard L. Solar Ann 8c Richard Solomon The Splendid Peasant Nancy &William Stahl Stark Carpet Lisa & Stuart Sternberg Carol MiLlson Studer Eleanor &John M.Sullivan Jr. Milton S.Teicher Thyssenlcrupp Elevator Corp.

Joan 8c Barry Tucker Utility Electric Co. Cynthia Vance Alfred G. Vanderbilt Karel F. Wahrsager Mary J. Wallach Pat 8c Donald Weeden Brenda Weeks-Nerz Amy &John S. Weinberg David Wheatcroft Lisa &David Wolfe Rosalie Wood John &J.Evelyn Yoder Robert Young Malcah Zeldis Susan 8c Louis Zinterhofer Marsha & Howard Zipser Jan &Barry L Zubrow Barbara &Benjamin Zucker

RECENT DONORS TO THE COLLECTIONS Judith Alexander Mr.8c Mrs. Darwin Bahm Mr.&Mrs.Henry Buchbindex Bliss Carnochan Joseph Bailey Cole Marcella Deysher Judy Doenias Ralph Esmerian Betsey &Sam Farber Jane Ferrara Mr.&,Mrs.James Goodman Ray Kass &Dr.Jerrie Pike Chapman Kelly Mrs.Jean B.ICrolik Carl Lobel]& Kate Stettner Leszek Macak Kenneth &Cherie Mason Richard McDermott Miller Cyril Irwin Nelson David Owsley Francis Portzline Mr.8c Mrs. Francis Fritz Randolph Jr. Suzanne Richie Stephanie Smither Maurice C.&Patricia L.Thompson Dix-al-v.6,Irwin &Mark Warren ICathyanne White Vicki &Larry VVinters Reverend Nancy Zala



artbrutcom by appointment


I he

Bells - 26x 43 inches, graphite, ink, crayon on paper


FALL 2004



EPSTEIN/POWELL 66 Grand St., New York, N.Y. 10013 by appointment 212-226-7316 email: •Justin McCarthy (oils and drawings)

• Mose Tolliver

•Jesse Aaron •Victor Joseph Gatto (estate) • Max Romain •Rex Clawson (representing)

• and many other folk/outsider artists

•S.L. Jones ('81-'83 drawings) "Garden of Eden" Rex Clawson, 2004, 18x24, ink/marker on paper

• Old Ironsides Pry




The ADA/Historic Deerfield Antiques Show Allan Katz Americana American Primitive Gallery/Aarne Anton Art &Antiques The Ames Gallery Andover Fabrics Anton Haardt Gallery At Home Gallery/Green Hill Center for North Carolina Art Authentic Designs Barn Star Productions Berenberg Gallery Beverly Kaye Bill Miller Cat's Cradle Cavin-Morris Gallery Christie's Classic Rug Collection,Inc. Coreen Riley/R. Ege Antiques Country Folk Art Festival Craig Farrow Cabinetmaker David Wheatcroft Antiques Epstein/Powell Gallery Fleisher/011man Gallery Forbes &Turner Galerie Bonheur Garde Rail Gallery Garth's Goodrich &Company Promotions,Inc. Hancock Shaker Village

108 FALL 2004


97 9 10 19 78 83 22 104 99 103 107 89 23 18 25 101 93 78 98 2 108 75 15,17 106 37 107 73 77 28

Indigo Arts Intuit:The Center for Intuitive and Outsider Art J. Crist Gallery and Art Services Jackie Radwin Antiques Kentucky Folk Art Center Laura Fisher Antique Quilts & Americana Lindsay Gallery/Austin T Miller Mary Michael Shelley The Mennello Museum of American Folk Art Northeast Auctions Olde Hope Antiques,Inc. Raw Vision Ricco/Maresca Gallery Robert Cargo Folk Art Gallery Running Press Russell Bowman Art Advisory Select Southern Pottery Sidney Gecker American Folk Art Slotin Folk Art Auction Stella Rubin Stella Show Mgmt.Co. Susan Slyman Thomas Schwenke Inc. Thurston Nichols American Antiques Trotta-Bono The University of North Carolina Press Walters-Benisek Art &Antiques W.E.Channing & Co. Wilton Historical Society

103 94 3 back cover 83 27 21 100 16 inside back cover

1 82 inside front cover 100 24 37 105 11 36 24 104 101 5 29 4 105 6 12 79

Northeast Auctions A Leader in Folk Art


M 17 ttuttlA 11E

Ronald Bourgeault, Auctioneer 93 Pleasant Street, Portsmouth, NH 03801 Tel:(603) 433-8400


JACKIE RADWIN ricatifeee4 Specializing in American Painted Furniture and Folk Art

Theorem Painting on Velvet. Rare appearance of early splint basket. Original frame backed with 1815 Connecticut newspaper. 14" x 15 11/2"framed. Outstanding set of six New England Paint decorated Windsor Chairs. Grape and leaf decoration over smoke decorated background. Original condition. Seat height, 18".

San Antonio, Texas Tel: 210.82-1.7711

By appointment

Fax: 210.930.5452 Web site:

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