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THE CLARION

1443 AMERICAS FOLK ART MAGAZINE

The Museum of American Folk Art New York City

WINTER 1981


THE•AME RICAN

COUNTRY STORE

CONTEMPORARY COUNTRY AND FOLK ART OBJECTS... ALSO PRIMITIVE COUNTRY FURNITURE. PROPRIETOR:MARY E.EMMERLING

We are always interested in buying new craft and country folk items.

969 Lexington Avenue(at 70th Street) New York, N.Y.10021 •Tel 212.7446705 Monday thru Saturday, 11:00 am to 7:00 pm.

79fobes Lane,Southampton Lcmg Island, N.Y. 11968• Tel:516 • 283 • 2061 April thru December


AMERICAN FOLK ART GALLERY

19th-Century weathervane. 29 inches tall.

ALLAN L. DANIEL 19East76 Street NewYork,N.Y.10021 (212)794-9169

Tues.-Fri. 11-6 Sat. 12-5


tiosiWoODA cAMERICAN ANTIQUES &QUILTS 1022 LEXINGTON

AVENUE, NEW YORK, N.Y.10021 PHONE:(212)YU PROPRIETORS: BLANCHE GREENSTEIN, TOM WOODARD

We are located at the corner of73rd Street and Lexington Avenue and are open Monday through Saturday, 11:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. We are always interested in buying rare and unusual quilts, pictorial, crib, doll, and Amish quilts, paintedfurniture, andfolk art. Photos returned promptly.

2

8-2906


THE CLARION

-1 -• T4k : E A

Cover: Carousel Horse D.C. Muller & Bro. Shop. Philadelphia, Pa. 1902-9 Wood, carved and painted, glassjewels and horsehair H.627 Museum ofAmerican Folk Art, gift ofLaura Harding. The Clarion, America's Folk Art Magazine, WINTER, 1981 Published and copyright 1981 by the Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York 10019. The cover and contents of The Clarion are fully protected by copyright and may not be reproduced in any manner without written consent. Unsolicited manuscripts or photographs should be accompanied by return postage. The Clarion assumes no responsibility for the loss or damage of such material. Change of Address. Please send both old and new addresses and allow five weeks for change. Advertising. The Clarion accepts advertisements only from advertisers whose reputation is recognized in the trade, but despite the care with which the advertising department screens photographs and texts submitted by its advertisers, it cannot guarantee the unquestionable authenticity of objects of quality or services advertised in its pages or offered for sale by its advertisers, nor can it accept responsibility for misunderstandings that may arise from the purchase or sale of objects or services advertised in its pages.

CONTENTS / Winter 1980/81 5

Records of Passage: New England Illuminated Philip Isaacson Manuscripts in the Fraktur 11-adition The Icons of John Perates America's Folk Toys

Wendy Lavitt

Decorated Masonic Aprons: A Rediscovered Folk Art

A Visit With Steven Ashby

48

52

Patrice Avon Marvin and Nicholas Churchin Vrooman 63

Charles Rosenak

64

Noteworthy Items

Coming Exhibitions at the Museum Report From the Friends Committee

Museum Shop Talk

65 66

67

Coming Events at the Museum

Book Reviews

42

Barbara Franco

Plains People/Common Wealth North Dakota Folk Art

68 69

70

Recent Additions to the Museum Collection Folk Art Calendar Across the Country Our Growing Membership Index to Advertisers

88

75

30

36

Nora Lucas

Harold Everett Bayer, Toledo, Jenne Regas Ohio Folk Artist

Education Report The Museum is dedicated to the exhibition and interpretation of folk art and feels it is a violation of its principles to be involved in or to appear to be involved in the sale of works of art. For this reason, the Museum will not knowingly accept advertisements for The Clarion which illustrate or describe objects that have been exhibited at the Museum within one year of the placing of the advertisement.

Dr. Robert Bishop

Letter From the Director

74

72

58


Museum of American Folk Art BOARD OF TRUSTEES

MUSEUM STAFF

Officers Ralph Esmerian, President Alice M. Kaplan (Mrs. Jacob M.), Executive Vice-President Lucy Danziger (Mrs. Frederick M.), Vice-President Jo Lauder(Mrs. Ronald), Vice-President Maureen Taylor(Mrs. Richard), Vice-President Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq., Vice-President and Secretary William I. Leffler, Treasurer Thomas G. Rizzo, Development Officer Karen S. Schuster(Mrs. Derek)

Dr. Robert Bishop, Director Gerard C. Wertkin, Assistant Director Bernice Duerr, Membership Secretary Susan Flamm, Publicity Coordinator Richard Griffin, Clerk Lillian Grossman, Director's Secretary Nora Lucas, Editor, Publications Anne Minich, Development Coordinator Cordelia Rose, Registrar/Exhibition Coordinator Jessica Schein, Bookkeeper Joyce Cowin and Cynthia V.A. Schaffner, Co-Chairmen Friends Committee Marie DiManno, Exhibition Previews Coordinator

Members Catherine G. Cahill Adele Earnest Howard A. Feldman, Esq. M. Austin Fine Barbara Johnson, Esq. Margery G. Kahn (Mrs. Harry) Jana Klauer(Mrs. Gerold EL.) Susan Klein (Mrs. Robert) Henry R. Kravis Ira Howard Levy Elizabeth J. McCormack Cyril I. Nelson Kenneth R. Page, Esq. Diane Ravitch (Mrs. Richard) Jon W. Rotenstreich David Walentas Andy Warhol William E. Wiltshire III Trustees Emeritus Mary Allis Marian W. Johnson (Mrs. Dan R.) Louis C. Jones Jean Lipman (Mrs. Howard)

4

EDUCATION PROGRAM Susan Saidenberg, Education Coordinator Docent Program Consultants, Lucy Danziger and Susan Klein Docent Scheduling, Phyllis Tepper Junior League Liaison, Irene Goodkind Trips and Seminars, Priscilla Brandt Library, Myra Shaskin THE MUSEUM SHOP STAFF Margaret Lemont, Manager John Carella Ysult Freilicher Rita Geake Lisa Salay Nancy Scaia Abraham Silver Wendy Weiss THE CLARION STAFF Nora Lucas, Editor David Gordon, Art Director Ira Howard Levy, Design Consultant Ace Typographers, Inc., Typesetting Topp Litho, Printers


[Air]

Letter from The Director Mayor Edward L. Koch of New York City once again acknowledged the important role of the Museum of American Folk Art in the art community of New York City by designating the week of October 26 through November 2, as "American Folk Festival Week:' The proclamation stresses the special contributions made by the Museum in the following manlier:

1. From left, Cur Hall Administrator, Ronay Minschel, Museum Trustee Maureen Taylor, Director Robert Bishop, and New York City Cultural Affairs Commissioner Barbaralee Diamonstein at City Hall Ceremony proclaiming "Folk Art Festival Week" in New York City. 2. Curators of the special exhibition, "Small Folk: A Celebration of Childhood in America:' and authors of the booklcatalogue accompanying the exhibition, Sandra Brant and Elissa Cullman, with Dr. Robert Bishop at the benefit opening of the Fall Antiques Show, "Celebrate the Hudson:' 3. Museum Friend Cynthia Schaffner and Trustee Karen Schuster, co-chairmen of the Fall Antiques Show Benefit Preview. 4. Trustees Alice M. Kaplan and Thomas Rizzo discussing the Museum's marine painting exhibition, "Celebrate the Hudson:' at the Fall Antiques Show.

Photograph by Sylvia Sarner Photographs by Carloh

NEW YORK CITY, THE CULTURAL CAPITAL OF THE WORLD, HAS ALWAYS ACKNOWLEDGED THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ITS ARTISTIC HERITAGE. THE CITY IS KEENLY AWARE OF THE INTEGRAL ROLE OF THE MUSEUM, THE ARTIST, AND THE ART GALLERY IN ENRICHING THE DAILY LIVES OF ITS CITIZENS AS WELL AS VISITORS FROM AROUND THE WORLD. THE RECOGNITION OF FOLK ART AS THE CENTRAL THEME IN THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN ART HAS COME ABOUT IN RECENT YEARS AND THE MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART IN NEW YORK CITY HAS BEEN ONE OF THE PRIMARY CATALYSTS IN THIS DEVELOPMENT. NOW,THEREFORE,I, EDWARD L. KOCH,MAYOR OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK DO HEREBY PROCLAIM THE WEEK OF OCTOBER 26 TO NOVEMBER 2, 1980 AS "AMERICAN FOLK ART FESTIVAL WEEK" IN NEW YORK CITY, TO HONOR AND SUPPORT THE MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART'S UNPRECEDENTED ACTIVITIES BEING PRESENTED THROUGHOUT NEW YORK CITY AND URGE ALL CITIZENS TO PARTICIPATE IN THESE PROGRAMS AND DISCOVER THE RICH AND UNIQUE PLEASURES RELATING TO THE FOLK ARTS OF OUR NATION. The proclamation was presented by Executive Administrator of City Hall, Ronay Menschel, acting for Mayor Koch and by Barbaralee Diamonstein, a member of the New York City Commission of Cultural Affairs. Trustee Maureen Taylor was present at the ceremonies. Part of the special activities of American Folk Art Festival Week included the presentation, "Folk Art: The View from New York' assembled from the collection of the Museum of American Folk Art and mounted at the Nassau County Museum of Art at Roslyn, New York. The most ambitious project of Folk Art Festival Week was the benefit preview "Celebrate the Hudson" at the Fall Antiques Show. The show, produced by Sanford L. Smith & Associates, was held at the Passenger Terminal Pier. Never before have so many important dealers displayed such a dazzling array of Americana. Co-chairpersons Karen Schuster and Cynthia Schaffner and their volunteer committee worked countless weeks throughout the year to organize this event, "Celebrate the Hudson:' including a marine painting exhibition of the same name. We are grateful to the Seamen's Bank for Savings, The 5


5.

5. Judy and Earl Whitcraft, advisor to the Museum's Corporate Membership Program, and the benefit preview.

7. A New York City trade sign exhibited at the Fall Antiques Show.

Bank of New York, Con Edison, and the Estee Lauder, Inc. Design department for their support of this benefit preview. In addition, a special expression of gratitude is due to Mrs. Jacob M. Kaplan, Mt John V. Lindsay, and the Honorable and Mrs. J. William Middendorf II, all distinguished Americans who agreed to serve as honorary chairpersons for this event. The folk art world was saddened by the death of Theodore H. Kapnek, distinguished collector and Trustee of the Museum of American Folk Art. Mr. Kapnek's great generosity in sharing his unequalled collection of American samplers with the Museum and its visitors is well known. 6. Some of themany In the last several years donations to the Museum's beautiful displays at the collection have been increasing at an imprespermanent Fall Antiques Show. sive rate—in anticipation of the construction of our permanent home. Rose Labrie, the Portsmouth, New Hampshire, naive artist who last year gave one of her paintings to the Museum's permanent collection, was elected to the Accademia Italia delle Arti e del Lavoro. This recognition illustrates the great enthusiasm that many of America's naive masters are achieving, not only in their own homeland, but also throughout the world. For the enthusiasts of contemporary naive art, the passing of two very distinguished painters should be noted—Sister Gertrude Morgan and Philo Willey, better known as "The Chief,' both of New Orleans. We want to express our gratitude to the Seven-Up Company for sponsorship of "Small Folk: A Celebration of Childhood in America:' It is on display in our galleries through February 1st, with a concurrent exhibition at The New-York Historical Society. Seven-Up's program funding provided transportation and insurance for the works of art; their support and assistance made possible booklets for adults and children, as well as a commemorative poster. Their encouragement and aid in planning brought to "Small Folk" and to the Museum a wider audience, generating new folk art enthusiasts, and will enable the exhibition to appear at the First Street Forum in St. Louis in March. The Museum will strengthen its relations with the Orient when "Small Folk" travels to Tokyo at the Shiseido Gallery in Ginza this Summer. Funding for this exhibition was also provided, in part, by the National Endowment for the Arts. The Museum has just received a grant from the New York State Council on the Arts for general operating expenses and for partial funding of the exhibition, "The Icons of John Perates7 We gratefully acknowledge the continuing support of this state agency which has been so important in the development of our numerous programs. Patricia Coblentz, Assistant Director of the Museum of American Folk Art since February 1977, has recently resigned and will be moving to Florida. I know many of 6. you are aware of the very significant role she has played in the development of the Museum over the last several years and will join me in wishing her success in her new endeavors. We will all miss her friendly smile and sharpedged pencil. Nora Lucas has been appointed Editor of The Clarion. Pat's responsibilities as Assistant Director have been assumed by Gerard Wertkin who joined the staff December 1. Dr. Robert Bishop DIRECTOR

6


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the international magazine of art and antiques Edited by Denys Sutton. Published monthly for over 50 years. Apollo, completely devoted to art and antiques, gives pleasure to lovers and collectors of works of art and fine craftsmanship throughout the world. Informed and lavishly illustrated articles on subjects close to the hearts of collectors and cognoscenti, have created an appreciative and responsive readership by whom Apollo is read, re-read and treasured. Annual Subscription (12 issues): U.S.A.(air-speeded)$72.00 Obtainable from: Apollo, Bracken House,10 Cannon Street, London EC4P 4BY. U.S.A. subscribers should make their checks payable to: Apollo Magazine Apollo Publications Inc., PO. Box 47, N. Hollywood, CA 91603 Please enter my subscription for one year (12 issues) commencing with the issue Name

Address

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by Denys Sutton

Connoisseurship and Commerce A division of The Financial Times Limited Registered in England No 227590 Bracken House, Cannon Street, London EC4P 4BY

CL 181


A stunning companion volume to the exhibition of

Small Folk A Celebration of Childhood in America

Small Folk ion of

Childhood

SMALL FOLK traces the rising status of American youth as it is revealed through the folk art of the late seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. Included are portraits of sober-faced youngsters, the cradles they were rocked in, the crib quilts that provided comfort, the samplers they stitched, the schoolbooks and toys fashioned for their instruction and amusement— all serve as a surviving link to a vital and fascinating past.

tilffiericit

Sandra Brant and Elissa Cullman have selected over 300 objects by, for, and about children, that are both aesthetically successful and historically significant. These are reproduced in 169 color plates and 150 halftones.

$29.95 at bookstores or direct from Dept. SF E.P Dutton; A division of Elsevier-Dutton Pub. Co., Inc. 2 Park Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016 Or call TOLL FREE 800-221-4676 (except for N.Y., Hawaii & Alaska). Please send

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Exhibitors Thefollowing distinguished group ofexhibitors will offer antiques ofquality and interest within a wide price range. Jane Alper Antiques W. Graham Arader, III Leonard Balish John Bihler & Henry Coger William Blair, Ltd. Jerome Blum Ronald Bourgeault Irvin & Dolores Boyd Philip H. Bradley Alfred Bullard, Inc. Robert Burkhardt Childs Gallery Circa Antiques Ed Clerk Philip Colleck Gordon S. Converse & Co. Katherine Denny Jas. E. Elliott Cynthia Fehr Antiques E. &J. Frankel Malcolm Franklin, Inc. Georgian Manor Antiques,Inc. Price Glover,Inc. Good & Hutchinson, Assoc. Elinor Gordon Greenwood Book Shop Kenneth Hammitt Antiques Harry B. Hartman Antiques Hastings House Antiques Hayestock House Hobart House Valdemar F. Jacobsen Deanne Levison Bernard & S. Dean Levy,Inc. Marine Arts Gallery Fred B. Nadler Antiques, Inc. John C. Newcomer Nimmo & Hart Antiques Jack Partridge David Pottinger C. L. Prickett Herbert Schiffer Antiques George E. Schoellkopf Thomas & Karen Schwenke Matthew & Elisabeth Sharpe Kenneth & Stephen Snow Joseph Stanley Ltd. David Stockwell,Inc. The Stradlings Philip Suval, Inc. Ruth Troiani Earle D. Vandekar of Knightsbridge Vose Galleries of Boston,Inc. Thomas D. & Constance R. Williams Jane Wilson Ricks Wilson Ltd.

UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL

ANTIQUES SHOW April 7-11,1981 Tuesday through Friday, Noon-9:30 p.m. Saturday, 10-4 p.m.

103rd ENGINEERS ARMORY 33rd Street north of Market Street (Two blocks west of 30th Street Station)

PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA Admission $4.00

Loan Exhibit "CHRIST CHURCH,PHILADELPHIA— ARTS, ARCHITECTURE. ARCHIVES." Preview Reception & Dinner MONDAY,APRIL 6,5:30-9:30 p.m. Advance Reservations Only Tickets, $80.00 per person ($55.00 tax deductible) Make checks payable to: Board of Women Visitors, mail to: University Hospital Antiques Show, 265 Cheswold Lane, Haverford,Pa. 19041 For information on Special Events and tickets, contact: University Hospital Antiques Show 3803 The Oak Road, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19129 Telephone:(215)687-6441 A Benefitfor the Hospital ofthe University ofPennsylvania Manager Mr.John G.Fifield


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ANTIQUES And The Arts Week.ly "Antiques and The Arts Weekly" will keep you informed of coming antiques shows and auctions, new books in the field of antiques, museum exhibitions, prices realized at auction, historical society events, etc. We have published as many as fifty-one pages of auction advertising in one week, plus announced over 75 coming antiques shows. Our advertising lets you know what the dealers are offering, and our feature articles tell you about collections and collectors. So think antiques every week, and do it with us. Use this handy coupon - mail to: The Bee Publishing Co., Church Hill Road, Newtown, CT 06470

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American DecorativeWorks ofArt

Fine molded copper horse weathervane, attributed to Jewell, American, 19th Century height 25 inches.

Sotheby's holds regularly scheduled auctions of American Decorative Works of Art each year in New York. For information about buying and selling at auction please contact Nancy Druckman (212)472-3512.

Sotheby's NewYork Founded 1744 The world's leading firm of art auctioneers

Sotheby Parke Bernet Inc. 1334 York Avenue, New York 10021 (212)472-3400 11


HAVANA HARBOR By an anonymous 19th century American primitive painter

date:circa 1860/70

oil on canvas: 29 x 36inches

Inscribed in English and in Spanish/lower right:

"Entrance to the Port of the Havana"

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JOEL and K ATE KOPP

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Unique Pennsylvania Applique Quilt c. 1865, 96"x 8''

M. Lel_ 316 EAST 70thSt . NEW YORK.10021

Although we are best known for QUILTS and TEXTILES, our shop and gallery always offer a choice selection of WEATHERVANES, FOLK SCULPTURE, PRIMITIVE PAINTINGS, SAMPLERS, HOOKED RUGS, BASKETS and COUNTRY ACCESSORIES. Please visit us when you are in New York City just afew blocksfrom the new Sothebys York Avenue and the East Side Winter Antiques Shall. 14


Discover today's wisdom about yesterday's treasures People who love art... ...know where to turn for fascinating, authoritative coverage of the rare and beautiful items of eras past.

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important pieces from days gone by. The men and women behind them. The details that distinguish them. The reasons for their enduring appeal. Then, on the more practical side, ART & ANTIQUES adds to your background and enjoyment with the latest information on: • price ranges in various categories • up-and-coming collecting trends • preserving and restoring your valued possessions • ways to display them in your home for the most stunning effect • plus much, much more—literally dozens of pointers and helpful tips every issue

Yes, you'll agree that ART & ANTIQUES is as special as the subjects it covers. A work of quality cover to cover. With an elegant, professional format. Brilliant design and typography. Superb color photographs. And a captivating writing style that combines interest and drama with the thoroughly researched facts you want at your fingertips. Subscribe today and take advantage of ART & ANTIQUES' special introductory subscription offer. Only $17.95 for six bi-monthly issues—$3.05 off the regular subscription price of $21.00. The lowest rate available! Just fill out and mail the coupon below. There's no need to enclose payment now. If it's more convenient you'll be billed later on. But do act today!

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Print Name Address City State Zip Please allow 6 to 8 weeks for delivery of first issue. DKXI5

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The Phoenix Building Pittsford, Monroe County, N.Y. Circa 1812 On the old Erie Canal

AN INVITATION TO COLLECTORS ... For years, some of the most interesting antiques anywhere have been found in upstate New York: folk art, glass, textiles, indigenous country furniture and sophisticated pieces brought in by canal packetboats from New England and New York City. An increasing number of antiquers across the country are getting to know another important upstate product, THE NEW YORK-PENNSYLVANIA COLLECTOR, published eleven times a year from this handsome Federal building, once an early inn. We put together what we think is a lively mix: reports from correspondents covering the antique scene throughout the Northeast (and beyond), articles by museum curators and collectors, and advertisements from dealers, including a growing number of Canadian sources. The result is a specialized newspaper that more and more readers are finding an important reference tool. Old-fashioned rates are still to be found here, too! Seven dollars and 50 cents a year for a subscription; low,low rates for advertisers. We think you'll agree that's a bargain... If you'd like to see a copy, drop us a line. We'll send one off in the very next mail with our compliments. THE NEW YORK PENNSYLVANIA

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The New York-Pennsylvania Collector Main Street Pittsford, New York 14534

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STEVE MILLER American Folk Art 17 EAST 96TH STREET (212) 348-5219 By Appointment Only

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TABLE RUG CIRCA 1880

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KELTER-1VIALCE ANTIQUES 361 BLEEKER ST. NYC NY 10014 989 6760

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Now in Our 13th Year Serving the Mid-Central States The WeekN

TRADER® Started in 1968, the Tri-State Trader is read by more than 110,000 persons, delivered in more than 31,000 homes every Monday. We list more than 100 auctions and 150 antique shows and flea markets each week during the busy season. If you like interesting articles on antiques, hundreds of shows, flea markets,, auctions and antique shop offerings, plus buy and sell ads — you'll find the Tri-State Trader the top reading material each Monday.

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AMERICAN FOLK ART ORIGINALS PROUDLY PRESENTS A FINE LIMITED EDITION SERIGRAPH OF "COAL MINER" JACK SAVITSKY'S CHARMING, NAIVE OIL PAINTING

COAL MINERS TRAIN — $350.00 Serigraph of 18 Colors on Arches Paper Image Size: 22" x 28", Plus Margins Edition Size: 300 + 50 Artist Proofs, Signed and Numbered Hand Printed and Proofed at the Fine Atelier of Chromacomp

NITE TRAIN — $350.00 Serigraph of 17 colors on Arches Paper Image Size: 18-3/8" x 28" plus margins Edition Size: 300 + 50 Artist Proofs, Signed and Numbered Hand Printed and Proofed at the Fine Atelier of Chromacomp

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AMERICAN FOLK ART ORIGINALS,INC. P.O. BOX 367• MERRICK, NEW YORK 11566 (212) 780-0609


QualityFolk

A Fine-Quality Carved Figure from the workshop of John and Simeon Skillin. Boston late 18th century. Carved and polychromed wood, 35 inches high. Early, but not original paint. Send for our free recent Bulletin of our inventory of American primitive paintings and sculpture.

CHILDS

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1. Calligraphy Examples with Portraits. Araunah

Records of Passage: New England Illuminated Manuscripts in the Fraktur Tradition

Judd. Coventry, Connecticut. 1822. Watercolor and colored inks on paper. H. 137 L. 157/8',' (sight). (Cat. No. 33). Watercolor portraits are unusual in calligraphic works. (Photograph by R. Bruce Huntington)

by Philip Isaacson 30


I own up to a coolness toward Pennsylvania watercolors. While they ingratiate themselves quickly and have an easy suavity, in the end they seem alien and distant to my Maine-bred taste. They lack the elemental harmony and tranquil measure that I find in their New England counterparts. They do not have the latter's local innocence and ordered clarity. As I do not see Pennsylvania watercolors as an expression of the unique vision of our young republic, it is with reluctance that I have adopted their generic title, "frakturs;' in describing certain watercolors and pen and ink drawings produced in New England in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. At one time or another I have used "New England Decorated Paper:' "New England Illuminated Manuscripts:' and "New England Watercolors" to identify that body of work, but without much success. The term "decorated paper" does not conjure up a vision of a short manuscript embellished with watercolor or ink drawings. Neither do the other titles. Paradoxically, "New England Frakturs" works perfectly. When I say "fraktur:' people easily associate it with the wonderful family records, birth and death records, calligraphic exercises, copy book pages and the like that came from New England hands in the first half-century of our Independence. I would much prefer "decorated paper" or perhaps an even more elegant term, but am resigned to "fraktur:' and accept responsibility for it.

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2. The range of New England frakturs is as 2. Nancy White Birth broad as the graphic arts of their time. The most Record. Artist Unknown. common, of course, are the family records. They East Washington, New Hampshire. Circa 1790. are followed, at some distance, by birth records Watercolor and ink on and by death records. As a group, the foregoing 3 47 L.4/ 3 47 make up the statistical branch of the art, i.e. doc- paper. H. 3/ (sight). (Cat. No. 4). The uments that mark and record the landmarks in the artist, although unidentihistory of a family. These, which alternate befied, was prolific in tween happy and dolorous episodes, are, in turn, Northern New England in followed by an almost uncataloguable residuum. the mid-1850s. His work It includes, in addition to copybook and callimarks the end ofthe tragraphic pages, such manuscript items as valendition. See M. & M. Karolik Collection of tines, true lovers knots, bookplates, rewards of merit, metamorphoses, and "school girl" maps. American Water Colors & Drawings:1800-1875, I have seen marvelous decorated survey maps and the Maine Maritime Museum owns an extra- 2 Vols., Boston, 1962. (Photograph by R. Bruce ordinary illuminated navigation text. There are Huntington) manuscript trade cards, pious mottos, and a large body of work relating to the death of George 3. Valentine Ebenezer Washington. If one is skeptical about his place Legrow. Cumberland, in the hearts of his countrymen, look to New Maine. Circa 1835. WaEngland frakturs. His death was the single most tercolor and ink on paper. H. 143/47 L. 117/4(sight). popular watercolor theme for the three decades (Cat. No. 24). The genthat followed the event. eral configuration ofthe Frakturs that commemorate episodes ranging columns and arched pedifrom retirement from military service in Connectment might have been icut to assistance at a funeral in Massachusetts borrowedfrom the Engare not unusual. Some admonish against joining lish publication The Gensecret societies and others inject Masonic refertlemen Cabinet-Maker ences at the slightest opportunity. There are Director brought out by handsome Masonic family records, commemora- Thomas Chippendale in tive pieces with Masonic devices and, in the case 1754. of Gilman Folsom, a young man born in Epping, (Photograph by R. Bruce Huntington) 31


New Hampshire in 1805, a contemporary Masonic birth record. The position of the Masonic Lodge in the community life of Epping can be judged by this document. Gilman could not have been born a Mason and so his birth record must be regarded as a confident prediction. Decorated sheets of manuscript music exist and there is a whole body of acrostical material that cuts across categoric lines from birth records to commemorative pieces. There are perpetual calendars, patriotic sayings, and simple name sheets, all worked with decorative devices of one sort or another. There is even a pen and ink replica of an eighteenth century New England sampler. Visually, New England frakturs range from the obvious—conceptions which have a strong graphic impact—to very gentle aesthetic concoctions. Qualitatively, the range is narrow and weighted toward the top. A few standard images—styles really—are sentimental and structurally soft, but most of the work is strongly defined and confident. The sentimental pieces

6.Simeon Burnham-Lucy Smith Family Record. Artist unknown. Bridgton, Maine. Circa 1830. Watercolor and ink on paper. H. 7/ 1 2',' L. 9/ 1 2',' (sight). (Cat. No. 1) Thefruit andfloral motifs are similar to designs taught by drawing masters in New England academies andfinishing schools opened to teach drawing and watercolor arts to the young ladies of the area's most prominent families. (Photograph by R. Bruce Huntington)

tall apart visually after a while, but those with firm graphic assertions, like any good work of art, become more convincing with time. Whether this wonderful body of work should be called folk art is open to argument. If the term "folk art" is limited to objects reflecting the personal idiosyncratic vision of its maker—a zany view of the world—then very little of it is folk art. By the same token, such a narrow definition would exclude most bird decoys, weathervanes, quilts, rugs, and other works manufactured or produced according to an accepted formal standard. On the other hand, if the term includes objects having a gentle innocence reflective of a time, that in retrospect, seems simpler and happier, then New England frakturs are a beguiling, if little-noticed, form of folk art. A few of the frakturs do show unusual or singular attitudes. The Vermont maker of the 1837 "Mr. Z. Woods Family Record" anticipated Art Nouveau by a half century and the only precedent that I can think of, the engravings of William Blake, could hardly have been known to him. 711 ,

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4. Family record. Heart and Hand Artist. Norridgewock, Maine. September 12, 1853. Pen and ink, watercolor, bodycolor on wove paper. 12/ 1 2"x 10/ 1 2", (sight), (Cat. No. 50) Museum of American Folk Art, anonymous gift. (Photograph by Terry McGinnis)

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5. Winthrop Eager Acrostic (Masonic). H. Wilcox. Connecticut. 1811. Watercolor and ink on paper. (sight). L. 11/8'S, (Cat. no. 32). The military allusions are unusual in this piece which abounds with Masonic symbolism.(Photograph by R. Bruce Huntington).

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Most of the work conforms to certain estabCo\ ft( If \\t lished prescriptions and the precedents can be A both English and Continental. The most glorious copybook I have ever seen was done by a young French boy in Paris in 1810. True lovers knots existed in Elizabethan England, while the powerful Samuel Beals—Rebekah Wilkerson Family IN CUE '1,SE ALMNVII 171,14joilkodt,,,,11.1 Record done in Boston in 1795 is a direct I LI.1 141 Kir;ON tet.11,1$01; descendant of English Masonic engravings. I 41:N; %M IN I. Ne(11..s. ‘1, 1 knew of an English family record that preceded .104 NT II NI I II the Harpswell, Maine 1811 James Wilson-Kezia I I I'S' \.1 (A I' Young Family Record by one year and could virtually have come from the same hand. NoneHSI .1 OH\ theless, there is a quality in all the New England work that unifies it; it is a sense of openness, of optimism, of the naive expectancy of a IL ftair-1171 young people. 9"4"I'ININVIINIF1I1FIV10"."419F 1 As yet, not a great deal is known about the 416.411:4111,AjAbitto, As. AI* Ai 4161, .464 Adk 4.6.. makers. Many are unsigned occasional works; others are the products of gifted schoolchildren who went on to do other things with their lives. RECORDS OF PASSAGE: NEW ENGLAND ILLUMINATED A very few seem to be the work of professional MANUSCRIPTS IN THE FRAKTUR TRADITION artists. The maker who worked in Harpswell, Exhibition checklist Maine and Bartlett, New Hampshire in the years All dimensions given height times width 1811-1817 and signed himself "J.W.7 must have been at least a part-time professional because of 5. James 0. Dearing Name Sheet the technical skill and the strong formal attitudes 1. Simeon Burnham-Lucy Smith Family Record Heart and Hand Artist he expressed. Moses Connor, whose work exists Artist unknown Maine in a number of public and private collections, and Bridgton, Maine Circa 1850 was active in the central New Hampshire area Circa 1830 Watercolor and ink on paper about 1813 and Moses Banks, who did watercolor Watercolor and ink on paper 3/ 3 4" x 43/8"(sight) surveys of the towns in southern Maine in the 71 / 2" x 91 / 2 "(sight) Note: The artist, although unidentified, was Note: Decoration is theorem-influenced years preceding the Revolution, must both have prolific in Northern New England in the (Private Collection) mid-1850s. His work marks the end of the been professional or near-professional makers. tradition. See M. & M. Karolik Collection William Saville was highly productive around 2. Anna Sawtell Birth Record ofAmerican Water Colors & Drawings: Gloucester, Massachusetts in the earliest part of Abel Wheeler 1800-1875, 2 Vols. Boston, 1962 profescentury and an obvious the nineteenth Boston, Massachusetts (Private Collection) sional. I fancy that the person whom he calls the 1812 Ink on paper "Heart and Hand Artist" was the most prolific of 6. Commerce (Calligraphic exercise) 9" x 7"(sight) Henry G. Jenks all. His work, characterized by the inclusion of Note: A carry-over of 18th Century Boston, Massachusetts both a heart and a hand in its iconography, has baroque decorative and typographic forms 1786 been found from Maine to Ohio, but the largest (Private Collection) Colored inks on paper body bears the name of Maine towns and was 12/ 3 4" x 71 / 2 "(sight) produced between 1850 and 1854, long after the 3. Gilman Folsom Birth Record Note: The North School was the chief Artist unknown introduction of inexpensive lithographed blanks Boston writing school of the late colonial Epping, New Hampshire and long after the tradition disappeared elseand early republican period. The poem Circa 1805 where. His watercolors, linear and controlled, was conventional of its time. Colored inks on paper bear some formal relationship to those of Moses (Private Collection) 73/8" x 131 / 4"(sight) Connor and, surprisingly, are not marred by Note: Conventionalized Masonic decoration 7. Twins Death Record Victorian sentimentality. (Private Collection) Artist unknown Here then is a body of art, fresh, optimistic, Possibly New England 4. Nancy White Birth Record evocative of the attitudes of its times and one of Circa 1786 Artist Unknown the small miracles to have come from the hand Faded inks on paper East Washington, New Hampshire of man. It deserves a wide audience. 71 / 4" x 6"(sight) Circa 1790 This catalogue is intended to accompany (Private Collection) Faded inks on paper "The New England Fraktur" on exhibition at 94/8" x 8. Mercy Abbot Birth Record the Museum of American-Folk Art February 12, Note: Name appears in acrostic; border is Artist unknown 1980 through May 10, 1981. an adaptation from samplers Sanford, Maine A special note of gratitude is due to the (Private Collection) 1813 collectors for their generosity in lending to this Ink on paper show, especially to those who have given the 51 / 2x 51 / 2"(sight) Museum its own first New England frakturs. (Private Collection) 33

400


9. George Taylor Death Record William Murray Possibly New York State Circa 1808 Watercolor and ink on paper 9" x 7" Note: Murray was a prolific artist working in the northern Susquehanna Valley area. Many examples of his work exist. (Private Collection)

15. A Plan ofDivision Moses Banks Scarborough, Maine 1770 Watercolor and ink on paper 12" x 151 / 2"(sight) Note: This is the survey making the original division of Prout's Neck (made famous by Winslow Homer). (Private Collection)

10. Samuel Lord-Ruth Lord Marriage Record Artist unknown Maine Circa 1786 Watercolor and ink on paper 8/ 3 4" x 63/4"(sight) Note: The artist worked in central Maine. Several examples of his work are known. (Private Collection)

16. Captain Isaac Harding Memorial William Saville Gloucester, Massachusetts 1801 Watercolor and ink on paper 14" x 12"(sight) Note: Saville was a prolific maker on the Massachusetts North Shore. Similar examples are in the Nina Fletcher Little Collection. Ex Coll: Edith Gregor Halpert (Private Collection)

11. On Washington (copybook page) Betsy Lewis Dorchester (Boston), Massachusetts 1801 Watercolor and ink on paper 71 / 2 " x 6"(sight) Note: See Kennedy Quarterly, January, 1972 for other pages from the copybook. (Private Collection) 12. Presentation to Miss Polly J. Eames Artist unknown Possibly Massachusetts 1818 Watercolor and ink on cut paper (silk backed) 6/ 1 4" x 71 / 2"(sight) (Private Collection) 13. Theodore Gilman-Mehitabel Richards Family Record Moses Connor New Hampshire 1813 Watercolor and ink on paper 7/ 3 4" x 111 / 2"(sight) Note: Connor was a school teacher in the Exeter-Hopkington, New Hampshire area. Many examples of his work exist. (Private Collection) 14. Nathaniel D. Gould Trade Card Nathaniel Duren Gould (1781-1864) Concord, New Hampshire (1834)—obverse Brooklyn, New York (1835)—reverse Sepia and black ink on paper 33/8" x 33/8"(sight) Note: Gould was born in Bedford, Massachusetts and served as a writing master in Concord, Boston, and in the New York area. See Dictionary of American Biography. (Private Collection)

34

17. Jonathan Chase-Patience Peasley Family Record Moses Connor New Hampshire Circa 1818 Watercolor and ink on paper 12" x 9/ 1 2 "(sight) (Private Collection) 18. Samuel Shaw-Susan Shaw Family Record Artist unknown Minot, Maine Circa 1787 Watercolor and ink on paper 111 / 4" x 13/ 3 4"(sight) Ex Coll: Garbish (Private Collection) 19. Jacob Deyo-Ruth Smith Family Record Artist unknown Connecticut Circa 1813 Watercolor and ink on paper 13/ 3 4 " x 9/ 1 2"(sight) (Private Collection) 20. The Funeral Procession of the American Hero George Washington Eliah Metcalf Franklin, Massachusetts 1801 Ink on paper 131 / 4" x 73/4" (Private ollection) 21. Adoniram J. Hogan-Jane H. Denham Family Record Heart and Hand Artist Bowdoin, Maine 1854 Watercolor and ink on paper 97/8" x 135/8"(sight) (Private Collection) 22. Mr. Z. Woods Family Record Artist unknown Vermont 1837 Watercolor and ink on paper 77/8" x 14" Two other examples by this curious hand are known. (Private Collection)

23. Malachi Brown-William Brown Memorial Artist unknown Massachusetts 1789 Ink on paper 133 / 4" x 113 / 4" (Private Collection) 24. Valentine Ebenezer Legrow Cumberland, Maine Circa 1835 Watercolor and ink on paper 12" x 141 / 4"(sight) (Private Collection) 25. James Wilson-Kezia Young Family Record "LW!'(possibly James Wilson) Harpswell, Maine 1811 Watercolor and ink on paper 14/ 3 4" x 117/8"(sight) (Private Collection) 26. Peletiah Marr Family Record Maker unknown Scarborough, Maine Circa 1811 Watercolor and ink on paper 14½"x 111 / 4" Note: Several other works by this hand are known. (Private Collection) 27. Obed Hall-Abigail Dam Family Record "Mr (possibly James Wilson) Bartlett, New Hampshire 1817 Watercolor and ink on paper 151 / 2 " x 13"(sight) (Private Collection) 28. John Fletcher-Patience Wonson Family Record Maker unknown Newburyport, Massachusetts 1783 Colored inks on paper 81 / 2 "cartouche (Private Collection) 29. Mary Roberhaus Memorial Maker unknown Wrentham, Massachusetts Circa 1808 Cut paper on black silk 3 4" 61 / 2" x 6/ (Private Collection) 30. Jacob Chamberlain-Mary Stockbridge Family Record Artist unknown Alton, New Hampshire 1800 Watercolor and ink on paper 147/8" x 12" Note: Several other examples—including one at the New Hampshire Historical Society—by this maker are known. (Private Collection)


31. True Lovers Knot Artist unknown New York/Pennsylvania Circa 1795 Watercolor and ink on paper 155/8" x 141 / 2"(sight) Note: This form probably derives from Elizabethan England. This work was found in Connecticut, but its elaborateness suggests a non-New England provenance. (Private Collection) 32. Winthrop Eager Acrostic (Masonic) H. Wilcox Connecticut 1811 Watercolor and ink on paper 181 / 2" x 111 / 2"(sight) (Private Collection) 33. Calligraphy Examples with Portraits Araunah Judd Coventry, Connecticut 1822 Watercolor and colored inks on paper 13" x 15/ 1 2 "(sight) (Private Collection) 34. Samuel Beals-Rebekah Wilkerson Family Record (Masonic) Isaac N. Cardozo Boston, Masssachusetts 1795 Ink on paper 201 / 2 " x 151 / 2 "(sight) Note: A conventional New England form appearing into the 19th Century and drawn from English precedents (Private Collection) 35. Andrew Mayberry-Margaret Trott Family Record Heart and Hand Artist Windham, Maine 1850 Watercolor and ink on paper 1 2 "(sight) 131 / 2 "x 9/ (Private Collection) 36. Stephen Hall-Catherine Mayberry Family Record Heart and Hand Artist Casco, Maine 1850 Watercolor and ink on paper 1 2"(sight) 131 / 2" x 9/ (Private Collection) 37. Simon H. Mayberry-Mary M. Hall Family Record Heart and Hand Artist Saccarrappa (Westbrook), Maine 1850 Watercolor and ink on paper 131 / 2 "x 9/ 1 2 "(sight) (Private Collection) (Note: Nos. 35, 36, and 37 are by the same hand)

38. Warren Nixon Bookplate Warren Nixon Framingham, Massachusetts 1818 Ink on paper 2/ 1 2 "x 33/4" (Private Collection)

47. "The Pen" Calligraphy Exercise Thomas M. Clark Connecticut 1787 Pen and ink on paper 5/ 3 4" x 6/ 3 4" (Private Collection)

39. Salome Rice Bookplate Salome Rice Framingham, Massachusetts 1818 Ink on paper 2W x 3/ 3 4" (Private Collection)

48. The Anthony Mors—Hannah Mors Family Record Artist unknown Massachusetts Circa 1769 Watercolor and ink on paper 14"x 11" (Private Collection)

40. Salome Rice Bookplate Salome Rice Framingham, Massachusetts 1818 Ink on paper 27/8" x 3/ 3 4" (Private Collection) 41. Warren Nixon Bookplate Warren Nixon Framingham, Massachusetts 1808 Ink on paper 3/ 1 2" x 51 / 2 " (Private Collection) 42. Simon and Sarah Tenney Bookplate Daniel Tenney, Jr. Sutton, Massachusetts 1794 Colored inks on paper 71 / 2" x 6" (Private Collection) 43. Mary Deering Bookplate Artist unknown Steep Falls, Maine Circa 1815 Watercolor and ink on paper 27/8" x 41 / 2 " (Private Collection) 44. Jabez A. Amsbury Bookplate Artist unknown Massachusetts 1818 Watercolor and ink on paper 23/8" x 6/ 1 2" (Private Collection) 45. William Edward Bookplate Artist unknown Maine/New Hampshire 1843 Watercolor and ink on paper 53/8" x 63/8" Note: This is a copy of an earlier work (Private Collection) 46. "T.H:' Bookplate Thomas Hadley Woburn, Massachusetts 1799 Ink on paper 71 / 4" x 6" Note: This is the colophon of a small copybook. (Private Collection)

49. Sahraann M. Sittler Birth Announcement Artist unknown Lancaster, Pennsylvania Circa 1834 Pen and ink on wove paper 71 / 2 "x 121 / 4"(sight) (Museum of American Folk Art, anonymous gift) 50. Family record Heart and Hand artist Norridgewock, Maine September 12, 1853 Pen and ink, watercolor, bodycolor on wove paper 121 / 4" x 101 / 2"(sight) (Museum of American Folk Art, anonymous gift) 51. The Messiah's Crown Franklin Wilder Hingham or Leominster, Massachusetts Circa 1865 Ink on paper / 4" 17" x 151 (Museum of American Folk Art, anonymous gift) 52. We Are All Here. A Family Song F.T. Mygatt New York State April 25, 1844 Pen and ink on three sheets wove paper, bound in paper covers 151 / 2" x 12/ 1 2" (Museum of American Folk Art,. anonymous gift) 53. Table Unknown retired ship's captain Wiscasset, Maine Circa 1890 Carved and painted wood / 2"long 29" x 26" x 341 (Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Ridgely W. Cook 54. Chair Unknown retired ship's captain Wiscasset, Maine Circa 1890 Carved and painted wood 41" x 20" x 21" deep (Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Ridgely W. Cook) 35


SPECIAL EXHIBITION CATALOGUE:

The Icons of John Perates by Nora Lucas The icons of John Perates are a true example of the translation of old-world aesthetic traditions into American folk art. Working within the conventional format of Greek iconography, Perates achieved a personal and distinctive style. He combined his skills as a cabinetmaker with his deep religious conviction and fashioned his own icons which equal in fervor and visual strength any found in Greece. His style is unique. Rather than the boldly colored icons, painted on flat surfaces, Perates carved his pieces, and painted only some. Compared to the many anonymous Byzantine icons, Perates's work is clearly the expression of an individual; yet it still possesses a timelessness that ensures its lasting fascination and power. Ironically, although stylistically the body of his work can be easily identified as the work of a single artist, unless one is aware of the background of the pieces, it is difficult to place them in time. The icons depict one of the greatest and best known stories in history—the life of Christ; they reflect traditional Byzantine symbolism with all of its intensity, and, for these reasons, could be a product of many times. Yet, the icons have the mark of New England and the New England cabinet maker upon them. Perates came to Maine in 1912 and worked for a cabinet making firm until he could open his own shop in the 1930s. When business was slow, he studied the Bible and was inspired to create his religious art. It is certain that the seed of Perates's work was derived from his home in Greece. As a boy in Amphikleia, Delphi, Perates learned carving from his grandfather and, more importantly, also learned a reverence for iconography. It was not until he developed his cabinetry skills and expanded his knowledge of the Bible that Perates embarked on his art. When he did so, he incorporated his American environment in his work. Perates's carving, in both style and medium, 1.


2. 1. Saints Peter and Paul John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, painted, and varnished 737/8 x 39 x 5'/8" deep Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Michael Hall and Dr. Robert Bishop (Cat. No. 11) 2. Madonna and Child John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, painted, and varnished 29 x 20/ 1 2x 3/ 1 2 "deep Collection of Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr. (Cat. No. 4) 3.

3. Saint Matthew John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Ironwood; carved, painted, and varnished 49 x 273/8 x 6" deep Private collection (Cat.No. 3) 37


4. 4. Altar John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Black walnut, pine and ironwood; carved and varnished Reredos, 1921 / 2" high, table 41 x 84" Estate ofJohn W. Perates (Cat. No. la, b, c) 5. Detail of side panel of altar, The Kiss of Judas John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved and painted Dimensions unknown Estate ofJohn W. Perates

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5. reflects his professional background. Carved icons typically made of stone and metal in Greece, were made, here, of wood. In addition, Perates's painted icons were not done on flat surfaces, but were carved and then painted. In his painted relief depictions of individual saints, his palette was influenced by the weathered colors and natural wood tones of New England. In comparison with Byzantine icons, Perates's colors are rich where the former are bright. His use of gold, however, reflecting the glory of Christ, is as strong as that in any Greek icon. Perates's organization of the borders is complicated. Layer upon layer of carving concentrically surround the primary image. His decoration, similar to molding, either architectural or furniture, is much tighter than that of Byzantine icons. The shapes of the symbols, too, reflect

Perates's American experience. Traditionally, saints were depicted with grapes signifying the belief that the Lord is the vineyard, "I am the vine, you are the branch!' Their application, however, in the borders framing the images is peculiar to Perates who carved them as ornament, sandwiched between layers of acanthus leaves, rather than alone. Similarly, in the depiction of Christ, traditional iconography dictates the use of angels and saints rather than grapes. Perates framed his images of Christ with hosts of angels, as well as with decorative details to again make the border full. His angels could be at ease on many early New England gravestones. Perates is true to traditional Greek iconography. Part of the intensity of the figures comes from their wide, pensive eyes—opened to the vision of Christ, their elongated noses prepared for His


6. scent (incense), and their small mouths, closed the better to listen and observe Him. The saints are haloed, and a crucifix appears above each. Perates depicted the four Evangelists with the divine signs by which they realized they were to write the gospels. St. Matthew beholds an angel pointing to heaven, St. Mark is under God's eye, with a lion at his feet, St. Luke stands with a cow at his feet, and St. John shares the Lord's gaze with an eagle. The Christ child always holds his right hand in the blessing, signifying the divine and human natures of Jesus. He is held by Mary whose head slants toward him in deference and motherly love. Perates died in 1970, leaving a wealth of material—carved and painted images of saints and Christ, a massive altar representing incidents and characters in the life and death of Christ, a pulpit, and a Bishop's throne. He said of his

work, "They represent the life of Christ from His baptism or spiritual birth to His death on the cross, those who wrote what He taught and those who carried on His teachings'? His designs were executed as envisioned, without the need for elaborate plans. They were painstakingly hand-tooled, representing thousands of hours of work, and offer one man's vision of a universal theme. An icon is a likeness or an image that is a representation of a sacred Christian personage, and is, itself, regarded as sacred. The stark power emanating from these monumental pieces is not often associated with folk art, but Perates's forceful and dramatic interpretation of the Greek Byzantine tradition, influenced by his own professional skills and New England residency, and created with the desire to express a heart-felt message, is the stuff of great folk art.

6. The Last Supper John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, painted, and varnished 3231 / 4 x 493/4 x 4/ 1 2"deep Collection of Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America Hellenic Orthodox Church, Holy Trinity, Portland, Maine (Cat. No. 12)

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7. Saint John John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, painted, and varnished 49/ 3 4x 27/ 1 2x 5/ 1 2"deep Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Edwin C. Braman (Cat. No. 6) 8. Octagonal pulpit John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Walnut and cherry, carved and varnished 72 x 48", panels 16" wide Estate ofJohn W. Perates

7.

Inspired by the Byzantine style, Perates created abstract, powerful, awe inspiring images. Monumental in size, his icons express both a fear and a love of God, and the reverence in which He is held. The significance and the energy of the story of God show through in the body of Perates's work. In the words of folk art historian Michael D. Hall, "The vigor of the icons reflects the vigor of the distinctively American notion that a good idea and some hard work are all a man needs to get somewhere!" Perates's inspiration was more than the Bible. He was thankful to God for allowing him to establish a good life in America, and he used his skills to signify his love of the Church and America, and his gratefulness to God. The sculptor, John Perates, made icons which force a communication between the viewer and the image—an acknowledgement of the religious message. This is only the second time that Perates's icons have been displayed. Some made for the Greek Orthodox Church in Portland, Maine, are still in use. Others, too large for the small church structure, were relegated to the basement. After Perates's death, most of the icons were stored in the cellar. They were discovered by an art historian and have found their way into private collections. No longer used as intended, they still relay their powerful message. Their exhibition illustrates that much of the bias against twentiethcentury folk art is unfounded. The best folk art of today is as strong and as beautiful as that of any previous period.

8.

This exhibition has been funded, in part, by the National Endowment for the Arts and the New York State Council on the Arts. 1. Michael D. Hall. Twentieth Century American Icons: John Perates. (Cincinnati: Cincinnati Art Museum, 1974). 40

10.


9.1

9.The Crucifixion of Christ John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, painted, and varnished 30 x 24/ 3 4x 3/ 3 4"deep Collection ofHenry J. Prebys (Cat. No.8)

6. Saint John John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, painted, and varnished 491 / 4 x 271 / 2 x 51 / 2" deep Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Edwin C. Braman 7. Saint Andrew John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, painted, and varnished 52/ 3 4 x 28% x 5/ 1 4"deep Collection of Jay Johnson

10. Madonna and Child John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, painted, and varnished 33/ 1 4 x 30/ 3 4 x 12/ 1 4"deep Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Michael Hall (Cat. No. 9)

8. The Crucifixion of Christ John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, painted, and varnished 3 4"deep 30 x 24% x 3/ Collection of Henry J. Prebys

THE ICONS OF JOHN PERATES. 1895-1970 Exhibition Checklist la.

The Last Supper, the front bottom panel from the Altar John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1940-70 Pine 27 x 48" Estate of John W. Perates

lb-m. Twelve panels from the reredos of the Altar b. The Annunciation c. The Visitation d. The Birth of Christ e. The Circumcision f. The Purification g. Child Jesus in the Temple h. The Baptism of Christ i. Christ choosing Andrew and Peter j. The Transfiguration k. Christ with the Crown of Thorns I. The Crucifixion m. The Ascension John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1940-70 Black walnut Each: 17 x 11" Estate of John W. Perates in-

Ornaments from the top of the Altar John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1940-70 Pine Dimensions unknown Estate of John W. Perates

2. Saint Luke John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Ironwood; carved, painted, and varnished 491 / 4 x 271 / 2 x 51 / 2"deep Private collection 3. Saint Matthew John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, painted, and varnished 49 x 273/8 x 6" deep Private collection 4. Madonna and Child John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, painted, and varnished 29 x 201 / 2 x 31/8" deep Collection of Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr. 5. Saint Mark John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, painted, and varnished 49/ 3 4 x 281 / 4 x 6" deep Collection of Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr.

9. Madonna and Child John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, painted, and varnished 531 / 2 x 30/ 3 4 x 51 / 2 "deep Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Michael Hall 10. Devotional Station John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, painted, and varnished / 2 x 121 / 331 4"deep / 4 x 311 Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Michael Hall and Dr. Robert Bishop 11. Saints Peter and Paul John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, painted, and varnished 73% x 39 x 51/8"deep Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Michael Hall and Dr. Robert Bishop 12. The Last Supper John W. Perates Portland, Maine 1930-70 Wood; carved, and varnished 32/ 3 4 x 49/ 3 4 x 4/ 1 2" deep Collection of Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America Hellenic Orthodox Church, Holy Trinity, Portland, Maine 41


America's Folk Toys by Wendy Lavitt When the first settlers arrived in America, they brought few toys with them. Lack of shipboard space forced families to pack only the barest necessities. A few small playthings, often used for bartering with the Indians, sometimes accompanied these early travelers. Once in America, seventeenth century children were busy helping their parents survive a hostile climate—one that demanded days of unending chores. Those children who overcame an appalling mortality rate had to grow up quickly. Regarded as miniature adults with few special needs of their own,colonial children hunted,farmed, and cleaned with their elders. Since Puritan ideology frowned on frivolity, little thought was wasted on playthings. Reinforced by stark necessity, these attitudes were not relaxed until the more prosperous and peaceful times of the late 1700s.


1. An early wooden rockinghorse with painted mane and horsehair tail. (Private collection, courtesy ofAmerican Hurrah)

2. A pair ofNew England rag dolls with almost identicalfacialfeatures. The doll on the left has leather hands andfur hair. They sit in a homemade cradle, painted green and decorated with pinkflowers.(Author's collection)

2.

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3.

3. Afragile, 19th century miniature papier-mache horse with detachable rockers.(Author's collection) 4. This Noah's ark once held dozens ofanimals. Most arks were opened by lifting one side ofthe roof (Courtesy ofLeslie Eisenberg) 5. Carved wooden policeman with movable arms. (Courtesy ofLeslie Eisenberg)

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During the eighteenth century, American views gradually changed. Even though Sunday meant a time of prayer, church, and Bible study, parents allowed a few religiously acceptable toys. Noah's arks became the most favored toys in New England households, along with dolls dressed in their 'Sunday-best' clothes. Carefully put away during the week,these toys only reappeared after children properly behaved in church. Each colony developed its own habits regarding behavior on the Sabbath. In Connecticut, for example, the trumpet, the drum, and the jews' harp were the only musical toys allowed. The very idea that children needed time for play represented a whole new way of thinking. The gradual acceptance of this novel concept is documented by increasing mention of toys in eighteenth century diaries, inventories, and newspaper advertisements. A Boston newspaper in 1712 reported the arrival of a European shipment of toys. Distributed among Boston shops, they sold out immediately. Even Benjamin Franklin wrote of spending precious coppers for a toy whistle at a Boston store in 1713. However, when he brought his new whistle home, his playmates taunted him by claiming the whistle was not worth seven coppers. Homemade toys had merits after all. Most people, even if they could reach town, could not afford many store bought toys and created playthings from leftover scraps at home. These innovative toys became expressions of America's proud heritage of turning necessity into advantage. Dolls were part of America from the beginning. Artist John White, a member of the English expedition that landed on Roanoke Island off the coast of North Carolina in 1585, sketched a little Indian girl clutching both her mother and her newly acquired English doll. This stylishly dressed wooden doll was not typical of what most children in the new world owned. Their homemade dolls were more modest affairs. Often Indian children shared their doll-making traditions with their new friends. Thus, dolls made from corncobs and rawhide became important playthings. Corn proved an integral part of daily life. Children farmed corn, ate it, slept on mattresses filled with cornhusks, and made toys from corn. By the imaginative use of fruit dyes and fabric scraps, a cornhusk doll could have many faces and costumes. Still being made today in mountain regions, these dolls delightfully express a popular American folk craft. Another doll adapted from Indians is the leather or rawhide doll. Since leather was a staple offarm life, many scraps were available for making dolls. Sometimes leather feet and hands joined a cloth body, and occasionally the entire doll consisted of rawhide. By the nineteenth century parents could purchase ready-made leather hands and feet. Children created dolls from dried apples and nuts. These unusual dolls with their wizened faces remain a special folk craft today. Sometimes


6a. a little girl might persuade her brother or father to carve a doll from a piece of wood. These sculptural dolls led to the popular clothespin and pennywooden dolls. Even wishbones from the traditional turkey were turned into dolls. The head was fashioned by dipping the joined end of the wishbone in sealing wax. Then the bones were wrapped with cloth to complete the body. Arms were sewn into the cloth. Unfortunately, these dolls proved so fragile that very few examples survived. Perhaps the best loved doll was the soft rag doll that Laura Ingalls Wilder wonderfully described in her historical children's novel Little House in the Big Woods. "She was a beautiful doll. She had a face of white cloth with black button

6b.

eyes. A black pencil had made her eyebrows, and her cheeks and mouth were red with the ink made from pokeberries. Her hair was black yarn that had been knit and raveled, so that it was curly. She had little flannel stockings and little black cloth gaiters for shoes, and her dress was pretty pink and blue calico!" Laura's doll was a typical example of the rag doll. Most were made of linen or cotton and stuffed with bran, sawdust, or straw. The doll's flat faces had embroidered or painted features, and hair was of yarn, hemp, or even human hair. Clothing, fashioned from leftover material, had to be patched and repatched. Some interesting dolls

6a.&6b. Front and back views ofa very elaborate late 19th century doll with cornsilk hair.(Author's collection)

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7. Although homemade, this example ofa sophisticated, humorous toy is operated by turning the key.(Private collection, courtesy ofAmerican Hurrah)

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have been found with heads composed of several layers of cloth—indicating still another way thrifty parents prolonged the lives of these dolls. By the mid-nineteenth century patterns could be bought ready to stuff and sew, thus reducing the originality so apparent in many of these early dolls. Little girls wanted furniture for their dolls, especially a bed or cradle. The making of a doll's bed often became a family venture with the father building the cradle out of pine or maple, while the mother concentrated on the bedcoverings. Some children received a miniature chair, table, or chest BIBLIOGRAPHY Unpublished Sources Barette, Lenore Gale. "Christmas in Oregon Territory in 18.5.37(New York Public Library) Published Sources Bishop, Robert. American Folk Sculpture. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co.,Inc., 1974. Carter, Kate B., comp. Heart Throbs ofthe West, Volume IV. Salt Lake City, Utah: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1940-51. Culff, Robert. The World of Toys. Verona: The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, 1969. Daiken, Leslie. Children's Toys Throughout the Ages. London: Spring Books, 1963. Jones, Iris. Early North American Dollmaking. San Francisco: 101 Publications, 1976. King, Constance Eileen. The Encyclopedia ofToys. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1978. McClinton, Katherine Morrison. Antiques ofAmerican Childhood. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1970. Matthiews, Sallie (Reynolds). Interwoven:A Pioneer Chronicle. Houston: The Anson Jones Press, 1936. Schorsch, Anita. Images ofChildhood. New York: Mayflower Books, Inc., 1979. White, Gwen. Antique Toys and their Background. New York: Arco Publishing Company,Inc., 1972. Wilder, Laura Ingalls. Little House in the Big Woods. New York: Harper & Row, 1953.

when the family ordered furniture from the local cabinet maker. By making a salesman's sample of a contemplated piece of furniture, the cabinet maker created a marvelous toy. These skilled craftsmen were also kept busy with rocking horses. The first rocking horse may have been no more than a parent's bouncing knee, but since then a parade of saucy horses has rocked away in American homes. By the time of the American Revolution, most well equipped nurseries contained a rocking horse or pull-horse. Early rocking horses often had a boat-like appearance. Detailed carving was reserved for the head and shoulders which descended into plank-like rockers painted to resemble legs. Later thin legs were supported by huge rockers. Made of painted wood or covered with real animal hides, these horses were either realistic copies of horses or fanciful delights. One thoughtful parent wrote, circa 1880,"This Christmas I made a lot of the children's things... six year old Joe was very pleased with a brown canton flannel pony all saddled and bridled with shoe buttons for eyes and old-fashioned straight clothespins, put in with knob end down,for legs:" All sorts of animals and vehicles fascinated children, including the popular Noah's arks. These arks, considered appropriate for Sunday use in early New England, provided a craftsman the opportunity to create hundreds of animals. In decoration, many arks reflected their European (especially German)origins. Imaginative bands usually trimmed the arks just below the roof line. In 19th-century Pennsylvania, Wilhelm Schimmel and his pupil Aaron Mountz traveled through the countryside whittling beguiling arks and animals. Like many itinerant craftsmen, they met with little financial success and were sometimes forced to barter their fanciful carvings for food and shelter. Indeed whittling, like baseball, became a national pastime, with men and boys cherishing theirjack knives. As mentioned in the following account, many elaborate gifts were carved for special occasions. "For little John, Grandfather had made


a small cane with a dog's head carved on it. He was clever with his jack knife and could take a piece of wood and cut on it grotesque and funny faces and figures. John was surprised and delighted. He carried the cane on many a tramp through the woods, pointing with it to the mountains, to a grouse hiding in the ferns, orjust swinging along with the little treasure, feeling like a grownup man:" Often these handmade toys were made with love. That parents gave of themselves made their creations extra special. Adults remembering their childhoods would relate with pride their parents' homemade gifts. Particularly touching is Mrs. Isabel McKenzie's account of her father's toymalcing. "My father, James Brown who was born in Scotland was very clever with his hands. He came to Utah in 1861, and I think that with a chance of educational training, father would have gained some recognition along the lines of sculpture. He would take blocks of rubber or guttapercha...and cut it into all sorts of shapes with a sharp knife. Among these figures were cows, pigs, elephants, and bears, which could all stand up. The pig's tail could be pulled straight and when we let go it would curl up again!'

Toys that moved or contained surprises have always delighted children, and the articulated toys of early America hold special appeal. Inventories list them as far back as the 1750s, but most examples date from the 1800s. The jumping jack or dancing Dan dolls performed their clattering dances when their owner removed the string or stick by which the dolls were triggered. Sometimes they were so skillfully carved that today they are regarded as sculptural forms. Parades of patriotic soldiers or bouncing animals were made to move by means of pulleys, cranks, and springs. While these simple toys often express great artistic beauty and strength, they also allow a glimpse of the child's changing world in America. In a society that was constantly on the move, meeting tremendous challenges, people still found time to whittle a favorite animal, make a doll, or devise a game. In creating these toys, craftsmen used their imaginations to make new forms that often became more interesting than the technically superior European toys they were trying to copy. NOTES 1. Laura Ingalls Wilder,Little House in the Big Woods. (New York: Harper & Row, 1953). 2. Sallie Reynolds Matthiews,Interwoven: A Pioneer Chronicle.(Houston: The Anson Jones Press, 1936), p.189. 3. Lenore Gale Barette, "Christmas in Oregon Territory in 1853:'(New York Public Library). 4. Kate B. Carter, comp. Heart Throbs ofthe West, Volume IX.(Salt Lake City, Utah: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1940-51), p. 397.

8. Turn-of-the-century sled with swans-head runners and hand-painted decoration.(Private collection, courtesy of American Hurrah)


Harold E. Barer Harold Everett Bayer's handwritten business card reads, "Picture Painter!' 78 year old Bayer is indeed a folk art picture painter. He has created over three hundred paintings depicting the rural Ohio landscapes and the farm family activities of an earlier day. He was born in Cleveland, but has spent most of his life in the farm communities of Northwest Ohio. Bayer is a small man of German heritage. He is a very gentle, warm, and friendly person with an entertaining sense of humor. Youthfulness shines through his blue eyes as he reluctantly talks about his paintings. "Oh heck, I do these paintings because I like them. The scenes are what I remember of what was good about a simple way of living. Those days people got together to help and to enjoy each other!' At 78, Mr. Bayer's memory is as bright and shiny as his white hair. "I remember many things from when I was a boy. There were lots of horses around and everyone had to work on the farm!'

Harold Everett Bayer Toledo, Ohio Folk Artist (BORN FEBRUARY 25, 1900-CLEVELAND, OHIO)

BY JENNE REGAS

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Farm folks, involved in family activities, are the central theme in most of his colorful paintings. His farm people stand straight and square dressed in attire more or less Amish in style. His men-folk, in black pants and white shirts, are reminiscent of Bayer, himself. Occasionally, men and boys wear bib overalls and, for special celebrations, the women are shown in more colorful bonnets and skirts. Barefoot boys run across his summer scenes. Three generations participate in most of his action paintings. In Apple-butter Making, an outdoor scene, Bayer depicts each character performing a chore, whether carrying apples by the bushel basket, peeling and slicing the apples, or stirring the contents of the huge black kettle hung over the fire. The season, Fall, is indicated by the trim wheat fields in the background behind the small clapboard farm home. White leghom hens lazily peck in front of a large hay-filled barn. Characteristic of Bayer's paintings is a little girl with her.dog observing the scene. "That's Veda with her dog Pokey, she comes and goes in my pictures. She may be on vacation at times so may not appear:' said Bayer who has no children. Another characteristic is the placement of three


2. black and white cows in most of his farm and landscape scenes. "That's my trademark:' he says. If only two appear, he laughingly says, "the third one's in the barn:' Public gatherings such as Fourth of July celebrations, country fairs, band concerts in the park, square dances, and the circus bring together numerous and varied figures for Bayer to illumine. Dogs, horses, cows, sheep and circus animals come alive in these scenes. Outstanding are the close-ups of the people he places in the scene. Facial features often consist only of two black dots. People in the foreground, watching an activity, such as the band concert, are painted in full-bodied close-ups with large black rounds as the back of their heads. Many faces do not even have the dots. But Bayer paints with such skill that the viewer sees a facial expression. Interior scenes are usually of the typical farm

home in the early 1900s. In Quilt Making, Grandpa sits beside a huge pot-bellied stove with a roaring fire reading the paper. Close-up is Grandma in a seat of honor near the quilting frame as several young women quilt. Veda and Pokey observe the activity. Two young boys stand near the coal bucket. A wall shelf with the essential oil lamp is placed against a repetitive cross design wallpaper. The window frames the winter scene outside. (Bayer paints numerous other interiors such as the general store, family Christmas, and family sitting for the photographer in the parlor.) Bayer has a love affair with the old-time steam engines and passenger trains as he remembers them as a youth. Trains criss-cross his rural landscapes. Green mohair seat backs are visible at the windows in which the train passengers are placed in upright positions looking out on the

1. Apple Butter Making. Ohio 1970 Acrylic on masonite (Collection of Chris and Jenne Regas, Perrysburg, Ohio) 2. Winter in Town. Ohio 1974 Acrylic on masonite (Collection ofDavis Mather)(Photograph by Mark Nohl)

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3.Farm Scene. Ohio Circa 1970 Acrylic on masonite(Museum of American Folk Art)

seasonal activities of ice-skaters, swimmers or families busy with the spring planting or the fall harvest. One of his trains scenes portrays the typical small-town depot with passengers, onlookers and freight. "Oh, I've been called Grandpa Moses, but I paint the way I want to. I have my own style. I've found out that I will get an order to paint or reproduce a certain scene; then they start telling me what color to use and how big the picture should be and everything else. I found myself painting what someone else wanted me to paint not what I felt the painting should be. I used to worry too much whether the person I'm doing the painting for will like it. Now I've made up my mind to do it the way I feel about it and paint it my own way. When you're painting the way someone else wants you to, it's not fun and I stop. Heck, I want to do it my own way and enjoy doing it:'

Hazel, his wife of fifty years,is his sharpest critic and greatest motivator. She gives him encouragement to try new ideas. Jokingly, he calls her his manager. Bayer has been painting seriously since 1965, two years after his retirement as a typewriter repairman. "Once I spent thirty minutes with an art teacher but he told me I didn't paint the way he did so I never went back. Just a waste of time:' Bayer is an untrained artist but he has experimented with many mediums such as gouache, pencil, ink, chalk and oils. He has focused on acrylics on fiberboard. Why acrylics rather than oils? Only because Hazel is allergic to the odor of oils. Bayer sets up his painting equipment in his living room. "I don't use an easel, just this board across my lap. I splash a lot of paint around this chair:' Bayer said as he adjusted his stereo


earphones. "With the earphones, I don't keep Hazel awake as I only paint at night from about ten until one in the morning. I like to listen to classical music as I paint!' Bayer sketches his ideas on tissue, then traces the sketch onto the fiberboard, usually completing a painting after the transfer within a week. Bayer makes his own frames for the paintings. He and Hazel plant and care for a large vegetable garden which comes first before the painting. During the winter months he does most of his painting in anticipation of sales at summer art shows and invitational street fairs. He sells only at these shows. Bayer has been able to capture the quality of the•midwest farm buildings. One immediately focuses on the buildings and windows of the homes as the plank lines draw the viewer to the scene. Starkness of the midwest winter is of

almost photographic quality. Barn paint is a mix of burnt sienna and white. Varied shades of green cover most of the background of his paintings. "At one of the shows, one of the show judges would not accept my painting and voted against it being accepted 'cause he didn't like green, but I like it:' said Bayer with his infectious laugh. Bayer's paintings have been accepted for the juried shows at the Toledo Museum of Art for the past 9 years. His paintings have also been exhibited at the First National Bank of Toledo Northwest Ohio Artists show. His paintings are in the collections at the Museum of American Folk Art, New York and the Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico. As a member of the Toledo Artists Club he participates in a number of local invitational shows.

4. Quilt Making. Ohio 1971 Acrylic on masonite (Collection of Chris and Jenne Regas, Perrysburg, Ohio)

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Decorated Masonic Aprons:

Photos hv John Hamilton 52


by Barbara Franco

A Rediscovered Folk Art Folk art can appear in unexpected places. Tucked away in the storage bins of local Masonic lodges and the libraries of state Grand Lodges,important examples of American folk art have remained out of public view. Masonic aprons, decorated with painted, printed, and embroidered designs from the end of the eighteenth century through the first half of the nineteenth century, are part of a rich period in American arts. Along with stenciled walls, painted furniture, and embroidered pictures of the 1790-1850 period, they are typical of vernacular art that proliferated in the new Republic. While examples in the collections of Masonic lodges, historical societies, and museums remain uncatalogued miscellanea, a growing number of folk art collectors and scholars are recognizing Masonic aprons as a neglected American art form to be valued for its artistic and decorative merits. "Bespangled, Painted, and Embroidered: Decorated Masonic Aprons in America, 1790-18507 a new exhibition at the Museum of Our National Heritage, Lexington, Massachusetts, presents Masonic aprons for the first time as documented, dated, and considered as stylistically important works of art. Masonic aprons are worn by Freemasons as part of their fraternal regalia at lodge meetings. Symbolic of innocence and purity, the plain white lambskin apron developed from protective leather aprons worn by stonemasons and other workmen of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Along with stonemason's tools of the square, compasses, trowel, plumb, and level, the apron became a symbol used to teach the moral and social virtues of Freemasonry. Decorative aprons of eighteenth and nineteenth century Freemasons varied from the official white lambskin; silk and leather aprons trimmed with bullion, silk, and fringe were painted, printed, or embroidered with symbols and "devices!' Basic symbols of Freemasonry—the square and compasses, tools of stonemasons, sun, moon, stars, and all-seeing eye—consistently appear in the designs of Masonic aprons, but the eclectic nature of Freemasonry gave artists ample opportunity to select and arrange symbols in a variety of decorative traditions. Figures of a mother and child, female figures holding a cross and anchor, familiar symbols of Faith, Hope, and Charity, common also to decorative family registers and

1. Artist unknown, Portsmouth, New Hampshire, c. 1820-1830. Opaque watercolor and gilding on silk. John Tarlton ofPortsmouth, New Hampshire, owned this apron some time after he took his Masonic degrees in 1812. The apron's design includes strong diagonals, underpainting with a red ground, and exaggerated shading characteristic of work by John Samuel Blunt, an ornamental and portraitpainter active in Portsmouthfrom 1821 to 1835. Lent by St. John's Lodge No.I F. & A.M., Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 2. Artist unknown, c. 1815. Watercolor on silk. Afolk art design combining Faith, Hope, and Charity with the columns, arch, and other symbols of Freemasonry. Museum of Our National Heritage Collection, Special Acquisitions Fund. 3. Nathan Negus, Boston, 1817. Opaque watercolor on stain-woven silk. Nathan Negus, an itinerantportrait painter, painted this apron during his apprenticeship to John Ritto Penniman. Museum ofOur National Heritage Collection.

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4. Artist unknown, Portsmouth, New Hampshire, c. 1796-1815. Watercolor on stain-woven silk. William Vaughan, the owner ofthe apron, died in 1815 after being wounded in a cannon accident while serving in the militia. The unusual design oftrees and bushes is reminiscent oflater New England wall paintings by Rufus Porter and others. Porter's later description ofhis landscape and mural painting closely matches the technique of this apron: "For the leaves ofsmall shrubs two colors only need be used, onefor light, and onefor the dark side:' Lent by St. John's Lodge No.I E & AM.,Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

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mourning pictures, dominate many Masonic apron designs. Artists and craftsmen, well-versed in classical decoration as well as Freemasonry's symbolism, emphasized the pavement,columns, and steps of Solomon's Temple, in Masonic aprons, to produce some of the most charming examples of American taste for neoclassicism. Symbols of death and eternal life closely link Masonic imagery with the mourning-art tradition in America. The coffin, willow branch, and urn, widely used as symbols to express the ideals and teachings of Freemasonry, were also universally recognized mourning motifs used on gravestone carvings and mourning pictures of the Federal period. Combining familiar motifs and the symbols of Freemasonry in a wide variety of original designs, Masonic aprons were works of art that conveyed wellknown meanings to contemporaries. Decorated Masonic aprons were the work of a variety of artists and craftsmen using decorative techniques popular in the 1790-1850 period. The designs of printed aprons engraved by well-known American artists are related to similarly engraved illustrations appearing in books and on certificates and banknotes of the time. Embroidered aprons reflect styles and patterns of stitchery similar to needlework mourning pictures and other decorative embroidery. Techniques used by sign painters, calligraphers, and stencilers also appear on Masonic aprons. Painted Masonic aprons in particular offer documentation for the wide range of decorative painting commonly done by nineteenthcentury American artists in addition to portraits and paintings. Advertisements and account books of nineteenth-century painters frequently list Masonic aprons and banners or simply "Masonic painting" among their work. John Leman,a previously unrecorded artist, advertised in the American Masonick Record published in Albany, New York in 1828-1829 that he did "Military, Standard, Sign, Masonick, and Fancy Painting:' As late as 1847, Thomas C. Savory advertised in Boston as an "Ornamental and Decorative Painter, Banners, Aprons, and every variety of painting for Lodges, Chapters, etc., executed to order with neatness and dispatch:' The account books of Ezra Ames,long known as a distinguished Albany portrait painter, include numerous references to his Masonic work. In 1790,for example, he listed "1 Masonic sattan apron" for Mr. John James of Whitestown. A ledger kept by John Samuel Blunt, a Portsmouth, New Hampshire artist, during the years 1825 to 1826 lists numerous Masonic aprons(Robert Bishop,"John Blunt: the Man,the Artist and His Times:' The Clarion, Spring, 1980). Artists rarely signed Masonic aprons, but the few signed examples that have been located provide further insight into the types of artists who painted Masonic aprons. One signed and dated apron inscribed "Painted by Nathan Negus,

Boston, 1817:' was painted during his appenticeship to John Ritto Penniman, a decorative painter in Boston, Massachusetts. Negus became an itinerant portrait painter before his early death at the age of twenty-four. Two aprons by John Meer, an artist and japanner in Philadelphia from 1795 to 1830, have been identified on the basis of one apron signed and dated "Meer, Philada. 58207 M.E.D. Brown, an early lithographic artist and prominent portrait and landscape artist of Utica, New York, signed and painted a Masonic apron early in his career at the age of sixteen in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. A well-documented apron, accompanied by its original 1793 receipt for one "Free Masons Apron7 is the work of a previously unknown Providence, Rhode Island artist named Davis Ward Hoppin. Hoppin advertised in the November 30, 1793 Providence Gazette that "Davis W. Hoppin Portrait and Heraldry Painter Informs the Public that he executes the Business of his Profession with Elegance and Dispatch at his Room over the crockery store occupied by Mr. Lyndon—Gilding and Sign Painting in their various Branches are also performed in the neatest and most expeditious manner:' Hoppin was only twenty-two years of age at the time he painted the apron and, like many other artists, seems to have painted Masonic aprons early in his career as a professional artist. The versatility of nineteenth-century artists is well-documented in advertisements offering to paint anything from a major portrait to signs, furniture, or sleighs. American artists used the varied skills of sign painter, mural painter, stenciler, and calligrapher to improvise Masonic

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apron designs. In some cases, techniques of ornamental painting found on Masonic aprons are comparable to identified work by contemporary artists and suggest possible attributions. An apron belonging to John Tarlton, a member of St. John's Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, New Hampshire in the 1820s, combines stylistic qualities found on portraits and fire buckets painted by the aforementioned John Samuel Blunt. A Portsmouth artist, Blunt advertised in 1827 that he did "Portrait and Miniature Painting, Military Standard do., Sign Painting, Plain and Ornamented, Landscape and Marine Painting, Masonic and Fancy do. Ship Ornaments Gilded and Painted, Oil and Burnish Gilding, Bronzing &c. &c:' Strong diagonals, underpainting with a red ground, and exaggerated shading of drapery, characteristics associated with Blunt's work, all appear in the gilded design of the Tarlton apron. The painted design of another New Hampshire apron is closely related to the decorative techniques of New England wall painters. Painted on silk, it belonged to William Vaughan, a member of St. John's Lodge No. 1 in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, who died in 1815 after being wounded in a cannon accident while serving as Captain in a militia company. The trees painted with sponge-like leaves, the marbleized flooring of the altar, and the scale and sparseness of the design closely resemble wall paintings done by Rufus Porter and others in the 1825-1830 period. Porter, the best known of these itinerant muralists, spent the years from 1805 to 1816 in a variety of trades that included fiddler, farmer, sign, sleigh, and drum painter. He also played the fife for military companies and served as a private and musician in three Portland, Maine militia companies. Porter's later description of his landscape and mural painting closely matches the technique used on this apron: For the leaves of small shrubs two colors only need to be used, one for light and one for the dark side. Trees and hedge fences...are formed by means of the flat bushing-brush. This is dipped in the required color, and struck end-wise upon the wall... in a manner to produce...a cluster of small prints or spots... •' Like other artists, it is possible that Porter may have painted Masonic aprons early in his career as a sign painter before turning to portraits and murals. Not every painted apron was a unique creation. Multiple copies of many painted aprons suggest that artists worked out designs and then painted aprons to order. The shop of some ornamental artists may even have had stock designs that could be painted by any of the artists or apprentices working there. William Low and Benjamin Damon, partners in a chairmaking and painting

5. business in Concord, New Hampshire, advertised that they provided "Elegantly Gilt Ornamented SETTEES and CHAIRS...Sign and HousePainting, and ...OIL CLOTHS:' and at the end of the advertisement noted "N.B. A Few MASONIC APRONS elegantly executed on white satin!' The wording of "a few" suggests that Low and Damon either kept painted aprons on hand or had several stock designs which they painted to order. Aprons painted by amateur artists were often copies of engraved aprons similar to the "schoolgirl" drawings and watercolors copied from popular prints and engravings by young men and women in the nineteenth century. Aprons painted on velvet are closely related to the theorem paintings of flowers and fruits that were popular in the 1830s. Most velvet aprons appear to be copies or tracings of engraved aprons either freehand or stenciled and all probably date c. 1820-1840. Stenciling was also used by artists as a method of producing Masonic aprons. Similar to the techniques used by furniture decorators and muralists, stencils were used for the main shapes in a design and the details painted by hand. Stenciling is often difficult to identify because the painted details obliterate the original stenciled outlines. Comparison of several aprons in the same design often reveals that they were produced

5.Artist unknown, New Hampshire. 1790s. Ink and wash on leather. The 18th-century Georgian style building probably represents Solomon's Temple. Buildings such as this also appear in the designs c samplers dating c. 1780 to 1800. Lent by St. John's Lodge No.1 F. & A.M., Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

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from the same set of stencils. Examples of stenciled aprons have been located in Maine, Massachusetts, Kentucky, Georgia, and Pennsylvania, confirming that stenciling was more common away from large cities. Easily portable stencils and paints substituted for the more complicated tools and techniques of engraving and were especially suited to itinerant rural artists. As documented examples of American folk art, early Masonic aprons offer new evidence for the varied accomplishments of American artists and craftsmen in the first decades of the nation's history. Masonic aprons represent additional examples of decorative painting commonly done by American artists and painters in the early nineteenth century. Information available about Masonic aprons, including for whom they were painted and when they were purchased, greatly expands our understanding of how and where artists were working. The fact that many artists

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painted Masonic aprons early in their careers or during their apprenticeships adds new information to the often sketchy histories of their background and training. Additional information will undoubtedly be uncovered by renewed scholarly interest in these examples of American art that have been previously saved only as Masonic memorabilia. Far from being a specialized subject of limited interest to only a few Masonic scholars, decorated Masonic aprons are part of a rich heritage of American art and decoration. Editor's note: "Bespangled, Painted and Embroidered: Decorated Masonic Aprons in America 1790-1850" is on exhibition at The Museum of Our National Heritage, P.O. Box 519, 33 Marrett Road, Lexington, Massachusetts 02173 through April 5,1981. 1. Jean Lipman,Rufus Porter, Yankee Pioneer. (New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1968). pp. 95-97.

6. Artist unknown, Massachusetts, c. 1800. Stenciled and painted on leather. The geometric repeat design ofthe border is similar to stencils used on walls,floors, andfurniture ofthe period. Collection of The Most Worshipful Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. ofMassachusetts.

7. Artist unknown, c. 1820-1840. Stenciled and painted on velvet. Tht holly border is unusual. Museum ofOur National Heritage Collection.



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Plains People/ Common Wealth by Patrice Avon Marvin and Nicholas Curchin Vrooman

1. Hardangar Violin with Viking Head. Amund Vallevik(1884-1967). 1960. Spring Brook, ND. Spruce, maple, mother of pearl, bone and india ink. 2"x 81/4"x 3W 1 26/ 2. German Russian Grave Marker. Anonymous. c. 1900. Emmons County, ND. Fabricated iron. Approx.6'x4 3. Rough Rider Roping. Alex Paluck(Born 1901). 1980. BeIfield, ND.18 gauge steel. 10"x 14"x 4'! 1 3/ 4. Farm Marketing 1905. Ben Barrett(Born 1889). 1976. Oil on canvas. Lin1 4! 1 4"x 35/ 1 ton, ND.23/ 5. Vision of Mother Earth Reaching to Save Her Young. Leo J. Wilkie (Born 1935). 1977. Belcourt, ND. Cotton47 / 4"x 11 1 wood. Approx. 4/

Think of the geographic heart of North America and you've found the state of North Dakota. Bounded by the southern Dakota, Canada, Minnesota and Montana, the area feels two distinct pulls, one "Midwest;' the other "West'? Although its Native American cultural heritage is venerable and rich, its white American constituency has a young history, having placed a star on the flag only ninety-one years ago. Joining the native Sioux, Ojibwa, and Three Affiliated Tribes Indians were Scandinavians, Canadians, German Russians, Ukrainians, and immigrants from the eastern United States. These newcomers came as homesteaders and took to farming and ranching. Today the 70,665 square miles are occupied by 618,000 people, startling vast horizons, and a landscape'plum full' of flat, subtly beautiful treeless plains and rugged buttes. Barring drought, it is good land for never-ending wheat fields, sugar beets, sunflowers, and cattle. More recently coal and oil industries have been added to its economic base. North Dakota began a field survey of its folk arts in the spring of 1980 through a folk arts coordinator position with the state Council on the Arts. The survey work concentrated on material folk arts and was the first comprehensive effort in the territory to inventory this aspect of folk culture. A variety of folk art expressions have been identified and documented, thus far evolving into the general categories of: home decorative arts, occupational arts, traditional ethnic group arts, and the individualistic or uniquely personal arts. The home decorative arts were used specifically to embellish the home, adding color to domestic environments, and most often serving a functional purpose. As would be anticipated, quilts, rugs, fancy hair pieces, needleworked pictures, carved utensils, sewing boxes,frames, book ends,lamps, furniture, painted house and barn walls, and yard ornaments surfaced in the survey. Among these, the women's needlework arts need further study to distinguish and record the differences between the popular, the traditional, and the individualistic

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6. Catching a Stray. Albert Bean(Born 1900). 1972. Heaton, ND. Basswood, oilpaint, natural root and rock. 10/ 1 4"x 18"x 11" elements operative in this area of creativity. A second category of folk art in North Dakota stems from the heritage of specific occupational groups, namely the northern plains farmers and ranchers. One farmer, seventy-five-year-old Albert Reddig of Cathay, defied all reliance upon a fleet of farm machines by creating his "One-Step Operation Machine"(fig.8) which will perform all chores—plow, seed, fertilize, fallow, and harvest (and many is the city slicker who is 'buffaloed' by him!). Aside from Reddig's welded yard sculpture, the creativity of farmers and ranchers most often reflects the fascination with and former dependence upon the Horse, making it a major theme in both the social and art history of North Dakota. Here one finds horsehair weaving in bridles, whips, hatbands, and chains; tooled and braided leather horse gear; paintings depicting horses in everyday situations—be it threshing grain, transporting goods and people, herding cattle or breaking sod; and sculptured horses which appear in every shape, color, and predicament. From the initial field work, sculpture clearly emerged as the dominant folk art form, with wood as the primary medium. This finding, combined with the near-absence of trees on the landscape, is curious. A masterpiece offolk sculpture in wood was produced by Ole(The Hermit)Olson after attending a 1935 hometown ballgame in Litchville. Olson essentially recreated that afternoon with his Donkey Ballgame (fig. 7), carving 102 men, women and children and eight donkeys all in the midst of a rural American phenomena. Some of the participants represent actual Litchville residents, while others evolved from Olson's imagination. Donkey Ballgame is not only an extraordinary work of art, but is also a valuable ethnographic document. Due to the basically rural life and the semiisolation of the plains, North Dakota's ethnic groups are much intact. Thus, many of their traditional group folk arts are currently visible. 60

—Norwegians comprise the largest group and are represented by the self-taught Hardanger violin making of Amund Vallevik of Spring Brook (fig. 1); the acanthus relief wood carving of Ole Simerigaard (1889-1957)of Hillsboro on tines and picture frames; and the knitted lace mandalas of Betsey Martinson from Fott Ransom. —The ironwork grave crosses mark a special


contribution from the German Russians.(fig. 2) Formerly made by local blacksmiths out of an old European tradition, this funerary art is now part of several historical cemeteries scattered throughout the state. —The Ukrainians have strong, thriving folk arts with their counted-thread embroidery and Easter season pysanka. These people have settled in the Dickinson and Belfield areas, with a small community also in Pembina. —Many traditional willow basket forms are created by Ojibwa people from the'Rude Mountain Reservation. These baskets are generally wellmade and available to the public through local shops. An Interesting contrast to the traditional group folk arts is the highly individualistic counterpart at work within a community. Meet Albert Bean. An unspoiled and witty man of eighty years, Bean has whittled since he was young. "When we went to the hills, me an this other guy, well we couldn't draw pictures very well in the wind, so we whittled everything!' His parents homesteaded near Heaton where Albert, his wife Mabel, and their son Dwight still live in the family home.

7. Donkey Ballgame, Litchville 1935. Ole(The Hermit)Olson. (1882-1966). 1935. Litchville, ND. Wood and paint. 4/ 3 4"x 28"x 247

Like many North Dakotans,farming and horses have filled Bean's life. Nowhere is that more evident than in the record his art work makes. The Bean home is a veritable museum full of wonderfully original carvings and paintings. He can find a horse's head on a piece of field stone; he can see two fighting horses in a tangled root. With a touch of his jackknife or paintbrush, he brings them out for others to see as well—Accompanying every piece he creates is a funny story bound to make one laugh. Bean's carving, which he insists "gives me a good excuse for not doing anything else!" is worked on during the long winter months and takes three main forms: long, rectangular painted bas-relief scenes; individual horse or horse-withrider, carved in the round; and panoramic scenes with fully carved human figures, animals, and 'props: Illustrating the latter is "Catching a Stray" (fig. 6)which shows a cowboy roping one of his loose steers. Alex Paluck is another folk sculptor from the northern plains. He was born in Belfield in 1901. His father, a former farrier with the Austrian Army,ran the local blacksmith business, where Alex and his brother Nick worked from the time they were young boys. The Palucks not only tended to normal 'smithy' jobs, but also created special decorative metal work such as iron grave markers and altar gates. Gradually Alex grew into a master machinist, working out of"Paluck's Shop!'which houses many sophisticated machines including an original blade sharpening outfit which took Alex three years to perfect. There is a 19th-century flavor to the shop, generated by Paluck's precision skills and ingenuity. During the winter months when the machine work slowed,Paluck began making metal horse sculptures like the "Rough Rider Roping!'(fig. 3) His ideas are drawn and calculated first on paper, then meticulously transferred to steel with welder, files, hammer and emery cloth. Paluck, who has a natural feel for metal, takes great pride in his work and enjoys making decorative objects for his home where he lives with his sister Antonia. He believes that "an artist's ideas come to nothing without the skills to make them happen!' Folk painting identified in the survey tends to be memory work recording the times past. An example of historical genre painters is Ben Barrett of Linton. Barrett was born on his parent's homestead farm in 1889, the year North Dakota became a state. He graduated from the Agricultural College, Fargo, and subsequently was a county agent in Cavalier and Emmons Counties for thirty-two years. A creative and productive man, Barrett has filled many days in his retirement with painting and writing, revealing his keen sense of history 61


S. One-Step Operation Machine. Albert Reddig (Born 1905). c. 1965. Cathay, ND.Painted metal machinery parts. 12' high; 17' long;14' wide.

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and commitment to record. Using bright colors and strong images, his self-styled oil painting depicts local historical scenes, portraits, memories of his work as a county agent and as a world traveler. Old photographs often serve as inspirations. Though he has been painting only twelve years, Barrett's home is filled floor to ceiling with completed canvases. Barrett likes to talk about his works as statements on the early days, as with "Farm Marketing 19057 (fig. 4)"I remember the way grain was delivered. In fact I used to enjoy hauling grain to town. I used to insist on a four-horse team!" However, he does not like to talk about his work as 'art; and, when asked what other people call him in terms of his paintings, he replies, "Ben7 Today, at the age of ninety, full of stories and ideas, he's thinking about "turning to carving for a change of pace!' Individualistic creativity sometimes takes the form of visionary art. Such is the case in North Dakota with Leo J. Wilkie, an Ojibwa Cut-Head of the Turtle Mountain Reservation. Wilkie carves his sculptures from the oral history of his ancestors and from his dreams."My people have a strong oral tradition. I searched for years to find a way to tell my story. Before I started carving, I prayed7 Art and belief go hand in hand in his life. Wilkie uses his sculpture as a medium for explaining who he is and what he believes. In the

tradition of his people, the appearance of three bears represents the coming of death. In 1976 Wilkie was seriously ill. In a vision he saw first one bear, then a second. The third bear appeared and then retreated. Upon recovering from this illness, Wilkie immediately began carving his "Vision of Mother Earth Reaching to Save Her Young:'(fig. 5) Though once a heavy equipment operator, Wilkie now farms and works part-time for the Prairie People's Institute in Mandan. His carving spans only five years, and yet in that time, using only the most elementary tools, he has created a large and highly symbolic body of work in stone, bone, and wood. These views into the'common wealth' of creative folk expression from the plains people represent the first step toward discovering the state's material folk art heritage. Many other people and objects belong in this company. Their discovery is necessary if North Dakota's chapter of American folk art is to be written. Note: 125 objects uncovered by field researchers Marvin and Vrooman were organized into a mobile art gallery exhibit,"Common Wealth': which toured the state for six months through the Chautauqua series, state fair, and county fair circuit.


A Visit with Steven Ashby by Charles Rosenak

Races at Upperville Steven Ashby Virginia Circa 1970. Wood, painted; bits of fabric and plastic. L.57:' W.10½'H. 15'.' (Mr. and Mrs. Charles Rosenak).

A sunny winter Sunday is a good time to visit Steven Ashby because he will have been working. Drive through affluent Washington suburbs, onto the beltway, past suburban shops out Highway 66 to Route 50,on to Middlebury, Virginia. Ready yourself for adventure. Go beyond Middlebury to Upperville, past the old half-decaying race track Steven made famous in his collage assemblage,Races at Upperville, to the Delaplane road where gentleman farm homes are still maintained behind rail and fieldstone fences. The winding road to Delaplane, a crossroad village composed of an abandoned railroad station converted into a grocery store and a couple of antique shops, is dangerously narrow. Just beyond the right fork, across from the red water pump on the right, is a small wooden house with an inviting front porch shaded by tall trees. This is the home of Steven Ashby. Strange assemblages hanging in the trees move in the wind. A half-finished giraffe with a doll's head stands nodding alongside the porch. One summer, two full sized figures, a white woman and a black man with a scythe, kept Steven company while he worked near his garden under the hickory trees. The three room house in earlier years served as a school house. In the middle room, where Steven works in winter, a pot-bellied wood-burning stove glbws, keeping the house warm and comfortable. Steven works at a small wooden table covered with an assortment ofjars of model paint and, often, a recent carving. He usually displays his finished

pieces on his bed, on top of an old quilt, when he shows them to visitors. He explains that he really has nothing finished. We see the black man with a scythe, and a haughty gentleman holding an umbrella. These figures, made of assorted remnants of wood, costume jewelry, and miscellaneous found and cutout objects, are typical of his work. Although they are difficult to see in this room,one cannot help but smile at the whimsical satirical portrayal of a world populated by people outside Steven's immediate environment. No one taught Steven Ashby to carve and paint, nor did he learn his art by observing sculptures in museums or galleries. Steven was born black and poor in this affluent section of rural Virginia on July 2, 1904, one of ten children. From the time Steven could walk, he worked with his father on neighboring farms. He liked to cut and scythe. "I never would take care of no horses:' he proclaims. Steven married Liza King, who died in 1960, and they acquired the house where Steven now lives and works. Steven remembers that he hired out as a waiter in Marshall, Virginia for a short time, but his home and life have mostly been within walking distance of the store at Delaplane. Steven can explain neither why his mind is populated by these imaginative figures, nor his desire to make them. They are real, though, and they keep him company and amuse him with their antics. Sometimes his figures are so earthily realistic that they embarrass him in front of callers. For instance, one dealer tells the story of the time Steven refused to show her some figures because he just could not—in front of a lady. Steven did not start to carve until after he retired and Liza died—there simply was not time. It may be that his need for companionship caused him to begin making his figures. Steven Ashby makes no effort to sell his figures; in fact he probably would prefer to keep them around him. He knows in a way that he is famous; others have read newspaper clippings to him, but that seems to matter little to Steven—he creates to satisfy his own compulsion. Steven's work habits are cyclical. In spring, when the grass grows tall in the nearby fields, Steven has to cut his lawn and start his garden. The making of figures must be postponed until late summer. In fall, there is wood to chop in the nearby hills and Steven, despite his age, goes across the road with a chain saw until he has enough wood for the cold weather ahead. However,on a winter day such as this, with wood piled high outside his back door, Steven works well by his stove creating art some would characterize as "folk': NOTE Shortly after this article was written, Steven became ill. On June 13, 1980, he died, apparently of a heart attack. Steven is buried next to his wife in Asheville, Virginia.

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Noteworthy Items Who Carved These Chests? These two New England chests were made early in the nineteenth century, and later carved by one craftsman. It is thought that this artist generally used old, found pieces of furniture as the basis for his work. Other examples and any historical information are requested by Mrs. R. C. Fuller, January Hills Road, R.D. 3, Amherst, Maine 01002.

Summer Seminar in Early Southern Decorative Arts The Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts and the University of North Carolina at Greensboro are offering a Graduate Summer Institute from June 28 through July 24,entitled "Early Southern History and Decorative Arts:' This will be the sixth successive year of the Institute. The program is designed for graduate students in American art and history with an interest in material culture, university graduates interested in museum professions, and museum personnel. Selected qualified undergraduates will also be considered. For enrollment,fellowship, and application information, write to Sally Gant, Education Coordinator, Summer Institute, Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts, Post Office Box 10310, Salem Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27108.

Who is Studying Folk Art?

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A survey offolk art courses in higher education is being conducted to help evaluate present course offerings and to assist in the development of new courses. Information regarding course content, structure, administration, requirements, population, and academic departmental affiliations is being sought. Instructors of courses focusing on the study of material culture produced in a non-elitist, traditional context are urged to contact Marsha MacDowell, Folk Arts Division, The Museum, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan,48824.


Eagle and Shield Chairs Information about William Buttre of New York State(Auburn, Albany, and New York City)and his eagle and shield chairs of the federal period is requested by Charles Semowich, R.D. #8,Box 94, Binghampton, New York 13901. Late Sheraton side chair attributed to William Buttre New York City Early nineteenth century Ash, beech, tulipwood 1 2',' D. H.34/ 1 2'; W. 14/ Miss Elise Kinkead

Sotheby's to Inaugurate Restoration Division Sotheby Parke Bernet Inc.'s newest division, "Sotheby's Restoration:' located at 440 East 91st Street, in Manhattan, is the largest workshop of its kind in America, offering a wide variety of services to the general public as well as to Sotheby clients. A cabinet shop occupying an entire floor, handles cutting, carving, and repair work, while a finishing studio on the floor above concentrates on gilding, polishing, lacquer work, and japanning. Initially devoted only to the restoration and conservation of furniture, it is planned that these services will eventually be expanded to include work on many other areas in the decorative arts, including metalwork and porcelain. The staff consists of skilled European craftsmen whose diversified expertise spans all periods and styles offurniture. "Sotheby's Restoration" is headed by John Stair, a former director of Sotheby's in London and New York. Working closely with him will be Paul Rankin, manager of the new division.

Coming Exhibitions at The Museum. SMALL FOLK: A CELEBRATION OF CHILDHOOD IN AMERICA Curators: Sandra Brant and Elissa Cullman Current through February 1, 1981 This major exhibition of over 300 objects in all media offolk art is a comprehensive view of the life of children in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The exhibition is divided into four areas: "A Child's Depiction7 presented in paintings and sculpture;"A Child's Delight:' featuring children's playthings;"A Child's Discipline:' represented in needlework and calligraphy; and "A Child's Domain:' illustrated in objects relating to the physical and psychological well-being of children, including quilts and bedcovers, furniture, and birth and death certificates. The New-York Historical Society houses a continuation of "Small Folk:' also through February 1. From March 1 through April 24, 1981, "Small Folk" will be exhibited at the First Street Forum,717 North First Street, St. Louis, Missouri. A presentation of the exhibition is scheduled for The Shiseido Gallery in Tokyo, Japan this Summer.

THE ICONS OF JOHN PERATES AND THE NEW ENGLAND FRAKTUR Curator: Dr. Robert Bishop MEMBERS' PRIVATE PREVIEW

February 11, 1981 PUBLIC OPENING

February 12, 1981 CLOSING

May 10, 1981 The Icons ofJohn Perates An exhibition of fourteen monumental carved and polychromed wooden icons created by John Perates, a Greek immigrant working in Portland, Maine, during the 1930s. Also included in the exhibition will be photographic blow-ups of an accompanying eighteen foot altarpiece and twelve foot pulpit. In addition, the large central panel of the altarpiece depicting The Last Supper will be exhibited. For exhibition catalogue see page 36 of this issue. The New England Fraktur For the first time, an exhibition of almost fifty illuminated manuscripts, or frakturs, from New England will be shown at the Museum of American Folk Art. As in the familiar Pennsylvania-German frakturs, births, deaths, and other family occasions, calligraphic exercises, and copy book

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pages were recorded. In New England, also set down on paper were Masonic records, valentines, maritime maps, patriotic sayings, and perpetual calendars. These New England frakturs range from the obvious—conceptions which have a strong graphic impact—to very gentle aesthetic concoctions. Most of the work is strongly confined and confident. For exhibition catalogue see page 30 of this issue. ANONYMOUS BEAUTY:QUILTS, COVERLETS,AND BEDCOVERS—TEXTILE TREASURES FROM TWO CENTURIES Curator: Dr. Judith Reiter Weissman MEMBERS' PRIVATE PREVIEW

May 18, 1981 PUBLIC OPENING

May 19, 1981 CLOSING

August 23, 1981 An exhibition of approximately sixty American folk art textiles from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Most of the pieces in this exhibition are recent acquisitions by the Museum of American Folk Art and have never been shown publicly.

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Report from The Friends Committee

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"Celebrate the Hudson;' the opening night preview of The Fall Antiques Show sponsored by the Friends Committee, was a tremendous success. The major fall fundraiser for the Museum generated more than three times the amount that was raised last year. Kudos for the triumph go to the event's energetic, enthusiastic, and dedicated cochairwomen, Karen Schuster and Cynthia Schaffner. They worked daily for months with the help of many Friends—Diane Butt, Irene Goodkind, Gwen Kade, and Myra Shaskin who prepared the invitations for mailing last summer; Friends Barbara Buchholz, Lucy Danziger, Susy Feldman, Helaine Fendelman, Judy Garfunkel, Susan Kessler, Sudee Kugler, Helen McGoldrick, Mary Skutch, and Jane Walentas who

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arranged the party. Other Friends who assisted during the evening included: LeeAnn Aukamp, Sally Clark, Pat Coblentz, Marie DiManno, Ellin Ente, Burt Fendelman, Molly Ingram, Lillian Grossman, Madeline Grossman, Martha Grossman, Nora Lucas, Jessica Schein, Kennetha Stewart, and Eleanora Walker. The benfit was again catered by Martha Stewart whose bounty of Hudson River Valley apples, apple fritters, New York cheddars, fruit breads with apple butter and vegetable purees, pancakes with maple syrup, baked potatoes, ham, and smoked duck was irresistible. Leslie Leibman created the dock side ambiance that set the tone for the show. The Museum's exhibition of Hudson River paintings and the Museum Shop were designed by Tony

Tyson and Beth Weissman. Tony Peluso also helped in the organization and creation of the exhibition. This year, again, we were most grateful to the Almaden Vineyards for donating the evening's wine. Bill Davis of Almaden has been most cooperative and helpful in his 1. Thefestive party opening night 2. Tony Tyson and Beth Weissman, designers of the Museum's exhibition ofHudson River marine paintingsl 3. "Celebrate the Hudson" bounty by Martha Stewarto 4. Opening of "WhirligigslWindtoys and Woodcarvings:Promised Bequestsfrom Dorothy and Leo Rabkin:' Breads baked by The Old Chatham Antiques Club, quilted basketsfrom Once Upon a House,fabric by New Country Gear. Photograph by Jessica Schein *Photography by Carloh


suggestions for and support of the Museum. Les Sources Montclair and Canada Dry provided the sparkling beverages. Elizabeth Essex of "In Full Bloom" designed and donated the flowers in the entrance to the Pier. The Seamen's Bank for Savings generously printed the invitations which were designed by the Estee Lauder Inc. Design department. Corporate support came from The Bank of New York and Con Edison. We are also grateful to Brunschwig & Fils, Inc., who donated the beautiful plaid border that defined the exhibition of Hudson River Valley paintings. Our thanks to each and every one. It was a splendid evening.

The Museum's Member Preview openings have taken on a new excitement under the direction of Marie DiManno. With Marie's ingenuity, the opening for "Whirligigs/Windtoys and Woodcarvings: Promised Bequests From the Collection of Leo and Dorothy Rabkin" combined the talents of many people. Once Upon a House, a cottage industry in Wanta.ugh, Long Island, created quilted bread baskets which were filled with 350 loaves of herb bread baked by the Chatham, New Jersey, Antique Club. The tableclothes, napkins, and material for the baskets were donated by New Country Gear. Calligraphy for table plaques was done by Ann Piderit Gibbs.

Madderlake provided exotic flowers, Almaden Vineyards the wine. It was a lovely capacity-filled opening. Thank you, Marie and Gwen Kade. The Friends Committee's momentum continues to build and we are looking forward to the Manhattan House Tour on May 2, which will be chaired again by Jana Kla.uer. Officers for the Friends Committee 1981-1982 Joyce Cowin and Cynthia Schaffner, Co-Chairwomen Gwen Kade, Vice-Chairwoman Dianne Butt, Treasurer Irene Goodkind, Secretary

Coming Events at The Museum Bus Tour to the Philadelphia Antique Show

The Museum of American Folk Art's Annual House Tour Gala

Gallery Passport Ltd., and the Friends Committee are sponsoring a day trip to the University Hospital Antique Show in Philadelphia on Wednesday, April 8, 1981. The trip will include a special guided tour of the Show, a gourmet lunch, and free time to browse through the Show. After the Show, there will be a tour through the Powell House. Built in 1765, the Powell House is the finest example of a Georgian style home in Society Hill. Buses will leave af8:45 am from the YMCA at 5 West 63rd Street and return to NYC at 5:45 pm. Cost is $60.00 a person, $10.00 of which is a tax deductible contribution to the Museum. To reserve a place, send your check to The Friends Committee, Museum of American Folk Art/49 West 53rd St./New York, N.Y. 10019. Include your name/address/phone number. Deadline: March 25, 1981.

The Manhattan House Tour, always a much anticipated and successful event, will be held on Saturday, May 2. Homes in New York's most interesting neighborhoods, decorated in varied styles and spiced with spectacular art collections, will be on view. A catered reception, at which an American quilt will be raffled, will top off the day. Further information will be sent to Museum members this spring.

Kapneck Collection at Sotheby's Sotheby Park Bernet will host a special preview of the Kapneck Collection of samplers on January 28, 1981 for the benefit of the Museum of American Folk Art. There will be a lecture on samplers by Docent Davida Deutsch from 6:00 to 7:00 p.m., after which cocktails and hors d'oeuvres will be served. 1. Kansas Baby Star Crib Quilt Artist unknown Circa /86/ Kansas Cotton, pieced, appliquid, and embroidered 36"x 361/4" (Museum ofAmerican Folk Art, gift of Phyllis Haders)

Quilting at The Museum Anticipating a case of Spring Fever? Cure it with a dose of folk art—a quilting course at the Museum. The Museum of American Folk Art has offered folk art courses relating to exhibitions since 1973. This Spring, in conjunction with the arrival of"Anonymous Beauty: Quilts, Coverlets, and Bedcovers: Textile lreasures from Two Centuries:' the Museum will hold a course in quilting. The course will meet in the galleries for two hours on four consecutive Mondays. We anticipate a large response, so please call Education Coordinator Susan Sthdenberg to register as soon as possible.

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Museum Shop-Talk by Margaret Lemont For the first time, the Museum is presenting its own line ofjewelry. In the Museum Shop, we are offering pins, bracelets, and pendants which are reproductions of works in the permanent collection. The jewelry has been designed by Abram Epstein, a talented young artist. He earned his degree in Ancient Mythology and became interested in using Greek coins and ancient objects as jewelry. He then sought the finest craftspeople to render his designs. Abram is also a collector of Americana and felt that the current national interest in American culture provided a new environment for creativity in replica jewelry. He is trained as a goldsmith and has worked in the Jewelry Workshop and Gallery in Soho. Before the jewelry was designed, photographs were made of all the original objects from every angle in order to establish exactness of scale.

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The Tammany pin and pendant. Tammany, one of the largest weathervanes in America, is reduced from nine feet to a few inches. It is sculpted in the round as is the original Tammany. By showing the unusually large arms, and the proud, stern, facial expression, the artist captures Tammany's presence. The piece can be worn as a pendant or pin. It is offered in bronze or brass for $33.00 and in silver for $91.00. The Gabriel pin. The dramatic effect achieved in this pin is due to the contrast between gold finishes. Accomplishing this is a rather complicated process. The pin, which

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is sterling silver, is first polished and then the areas that are to remain shiny are covered with tape. The whole piece is sandblasted, giving the uncovered pieces a matte effect. The covering is removed and the entire piece is then micron-gold-plated, a special technique for a heavier, more durable plating. The Gabriel pins are $83.00. A smaller version with an allover luster finish is available at $16.00. The Carousel Horse pendant. This piece is a replica of a full-sized carousel horse in the collection. The pendant contains well over an ounce of sterling silver and has also been micron-gold-plated and skillfully polished. The horse is hand-painted to capture the horse's wooden texture and is set with a full-cut Burmese ruby. The price of the pendant is $166.00. In sterling silver without the ruby it is $125.00. Decoy pendants are available in sterling silver at $29.00, and in gold-plated brass at $20.00.

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Bracelets. In the Museum collection there is an American hand-hammered steel doormat worked in a motif of interlocking hearts. Three bracelets have been designed from this work,each a variation on the heart theme. 1. Single row of hand-riveted sterling silver hearts surrounding one gold-plated heart with a ruby, $225.00. 2. Double row of alternating hand-riveted sterling silver and 14-karat goldhearts $500.00. 3. Not illustrated is a tapering band with two hearts, one of gold plate set with a ruby, $66.00. This fine line of handcrafted jewelry will be supplemented with new pieces regularly. We urge everyone to come to the Museum Shop to see the jewelry. If you prefer purchasing by mail, please add the following for postage, handling, and insurance: $3.50 for items under $50.00,$5.00 for items between $50.00 and $500.00, and $8.00 for items over $500.00.


Education Report by Susan Saidenberg The fall 1981 calendar overflowed with schools visiting the Museum for guided tours of "Whirligigs/Windtoys and Woodcarvings: Promised Bequests of Dorothy and Leo Rabkin:' Innovation and expansion were the keynotes of education at the Museum— more student groups in the galleries, new programs, and new docents mingling with experienced docents, the core of the education program. As a new member of the Museum family,I must first express my admiration and respect for the personal commitment of the docents who lend time, expertise, and good humor in the Museum gallery,in school classrooms,. and community and business organizations through the Outreach Program. The docent program at the Museum is also a continuing education course for the volunteers. This Fall they had a unique opportunity to attend a special offering of a course, "Folk Arts in American Life:' in which Dr. Bishop paralleled the content of a Fall course he taught at New York University. The Education Department inaugurated plans to attract new audiences to the field of American folk art and the Museum. We contacted a variety of adult organizations in New York City and initiated a series of afternoon guided tours for groups, ranging from the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union to the Women's Club of New York.. Outreach programs for adults included such varied fare as a slide presentation for a Senior Citizen's Center in Manhattan and a lecture on toys and dolls delivered to a group in Connecticut,The lecture coincided with the opening of"Small Folk: A Celebration of Childhood in America:' 'No special projects aimed at cementing an ongoing partnership between the Museum and schools are being peparecl. We have developed a pilot curriculum in American folk art for elementary schools, which coordinates a series of visits to the Museum with related slide lectures and art workshops in the classroom. This curriculum augments our existing one-visit Outreach programs to introduce schoolchildren to American folk art. In addition, during November,the education coordinator worked with three other museums in conducting a "Mini-course in American Culture" for high school students. This cooperative program,funded in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts, introduced students to the value of

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exploring nonacademic sources in the understanding of the development of America's cultural heritage. The Education Department has also been invited to participate in a major planning grant to map ways of establishing cooperative ventures among museums and schools. The program, made possible by a grant from the Institute of Museum Services, brought together educators from five New York City museums and six public schools. Presently, prototype materials, to be field-tested in 1981-82, are being developed. The exhibition, "Whirligigs/Windtoys and Woodcarvings: Promised Bequests of Dorothy and Leo Rabkin:' inspired two free whirligig workshops at the Museum for children eight to twelve and their parents. The workshops, hosted in cooperation with the Junior League of New York, were held on two consecutive Sundays in November, and included a guided tour of the exhibition. A special education publication, the first in the Museum's history, heralded the arrival of"Small Folk: A Celebration of Childhood in America:' This guide,for families, to the exhibition at the Museum includes clues to locating specific objects, a page for sketching, and an opportunity for children to design their own folk toys for future generations. Thanks to the generous support of The Seven Up Company,the guide is free to visitors at the Museum of American Folk Art, as well as The New-York Historical Society (which houses a continuation of"Small Folk"), and will travel with the exhibition to the First Street Forum in St. Louis. Spring plans include an Outreach program for quilting in New York City schools, and an adult education program to coincide with "Anonymous Beauty: Quilts, Coverlets, apd Bedcovers—Textile Treasures from Two Centuries:' opening this May.

L Docent Meryl Weiss speaking to studentsfrom P.S. 64 in Brooklyn at "Whirligigs/Windtoys and Woodcarvings:Promised Bequestsfrom Dorothy and Leo Rabkin:' 2. Education Coordinator Susan Saidenberg examining woodcarvings with studentfrom Brooklyn's P.S. 64. 3. Docent Sally Nelson demonstrating a contemporary whirligigfrom the Education Department's new "touch collection!'

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Book Reviews

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ART BOOKS 1950-1979. Including an International Directory of Museum Permanent Collection Catalogues. 1500 pages. $79.00. New York: R.R. Bowker Co., 1979. Art Books is a 1500 page, seven section reference source for publications on the visual arts. Beginning with a Subject Area Directory, based on the Library of Congress classification system, approximately 14,000 art subjects are divided into thirty-five main topics. This Area Directory is a crucial tool in using the subsequent Subject Index and eliminates a lot of unnecessary searching for material. For example, the largest number of subject listings for Folk Art, which is not a main topic, are found under the main topic—Decorative Arts. The headings: Antiques; Art History; Art Museum;Galleries; Ceramics; Drawing; Furniture; Handicrafts; Illustration; Metalwork;Painting and Sculpture also contain pertinent subjects. A further aid to deciphering the Subject Area Directory and the Subject Index would be a single page listing of the thirty-five main headings with a page index. This would assist the researcher in knowing under how many areas his subject might come and also where to find them. On a four column, small print page, the headings are often difficult to locate quickly. The Subject Index, the primary section of Art Books, lists some 36,400 books published on these 14,000 subjects in the last twenty years. Each entry includes title, author, Dewey and Library of Congress classifications, editions, publisher, publication year and other information. The Author Index and Title Index consist of page references to the full entries in the Subject Index. The Art Books in Print Index, taken from Books in Print, 1979-1980 gives the title of the book, list price and publisher—very useful data for art researchers and librarians. The Geographic Guide to Museums contains some 1000 art museums in this country and abroad. Many museums provided brief descriptions of their permanent collections, but the majority show only an address. Future publications of this directory would benefit from more complete listings of this information. The final section of the book is a Permanent Collection Catalogue Index—a first of its kind and a superb resource. The Index gives title, date, price and publisher/distributor for over 3300 museum catalogues. Except for a need to emphasize subject headings in bolder type and to index the stibject directory, Art Books is a valuable and much needed aid for art historical research and one that will certainly be well used. Reviewed by:Heather C. Hamilton

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ALEX BEALER OLD WAYS OF WORKING WOOD New York: Barre Publishing Co.Inc., 1980. Over 200 line drawings by author. Old Ways Of Working Wood describes woodworking techniques and tools used in nearly every carpentry operation, from felling a tree to shaping intricate mouldings. All of the procedures described involve skill and ingenuity not required by the electric power tool carpentry of today. For example, the chapter on the felling of a tree discusses several types of axes, their history, construction, handling, and maintenance. Many other specialized tools were used to split and hew the tree once felled. Especially impressive is the realization that every operation on wood performed with power tools today was accomplished with comparable results in the past. As a substitute for electric power, the craftsman employed artistry, skill, ingenuity, and very sharp tools. By utilizing the right tools with practiced precision, the early American carpenter worked with more ease and efficiency than one would imagine. For instance, to smooth aboard, the carpenter first employed a jack plane which had a convex blade to quickly level the piece. The board would be further leveled with a truing plane. The edges were made straight for joining with the edging and smoothing planes. Old Ways Of Working Wood is a history book and woodworking manual which engenders a deep respect for the nearly lost art of the early American woodworkers. There are numerous suggestions for the construction, maintenance, and use of old time tools for anyone willing to set aside power tools for the patient artistry of the past. Reviewed by:Ned Paulsen MANAGING EDITOR: PAUL WASSERMAN

ASSOCIATE EDITOR: ESTHER HERMAN CATALOG OF MUSEUM PUBLICATIONS AND MEDIA Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Company, 4in., $85.00. 1 4x 11/ 1 1980.1044 pp., 8-/ The subtitle of this reference work,A Directory and Index ofPublications and Audiovisuals Availablefrom United States and Canadian Institutions, defines its contents. This book pulls together listings of the various resource materials available from nearly 1,000 museums, art institutes, galleries, and related institutions. The editors have organized this mass of information into a readable and easy-to-use format which includes four separate indexes to guide the reader. The institutions included in the compilation are those which responded to questionnaires sent out by the editors for this second

edition follow-up to a prior index, MUSEUM MEDIA,published by Gale Research in 1973. Arranged alphabetically, each museum,art institute, or historical society has listed those media and publication offerings it currently has available for purchase, loan, or rental. Prices, as well as ordering instructions, are generally included. Listings include books, pamphlets, monographs, maps,catalogues, periodicals, films, filmstrips, slides, and videotapes. Another section contains a title and keyword index which helps the researcher locate the information offered by participating institutions on any specific subject. The list covering the Shakers, for instance, has 29 entries showing pertinent books, pamphlets, and catalogues. Another index is organized around broader subject headings—American Art, American History, Crafts—and lists institutions whose media and publications are oriented to those general areas. These indexes, in some cases, open up a whole new range of resources. The editors have also included a periodicals index, as well as a geographic index of the organizations represented. This book should prove to be a helpful reference source and acquisition guide for many people. The advantages of having this information compiled and indexed within one reference book are numerous. Perhaps the one disappointing aspect of the guide is that a number of institutions do not appear in the listings because their questionnaire answers were received late or were not submitted. Perhaps future editions, as noted in the Preface, will be even more inclusive as more organizations participate. Reviewed by:Joyce Hill J. EVANS MCKINNEY DECOYS OF THE SUSQUEHANNA FLATS AND THEIR MAKERS Hockessin, Delaware: The Holly Press, 2': black & 1 3 4x 10/ / 1978. 96 pp., paper, 7 white and color illus. $12.95. J. Evans McKinney is an authority on the identification of working decoys, and their makers, of the Susquehanna Flats. The Susquehanna Flats is an area covering some 25,000 acres of the Susquehanna River where it widens below Havre-de-Grace, before it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. The water is very shallow and at low tide barely covers the bottom, exposing aquatic plants on which ducks and geese feed while wintering there. The majority of decoys from this area are Canvasbacks and Redheads, since they were the most abundant species of ducks on the "Flats7 After a brief enjoyable general account of the area and its decoys, Mr. McKinney gives concise biographies of thirty-six of the known "Flats" carvers. Each biography is followed by the identifying features of each


maker's type or types of decoy(s), along with dimensions and a black and white illustration. Both the photography and its reproduction are very poor, which limits the book's usefulness as a tool for identifying the work of these men. In spite of this shortcoming, there is enough worthwhile information to warrant purchase ofDecoys ofthe Susquehanna Flats and Their Makers by decoy collectors. Reviewed by:Dorothy J. Kaufman JEANNETTE LASANSKY TO DRAW,UPSET,& WELD:THE WORK OF THE PENNSYLVANIA RURAL BLACKSMITH,1742-1935. Lewisburg, Pennsylvania: Union County Historical Society, 1980.80 pp., paper, 10/ 1 2 x8/ 1! 4 black & white illus., bibliography, index. $7.95. Beginning with a brief historical survey of Pennsylvania's iron industry, Jeannette Lasansky explains the evolution of the blacksmith's trade, methods, tools, materials, and products. In discussing the smith's methods, Mrs. Lasansky explains that "to draw" was to thin the heated metal by pounding it out on the anvil, "to upset" was to thicken it, and "to weld" meant the smith would heat the metal to about 2400°F. to permanently join two or more pieces. There is a chapter on early documented Pennsylvania blacksmiths who had stamped their work, as well as a list of contemporary smiths. A discussion of materials', forms, and decoration yields generous amounts of useful information for those interested in collection iron. For instance, "Certain forms of iron do not appear to be of Pennsylvania origin. One example is the long-handled, all-iron bakeroven peel which often terminates in a ram's head design(New England). Pennsylvania tended to use long wooden,or wooden and iron pie peels for their baker ovens, and much smaller all iron peels only for their cook stoves!' This brief, well-researched, readable account of the blacksmith's trade has many black and white photographic illustrations of fine pieces of Pennsylvania iron. Reviewed by:Dorothy J. Kaufman EDMUND B. SULLIVAN COLLECTING POLITICAL AMERICANA New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1980. 248 pp.,8/ 1 2x 11:' 400 black & white and color illus. On the heels of a presidential campaign, what more timely book for those interested in our political heritage than Collecting Political Americana as written by a collector, scholar, and elected public official. This well illustrated book covers a variety of political Americana from lapel buttons and ribbons

going back as far as George Washington's first inauguration in 1789 to a more recent presidential race between George McGovern and Richard Nixon. Long ago, in the absence of radio and television, other methods were used to publicize candidates' images and to influence the voter. Political papers employed cartoons, Currier & Ives lithographs, and posters. The book also describes the use of coins and medals, and ceramics and glassware in the form of copper lustre pitchers, plates, tea pots, trays, etc., bearing the likenesses of favorite candidates. By far the most fascinating to me are the political novelties such as convention hats made of paper or cloth, and punch-hole design lanterns saying,for example, "McKinley & Roosevelt!' These lanterns were usually lit by a candle and carried in night parades. Other items included walking sticks with carved heads of candidates and children's toys ranging from an early Lincoln doll to a battery-driven elephant bearing an "I like Ike" banner. Colorful bandanas and banners were made, many of which were variations on the national flag. These flag banners were used in campaigns from 1840 to 1900 and often bore the likeness and slogan of the candidates. For ease of use, this compehensive volume divides political memorabilia into general periods. They are: Founding Fathers —1789-1830;Era of the Common Man; Abraham Lincoln and his times; Boom and Bust-1872-1892;Gold, Silver, and Internationalism-1896-1916;"Normalcy:' Depression and The New Deal-1920-1945;and, finally, Jet Age-1948 onward. Collecting Political Americana also contains information on what the collector needs to know about collecting, conservation of these historical artifacts, and the availability

of reproductions. It closes with a fascinating chapter on movements,causes, and personalities in the political history of the United States. Reviewed by:Lillian Grossman NINA FLETCHER LITTLE NEAT & TIDY:BOXES AND THEIR CONTENTS USED IN EARLY AMERICAN HOUSEHOLDS. New York:E.P. Dutton, 1980. $18.95 cloth. $10.95 paper. 205 pp., 190 black & white and color illus. In 1980 we make orderly piles on high tech shelving to keep our rooms "neat and tidy:' but earlier Americans preferred boxes, boxes of every size, shape, and material, for just about anything: face patches, tricornered hats, trinkets, toilet articles, gin bottles. Nina Fletcher Little, taking as her definition of a box,"a case or receptacle usually having a lid!' in this her latest work, uses, as her sources, wills, household inventories, advertisements, and account books of the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries. She describes the myriad kinds of boxes our ancestors used, and what they kept in them. Included are not only boxes familiar to us: painted or papered boxes, tobacco and snuff boxes, but also boxes we would never have dreamed of: deer hide with leather lacings from the Southwest, an elaborate bird's-eye maple sewing box with birchbark fittings, and a small grain painted box for the rollers, combs and brushes used in grain painting. This is a book notjust for those who reject the modern dictum that everything we own be visible, but for anyone curious about the lives and objects of earlier Americans. Like Ms. Little's other works, this one is both thorough and engaging. Reviewed by:Judith Reiter Weissman

ImusEum VOLUNTEER

For those who wish to enjoy the fun and satisfaction of being a

please contact the office about your talents and interests:

o Benefit Events 0 Planning D Decorations 0 Reservations o Large Gifts Information or Solicitation o Mailings o Office Aides (Typing, filing, record-keeping) o Receptionist o Salesperson in The Museum Shop Other volunteer work for which I have special talent or experience 0 Write or call:

Museum of American Folk Art 49 West 53 Street New York, New York 10019 (212) 581-2474

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Recent Additions to Museum Collections by Cordelia Rose The Museum of American Folk Art has increased both its collection and its staff this summer with the introduction of twelve new objects and a Registrar to oversee the permanent collection. The recent acquisitions are varied and exciting, with an emphasis on textiles. Some of the quilts from the collection will be shared with the public in a Summer 1981 exhibition "Anonymous Beauty: Quilts, Coverlets, and Bedcovers— Textile Treasures from Two Centuries"' Mrs. Rose Labrie, an artist from New Hampshire, has kindly given us one of her paintings, an oil on canvas entitled Pastoral Landscape. This important contemporary work imparts the satisfaction of a crop ripened and safely harvested. Mrs. Labrie includes something personal, such as a child or a building, in her paintings. In this case, her mare,"Midget" which she rode as a child, drinks from a pond in the foreground. Mrs. Lester Simon has given us a handsome painting, The Doctor's Office 1900, done by her mother-in-law Mrs. Mollie Simon. Mrs. Simon, who lives in Monroe, New York, was born in 1892, and paints each day, recording her memories of a happy childhood spent in Brooklyn, New York. Our collection of the wOrks of contemporary folk artists has been further increased by recent paintings generously given by two Ohio artists. The Day My Father Died and Our Neighbors' Barn Burned by Tella Kitchen of Adelphi, Ohio, and School Bus is Coming by Janis Price of Newark, Ohio. Mr. Jay Johnson has brought something quite new to our collection, an enchanting pen wiper made in the form of a doll wearing a full felt skirt. This was made by Shaker Industries at Watervliet, New York, between 1890 and 1920. Another very different object, anonymously donated, is a Tramp Art Church, chip-carved with great patience from cigar-box wood in the "crown of thorns" motif. Standing an astonishing fifty inches high, it is topped with a steeple including a bell. We are pleased to add this important piece of folk sculpture to our other Tramp Art, namely a diorama in a Tramp Art frame and a miniature set of furniture. Our quilt collection has been enhanced by the addition of three new quilts. Mrs. E. Regan Kerney of Princeton, New Jersey, has given us an elegant pieced quilt made in the Log Cabin Barn Raising pattern by Sara Olmstead King. A note pinned to the quilt by her daughter, Emma Mabel King, states that Sara made the quilt from her own wedding dress and from her daughters' first silk 72

dresses. Mrs. Betty Gubert of New York City has added an unusual pieced crazy quilt to our collection. It is dated 1902 and was found near Middlebury, Vermont, which perhaps accounts for its warm flannel backing. Our third new quilt is a 19th-century pieced and appliquéd cotton quilt from Pennsylvania and was kindly given to us by Karen and Warren Gundersheimer of Philadelphia. Mr. Stephen L. Snow of New Hampshire has donated a most beautiful jacquard cover1.

4. 1. The Day my Father Died and our Neighbors' Barn Burned Tella Kitchen Ohio 1980 Oil on canvas Gift ofthe artist (1980.15.1) 2. Doctor's Office 1900 Mollie Simon Monroe, New York 1979 Oil on canvas Gift ofMrs. Lester Simon (1980.10.1)

let. One of five known examples, it was woven around 1856 to commemorate the opening of the Hemfield Railroad. The coverlet has trains chugging around its border and a profile of the railroad's president, T. McKennan,in each corner. Hooked rugs, long neglected as an art form, are now much'appreciated,especially by the Museum of American Folk Art. Mrs. Marilyn French of New York City, has given us a rug, perhaps made for a child's room, 2:

5. 3. Coverlet in Snowflake Medallion pattern with Hemfield Railroad border Maker unknown Circa 1856 Jacquard woven wool Gift ofStephen L. Snow (1980.13.1) 4. Pastoral Landscape Rose Labrie New Hampshire 1978 Oil on canvas Gift ofthe artist (1980.9.1)

5. Penwipe Shaker Industries Watervliet 1890-1920 Felt and porcelain Gift of Johnson (1980.11.1) 6. Quilt Maker unknown Pennsylvania Circa 1870 Pieced and appliquéd cotton Gift ofKaren and Warren Gundersheimer (1980.20.1)


depicting Simple Simon. Found in Connecticut, the rug dates from around 1930. Michael and Ann Goyda of East Petersburg, Pennsylvania, gave us a most interesting piece of folk sculpture. It is a painted wooden altarpiece decorated with applied carvings inside and out, with stars and angels of yellow and gold on the inside. Unfortunately, little is known about the piece except that it was found in Fairfax, Virginia. The Museum extends its sincere thanks to the donors of this and our other recent acquisitions. We look forward to the day when we have sufficient gallery space to exhibit all our recent acquisitions. Photos bv Terry McGinais

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ITEMS ACCESSIONED APRIL-AUGUST 1980 1980.9.1 Pastoral Landscape Rose Labrie Portsmouth, New Hampshire 1978 Oil,on canvas 24 x 30" Mrs. Rose Labrie

1980.16.1 Altarpiece Maker unknown Found in Fairfax, Virginia 19th century, 20th century Painted wood 46 x 24 x 14" deep Michael and Ann Goyda

1980.10.1 Doctor's Office 1900 Mollie Simon Monroe, New York 1979 Oil on canvas 10 x 14" Mrs. Lester Simon

1980.17.1 School Bus is Coming Janis Price Newark, Ohio c. 1979 Oil on canvas 22 x 30" Janis Price

1980.11.1 Pen wiper Shaker Industries Watervliet, New York 1890-1920 Felt and porcelain 2 x 2" Jay Johnson

1980.18.1 Quilt in the Crazy pattern Maker unknown Found near Middlebury, Vermont 1902 Wool and cotton 48 x 60" Mrs.Betty Gubert

1980.12.1 Quilt in the Log Cabin Barn-Raising pattern Sarah Olmstead King Connecticut 1800-50 Ribbon, satin and velvet 66 x 66" Mrs. E. Regan Kerney

1980.19.1 Tramp Art Church Maker unknown Provenance unknown Wood 50 x 37 x 21" deep Anonymous gift

1980.13.1 Coverlet in Snowflake Medallion pattern with Hemfield Railroad border Possibly Daniel Campbell, William Harper, Martin Burns, Goerge Coulter, or Harvey Cook United States c. 1856 Jacquard woven wool 82 x 90" Stephen L. Snow 1980.14.1 Hooked rug, Simple Simon Maker unknown Found in Connecticut c. 1930 Wool on burlap 24 x 36" Mrs. Marilyn French 1980.15.1 The Day my Father Died and our Neighbors' Barn Burned Tella Kitchen Adelpha, Ohio 1980 Oil on canvas " 23 x 19/ 1 2 Mrs. Tella Kitchen

1980.20.1 Quilt Maker unknown Pennsylvania c. 1870 Pieced and appliqued cotton 96 x 84" Karen and Warren Gtmdersheimer

73


Folk Art Calendar Across The Country Current through February 1, 1981 SMALL FOLK: A CELEBRATION OF CHILDHOOD IN AMERICAN FOLK ART This major exhibition of over three hundred objects in all media of folk art is a comprehensive view of the life of children in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The exhibition is divided into four areas: A Child's Depiction:' presented in paintings and sculpture; "A Child's Delight:' featuring children's playthings; "A Child's Discipline:' represented in needlework and calligraphy; and "A Child's Domain;' illustrated in objects related to the physical and psychological well-being of children, including quilts and bedcovers, furniture, and birth and death certificates. The Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York 10019. A continuation of this exhibition is housed at The NewYork Historical Society, 170 Central Park West, New York, N.Y. 10024. Current through February 1, 1981 THE MASONIC TRADITION IN THE DECORATIVE ARTS This exhibition features 100 objects decorated with Masonic symbols, furniture, clocks, metalwork, ceramics, glassware, textiles, scrimshaw, and graphics. Objects of local Masonic significance from the Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute Collection and other lenders will also be on display. The exhibition was organized by the staff of the Museum of Our National Heritage: Clement M. Silvertro, Director; Barbara Franco, Curator of Collections; and Jacquelyn Oak, Registrar. Catalogue available. The Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, 310 Genesee Street, Utica, New York 13502. Current through February 1, 1981 WEBFOOTS AND BUNCHGRASSERS: FOLK ART OF THE OREGON COUNTRY

74

This exhibition title, celebrating twenty pieces of Oregon folk art, refers to nicknames for Oregonians—webfoots for those in the west where it rains so frequently that people say they will be as web-footed as ducks, and bunchgrassers for those in the eastern high plains where the grasses grow in bunches. The objects, which were intended to be worn or used, include handmade furniture, textiles, whirligigs, quilts, wood carvings, beadwork and basketry with tribal designs, spurs and saddles, and decorative folk arts. The exhibition was organized by the Oregon Arts Commission and is located at The Renwick Gallery,

Pennsylvania Avenue at 17th Street, NW Washington, D.C. 20560 Current through April 5, 1981 BESPANGLED,PAINTED AND EMBROIDERED: DECORATED MASONIC APRONS IN AMERICA 1790-1850 This exhibition of seventy-five Masonic aprons is the culmination of a major research project undertaken by the Museum of Our National Heritage. The aprons, worn by Freemasons as part of their fraternal regalia, were the work of a variety of artists and craftsmen who drew upon the wide range of decorative traditions and techniques popular in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The exhibit includes outstanding examples of these aprons together with associative decorated objects from the same period. See page 52 of The Clarion. Catalogue available. Museum of Our National Heritage, P.O. Box 519, 33 Marrett Road, Lexington, Massachusetts 02173. Current through June 19, 1981 TEA: A REVOLUTIONARY TRADITION Fraunces Tavern Museum's exhibition explores the social, cultural, political, and economic impact of tea on life in Eighteenth Century America. This exhibition is the first to focus on the history of tea, and the development of tea drinking in Eighteenth Century America from both an historical and an aesthetic perspective. Prints, paintings, decorative arts, rare books, manuscripts, and artifacts from major museums, as well as from antique dealers and private collectors, illustrate the fundamental ways in which tea affected American culture. Fraunces Tavern Museum, 54 Pearl Street, New York, New York 10004. Current through September 30, 1981 STYLE AND THE AMERICAN INDIAN A collaborative exhibition with the Peabody Museum, Harvard University to be held at the Museum of Our National Heritage, showing the style in clothing and home decoration of the North American Indian in the basic areas of his life in the North, West, Central, East, and South portions of the continent. Museum of Our National Heritage, P.O. Box 519, 33 Marrett Road, Lexington, Massachusetts 02173. Current through 1981 AMULETS,TALISMANS AND EX-VOTOS This exhibit surveys objects used by indi-

^1.741

viduals to further their relationship with spirits and deities to whom they are devoted. What distinguishes each type is the intent of the user, not quality or design of the object itself. Amulets are worn, carried or simply kept to protect the possessor, often from the feared "evil eye' A talisman not only protects but brings good fortune as well. Ex-votos express gratitude for blessings received, such as a good harvest, favorable weather or recovery from an illness. Museum of International Folk Art, Box 2807, Santa Fe, N.M. 87503. Current through 1981 CELEBRATE! In honor of its 25th anniversary, the Museum of International Folk Art will exhibit 200 mixed-media, multi-cultural objects from the museum's permanent collections. Included are masks, dolls, clothing, textiles, animal 6arvings, ceramic bowls and plates, musical instruments, ornamental boxes, religious bultos,jeweled adornments, and silver objects like tableware and decorative household wares. All seven continents are represented. Museum of International Folk Art, Box 2807, Santa Fe, N.M. 87503. Current through 1981 BAROQUE TO FOLK An exhibition exploring the varieties of artistic expressions in the New World (Western Hemisphere) after conquests by Spanish explorers. Similarities in colonial style, form, and function are examined through more than 175 figures of Christ, the Virgin, saints, angels, and portable religious art. A final section deals with interpretive changes by craftsmen as ideas were transmitted from colony to colony. Museum of International Folk Art, Box 2807, Santa Fe, N.M. 87503. January 15 through March 31, 1981 DECOYS BY TWO MICHIGAN CARVERS Duck decoys made by two Michigan carvers, Nate Quillen of Rockford and Otto Misch of Sebewaing, will be presented in The Museum, Michigan State University, West Circle Drive near Beaumont Tower, East Lansing, Michigan 48824. January 24 through February 22, 1981 AMERICAN HOOKED RUGS,1850-1957 A traveling exhibition organized by Gallery Association of New York State, "American Hooked Rugs, 1850-1957" includes a colorful sampling of an indigenous Folk Art. The craft of rug hooking, a lengthy process of pulling fabric strips through a woven back-


ing, developed in North America in the early nineteenth Century and flourished for about 100 years. The rugs in "American Hooked Rugs" reveal the craft at both naive and sophisticated stages. Original in design, or drawn from ready-made patterns, the highly individualized motifs may be classified in three major categories: pictorials, florals, and geometrics. Albany Institute of History and Art, 125 Washington Avenue, Albany, New York. Other Spring 1981 listings follow. Contact Gallery Association of New York State, P.O. Box 345, Hamilton, New York 13346. March 1 through April 24, 1981 SMALL FOLK: A CELEBRATION OF CHILDHOOD IN AMERICAN FOLK ART SMALL FOLK will travel to St. Louis this Spring. See Museum of American Folk Art listing, above, for exhibition description. The First Street Forum, 717 North First Street, St. Louis, Missouri 63102. March 7 through April 5, 1981 AMERICAN HOOKED RUGS, 1850-1957 See description above. Silas Wright House, St. Lawrence County Historical Association, Canton, New York. April 1 through May 31, 1981 A 'GRAVE' BUSINESS: NEW ENGLAND GRAVESTONE RUBBINGS The Historical Societies of Wilton and New Canaan, joining efforts in studying customs of our early settlers, are to present an exhibition of rubbings of gravestones from the Wilton/New Canaan area. The Wilton Historical Society, 249 Danbury Road (Rt. 7), Wilton, Connecticut 06897 and New Canaan Historical Town House, 13 Oenoke Ridge, New Canaan, Connecticut 06840. April 19 through May 25, 1981 AMERICAN HOOKED RUGS, 1850-1957 See description above. Tyler Art Gallery, State University of New York at Oswego.

Our Growing Membership MARCH 1980 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1980 The Museum Trustees and Staff extend a special welcome to these new members. Mr. David Abbott, London SE3 England Sue Abemathy, New York City Mr. & Mrs. Richard Acunto, New York City Barbara Adler, West Nyack, New York American Antiquarian Soc., Worcester, Massachusetts Mrs. Barbara Anderson, Rowan, Ontario, Canada NOE IMO Marjorie J. Anderson, Irvington, New York Mary Ellen Andrews, New York City Arizona Historical Society Museum, Phoenix, Arizona M. Claude Arsenault, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4X 1H1 Janet Ashton, New Rochelle, New York Ms. Marie Augusta, Brooklyn, New York Julia B. Bachelder, New York City Mrs. Dorothy Bachman, Westfield, New Jersey Mr. Jeremy L. Banta, Poughkeepsie, New York Barbara Riley Antiques, Watchung, New Jersey Winkle Barber-Meen, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5R 2L5 Mrs. Ronald Bassin, Livingston, New Jersey Mrs. Marjorie Baylor, Springfield, Ohio Arnold B. Becker, Larchmont, New York Diane Becker, New York City Diane Berger, New York City Lynn Berger, Bedford Hills, New York Dr. Robert D. Bethke, Newark, Delaware The Betty Lamp, Charlotte, North Carolina Suzann Bobbitt, Coral Gables, Florida Mona M. Borger, Sausalito, California Mr. & Mrs. Clarke Brenckirhoff, Bronxville, New York Mr. & Mrs. R. Bright, New York City Hollis E. Brodrick, Wolfeboro, New Hampshire Susan Gordon & Norman Brosterman, New York City Mrs. Albert H. Brown, Brockport, New York Mr. Brewster Brown, Winton, North Carolina Mrs. Daniel R. Brown, Rochester, Michigan Jeremy Brown, West Nyack, New York Mrs. Robert Brown, New York City Mrs. A. Brumbaugh, Harrison, New York Jerri Bucholz, Mt. Angel, Oregon Carl E Buck, Jr., Fairfield, New Jersey Mrs. Carter Burns, Washington, D.C. Corrine Burke & William Bums, New Paltz, New York James H. Cannon, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Barbara Canter, Livingston, New Jersey Alice B. Cantor, New York City Mrs. Robert S. Carlson, New York City Kevin E Casey, New York City Revels & Miye Cayton, Berkeley, California Suzanne & Lawrence Charity, New York City Marie Cheathan, New York City Marjorie F. Chester, New York City Ruth G. Chittick, Ossipee, New Hampshire Jane S. Cieply, Glenview, Illinois Circa 1800 Shoppe, Rochester, New York Terrence M. Clark, M.D., Clemson, South Carolina

Mr. & Mrs. James Cochran, New Canaan, Connecticut Bertram Cohen, Leominster, Massachusetts Mrs. Burton H. Cohen, Easton, Pennsylvania Kathryn L. Cox, Houston, Texas Ilda M. Creux, Bronxville, New York Leslie G. Crossman, Mentor, Ohio Bob & Joan Crutchfield, San Francisco, California Ann E. Dauberman, Brooklyn Heights, New York Susan Wertheimer David, Baltimore, Maryland Eileen Davidson, Hewlett, New York Joan K. Davidson, New York City John Davis, Ridgefield, Connecticut Stewart D. Davis, Fairport, New York Maureen H. Decherd, Dallas, Texas Mr. & Mrs. D. Demeritt, Jr., Brooklyn, New York Mrs. Nina DiFusco, Baldwin, New York Richard J. Dionne, Hamden, Connecticut John Dobricky, Washington, D.C. Jeff Dodge, Washington, D.C. Ms. Kate Dodge, South Salem, New York Mrs. David A. Doem, White Plains, New York Loy Dotson, Coburg, Oregon Ruth Dotteror, Ottumwa, Indiana Mrs. Stirling Dougherty, Sugar Land, Texas Nancy Draper, Portland, Oregon Evelyn S. Dubiel, Glastonbury, Connecticut J. Dumas, Southgate, Michigan Patricia du Pont, Cleveland Heights, Ohio Margie Dyer, New York City L.E. Eanes, Beaumont, Texas Suzanne Eaton, New York City Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, Illinois Ms. Elizabeth J. Eggert, New York City Diane Elliott, Galena, Illinois Mary Elliott, New York City Anne Ellsworth, Salisbury, Connecticut Sylvia Elsesser, Sausalito, California June Erlandson, Glendale, California Mrs. Paul H. Erlandson, Glendale, California Natalee Everett, Rupert, Vermont Ms. Joan Fairservis, New York City Peter & Daphne Farago, Providence, Rhode Island Josephine Farwell, Wheaton, Maryland Miss Biri Fay, West Germany Elizabeth M. Felton, Bronx, New York Donald M. Fenner, Herkimer, New York Nina & Ira Fieldsteel, Closter, New Jersey Fowler's Antiques, Washington, Pennsylvania Mr. & Mrs. Thomas A. Frank, New York City Betty Fraser, New York City JoAnne Fuerst, Mount Desert, Maine Sanford Gaines, New York City Jodie-Beth Galos, New York City Edwin F. Gamble, Brunswick, Maine Glen & Pat Ganunill, Darien, Connecticut

75


Alexandra Rollins Garfield, Chester Springs, Pennsylvania Richard D. Gasperi, New Orleans, Louisiana James Gentry, Asheville, North Carolina George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Mr. Dimitri Giftos, Long Island City, New York Charles N. Gignilliat, Spartanburg, South Carolina Delores Gilbert, New Canaan, Connecticut Ms. Phyllis Gilfoyle, New York City Shirley Ginzberg, New York City Ms. Leonora Goldberg, Brooklyn, New York Jack Golden, New York City S. Howard Goldman, Weston, Connecticut Robert & Jo Gordon, Chicago, Illinois L. Gottesman, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Diana Goudy, Gainesville, Texas Jo. P. Goulson, Chapel Hill, North Carolina Hannah Gowans,New York City Barbara Lee Grant, New York City Lydia Green, Brooklyn, New York Mrs. Stacy Greenberger, Evanston, Illinois Manuel & Jane Greer, New York City Diane Gregory, New York City Ms. Sandy Guettler, Chicago, Illinois Mrs. Fred Guinzburg, Chappaqua, New York Dorothy Haber, Centerport, New York Mrs. C. Bernard Hall III, Lancaster, Pennsylvania Kristine K. Harder, Garden City, New York Arusiag Harpiman, Hartford, Connecticut Mr. & Mrs. S. Miller Harris, Spinnerstown, Pennsylvania Jane & William Havemeyer, New York City Mrs. Johnson Hayes, Newberg, Oregon Nancy A. Hazleton, Chicago, Illinois Verna M. Hazleton, Sunnyvale, California Elizabeth Heard, New York City Barbara Hesterberg, Evanston, Illinois Dr. M.A. Higby, Silfer Spring, Maryland Mr. & Mrs. Richard Higgerson, New York City Edward Hoffman, Baltimore, Maryland Mrs. R. Woolcott Hooker, New York City Dr. & Mrs. John C. Hoover, Wyckoff, New Jersey Carl Hopkins, Chicago, Illinois Mrs. Corning Howard, Westbury, New York Judith C. Hudson, Charlotte, North Carolina Dorothy Hummel, New York City Eleanor K. Ingersoll, Brynmawr, Pennsylvania Richard E. Isaacs, New York City Sherell Jacobson, Stockton, New Jersey Laura Jaquinto, New York City Walter Jezewski, Palos Verdes Estates, California Mrs. James M. Johnston III, Washington, D.C. The Julius Family, White Plains, New York

76

Mrs. Gerald M. Kanne, St. Paul, Minnesota Marion Kaplan, Freeport, New York Karin Blake Interiors, Malibu, California Marybeth H. Keene, Waterloo, New York Alison Keller, New York City Ms. Ellen R. Kerney, Skillman, New Jersey Mrs. E. Regan Kerney, Princeton, New Jersey Mr. J. Regan Kerney, Washington, D.C. Mrs. Mary Kettaneh, New York City Agnes M. Keuper, Rochester, New York Paul E. Kindig, Stockton, Illinois Kiracofe and Kile, San Francisco, California R.K. Klapmeier, St. Paul, Minnesota Betty Klein, Tenafly, New Jersey Robert M. Kneeland, Bethany, Connecticut

Jean Kolloff, New York City Mrs. Norma Kosan, New York City Evelyn & Peter Kraus, New York City Daniel Krauss, New York City Henry R. Kravis, New York City Lynn Kroeger, New York City Elizabeth Kucklick, Stamford, Connecticut Eileen Kurland, Forest Hills, New York Mrs. Charles H. Kurtz, Lancaster, Pennsylvania Peggy Lancaster, Palos Verdes Estates, California M.L. Lanzone, Reston, Virginia Leigh Larrecq, New York City Dr. Lila Lasky, New York City Mr. & Mrs. Stephen E. Laurens, Cincinnati, Ohio Jean Ray Laury, Clovis, California Donald A. Lawson, Brooklyn, New York Christine Layng, New York City Frederick B. Lehlbach, Flemington, New Jersey Fred L. Lemont, New York City Ruth Lesser, New York City Maria Lenhart, Cambridge, Massachusetts Mr. & Mrs. Earle Levenstein, New York City C.M. Levie, Esq., New York City Diana Levine, Brooklyn, New York Mrs. Robin Small Levy, Canoga Park, California Jane Lewis, New York City Ceril Lisbon, San Francisco, California Annell Livingston, Houston, Texas Gordon Lobbins, Rockford, Illinois Marsha L. Love, Del Ray Beach, Florida Carol S. Loveland, Rochester, New York Jean K. Lovell, Ojai, California Todd B. Lovell, Stratford, Connecticut Alden R. Ludlow, III, New York City Helen W. Lundberg, Kingston, Rhode Island Mace Neufeld Productions, Inc., Beverly Hills, California Margaret 0. Mahoney, Del Mar, California Eileen Maisannes, Jersey City, New Jersey Margaret M. Maley, San Francisco, California Mr. & Mrs. H.R. Malpass, Arlington, Virginia Terry Manning, Mt. Kisco, New York Mrs. D. Manton, Larchmont, New York March & Clothier, Inc., New York City Hermine Mariaux, New York City Marinofsky, Wilmington, Delaware Judith Kahn Marohn, Chicago, Illinois Susan Taylor Martens, Champaign, Illinois Patrice Marvin, Fargo, North Dakota Lane Maurer, New York City James S. Maxwell, Jr., Neffsville, Pennsylvania Dr. & Mrs. Phillip Mayerson, Larchmont, New York Maxwell Mays, Warwick, Rhode Island John J. McBride, Chicago, Illinois Marjorie C. McFall, Springfield, Missouri Jean P. McGill, Rochester, Minnesota Richard I. McHenry, Charlotte, North Carolina Mr. & Mrs. John F. McKale, Wilton, Connecticut Patricia McKay, New York City Barbara C. McLean, Shaker Hts., Ohio Chris Mead, New York City John R. Meekin, New York City Ms. Grete Meilman, New York City Mr. Henry Meltzer, New York City Ednabelle Drury Menditto, Orange, California Dixon Merkt, Guilford, Connecticut Dietz Merlin, Old Greenwich, Connecticut Susan R. Miller, Brooklyn, New York Warren Miller, Cresco, Pennsylvania Judy Milne, New York City MM. Affaires Culturelles, Quebec, Canada GIS 1C8

Wayne Mock, Tamworth, New Hampshire Carole Monaco, Mt. Prospect, Illinois B. Moore, New York City Abbie Moorhead, Sinclair, Wyoming Helga Mora, 747927 Santiago, Chile Lane Moran, Westwood, New Jersey More-Gold & Associates, San Francisco, California R.M. Morgenthau, New York City Gary L. Mucci, East Aurora, New York John L. Mucciolo, Tarrytown, New York Bette Lou Mulligan, Phoenix, Arizona Nancy Mutnick, New York City National Auctioneers Assn., Lincoln, Nebraska Mrs. Richard Nelson, Brooklyn Heights, New York Mr. & Mrs. W. Peterson Nelson, Denver, Colorado Albert Nerken, Brookville, New York John C. Newcomer, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia Nancy Newell, Little Rock, Arkansas Diana Niles, New York City Joan Norman, Roslyn, New York John Nove, Salem, Massachusetts Mrs. Christel H. Nussbaum, New York City Bonnie Oberle, Wyckoff, New Jersey Ms. Mattie Lou O'Kelley, Decatur, Georgia David Ottinger, Suncook, New Hampshire Charles Hall Page, Ross, California Barbara Paley, Dolgeville, New York Mrs. Samuel Palley, Huntingdon Valley, Pennsylvania Laura Palmer, New York City Mrs. D. Paoluccio, Modesto, California Claribel W. Parker, Brockport, New York Patricia Anne Reed Antiques, Damariscotta, Maine Diana D. Patterson, Richmond, Virginia Susan Payne, Chillicothe, Ohio Nancy Wardwell Perkins, S. Dartmouth, Maine Betsy Pinover, New York City Mr. & Mrs. Wm. Potter, New York City Mary Preston, Ann Arbor, Michigan Neil & Mary Carden Quinn, Floral Park, New York Mr. George Radovanovitch, New York City Rita M. Ransohoff, New York City Anne & Cullen Rapp, Roslyn, New York Henry M. Reed, Montclair, New Jersey Katherine Reed, New York City Elizabeth J. Rhodes, New York City Janice Rinker, Medford Lakes, New Jersey Norma Rinschler, Locust Valley, New York Bernard Riordan, Halifax, N.S., Canada Mrs. Aline Ripert, New York City Mrs. Blanchette Rockefeller, New York City Hernando Rodriguez, MD, Newberry, Mississippi Betty Mae Rodwin, Caledonia, New York Randy Root, Metamora, Illinois Bernard Rosner, New York City Rosanne Ross, Raleigh, North Carolina Carolyn Rowe, Paddington, N.S.W. Australia Miss Pamela M. Rowe, New York City Virginia Russell, Brooklyn, New York Robert & Sheila Salmon, Baldwin, New York Jana Sample, Winnetka, Illinois Robert L. Sandherr, Pottsville, Pennsylvania Alice Sandler, New York City Anna Saulsbery, Indiana, Pennsylvania


Joseph & Jean Sawtelle, New Castle, New Hampshire Marcia Schapiro, Brooklyn, New York David Scharsch, Greenwich, Connecticut G. William Schaumann, York, Pennsylvania Margaret Schroeder, Dix Hills, New York Constance Schwartz, Valley Stream, New York Stuart C. Schwartz, Charlotte, North Carolina Linda B. Schweikardt, Westport, Connecticut Mary F. Sederquest, Tolland, Connecticut Barbara Shailor, Washington, D.C. Anne Shanahan, New York City Jane Shannon, New York City Alice M. Sharp, New York City David G. Sheldon Co., Houston, Texas Stanley Siegel, Upper Black Eddy, Pennsylvania Dr. & Mrs. Marvin Sinkoff, Lake Success, New York Mrs. Paul L. Sipp, Jr., Rye, New York Arnold B. Slcroirune, Moline, Illinois Bobby C. Smith, Hartselle, Alabama James R. Smith, San Antonio, Texas Marie A. Soscie, Ph.D., New York City Mr. & Mrs. Andrew D. Soussloff, New York City Dr. L.E. Southworth, Fredericksburg, Virginia Joanne P. Spotswood, Mill Valley, California Peggy Sprung, New York City Helen Squires, Brantford, Ontario, Canada N3R 4X2 Beth & Jeffrey Stein, Scarsdale, New York Babette Stern, New York City Dr. Janet G. Stevens, Fredericksburg, Iowa Cynthia & Dennis Suskind, New York City

James Sutherland, Cincinnati, Ohio Kathleen Orea Sweeney, Madison, Wisconsin Carroll Swope, Canton, Ohio Rosemary Tamaro, Leonia, New Jersey Jon & Nancy Tarrant, Carlisle, Pennsylvania Mr. & Mrs. Willard and Frederieke Taylor, New York City Nancy Thomson, New Britain, Connecticut Mr. & Mrs. Richard Thunen, Berkeley, California Theodore S. & Ann L. Tiger, Evanston, Illinois Mrs. James Timpson, Essex Falls, New Jersey Elizabeth Tobin, New York City Mrs. Carl V. Toltz, Lititz, Pennsylvania Mrs. Norman Pamela Toombs, New York City M/M Crampton Rainer, West Hartford, Connecticut Transworld Art/Alex Rosenberg, New York City Joy Ungerleider-Mayerson, Larchmont, New York University of Minnesota Libs., Minneapolis, Minnesota Univ. of NC.-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota Andrea Valerio, Maurepas, France Mrs. Yves van den Branden, New York City MMe Marc Van Montagu, 1050 Bruselles,Belgium Ciba Ruth Vaughn, Cambridge, Massachusetts Christine Rae Vaura, Mt. Kisco, New York John Volkert, Chillicothe, Ohio

Ruth Von der Decken, Nonnensteeg 9, West Germany Dona H. Walker, Bethlehem, Connecticut Janice A. Wallace, Scottsboro, Alabama Gladys Waltemade, New York City Mts. Dixon Wecter, San Francisco, California C.A. Whittingham, New York City Wild Goose Chase Quilt Gallery, Evanston, Illinois Mrs. Joel T. Williams III, Dallas, Texas Mrs. Kristin Williams, Weston, Massachusetts Eve Wilson, McLean, Virginia Robert Wirth, Baltimore, Maryland Mrs. Thomas L. Wolf, New York City Allis Wolfe, New York City Mrs. Erwin S. Wolfson, New York City Linda M. Woodbury, Glen Ridge, New Jersey Mrs. Robert A. Woods, Winnetka, Illinois Stephanie Woolf, Nashville, Tennessee Worcester Public Library, Worcester, Massachusetts Joyce Yarborough, San Diego, California Grace Yeomans, New York City Ms. Janet Young, New York City Joel Zakow, New York City Harry & Marion Zelenko, Inc., New York City Ms. Jo Zielinski, Palos Verdes, California Alice Sachs Zimet, New York City Susan P. Zimmerman, Brooklyn, New York Nancy Zivley, Houston, Texas

Our Increased Membership Contribution MARCH 1980 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1980 We wish to thank thefollowing membersfor their increased membership contributions andfor their expression ofconfidence in the Museum: Raymond Babtkis, New York City Lois Bloom, New York City Mr. Wm. Bourne, New York City Edward J. Brown, New York City Betty Capshaw, Houston, Texas Leonard J. Carlson, Pekin, Illinois Mr. & Mrs. David L. Chambers, Ann Arbor, Michigan Mr. & Mrs. Daniel Cowin, New York City Mrs. G.W. Cox, Galveston, Texas Mrs. Susan L. Cullman, Briarcliff Manor, New York Gary Davenport, New York City Miss Millia Davenport, New York City Kathy C. Epstein & Family, New York City Ms. Mary J. Farkas, Detroit, Michigan Burton & Helaine Fendelman, Scarsdale, New York Jacqueline Fowler, Stamford, Connecticut Howard K. Friedman, Summit, New Jersey Joyce Golden, New York City Mrs. J. Blaine Griffith, Jr., Sewickley, Pennsylvania Mr. & Mrs. E.N. Grossman, Jr., Shaker Heights, Ohio Jean R. Harris, New York City Patrick D. Hazard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Felicia M. Holtzinger, Yakima, Washington Lena B. Kaplan, New York City Sudee & Robert R. Kugler, Haddonfield, New Jersey Wendy Lavitt, New York City Peter A. Levy, New York City Harry Lieberman, Great Neck, New York Mr. Erwin Maddrey, Greenville, South Carolina Mrs. H.W. Marache, Jr., Greenwich, Connecticut Mary Strickler's Quilt, San Rafael, California Myron Mayer, New York City Stephen Mazoh, Rhinebeck, New York Mr. & Mrs. Robert Meltzer, Dallas, Texas Karen C. Miele, Whitehouse, New Jersey Kathleen Mulhern, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Caroline A. Muller, New York City Betty Osband, New York City Sarah K. Oser, New York City Mrs. Arthur D. Pinkham, Jr., New York City Anna Lou Plott, New York City Mr. & Mrs. Aaron S. Pope, Lake Worth, Florida Mr. & Mrs. Jon Rotenstreich, New York City Mrs. Ronald C. Savin, Woodbridge, Connecticut Mrs. L. William Seidman, Washington, D.C. Mr. & Mrs. G.F. Shaskan, New York City Joseph D. Shein, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Ms. Joanne H. Siegmund, New York City Marvin Sloves, New York City Ralph Lee Smith, Reston, Virginia Andrew Stasilc, New York City Elizabeth Steidel, Elmhurst, New York

David & Ellen Stein, New York City Nancy Zala Steinberg, Los Angeles, California Roy H. Steyer, New York City Milan Stitt, New York City Mrs. T. Arnold 'Mier, Jackson, Mississippi Gerard Wertkin, Scarsdale, New York Richard H. Witmer, New York City Eugene & Nina Zagat, Jr, New York City

This year, we are delighted to welcome thefollowing organizations who have supported the Museum by joining its new Corporate Membership Program: Bankers Mist Company The Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A. Chemical Bank Exxon Corporation Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Mobil Corporation Philip Morris, Inc. The Reader's Digest Association, Inc. RCA Schlumberger, Ltd. Sotheby Parke Bernet, Inc. Warner Communications, Inc. Xerox Corporation 77


REPRODUCTION SWAN BENCH

The Essence of Elegant Craftmanship This unusual cast iron swan bench is a 20th Century reproduction of an original 19th Century bench and is suitable for indoor or outdoor use.

Planked seats of oak in a natural or painted finish are supported on molded, stylized figures of swans. Height 36 inches, length 5 feet, width 24 inches. $1600. Available only through the Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York 10019.

TWo members of the Hills family Watercolor on paper by Rufus Porter Dated 1835. The miniatures are two of but three known and documented full face portraits by Rufus Porter. Size: 31/8" x

Robert Thayer American Antiques Forty-eight East Eighty-third Street New York City 78

By Appointment 212-744-1397

Exhibited Rufus Porter Rediscovered, The Hudson River Museum, 4/12/80-7/6/80


We wish to purchase exceptional quilts of this quality. Photos promptly returned.

CENTER DIAMOND • AMISH • LANCASTER CO., PA. Woo/ • 80" x 80"

JANOS AND ROSS MUSEUM QUALITY AMISH/MENNONITE PIECED AND APPLIQUE QUILTS CIRCA 1845-1940 ALSO AMERICAN FOLK ART

BARBARA S. JANOS— BARBARA ROSS 110 East End Avenue(5E)— New York, N.Y. 10028 (212)988-0407 by Appointment Only

the

Art Cellar 250 South Main Street Thiensville, Wi. 53092 414 • 242 • 5720

Specializing in American and European Folk Art

FEEDING THE THRASHERS • STACIA LANE 79


These re-creations of EarlyAmerican lighting fixtures and some 250other models may be seen in ourshop. The rod arm chandelier shown on the left, and about 250 other such chandeliers and sconces. faithfully follow the design of colonial craftsmen of some 200 years ago. These fixtures of unlacquered brass take on a rich patina as they age. Also available with an antique pewter plating over solid brass. The chandelier on the right and other sconces,lanterns, shades, planters and liners are all handmade. We also do specialty sheet metal work in brass,copper. pewter and tin. Come visit our shop or send , -i 3.00 for a catalog describing about 50 chandeliers and sconces.

Authentic Designs

330 East 75th St.. Dept. E New York. N.Y. 10021 (212)535-9590

A.C.COATES 1867

Oil on Canvas

461/2 x 311/2

A Master Work Symbolizing Our American Heroic Spirit

DAVID BRADSTREET WIGGINS (603)286-3046 80


ON LISB L CERI Folk

AMERiCAN

ART& COUNTRy ANTiQUES

3556 SAC RAMENTO STREET • SAN FRANCISCO 415/929-8588

Original Cover Art, Pulp Magazine C.1940

1-IAMMEQ ( ,Q AMMr -1-1 awricarjok9rL Announcing the opening of our new gallery specializing in sculptural and figural grass roots art through the 20th Century Hours: Tuesday through Saturday — 10 A.M. to 5 P.M 312-266-8512 620 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 470, Chicago, Illinois / 81


4 /

kle

P.O. Box 63, New Canaan, Connecticut 06840 (203)966-0841

American 19th century hooked rug. 361 / 2" x

1981 Season

24"

SUNDAY

The E.M.C. FRENCH 1981

Concord fintiques Fairs

JANUARY 18th FEBRUARY 15th MARCH 15th APRIL 5th 8:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.

New Hampshire Highway Hotel Concord, New Hampshire

82

Managed by S.K. FRENCH Exeter, N.H.


2 hrs from N.Y.C. SUPERB 1 NORFOLK: HisTomc NEW ENGLAND VILLAGE: 2/ DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCE. GRACIOUS ROOMS-6 ACRES, GARAGE WITH TENANT APART. PRIVACY with village convenience. 15 rooms. Superb for art or antiques. $225,000 by appointment through:

I,

ROBINSON LEECH Assoc. LAKEVILLE, Cr. 06039 203-435-9891 or Jana Klaver N.Y.C. Rep. 212-288-8867

It

REALTOR 6

REALTOR

Aarne Anton 242 W. 30th St. NY, NY 10001

Mon.-Fri. 10-5:30

(212) 239-1345 83


MUM] TIIM 2101 L Street, NW., Washington, D.C. 20037 Call (202) 223-0673 or (800) 424-8830 (Toll free)

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IMOU EIMIE /A\RTS I SUIR CE SPEC LISTS \

• Collectors • Dealers • Museums

VEST1IF917?AVIS

from a private collection VIEWING BY APPOINTMENT Jay Johnson America's Folk Heritage Gallery 72 East 56 Street, NY, NY 10022 (212) 759-7373 Miller, Addison, Steele, Inc. 5 East 57 Street, NY, NY 10022 (212) 759-1060 Plaza Hotel(original painting & serigraph available)

84


BETTY OSBAND

American Country cAntique8 315 EAST 68TH STREET

NEW YORK, NEW YORK 10021

BY APPOINTMENT

212 628-3697

An extraordinary artist The Saddler is proud to introduce a delightful new talent in the world ofsporting art. Rosamond Rollins has rediscovered the naive magic of the primitive painter, while adding a fresh touch of contemporary color and subject mailer. In her versatility, Miss Rollins also selects unusual furniture pieces and oddments to decorate in the sporting motif. We invite you to come in and see the enchanting ,O..1 Rollins collection...perhaps then you will underNstand our enthusiasm.

TIE MOE The English Riding

Shop

Dept. CL, Rt. 7, Wilton CT 06897 • (203)762-0777 • MCI Visa

85


THE COLLECTOR'S CHOICE

•• #ti-,r,

4z.

Dealers in " ))* Rare Shaker •elf for Museums 0 and Collectors. Appraisalsauthenticators.

LTD.

R.D. BOX 226, RAUP ROAD CHATHAM, NEW YORK 12037 518 392-9654

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handmade braided and woven rugs to order in a variety of patterns and designs

ELIZABETH EAKINS 404 E. 14th St. New York, N.Y 10009 (212)254-7744 by appointment. 86

Shaker Splay-legged Ministry Table thing1e from ew drawer and originatniinistry brown paint. 1 2'D. PhotoCa. 1790. Dim: 35"L; 29"1-1; 22/ graphed at the ruins of the 5 story brick barn, Darrow School — site of the original New Lebanon, N.Y. Shaker Community. Price on written request. We shall be exhibiting Shaker furniture in New York City a week prior and during the period of the Winter Antiques Show. Please call our Chatham number for an appointment.


COUNTRY CURTAINS Wide Lace Ruffles

Ruffles of lace...enchantment at your windows! The finest blend of cotton and polyester permanent press edged with four inch cluny lace ruffles, copied from an authentic old world pattern. Natural or white. All pairs are 90" wide. Lengths of 45"or 54",$29.00 pr; 63" or 72" long,$32.00 pr; 81" or 90" long, $35.00 pr. Valance, 10" x 80", $12.00 each. Please remember to add the 4" lace to the lengths listed. Add $2.50 postage and handling. Send check, money order or use Mastercharge or Visa. Sorry no COD's. Mass. res. add 5% sales tax. Send for free catalog showing other curtains, bed ensembles and tablecloths. Satisfaction guaranteed.

COUNTRY CURTAINS, AT1IwRIDLJasINN Dept. 87, Stockbridge, Mass. 01262

FOLK ART GALLERY

Rare iron cigar store Indian, 4'5': Painted on both sides. In original condition.

MARNA ANDERSON GALLERY 40 east 69th street, new york 10021 (212)249-8484 open thursday, friday and saturday, 11:00-6:00, and by appointment

142 E. 73 St. at Lexington Ave., N.Y.C. 10021

*

212.628.5454 87


JAY JOHNSON AMERICAN FOLK HERITAGE GALLERY

"TINKLEMAN'S HARDWARES", artist: KATHY JAKOBSEN

"THE FARMER", JOHN CROSS

Index to Advertisers

88

Aame Anton, 83 American Primitive 14 America Hurrah 29 Americana American Country Store... IFC American Folk Art 20 Originals 87 Anderson, Mama Antiques & Collectibles ...24 Antiques & the 10 Arts Weekly Antiques Trade Gazette .... 13 7 Apollo 15 Art and Antiques 26,79 Art Cellar, The 80 Authentic Designs 84 Block, Huntington 28 Channel Thirteen 21 Childs Gallery Collector's Choice, The....86 87 Country Curtains 1 Daniel, Allen L. Dutton, E.P. & Co., Inc. ...8 87 Eisenberg, Leslie French,S.K.82 88 Galinat, Pie 86 Greenwillow Farm 81 Hammer & Hammer

79 Janos & Ross IBC 88, Johnson, Jay 27 Just Us on Court 18 Kelter-Malce OBC Kiracofe & Kile Leech, Robinson Assoc....83 81 Lisbon, Ceril 12 Love, R.H.Galleries Miller, Addison, 84 Steele, Inc. 17 Miller, Steve New York-Pennsylvania 16 Collector Museum of American 78 Folk Art Ohio Antique Review ....22 85 Osband, Betty 25 Russell, John Keith 85 Saddler, The 82 Schoemer, Kathy Sotheby's, Sotheby Parke 11 Bernet, Inc 78 Thayer, Robert 19 11-i-State 'Rader University Hospital Antiques 9 Show Wiggins, David Bradstreet .80 23 Winterthur Portfolio 2 Woodard, Thomas K

i> Antioue 0,th1t Restoration - also, Custom Made 5tretchers : 2A for display,inu Quilts "0cs7.0 flaDhed Rom Rag Carpets sewn togctIwr for qrea Boo-s oAR, -76

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Pie Gatinat 230 v.loth ,5t. 10°4 212- 741 - 3259 M0.47V'

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JAY JOHNSON AMERICAS FOLK HERITAGE GALLERY

"WHEN MAMA CUT THE MEN FOLK'S HAIR", artist: MAME LOU O'KELLEY "23rd STREET", artist: ANTOINE ITh SCHWOB

"THE PROCESSIONAL", artist: MARK SABIN

"BASEBALL IN THE BR()NN-, artist:

SPECIALIZING IN THE FINEST OF THE 18th, 19th, & 20th CENTURY FOLK ARTISTS

JAY JOHNSON AMERICA'S FOLK HERITAGE GALLERY 72 EAST 56TH STREET NEW YORK, N.Y. 10022 [212)759-7373 FINE ARTS APPRAISALS

MALCAH ZELDIS


MIT401Cg WOION

HERRY WREATH CRADLE QUILT c.1875. PENNSYLVANIA

The Clarion (Winter 1981)  

Records of Passage: New England Illuminated Manuscripts in the Fraktur Tradition • The Icons of John Perates • America’s Folk Toys • Harold...

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