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SUPERB EARLY EXAMPLE OF FLYING HORSE WEATHERVANE 24" in length, superb patina and the best of its kind. Ca. 1865.

17 East 96th Street, New York, New York 10128(212)348-5219 Gallery hours are from 1:00 pm until 6:00 pm,Tuesday through Saturday. Other hours are available by appointment.

Amt Austin T. Miller

Mines, 31ttr. 68ington Roat

alum. s, Ohio 43085 • (614) 848-4080


A rare Pennsylvania bird mobile comprised of thirteen wonderful stuffed cloth birds, each unique and sporting paper wings and tails. The birds' lengths range from 41/2"to 51/2". Circa 1850. Provenance: The Isabel Robertson Scott Collection. Reference: The Fall 1993 Folk Art magazine pages 38-43.

011r,<-7 EST. 1964 Box 20835 â&#x20AC;˘ New York, NY 10011 (212) 744-6171 â&#x20AC;˘ Fax (212) 647-0562 By Appointment

James Bard (181i 189-) cc Gi en Cove ( 52" x 30") Inscribed: -Thomas Collver Builder N.Y. 1854" Signed: -Drawn & Painted by James Ilard 18i5 162 Perry Street-

We are always interested in acquiring the finest examples of 19th & 20th century marine paintings and folk art with specific interest in tobacconist figures & folk sculpture.

Special Interests: William Edmondson, Wood Gay/or c.'7 Emile Branchard


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Introducing fourteen exciting new additions. WOODARD WEAVE CLASSIC AMERICAN WOVEN CARPETS, AREA RUGS AND RUNNERS IN AUTHENTIC HISTORIC PATTERNS AND COLORS. 799 Madison Avenue New York, N.Y. 10021 •(212)988-2906•

We are always interested in purchasing exceptional Quilts Photographs returned promptly. Telephone responses welcome




Cover Detail ofSUBWAY RIDERS; Ralph Fasanella; New York, New York; 1950; oil on canvas; 28 x 60". Collection of Museum ofAmerican Folk Art, gift of Ralph and Eva Fasanella.

Folk Art is published four times a year by the Museum of American Folk Art,61 West 62nd Street, NY,NY 10023, Tel. 212/977-7170, Fax 212/977-8134. Prior to Fall 1992, Volume 17, Number 3, Folk Art was published as The Clarion. Annual subscription rate for members is included in membership dues. Copies are mailed to all members. Single copy $6.00. Published and copyright 1995 by the Museum of American Folk Art,61 West 62nd Street, NY,NY 10023. The cover and contents of Folk Art are fully protected by copyright and may not be reproduced in any manner without written consent. Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the Museum of American Folk Art. Unsolicited manuscripts or photographs should be accompanied by return postage. Folk Art assumes no responsibility for the loss or damage of such materials. Change of address: Please send both old and new addresses and allow five weeks for change. Advertising: Folk Art accepts advertisements only from advertisers whose reputation is recognized in the trade, but despite the care with which the advertising department screens photographs and texts submitted by its advertisers, it cannot guarantee the unquestionable authenticity of objects or quality of services advertised in its pages or offered for sale by its advertisers, nor can it accept responsibility for misunderstandings that may arise from the purchase or sale of objects or services advertised in its pages. The Museum is dedicated to the exhibition and interpretation of folk art and it is a violation of its principles to be involved in or to appear to be involved in the sale of works of art. For this reason, the Museum will not knowingly accept advertisements for Folk Art that illustrate or describe objects that have been exhibited at the Museum within one year of placing an advertisement.



































his issue's cover story,"Ralph Fasanella: The Making of a WorkingClass Artist," written by Paul S. D'Ambrosio, Director of Exhibitions and Folk Art at the New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, traces Fasanella's early involvement with the American labor unions of the 1930s and 1940s and his inevitable awakening as an artist. Full of verve and grit, and illustrated with vivid images of the artist's work,D'Ambrosio's essay is as compelling as it is informative. The publication of this essay coincides with an important gift to the Museum of Fasanella's painting Subway Riders, given by the artist and his wife with the unique provision that it be installed and permanently exhibited in a New York City subway station. For more information, see page 32. The Museum is also proud to have in its collection Fasanella's Iceman Crucified #3. This powerful painting was given to the Museum in 1991 by Mr. and Mrs. Maurice Thompson. Gifts to the collection—and therefore to the public—are always a cause for celebration. In her essay "Expressions of Trust: Recent Gifts to the Museum of American Folk Art," the Museum's curator, Stacy C. Hollander, acknowledges our most recent donors. Due to space constraints, she could not, of course, describe all the wonderful works that have come into the collection over the past few years, but she has highlighted and illustrated some very interesting ones. The Museum's current exhibition,"Victorian Vernacular: The American Show Quilt," features splendid quilts from our collection, partly the result of a number of generous gifts. This exhibit demonstrates just one aspect of the many quilt traditions recognized and preserved by the Museum. A very different quilting tradition has grown out of the serendipitous coming together of Hmong immigrant needlewomen from Laos and American Amish and Mennonite quilt- ICEMAN CRUCIFIED #3; Ralph Fasanella; New York, New York; 1956; oil on canvas; 48/ 3 4 373 / 4". Collection of makers in Pennsylvania. In her role as the Museum of American Folk Art, gift of Mr. and Mrs. program coordinator of an English as a Maurice Thompson, 1991.11.1. Second Language program in Lancaster County, Jean Henry worked to exhibit Hmong needlework, as well as to teach the Hmong English, math, and marketing skills. In her essay,"Hmong and Pennsylvania German Textiles: Needlework Traditions in Transition in Lancaster County," Henry explores this successful and still evolving collaboration and provides fascinating photographs of both traditional Hmong needlework and cooperatively made quilts. If your summer plans include a trip to New York City, I urge you to visit the Museum's exhibition of Victorian show quilts, which will be on view through September 10. If your wanderings take you to Lancaster Country, Pennsylvania,then do stop in at Mao Moua's shop in Intercourse to see, and perhaps to purchase, a piece of traditional Hmong appliqué or a whole "Amish" quilt. Until the Fall issue then, I wish you a relaxed and healthy summer.



FOLK ART Rosemary Gabriel Editor and Publisher Jeffrey Kibler, The Magazine Group,Inc. Design Tanya Heinrich Production Editor Benjamin J. Boyington Copy Editor Marilyn Brechner Advertising Manager Craftsmen Litho Printers MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART Administration Gerard C. Wertkin Director Karen S. Schuster Deputy Director for Planning and Administration Riccardo Salmona Deputy Director for External Relations Joan M. Walsh Controller Helene J. Ashner Assistant to the Director Jeffrey Grand Senior Accountant Christopher Giuliano Accountant Carlos E. Ubarri Mailroom and Reception Alphonzo J. Ford Mailroom and Reception Collections a Exhibitions Stacy C. Hollander Curator Ann-Marie Reilly Registrar Judith Gluck Steinberg Assistant Registrar/ Coordinator, Traveling Exhibitions Pamela Brown Gallery Manager Danielle Schwartz Weekend Gallery Manager Gina Bianco Consulting Conservator Elizabeth V. Warren Consulting Curator Howard Lanser Consulting Exhibition Designer Kenneth R. Bing Security Departments Beth Bergin Membership Director Marie S. DiManno Director ofMuseum Shops Susan Flamm Public Relations Director Alice J. Hoffman Director oflicensing Valerie K. Longwood Director ofDevelopment Janey Fire Photographic Services Chris Cappiello Membership Associate Maryann Warakomski Assistant Director ofLicensing Jennifer A. Waters Development Associate Claudia Andrade Manager ofInformation Systems, Retail Operations Catherine Barreto Membership Assistant Edith C. Wise Consulting Librarian Eugene P. Sheehy Volunteer Librarian Rita Keckeissen Volunteer Librarian Katya Ullmann Library Assistant Programs Lee Kogan Director, Folk Art Institute/Senior Research Fellow Barbara W.Cate Educational Consultant Dr. Marilynn Karp Director, New York University Master's and Ph.D. Program in Folk Art Studies Dr. Judith Reiter Weissman Coordinator, New York University Program Arlene Hochman Coordinator, Docent Programs Museum Shop Staff Managers: Dorothy Gargiulo, Caroline Hohenrath, Rita Pollitt, Marion Whitley; Mail Order: Beverly McCarthy; Security: Bienvenido Medina; Volunteers: Marie Anderson, Helen Barer, Olive Bates, Mary Campbell, Sally Frank, Jennifer Gerber, Millie Gladstone, Elli Gordon, Edith Gusoff, Ann Hannon, Bernice Hoffer, Elizabeth Howe,Joan Langston, Annette Levande, Arleen Luden, Katie McAuliffe, Nancy Mayer,Theresa Naglack, Pat Pancer, Marie Peluso, Judy Rich, Frances Rojack, Phyllis Selnick, Myra Shaskan, Lola Silvergleid, Maxine Spiegel, Mary Wamsley Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shops 62 West 50th Street, New York, NY 10112-1507 212/247-5611 Two Lincoln Square(Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th) New York, NY 10023-6214 212/496-2966

Tig( r

and Bed e, I)S9, mixed media rm masmille, 42" II i 4S" II

A retrospective celebrating the 100th Anniversary of the birth of William L. Hawkins September 14th through October 14th, 1995 Catalogue available

RICCO/MARESCA GALLERY 152 WOOSTER STREET, NEW YORK, NY 10012, 212 780 0071, (FAX) 212 780 0076

ruithh ,111111.1

lezibrure of(3°9(.0 al0,i;ttonuliounttan:Perri)Ir.Slark thâ&#x20AC;˘dAi01891.

F. A. Brader Ferdinand A Brader, born in 1833, immigrated to Pennsylvania and then on to Ohio. His Ohio drawings were done during the decade 1885-95. Brader's drawings are prized for their large scale, fine execution and warm, detailed transcriptions of rural 19th-century American life. The drawing above, of the Residence of Joseph and Susan Bowman, is approximately 52" x 34" and is in excellent condition. It is dated 1891 and numbered 779.

DAVID WHEATCROFT 220 East Main Street Westborough, Massachusetts 01581 508-366-1723

MAIN STREET ANTIQUES and ART Colleen and Louis Picek Folk Art and Country Americana (319) 643-2065 110 West Main, Box 340 West Branch, Iowa 52358 On Interstate 80

Send a self-addressed stamped envelope for our monthly Folk-Art and Americana price list

Ginger Young Gallery Southern Self-Taught Art

Contemporary bottle cap figures and critters.

By appointment 919.932.6003 Works by more than four dozen artists, including Minnie Black • Rudolph Valentino Bostic Tubby Brown Richard Burnside • Henry Ray Clark Patrick Davis • Brian Dowdall • Howard Finster Lonnie Holley • James Harold Jennings • Anderson Johnson • Chris Lewallen Woodie Long • Jake McCord • R.A. Miller • Sarah Rakes • Harold Rittenberry • Royal Robertson • Sultan Rogers Jimmie Lee Sudduth • Mote Tolliver • Fred Webster Myrtice West • Knox Wilkinson Jr.

For a free video catalogue or a complete price list please call or write: Ginger Young Gallery 5802 Brisbane Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 Phone/Fax 919.932.6003

Left. Wheel of Karma, by Jewell Starday Housepaint and glitter on found board, 16"x 20", 1995




SELECTED COLLECTIONS/EXHIBITIONS: Collection l'Art Brut, Lausanne Musee Adzak, Paris Museum of American Folk Art, New York Outsider Archive, London


L B LAC KMAN GALLERY 6909 MELROSE AVENUE LOS ANGELES, CA 90038 2 1 3 • 9 33 • 4096 FAX • 9 3 3 • 1 7 9 2

Important American Furniture, Silver, Folk Art and Decorative Arts Auction to be held on Wednesday,June 21 at 10 am in our galleries at 502 Park Avenue, NewYork,NY 10022. Viewing begins June 17. For further information,contact John Hays,Susan Kleckner or Margot Rosenberg at 212 546 1181.To purchase catalogue #8208F,please call 800 395 6300. A needlework picture by Alethea Stiles,Woodstock,Connecticut, 1762. Estimate: $50,000-80,000. Principal auctioneer Christopher Burge #761543





he complex, powerful artwork of Bessie Harvey (1929-1994) was selected for this year's Biennial at the Whitney Museum of American Art. It is less remarkable that sculpture, rooted in the folk traditions of the rural South,should be included in this major presentation of contemporary art than that more than two decades have passed since this last occurred. In 1973, the spare, iconic woodcarvings of Edgar Tolson (1904-1984) were chosen for the Biennial; Tolson was the first folk artist to be so recognized. However late this recognition was in coming, it is still gratifying to all of us in the folk art field. Indeed, there is evidence that mainstream curators, critics, and scholars are increasingly ready to consider folk art seriously as an integral part of American cultural history. Recent critical reviews of the Museum's exhibitions underscore that this message is beginning to resonate in the community of art scholarship. In his review of"Minnie Evans: Artist," Holland Cotter, writing in The New York Times on March 3, 1995, suggested that the work of Minnie Evans and artists like her was "intrinsic" to an understanding of the "vast eclectic puzzle" of American art. Indeed, if one of the aims of the Museum has been to promote serious critical responses to its exhibitions, it is clearly succeeding. Holland Cotter, Grace Glueck, Michael Kimmelman, Rita Reif, and Roberta Smith, to mention several of New York's most prominent writers on art, have acclaimed the Museum's exhibitions in their reviews. There is no question that folk art is moving to center stage. It has been my special pleasure in this quarterly column to welcome new members of the Museum's Board of Trustees. The Museum is blessed with an exceedingly supportive Board, which is a source of institutional strength and stability. In their quarterly meeting in March, the Trustees elected Susan Gutfreund to the Board. She and her husband, John, became interested in American folk art during summer sojourns on Nantucket Island. Mrs. Gutfreund has established an enviable record as a leader in several social-service organizations, including the Citizens Committee for New York City and the American Suicide Prevention Foundation. She also has taken an active role in cultural organizations here and abroad, including The Metropolitan Museum of Art and the National Academy of Design. I should like to extend the gratitude of all of us at the Museum to Susan Gutfreund for accepting this important responsibility. On April 10, 1995, the Museum inaugurated its latest exhibition, "Victorian Vernacular: The American Show Quilt," which will be on view until September 10, 1995. This wonderful exhibition demonstrates the influence of Japanese design on the quilts and related decorative arts of the late Victorian period. The presentation is endlessly fascinating. All of us at the Museum salute the Museum's consulting curator, Elizabeth V. Warren, and Sharon Eisenstat, who jointly organized the exhibition. Speaking of quilts, the Museum recently received a gift of an especially colorful quilt(1860-1880) with a distinctive sunflower motif. Trustee Frances S. Martinson and her husband, Paul, longtime and very generous supporters of the Museum, were the donors of this splendid

SUNFLOWERS AND DOUBLE HEARTS QUILT; quiltmaker unidentified; possibly New England; 1860-1880; appliqued cotton; 85 91. Museum of American Folk Art, gift of Frances and Paul Martinson, 1994.02.01.


work of art. I should like to extend my warm gratitude to them on behalf of the entire Museum family. In the Spring issue of Folk Art, I wrote of the loss of a dear friend and former colleague, Lillian Grossman. Sincere thanks are due to Evelyn and John J. Bauer, Mollie Bellin, and Catherine Quinn, who joined other friends in making generous donations to the Museum in Lillian's memory. One of the ways in which the Museum fulfills its educational mandate is through free public lectures for adults and a wide variety of programming for children. Free public programming at the Museum is supported by generous grants from NYNEX and the New York State Council on the Arts. I am delighted to acknowledge with sincere thanks the support of the Museum's colleagues at NYNEX and NYSCA. Among recent educational programs,I recall with delight the more than one hundred children gathered at the Museum around Mary Lou Lallis, a one-hundred-year-old storyteller from Greenville, South Carolina, who held her audience spellbound as she wove tales for them that were drawn from the wellsprings of her African-American heritage. On April 11, the entire Museum family came together for a Benefit Country Auction held at Sotheby's here in New York. It was a splendid, sparkling event in every respect. The evening is covered in this issue's "Museum News," so it remains for me to add my personal appreciation to all of you who participated so generously. Thank you not only for making this special event one of the most successful in the history of the Museum but for your caring commitment and friendship















new hours:

tuesday — saturday

11:00 — 6:00 pm

660 N. Larchmont Blvd.

Los Angeles, CA 90004


[fax] 213.467.5782

Robert Cargo

FOLK ART GALLERY Contemporary Folk Art • Haitian Spirit Flags Southern, Folk, and African-American Quilts

Joseph Hardin (1921-1989) 1 2 inches, ca. 1987-88. Top: Untitled/Two Women, 16 x 18/ 2 x 12. 1989. / Untitled/Woman in Grass Skirt Dancing, 211

2 x 9, 1989. / Bottom: Untitled/Woman Dancing, 191 Untitled/Two Women, 14 x 17, ca. 1987-88.

2 inches to vertical (first) and 8 inches to horizontal measurements / Mixed media on matboard. Above dimensions are unframed images. Add 81 for framed sizes. Joseph Hardin is included in the Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century American Folk Art and Artists, 1990; Unsigned, Unsung .. . Whereabouts Unknown, 1993; Passionate Visions of the American South, 1993; 20th Century American Folk, Self Taught, and Outsider Art, 1993; Revelations: Alabama's Visionary Folk Artists, 1994; and Folk Erotica, 1994.

2314 Sixth Street, Downtown, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35401 • Home Phone 205-758-8884 Open weekends only and by appointment • Saturday 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. and Sunday 2 to 5 p.m.




26" x 40"


SARA GANT 594 Broadway #205 • New York, NY 10012 212-966-1530 • Monday—Saturday 11-6 summer hours


Revivals! Diverse Traditions: The History of Twentieth-Century American Craft, 1920-1945 Janet Kardon, editor Harry N. Abrams,Inc., Publishers, in association with the American Craft Museum New York 1994 303 pages, color and black-andwhite illustrations $49.50 hardcover What's this? A catalog that takes up the challenge of separating folk art from craft? That's what's hinted at in the lead essay in Revivals! Diverse Traditions: The History of Twentieth-Century American Craft, 1920-1945. Revivals!is the catalog for the second exhibition in an ambitious ten-year program of eight exhibitions that will survey the entire history of American crafts in the twentieth century. Organized by the American Craft Museum,this landmark project was initiated by Janet Kardon, director of the museum and editor of the Revivals! catalog. The catalog(and exhibition) underscores the presence of other traditions besides the Colonial Revival in the period between the two World Wars. Asserting that the nation was evolving culturally under the influence of its Native American, Hispanic, and AfricanAmerican ethnic roots and by specific regional styles(Southern Appalachian crafts, for instance, are studied in depth) as well as by the country's imported East Coast and predominantly English heritage, Revivals! is an important step in appreciating the richness of the American experience through the arts. The volume also contains a wellresearched resource list that will

be required reading for every researcher in the craft field. Because many of these areas impinge upon folk art, researchers in that field are sure to use the list as well. In her introductory essay, "Within Our Shores: Diverse Craft Revivals and Survivals," Kardon defines craft objects as originating in function and being created by trained professionals or by those who carry on family workshops. The craft "artist" is "aware of the historical continuum of craft" and "is often committed to extending and expanding the continuum in inventive ways," she says. She falls back on Holger Cahill in defining folk art as non-academic and of the common people. Of course, that is what folklorists think of as "folk art," but it is the art of the uncommon,self-taught man or woman,from within or without the craft tradition, that most interests art historians like myself. Also,few art historians are apt to agree with Kardon's statement that "most[folk artists] remain anonymous," especially in the twentieth century. Many of the craftspersons included in the catalog by name,such as the Hopi potter Nampeyo, writer° Jose Dolores Lopez, and black Arkansas quilter Anna Pennington Sampson, are claimed by them as folk artists. After mentioning that "Separating folk art from craft art is particularly problematic in the quarter century under discussion" and noting that the label "folk art" might be applied to objects in the show and that "it is appropriate to also examine what may be described as folk art, because its presence influenced the historical development continued on page 48

POWELL EPSTE1N/ York, N.Y. 10013 22 Wooster St., New

By Appointment(212)226-7316 Jesse Aaron David Butler Rex Clawson

Vestie Davis

Mr. Eddy Antonio Esteves Roy Ferdinand Howard Finster Victor Joseph Gatto (Estate) S.L. Jones Lawrence Lebduska Justin McCarthy Peter Minchell Inez Nathaniel Old Ironsides Pry Popeye Reed

Max Romain

Bill Roseman (Estate) Jack Savitsky Isaac Smith Clarence Stringfield Mose Tolliver

Chief Willey

George Williams Luster Willis ... and others

Rex Clawson (1930-?) "Athletic Hero with Groupies" enamel on board, 14 x 17, 1969

Clementine Hunter (1887-1988) Collection includes: J.B. Murray, Howard Finster, David Butler, Sam Doyle, Nellie Mae Rowe, Mary T. Smith, Jimmy Sudduth, James "Son" Thomas, James Harold Jennings, Robertson, Royal Mose Tolliver, Lonnie Holley, B.F. Perkins, Luster Willis, Raymond Coins, Charlie Lucas, Junior Lewis, William Dawson, LeRoy Almon, Sr., M.G. 50 Jones, "Artist Chuckle" Williams, Ike Morgan, Herbert Singleton, Burgess Dulaney, Dwight Mackintosh, Sarah Rakes, S.L. Jones, Rhinestone Cowboy and others.

GILLEY6 "Porte Bouquet" 16" x 20" Oil On Canvas Board 1962


8750 Florida Blvd. Baton Rouge, LA 70815 (504) 922-9225


American Folk Art Sidney Gecker


226 West 21st Street, New York, N.V. 10011 •(212) 929-8769 Appointment Suggested Subject to prior sale


18th and 19th Century American Folk Art




Photo: F & E Schmidt

American Folk Art and 18th and 19th C. Original Paint Country Furniture

Martin and Kitty Jacobs Route 23 So. Egremont, MA 01258 (413) 528-5755

Gaferie Bonheur Laurie Carntody Since 1980

InternationalForkArt 9243 Clayton Road

St. Louis, MO 63124 By Appointment 314-993-9851 Far 314-993-4790 1-8W-763-6105 Ralph Auf der Heide Milton Bond CISCO, Paraguay Jeannette Carballo, Costa Rica Rita Hicks Davis Mamie Deschillle Brian Dowdall Esperanza Espinoza, Nicaragua Amos Ferguson, Bahamas Katarzyna Gawlowa, Poland Dora Gonzalez, Costa Rica Haitian Art 11 Masters Edwin A. Johnson Steven J. Kelley Georges Liautaud, Haiti Wood's Long Mexican Artifacts

R.A. Miller Justin McCarthy Rafael Mona, Dominican Rep. Janet Munro NIKIFOR, Poland Antoine Oleyant, Haiti Frank Pickle Jack SavItsky Lorenzo Scott Jose Antonio da Silva, Brazil Thury, Hungary Horaclo Valdez Voodoo Flags & Bottles, Haiti Fred Webster L. Wiecek, Poland Malcah Zeldls (and, many others)

'Angel de Corpus" Jeannette Carballo Costa Rica 1992 31'x 39'




C.P. SMITH; lames Bard; New York, New York; 1854; oil on canvas; 27/ 3 4 • 48/ 1 4 ". Collection of the New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York.

Bards On View at Cooperstown James Bard's 1854 painting of the Hudson River towboat C.P. Smith will be displayed as part of a folk art exhibition at the New York State Historical Association's Fenimore House Museum in Cooperstown. Contrasting folk art of the 19th and 20th centuries, "Worlds of Art...Worlds Apart,"

Craft and Folk Art Museum Reopens The Los Angeles Craft and Folk Art Museum opened its new facility on May 14, 1995, with "Points of View: Collectors and Collecting," an exhibition showcasing important collections of 20th-century craft and folk art. This exhibition, which is on view through September 7, features 200 pieces of Mexican folk art from the collection of Ted and Carolyn Warmbold,including pottery, woodcarving, weaving, metalwork, and papier-mâché. The museum is also producing "The Language of Objects," a multimedia database designed to inspire a cultural dialogue that questions the often arbitrary and confining categories of fine, popular, folk, ethnic, mainstream, and outsider art. For more information, call 213/937-5544.


which opens July 15, will feature this recent acquisition as well as more than 250 works from the permanent collection. New York's maritime heritage is also represented by the Historical Association's other James Bard painting, a portrait of the steamboat Niagara completed in 1852. The mu-

seum is also opening a new American Indian Wing that will showcase The Eugene V. and Clare E. Thaw Collection of American Indian Art. For more information, please call 607/547-1400.

Visions from the Left Coast "Visions from the Left Coast: a film and video California Self-Taught Artists," series, field trips to an exhibition focusing on the environmental sites, role the indigenous environment and a symposium on plays in the formulation of artisOctober 7, with panelists tic vision, will be on view at the to include Roger Cardinal, Santa Barbara Contemporary Bonnie Grossman, and Seymour Arts Forum in Santa Barbara, Rosen. For more information, Calif., from August 26 through please call 805/966-5373. October 21. Represented will be the works of nearly 30 recognized and recently discovered California self-taught artists, including Calvin and Ruby Black, Sanford Darling, Dwight Mackintosh, Alex Maldonado, Louis Monza, Tressa Prisbey, Martin Ramirez, A.G. Rizzoli, Simon Rodia, Jon Serl, and John UNTITLED (from House of a Thousand Paintings); Sowell. Organized by cocurators Sanford Darling; Santa Barbara, California; c. 1960; Ginny Brush and Fran Puccinelhousepaint on board; 10 • 18. Collection of Kral, li, the exhibition will be augSpace/Double K Gallery. mented by an illustrated catalog,

Jerry Coker Masks in Arkansas The Arkansas Arts Center in Little Rock, Ark., is presenting "Face Value: The Identity Masks of Jerry Coker"from June 2 through July 30. Born in DeWitt, Ark., in 1938, Coker creates lifesize masks and sculptures with an emphasis on found metals and materials reflecting the contemporary environment. Culled from his own personal experiences and surroundings, the artist's distinct imagery is a visual record of his years spent in rural and urban Arkansas. The incised names and occupations of people he has known are fundamental elements of the work. This traveling exhibition is accompanied by a 68-page four-color catalog by Marion Harris, with a commentary by Roger Cardinal. For more information, please call 501/372-4000. LANIER; Jerry W. Coker; On Witt, Arkansas; 1992; metal on wood; 16 • 9". Collection of R. and G. Manney.

Ellis Ruley National Tour Opens images from popular culture. A major traveling exhibition of Additional venues include The the work of Ellis Ruley(1882Corcoran Gallery of Art, Wash1959)opened on April 22 at the ington, D.C.; the New Orleans High Museum of Art Folk Art Museum of Art; the Wadsworth and Photography Galleries in Atheneum, Hartford, Conn.; the Atlanta, where it will remain on view through July 22. "Discover- San Diego Museum of Art(the organizing institution); the Porting Ellis Ruley" will be at the land Art Museum,Portland, Museum of American Folk Art Oreg.; and the Detroit Institute of from March 2 through April 28, Arts. The exhibition tour is made 1996. possible by Ford Motor CompaAfricanself-taught Ruley, a ny. For more information, please American artist from Norwich, call the High Museum at Conn., created a substantial body 404/577-6940. of easel paintings of exotic landscapes populated with animals or figures, many influenced by

Vermont Furniture, Vermont Inventions information, please call The BenThe wide range of stylistic influnington Museum at 802/447ences on Vermont cabinetmaking 1571 or the Shelburne Museum at revealed is and furniture design 802/985-3346. in "The Best the Country An exhibition of intricate and Affords: Vermont Furniture beautifully crafted patent models 1765-1850," at The Bennington is on view at the Vermont HistorMuseum in Bennington, Vt., ical Society in Montpelier, Vt., through July 30. The collection through October."Models of includes formal styles as well as Hope: Inventions by Vermonters" brilliantly painted examples and pieces made with local maple and also includes original patent papers, working drawings, adverbirch woods. The exhibition, which will travel to the Shelburne tisements, and sales models dating from 1790 to the early 20th Museum,Shelburne, Vt.,from century. For more information, is 23, October through 13 August please call 802/828-2291. accompanied by a 176-page catalog with color and black-andwhite illustrations. For more







OnJNasThD 1"111,110



Photo Ben Blackwell


JUNGLE GIRL AND LION; Ellis Ruley; Norwich, Conn.; n.d.; oil-based house paint on poster board; 22 • 28. Collection of George H. Meyer.

A.G. Rizzoli, S-5, The "Sayanpeau," 1936, colored ink on rag paper, 36" x 24"


Alex A. Maldonado,Execution of Three Brave Men, 1969, oil on canvas, 18" x 24"



Dealers in exceptional self-taught, visionary, naive, and outsider art. • Bonnie Grossman, Director • 2661 Cedar Street Berkeley, California 94708 Tel: 510/845-4949 Fax: 510/845-6219



WE= 4 Joseph Yoakum in Chicago "Force of a Dream: The Drawings of Joseph E. Yoakum" will be on view at The Art Institute of Chicago Gallery through August 6. Motivated by a dream and preoccupied almost exclusively with landscape, the widely acclaimed artist produced a distinct body of luminescent drawings precisely labeled in neat script, recalling his many years of travel. Hills, forests, canyons, mountains, and water, emphatically rendered in chalks or colored pencils and rubbed to a smooth sheen, are punctuated with sharp striations in ballpoint pen and carbon transfer. The exhibition consists of more than 100 drawings from the

MOUNT MOWBULLAN IN DIVIDING RANGE NEAR BRISBANE, AUSTRALIA, MARCH 28, 1970; Joseph E. Yoakum; Chicago; 1970; red fiber-tipped pen, blue ballpoint pen, colored pencil, and colored chalk on paper; 19 x 11. Collection of The Art Institute of Chicago.

bequest of Whitney Halstead. For more information, please call 312/443-3600.

Kinney Exhibition and Mississippi Delta Photographs "Slow Time: Works by Charley, drawings by Noah's wife, Hazel, Noah and Hazel Kinney" will be who is continuing the family's on view at the Kentucky Folk Art artistic tradition. Center at Morehead State Univer"Sacred Space: Photographs sity in Morehead, Ky.,from June from the Mississippi Delta" will 6 through September 1. Born in be on view at the Folk Art Center Vanceburg, Ky.,in rural Lewis from September 1 through SepCounty, Charley Kinney tember 30. This exhibition of (1906-1991), a painter, and Noah Tom Rankin photographs of Kinney (1912-1991), a woodplaces of worship and baptismal carver, lived and worked together ceremonies is accompanied by an on the family farm, where they 84-page illustrated catalog. For later turned their attention to more information, please call making art and music. The exhi606/783-2204. bition also includes paintings and

North Carolina Newsletter Woman in a Cacoon, 46" x 20"



The North Carolina Folk Art Society publishes Voices, an annual 20-page newsletter containing lively and informative articles, book reviews, and commentaries on Southern traditional folk art, decorative art, material culture, and contemporary folk art and artists. All contributions are supplied by members of the

Society, which was established in 1988 and meets four times a year in conjunction with exhibitions and related events. Individual membership is available for $20; membership for couples costs $30. For information or to join, please write the North Carolina Folk Art Society, 141 Norwood Avenue, Asheville, NC 28804.

COVERLET; John B. Welty; Boonsboro, Maryland; 1842; 2 • 30". / cotton and wool; 351 Collection of Columbus Museum of Art, Columbus, Ohio.

it oftAtlanta ESTABLISHED 1973


Coverlets in Columbus More than 60 woven bedcovers are on view at the Columbus Museum of Art in Columbus, Ohio, through August 6, 1995. "Weaving a Legacy: 19th-Century American Coverlets from the Stuck Collection" explores the coverlet's significance in the cultural history of the United States by providing evidence of weavers and patronage in a given community, migration patterns of various ethnic groups, and the range and dissemination of design motifs. The figured and fancy

coverlets included illustrate the rise of the professional weaver from 1830 to 1880—made possible by the jacquard loom attachment—and represent the transition from hand looms to textile mills. The exhibition, organized by guest curator Dr. Clarita Anderson, is accompanied by a fully illustrated 330-page catalog. For more information, call 614/221-6801.

BENCH WORKERS; Ralph Fasanella; New York, New York; 1954; paint and grease on wood; 28 • 60. Collection of Eva Fasanella.

Working Folk in San Francisco of numerous occupations are seen Many folk artists come to art late in life after years of hard physical through the eyes of Andrew labor."Working Folk," organized Block, Ralph Fasanella, Howard Finster, Clementine Hunter, Alex by curator John Turner, is an exhibition reflecting this familiar- Maldonado, Sultan Rogers, and Jack Savitsky, among others. For ity with hard work, and is on more information, please call view at the San Francisco Craft 415/775-0990. and Folk Art Museum from June 3 through August 6. Depictions

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Compelling works on paper by Johann Fischer, August Walla, and other artists of Gugging will be on view at the Philadelphia Museum of Art through August 13. "The House of Art': Drawings and Prints by Patients at the Austrian State Psychiatric Institute" features 60 drawings produced during the 1970s and 1980s by nine artist-patients at the mental hospital outside Vienna. Encouraged by Dr. Leo Navratil, a staff psychiatrist at Gugging interested in the correlation between psychosis and creativity, the artists are supplied with materials and special attention in a compound on the hospital's grounds. For more information, please call 215/684-7860. 22"h x 15"w x 9"d

POPEYE THE SAILOR signed and dated SILVIO P ZORATTI 1967 painted and carved wood

J.E. PORCELLI AMERICAN FOLK ART and AMERICANA P.O. Box 20333 Shaker Heights, Ohio 44120 216/932-9087 Appointment and Shows


Sandpaper Paintings "Marble Dust and Magic Lakes: American Sandpaper Paintings from the Collection of Randall and Tanya Holton" will be on view at the Museum of our National Heritage in Lexington, Mass., through October 1. The exhibition consists of 75 charcoal-and-chalk-on-sandpaper works depicting biblical, histori-

DIE KOESTLICHEN ERDBEEREN; Johann Fischer; Gugging, Austria; 1986; graphite and crayon on wove paper; 15/ 3 4 11 / 3 46. Collection of Philadelphia Museum of Art, gift of Henry and Maria Feiwel.

cal, memorial, and allegorical scenes. Known as sandpaper paintings, works of this kind were produced by the thousands in the mid-19th century and have had an enduring impact, both as folk art and as cultural artifacts. For more information, please call 617/861-6559.

Corrections The curator of "Transmitters: The Isolate Artist in America" was mistakenly identified in "Spinning in a Lonely Orbit: The Work of Drossos P. Skyllas"(Winter 1994/95, Vol. 19, No.4, p. 35). The 1981 exhibition was actually organized by Elsa Weiner [Longhaused.

The photography credit was inadvertently omitted for the illustrations accompanying "'Given By Inspiration': Shaker Drawings and Manuscripts in the American Society for Psychical Research"(Spring 1995, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 56-62). The photographs were taken by Gavin Ashworth.

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Ralph Fasanella, 1972

The Making of a Working Class Artist





I 1



ince his "discovery" in 1972, Ralph Fasanella has inspired a prodigious amount of prose concerning his life and career. His one-man exhibition at Automation House in October 1972 and the landmark coffeetable book Fasanella's City, by Patrick Watson (1973), were followed over the years by scores of interviews and feature stories for newspapers and magazines. In the wake of this sustained media attention, undocumented biographical details have been accepted without much scrutiny and Fasanella's paintings have been discussed without any sense of chronological development. This article initiates the critical re-examination of this major folk artist by exploring his early career in the 1940s, an aspect of his life and work that is rarely acknowledged and little understood.



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ALTAR New York, New York 1947 Oil on canvas 30 20" Collection of Gina Fasanella Mostrando


Born in the Bronx in 1914 to Italian immigrants, Fasanella had a troubled childhood. His father, an iceman, and his mother, a garment worker, struggled to provide for their six children. Growing up in Greenwich Village and later in the Williams Bridge section of the Bronx, the young Fasanella ran wild with the neighborhood kids. His behavior landed him in The New York Catholic Protectory, a Bronx reform school, on three different occasions. In an attempt to initiate the young boy into the workaday world, Fasanella's father took him along on the ice route. Fasanella's mother, a committed union member and antifascist, sought to instill in him an awareness of social issues. She involved her son in her efforts to promote a small Italianlanguage antifascist newspaper. These boyhood experiences were to have a lifelong effect on Fasanella. The

oppressive, and at times abusive, atmosphere of the Protectory nourished in him a resentment of authority; his mother's influence led to his development of a keen sense ofjustice; and the strenuous daily grind of the ice route, which took a severe toll on the senior Fasanella, taught young Ralph about the physical and emotional challenges of working-class life. These attitudes and ideas began to gel into a philosophy in the early 1930s, at the height of the Depression. Fasanella became involved in left-wing politics through various workers' organizations that sought to educate and mobilize aspiring activists. From these affiliations, Fasanella acquired an understanding of the larger historical forces that affected working people and a desire to fight for better working conditions, housing, education, and health care. During the 1930s, he worked picket lines, took part in demonstrations, and continued to educate himself. While much of Fasanella's political involvement revolved around the burgeoning labor movement, it was the rising menace of fascism that increasingly aroused his concern. In 1937, Fasanella became one of three thousand Americans who volunteered to join the International Brigades to aid the beleaguered Spanish Republic. He served one and a half years in a transport unit that frequently operated in combat zones. In 1938, the Republican Army was defeated by the Fascist army of Francisco Franco, with aid from Germany and Italy, but Fasanella returned to the United States with his political ideals intact. He turned to trade unionism, which he felt was the most vital battleground for improving the lives of workers. After organizing for a number of unions in New York and New Jersey, Fasanella became a highly regarded and successful field organizer for the progressive United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America. It was during one of the UE organizing drives in the early 1940s that Fasanella began to get a curious sensation in his hands. During idle times, he found himself absent-mindedly scraping holes in sheets of paper with a pencil. A perceptive colleague suggested that Fasanella enroll in art classes, but Fisanella couldn't conceive of himself as an artist. He was a worker and an organizer, a political animal. He went to a doctor, received a shot, and forgot about the problems with his fingers. In the summer of 1944, while on vacation in New Hampshire with a group of friends, Fasanella impulsively grabbed a sketch pad and began to drawâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;first a pair of earrings, then shoes, then a boat and a cabin. By all accounts, a transformation occurred. His friends were astonished at the quality of the drawings, and Fasanella himself suddenly felt as if he had discovered his life's calling. Art was a vehicle by which he could articulate his thoughts and beliefs and achieve a higher plane of beauty and grace. Fasanella began to draw obsessively; in the words of a friend, he was in "seventh heaven."' The artist described his state of mind as follows:"When I became an artist all of

a sudden every fiber within me was alive. My body was constantly excited, intoxicated with wonderful feelings of joy. Everything was creation. Ideas came out. I couldn't sleep."2 Fasanella soon began to paint, using cheap poster paints on cardboard to create scenes of his old neighborhood on Sullivan Street and street scenes near his Grove Street apartment in Greenwich Village. Some of these early pictures yielded surprising results for the artist. In Purple Church, for example, Fasanella completed the painting before realizing that the church resembled a large coffin, with hellfires raging in the windows. He added a large cross to the facade to make it appear that it was, in fact, meant to be a church.3 As he grew more confident, Fasanella sought better materials and began to paint in oil on canvas. He quickly developed an expressive, painterly style that suited the emotion and the pace of his work. He applied the paint thickly and with sweeping, visible brushstrokes. Although he had never studied art nor cared much for museums, Fasanella began frequenting the Whitney (then on Eighth Street in Greenwich Village) and the Museum of Modern Art, where he greatly admired Van Gogh for his ability to "make the paint talk."4 Fasanella was also influenced by classical music, particularly the works of Beethoven, which he listened to while he painted in order to capture some of the music's passion in pigment. From the beginning, Fasanella never cared much for the art establishment's opinion of his work; he turned instead to workers for advice and encouragement. Fasanella's sister Tess, who was living with him at this time, was very enthusiastic about his work; she not only cooked his meals, but also bought painting materials for him. Later his roommate Artie Harrison, a fellow veteran from Spain, was frequently called upon for an opinion, as were the neighborhood delivery men and a host of bewildered but impressed fellow union organizers and friends. Although Fasanella left United Electrical in 1946(when financial dif-

ficulties forced the union to lay off numerous organizers), he felt that his painting was an extension of his labor activism. In his newfound vocation he adopted the mission of educating and inspiring workers through paint rather than through speeches, discussions, and leaflets. Income from painting did not cover food and rent, however, so Fasanella approached his brothers Sam and Nick, who ran a gas station in the Bronx. They didn't completely understand why their brother wanted to be an artist, but they respected his ideas and his self-assurance, and agreed at first to give him thirty dollars a week. After six months, they offered Ralph employment and, instead of an "allowance," they gave him the 4:00 P.M. to 11:00 P.M. work shift for the same thirty dollars a week. It was the security, routine, and daily contact with people that

PIE IN THE SKY New York, New York 1947 Oil on canvas 45 - 37" Collection of If. Marc Fasanella


Fasanella needed in order to flourish. He quickly settled into a pattern of working evenings, painting all night, and sleeping during the day. Fasanella matured quickly as an artist and confidently moved from familiar urban scenes to powerful and provocative images. In paintings such as Pie in the Sky and Iceman Crucified, the artist's years of experience as an activist and an organizer become evident. These paintings directly confront mainstream American values and offer a sobering assessment of the state of the working class. In Pie in the Sky (named after an old song about the hereafter from the repertoire of the "Wobblies," or Industrial Workers of the World, a radical labor union), Fasanella juxtaposes the harsh world of the streets and tenements with the illusory promise of a better existence in heaven. The painting is a powerful indictment of the role of the Church in teaching passive acceptance of economic injustice. Iceman Crucified is the first of a series of images in which Fasanella depicts an iceman as Christ. Inspired by Pietro di Donato's 1940 novel Christ in Concrete, about a bricklayer killed on the job because of a greedy boss's negligence, Fasanella began to see his father, Joe (the iceman), as a universal working man's Christ. This picture marks an artistic turning point as well, as Fasanella himself explains: "Christ in Concrete broke me away from realism. It gave me the right to use symbols of people. I could make an iceman on the cross. Anything I wanted to identify with struggle I could make into Christ."' Together, these two paintings question the role of the Church while acknowledging the power of religious symbols. A third picture from this period, Altar, attests to the influence of the Church—both aesthetic and moral—on Fasanella. His boyhood recollections of the Protectory chapel, with the purity of the altar, the first realizations of right and wrong, and the glorious colors and patterns of the stained glass, are all captured here with the emotional intensity of someone who has suddenly discovered their resonance in his life. It was around this time that a union connection provided Fasanella with his first break as an artist. Honore Shaffer, an accomplished realist painter and wife of a United Electrical organizer, saw Fasanella's work and encouraged him to approach galleries for a show. Fasanella reportedly took two paintings to a nearby gallery and made a sale the first day. He soon began approaching other galleries, with a directness uncommon to fledgling artists. "I was very belligerent with them," he recalled in an early interview."I told them 'Either a picture is good or not, so don't beat around the bush with me.I don't give a damn.'"6 Within months, Fasanella had his first one-man show, at the 44th Street Gallery. His works drew enthusiastic reviews in the leading art periodicals, whose critics had been exposed to folk painting through exhibitions of the paintings of Grandma Moses and the Museum of Modern Art's shows of the works of John Kane, Horace Pippin, Morris Hirshfield, and others. Alonzo Lansford of Art Digest called Fasanella an "accomplished" painter even though he was self-taught, and noted that "the critical condescension reserved for primitives is quite unwarranted here....... The Art News critic better understood Fasanella's


intentions, stating that the artist "gave up his work as a labor union organizer to wage the same battles in paint...." Yet, perhaps enamored of the academic social realists, the second reviewer felt that Fasanella's reach exceeded his grasp, that his "primitive" technique could not adequately communicate social protest.8 Such doubts would soon be laid to rest, however, as Fasanella became acquainted with and exhibited alongside the top social realist painters of the day. Herman Baron's American Contemporary Art gallery was widely recognized as a driving force in promoting the works of socially conscious artists. Emboldened by the success of his 44th Street Gallery show, Fasanella approached Baron with the idea of showing at A.C.A. Unaccustomed to self-taught artists, Baron balked at first. Drawing upon a tactic long familiar to him, Fasanella threatened to put out a leaflet proclaiming A.C.A. a "phony social gallery" if his works were not accepted. In his own words, Fasanella was "very militant.... Coming from the trade union movement, all we did was put leaflets out. We were protesting all the time, so I thought it was a normal thing to put out a leaflet."° While it is doubtful that Baron feared a leaflet, he soon changed his mind and began to exhibit Fasanella's work. Fasanella's first exhibition at A.C.A., in February and March of 1947, was part of a group show whose list of featured artists reads like a Who's Who of American social art: Philip Evergood, William Gropper, Robert Gwathmey, Jacob Lawrence, and Ben Shahn.'° In September of that year, Fasanella had a one-man show at A.C.A. that included his early paintings Pie in the Sky and Altar, along with fifteen other works. In the introduction to the show's catalog, the well-known abstract painter Ad Reinhardt praised Fasanella for his "awareness of purpose and clarity of design, playfulness and intensity" and noted that Fasanella's work had created a "real many people to express themselves freely in paint too." But the critics were tougher this time. Margaret Breuning of Art Digest titled her review "Conviction Without Technique" and faulted Fasanella for including too many unnecessary details that undermined the unity of the pictures. She nevertheless noted his "intensity" and "sound structural design."12 An Art News writer criticized his "over-elaborate panoramas" but liked his "courage and warmth," particularly the "glowing jewelry" of Altar." Fasanella seems to have been oblivious to these critiques, but he valued the encouragement of his artist colleagues. He recalls that they were incredulous. Gwatluney would repeatedly ask whether Fasanella had ever received training. He thought highly enough of Fasanella's work to write effusive catalog introductions for later gallery shows.' Fasanella invited Ben Shahn to his apartment to see the paintings, and the venerable artist gave him strong words of encouragement.'5 Evergood was also impressed by Fasanella's paintings, and reluctant to give any technical advice. Reinhardt was a frequent guest at Fasanella's apartment, where he would often get into heated discussions with workers on the subject of abstract art.'6 Fasanella's search for artistic knowledge brought him into contact with the ascendant world of Abstract Expressionism, albeit briefly and with little or no lasting

ICEMAN CRUCIFIED #1 New York, New York 1948 Oil on canvas 26 14" Collection of Gina Fasanella Mostrando

MAY DAY New York, New York 1948 Oil on canvas 50- 80" Collection of New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York, gift of Ralph and Eva Fasanella

effect. He sat in on lectures at Hans Hofmann's school on West Eighth Street, as did many New York artists looking for aesthetic and intellectual stimulation. Fasanella rejected the pure aestheticism of Hofmann, believing instead that form and content were inseparable in great art.'7 Another focus of the young artist's wanderings was the Cedar Tavern, a legendary meeting place for New York School artists and "aspirants to the bohemian tradition."" The Tavern, however, like Hofmann's school, was no place for an artist who wanted to express social ideas and workingclass roots. Union halls, however, were ideal venues, and Fasanella never wavered in his commitment to bring his art to the workers. Although he was no longer active as a field organizer, Fasanella quickly saw the potential of using his paintings to bring positive change to the labor movement. Many of his early paintings are quite large, indicating some inclination toward public spaces. In this regard, Fasanella was in sync with avant-garde artists such as Jackson Pollack, who

sought in 1947 to create "large, moveable pictures that will function between the easel and the mural."' Fasanella's portable murals were distinctly intended for the working class. In the late 1940s, he exhibited works at several union halls, particularly the meeting places of those unions the artist felt were still on the progressive side. Fasanella especially admired the Wholesale and Warehouse Workers Union Local 65 for their rank-and-fileism and their interest in cultureâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;he exhibited works at their Manhattan headquarters. Not surprisingly, he also had shows at various United Electrical halls. Fasanella dedicated an entire painting, Build Your Union, to the vibrant and successful Local 65. This picture is a coherent statement of what the artist thought a trade union should be. In an extraordinarily fluid composition, Fasanella depicts workers flocking to the union hall to socialize, see musical and theatrical performances, and buy books. In order to win over and maintain a vital, productive community of workers, Fasanella felt strongly that unions had to provide cultural and educational opportunities, "something for the brain as well as the belly."2° Art had to arouse a class consciousness, and Fasanella saw his paintings as a means by which the workers could see their own lives. "I realized that you couldn't live just on labor paintings. I understood the worker's lifeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;he likes to play baseball, hang out. I painted Sheridan Square and the poetry of night, pool rooms, guys hanging out in front of the United Cigar Stores."2'Fasanella's ultimate goal of getting the trade unions to open a gallery for working-class art in Union Square was never realized. While this period was one of great excitement and growth for Fasanella, it was also marred by increasing public and political hostility toward anyone with left-wing leanings. Because of his involvement with the Abraham Lincoln Brigade and United Electrical, Fasanella was one of thousands of Americans who were followed, harassed, and blacklisted. President Truman's 1947 executive order requiring loyalty oaths of all civil servants had spread to virtually all areas of American society. The TaftHartley Act of 1947 required union leaders to take an oath that they were not Communists. Galleries like A.C.A. were charged with being hotbeds of radicalism, and in 1949 the Congress of Industrial Organizations expelled its left-wing unions, including United Electrical.


In March 1995, Ralph Fasanella and his wife, Eva, presented the artist's painting Subway Riders to the Museum of American Folk Art. This work, completed in 1950, is an evocative portrait of a group of New Yorkers from diverse backgrounds brought together for a moment in the city's vast underground transportation system. It stands as an apt symbol of New York itself. Under the terms of the Fasanellas' gift, the painting is to be installed in a special exhibition case to be located in the subway station at Fifth Avenue and 53rd Street in Manhattan. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA)and the New York City Transit Authority(TA) have agreed to construct and maintain this special facility in accordance with the Museum's specifications. In this manner, Fasanella's painting will be shared directly with the tens of thousands of people who utilize that station on a daily basis. The gift to the Museum is in keeping with the successful effort of Ron Carver, a labor union official with a passion for the history of organized labor in American life, and his Public Domain initiative to place Fasanella's paintings in museums and other public spaces. Another powerful work by the artist, Iceman Crucified #3(1956), was generously donated to the Museum in 1991 by Maurice Subway Riders: A Gift to the Museum

and Patricia Thompson through the encouragement of Public Domain.Iceman Crucified #3 is illustrated in the Editor's Column, page 6. Subway Riders is not new to the Museum or its audiences, either. It was the signature piece of"City Folk: Ethnic Traditions in the Metropolitan Area," an exhibition organized by the Museum's director, Gerard C. Wertkin, and presented by the Museum at PaineWebber Art Gallery in 1988. The entire Museum family owes Ralph and Eva Fasanella a debt of gratitude for their thoughtfulness, not only in presenting this important work of art to the Museum,but also for encouraging it to be shared with the public in an innovative and highly accessible way. The Museum also expresses its gratitude to Ron Carver for his vision and to the MTA and TA for helping make this arrangement possible.


As a trade unionist and an artist, Fasanella was profoundly affected by the anti-Communist hysteria. He saw the unions being taken over by right-wingers and racketeers and the willingness to exhibit socially-conscious art vanish. Always a fighter, Fasanella briefly returned to United Electrical to aid in their battle with the C.I.O., and he ran for City Council on the American Labor Party ticket during the 1949 mayoral campaign of the radical politician Vito Marcantonio. He also continued to paint, with the same conviction and enthusiasm as before. May Day, a monument to the socialist spirit of the 1930s, was painted during this time. This painting is one of the first true mural-sized works with a broad historical scope that Fasanella attempted. It is both historical and visionary, as the left half of the painting depicts a massive May Day Parade and the right half is the artist's conception of a socialist utopia. The organic, sweeping lines, heavy impasto, vibrant colors, and uneven distribution of detail convey the exuberance that marks Fasanella's early work. One development in Fasanella's life in the late 1940s would have far-reaching consequences for his career (and survival) as an artist. Over the course of several years, Fasanella periodically dated Eva Lazorek, a young woman with working-class roots whom he had met at a socialist summer camp. Though she first knew him as an organizer, Lazorek was fascinated by Fasanella's ability to express his convictions in paint. She encountered his work when she was drawn to a large canvas stowed behind a water cooler at the Jefferson School, a left-wing school in New York. That painting was May Day. Ralph and Eva would often run into each other at the annual May Day parades and go out for a period of weeks or months, until it became evident that Fasanella's compulsion to paint left little room for a personal relationship. This pattern continued until 1950, when, as Eva explains,"In 1950 it was announced that there wouldn't be any more May Day parades, so we decided to get married. Actually, he was the most fascinating person I had ever met and subconsciously I wanted to be a part of the creative explosion which I sensed was fermenting within him. That's what made me change my mind.' Eva wisely got her teaching degree first, for in the coming years, it was her ability to hold a job and maintain a stable home that allowed Ralph to continue to be creative despite being repeatedly fired from a series of factory jobs "for reasons of national security." Fasanella's Subway Riders, painted in 1950, aptly sums up the first phase of his artistic career. The Fasanellas moved to the Upper West Side shortly after getting

SUBWAY RIDERS New York, New York 1950 Oil on canvas 28 60" Collection of Museum of American Folk Art, gift of Ralph and Eva Fasanella

Editor's Note: A poster of Subway Riders is available at the Museum's book and gift shops. For mail order information, please contact Beverly McCarthy at the Museum of American Folk Art,61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023 or call 212/977-7170. Some limited edition silk screens of Ralph Fasanella's paintings are available from the artist. For information, please write to Ralph Fasanella, in care of the Museum. All inquiries will be forwarded.

BUILD YOUR UNION New York, New York 1950 Oil on canvas 60 50" Collection of the Labor Museum and Learning Center of Michigan, Flint, Michigan

married, and Ralph took a job as a bench worker in a machine shop on Long Island. The daily subway ride to and from work yielded dozens of character sketches that ultimately resulted in this work. In Subway Riders, the activistturned-artist, now under siege from hostile forces in the political and art establishments, reaffirms his affection and affinity for working people. It is significant that these people are depicted en route to an unknown destination in a temporary underground sanctuary. For the next twenty-two years, Fasanella would paint in relative obscurity, struggling to make his way as an artist and to articulate a vision of an earthly paradise for American workers.* Paul S. D'Ambrosio is Director ofExhibitions and Folk Art at the New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York. He is a Ph.D. candidate in the American and New England Studies Program at Boston University and is currently writing his dissertation on Ralph Fasanella.

NOTES 1 Millie Dura, interview with the author, West Islip, N.Y., January 15, 1994. 2 Ralph Fasanella, interview with the author, Ardsley, N.Y., September 20, 1993. 3 Patrick Watson, Fasanella's City(New York: Ballantine Books, 1973), p. 66. 4 Ralph Fasanella, interview with the author, Ardsley, N.Y., April 13, 1994. 5 Ralph Fasanella, interview with the author, Ardsley, N.Y., October 13, 1993. 6 "The streets will run both ways, but faster," PM,September 28, 1947. Picture News magazine section, p. 4. 7 "Fasanella, primitive," Art Digest 21, no. 5(December 1, 1946), p. 29. 8 Art News 45, no. 10(December 1946), p.55. 9 Ralph Fasanella, interview with the author, Ardsley, N.Y., October 12, 1993. 10 "Social Art Today," American Contemporary Art gallery exhibition pamphlet, February 17â&#x20AC;&#x201D;March 1, 1947, collection of the artist. 11 "Ralph Fasanella," American Contemporary Art Gallery exhibition pamphlet, September 15-27, 1947. 12 Art Digest 22, no. 1 (October 1, 1947), p. 23. 13 Art News 46, no. 8(October 1947), p. 50. 14 Ralph Fasanella, interview with the author, Ardsley, N.Y., October 12, 1993. 15 Ibid. 16 James Dura,interview with the author, West Islip, N.Y., January 15, 1994. 17 Ralph Fasanella, interview with the author, Ardsley, N.Y., September 20, 1993. 18 Dore Ashton, The New York School: A Cultural Reckoning (New York: Penguin Books, 1979), p. 199. 19 Ibid. 20 Ralph Fasanella, interview with the author, Ardsley, N.Y., November 10, 1993. 21 Ibid. 22 Eva Fasanella, interview with the author, Ardsley, N.Y., December 14, 1993.


Expressions of Trust: Recent Gifts to the Museum of American Folk Art STACY C. HOLLANDER

The last few years have been a time of exciting acquisitions by the Museum. In the past two years alone, more than one hundred works have been added to our existing collection of outstanding artworks, ranging from eighteenth-century portraits attributed to Reuben Moulthrop to contemporary paintings and drawings by Thornton Dial. Additions to the collection are a regular feature of Gerard Wertkin's Director's Letter in Folk Art. This brief essay, however,represents an opportunity to acknowledge all of our recent donors and to focus on just a few of the many wonderful accessions that reflect the Museum's continuing dedication to an inclusive perspective on the field of American folk art. Why do people give works of art to a museum? I like to believe that such gifts are an expression of faith in and affection for the institution and the public function it fulfills. While this is undoubtedly one aspect of the complicated and personal decisionmaking process that results in such gifts, perhaps "public" is the operative word. Each time an artwork is exhibited in a museum, a little bit of the donor is revealed as well, lending insight into that individual's artistic sense and personality. From the collector's perspective, his taste and


judgment are validated by the museum's acceptance of the artwork and by the public appreciation of the audience viewing it. Potential donors contact our Museum from many places and for many reasons, but all have one bond in common. They feel that they have found in the Museum of American Folk Art a unique and welcoming home for works of art that have brought great meaning into their lives and that they are ready to share them with others. Throughout our institutional history, we have been fortunate in attracting the generosity of both great collectors and individuals with just a few cherished family heirlooms. Some of these collectors, among them Jean Lipman, have been longtime supporters of the Museum. In 1981, the Museum acquired thirty-four objects from the Lipman collection; this important acquisition still forms the core of the Museum's eighteenth- and

nineteenth-century holdings. In the ensuing years, Jean Lipman has continued to demonstrate her commitment to the Museum through her many significant gifts. The most recent of these is an exuberantly painted New England chest, highlighted by Gerard Wertkin in his Winter 1994/95 Director's Letter. Dorothy and Leo Rabkin's abiding interest in folk sculpture has translated into many contributions that have greatly enhanced the Museum's collection in that area. In 1994, the Museum received eighteen figural, animal, and nautical carvings, including a large-scale model of the ship B.F. Packard. A number of these sculptures were displayed at the Museum in the exhibitions "Whirligigs and Windtoys: Promised Bequest from the Collection of Dorothy and Leo Rabkin" and "Bob Bishop: A Life in American Folk Art." Cyril I. Nelson is another staunch supporter of the Museum's collection. American textiles form the main body of Nelson's gifts to the Museum, and the past year has been no exception) In a departure, though, he has also donated an extraordinary late nineteenth-century carving of a dove that once topped a ridge pole on a Kansas granary, a handsome painted gameboard with a checkerboard on one side and the "Mill Game" on the other, and a document box with painted decoration that is fascinating for its similarity to painted tinware of the same period.2 Sometimes an artwork has a strong family or historical association, one that the donor feels obliged to share in a publicly accessible forum. In cases such as this, the ability of the recipient to care for, interpret, and exhibit such a piece becomes of paramount importance. A spectacular coverlet by New York state weaver Ira Hadsell descended in a family anxious to have the quilt preserved for future generations. Hadsell worked in Palmyra and is best known for a spectacular floral pattern with eagles.3 The weaver's name and place of produc-

RECENT DONORS TO THE COLLECTIONS GIFTS: Ben Apfelbaum William Amen Ruth E. Avard Roberto Emerson Camara Benjamin Thomas R. Borek Bristol-Meyers Theresa Buchanan Helen and Robert Cargo W. Marvin Clary, William H. Clary, Jane E. Hunecke,and Albert L. Hunecke,Jr. David L. Davies Mrs. Winifred Eichler Lita M.Elvers Nancy Erlick Ralph Esmerian Jeanne and Dan Fauci/ Outside-in Gallery Patricia Feiwel Kinuko Fujii Marcy and Elias Getz Janet Gilbert Marilyn Grais Elizabeth Kapnek Grenald Lillian and Jerry Grossman Conielia Hamilton Carol Henry Jeanne and Kirk Hollingsworth Judith A. Jedlicka Joan and Victor Johnson Krishna Barbara Johnson J.M. Kaplan Fund William C. Ketchum Martha Leversuch Jean Lipman Marion County, Georgia, Historical Society Frances and Paul Martinson Mary B. and Robert G. Matthews Boris McGiver Carlton McLendon Gael Mendelsohn George Meyer The Museum of Modem Art from the collection of Gordon and Nina Bunshaft K. Nathan Gallery Cyril Irwin Nelson Mary C. Newlin Robert Phelps Dorothy and Leo Rabkin Irene Reichert Martha Lamarque Samo Eugenia and Charles Shannon June and Ron Shelp Lorraine Slighter Mary Sposeto lonel Talpazan Patricia and Maurice Thompson Lucille Turecki Elizabeth Wachs Nancy E. Wahlin Maude Wahlman Eve Wine Lori Zabar Shelly Zegart BEQUESTS: Robert Bishop Gary W.Hager Jay Johnson

YOUNG PHYSICIAN WITH SURGICAL SAW Artist unknown Probably Pennsylvania or New York C. 1830-1840 Oil on poplar panel; original cherrywood frame e" 1113/16 â&#x20AC;˘ 93/." framed) , 9 6 Gift of Thomas R. Etorek, 1994.9.1


MUSICIAN WITH LUTE Clark Coe (1847-1919) Killingworth, Connecticut Early twentieth century Wood figure, metal and wood lute 30" high Gift of The Museum of Modern Art from the collection of Gordon and Nina Bunshaft, 1995.1.1


The fluid nature of collecting often means that a person's interest in and choice of artworks changes in response to the collector's new interests or insights into aesthetic relationships. As this process occurs, the collection as a whole is affected in various ways. Some works are put into storage by the owners until they once again attain resonance within the collection; some are sold, often to support the purchase of other works of art, and frequently, some are given to museums. Such may have been the motivation for Michael and Gael Mendelsohn's gift of five works by the well-known Texas artist Eddie Arning. The artist's colorful and graphic drawings are well represented in the Muse-

um's collection. In 1985, Dr. Alexander Sackton, Arning's early patron and friend, gave ten works to the Museum. With the addition of the five drawings given by the Mendelsohns, the Museum now has a wide range of this artist's work that gives us the ability to evaluate Arning's entire oeuvre and,in turn, to share that evaluation with the public through our programming. The variety apparent in these holdings also provides an interesting window on some of the issues currently under discussion in the contemporary aspects of the field. Arning has been included in Roger Cardinal's roster of "outsider" artists by virtue of his having created exclusively in a controlled institutional environment: the nursing home in which he lived after spending thirty years in the Austin State Hospital. His numerous drawings (about two thousand) were made during a relatively brief spurt of creativity—a period of ten years. Initially dependent upon his own remembered experience in the "world"—his parents' farm—he later drew upon popular sources from the world outside the institution: advertisements, photographs, magazines. The original impetus for this artistic activity was coloring books and crayons supplied by Helen Mayfield, a worker in the facility. Mayfield was unusually sensitive to Arning's efforts and noticed that he added his own lines to the printed material. As a result she supplied Arning with blank paper the next time she visited. It is interesting, as one considers the bold graphic images associated with Eddie Arning's work, that objects in his initial efforts appeared very small, as if at a great distance. They were also almost invisible, camouflaged as they were against backgrounds of similar colors. Later, however, Arning allowed his images to emerge from this invisibility. He also made distinctions between images that already existed as works of art—and were, therefore, inappropriate as source materials for his own creativity—and images that could be transformed. Aming was given a reproduction of a Fernand Leger painting by a resident at the nursing home, but rejected it as inspira-

tion, saying "it's a picture already."' Arning, in fact, displayed a pattern of development in his artwork that is similar to other self-taught artists, progressing from simple and concrete images to more complex and challenging compositions. The earliest works—from about 1964 to 1966—usually depict a single element culled from memories of his youthful landscape: a windmill,for instance,or an animal. At the same time that he first introduced figures into his imagery, in about 1966, he also began to draw upon published sources. It is difficult to comment upon the specific meaning these sources may have had for him. Many were cigarette advertisements, but as a whole they ranged from illustrations of duck hunting in sporting magazines to Health Tex advertisements for children's clothes. Two Figures on a Dance Floor was drawn in about 1972, near the end of the period of Arning's artistic expression.

Although by this time he was incorporating multiple figures as well as overlapping figures, this work is typical of Arning's tendency to separate elements in his compositions, in this case two dancers whose parallel movements are acted in different zones of the picture. His unerring sense of

est),Ralph M. Mey

tion were regularly woven along the lower edge of the coverlet, as was the name of the client, in this case "Thankful Boyce"; the date 1853 appears in the corners. Hadsell was born in Wayne County, New York, in 1813. Through his extant account books we learn that he worked until 1875, a late date for the production of such textiles, and that he produced about sixteen hundred coverlets throughout his professional life. Typically, Hadsell used the jacquard head for looms that was introduced into America in the late 1820s. As more has been learned about this weaving process and its impact upon the industry, a new light has been cast on the early development of a level of mechanization that ultimately phased out the individual weaver in favor of commercially produced goods. The quilt revival of the first half of the twentieth century is a new and rapidly expanding area of the Museum's collection. This quilt revival was part of the larger Colonial revival movement, and examples from the period emphasize a rebellion against the Victorian aesthetic and a search for the American past. These aims influenced not only the generation of academic artists that emerged from Hamilton Easter Field's artists' colony in Ogunquit, Maine, but also the direction of decorative arts, including quiltmaking, propounded by designers and manufacturers. Shelly Zegart's gift of a Compass and Wreath Quilt is a prime example of quiltmalcing in this period.4

DOVE Artist unknown Kansas Late nineteenth century Painted wood 2 2Ye" deep / 16'/I3 241 Gift of Cyril Irwin Nelson, 1994.7.3

MAN AND WOMAN ON DANCE FLOOR Eddie Arning (1898-1993) Austin, Texas c. 1972 Crayon and oil pastel on paper 22 28" Gift from the collection of Gael Mendelsohn, 1994.1.4


GRANDMA WEAVER (Portrait Of The Artist's Grandmother) Nan Phelps (1904-1990) Hamilton, Ohio 1940 Oil on canvas 43'/4 37" Gift of Robert Phelps in loving memory of his wife, Nan Phelps, 1992.18.3

Photo courtesy A

Ant iques, Inc. NYC

GAMEBOARD: CHECKERBOARD/MILL GAME Artist unknown United States Late nineteenth century Painted wood 19/ 1 4 x 187/e 11 / 2" deep Gift of Cyril Irwin Nelson, 1994.7.2


design and color are communicated in the syncopated checkered pattern of the floor and the contrasting yellow bands that seem to be an attempt to contain the two figures in a narrow channel. Although we do not know the print source for this work, the transformative nature of Eddie Arning's imagination is clearly communicated. Through the generosity of Patricia Feiwel, several contemporary works in various media have enhanced our twentieth-century collection. These include the Museum's first works by Bessie Harveyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a sculpture and two watercolor and felttipped pen drawingsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;as well as the addition of works by artists already represented in the permanent collection: Anthony Joseph Salvatore, Jon Sen. and J.B. Murry. On the other end of the spectrum, The Young Physician with Surgical Saw is a fascinating addition to the Museum's growing collection of early portraiture. Stylistically, this painting relates to several groups of profile portraits attributed to "Mr. Boyd of Harrisburg and other as yet unidentified artists."6 The small format, poplar panel support, and profile pose suggest a common tradition, if not a single artistic source. In some of these paintings, the subjects are portrayed within an oval with unfinished edges, probably intended to be hidden behind an eglomise mat; in others, the subjects appear on plain-painted backgrounds. Profile portraiture, a response to the taste for neoclassicism, was popular in America by the late eighteenth century. According to Debora Rindge's catalog entries for two similar portraits in the collection of the National Gallery of Art, "The painted profile was most popular in

Pennsylvania, but profile portraits

have been traced as far south as Virginia and as far north as New York.... The picture size is fairly standard, varying approximately from 8 x 7 to 10 x 12 inches."' The portrait of the young physician, given to the Museum by Thomas R. Borek, was taken into the collection in December 1994. It shows a young man holding a short, blunt saw used for amputations. The pride evident in the young man's face and bearing as he carries his surgical instrument is indicative of great changes that the medical profession had already undergone by this time. The distinctions drawn between physicians and surgeons were increasingly clear, and specialization, as a theory and a practice, was on the rise. Although some doctors continued to run itinerant practices that served a relatively wide area, more and more of them were establishing permanent offices; the most prestigious surgeons worked under the auspices of hospital facilities. At the time this portrait was painted, the discovery of anesthesia remained in the future and the saw so proudly carried by this young surgeon represented unmitigated pain and possibly death for his patrons. On a less macabre note, but still in the realm of nineteenth-century art, the Museum was successful in bidding on several lots from the seminal collection of American folk art assembled by Bertram K. and Nina Fletcher Little. The stencils, theorems, work boxes, account books, and decorative painting tools that constituted this purchase complement the extensive collection from the Historical Society of Early American Decoration that came to the Museum in 1991. Of particular interest are the materials belonging to William Page Eaton that relate to examples of his work that came to the Museum through the society. In January 1996, the Museum will present an exhibition that highlights additions to the collection from the last few years. While I hope that this brief article has given some indication of the scope of those acquisitions, there are simply too many to do more than touch upon the most recently accepted works. No doubt, when assembled as an exhibition these

impressive sculptures, paintings, furniture, and textiles will surprise some of our visitors for their wide compass; the quality and magnitude of our collection will delight all.* Stacy C. Hollander is the Curator ofthe Museum ofAmenican Folk Art.

NOTES 1 Authors Elizabeth V. Warren and Sharon Eisenstat will discuss many of the quilts Cyril I. Nelson has given to the Museum in their forthcoming catalog of the Museum's quilt collection scheduled for publication by Penguin USA in Spring 1996. Warren has also written about the coverlet collection given to the museum by Nelson in The Clarion (Spring 1988), Vol. 13, No. 2, pp.64-67. 2 These works have been illustrated in the following publications: Robert Bishop, American Folk Sculpture(New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1974), title page; Bruce and Doranna Wendel, Gameboards ofNorth America(New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. in association with the Museum of American Folk Art, 1986), p. 26; Nina Fletcher Little, Neat and Tidy: Boxes and Their Contents Used in Early American Households (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1980), p. 24, colorplate 7. 3 Virginia Parslow and Rita J. Adrosko, Made in New York State: Handwoven Coverlets 1820-1860(Watertown, N.Y.: Jefferson County Historical Society, 1985), pp. 57,67. 4 This chapter in quilt history will be explored in depth in the forthcoming catalog of the Museum of American Folk Art's quilt collection cited above. 5 Barbara R. Luck and Alexander Sackton, Eddie Arning: Selected Drawings, 1964-1973(Williamsburg, Va., the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center in association with The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1985), pp. 7, 11. 6 Paul S. D'Ambrosio and Charlotte M. Emans,Folk Art's Many Faces: Portraits in the New York State Historical Association (Cooperstown, N.Y.: New York State Historical Association, 1987)pp. 172, 174; and conversations with Charlotte Emans Moore, December 1994 and March 1995. My thanks, too, for additional information provided by David Schorsch. 7 Debora Rindge,entries in Deborah Chotner,American Naive Paintings: The Collections ofthe National Gallery ofArt Systematic Catalogue (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art in association with the Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 581-584,615-618.

LA7_ARI.IS (Jesus Raising Lazarus From The Dead) Lorenzo Scott (b. 1934) Atlanta, Georgia c. 1982 Oil on particle board, yellow pine frame with automobile repair material, gilded 52 43" Gift of W. Marvin Clary, William H. Clary, lane E. Hunecke, and Albert L. Hunecke, Jr., 1991.35.1


IImong and Pennsylvania German Textiles: Needlework Traditions in Transition in Lancaster Coin




hose familiar with Amish and Mennonite handicrafts and culture may not be so familiar with the Hmong, who, with a distinctive culture and handicrafts of their own,are working with the Amish and Mennonites to sew and market "Amish" or "American" quilts. The Hmong ("Free Men" to themselves or Meo, Miao as they are known in China and Thailand) are tribal hill people from Northern Laos and Thailand who have emigrated to various parts of the United States, including Lancaster and Chester counties in Central Pennsylvania. Refugees from the conflict in Southeast Asia, the Hmong have settled comfortably into life here by working hard and by trading on their needlework skills. Different in most ways from the Amish and the Mennonites, the Hmong are the most recent inheritors of the AngloAmerican tradition of sewing quilts. Known for the quality and designs of their quilts, the Amish and Mennonites inherited both the land and their quilting traditions from "the English," their predecessors in Pennsylvania. The early bedcoverings of the Pennsylvania Germans, of whom the Amish and Mennonites are a small percentage, were handwoven coverlets, not quilts. It is rare to find appliquéd or pieced quilts made in the midlands of Pennsylvania before 1850. Quilts were not common in this area until manufactured cloth became readily available after the Industrial Revolution in the late nineteenth century.' Now, however, one can see numerous quilts for sale, reflecting the adoption of the Anglo-American craft by the Amish and Mennonites, first for household use and later for sale. With their imagination, thriftiness, and love of color, the women in Central Pennsylvania have converted this household inheritance into a remunerative hobby. Now, the Hmong women, with an exacting needlework tradition of their own,are appliquéing many of the


TRADITIONAL HMONG DESIGN Snail motif Quiltmaker unknown Lancaster County, Pennsylvania 1980 Reverse appliqué with embroidery 28 28" This is a traditional Hmong design worked in traditional colors. The center square is a reverse applique of the snail motif embellished with direct embroidery. It is surrounded by yellow and red borders with direct appliqué patches and an outer black border.

ELEPHANT'S FOOT QUILT Mao Moua Completed in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania 1993 94 x 110"

This is a traditional Hmong design in nontraditional colors (what I call "missionary colors," that is, colors introduced by Americans in the Thai refugee camps). The design is the elephant foot motif worked in reverse applique of blue on beige squares with red and white borders and with white and red appliqué squares in the corners of the central patches. The central patches are surrounded by "teeth," appliquéd triangles in blue on the beige background, which in turn are surrounded by red, white and blue borders. The Hmong center squares—or pa ndap—are from Thailand. The borders and teeth were added by Mao Mona in Intercourse, Pennsylvania, in 1993. The transferring of the heart and "leaf change" quitting designs to the quilt top was done by Mao's daughters Noella (right) and Christine (left) from stencils bought at the Old Country Store in Intercourse. Mao Mona did the quilting.


Hmong women at the Lititz Craft Fair, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in the summer 1983. As part of a project funded by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to teach the Hmong women English, marketing, and math skills, they were given an opportunity to demonstrate reverse applique and sell their crafts. Shown here are (from left to right) Xai Moua, Xeng yang, Vue Yang and her sister Nhia Yang, Moua Yang, and wearing the traditional dress of the White Hmong—black costume with blue headdress and silver necklaces—are Mrs. Yang (Pastor Yang's wife) and May Vang.

This traditional Blue Hmong children's skirt was used in museum displays in Central Pennsylvania during 1983 and 1984. It belongs to Mao Moua, who estimates the date of the skirt as 1965-1970, as very traditional Hmong colors were used to make it. It is embellished with very fine zigzag appliqué and counted cross-stitch. Traditionally, the cross-stitching is done first and the triangles and borders are added as appliqué.


Two Hmong women, central Pennsylvania, 1983. Mrs. Lor (left), a member of the "Red-Head" Hmong (a clan of the White Hmong), and Mrs. Xoua Moua (right) of the Blue Hmong. Mrs. Moua is demonstrating the folding and cutting of fabric prior to basting the appliqué onto other material for a reverse appliqué. She is wearing an embroidered and appliqued Blue Hmong skirt, a skirt cover, and a flowered shirt.

Embroidered detail from a "story pa ndau" showing a Hmong boy playing a game. He is one of many figures, animals, and buildings in a pa ndau showing a typical Hmong village. Pa ndau made in the early 1980s, like the one shown, were begun in the camps in Thailand and made for the export market. They are not indigenous to Laos.

Traditional Hmong reverse appliqué: Elephant Foot with dragon teeth and spiderweb center. This rather large (40" by 40") pa ndau was not made in traditional colors. It is owned by Mao Moua and was made in Thailand between 1990 and 1992. These large and fine reverse appliqués take a month or more to make. The applique (light blue fabric in this case) is cut from one piece of fabric. The material is folded eight times and cut from memory, starting from the center. The cut material is then placed on top of the under fabric (darker blue), basted, and appliqued with very fine stitches.

Ann Stanaway

quilts that tourists and buyers see for sale in Pennsylvania. Entrepreneurs first in Laos and later in the refugee camps in Thailand, the Hmong women realize that most of the tourists to the Pennsylvania Dutch areas want quilts sewn using patterns from the area rather than the foreign and more exacting pa ndau (pa for "flower" and ndau for "cloth")of their own heritage. Recognizing the quality of Hmong women's stitchery, the Amish and Mennonites of Pennsylvania first began to hire them in the mid-

...many Hmong were resettled by the Central Mennonite Committee of Pennsylvania. 1980s to sew precut appliqué piece work. Most recently, the Hmong women have been doing much of the Lancaster County appliqué work, and the Amish and Mennonites are doing most of the quilting in an economically profitable partnership. Lancaster

Reverse applique leaf design combined with direct appliqué pieces and embroidery. The bright green and red are traditional Hmong colors; the olive green overlay material is not. Made in the early 1980s in Lancaster County.

Traditional pa ndau. This direct appliqué piece in traditional colors was made in Lancaster County in the early 1980s. It is approximately 30 inches square. The pattern is an old one, known as Vegetable Blossom. See Kurt C. Dewhurst and Marsha MacDowell, Michigan Hmong Arts (East Lansing, Mich.: December 1983, The Folk Arts Division, Michigan State University, pp. 70-71).

County is a tourist mecca, and tourists want quilts. In their large extended families, the Hmong grandmothers can stay home, watch the children, do housework, and appliqué patches for quilts while the parents work. For each patch the Hmong sew they receive twenty to twenty-five dollars. Of the eighty families who reside in Lancaster and Chester counties, most have some member of the family who sews "American" style quilts or patches for the tourist market in Lancaster. Among the most persecuted of the peoples of Southeast Asia because of their independent ways, strong antiCommunism, and association with the CIA, many Hmong were resettled by the Central Mennonite Committee of Pennsylvania. In the early days of resettlement they could be seen working their plots in Pennsylvania fields in much the same way they did in Laos, where both men and women raised livestock and grew rice, cabbage, beans, squash, cucumbers, and corn in a slash-and-burn type of agriculture. Most Hmong in Pennsylvania have converted to Christianity from the type of animism and ancestor worship they practiced in Laos. Members

of the Hmong Christian Missionary Alliance Church, the Hmong in Central Pennsylvania first found a place to conduct their worship at the Hinkletown Mennonite Church. Recently, they built their own church in Leola. Members of this church, including boys and girls in the youth groups, appliqué and quilt bedspreads to raise money for the church and church projects, much as the Mennonite women have been doing for years. The Hmong were illiterate in their own land until the late sixties. Today, most of the Hmong men and women in Central Pennsylvania are employed in local factories, and their children attend schools and colleges aspiring to be engineers, doctors, and computer programmers. Besides sharing a farming tradition, both the Amish and Mennonite women and the Hmong women have used needlework as a means of expression and source of income, and, as such, are open to new influences. This is particularly true of the Hmong textiles as the Hmong immigrants adapt to the dominant culture. The two textile traditions are at a crossroads: the Amish and Mennonite quilt dealers using the competent


Hmong sewers to appliqué "Amish" quilts for sale in Lancaster County, and the Hmong changing their needlework techniques to accommodate the tastes of buyers in Lancaster, Chester, and Philadelphia counties. In Laos, a Hmong woman's needlework helped determine her eligibility as a wife and earned her a place in the female social hierarchy within each village. Designing and sewing a symmetrical, symbolic language onto cloth using techniques and patterns handed down from generation to generation, the Hmong and their ornamentation were first described in Chinese texts two thousand years ago. There are stories that the pa ndau were a means of communicating between villages for the Hmong, who were denied education in China and were largely illiterate in Southeast Asia until the 1960s. However, the Hmong today can no longer state the conceptual connection between design and communication other than to name a particular highly stylized symbolic representation of natural or man-made objects: an elephant's foot, snails, flowers, gifts, cucumber seeds— objects from their world appliquéd and embroidered and surrounded by borders put in to ward off evil spirits. The decorative and colorful pa ndau or flower cloth were created for clothing, gifts, and blessings for important occasions. Clothing incorporating the pa ndau was extremely elaborate, with some tribal variations occurring in colors, weaving, batiking, and appliqué techniques. The latter included appliqué directly applied to a cloth similar to that seen on American quilts, as well as a reverse appliqué, a technique seldom seen in America except in Hawaii and the San Blas Islands off the east coast of Panama. In reverse appliqué, the top pieces of cloth are folded and cut (much like cutting paper valentines or the Pennsylvania technique of scherenschnitte) so the bottom cloth shows through. Cross-stitch and other decorative embroidery techniques were used to enhance the appliqué work. Childbirth was the occasion for making intricate batik and appliquéd baby carriers.2 Appliquéd skirts, jackets, and children's hats were further decorated with embroidery, tassels, pompoms,


and silver ornaments for special occasions such as marriage, burial rites, and the New Year. The New Year ceremonies were (and still are) a focal point of the year, and provided an opportunity to show needlework skills

...the Hmong and their ornamentation were first described in Chinese texts two thousand years ago. and new clothes. Although there were strong traditions of style and decoration in every tribe, a woman could improvise, and she often earned great respect if she could think up a new

replaced handwoven materials. The pa ndau's connection to the worship of animism increasingly diminished as the Hmong became Christians. Crosses ceased to be shaman's crosses. Sawtooth borders to ward off malevolent spirits became good luck symbols or simply "fences." The Hmong describe three subgroups of their people: the Green Hmong, the White Hmong, and the Blue Hmong.3 The latter two groups have settled in Pennsylvania. Mao Moua, a member of the White Hmong and a devout Christian, is typical of the new American entrepreneur. Before the end of the war in Southeast Asia, Mao lived in Long Chang, the largest town in Northern Laos. In 1976, after less than a year in camps in Thailand, Mao and her family resetAPPLIQUED "AMERICAN" QUILT Heart and Triangle Appliqué Design Pennsylvania and New York 1993 50 40" Mao Moua designed this wall hanging. The stencils for the quilting are from the Old Country Store in Intercourse, Pennsylvania. The quitting was done by Mrs. John Kurtz, an Amish woman from Addison, New York.

design, as long as it did not deviate too greatly from the accepted designs. As tribal lifestyles were disrupted by growing Western involvement in Laos and Thailand and as opium became less reliable as a cash crop, the clan members discovered that outsiders were willing to pay for their pa ndau. In 1977, missionary groups from the United States began to help the Hmong in Thai refugee camps to market these crafts in the United States. The Hmong began experimenting with colors and designs. Grayed blues and beiges, colors more adaptable to North American houses, were introduced and began replacing the intense primary colors of tradition. Batiicing was used less frequently. Manufactured cotton and, later, a combination of cotton and polyester were introduced and largely

tled in an apartment in Chester County, where both she and her husband, yang Moua, worked and her mother took care of the children. By 1982 Mao, participating in a Hmong cooperative, began selling both pa ndau she had designed and those of her relatives from Thailand and Laos. As she and the women in the cooperative interacted with the larger Pennsylvania German community, particularly the Mennonite and Amish sewers, they began incorporating some of the Pennsylvania German designs they had seen into the cutwork for the appliqué on their pa ndau. This occurred rather quickly and naturally as the Hmong women, not bound by written patterns at this time, cut appliqué cloth directly from memory, using only their imagination and traditions to design the pa ndau. Mao and

APPLIQUED "AMERICAN" QUILT Country Bride Design la new Mennonite pattern) Pennsylvania and New York 1993 42 42"

Robin Stanaway

Direct appliqué in burgundy and green on offwhite. Mao Moua did the appliqué and chose the colors and fabrics; her daughter NoeIla did the marking for the quilting; and Mrs. John Kurtz, an Amish woman from Addison, New York, did the quilting.


other Hmong women began to use other techniques, such as quilting, which were not indigenous to their culture. A large bedsize pieced pa ndau with Hmong appliqué might be quilted using a combination of "feathers" and "diamonds," a design common to Pennsylvania German quilts and found in pattern books. New motifs and techniques learned in this country were added to earlier ideas about color tried in the refugee camps in Thailand. In 1987, Mao and her husband built their own house near Intercourse in Lancaster County, and she started sewing and selling "American" style quilts, as well as marketing traditional pa ndau, which she bought from the camps in Thailand. She no longer had time to create pa ndau for sale. Then, in 1990, Mao opened her own store, Pennsylvania Hmong Crafts, in Intercourse on Route 340 in Lancaster County, seven doors down from the County Store where Mao now buys many of her appliqué patterns. Mao sells hand-appliquéd and machinepieced bedsize quilts, quilt tops and wall hangings, pot holders, napkins, and placemats, either sewn entirely by herself or, more typically, in cooperation with other Hmong, Amish, and Mennonite women. The Hmong women do the appliqué and some of the piecework, and the Amish and Mennonites in Pennsylvania and Ohio do the quilting. Mao also buys more traditional pieces from other Hmong, but this aspect of the business is changing. The traditional pa ndau in the vibrant Hmong colors—bright blue, red, green, and pink—are getting harder to find in Pennsylvania as the Hmong here concentrate on making "American" style quilts. Pa ndau are still available in the United States in Oregon, Minnesota, and California, states with large concentrations of immigrant Hmong, but without the Pennsylvania German needlework influence. The intricate pa ndau with batilcing are becoming rare anywhere in the United States, because the Hmong did not bring their batiking equipment to this country. Pa ndau are in danger of disappearing from the marketplace. Many American shoppers want subtle colors; they do not want to pay for the


more demanding and time-intensive pa ndau; and they want the crafts seen in decorator and craft magazines, the "American" style quilts and wall hangings. In addition, because the refugee camps have been disbanded has to celebrate the American genius for seeing what is profitable in diversity. and the Hmong repatriated to Laos and Thailand, the overseas members of the tribes, having returned to their prior occupations, will not have the time to sew items for the American market. The Hmong need to find Western-style jobs, which leaves less time for their intricate crafts. They will still sew traditional clothing and pa ndau for themselves, but not for sale. This is in keeping with a recent trend among some Amish and Mennonites, as well: to continue fine needlework in their homes for personal use as distinct from the work created for the commercial marketplace, an interesting evolution of the craft returning to its place of origin: the household. The marketplace in Pennsylvania is shaping the process in the American free market way. Yet, in this process, the actual craftsmanship of the products for sale is declining. Imagination is less a factor as pattern books are routinely used, and as piecework and quilting is "farmed out," conformity is becoming the norm. Colors are stylized and less eye-catching. The quilts have evolved to fit the American taste. However, a unique bit of Americana is taking place, a transcultural event, as one of the newest immigrant groups to Central Pennsylvania, the Hmong, work in cooperation with an older immigrant group, the Pennsylvania Germans, to market their needlework. In contrast to current events in Central Europe, one has to celebrate the American genius for seeing what is profitable in diversity. As you travel in Central Pennsylvania, look at the numerous quilts for sale, quilts with patterns such as "Log

Cabin," "Irish Chain," and "The Bethlehem or Lone Star," eye-catching patterns that are more than one hundred years old and passed down from generation to generation; look at the newer patterns developed for the tourist trade, "Bird with Hearts" and "Bright Bouquet"; and,finally, look at some of the pa ndau and the Hmong crafts from Asia. View these with a sharp eye and a glad heart for the openness of Americans to immigrants to our country, who, taking the skills they brought, can adapt them to this "great experiment" of democracy and the marketplace.*

Jean Henry became acquainted with the Hmong as program coordinator ofan English as a Second Language program for refugees. Withfundingfrom the Pennsylvania Department ofEducation and the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts, she worked to exhibit Hmong needlework, as well as to teach them English, math, and marketing skills. In the process, she was exposed to the cultural interaction oftwo unique and distinct cultures in Central Pennsylvania, the Pennsylvania Germans and the Hmong.

NOTES 1 John Joseph Stoudt, Early Pennsylvania Arts and Crafts(New York: Crown Publishers, 1964), p. 259. 2 Paul and Elaine Lewis,Peoples of the Golden Triangle(London and New York: Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 1984), pp. 104-105. 3 Lewis, p. 102. FURTHER READING Campbell, Margaret. From the Hands of the Hills. Hong Kong: Media Transasia, 1978.(Also,the Siam Society, Bangkok.) Dewhurst, C. Kurt and Ma.cDowell, Marsha,eds. Michigan Hmong Arts: Textiles in Transition. Michigan State University, 1983,Publications of the Museum. Lewis,Paul and Elaine. Peoples ofthe Golden Triangle. London and New York: Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 1984, pp. 100-133. Newman,Thelma. Contemporary Southeast Asian Arts and Crafts. New York: Crown Publishers. Robacker,Earl F. Touch ofthe Dutchland. New York: A.S. Barnes and Company, 1965,chapter 10.

MAHVASH One day, when I was a young girl, a man came up to me and gave me his keys, his name and a child. I painted the images of my happiness. My paintings were not small talks. I invited him to come in, sat him at my dinner table and told him my secrets.

MAHVASH STUDIO Call or write for Studio Appointment or Artist Catalog


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NAN & DAVID PIRNACK american folk an outsider art architectural unique decorative arts by appointment & these summer shows: •Ethnographic Show Santa Fe/Aug. 11-13 •Folk Fest Atlanta /Aug. 18-20 boulder. eolorado 303-444-8222

Three prime examples ofMoses Ogden carvings,4to 51/2", 19th century New York state. See"American Primitive: Discoveriesin Folk Sculpture" by Ricco-Maresca,pgs. 236-237




Selected Pieces from the Collections of Daisy Wade Bridgesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Leon Danielson and other prestigious Southern Pottery Collectors at ABSENTEE AUCTION SALE EVENT Preview bidding begins June 14th, 1995. Ends.July 15th, 1995. Fully illustrated biographical catalogue available.


The Living Advancement by Traditional Southern Folk Potters of Yesteryear and Today. Membership Available. Southern Folk Pottery Collectors Society Shop/Museum Wednesday through Saturday 10:00-5:00 or by appointment 1828 N. Howard Mill Road Robbins, NC 27325 Phone:(910)464-3961 NE.Auction Firm License #5902

41111 SUMMER 1995 FOLK ART


Continuedfrom page 16

of craft," the subject is dropped. Individual essays consider various aspects of quilts and other textiles, pottery, basketry, and furniture, among other objects, but there is surprisingly little effort devoted to separating the admittedly tangled threads offolk art and craft. Many non-aesthetic issues are also addressed, providing interesting background material on craft and on folk art. There are important essays in this volume dealing with the influence of the government and private reformers and their encouragement of different regional, ethnic, and racial groups to create craft objects. There is absorbing information on both the good and bad effects of employment-through-craft-making schemes on Native American peoples, on the continuing vitality of southern African-American basketry, blacksmithing, and quilting, and on the influence of tourism and local enterprise upon the efflorescence of Hispanic craftsin the Southwest. But the aesthetics of craft and folk art are never highlighted. Artist and anthropologist Richard Nonas has wrestled with the distinction between craft and art and has opined that "Art is what ties us to the world beyond us. That is its difference from what we call either craft or design. Art is the way we puncture our own complacency; craft is the way we simply enhance it" (p.164,"The Snake in the Garden," in The Artist Outsider: Creativity and the Boundaries of Culture, Michael D. Hall and Eugene W. Metcalf, Jr. eds.,[Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994]). Nonas has underlined an extremely important difference between craft and folk art. Yet I believe that the issue is not that clear-cut. Whenever an undeniably powerful and provocative work catches our eye, it seems to

me that it must be hailed as art, no matter how it is labeled or what other categories it may appear in. Of course, it is not easy to sort out what is good, better, and best, but that is a task that critics, art publications, galleries, and museums perform. Because the fields of craft and folk art have only recently been seriously explored on the basis of aesthetics, there is still an extraordinary amount of sifting of the past to be accomplished, not to mention the ongoing analysis of new works and the continuing reassessment of older ones already studied. The fact that the aesthetic dimension is not uppermost in the minds of the organizers of the American Craft Museum's Revivals! is exactly why this publication will fail to satisfy many art lovers. Perhaps expecting a rigorous discussion of folk art and its relationship to craft is too much to expect in a volume that is already performing groundbreaking work in staking out the pertinent issues surrounding a multicultural appreciation of craft production during the twenties and thirties. The history of twentieth-century American craft can be plotted along a spectrum ranging from tradition on one end to innovation on the other. As the century grows older, more objects cluster away from tradition and toward innovation. It will be interesting to see how future exhibitions in this series at the American Craft Museum approach the definition of craft, not to mention folk art. â&#x20AC;&#x201D;N.F. Karlins

N.F. Karlins is the art criticfor The Westsider and Chelsea Clinton News newspapers in New York City. She has been a guest curatorfor the Museum ofAmerican Folk Art and a contributor to Folk Art magazine. Karlins received a Ph.D. in American Studiesfrom New York University.

Rosehips Gallery Lanier Meaders Michael Crocker Meaders Family BurIon Craig Billy Henson Newell Family Marie Rogers Richard Burnside Mary Greene James Harold Jennings R.A. Miller Jim Sudduth Mose T & Annie T Annie Wellborn Woodie Long & others


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Fall Antiques Show Back at the Armory

September 28 October 1, 1995 Preview September 27th To Benefit The Museum of American Folk Art Information & Reservations: (212) 977-7170

The Park Avenue Armory Park Avenue & 67th Street• New York City The most important American Antiques Show in the Country, featuring 76 distinguished dealers, exhibiting a complete range of American Antiques, Folk Art, Country Furniture, Quilts, Architectural Garden Furniture, Pottery, Textiles, American Indian Art, Fine Art & Decorative Accessories Produced & Managed By Sanford L. Smith & Associates 68 East 76 Street, NY 10003 • 212-777-5218 Fax: 212-477-6490

441)1.40, 4 i ti f 404:4...zt. r rtr.17 4t. 1C940 • •


Georgia Folk Artist MICHAEL SUTER

Jay Schuette

'The Fertile Acre'


"Catfish Man"

Acrylic On Wood 48" x 63"

One Man Show May 27 - June 21, 1995

Group Show July 22 - August 12, 1995

Main Street gallery 641 Main Street, Clayton, GA 30525 (706) 782-2440

& One Man Show August 3 - August 9, 1995 5K

44 Sailor's Valentine Gallery Folk Art

Fine Art

40 Centre Street, Nantucket, MA 02554 (508) 228-2011


Gallery owner Erich Starcher with painting on old wood, 30" x 78 1/2"

Lookingforward to seeing you in Atlantafor FOLK FEST '95 in August • Zebedee Armstrong • Robyn "The Beaver" Beverland Howard Finster • Lonnie Holley • S.L. Jones John Mason • Justin McCarthy • Rev. McKendree Long R.A. Miller • "Popeye" Reed • Marcus Staples Jimmy Lee Sudduth • Mose Tolliver • Knox Wilkinson ...and many others. •

ERICH CHRISTOPHER AND CHARLES Gallery of Outsider and Folk Art • 428 King Street

Charleston, South Carolina 29403 (803) 722-3845 • (803) 723-0807

Roy Minshew — Georgia Folk Carver —

Timpson Creek Gallery Route 2, Box 2117, Clayton, GA 30525 706-782-5164

THE SAM MCDOWELL MASTERS SERIES "Howling Wolf" Five Color-Scrimshawed Folding Knives, Box. Limited Edition: 50 Sets. Price: $4,000.00. Enquiries: P.O. Box 3546, Carmel, CA 93921.


Jesse Aaron J.R. Adkins Eddie Arning Andrea Badami Emile Branchard David Butler Vincent Canady Raymond Coins James Crane Uncle Jack Dey Sam Doyle

William Edmondson Minnie Evans Josephus Farmer J.O.J. Frost Morris Hirshfield J.C. Huntington Gustav Klumpp George Lothrop Annie Lucas Sister Gertrude Morgan Elijah Pierce

Martin Ramirez Nellie Mae Rowe Ellis Ruley Lorenzo Scott Drossos Skyllas Patrick Sullivan Bill Traylor Chief Willey Luster Willis Joseph Yoakum ...and others



Join the crowds heading to Wilton . •


WILTON ANTIQUES MARKETPLACE SHOWS September 17 Sunday,10-5 To benefit Drum Hill DAR

Admission $6.00 - $5.00 with card or ad

December 3 Sunday,10-5

STUDIO:6 Hilltop Road, Mendham, NJ 07945 201-543-2164 908-852-8128

A benefit for the John G. Corr Memorial Award Fund

Admission $6.00 - $5.00 with card or ad

Join. the Museum of

Wilton High School Field House

American Folk Art



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The best buy... The best pickings... EARLY BUYING 8:30-10:00 am $15.00 per person The finest one-day show in America, featuring130 distinguished dealers showing a wide range of authentic antiques in room settings. Including country and period formal 18th and 19th century furniture, folk art and fine art, prints and maps, ceramics, textiles,silver,jewelry,oriental rugs,architectural elements and American Indian arts in a range of prices.

WILTON Where one show is equal to multiple shows elsewhere •

Merritt Parkway: Exit 39B from the west Exit 41 from the east

1-95: Exit 15, north 8 miles

1-84: Rt. 7, south 12 miles

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Managed By Marilyn Gould MCG Antiques Promotions,Inc. 10 Chicken St., Wilton, Ct. 06897 (203)762-3525


Receive the quarterly Quilt Connection newsletter; a Quilt Connection pin; a 10% discount on quilt books at the Museum Book and Gift Shops; and many other benefits. Send your check for $15(Current Museum members pay only $10) to Quilt Connection, Museum of American Folk Art, 61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023. Visit the Museum: Columbus Avenue & 66th St. in New York City Tues.-Sun. 11:30 A.M.- 7:30 P.M. Current exhibition: Victorian Vernacular: The American Show Quilt

First Time Available Photo of POKTA Free 8" x 10" color print showing the reclusive artist and 30 of his works. Rural artist Pokta is now working exclusively with house paint on canvas or wood. Although he has given up painting with oils after 78 works, a few small oil paintings are still available. Pokta's imaginative and colorful paintings range from 5" x 7" to 8' x 25'. We also have a limited number of really fun sculptures and assemblages. Please call for gallery referral. To get your free 8" x 10" color print and more information,contact Dave Kessler at: OLD KESSLER FARM ANTIQUES Box 100, New Paris, Ohio 45347 Phone 513-437-7071 Fax 513-437-0263 Thanks!



2015 Route 100 • Macungie, PA

TOM DOUGLASS BOX 38 RT.1 HOP WOOD PA. 15445 (412) 438-4203

Jack Savitt Represents His Father

JACK SAVITSKY 20th Century American Folk Artist • Oils • Acrylics • Drawings For Appointment Call





Placemats for Citymeals-On-Wheels he colorful and graphic quilted placemats shown on these pages are the prize-winning entries from the Museum's Quilt Connection placemat contest. In October 1994, quilters were invited to make washable quilted placemats that, after judging, would be


Museum's director of licensing. After several hours of deliberation, the judges chose three winning placemats,four judge's choices, and one student winner. The desire to bring joy to homebound elderly people inspired our Quilt Connection members to create some truly Winner—Sue Cutsogeorge, Eugene, Oregon

Judge's Choice—lette Clover•Hurks, lilburg, the Netherlands

Winner—lette Mironovitch, Old Westbury, New York

given to Citymeals-On-Wheels for distribution to elderly people who are unable to shop and prepare meals for themselves. The contest was conceived as a simple project for experienced quilters, yet one on which beginning quilters could also embark with confidence. Quilt Connection members responded with love and enthusiasm and the Museum was delighted to receive several hundred placemats by the February 28, 1995, deadline. The judging took place on March 13. The judges included Ruth Finley, director of Fashion Calendar International and a member of Citymeals-OnWheels' board of trustees; Mary Hargroves, Vice President of Design, Town & Country Linens Corp.; Stacy C. Hollander, Curator, Museum of American Folk Art; and Alice J. Hoffman,the


unique and exciting quilted pieces. Quilters have traditionally responded with love in their hearts and needles in their hands when they were made aware of the plight of people in need. For many years, quilt guilds have made quilts for patients at nursing homes and children's hospitals, as well as people with AIDS. Helping others through quilting has long been a way of life for many talented quiltmakers around the world. As the Museum sought a way to distribute the placemats to the homebound, Citymeals-OnWheels became a logical choice. The organization was founded in 1981 by Gael Greene of New York magazine and the late renowned chef James Beard. Citymeals-On-Wheels raises private funds to supplement the fiveday-a-week home-delivered

Whiner—Virgkia R. Harris, East Palo Alto, California

meals program funded by the government. Volunteers deliver warm meals and extend a hand of friendship to homebound elderly people in New York City on weekends and holidays. City-

meals-On-Wheels underwrites meals prepared and delivered by more than 80 community-based service agencies throughout the five boroughs of New York City. Contributions from the general

Photography, Gavin Ashworth

public are used exclusively for home-delivered meals; administrative costs are covered by designated grants from individuals, corporations,foundations, and the government. In the past year, Citymeals-On-Wheels has served meals to approximately 13,000 people. The beautiful placemats made by our Museum members

x 18" and be made of washable fabrics. It could be pieced or appliqued and quilted by hand or machine. The design, color, and fabric were to be chosen by the quiltmaker. The Museum asked that the quilters put their name and state or country on the back of the piece so that the recipient would know who had made it. ledge's Cheice—Morld Sneer,Whole, Massachusetts

prised to receive a box containing 18 placemats made by a sixthgrade art class from the Deerfield School in Mountainside, N.J. The Museum was proud to exhibit the eight prize-winning placemats at its galleries at 2 Lincoln Square on Columbus Avenue from April 8 through May 31, and the balance of the placemats at the New York Quilt Festival, which took place May 10 through May 14. The Museum's Quilt Connection is a level of membership developed specifically for quilters and quilt enthusiasts. This dedicated group responded to a request from Dr. Robert Bishop in 1989 to make quilted vests for the docents in the Museum. The Museum supplied the vest patterns and the members responded by creating a wonderful selection of unique and colorful vests for our docents to wear while work-

Judge's Choiee—Sayoko Fujii, Tokyo

ing in the Museum."Quilt Connection All-Stars" was a contest held for Quilt Connection members in conjunction with the Great American Quilt Festival 4. The winning quilts were exhibited at the festival in 1993. A catalog of the winning quilts, published by the Museum,illustrates the high level of creativity and craftsmanship of these talented members. Many members sent notes with their placemat entries commenting on how much they had enjoyed the project and asking if it could be extended. The Museum is very happy to announce that it will continue to accept placemats for the remainder of 1995 and Citymeals-On-Wheels will gladly continue to distribute these thoughtful gifts from our members.

Judge's Choke—Choy!L Paul, Akron, Ohio

will be delivered to the homebound with a nutritious, warm meal by a friendly Citymeals-OnWheels volunteer. The contest rules were simple. Each placemat had to measure 14

The Museum received entries from many states as well as France, the Netherlands, South Africa, Japan, Sweden, Australia, and Canada. The Quilt Connection staff was delightfully sur-

Student Winner—Lauren Beasley of the Deerfield School, Mountainside, New Jersey


Guests hurry to place their silent auction bids.

Museum's Country Auction a Huge Success n April 11, 1995,500 friends and supporters turned out at Sotheby's in New York City for the Museum's Benefit Country Auction. Thanks to the vision and leadership of Benefit Chairman and Museum Trustee Edward Lee Cave,the event was an outstanding success. Proceeds raised from both the silent and live auctions well exceeded all expectations. The Museum is grateful to the exceptionally hardworking benefit committee: Honorary Chairwoman Donna Hanover Giuliani; Corporate Chairman Edward Vermont Blanchard; 18th and 19th Century Chairman Ralph 0. Esmerian; 20th Century Chairwomen Anne Hill Blanchard and Gael Mendelsohn; Silent Auction Chairwomen Michele Ateyeh and Donna Slade; Dinner Chairwoman Linda Martinson Mayer;


Junior Chairwoman Jillian Johnson; and Catalog Chairmen William W.Stahl, Jr., Nancy C. Drucicman, and Leslie Keno. Special recognition is due to the Museum's Deputy Director for External Relations, Riccardo Salmona, who spearheaded the Benefit Country Auction and graciously acted as auctioneer, and to Development Associate Jennifer Waters, who coordinated all aspects of the evening. The Museum also wishes to extend its thanks to the gifted and dedicated staff of Sotheby's and to all of the volunteers who contributed their time and energy. Most importantly, the Museum owes a profound debt of gratitude to the auction donors, without whom the funds raised by the event would not have been realized.

Deputy Director Riccardo Salmona with Crossan and Peggy SeYbolt

Trustee Lucy C. Danziger with Nell and Herbert Singer

188 and Jayne Gelbman \I

Honorary Chairwoman Donna Hanover Giuliani and Trustee Edward Lee Cave, Benefit Country Auction Chairman

1<" \R I

June Shelp


t Caroline and Lucien Yokana Guthrie


The auction was followed by a country dinner catered by Great Performances Catered Events.

Photography, David Hayes

CENTER STAR CRAZY QUILT THROW; Mary A. (Crocker) Hinman (1817-18931; New York; 1880-1890; hand-sewn silks and embroidery; 64 52/r"; Museum of American Folk Art, gift of Ruth E. Avard, 1993.2.1


Royal Robertson

Victorian Quilt Exhibition Opens n Monday evening, April 10, Museum members and friends celebrated the opening of"Victorian Vernacular: The American Show Quilt." The exhibition features the fanciest of all textiles, the Victorian show quilt. This beautiful exhibition features 24 spectacular quilts, drawn primarily from the collection of the Museum of American Folk Art, and includes nineteenth-century home furnishings such as vases, paperweights, platters, and fans, as well as period photographs, scrapbooks, and family albums. By placing these extraordinary textiles in the context of the decorative arts of the period, co-curators Elizabeth V. Warren and Sharon Eisenstat have suc-


cessfully illustrated design sources, such as the Japanese influence and the decorative principles of the Aesthetic movement. Through Warren and Eisenstat's vision, interpreted by the exhibition designer, Gina Bianco, "Victorian Vernacular: The American Show Quilt" is a truly gorgeous feast for the eye that evokes the Victorian craving for opulent objects and surface ornamentation. The Museum's director, Gerard C. Wertkin, addressed those gathered and thanked the lenders to the exhibition, as well as the curators and the design director. The exhibition, which will be on view through September 10, should not be missed.

Staff Members Speak at the Met a breakaway session on the artist tacy Hollander, the MuseMinnie Evans on February 6 as um's curator, was a panelist part of a conference for schoolin a discussion at The Metbased educators at The Met. The ropolitan Museum of Art called event, which celebrated African"Perspectives on Contemporary American artists, included the Art and Folk Art," held on April participation of The Schomburg 23 in conjunction with their exhiCenter for Research in Black bition "I Tell My Heart: The Art Culture, The Museum of Modern of Horace Pippin." Lowery Sims, Art, The Studio Museum in Associate Curator in the DepartHarlem, and the Whitney Musement of Twentieth Century Art at um of American Art. The Met, moderated the event. Lee Kogan, director of the Museum's Folk Art Institute, led


Royal Robertson was born 1930 in St. Mary's Parish, Louisiana. Robertson has recorded his visions of God, aliens, futuristic architecture, modes of transportation and heavenly cities since the age of 14. This photo shows his powerful environment prior to Hurricane Andrew's destruction. His works had covered the entire yard and house, with the interior a maze of secret rooms concealing various shrines and altars. Presently, his house has been rebuilt and Royal is obsessively working to restore his environment.

Webb Gallery 107 North Rogers Waxahachie,Texas 75165 (214)938-8085 WebbArt


"Tile Beaver" "Colorful Birds in the Tree"

744 &Qom, 1'193

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"The Beaver" will be at the: FOLK FEST '95 — Atlanta, GA. — August 18-20, 1995 also at the

F.A.S.A. CONVENTION Folk Art Society of America Atlanta, GA — October 12-15, 1995 If your Folk Art Gallery would like to carry 'The Beaver"Folk Art call...

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Mackerel on Blue Willtm by Pamela Sch,x)Ir%

Gallerg Americana 3941 San Felipe Houston.Texas77027 (713)622-6225

From the Museum of American Folk Art Collection'\'


3 Valo

0 For wholesale accounts interested in our catalog of fine handcrafted jewelry and fashion accessories in pewter and 24k gold plate, call (800)222-3142. Danforth Pewterers, P.O. Box 828, Middlebury, Vermont 05753

"Fruit Basket" Brooch (actual size)



Folk Pest '9

Self-taught • Outsider • Southern Folk Pottery European Naive • Primitive • Visionary • Folk Art

ALABAMA Artisans Clary Sage Gallery Cotton Belt FOLKWEAR Marcia Weber-Art Objects COLORADO Art Adventure Nan & David Pirnack FLORIDA Leslie Neumann Fine Art Tyson Trading Company Wanda's Quilts Zak Gallery GEORGIA Berman Gallery Charles Locke Connell Gallery E. Register The Hambidge Center The High Museum Jerry Campbell Jim Allen John Denton Knoke Galleries of Atlanta Larry Schlachter Le Primitif Galleries Local Color Main Street Gallery Millie Leathers Modern Primitive Gallery Robert Koontz Robert Reeves Rosehips Gallery Timpson Creek Gallery Trader's Focus Traditional Southern Pottery, Etc. Tom Wells W. Newton Crouch, Jr. IU_INOIS Art From the Inside IOWA The Pardee Collection KENTUCKY Hackley Gallery Heike Pickett Gallery Kentucky Folk Art Center Loch Lea Antiques LOUISIANA Gilley's Gallery Trade Folk Art

Photo Courtesy of John Denton

AUGUST 18, 19, 20, 1995

MISSOURI Galerie Bonheur Margaret Doan Folk & Outsider Art R. Ege Antiques NEW YORK American Primitive Gallery Frank J. Miele Gallery Jim Linderman Museum of American Folk Art NORTH CAROUNA The Art Cellar Gallery At Home Gallery Black Mountain Antiques Blue Spiral 1 Catawba Valley Pottery Creative Heart Gallery Ginger Young Galleries Hayes Antiques Keeping Room Antiques The Southern Folk Pottery Collector's Society South Mountain Antiques OHIO Bingham & Vance Far ARTE Gallery PENNSYLVANIA Hotstuff Hustontown Patrick J. McArdle SOUTH CAROLINA America* Oh Yes! Erich Christopher The LaRoche Collection Red Piano, Too Phil & Debbie Wingard TENNESSEE Bruce Shelton Rising Fawn Folk Art VERMONT Boone Gallery Folk Art VIRGINIA Hurrah! WISCONSIN Dean Jensen Gallery EUROPE Galerie Politeo MEXICO Juaquin Venado

North Atlanta Trade Center/Atlanta, GA Meet the Artists at Friday Night's Show Opening & Party

To Montgomery

Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport

North Atlanta Trade Center 1-85 and Indian Trail Road

Friday: Aug. 18, 1995, 5 - 10 pm Saturday: Aug. 19, 1995, 10- 7 pm Sunday: Aug. 20, 1995, 10 - 5 pm For FREE newsletter & more information on Folk Fest'95, call or write: Steve & Amy Slotin • 2733 Briarcliff Road, #5• Atlanta, GA 30329•(404)633-1730



JIM LINDERMAN FOLK AND OUTSIDER ART SELF-TAUGHT ART OF THE 20TH CENTURY Four Centuries of Norwegian Folk Art rom ceremonial Viking drinking vessels to exuberantly painted and decorated traveling trunks, the continuity and richness of the folk art of Norway is explored in the major exhibition "Norwegian Folk Art: The Migration of a Tradition." Jointly organized by the Museum of American Folk Art and the Norwegian Folk Museum in Oslo, this traveling show premieres at the Museum of American Folk Art in New York City on September 16, 1995, and remains on view through January 6, 1996. Through more than 175 works of art, many lent by Norwegian museums and shown for the first time in this country, the exhibition chronicles the development of Norwegian folk art. Highlighting Viking and medieval art that evolved into folk traditions, this exhibition includes objects that were brought to America by Norwegian immigrants and continued to play a role in the immigrant community. Also included are objects made in America in the Norwegian tradition.


The exhibition has been organized by Marion Nelson, director emeritus of Vesterheim, the Norwegian-American Museum in Decorah, Iowa, and widely recognized both here and in Norway as the dean of Norwegian decorative arts studies in the United States. The exhibition examines the role of folk art in the retention of ethnic identity and how that identity is preserved, in part, through the symbolic use of art. The Museum has developed a full complement of educational programs for adults and children using an interactive approach that will provide a framework for understanding Norwegian-American cultural expression. A symposium, crafts and folk music demonstrations, workshops, and weekend storytelling are planned. "Norwegian Folk Art: The Migration of a Tradition" is presented through Norwegian Visions, a Norwegian-American cultural partnership.

ALE BOWL OF KIENGE TYPE WITH DRAGON AND SERPENT HEAD HANDLES; carver unknown; possibly painted by Thomas Luraas; Hardanger, Norway; dated 1845; carved and painted birch; 4 16./4 11/4" deep. Collection of Little 3 10/ Norway, Blue Mounds, Wisconsin.

EMILE BRANCHARD (1881 - 1938) "Young Girl" Oil on Board 11 x 9 c.1925 Exhibited "Twentieth Century Self-Taught Artists" The Noyes Museum 1994






MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART COLLECTION' Home Furnishings and Decorative Accessories Representing over 300 years ofAmerican design,from the late 1600s to the present, the Museum ofAmerican Folk Art Collection' brings within reach ofthe public the very best ofthe past to be enjoyedfor

Perfect Fit Industries

generations to come. New Directions The Museum welcomes two new licensees: Enesco Corporation makes gift giving easy year round with a new decorative home accessories program. The first collection of giftware created from Museum quilts, hooked rugs, sculptural objects, and scenic and marine paintings will be available this fall. General Foods International Corporation's coffee never "looked" so good. GFIC designed three limited-edition coffee tins from quilts in the Museum's collection—Stella's Song, by Oleeta Patterson of Waco,Texas; Michegamee's Wild Rose, by Marie Stunner of Traverse City, Michigan; and Mariner's Compass, by an unknown quiltmaker. To start a collection, look for Suisse Mocha,French Vanilla Cafe, and Kahlua Cafe coffees in these tins at your grocery store this fall. News from Museum L11:01101100

* Dakotah,Inc.,introduced American Regions at the Spring Home Textiles Show in New York City. This series of decorative pillows, wall art, and tote bags, which previews this fall, presents a view of American folk art from coast to coast. *Danforth Pewterers,Ltd., previewed a new collection of pewter and gold-plated jewelry and fashion accessories this spring. Brooches, pendants,


keyrings, earrings, scatter and charm pins, tie tacks, and necklaces inspired by works of art from the Museum include Fruit Basket, Seated Tiger, Classic Leaf, Warm Friendship, and Sun & Stars. * The Lane Company,Inc., offered for the first time a Museum series of decorated minichests—destined to become cherished collectibles—at the April International Furniture Market in High Point, North Carolina. Favorite images from the Museum featured in this first series—Girl in Red Dress with Cat and Dog, Situation of America 1848, Center Star Crazy Quilt, and the Osgood Checker Board—will appeal to both adults and children. *Perfect Fit Industries previewed Classical Bouquet, a stunning new bed ensemble, at the Spring Home Textiles Show in New York City. Throughout the 18th century, most households included some bit of painted decoration to brighten the everyday scene. By the mid-19th century, the tradition was widespread. Boxes, trays,firescreens, and tinware sparkled with sheens of gold and bronze and brilliant painted bouquets. This bedding design, based on a painted tinware tray, brings the garden indoors all year long. Dear Customer Your purchase of Museumlicensed products directly benefits the cultural and educational activ-

hil`NTUM tit Mitt kb AN

Family of Licensees

Takashimaya Company, Ltd.

ities of the Museum. Thank you for participating in the Museum's continuing effort to celebrate the style, craft, and tradition of American folk art. If you have any questions or comments regarding the Museum of American Folk Art Collection,TM please contact us at 212/977-7170.

Danforth Pewterers, Ltd.

Abbeville Press(212/888-1969) gift wrap, book/gift tags and quilt note cube.* Artwear, Inc.(800/551-9945)activewear, T-shirts.* Concord Miniatures(800/888-0936)1"-scale furniture and accessories.* Dakotalt,Inc. (800/325-6824) decorative pillows, table linens, woven throws,chair pads. Danforth Pewterers,Ltd.(800/222-3142) pewter jewelry and accessories, buttons, ornaments, keyrings.* Dynasty Dolls(800/888-0936) collectible porcelain dolls.* Enesco Corporation (800/436-3726)decorative home giftware col lection. Galison Books(212/354-8840) note cards, address book, puzzle, holiday cards.* General Foods International Corporation (800/432-6333)coffee in decorative tins. Imperial Wancoverings,Inc.(216/4643700) wallcoverings, borders. James River Corporation, Creative Expressions Groups (800/843-6818) party goods. The Lane Company,Inc., including Lane/Venture and Lane Upholstery (800/447-4700)furniture(case goods, wicker and upholstered furniture). Lenox Collections(800/233-1885) Museum Treasury of Collectibles. Perfect Fit Industries(704/289-1531) machine-made in America printed bedcovers and coordinated bedroom products. Remington Apparel Co.,Inc. (203/821-3004) men's and women's ties.* Rose Art Industries(800/CRAYONS)jigsaw puzzles.* Rowe Pottery Works(608/7645435)Pennsylvania redware and salt-glazed stoneware(microwave, oven,and dishwasher safe).* Takashimaya Company,Ltd. (212/350-0550) home furnishings accessories and furniture (available only in Japan). Tyndale,Inc.(312/384-0800)lighting and lampshades. Wild Apple Graphics, Ltd. (800/756-8359)fine art reproduction prints and posters. *Available in Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shops. For mail-order information,contact Beverly McCarthy at 212/977-7170.


BOARD OF TRUSTEES Executive Committee Ralph 0.Esmerian President Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq. Executive Vice President and Chairman, Executive Committee Lucy C. Danziger Executive Vice President Bonnie Strauss Vice President Joan M.Johnson Vice President Peter M.Ciccone Treasurer George F. Shaskan, Jr., Secretary Susan Klein




American Folk Art Society Amicus Foundation William Arnett Asahi Shimbun Mr.& Mrs. Arthur L. Barrett Ben & Jerry's Homemade,Inc. Estate of Abraham P. Bersohn Dr. Robert Bishop Edward Vermont Blanchard & M. Anne Hill Mr.& Mrs. Edwin C. Braman Marilyn & Milton Brechner Mr. & Mrs. Edward J. Brown Iris Cannel Morris B. and Edith S. Cartin Family Foundation Tracy & Barbara Cate Edward Lee Cave Chinon, Ltd. Estate of Thomas M.Conway David L. Davies Mr.& Mrs. Donald DeWitt Gerald & Marie DiManno The Marion & Ben Duffy Foundation Mr.& Mrs. Alvin Einbender Ellin F. Ente Ross & Glady A. Faires Daniel & Jessie Lie Farber Eva Feld Estate of Morris Feld Janey Fire & John Kalymnios Susan & Eugene Flamm RECENT


$50,000—$99,999 Anonymous Johnson & Johnson The Henry Luce Foundation, Inc. Joseph Martinson Memorial Fund




Honorary Trustee Eva Feld

Members Edward Lee Cave Joyce Cowin David L. Davies Raymond C. Egan Jacqueline Fowler Susan Gutfreund ICristina Barbara Johnson, Esq. George H. Meyer, Esq. Cyril I. Nelson Cynthia V.A. Schaffner David C. Walentas L. John Wilkerson, Ph.D Robert N. Wilson THE




Trustees Emeriti Cordelia Hamilton Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr. Margery G. Kahn Alice M. Kaplan Jean Lipman


Walter and Josephine Ford Fund Jacqueline Fowler Selma & Sam Goldwitz Irene & Bob Goodkind Mr.& Mrs. Baron Gordon Doris Stack Green Cordelia Hamilton Taiji Harada William Randolph Hearst Foundation Terry & Simca Heled Alice & Ronald Hoffman Mr. & Mrs. David S. Howe Mr.& Mrs. Albert L. Hunecke, Jr. Mr.& Mrs. Yee Roy Jear Barbara Johnson, Esq. Joan & Victor L. Johnson Isobel & Harvey Kahn Louise & George Kaminow Shirley & Theodore L. Kesselman Mr.& Mrs. Robert Klein Kodansha, Ltd. Lee & Ed Kogan Wendy & Mel Lavitt James & Frances Lieu Howard & Jean Lipman Foundation Robert & Betty Marcus Foundation, Inc. C.F. Martin IV Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq. Masco Corporation Christopher & Linda Mayer


Marjorie W. McConnell Michael & Marilyn Mennello Benson Motechin Johleen Nester, John Nester II, and Jeffrey Nester Kathleen S. Nester NYNEX Corporation Paul Oppenheimer Dorothy 8c Leo Rabkin Cathy Rasmussen Ann-Marie Reilly Willa & Joseph Rosenberg Betsey Schaeffer The William P. and Gertrude Schweitzer Foundation, Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Richard Sears Mr. & Mrs. George F. Shaskan, Jr. Louise A. Simone Patricia Lynch Smith & Sanford L. Smith Mr. & Mrs. Richard L. Solar Mr.& Mrs. Austin Super Mr.& Mrs. Stanley Tananbaum Phyllis & Irving Tepper Two Lincoln Square Associates Anne Utescher Elizabeth & Irwin Warren Mrs. Dixon Wecter Gerard C. Wertkin Robert N.& Anne Wright Wilson Mr.& Mrs. John H. Winkler


The Museum of American Folk Art greatly appreciates the generous support of the following friends: $100,000 and above Anonymous Estate of Daniel Cowin Ford Motor Company The J.M. Kaplan Fund,Inc. Jane & David Walentas


520,000—$49,999 Mr. & Mrs. Leon Black Coca-Cola Foundation, Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Frederick M. Danziger National Endowment for the Arts Restaurant Associates Industries, Inc. Barbara 8z Thomas W.Strauss Fund Robert N.& Anne Wright Wilson $10,000—$19,999 The Beacon Group Bear, Steams & Co.,Inc. Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Country Living Joyce Cowin David L. Davies and Jack Weeden Dietrich American Foundation 8z H.Richard Dietrich

William B.Dietrich & William B. Dietrich Foundation Mr.& Mrs. Raymond C. Egan Jacqueline Fowler Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver, & Jacobson Estate of Aniel T. Hubbell Joan & Victor L. Johnson Mr.& Mrs. Robert E. Klein Howard and Jean Lipman Foundation Vincent Mai & AEA Investors Inc. Merrill Lynch George H. Meyer, Esq. NYNEX Corporation The Olsten Corporation Schlumberger Foundation Inc. Mr.& Mrs. George F. Shaskan, Jr. Patricia Lynch Smith & Sanford L. Smith (continued on page 68)


Third Outsider Art Fair ore than 4,500 persons attended the third annual Outsider Art Fair at the Puck Building in New York City on Saturday and Sunday, January 27 and 28, 1995,in addition to the 700 who attended the opening-night preview on Friday, January 27. Buyers and browsers were able to view an astonishing array of work by acknowledged masters of contemporary folk art, such as William Edmondson, Morris Hirshfield, and Bill Traylor, as well as lesser-known artists such as Clyde Angel, Ree Brown,and Malcolm McKesson. Colin Lynch Smith of Sanford L. Smith & Associates, the show's producers, stated that he was very pleased with the turnout.


Trustees Frances S. Martinson and Jacqueline Fowler with Director Gerard C. Wertkin in Marion Harris's booth. Gregory Warrnack (Mr. Imagination) discussing his art in the Carl Hammer Gallery booth.

The Pardee Collection's representative David Rowe discussing the work of Clyde Angel with a previewnight guest.

As in past years, the majority of the artwork was offered at prices that ranged from $2,000 to $4,000. The Ames Gallery of Berkeley, Calif., featured artists exclusively from its home state, and sold an A.G. Rizzoli for $65,000 and works by San Francisco artist Dorothy Binger for as little as $100 and $200. Bonnie Grossman, The Ames


Gallery director, reported that she not only sold everything in her booth, but also took orders for works left back at her gallery on the strength of photographs she had brought with her. The Museum's Book Shop booth carried a full range of titles on self-taught art and artists. Members—even those who signed up the same day—

took advantage of their 10% discount at the book booth, where profits exceeded expectations. Our membership department reported that 60 new members joined the Museum as a result of the event. A symposium organized by the Museum of American Folk Art and The Newark Museum was held on Saturday and Sunday. On Saturday, the Museum of American Folk Art presented "Uncommon Artists III: A Series of Cameo Talks," held at the Cavin-Morris Gallery at 560 Broadway—a quick walk from the Puck Building. Speakers included Gerard C. Wertldn, Roger Cardinal, Ann Oppenhimer, Bonnie Grossman, David Owsley, and Lee Kogan. On Sunday, The Newark Museum presented "A World of Their Own: Twentieth-Century Ameri-

can Folk Artists," a panel discussion relating to the exhibition of the same name. A day trip, held on Friday, January 27, and sponsored by the Museum of American Folk Art Explorers' Club,included a tour of some of New York City's unique memorial walls, several of which were painted by Antonio "Chico" Garcia, a known memorial wall artist. The day trip also included tours at The Newark Museum and the Museum of American Folk Art. Several receptions and "open houses" were held in conjunction with the fair at neighboring galleries over the three days, and as the weather was clear and sunny,the streets of SoHo virtually hummed with art enthusiasts, diners, and shoppers, making for a festive and delightful weekend.

Salute to Volunteers he Museum of American Folk Art owes much of its success and smooth operation to the commitment, dedication, and hard work of the many volunteers who serve in its galleries, book and gift shops, and administrative offices. The Museum's docents, under the leadership of docent coordinator Arlene Hochman and gallery managers Pamela Brown and Danielle Schwartz, conduct tours through the permanent collection and special exhibitions. Docents put in a minimum of one threehour shift per week and work weekdays, weekends, and evenings. They are always prepared to answer the many questions our visitors—who are as diverse as our Museum's presentations—can think to ask them. Children of all ages, who sometimes arrive in large school groups, are especially welcomed by our docent team. In addition to their commitment on the gallery floor, docents are required to audit courses at the Museum's Folk Art Institute and expected to attend scheduled presentations by Museum staff, exhibition curators, and other professionals in specialized fields. The Museum relies heavily on revenues generated from its book and gift shops. In addition to its regular locations at 2 Lincoln Square and Rockefeller Center, interim shops are set up for special events such as the Fall Antiques Show and the Outsider Art Fair and, during the Christmas season, at New York's Grand Central Station. Ours are some of the most delightful and innovative Museum shops in the country and our volunteers deal with a varied and truly interesting customer base. Volunteers work closely with shop managers Dorothy


Gargiulo, Caroline Hohenrath, and Rita Pollitt, as well as with our information systems manager, Claudia Andrade, and mail order manager, Beverly McCarthy. Marie S. DiManno,the director of the Museum shops, attributes a great deal of the shops' success to the inspiring shop managers. To Marie's immense credit and theirs, there is almost nothing her troop of shop volunteers wouldn't do for the Museum. Administrative volunteers work with members of the Museum's professional staff on a regular basis and on special projects throughout the year, and in intern programs. The Museum is

extremely fortunate to have in its library Eugene P. Sheehy,former head of the reference department at the Columbia University Library, and Rita G. Keckeissen, former assistant head of the reference department at the Columbia University Library. Sheehy and Keckeissen each graciously donate eight hours per week to keep our library running smoothly and have done so for eight years. Between them they have probably logged in more than 6,000 hours of invaluable service. The Museum's Folk Art Institute and its director, Lee Kogan, depend on volunteers Deborah Ash and Joan Bloom, who work regularly in the

institute's registrar's office keeping the records of all courses, lectures, instructors, guest speakers, and students in order—a daunting task for any team. Almost every department has relied on volunteers to help accomplish its mission and we wish to take this small space to thank all of them for the crucial role they play. For information about becoming a Museum volunteer, please write to the Museum of American Folk Art, 61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023 or call 212/977-7170 for a volunteer or docent brochure.



Deborah Ash Bernice Berkower Mercedes Bierman Joan Bloom Yvonne Campbell Leeann Coffin Beth Connor Claire J. Cowdery Debbie Dunn Beate Echols Jacqueline Ehle Joyce Eppler Kathleen Estes Minnie Finkelstein Nancy Fischer Sally Frank Irwin Gittleman Mildred Gladstone Dale Gregory Arlene Hochman

Bella Kranz Dorothy Jane Lichtman Ada Lyttle Esperanza G. Martinez

Marie Anderson Helen Barer Olive Bates Mary Campbell

Miriam Nadel Susan Oostdyk Jenny Peters Gertrude Quinn

Diane Rigo Judy Rothstein Marilyn Schwartz Marion Shapin Mary-Beth Shine Linda Simon

Sally Frank Jennifer Gerber Millie Gladstone Elli Gordon Edith Gusoff Ann Hannon Bernice Hoffer Elizabeth Howe Joan Langston Annette Levande Arleen Luden Nancy Mayer

Meg Smeal Sara Snook Lynn Steuer Rachel L.S. Strauber

Katie McAuliffe Theresa Naglack Pat Pancer Marie Peluso

Maridean Hutton Louise Kaminow Barbara Klinger Sharon D. Koota

JoAnne Vellardita Gloria Wolinsky

Judy Rich Frances Rojack Phyllis Selnick Myra Shaskan

Roberta E. Rabin Jeanne Riger

Lola Silvergleid Maxine Spiegel Mary Wamsley


Deborah Lyttle Ash Joan Bloom Bernice Cohen Phyllis Epstein Arlene Hochman Rita G. Keckeissen Barbara Klinger Marisa Newman Eugene P. Sheehy Meg Smeal Jennifer Wolfe Diana Zanganas





Continuedfrom page 65 $4,000—$9,999 The American-Scandinavian Foundation The Blackstone Group Edward Vermont Blanchard & M. Anne Hill Joan Bull Clarissa & H. Steve Burnett John R.& Dorothy D. Caples Fund Edward Lee Cave Christie's Mr.& Mrs. Joseph Cullman ILI Debevoise & Plimpton Delta Queen Steamboat Company Inc. Department of Cultural Affairs, City of New York Ernst & Young LLP The FINOVA Group Inc. Georgia-Pacific Corporation Goldman,Sachs,& Co. Hill and Knowlton,Inc. MBNA America, NA. Constance Milstein Morgan Stanley Foundation New York State Council on the Arts Olympia & York Companies (U.S.A.) Philip Morris Companies Inc. Dorothy & Leo Rabldn Mr.& Mrs. Frank Richardson Herbert and Nell Singer Philanthropic Fund Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher,& Flom Time Warner Inc. $2,000—$3,999 Anonymous Anonymous American Folk Art Society Mr.& Mrs. James A. Block Capital Cities/ABC Steven D. Cochran Mr.& Mrs. Edgar M. Cullman Mr.& Mrs. Richard Danziger Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette The Richard C. and Susan B. Ernst Foundation Ellen Howe Marsh & McLennan Companies,Inc. Mr.& Mrs. Robert Meltzer Project Find Paige Rense The Rockefeller Group Joseph E. Seagrams & Sons,Inc. Peter J. Solomon Sotheby's Sterling Winthrop Alan Sullivan, Canadian Consulate General Washington Heights Mental Health Council Inc. Dr. & Mrs. L. John Wilkerson $1,00041,999 Anonymous Mr.& Mrs. Michael G. Allen Mr. R. Randolph Apgar & Mr. Allen Black Tamiko Arata Mr. and Mrs. David Barrett Mr.& Mrs. Thomas Block Tina & Jeffrey Bolton Marilyn & Milton Breclmer Lois P. Broder Mr.& Mrs. Thatcher M. Brown Liz Claiborne Foundation The Coach Dairy Goat Farm Joseph Cohen Conde Nast Publications Inc. Consolidated Edison Company of New York


The Cowles Charitable Trust Mr.& Mrs. Edgar Cullman Susan R. Cullman Mr.& Mrs. David Dangoor Allan & Kendra Daniel Aaron Daniels Gary Davenport Mr.& Mrs. Alvin Deutsch Mr.& Mrs. Charles Diker The Echo Design Group Inc. Margot & John Ernst Helaine & Burton M Fendelman Alexander E. Fisher Mrs. Walter B. Ford, II Jacqueline Fowler Evelyn W.Frank in honor of Myra & George F. Shaskan, Jr. Robert M. Frank Jay Furman Howard Gillman Foundation Dr. Kurt Gitter Mr.& Mrs. Eric J. Gleacher Mr.& Mrs. Robert Goldman Margo Grant Mr.& Mrs. David T. Green Mr.& Mrs. Stanley Greenberg Todd Hensley, C & T Publishing Pamela J. Hoiles Fern & Robert J. Hurst Mr. Richard Jenrette Mr.& Mrs. Alistair Johnson Kristina Barbara Johnson,Esq. Kaye Insurance Associates, L.P. Mr. 8z. Mrs. Michael Kellen Mr.& Mrs. Steven Kellogg Mr.& Mrs. Ronald Lauder Susan & Jerry Lauren Wendy & Mel Lavitt Mark Leavitt Fred Leighton Mr. & Mrs. John Levin Mr. & Mrs. Morris Levinson Nadine & Peter Levy Ellen & Arthur Liman Dan Lufkin A. Mac Gregor III R.H. Macy & Company,Inc. Sylvia & Leonard Marx Mr.& Mrs. Christopher Mayer Mrs. Myron Mayer McGraw-Hill Foundation, Inc. Gael & Michael Mendelsohn Mr.& Mrs. Jeremy N. Murphy Mr.& Mrs. Samuel Palley Mr.& Mrs. Jeffrey Peek Random House Inc. Ricco/Maresca Gallery Dorothy Hyman Roberts William Rodina Mr.& Mrs. Daniel Rose in honor of Kristina Barbara Johnson, Esq. Mr.& Mrs. Jon W.Rotenstreich Mr.& Mrs. Michael Schulhof Cipora & Philip Schwartz H. Marshall Schwarz Jean S.& Frederic A. Sharf Mr.& Mrs. David Stein Mr.& Mrs. Robert C. Stempel Lynn Steuer Mr.& Mrs. Stanley Tananbaum David Teiger

Tiffany & Company Peter & Lynn Tishman Mr.& Mrs. Raymond C. Troubh Sue & George Viener Mr.& Mrs. Irwin Warren Wertheim Schroder & Co.Inc. G. Marc Whitehead Susan Yecies $500—$999 Alconda-Owsley Foundation Nancy Allen Amy Cohen Arkin Louis Bachman Bettina Bancroft Dorothy Harris Bandier Margaret A. Barnard June & Frank Barsalona Mary Benisek Mr.& Mrs. Robert A. Bernhard Mr.& Mrs. Peter Bienstock Mr.& Mrs. Peter Bing Mr.& Mrs. James A. Block Mr.& Mrs. Leonard Block Dr. & Mrs. Robert E. Booth, Jr. Mr.& Mrs. Joseph Boyle Mr.& Mrs. Edwin Braman William F. Brooks, Jr. Mr.& Mrs. Edward J. Brown Gale M. Brudner G.K.S. Bush,Inc. Michael Bzdak Marcia Carsey Marjorie F. Chester Christie, Manson & Woods International, Inc. Peter M. Ciccone Harry W.Clark Mr.& Mrs. Marshall Cogan Gerald Cohen & Karen Callen Drs. Stephen & Helen Colen Prudence Colo Mr.& Mrs. Stephen H. Cooper Judy Cowen Mr.& Mrs. Lewis Cullman Cullman & Kravis Gary Davenport Carolyn & Robert Denham Mr.& Mrs. Charles Diker Charlotte Dinger Mrs. Marjorie Downey Mr.& Mrs. Arnold Dunn Richard Durnin Mr. & Mrs. James A. Edmonds,Jr. Mr.& Mrs. Lewis Eisenberg Sharon & Theodore Eisenstat Mr.& Mrs. Frederick Elghanayan Mr.& Mrs. Anthony B. Evnin Mr.& Mrs. Robert H. Falk Mr.& Mrs. Howard P. Fertig Mimi & Richard Fischbein Jay Furman Daniel Gantt Ronald J. Gard Mr.& Mrs. Bruce Geismar Mr.& Mrs. William Gladstone Mr.& Mrs. Baron J. Gordon Dr. & Mrs. Stanley Greenberg Grey Advertising Nancy & Michael Grogan Bonnie Grossman Mr. & Mrs. Henry Guettel

Sue Ellen & Warren Haber Cordelia Hamilton John Hays R. F. Hemphill, Jr. Mr.& Mrs. George B. Henry Mr. 8z Mrs. Richard Herbst Anne & John A. Herrmann Barbara & Tom Hess Mr.& Mrs. Walter W.Hess, Jr. Stephen Hill Mr.& Mrs. Leonard Hochman Maridean Hutton IBM Imperial Wallcoverings, Inc. Mr.& Mrs. Thomas C. Israel Dr. & Mrs. Josef Jelinek Guy Johnson Gerald P. Kaminsky & Jaclyn Kaminsky Cathy M. Kaplan Allan Katz Leigh Keno Dr. & Mrs. Arthur B. Kern Mr.& Mrs. Jerome H. Kern Mary Kettaneh Mr.& Mrs. Jonathan King Dynda & John Kirby Barbara Klinger Sharon & Ivan Koota Mr.& Mrs. Ted Kosloff Barbara & David Krashes Robert Landau The Lane Company,Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Leonard A. Lauder

Mr.& Mrs. Robert T. Schaffner Mr.& Mrs. Paul Schindler Mr.& Mrs. Roger Schlaifer David Schorsch Mary Schwartz Robert N. Sellar Rev. & Mrs. Alfred R. Shands III Sandra Doane Sherman Randy Siegel Francisco F. Sierra Susan & Joel Simon Slater Hanft Martin Inc. Mr.& Mrs. John Srnithers Mr.& Mrs. Richard Solar Ellen Sosnow Jerry I. Speyer William W.Stahl, Jr. Rachel & Donald Strauber Mr.& Mrs. Myles Tananbaum Mr.& Mrs. Jeff Tarr Mr.& Mrs. Richard T. Taylor Susan Unterberg Mr.& Mrs. Michael Varet Clune J. Walsh, Jr. Mr.& Mrs. Bennett Weinstock Herbert Wells Mr.& Mrs. Frank P. Wendt Anne Wesson Victoria Wilson Mr.& Mrs. William Ziff Howard Zipser Jon N.Zolar Mr.& Mrs. Donald Zuckert

Naomi Leff Mr.& Mrs. Roger Levin Bryan Lewis Mr.& Mrs. Kenneth Lewis Mr.& Mrs. John Libby Frances Lieu Mimi & Richard Livingston Helen Luchars Mr.& Mrs. James Maher Chris Martin Michael T. Martin Jim McDonough Grete Meilman Mr.& Mrs. Richard Mellon Ms. A. Forsythe Merrick Steve Miller Brook Garber Neidich Cyril I. Nelson Mr.& Mrs. Peterson Nelson David Nichols Paul L. Oppenheimer Dr. Burton W.Pearl Mr.& Mrs. William Pedersen Gregory Pelner Anthony Petullo Dale Precoda Richard Ravitch Irene Reichert Mr.& Mrs. Arthur Riordan Mr.& Mrs. David Ritter Mr.& Mrs. Derald H. Ruttenberg Mary Frances Saunders Mr.& Mrs. Oscar Schafer


Outsiders Outside First Outsider Art Fair in the Midwest July 28-30, 1995 ,aturday 9-6•Sunday 9 5 Prey - w Party 6-9 Friday, J ly 28 to benefit (In'tuit Show Location JL dith Racht Gall rY 1 = 707 Prairie R tad Harb.nt, Michigan 9115

Specializing in 19th & 20th century interesting, unusual, and fun stuff. Including: Tramp and obsessive art, whirligigs, carvings, paintings, quilts, & items made from found objects. Wood carved Indian with a wonderful painted, weathered surface. 43" high,from WI, c. 1925.

One ho r East of Chicago in famou Harber Country.

599 CUTLER AVE., MENTONE, AL 35984 (205)634-4037

For mor information -1•616c4 .1080

Free lists will be sent to you on request Photos lent Please specify your areas of Interest





Folk Art Weekend in Boca Raton




Lonnie Holley •James Harold Jennings Woodie Long • Charlie Lucas B.F. Perkins • Sarah Rakes Bernice Sims •Jimmie Lee Sudduth Annie Tolliver • Mose Tolliver and others Carol Sweeney 914-533-2738 South Salem, N.Y By Appointment

Ifyou're shown a high chest in New Hampshire, don't you think you should be told ifit originated in Montreal? So do we.

ADA Antique Dealers' Association of America,Inc.. Professional antiques dealers dedicated to integrity, honesty and ethical conduct. All members guarantee their merchandise as to age, origin and condition.

The 9th Annual ADA Antiques Show September 8,9,10, White Plains, NY Featuring

Reminiscences & Reflections on the Antiques Trade with "Zeke" Liverant & Albert Sack For a current 1995 directory of members write: Antique Dealers' Association of America,Inc. PO Box 335,Greens Farms,CT.06436


ollectors, artists, scholars, and folk art enthusiasts gathered in Boca Raton, Fla., from March 18 through March 20 for"A Winter Folk Art Weekend in the Sun," a symposium and exhibition held at the Nathan D. Rosen Gallery of the Adolph and Rose Levis Jewish Community Center. The symposium,funded by the Florida Humanities Council and the National Endowment for the Humanities, offered the public an opportunity to hear a group of scholars and artists discuss the cultural context of 20th-century folk art. Alice Rae Yelen, author and assistant to the director of the New Orleans Museum of Art, was the keynote speaker. On the panel were Joseph Jacobs, curator of painting and sculpture, The Newark Museum; Robert Roberg, Florida artist; Chuck Rosenak, collector and author; Cynthia Elyse Rubin, independent curator; Suzanne Shawe, exhibition curator; and Malcah Zeldis, New York artist. Dr. Kristin Cogden, associate professor of art at the University of Central Florida, moderated.


Awards for contributions to the field were given out at the exhibition preview. They went to Gerard C. Wertkin, director of the Museum of American Folk Art; Lee Kogan, director of the Museum's Folk Art Institute; William Arnett; T. Marshall Hahn,Jr.; and Malcah Zeldis, whose oil on canvas "Moses the Emancipator" was commissioned as the exhibition's centerpiece. The exhibition and sale "Contemporary Art: A View from the Outside," sponsored by Smith Barney Inc., featured works by Clyde Angel, Leroy Archuleta, Ned Cartledge, Raymond Coins, Mamie Deschillie, Thornton Dial, William Edmondson, Minnie Evans, Howard Finster, Bessie Harvey,Lonnie Holley, Charlie Lucas, Justin McCarthy, Bill Traylor, Terry Turrell, and Purvis Young,among others, and was open to the public through April 30. 13oth the symposium and exhibition were enthusiastically received.

Folk Art Explorers to Tour Nova Scotia et aside September6 through 11 to see Nova Scotia with the Folk Art Explorers' Club. Enjoy the magnificent beauty of one of Canada's Maritime Provinces while you explore the diversity of its art. We have arranged visits to many of Nova Scotia's notable folk artists and craftsmen as well as art collections, museums,and galleries. The group will be housed in Halifax and will make stops in many of the charming small villages in the area. Tour cost includes five


hotel nights, two dinners, three lunches, all admission charges, and motorcoach transportation. For information and reservations, please call Beth Bergin or Chris Cappiello at 212/977-7170. Ask about our upcoming trip to Santa Fe in November and our fabulous April in Paris tour for 1996.



Mark your calendars for the following Museum of American Folk Art exhibitions when they travel to your area during the coming months: June 2-July 30, 1995 Amish Quilts from the Collection of the Museum of American Folk Art The Nickle Arts Museum The University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta Canada 403/220-7234 June 16-September 30, 1995 Visiones del Pueblo: The Folk Art of Latin America Museo nacional de las culturas Mexico City, Mexico 525/512-7452

February 9 to April 7. 1996 Signs and Symbols: African Images in African-American Quilts from the Rural South Bayly Museum of the University of Virginia Charlottesville, Virginia 804/924-6321


For further information, contact Judith Gluck Steinberg, Coordinator of Traveling Exhibitions, Museum of American Folk Art, Administrative Offices, 61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023, 212/977-7170.

MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART SUMMER PROGRAMS The following free programs will be held at the Museum of American Folk Art's Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at 2 Lincoln Square, Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th streets, New York:

Saturday, June 10 Sunday, June 11 Tuesday, June 13 Wednesday,June 21 Thursday, June 29 Friday, July 7


July 2-August 28, 1995 Quilts from America's Flower Garden Wichita Falls Museum and Art Center Wichita Falls, Texas 817/692-0923

June 17-August 20. 1995 American Wildfowl Decoys from the Collection of the Museum of American Folk Art Hunter Museum of Art Chattanooga, Tennessee 615/267-0968

LUNCHTIME EXHIBITION TOURS Adults-12:00 Noon Docent-guided tours of the exhibition "Victorian Vernacular: The American Show Quilt" will be held on the following dates:



TWILIGHT LECTURES Adults-6:00 to 6:45 P.M. Tuesdays:


I• R

E A 'I


June 13 June 20 June 27 July 11 July 18 August 1 August 15 August 22


Wednesdays: July 12 July 26

Free public programming is made possible in part with public funds from the New York State Council on the Arts and a generous grant from NYNEX. For more information, please call the gallery at 212/595-9533






111111*1111111*il Fine New York Gouge Carved Pine Mantle Circa 1800-1810 From the Collection ofover 100 Fine Period American Mantles

FRANCIS J. PURCELL II 88 North Main Street, New Hope,Pa. 18938 Usually Open â&#x20AC;˘ Appointment Best Telephone:(215)862-9100




American Antiques, Inc.


Gilley's Gallery


J.E. Porcelli

American Primitive Gallery


Anton Haardt Gallery


Francis J. Purcell II


The Ames Gallery


Hideout Hill Gallery


Judith Racht Gallery


Morgan Anderson Americana


John C. Hill


Margy Radebaugh Antiques


Antique Dealers' Association of America 70

Hill Gallery

Inside Front Cover,

Roger Ricco/Frank Maresca




At Home Gallery


Inside Back Cover ICnoke Galleries


Rosehips Gallery



Jack Savitt Gallery


Liz Blackman Gallery


Kralj Space/Double K Gallery


Steve & Amy Slotin/Folk Fest


Blue Spiral 1




Sanford L. Smith & Associates


The Burns Collection, Ltd.


Jim Linderman


Smith Gallery

Robert Cargo Folk Art Gallery


MCG Antiques Promotions,Inc.


Southern Folk Pottery Collectors Society 48




Mahvash Studio


The Splendid Peasant Ltd.


Danforth Pewterers


Main Street Antiques and Art


Susquehanna Antique Company,Inc.


Tom Douglass


Main Street Gallery/Sailor's Valentine

Timpson Creek Gallery




Erich Christopher and Charles


Josh Feldstein Galerie Bonheur Gallery Americana


Old Kessler Farm Antiques


Sidney Gecker


The Pardee Collection


Back Cover

Nan & David Pirnack






Wanda's Quilts


Sam McDowell


Webb Gallery



Mia Gallery


David Wheatcroft



Steve Miller


Thos. K. Woodard


Ginger Young Gallery





26" x 22"


26" x 22"




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5 4 0 - 9 2 8 8




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5 4 0 - 6 9 6 5



The Fulper Brothers Acrobats four gallon stoneware jug, New Jersey, circa 1880

Please send $18 for our currenteoldr cotaigg

50 East 78th Street

New York City 10021

212 861 8571

Folk Art (Summer 1995)  

Ralph Fasanella: The Making of a Working-Class Artist • Expressions of Trust: Recent Gifts to the Museum of American Folk Art • Hmong and Pe...

Folk Art (Summer 1995)  

Ralph Fasanella: The Making of a Working-Class Artist • Expressions of Trust: Recent Gifts to the Museum of American Folk Art • Hmong and Pe...