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THE CLARION AMERICAS FOLK ART MAGAZINE

The Museum of American Folk Art New York City

WINTER 1980


woodstock, n.y. 12498

by appt.

(914) 679-8696

edmund I. fuller


Dorothy J. Kaufman, Mgr.

Gallery: 19 East 76th St. New York, NY 10021 (212)794-9169

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Home: (212)799-0825 [If no answer leave message at(212)787-6000]

AMERICAN FOLK ART GALLERY


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THE CLARION

Eir-11" CONTENTS/ Winter 1980 The Clarion, America's Folk Art Magazine, Winter 1980. Published quarterly and copyright 1980 by the Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York 10019. The cover and contents of The Clarion are fully protected by copyright and may not be reproduced in any manner without written consent. Unsolicited manuscripts or photographs should be accompanied by return postage. The Clarion assumes no responsibility for the loss or damage of such material. Change of Address. Please send both old and new addresses and allow five weeks for change. Advertising The Clarion accepts advertisements only from advertisers whose reputation is recognized in the trade, but despite the care with which the advertising department screens photographs and texts submitted by its advertisers, it cannot guarantee the unquestionable authenticity of objects or quality of services advertised in its pages or offered for sale by its advertisers, nor can it accept responsibility for misunderstandings that may arise from the purchase or sale of objects or services advertised in its pages.

Letter from the Director

Dr. Robert Bishop

Art of the Weathervane

Ralph Sessions

Patrick J. Sullivan Allegorical Painter

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34

Gary E. Baker

A Good Friend of the Museum—William Accorsi

Dia Stolnitz

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Robert Somers

Stencil Decoration

European Folk Art Museums Denmark: Focus on Dansk Folkemuseum and Frilandsmuseet C. Kurt Dewhurst and Marsha MacDowell in Copenhagen

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68 Noteworthy Items Museum of International Folk Art to House Fred Harvey Spanish Colonial Collection Noteworthy Organizations and Publications Living History at Historic Bethlehem, Inc. Report on the Docent Committee

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Recent Additions to Museum Collections

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The Museum Shop-Talk

Book Reviews

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Folk Art Calendar Across the Country

Our Growing Membership The Museum is dedicated to the exhibition and interpretation of folk art and feels it is a violation of its principles to be involved in or to appear to be involved in the sale of works of art. For this reason, the Museum will not knowingly accept advertisements for The Clarion which illustrate or describe objects that have been exhibited at the Museum within one year of the placing of the advertisement.

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Schedule of Museum Exhibitions Index to Advertisers

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Cover Illustration: Banner weathervane. Artist unknown. Pennsylvania. 1699. Iron. H. 14". This weathervane is from a mill erected in 1699 at Upland, Pennsylvania, that was operated by William Penn, Samuel Carpenter, and Caleb Pusey. (Historical Society of Pennsylvania) 3


U,12

MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART

BOARD OF TRUSTEES

MUSEUM STAFF

Officers Ralph Esmerian,President Alice M.Kaplan(Mrs. Jacob M.),Executive Vice President Lucy Danziger(Mrs. Frederick M.), Vice-President Jo Lauder(Mrs. Ronald), Vice-President Maureen Taylor(Mrs. Richard), Vice-President Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq., Vice-President and Secretary William I. Leffler, Treasurer Karen S. Schuster(Mrs. Derek)

Dr. Robert Bishop,Director Patricia L. Coblentz, Assistant Director Douglas Fischer, Assistant Director Laura Byers, Exhibition Coordinator Dia Stolnitz, Museum Coordinator Lillian Grossman, Secretary Susan Flamm,Publicity Oscar Brown, Jr., Clerk Anne Marie Whittaker, Business Manager Marilyn Glass, Chairman, Friends Committee

Members Alice Burke(Mrs. James E.) Catherine G. Cahill Phyllis Collins Adele Earnest Barbara Johnson, Esq. Margery G. Kahn(Mrs. Harry) Theodore H. Kapnek Jana Klauer(Mrs. Gerold F.L.) Susan Klein(Mrs. Robert) Ira Howard Levy Elizabeth J. McCormack Cyril I. Nelson Kenneth R. Page, Esq. Diane Ravitch(Mrs. Richard) Thomas G. Rizzo Andy Warhol William E. Wiltshire III

EDUCATION PROGRAM

Trustees Emeritus Mary Allis Marian W.Johnson(Mrs. Dan R.) Louis C. Jones Jean Lipman(Mrs. Howard)

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Suzanne Stern,Education Coordinator Susan Klein and Dorothy Kaufman,Docent Training Coordinators Phyllis Tepper, Marie DiManno, and Heather Hamilton, Outreach Coordinators Cynthia V.A. Schaffner, Correspondence Coordinator Priscilla Brandt, Field Trips and Seminars Lucy Danziger, Docent Program Consultant THE MUSEUM SHOP STAFF Elizabeth Tobin, Manager Kevin Bueche Sally Gerbrick Kay Mahootian Phillida Mirk Hazel Osborn Ashey Durham Osman THE CLARION STAFF Patricia L. Coblentz, Editor Helaine Fendelman,Advertising Manager Jeanette Young,Art Director Neal Davis and Ira Howard Levy,Design Consultants Ginny Briggs, Typesetting Topp Litho,Printers


LETTER FROM THE DIRECTOR

Alecia Beldegreen, Odessa Bourne, Kevin Bueche, Pat Coblentz, Joyce Cowin, Lucy Danziger, Davida Deutsch, Mary Emmerling, Suzanne Feldman, Susan Flamm, Judy Garfunkel, Marilyn Glass, Irene Goodkind, Mrs. Richard Greene, Lillian Grossman, Jay Johnson, Jana Klauer, Susan Klein, Sudee Kugler, Wendy Lavitt, Myra and George Shaskan, Suzanne Stern, Dia Stolnitz, Elizabeth "New York City, the cultural capital Tobin, Eleanora Walker, and Julia of the world, has always acknowledged Weissman. Special acknowledgment the significance of its artistic heritage. should be made to Burton and Helaine The City is keenly aware of the inteFendelman who designed the Museum's gral role of the museum, the artist, exhibition, "Classics from the Collection and the art galleries in enriching the of the Museum of American Folk Art," daily lives of its citizens as well as at the Antiques Show. The committee is visitors from around the world. extremely grateful to the following people "The recognition of folk art as the for their generous donations: Almaden central theme in the history of Vineyards; Kirsch Beverages, Inc.; American art has come about in recent Martex-West Point-Pepperell, Inc.; Peter years and the Museum of American Nursery; and Martha Stewart of Cascio Folk Art in New York City has been Westport. one of the primary catalysts in this The Amish quilt collection of Mrs. development. Phyllis Haders was exhibited at the "Now, thereby, I Edward I. Koch, American Standard Building for the beneMayor of the City of New York, do fit of the Museum of American Folk Art. hereby proclaim the week of SeptemThis dazzling installation was designed to ber 10-16, 1979, as 'American Folk capture the interest of even the most Art Festival Week' in New York City, casual visitor. The poster for this exhibito honor and support the Museum of tion was selected for inclusion in a disAmerican Folk Art's unprecedented play at a gala reception in Washington, activities being presented throughout D.C. The reception was given to thank New York City and urge all citizens to the United States Congress for its aid to participate in these programs and New York City during its fiscal crisis. A discover the rich and unique pleasures tour following the Washington statewide relating to the folk art of our nation." viewing is planned. The fine arts commitEveryone will agree that the Fall Antee selected posters from fine arts and historical museums statewide to demontiques Show, produced by Sanford Smith and Alison Mager, was a resounding suc- strate New York's contribution to the visual arts, and the Museum of American cess. Some 2000 people jammed the Folk Art is proud to be included as one Special Preview held for the benefit of of New York's important cultural instituthe Museum and throughout the entire attended crowds large Week tions. The poster was designed by Molly Festival Folk this first annual event. The Fall Antiques Epstein. Attendance for the exhibition, "The Preview was coordinated for the Museum Shakers in New York State," which was by members of the Friends Committee beautifully designed by Frank Sierra and headed by Karen Schuster and Cynthia Dianne by by Howard Lanser and Joe installed assisted ably V.A. Schaffner the was extremely high and and D'Agostino, Fendelman Helaine Butt and school and educational groups frequented following Friends: Lee Ann Aukamp,

New York City Mayor Edward Koch joined the Museum in its celebration of the American Folk Art Festival, September 10-16, 1979. His proclamation is especially significant for it acknowledges and details the Museum's leading role in the United States as the official spokesman for the folk art field. The proclamation reads:

the galleries on an almost daily basis. The curators of the exhibition, Dr. Eugene Kratz, Karl Mendel, and Cynthia Rubin, did a superb job of assembling the material, most of which had never before been on public display. Special exhibitions relating to the Museum's installation were mounted around the city and greatly increased public awareness of the Museum's many programs. Dia Stolnitz, Susan Flamm, Lee Ann Aukamp, Frank Sierra, and Gerard Wertkin, Museum representatives who worked on these exhibitions, have expressed their appreciation for the enthusiastic support and assistance of Thor Wood of the Library and Museum of the Performing Arts, New York Public Library, Lincoln Center; Philip Gerard and Richard Lynch of the Jefferson Market Regional Branch of the New York Public Library; Dorothy Swerdlove of the Library and Museum of the Performing Arts, New York Public Library, Lincoln Center Theatre Collection; Sally Helfman and Judith Botnick of the Donnell Library Center; Walter J. Zervas of the New York Public Library at 42nd Street; and Paul Winebaum and his staff at the American Museum of Immigration, Statue of Liberty. The international seminar dealing with "Shaker Life in America," presented by the Museum in the lecture room at Sotheby Parke Bernet, was coordinated by the Museum under the direction of New York City attorney Gerard Wertkin. Dia Stolnitz, Pat Coblentz, Susan Flamm, Lee Ann Aukamp, Priscilla Brandt, Sudee Kugler, and Patricia Martin staffed the Registration and Hospitality tables during the seminar. The personnel at Sotheby Parke Bernet, including John Marian, Nancy Druckman, and Betsy Pinover, deserve special thanks for their splendid assistance in all matters. New additions to the Museum staff are: Douglas S. Fischer, former director of the Regional Conference of Historical Agencies, Manlius, New York, who will serve in the capacity of Assistant Director 5


Finance and Development; Anne Marie Whittaker, who has assumed the duties of Business Manager, replacing Robin Harvey, now with the Metropolitan Museum of Art; and Oscar Brown, Jr., our new office clerk, who has replaced Kent Willingham, now attending Bernard Baruch College. Attendance at the special exhibition, "Hawaiian Quilts: Treasures of an Island Folk Art," was outstanding. Many individuals and organizations contributed to the success of the exhibition and we would like to take this opportunity to thank them for their generous support: Flowers on the Square; Joyce Golden and Associates; Hawaii Visitors Bureau; Hyatt Hotels, Hawaii; Honolulu Advertiser; Montclair Sparkling Mineral Water; and United Airlines. The Museum continues to fulfill its responsibilities as a national cultural institution, for works of art from its collections are frequently loaned to sister institutions throughout the entire United States. Several pieces were loaned to the Roberson Center for the Arts and Sciences, Binghamton, New York, for their special exhibition, "Treasure House: Museums of the Empire State," which will tour other museums in New York State. Most recently an extensive group of paintings and sculpture was borrowed by The Tampa (Florida) Museum for their initial exhibition, "Romantic America: The Middle Decades of the 19th century." During the summer the Program Department of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum contacted our Museum about the possibility of producing a 10-week course on American Folk Art in the CooperHewitt's Annual Lecture Series. Under the leadership of Dorothy Kaufman, a course was prepared; six docents and three staff members participated in the program of illustrated lectures. The registration fees for the course were shared with the Museum of American Folk Art by the Cooper-Hewitt Museum. Volunteer instructors were: Priscilla Brandt, Laura Byers, Patricia Coblentz, Ellin Ente, Helaine Fendelman, Susan Klein, Wendy Lavitt, Cynthia Schaffner, and myself. I would like to especially thank Earl Whitcraft of the Mobil Foundation, Inc., for hosting a special luncheon in our Museum galleries for the corporate leaders in New York City. Attending were 6

representatives from: American Telephone & Telegraph Company; American Can Company; CBS Inc.; Celanese Corporation; Citibank, N.A.; Consolidated Edison Company of New York; Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States; International Paper Company; Lever Brothers Company, Inc.; Metropolitan Life Insurance Company; Mobil Oil Corporation; Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York; J.C. Penney Company, Inc.; Philip Morris, Inc.; RCA Corporation; Sperry Rand Corporation; and Time Incorporated. Mr. Whitcraft's efforts on behalf of the Museum have been especially effective in drawing attention to our ongoing exhibition and educational goals. At the annual Board of Trustees' meeting held on Thursday, September 20, 1979, the election of officers proposed by the Nominating Committee and approved by the Board members brought new trustees to the Executive Committee. The officers for 1979/1980 are President, Ralph Esmerican: Executive VicePresident, Alice M. Kaplan; VicePresident, Lucy Danziger, Vice-President, Jo Lauder; Vice-Prsident, Maureen Taylor; Vice-President and Secretary, Frances S. Martinson; Treasurer, William I. Leffler; Member of Executive Committee, Karen Schuster. "Today our Museum is at an important turning point and a great deal of credit is due to Barbara Johnson, who is resigning as our president. She is, of course, remaining as a trustee. "Without Barbara, the Museum would not be here today, Barbara kept it going with her many hours of hard work. When most people wanted to give up and close the Museum or join with another institution, Barbara refused. She believed, as did Burt Martinson, who founded the Museum, that there was a place and a need for an American folk art museum in New York City. A good number of us are here today because Barbara persuaded us and excited us about the importance of the future of the Museum. "During the last few years, while Barbara was at law school, she continued as president despite the great demands on her time because she knew the Museum needed her. She will always be an important part of the Museum of American Folk Art.

"On behalf of the Board, thank you Barbara for bringing so much to the Museum and to all of us." I know all of you will want to join me and the trustees in thanking Barbara Johnson for her strong leadership during the past several years. New trustees elected to the Board are: Elizabeth J. McCormack of the Rockefeller Family and Associates and Thomas Rizzo, a distinguished folk art collector from New York City. It is especially heartening that many members have chosen to upgrade their membership and there is a significant growth of new members in the Benefactor category. Thank you for your continued support. Robert Bishop Director

Opposite 1. Recognizing that the city is keenly aware of how its museums, artists, and art galleries enrich the lives of New Yorkers and visitors from abroad, Mayor Edward I. Koch issued a proclamation designating mid-September as "American Folk Art Festival Week." The presentation was made at New York City Hall to Dr. Robert Bishop, Director of the Museum, and Mrs. Richard T. Taylor, Vice-President of the Board of Trustees of the Museum. 2. Artists Kathy Jakobsen (seated in foreground) and Malcah Zeldis (seated in rear) greeted visitors to the Rizzoli bookstore booth at the first annual "New York is Book Fair Country" on Fifth Avenue. Rizzoli's windows featured the Museum's new publication, Treasures of American Folk Art. Paintings by Jakobsen and Zeldis are part of the Museum's permanent collection. 3. Gerard Wertkin addressed the members of the Shaker Heritage Society on their special tourfrom Albany, New York, to see the exhibition, "The Shakers in New York State."


HIGHLIGHTS OF AMERICAN FOLK ART FESTIVAL WEEK IN NEW YORK CITY September 10-16,1979

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4. Dr. Robert Bishop, Director of the Museum, addressing the guests at the Corporate Luncheon in the Museum galleries. Mr. Earl Whitcraft of the Mobil Foundation, Inc., host of the luncheon, is seated at thefar left. 5. Gerard Wertkin at Trinity Church speaking to those assembledfor the Shaker Worship Service on the Sunday following the Shaker seminar. 6. "Classicsfrom the Collection of the Museum of American Folk Art," the Museum's exhibition at the Fall Antiques Show. 4.

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7. Ralph Esmerian, President of the Board of Trustees of the Museum, extends a warm welcome to the corporate leaders. 8. Satellite exhibition of Shaker materials at the Jefferson Market Regional Branch of the New York Public Library installed by Museum personnel.

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9. Sister R. Mildred Barker, Nancy Huntington, and Sister Frances Carr lead the singing of a Shaker song at the reception during the seminar on "Shaker Life in America." Sister Mildred and Sister Frances traveled from the Shaker Village at Sabbathday Lake, Maine, to take part in the seminar. Mrs. Huntington works in the office at Sabbathday Lake and accompanied the Shakers to New York.

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10. 11. 12. Folk art collectors enjoyed the superb range of American antiques and fine art exhibited at the Fall Antiques Show.

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14. 13. Pat Coblentz, Assistant Director of the Museum, and Meryl Weiss, Museum Docent, at the Fall Antiques Show. Ms. Weiss was also an exhibitor at the show. 14. Joseph Papp, Producer of the New York Shakespeare Festival and Co-Chairman of the Fall Antiques Show Benefit, toured the show with his wife. 15. Dianne Butt, Karen Schuster, Robert Bishop, Cynthia Schaffner, and Helaine Fendelman express their pleasure at the success of the Special Benefit Preview of the Fall Antiques Show. Photo No. I by Connaugh ton. Photo Nos. 2-15 by Dia Stolnitz

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Photographed at the Ebenezer Maxwell Mansion, Philadelphia by Dane T. Wells.

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Catalogue to the Exhibition at the Museum ofAmerican Folk Art December5,1979 to February 24,1980

THE ART OF THE WEATHERVANE Ralph Sessions GUEST CURATOR


eathervanes have been a part of American life since the nation's birth. Often they re recognized as historic landmarks and unique sculptural forms, or, if nothing else, are simply taken for granted. Still, the question remains as to why they are all around us, and why in fact there are so many different kinds. The answer is not as simple as it would first appear. Predicting wind direction has always been of central importance to mankind. Winds bring rain which is vital to the growth of crops. Most societies develop highly specialized orders of scientists or priests whose chief duty is forecasting the weather. If they are inaccurate, the results can be disastrous. All too often crops are lost due to an unforeseen drought or a miscalculated seasonal change. A reliable means of predicting weather patterns is more than just a convenience, it is an absolute necessity. A well-balanced, free-swinging weathervane is without doubt the most accurate wind indicator ever devised. Even modern meteorological stations have not improved upon the basic design. A survey of American rooftops reveals that this is common knowledge. A multitude of roosters, cows, angels and sailing ships point into the wind, alerting their owners to the coming storm or the long, hot afternoon. The origins of the weathervane are lost in European architectural tradition. The first recorded vane is a much-celebrated representation of the Greek god Triton that topped the Tower of the Winds in Athens in the first century B.C. The idea and probably the form are much older. Ancient Egyptian murals depict emblematic staves with long streamers, while early Greek vases show soldiers with small flags attached to their spears. In the era of bow and arrow warfare, a knowledge of wind direction and velocity was of utmost importance. The single, most identifiable early vane is the weathercock: By at least the 8th century roosters were common additions to church spires throughout Europe. As an ancient symbol of light, the dawn, and intellectual and spiritual awakening, the cock was adopted by the Christian church early in its history. It is also a leading character in the Biblical account of Peter's denial of Christ, and thus is an appropriate reminder to the devout. Furthermore, a rooster often leads a flock. For all these reasons, the cock was established as an integral part of both church doctrine and architecture at a very early date. An 8th century English riddle begins: "I am puff-breasted, swollen necked. I have a head and lofty tail, eyes and ears and one foot, a back and hard beak, a high head and two sides, a rod in the middle, a dwelling above man, I endure misery when he who stirs the forest moves me, and torrents beat upon me in my station, the hard hail and rime; and frost comes down and

Wa

snow falls on me pierced through the stomach and I ..."The description is incomplete, but the answer to the missing question is unmistakable. The earliest recorded vane in America is a rooster, brought from Holland in 1656. For many years it topped the spire of the first Church of Albany, New York. It has since been moved indoors, but a copy still serves the original purpose. One of New England's first metalsmiths, Shem Drowne of Boston, made a number of weathervanes, not the least of which is a large, copper rooster. Figure 1 gives a good idea of the size of many of the larger vanes in the United States. Drowne's weathercock is over 5-feet tall and weighs 172 pounds. Soon after it was mounted on the spire of Boston's New Brick Church in 1721, the building was popularly renamed the "Church of the Holy Rooster." Although no longer an exclusively religious image, the rooster remains one of the most' popular weathervane forms. Over the years, it has retained its primacy as a bird of prophecy. The origins of the words "weathercock" and "weathervane" are as ancient as the forms themselves. Medieval English sources clearly distinguish the two, the latter being called afane(a word later merged with the Dutch word vaan to become the modern vane). The weathercock was primarily a religious representation, while the fane had definite secular associations. It was usually a banner carried in battle, and as such bore the coat-of-arms of a knight or noble. When affixed to the top of a building, it proclaimed rank and ownership. At some point, cloth became metal, and by the 12th century fanes were widely used by English nobility. Records show that in the 14th century a royal license was required to display a fane. As a mark of privilege, this right was jealously guarded. It appears that the first metal vanes were stationary. Movement was an afterthought. As in the case of the weathercock, the representational function was of primary importance. Early vanes were emblems of the elite, and only incidentally wind indicators. Generally, the first banners were either square, rectangular, or extended lance pennants. If the owner was particularly high in rank, he would often include a fleur-de-lis design as a mark of royal favor. Figure 3 is an interesting example of this style although it comes from Pennsylvania and not England. For many years it topped one of America's first mills. It displays not only the date of construction of the mill (1699), but also the initials of the three owners, William Penn, Samuel Carpenter, and Caleb Pusey. The square, cut-out design and stylized fleur-de-lis ornamentation relate it directly to English medieval tradition and 'Albert Needham, English Weathervanes. Sussex, Eng.: 1954, p. 12. 23


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confirm an important historical reality. Colonial America was in a definite cultural time-lag that removed it from the mainstream of European style. Visored helmets have recently been unearthed near Jamestown, Virginia, site of the first permanent English settlement in the New World. Also, there is evidence that some of the first structures in both Virginia and Massachusetts were constructed in a manner popular in England in the Middle Ages.' The William Penn banner is another link in the chain, proving that early Colonial culture in America had a strong medieval orientation. The vastness of the Atlantic Ocean isolated the colonists, and so helped maintain styles that were rapidly disappearing from the European scene. By the mid-17th century the mother country was involved in an architectural renaissance. The necessity of a royal license to display a vane had long since been abolished and when Sir Christopher Wren began the rebuilding of London after the disastrous fire of 1666, banners were created to complement the new architectural styles. The most significant new design was the swallow-tailed banner. Similar to the pennant, one end of the vane was split in a way that resembled the tail of a barn swallow. The form was widely used in both Europe and America. Shem Drowne's swallowtailed "blew ball and banner," made for Christ Church in Boston in 1740, is still in place today. Figure 4 illustrates another important transformation. Since 1784 this striking vane has topped one of the first schoolhouses in Newark, New Jersey. Its inscribed date and basically commemorative purpose relate it to the banner tradition. However, the old geometric shapes have been disregarded in an attempt to represent a more natural form. The basic design cuts across two historically distinct categories by combining a fish motif, an important Christian symbol, with the banner format. This merging of older styles to create new statements was the dominant trend in

weathervane design from the 17th century onward. Ultimately, it marks the beginning of the modern vane as an aesthetically-pleasing architectural element freed from traditional restrictions. An altogether new form was that of the American Indian. Figure 2 pictures another weathervane by the old master, Shem Drowne, created in 1716. For many years this famous piece topped the Old Province House, residence of the royal governors of Massachusetts. Its representation of a distinctively American form marks the beginning of a trend in the art of the young uation. Other metaphors for American life have been developed, but none have the power of the image of the original inhabitants of this continent. Drowne's masterpiece is an appropriate statement of the impermanence of English rule in North America. From the middle of the 18th century until well into the 19th, America was involved in a radical reordering. The upheaval affected all areas of American life—political, social, and religious. The United States was forging an identity by modifying and adapting European styles to suit the new environment. As the old forms were reconsidered, people began to talk of democracy, and things American. The period witnessed a series of spiritual movements that changed the face of American religion. Many of the movements are still with us, while others have been lost in time. Shakers, Spiritualists, Millennialists, and Mormons all developed strong followings during this era. For some of the faithful, the call demanded that they leave the world behind to join a new spiritual community. For others, it meant loading the family in a wagon and traveling for days to hear the words of the new prophets delivered to huge crowds at camp meetings. Whatever the method, it was a 'See James Deetz, In Small Things Forgotten (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1977) for an excellent discussion of this and other facets of Colonial life in America.

1. Cockerel. Shem Drowne. Boston, Massachusetts. 1721. Copper. 65" x 64". Weathervanes are often massive examples of American sculpture, a fact that escapes us until we meet them face-to-face. This rooster, fashioned from two copper kettles, is over 5-feet tall and weighs 172 pounds. (First Church Congregational, Cambridge, Massachusetts) 2. Indian archer. Shem Drowne. Boston, Massachusetts. 1716. Bronze, gilded. H. 53". (Massachusetts Historical Society. 3. Banner. Artist unknown. Pennsylvania. 1699. Iron. H. 12". (Historical Society of Pennsylvania) 4. Fish banner. Artist unknown. Newark, New Jersey. 1784. Iron. 27" x 871 / 2" with shaft. Two commemorative banners trace a developing tradition. Figure 3 is an example of an European medievalform in Colonial America. It displays the initials of three prominent citizens, William Penn, Samuel Carpenter, and Caleb Pusey; William Penn received the obvious top billing. Figure 4 combines a stylized fish motif with the earlier banner format. Though also strongly influenced by English architectural design, it marks the beginnings of an American style. (The Newark Museum) 25


5. Gabriel. Artist unknown. New England. Circa 1840. Sheet iron, painted. H. 290". (Museum of American Folk Art; Gift of Adele Earnest) 6. Rooster. James Lombard. Bridgton, Maine. Mid-I9th century. Wood. H. 161 / 2". (Private collection)

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time of personal vision, and salvation through Grace. Appropriately, the movements were known generally as the Great Awakenings. Several old and new ideas were adapted to represent the various faiths. Often the power of the Lord was indicated by the Hand-of-God or the All-seeing Eye. The most popular form, however, was that of the archangel Gabriel with trumpet raised ready to proclaim the second coming of Christ. Figure 5 illustrates the idea in the form of a weathervane. Gabriel was recreated time and again throughout the 19th century. The patriotic ideals of the young nation were also expressed in the weathervanes produced throughout the 19th century. Liberty was personified in the shape of Columbia.' Uncle Sam was not forgotten either, and both forms took their places on American rooftops. There are even some scattered examples of American flag weathervanes, forged and painted to resemble cloth waving in the breeze. America was aware of herself, and, at the same time, of her seemingly unlimited potential. Local craftsmen, farmers, and itinerant carpenters took advantage of the readily available supply of wood as another medium for weathervanes. In fact, there have probably been more wooden vanes made in the United States than metal. Figure 6 represents the work of James Lombard of Bridgton, Maine. For most of his adult life Lombard was a farmer, but he also made furniture and weathervanes. A number of his wooden roosters have been discovered, all variations on the same basic theme. His treatment of the tailfeathers in an intricate, cut-out style is the most distinctive feature of his work. It seems that he always made roosters, content to remain with the form he knew best. James Lombard is just one name that has surfaced over the years; many other local artists will never be recognized. Still, his work can be used to

illustrate a trend in the development of an important American tradition. By the 19th century, the weathervane had become a true folk art. A large number of vanes were produced by local craftsmen for use in the immediate community. Perhaps the most useful definition of folk art is that of localized production in a relatively self-contained setting. Surely there are outside influences, the farranging itinerant being the most notable, but a folk tradition can be seen generally as expressive of an introverted cultural orientation. James Lombard made weathervanes in Maine, he did not advertise nationally. His work was a response to local conditions, and his product fit the needs and pocketbooks of his neighbors. It is a far cry from the 19th-century roosters of Bridgton, Maine, to the swallow-tailed banners of London, or even to those copied by Shem Drowne. Art forms often travel fom one level of society to another, especially in a country as mobile as the United States. And 19th-century America was certainly on the move. The roads were jammed with travelers. Itinerant carpenters and blacksmiths plied their trade from wagons, and many a weathervane was made to order after a convincing sales talk at the front door of a home or in a local tavern. Before long vanes of all sizes and shapes dotted the landscape. Wooden weathervanes were carved or sawed, metal ones were hammered, forged, or cut-out, but whatever the process, the choice was largely an individual one. True to the spirit of democracy, the vane that was selected was the one that at the time seemed most appropriate. The story of the weathervane in the United States does not end with 19th-century rural America. In fact, in some ways it is just a begin'See Louis Jones, "Liberty and Considerable License" Antiques, July 1958, for evidence of the origins of the Goddess of Liberty theme in American folk art.


8. 7. Pattern for Black Hawk weathervane. J. W. Fiske. New York City. Circa 1875. Wood. 33" x 20". Champion racehorsesfired the popular imagination in the late 19th century, as they still do today. Weathervane manufacturers offered many of them in two or three sizes. (Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr.) 8. Saint Tammany. Artist unknown. East Branch, New York. Mid to late 19th century. Copper, painted. H. 108". Tammany wasfound atop a meeting hallfor the Improved Order of Redmen. He is an excellent example of object and environment. In or out of context, as architectural ornament or 19th-century sculpture, he is great art. (Museum of American Folk Art)

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9. Cow. Artist unknown. New York State. Mid-19th century. Wood with iron straps, painted. 32" x 224. The spots are in low relief, suggesting that the vane represents a specific animal, perhaps a local prizewinner. (The Hall -Collection) 10. Mermaid. Attributed to W.G. Roby. Wayland, Massachusetts. Mid-I9th century. Wood. 521 / 2" x 221 / 2". (Shelburne Museum)

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ning. By the middle of the century, vanes were very popular in the urban areas of the northeast and parts of the midwest. In an era of rapidly expanding industrialism, this was just the incentive necessary for enterprising craftsmen. Gradually itinerants connected themselves directly to shops producing ready-made articles and the famous Yankee Peddler emerged on the American scene. Trade networks were established and, with the introduction of new technology, shops became factories and wagons were replaced by railroads and mail order catalogues. By the middle of the 19th century, metal weathervanes were produced commercially on a relatively large scale. While the idea of distributing the vanes nationally was new, the processes used to create them were not. For hundreds of years copper weathervanes have been made in the same basic ways. The oldest method involved working a sheet of copper freehand, using hammers and stakes to raise the piece. This ancient technique, known to metalworkers as repousse, is still used to create intricate, one-of-a-kind weathervanes. The second, more widely used process develops the form less dramatically, using a number of different steps. First the design is created and carved in wood. Figure 7 illustrates one of these pieces, in this case a representation of the famous racehorse Black Hawk. In the 19th century, the model was usually formed by a master carver, commissioned by a particular weathervane manufacturer. Often it was the work of the same men who fashioned ships' figureheads and tobacco store Indians. After the carving was completed, one of two shaping techniques was used. Either the sheet copper was hammered around the form directly, or a mold was cast, producing a reverse image of the original piece. In the latter case, the copper was then beaten into a die. The resulting forms were trimmed of excess metal, soldered together, and finished, usually with paint or gold leaf. The method was used in England by at least the 17th century, but basic casting and hammering processes were developed long before that. The key

to commercial potential, however, was the castiron die. It assured that the same form could be recreated with only minor differences in detail. The resulting product was relatively inexpensive, well within the reach of a large number of people. Before long there were several firms producing hollow-bodied copper and zinc weathervanes. Some, such as Cushing and White of Waltham, Massachusetts, and J.W. Fiske of New York City, made and distributed their own vanes, while others like Kenneth Lynch and Sons of Wilton, Connecticut, produced both hammered parts and finished vanes for other dealers, who in turn sold them to an ever-expanding market. With the development of railroads, the finished product could be shipped to Bangor, Maine, or Des Moines, Iowa, from one central location. Ultimately, the key to the success of American industrial development in the 19th century was the adaption of traditional process to suit new distributional patterns and a changing social outlook. One of the biggest boons to the weathervane industry was the popular acceptance of Victorian architectural styles. Ornate was the order of the day, and what better finishing touch for that cupola than a gilded copper representation of the horse that had won the Kentucky Derby just two weeks earlier? Architects and builders demanded it, and the industry replied. The Victorian era was truly the heyday of the commercial weathervane. In the late 19th century the United States began to turn outward. The Centennial International Exhibition in Philadelphia, the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and a series of other popular extravaganzas brought a new message to Americans. Progress and industry were hailed as the gateway to the future. Society started to work on a national, even international, scale. One by one, localized folk communities embraced the wonders of the Modern Age. People began to look for newness and change, with one eye on tomorrow, and the other on their next door neighbor. It was the beginning of the era of popular culture. If the definition of folk implies a local, introverted outlook, then that of popular is national


and extroverted. It is the difference between one of James Lombard's wooden roosters and a Cushing and White Rhode Island Red. Still, for all the change, folk traditions never totally disappear. Handmade, one-of-a-kind weathervanes are still being made in a local setting. Also, even in the case of the commercial process, the finished vane is shaped by hand. The fact is that weathervanes are the product of both folk and popular traditions and in some cases the results are amazingly similar. The finest, most carefully-made factory vanes rival folk productions in design, detail, and sureness of line. Weathervanes are an important American sculptural form, a direct extension of a longstanding tradition. Regardless of process, they are at best highly individualized pieces, created or chosen as a definite aesthetic statement. The shapes vary greatly, from crudely abstract to highly realistic, but all are undoubtedly pleasing to the eyes of the particular beholder. Whether or not the vanes are judged by the same criteria as those used by the original owners, they can be recognized as unique expressions of an American vision. Meaning is acquired by both use and interpretation, and art is as much form as process. Weathervanes have always had important personal reasons for existing. One basic definition of art is applied decoration. An object is first constructed to serve some useful purpose, and then ornamented to please the eye of the artist or larger society. Figure 8 illustrates this idea as it translates to weathervanes and American architecture. The vane is a representation of the Indian chief Tammany, legendary leader of the Delawares. In the photograph it is seen atop a meeting hall of the Improved Order of the Redman in East Branch, New York. While in place, the vane was a sign, indicating the use of the building. But it was also an interesting architectural element, an integral part of the completed whole. As applied ornament, it is art. As a piece of 19th-century American sculpture, it is also art. Actually, it is all of this and more. When a farmer puts a red and white cow such

as the one in Figure 9 on his barn, he is making a significant statement. Not only is he helping himself read weather patterns, he is also telling his neighbors what is in the barn, and just what is important to him. Why, for instance, did he choose painted wood instead of gilded copper? Did he make the vane himself or commission someone else to do it? Ultimately, he is saying something about himself. He is revealing much of the why, where, when, and how of his life through the particular weathervane that he chooses. It is his means of self-expression. In the end, weathervanes are wind indicators, representational signs, and aesthetic shapes. They have been a part of our culture for so long because they serve so many purposes simultaneously. At home in galleries or on barn roofs, as sculpture or trade signs, they are adaptable to almost any situation. In one way or another, weathervanes will remain with us. Though not originally an American form, they have come to be expressive of the content of American life. Over the years, an aristocratic tradition has become a democratic idea that reflects the basic patterns of our lives. Ultimately, regardless of the particulars, this is what art is all about.

11. Dove. Artist unknown. New England. Circa 1820. Metal. 12" x 5". (Isobel and Harvey Kahn) 12. Rooster and Hand-ofGod. Artist unknown. Pennsylvania. 18th century. Sheet iron, painted. 33" x 26". (Shelburne Museum)

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Bishop, Robert. American Folk Sculpture. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1974. Christensen, Erwin 0. Index of American Design. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1959. Fitzgerald, Ken. Weathervanes and Whirligigs. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1967. Gardiner, J.S. English Ironwork of the XVII and XVIII Centuries. New York: B. Blom, 1972. Kaye, Myrna. Yankee Weathervanes. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1975. Klamkin, Charles. Weather Vanes. The History, Manufacture, & Design of an American Folk Art. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1973. Needham, Albert. English Weathervanes. Sussex, Eng.: 1954. Sonn, M.E. Early American Wrought Iron. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1928.

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CATALOGUE OF OBJECTS

7. Rooster James Lombard Bridgton, Maine Wood Mid-19th century 18" x 161 / 2" Private Collection Banners and Arrows

Roosters 1. Rooster Artist unknown From a church in Fishkill, New York Copper 18th century 26" x 27" Dr. Alvin E. Friedman-Kien 2. Rooster Artist unknown New Jersey Sheet iron 18th century / 2" / 2" x 211 341 Dr. William Greenspon 3. Rooster Artist unknown Fitch Tavern, Bedford, Massachusetts Wood and iron 18th century 34" x 45" Shelburne Museum, Shelburne, Vermont 4. Rooster and Hand-of-God Artist unknown Pennsylvania Sheet iron, painted 18th century 33" x 26" Shelburne Museum, Shelburne, Vermont 5. Rooster on Arrow Artist unknown Ohio Sheet and wrought iron Circa 1820 65½" x 25" Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr. 6. Rooster James Lombard Bridgton, Maine Wood Mid-19th century 16" x 20" Shelburne Museum, Shelburne, Vermont

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8. William Penn banner Artist unknown Pennsylvania Iron 1699 14" x 34" Historical Society of Pennsylvania 9. Fish banner Artist unknown Newark, New Jersey Iron 1784 27" x 87½"(with shaft) The Newark Museum 10. Swallow-tail banner Artist unknown New England Wood and iron Early 19th century 74" x 16½" Ben Mildwoff 11. Star and Hand Arrow Artist unknown Bangor, Maine Iron and wood 19th century 23½" x 49"(with shaft) Ben Mildwoff 12. Gabriel and Lyre banner Artist unknown New York State Wood Circa 1850 24%" x 7%" Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr. Indians 13. Indian Shem Drowne Boston, Massachusetts Copper, hammered 1716 H.53" Massachusetts Historical Society 14. Saint Tammany Artist unknown East Branch, New York

Copper, painted 19th century H. 108" Museum of American Folk Art 15. Mashamoquet Artist unknown Pomfret, Connecticut Copper 19th century 45" x 58" Private Collection 16. Indian Artist unknown Danvers, Massachusetts Copper 19th century 47" x 45" Farago Collection 17. Indian Harvey Bennett Amagansett, New York Wood, painted Circa 1920 39" x 29" Effie Thixton Arthur Animals 18. Cow Artist unknown New York State Wood, iron, and brass Probably 19th century 26" x 15" Dr. William Greenspon 19. Cow Artist unknown New York State Wood, painted Mid-19th century 32" x 22%" The Hall Collection 20. Goat Maker unknown Massachusetts Copper, gilded Circa 1875 29½" x 26" Private Collection 21. Pig Maker unknown Provenance unknown Copper Circa 1890 31" x 203 / 4" David Davies


22. Ram Artist unknown Manchester, New Hampshire Copper and brass, gilded Circa 1855 81" x 73" Currier Gallery of Art, Manchester, New Hampshire; gift of Dr. Michael A. Michaels 23. Horse Maker unknown Berwick, Maine Iron Circa 1875 L. 34" Allan L. Daniel 24. Horse Artist unknown New England Sheet iron 18th century 251 / 2" x 19" Ben Mildwoff 25. Horse Artist unknown Provenance unknown Wood 19th century 19" x 91 / 2" Isobel and Harvey Kahn

Copper, gilded 19th century L. 32" Dr. Mary Heath 30. Grasshopper Maker unknown Provenance unknown Copper 19th century 441 / 2" x 17" Mr. and Mrs. Jacob M. Kaplan Other Birds 31. Eagle Artist unknown New England Iron and zinc Circa 1840 233 / 4" x 13" Private Collection 32. Spotted Hen Artist unknown New England Wood, painted 19th century H. 161/2" Private Collection

L. 33" Allan L. Daniel Angels and Supernaturals 37. Gabriel Artist unknown New England Sheet iron, painted Circa 1840 H. 29Âź" Museum of American Folk Art 38. Gabriel Artist unknown New York State Sheet iron Circa 1800 72" x 26" Dr. William Greenspon 39. Mermaid Attributed to W.G. Roby Wayland, Massachusetts Wood Mid-19th century 521 / 2" x 221 / 2" Shelburne Museum,Shelburne, Vermont

40. Sea Serpent Artist unknown 33. Dove New England Artist unknown Wood New England 19th century Tin 26. Pattern for Black Hawk H. 141 / 2" Circa 1820 J.W.FiskePrivateCollection 12" x 5" New York Isobel and Harvey Kahn 41. Diana and the Hunt Wood Artist unknown Circa 1875 Fish Provenance unknown 33" x 20" Copper 34. Fish Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr. 19th century Artist unknown 311 / 2" x 26" Cornish, Maine 27. Pattern for English Setter Dr. Alvin E. Friedman-Kien Wood Henry Leach for Cushing and White Late 19th century Waltham, Massachusetts American Scene 36%" x 11%" Wood The Hall Collection 1871 42. Goddess of Liberty 35%" x 16%" Cushing and White Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr. 35. Fish Waltham, Massachusetts Artist unknown Copper and lead New England 28. English Setter Circa 1870 Wood with leather fins Cushing and White H. 42Âź" 19th century Waltham, Massachusetts Mr. and Mrs. Jacob M. Kaplan / 2" x 7" Copper 261 Ben Mildwoff Circa 1871 43. Goddess of Liberty 35%" x 161/2" Cushing and White David Davies 36. Codfish Waltham, Massachusetts J. Howard Company Copper East Bridgewater, Massachusetts 29. Stag Circa 1870 Maker unknown Copper and zinc 22" x 15" Provenance unknown 19th century Dr. Alvin E. Friedman-Kien

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13. Stag. Maker unknown. Provenance unknown. Copper, gilded. 19th century. L. 32".(Dr. Mary Heath)

13. 44. Pattern for Goddess of Liberty Henry Leach for Cushing and White Waltham, Massachusetts Wood 1869 H. 46" Shelburne Museum, Shelburne, Vermont 45. Statue of Liberty J.L. Mott Company New York Copper, gilded Circa 1890 47½" x 56½" Thomas Rizzo 46. Lady Golfer Maker unknown Lakeville, Connecticut Copper Late 19th century 41" x 14" Mr. and Mrs. Jacob M. Kaplan 47. Train Artist unknown Amesville, Connecticut Copper Circa 1900 80" x 29½" David Davies 32

48. Airplane (Bleriot Monoplane) Artist unknown Poland Springs, Maine Copper Circa 1910 55" x 57" Dr. William Greenspon 49. Hupmobile Probably J.L. Mott Company New York Copper 1909 53" x 50" David Davies 50. Ship Artist unknown Provenance unknown Wood with metal sail 19th century 70" x 24" Isobel and Harvey Kahn Material from Kenneth Lynch & Sons, Wilton, Connecticut 51. Black Hawk weathervane Kenneth Lynch & Sons Wilton, Connecticut Copper, gilded 1979 33" x 20"

52. Workbench Kenneth Lynch & Sons Wilton, Connecticut Wood 19th century 96" x 31" x 31" 53. Molds Kenneth Lynch & Sons Wilton, Connecticut Cast iron 19th century Various sizes 54. Tools: hammers, chasing tools, stakes, shears, soldering iron Kenneth Lynch & Sons Wilton, Connecticut 19th century 55. Various weathervane parts, sheets of copper, and partially completed vanes

The Museum of American Folk Art would like to acknowledge a special grant from Kenneth Lynch & Sons, Wilton, Connecticut, to assist in the preparation and installation of this exhibition as well as the development of a videotape for educational purposes.


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1.

PATRICK J.SULLIVAN AllegoricalPainter

GARY

E.BAKER Curator, Oglebay Institute-Mansion Museum


ittle has been written about the paintings of Patrick J. Sullivan (1894-1967), since the publication of Sidney Janis's They Taught Themselves: American Primitive Painters of the 20th Century in 1942. His name has been mentioned with some frequency in connection with American folk art and several books have included illustrations of his work, but for the most part the paintings of Patrick J. Sullivan have either been forgotten or ignored. Only five Sullivan paintings have been published in sources which are readily available to scholars. This is truly unfortunate for Patrick Sullivan may be considered one of the most original allegorical painters in the history of American art. Indeed his thought-provoking oils in some respects may be considered a naive 20th- century American counterpart to the watercolors and prints of William Blake. Sullivan's works were given relatively wide exposure in the late 1930s and early 1940s. Under the aegis of Sidney Janis, his "discoverer," they were exhibited in important shows including: "Masters of Popular Painting: Modern Primitives of Europe and America" and "American Realists and Magic Realists," both at the Museum of Modern Art; "American Primitive Paintings of Four Centuries" at the Arts Club of Chicago; and of course "They Taught Themselves: American Primitive Painters of the 20th Century" shown at Marie Harriman Gallery and many other locations. Illustrations of his work appeared in Art News, Newsweek,and Cue. In the decade preceding the Depression, Patrick J. Sullivan had worked as a house painter in Wheeling, West Virginia. As an apprentice to James De-Shon, a local housepainter, he had learned the techniques of wood graining and marbling. However, there was little in his history to indicate that unemployment would lead him to produce his highly original primitive paintings. As a child in an orphanage in western Pennsylvania he had tried his hand briefly at drawing. As a young man (while working as an assistant playground manager in Wheeling) he had painted pictures on makeshift supports, "heavy paper, cardboard, and old window blinds." In neither of these instances were his efforts extended. He painted no pictures during the three years he was in the army (March of 1916 to 1919) and seems to have painted only houses in the 1920s. In the 1930s he again tried his hand at art. First he painted from photographs and copied works by other artists. These works included a self-portrait, a copy of Hoffman's Christ at Twelve, and at least two landscapes. In 1936 Sullivan painted what he termed his first all-original canvas, Man's Procrastinating Pastime. Early in 1937 he sent this work to the unjuried show of the Society of Independent Artists in New York, where it caught the keen eye of Sidney Janis. Janis purchased the work and urged

L

Sullivan to continue painting. For the next six years Sullivan did, but the odds were against him for he was in debt and poor almost to the point of desperation. In spite of the inclusion of his work in prestigious shows and the illustration of it in popular magazines, which to him connoted fame, Sullivan was unable to earn a living as an artist. His paintings did not bring prices commensurate with the amount of time he spent producing them. He seems never to have produced more than three paintings a year. His technique was incredibly laborious. He primed his own canvas with 2-inch house-painting brushes. He applied the pigment with very small "dime store" camel's-hair brushes which he used down to the last bristles. In this manner he built up the pigment layers to get an embossed effect very similar to that of a relief map. Some of the raised areas project as high as a quarter of an inch from the canvas. He generally rubbed selected areas of his painting lightly with sandpaper to enhance the texture of the picture plane. In March of 1941 Sullivan quit the housepainting profession for the more steady work of the steel mill in hopes of getting his money matters in better order. In a letter to Sidney Janis he described his new job: "It is plenty tough work— lifting heavy steel all day. To-day, for instance I lifted pieces weighing 40 lbs. I carried them to one machine and when the operation was finished carried them to another part of the floor. In all today I lifted, carried, and placed nearly sixteen (16,000) thousand pounds. My entire body is sore all over, but I dare not complain and until I am free of these damnable debts, I'll just have to bear it. I am so exhausted when I get home I can't do a thing only sit or lie down. Sometimes I'm too tired to eat or sleep." Although Sullivan retained a strong desire to paint, he did not produce many more paintings. After the completion of Tranquillity in November of 1941, he painted only sporadically. A mere 19 known or presumed surviving works constitute Sullivan's oeuvre. Fifteen of these are easel works, one is a mural, and the remaining three are painted on unusual materials: a tea towel, a frayed portion of canvas window blind, and a china plate. These paintings form three distinct groups: early, master, and late works. Early Works None of the sketches Sullivan produced as a child nor the paintings he did as a young man have survived. The two earliest extant works, Christ at Twelve (c. 1930) and Near Eastern Landscape (c. 1931), are part of a group of at least four paintings done by the artist in the early 1930s. Two of that group are now lost: a self-portrait (painted from a photograph of the artist in a World War I uniform) and a landscape.

1. Patrick J. Sullivan (1894-1967). Photograph taken in a five-and-dime store about 1938. (Courtesy of Sullivan Family) 35


On one of his wife's tea towels, Sullivan copied Christ at Twelve from a painting by Hoffman. Sullivan, however, was not content to make an exact copy of Hoffman's painting. The Christ Child to Sullivan was not effeminate as Hoffman had shown Him; He was masculine. Furthermore He was a Jew. Sullivan made the shoulders more rugged and the nose longer. The other surviving early work, Near Eastern Landscape, is painted on a fragment of canvas window blind. Since Sullivan never thought enough of this painting to title it himself, the title is the author's. Sullivan's daughter, Martha, recalls that her father painted it from "a picture in a book." The color scheme, which is handled with some ability, consists chiefly of brown, blue, and vivid greens. As is typical of the treatment of masonry in many other "primitive" paintings, each block of stone in the walls is carefully delineated. Both of these early works are products of an eye already well developed. Yet they are so different from Sullivan's later works that it would be almost impossible to attribute them to Sullivan, if we did not already know that they were his. In contrast to all of his succeeding works they are thinly painted. The face of Christ is one of the more life-like countenances that the artist produced. While faces frequently appear in his allegories, the only other portrait he is known to have painted is the lost self-portrait mentioned above. All of his other works are landscapes. Near Eastern Landscape, however, bears little relation to them. It is copy work. There is not even a hint of Sullivan's characteristic "broccoli" tree to be found in the jungle foliage. The two long horizontal clouds are the only elements which relate stylistically to the other landscapes. Similar clouds appear in every Sullivan work that includes a sky except The Fourth Dimension (1938). These clouds are always long and horizontal, but vary considerably, ranging from pencil thin wisps to uneven stripes going from one edge of the canvas to the other. In Tranquillity (1941) they look very much like loaves of French bread flying in formation.

2. Christ at Twelve. Painted on a tea towel, circa 1930. (Courtesy ofSullivan Family; photo by Gary Zearott) 36

2.

Master Works There are a total of 11 known works in this group painted from 1936 through 1941, when Sullivan was at the height of his creative ability. Unfortunately no study photographs were available for two of the paintings in this group, Cathedral and Why Should the Spirit of Mortals be Proud? It thus is possible that their appearance may necessitate the modification of some of the generalizations in the following discussion. There is also a possibility that, in spite of the care taken by the author to compile a complete list of Sullivan works, a few additional works may eventually surface. Due to the short period in which the artist painted steadily, it is very unlikely that they will


number more than two or three if indeed they have ever existed. Man's Procrastinating Pastime, the first of the 11 works, is a tour deforce as an allegorical painting. It cannot, however, be accurately interpreted without the aid of the artist's written theme. The viewer is confronted by four men standing in a dense forest. In the foreground, a bearded man places a man exactly like himself into an open grave. Directly behind the bearded man stands a tall clean-shaven man holding a club in one hand and pointing to a sunlit clearing in the distance. On the left side of the canvas stands a short man with a head accounting for one-third of his total height, and with long and seemingly useless hands and feet. Who could realize without an explanation from the artist that "the forest is the subconscious mind of man," that the bearded figure, mankind, hides the evil in himself (man's procrastinating pastime), that the tall man "is the good part of man urging him to get out of the deep mind—out into the clear conscious or the clear light of day and perform good deeds," and finally that the short man personifies sin—the large head representing sin's cunning, the awkward hands and feet, sin's inability to catch those unwilling to be caught. The message of the canvas, i.e., the importance of good works and their power to counteract the

evil of sin, clearly echoes Sullivan's devout Roman Catholicism. In the majority of his canvases there is a Christian message. Sullivan once wrote to Sidney Janis: "It is my intention to bring truth out in all its glory on my canvases—if you will, a sort of parable in picture form." Man's Procrastinating Pastime (1936) was a milestone work for the artist, for it was this work, as mentioned earlier, that attracted the attention of Sidney Janis. James W. Morris, Sullivan's friend of over 30 years, well recalls Sullivan's excitement at the arrival of the first letter from Sidney Janis. Sullivan actually ran to Morris's house waving the letter. The impact of this and subsequent letters from Janis cannot be underestimated. It is unlikely that Sullivan would have continued to paint for long without the encouragement, both moral and financial, provided by Janis. A slow but steady stream of paintings followed: An Historical Event (1937), A Rendezvous with the Soul (1938), Solitude (1938), The Fourth Dimension (1938), Why Should the Spirit of Mortals Be Proud? (c. 1939), Haunts in the Totalitarian Woods (1939), First Law of Nature—Not Self-Preservation but Love (1939), A-Hunting He Would Go (1940), Cathedral (c. 1940), and finally Tranquillity (1941). Some of these works are more elaborate allegories than others. The meanings of some are seemingly easier to unravel than others.

3. 3. Near Eastern Landscape. Painted on a scrap of canvas window blind, circa 1931. (Courtesy of Sullivan Family; photo by Gary Zearott)

37


4. First Law of Nature— Not Self-Preservation But Love, painted circa 1939. (Formerly in the collection of Mr. and Mrs. M. Martin Janis, present location unknown.)

38

All are landscapes. Sullivan loved to paint rocks and trees. Only The Fourth Dimension is treeless. In Solitude the artist painted one large mushroom-shaped living tree flanked by two fallen dead trees to symbolize the Resurrection and eternal life. A cross formed by light green foliage appears in the tree. Another very noticeable characteristic of Sullivan's master works is his love of symmetry. While there is no work in which one-half of the canvas is the mirror image of the other, a rough symmetry is evident in the composition of all the works. There is invariably a strong vertical axis, which is slightly off from true center. The axis is generally marked by the human figure, an open space or some other device. To further emphasize the axis, trees or groups of trees are generally

paired on either side. In The Fourth Dimension, which contains no trees, the same effect is accomplished by the use of human figures. Incidentally, the central axis in The Fourth Dimension is marked by an hourglass (representing time), rays (indicating the remaining three dimensions), and a straight row of planets and other heavenly bodies extending directly above the vertical ray. Virtually all of these characteristics may be seen in First Law of Nature—Not Self-Preservation But Love. Throughout, the message of self-sacrifice for the sake of love resounds. In the heavens is Christ or God the Father with outstretched hands that seem to be marked with nail wounds. Below is Golgotha with the three crosses. Slightly to the right of center stand a very modest Adam and Eve. The juxtaposition of the Crucifixion and the


5. Adam and Eve theme is a medieval convention, symbolizing the idea that mankind and hence the original sin were the reason for the Crucifixion. In effect we have John 3:16 in pigment: "For God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son," the supreme act of self-sacrifice for love. To the left of Adam and Eve, a soldier in a trench gives up his life for his country. In the left foreground, a mother bear stands beween her cubs and a hunter firing a gun, in the center a human mother protects her little girl from a lion, and on the right a missionary gives up his life for the word of God. The whole is set in a landscape replete with rocks and trees. The composition exhibits a strong vertical central axis that is established by the position of God the Father directly above the three

crosses, which in turn are above an empty space between the figures of the soldiers on the left and Adam and Eve on the right. The central axis is further emphasized by a group of three large trees placed on either side. In addition, the broad flat plane shown in the center forms a strong horizontal axis. Tranquillity, the last of Sullivan's master works, does not exhibit the elaborate symbolism seen in the others. Almost a pure landscape, it contains the only anamorphic device noted in the artist's works. On November 29, 1941, Sullivan wrote Sidney Janis the reason for painting Tranquillity: "In these days of nerve-wracking events, it would be well for the artist to wield his brush in the furtherance of a let down in emotional disturbances which are inimical to the welfare of a

5. Tranquillity, painted circa 1941. (Courtesy of Dr. and Mrs. Norman F. Laskey; photo by eevainkeri)

39


6. 6. Crucifixion by Kaufmann. Located in the apse of Sacred Heart Church in North Wheeling, West Virginia. (Photo courtesy of Mr. Edward Martin)

mighty nation such as ours. ... Artists should assist, therefore, in portraying work that will help keep the nation calm and cool in all its deliberations so that it may have the full use of its prowess to erase from the earth the foul, nauseating thing called, Naziism. ... It is my sincere wish that those who look upon 'Tranquillity' will be emotioned the way the artist intended: That it will give them a feeling of tranquillity which is sorely needed in today's emotionally upset world." In a letter bearing the same date Sullivan further wrote: "After you have looked at Tranquillity awhile turn it to your right and look at it sidewise. You will notice the mountains form a sleeping figure. The figure is really resting in a calm, peaceful manner. All is quiet and undisturbed. The trees, water, everything in the picture is in a tranquil state, yet the picture is full of life—it sings." The face of the sleeping figure may be seen between the branches of the tree on the left. Late Works This group of works, produced over a 22-year period when Sullivan grew increasingly disenchanted with the "art world," consists of a mural, four

40

easel works, and a decorated china plate. Of the late works, only Trinity (1947) and The Gates of Hell Shall Not Prevail(1959) contain the rich original symbolism found in the artist's master works. Late in 1942, nearly a year after Sullivan had painted Tranquillity, he repainted the mural in the apse of his parish church, Sacred Heart Church in North Wheeling. Since Sullivan was working as a watchman for Continental Roll & Foundry, most of the painting was done in the evenings. This mural, Crucifixion, was completed in an amazing one month. It is not really an original work, for Sullivan over-painted an earlier mural by another local artist named Kaufmann. A comparison of photographs, one showing Kaufmann's mural and the other showing Sullivan's over-painting shortly after its completion, reveals that Sullivan made no changes in the composition, but repainted the entire mural in his own style. Kaufmann had kept his background soft to emphasize the figures of St. John, the dead Christ, and the Virgin Mary. Sullivan simplified and intensified the details placing equal emphasis on all areas of the work. Furthermore, it is known that Sullivan made the colors more intense.


Sullivan always said that he "rebuilt the painting." This is an accurate statement. He retained virtually all of the rocks, trees, and mountains in the landscape, but reinterpreted them. He chose to reduce the number of buildings in Jerusalem, but carefully preserved the city's outline on the horizon. He darkened the sky because he felt that a bright sky was an inappropriate background for the Crucifixion. Not surprisingly, the artist increased the horizontal emphasis of the clouds already present and added a few of his own long horizontal clouds. The most noteworthy changes were made in the figure of Christ. Probably to symbolize the strength of Christ or perhaps to hint at the coming of the Resurrection, Sullivan made the legs of Christ large, muscular, and healthy-looking. Closely following the original drawing of the loincloth, Sullivan increased the number of folds to form a pattern of curved diagonal lines that echoes the pattern of the lines he gave to Christ's ribs. Finally he highlighted the crown of thorns so that it could be better seen. The principal change in the figures of St. John and the Virgin occurs in their robes. Sullivan reworked the folds of the robes, creating

a strong sense of pattern. It is known that he attempted to make the Virgin look younger in order to show her purity, because he felt that sin aged. However a comparison of the Virgin's face in the two photographs reveals little change. Sullivan "embossed" the three figures and for a time the lighting of the apse was designed to throw shadows on the relief work. Five years elapsed before Sullivan painted his next work Trinity (1947), which closely relates to his earlier works. A mountain in the background composed of three rocks represents the Trinity. At the foot of this mountain stand three trees seemingly surrounded by a golden aureole. Three streams flow together and then into a reservoir representing the strength of the Trinity. The symmetry of the composition is more rigid than that in most of his earlier paintings. The strong vertical central axis is established at the bottom edge of the canvas and extends through reservoirs to the top of the mountain. The reservoir is flanked by clusters of trees which heighten the impact of the strong central axis. In 1950 Sullivan, by commission, painted The Mansion Museum from a photograph. Compari-

7. 7. Crucifixion. As overpainted by Patrick J. Sullivan, circa 1942. Located in the apse of Sacred Heart Church in North Wheeling, West Virginia. (Photo courtesy of Mr. Edward Martin)

41


8. 8. Trinity, painted circa 1947. (Courtesy of Oglebay Institute-Mansion Museum: photo by Gary Zearott)

42

son of the work with the photograph used by the artist indicates that Sullivan attempted a straightforward and accurate rendering. After a lapse of another 9 years he painted The Gates of Hell Shall Not Prevail (1959). Unfortunately, Sullivan wrote no theme for this highly symmetrical vision. The Father, Son and Holy Ghost appear in the sky. On the ground is a conical stone altar surmounted by a seven-branch candelabrum and flanked by two angels with flaming swords. On the left stands a man in a suit holding a Bible, and a priest holding a cross. On the right the devil is gestured off the canvas by one of the angels who points to the right. The devil pulls a Russian bear on a leash. Sullivan decorated two china plates as gifts for his great-grandchildren at their births (1964 and 1965), telling his family not to show them to anyone because he did not want to be remembered as a china-painter. One of the plates was destroyed in a fire, but the surviving one is pleasantly whim-

sical. In the center of the plate a stork flies with a bundled baby in his beak. On the left side of the stork is a teddy bear and on the right a doll. Below the stork is an hourglass flanked by a puppy and a baby rabbit. At Sullivan's death on August 31, 1967, there remained an unfinished landscape which he had begun in 1964 as a gift for his wife. The Oglebay Institute-Mansion Museum, in Patrick Sullivan's hometown, itself the owner of two Sullivan paintings, recently mounted a comprehensive exhibition, "Sullivan's Universe: The Art of Patrick J. Sullivan, Self-Taught West Virginia Painter." A fully-illustrated catalogue of the same title (price $3) constituting a monograph on the artist was published in conjunction with the show. The exhibition and catalogue were made possible by financial assistance from the Arts and Humanities Division of the Department of Culture and History of the State of West Virginia.


The Vuseurris Gooc Fnenc

WILLIIAMA ACC DIA STOLNITZ Museum Coordinator William Accorsi is a well-known artist, sculptor, and craftsman who has always held a special liking for the Museum of American Folk Art. Why? "I like the whole field of folk art. The Museum is a real nice, unexpectedly unpretentious place, so unlike a museum in New York City. It's a real folksy place," proclaims Accorsi. To help support the Museum, William Accorsi graciously undertook the task of designing, constructing, and painting a street sign to greet Museum visitors and attract all 53rd Street travelers to our galleries. The season was winter, so after appropriately deciding upon a snowman motif, William, my sister Wendy, and I assembled a 6-foot standing figure. William is a superb woodworker, painter, and most creative teacher, and under his direction a very special smiling snowman evolved. The red scarf, green hat, and purple mittens were easily enough completed and accepted. When a large green nose, orange cheeks, and yellow and mauve background additions began to cause worried looks on our faces, William simply instructed us not to fear color, but control it. Under William's finger-point, we began painting pink, blue, yellow, and purple dots of snow over the entire white surface, while William illustrated

the face. The result was a joyful, vibrant snowman, who colorfully displayed the Museum's name throughout the winter months. In May, Accorsi again agreed to donate his time and talent toward a spring sign. For this occasion, William created, and we helped paint, a chic, well-dressed, graceful man with a companion dog—atop the gentleman's hat! The man sports a green sweater, clock-faced buttons, and purple sailor pants. The man and his dog are a pretty midtown sight, and will gladly welcome your visit to our current exhibition. William Accorsi was born in Renton, Pennsylvania, a small mining town, and grew up in nearby

"A Gentleman and His Dog" greeting visitors to the Museum. (Photography by Dia Stolnitz)

43


1. "In-Love Cowpokes on the Same Horse" by William Accorsi. Painted wood. 16" x 141 / 2". 1976. (Photography by Henry Grossman) 2. "Embossed Memories" by William Accorsi. Memorabilia, 11" x 11". 1977. (Photography by Henry Grossman) 3. "Oh Say Can You See" patriotic puzzle by William Accorsi. Painted wood. 4" x 12". 1978. 4. William Accorsi with Museum of American Folk Art winter sign, "Snowman Puck."(Photography by Dia Stolnitz)

44

Springdale. In his last year at Muskingum College, New Concord, Ohio, he stopped his active involvement with athletics to seriously pursue his interest in art_ Upon graduation, Accorsi's ultimate ambition was an artistic career, but he was not ready to begin as a professional artist. He was trained as a teacher and he accepted a position in Columbus, Ohio, as a grade school instructor. He remained there 7 years, teaching children with emotional disturbances and learning disabilities, which were his areas of special interest. During this time he worked diligently at his art, and explored many media including painting, weaving, pottery, stained glass, and printmaking. When he became involved in sculpture, he felt it was a good place to begin his professional career in art. He resigned from teaching, moved to William Street on Martha's Vineyard, and in one year produced a large body of work. In the autumn of 1962, he came to New York City. William Accorsi's studio is located at 71 Irving Place, New York City. In his workshop a number of limited edition sculptures, puzzle-pieces, collages, and erotic works are sawed, sanded, and painted daily by the artist and his assistants. Accorsi's sculptural motifs range from interlocking men and women, circus performers, animals (alligators, octopi, elephants, and more), spiraling stairs with figures, hanging airplanes, word puzzles, and cookie collages. Accorsi says he does not try to edit his choice of motifs, though he is

quite aware of their similar themes. He works with the "fantasy part of our culture, not the part like Disney World, but what goes way back—the circus, cowboys, the fascination and romance of airplanes." Accorsi says he is a person of this world, and a part of its history. He does not want his work to fit into any particular epoch, in fact, he would like the viewer to remain uncertain as to when his pieces were made. And indeed, there is a timeless quality to all his work. "I am a traditional person, and I am a part of our culture. I don't want to be a 1980s or 1950s person. Our culture has a continuity to it, and an understanding for us." Accorsi's work always delights the eye and makes one smile. His art holds the quality of things from out of the past which were well-loved but almost forgotten. He brings his objects into the present for us, where to our delight they fit perfectly well. Accorsi is a contemporary artist working in the tradition of thoughtfully handmade, exquisitely crafted items with personal touches and insights. The artist Accorsi is a unique man with a special combination of aesthetics, sophistication, humor, and talent, all of which are clearly seen in his work. He is a colorist who uses bright hues to enhance his lyrical, elegant lines and beautifully crafted wooden designs. He understands and sensitively exposes the nature of wood in interlocking wooden figurines in witty and often erotic situations. Accorsi is intrigued as well with many

1


3. materials, and employs memorabilia, antique toys, and everyday objects in thoughtful collages and spacial combinations. His repertoire includes lamps made from cream cheese boxes and plastic beads, airplanes made of antique rulers, tables made of old building blocks, and figures made from brushes, spools, and colored crayons. In addition to the wealth of original artwork around the studio, a myriad of old signs, buttons, clocks, and miniatures can be viewed at Irving Place. Accorsi owns a large collection of miniature toys and memorabilia, which he no longer actively collects. If he were to again collect seriously, he says he would be an avid collector of American folk art. Many of William Accorsi's pieces are reborn from variations of folk art designs. For example, his Indian motifs show similarities to weathervane designs, and a red, white and blue wooden flag hanging in the studio immediately recalls the Flag Gate in the Museum's collections. Is William Accorsi a folk artist? "A folk artist's work is always more emotional than visual. Folk artists are more intuitive about what they do, and they draw upon visual things in a much different way than a highly educated artist. I am a very educated man, but my work is far more emotional than visual," states Accorsi. The originality of William Accorsi's work is well-known not only in New York City, but throughout the United States. He has exhibited widely in museums, art shows, and galleries. He has recently published a book with Simon and Schuster that is a picture survey of his puzzles for the last 10 years. He plans to publish another book, of his erotic puzzles, in the near future. Accorsi says: "I want people to enjoy my work, in whatever way they can." The Museum of American Folk Art is honored to have William Accorsi's sculpture signs greet our guests. We deeply appreciate his interest, support, and friendship. 45


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STENCIL DECORATION ROBERT SOMERS Museum Intern, Summer 1979

Stenciling is an ancient art form whose exact origins are unknown because of the perishable nature of early stencils that were probably made from leaves or skins. The Egyptians stenciled designs on mummy cases while Pacific Islanders stenciled clothing, attesting to the widespread use of this type of decoration in diverse cultures. The invention of paper in China provided a medium that permitted development of detailed stenciling. Chinese and Japanese artists refined the craft to a fine art, spreading their wares to the Middle East and Europe via the burgeoning silk trade. Stenciling became widespread in Europe, particularly medieval France where it often produced distinctive results. The word "stencil" itself is derived from the Old French word "estenceler" meaning "to sparkle." Books, wallpaper, textiles, and especially playing cards were decorated. with stenciled designs. Settlers in North America often used stencils to decorate their homes. Floor cloths, coverlets, tin boxes, trays and wall borders were initially created by housewives whose patterns included various folk symbols such as flowers, leaves, stars, animals, bells, and eventually the American Eagle. Patterns begun by housewives were often completed by itinerant stencilers, the most outstanding being created by the Pennsylvania-Germans. The commercial manufacture of furniture and other household goods in the 19th century increased the demand for stenciled decoration. Highly skilled artisans such as Louis Comfort Tiffany created new and imaginative uses for stenciled designs which played an important role in the artistic tastes of many Americans. Until World War II, stencils were among the most common forms of interior decoration. Simpler tastes after the war decreased the popularity of such elaborate decoration.

In recent years, however, stenciling has aroused the interest and creativity of many people who have infused an ancient form of folk decoration with new life. The stencils on the following pages are adapted from a stencil bedspread, made in New England circa 1825, and generously given to the Museum of American Folk Art by George Schoellkopf of New York City. However, the patterns can be used to decorate almost anything that does not have a highly polished, glossy surface. It is necessary to use a variety of stencils, or "theorems," for each design, one or more for each individual color. Let your imagination and sense of design have free rein, and when you are finished, we would like very much to see some of your completed projects.

SUGGESTED READING Bishop, Adele and Lord, Cile. The Art of Decorative Stenciling. New York: The Viking Press, 1976. Day JoAnne C. Early American Cut and Use Stencils. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1975. Pennsylvania Dutch Cut and Use Stencils. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1975. Gillon, Edmund V., Jr. Victorian Stencilsfor Design and Decoration. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1968. Grafton, Carol Belanger. Victorian Cut and Use Stencils. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1976. Lipman, Jean. American Folk Decoration with Practical Instruction by Eve Meulendyke. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1972. Opposite Waring, Janet. Early American Stencils on Walls and 1. Stenciled Room from Furniture. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1968. Chenango County, New Early American Wall Stencils, Their Origin, York. (Shelburne Museum, History and Use. New York: William R. Scott, 1942. Shelburne, Vermont) 47


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C. KURT DEWHURST AND MARSHA MACDOWELL

FOLK ARTSIN DENMARK Focus on Dansk Folkemuseum and Frilandsmuseetin Copenhagen In the latter part of the 19th century, a wave of nationalistic feeling spread through northern Europe, spawning both romantic and scholarly appraisals of local culture. In numerous towns, special exhibitions were formulated to display the products of local art and industry. Several such displays led to the establishment of museums for the decorative art and folk collections. The Danish Folk Museum (Dansk Folkemuseum) found its beginnings in such a setting—the exhibition of art and industry held in Copenhagen in 1879. As director of Tivoli and member of the exhibition's organizing committee, Bernhard Olsen sought to enlarge the concept of the slated displays. He proposed to the committee a series of interior displays that would faithfully reproduce the dwelling rooms of old farmhouses. What resulted were room settings of various regional peasant and urban middle-class homes from the period 1750-1800. Each room was complete with panelling, furniture, utensils, textiles—each item displayed in its accustomed place. Bernhard Olsen had seen Artur Hazelius's exhibits of Swedish materials that had included wax figures placed in tableaux. Excited by the materials and displays, he determined to follow Hazelius's lead and allow the public to move freely into the rooms—a decision that resulted in enormous public enthusiasm. Joined by J.J.A. Worsaae, director of the then Oldnordisk Museum, and Vilhelm Topsoc, editor of Dagbladet, Olsen pushed for the establishment of a permanent exhibition facility. By 1885, following a surge of support, the museum was opened to the public. Now known as the Third Department of the National Museum, the collections and activities of the Dansk Folkemuseum are broad. In addition to the collection of decorative arts associated with room settings, efforts are made to accumulate artifacts from all aspects of life. Simultaneously, the research staff documents both cultural artifacts and tradition through the use of questionnaires, interviews, photography and filmmaking. Cooperation with the University Institute of Material Folk Culture at Brede underscores the research endeavors of the museum and plans continue to point to a consolidation of Folklore Archives, library facilities, and

conservation departments at Brede, on the outskirts of Copenhagen. One of the most impressive aspects of the collections.of the Dansk Folkemuseum is its assemblage of costumes and textiles, with over 20,000 specimens covering the period from 1660 to the present day and representing all social levels and activities. Special impetus was given this area of collecting by a remarkable, yet persistent curator, Elna Mygdal. She bicycled around the countryside on collecting trips—once even with a broken arm! Guild insignia, folk arts, faience, furniture, and other artifacts associated with the village councils from the time of the open-field system are exhibited in remaining rooms. These are systematically displayed according to object-type and regional variations. The exhibits provide the visitor with a comprehensive survey of the material culture of Denmark. The Dansk Folkemuseum had hardly been established when Bernhard Olsen began pressing for an open-air museum. The concept would expand one step further his notion of exhibiting folk cultural materials. He wanted to show not only the objects in the context of their room settings, but the rooms in the contexts of their buildings. Successful once again in his quest, Olsen saw the opening of the Frilandsmuseet in 1901 at Sorgenfri, just outside Copenhagen. Here visitors could view not only rooms similar to those housed in the National building, but far more importantly, the buildings from which they were taken. A more complete picture of daily life of the past was thus accomplished. The museum area is composed of over 90 acres and now includes 40 houses. Basically, the buildings are divided geographically and the following regions are represented: Zealand, Schleswig, Jutland, Southern Sweden, Funen, and the Faeroe Islands. The museum gives a picture of old Danish country homes as they existed through the ages in different geographical areas and under different economic traditions. From its inception, the outdoor museum's landscaping was given partieular attention by Olsen. He declared that he "will surround the farmsteads with hop gardens and flower gardens, kitchen gardens and orchards

I. Theforgefrom Orbaek with its red washed walls and blue painted doors is one of the most picturesque buildings on the Frilandsmuseet grounds. 2. A cart stands in the doorway of the Pebringe farmstead. Four adjoining whitewashed wings enclose the inner courtyard. 3. A garden protected by tall grasses is indicative of the Care taken in recreating the rural landscaping around the buildings. 65


6. 66


are given at periodic times during the year. In addition, folk dance societies perform regularly on the grounds—on their own sometimes attracting hundreds of people. In the next few years, the Frilandsmuseet hopes to incorporate both a manor house and workhouse into the museum grounds thereby representing both a higher and lower social layer of the rural population than is now depicted. An important new direction is the plan for another series of buildings which will represent the period from 1880 to 1959. Thus the museum will endeavor "to provide a valuable illustration of the historical links beween past and present."3

7. as well as trees." Every transplanted farmstead is situated in a landscaped area that both simulates its original regional setting as well as enhances the structure itself. Farmsteads originally from isolated areas have adjoining landscaping to portray that sense of isolation. Indeed, in some settings, the visitor is given the impression of being cut off from the rest of the museum grounds. The landscaping is an integral part of the Frilandsmuseet experience, for "a walk through the terrain gives more than a hint of the habitation patterns of bygone days in Denmark and of the history of the rural landscape."' Visitors to Frilandsmuseet are free to wander in and out of the rooms of the various buildings. Though there are no labels, explanatory guides or texts in the buildings themselves, guidebooks Printed in English are available at the museum's entrance. The buildings are labeled and numbered and the guidebook provides excellent descriptions of the buildings. Especially helpful are the guidebook's illustrations and explanations of objects displayed in the buildings. The Frilandsmuseet has begun a series of developments that enhance its picturesque, yet educational context. For one thing, the number of farm animals kept on the grounds has been increased—adding an extra dimension to the naturalistic settings. Secondly, demonstrations of lacemaking, spinning, pottery-making and other crafts

If you go: The Nationalmuseet, 12, Frederiksholm Kanal, Copenhagen, houses the room settings and guarded display collections of artifacts belonging to the Dansk Folkemuseum. Located near Tivoli in the heart of Copenhagen, the museum is'open from June 16-September 15: daily 10-4. From September 16-June 15: Weekdays 11-3, Saturdays and Sundays 12-4. (Note: Several departments closed on Tuesdays.) Admission is free. The Frilandsmuseet, 100 Kongevejen, Sorgenfri Station, is located on the outskirts of Copenhagen. Visitors may approach by car on main road A5, by S-train to Sorgenfri or by bus 84. The museum is open from April 15-September 30: daily 10-5; October 1-14: daily 10-3; and October 15-April 14: Sundays 10-3. Closed on Mondays. Admission: 3 kroner. Guided tours are available in English. Refreshments are available on the grounds or you may bring your own picnic lunch.

4. The Eiderstedtfarmstead comesfrom a marshland region. It is built on an artificial mound surrounded by drainage ditches. 5. Detailfrom the lacemaking room in the Norre Sejerslev cottage. The glass globe filled with water magnified the lightfrom a candle, thereby greatly aiding the intricate task of the lace-maker. 6. Peasant room from Zealand, circa 1800. One of the many room settings in the Dansk Folkemuseum. 7. Detail, chair back. Dansk Folkemuseum.

'Michelsen, Peter. Frilandsmuseet: The Danish Museum Village at Sorgenfri. Copenhagen: The National Museum of Denmark, 1973, p. 24. 'Ibid., pp. 50-51. 'Ibid., p. 57. See also: Rasmussen, Holger, ed. Dansk Folkemuseum and Frilandsmuseet. Copenhagen: Nationalmuseet, 1966. Uldall, Kai. Frilandsmuseet. English translation by John Higgs. Copenhagen: Nationalmuseet, 1972. 67


NOTEWORTHY ITEMS

Museum of International Folk Art to House Fred Harvey Spanish Colonial Collection

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I. Spanish Colonial objects from the extraordinary Fred Harvey Fine Arts Collection have been donated to the International Folk Art Foundation, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The gift of 149 pieces will be cared for and exhibited at the Museum of International Folk Art, a state institution in Santa Fe, where they have been on loan for a number of years. Textiles, ceramics, jewelry, furniture, costumes, tools, and religious art are included. Most objects are either Mexican or New Mexican in origin, spanning the 17th through 19th centuries. Their exceptionally high quality reflects the artistic vitality of Colonial craftsmen, living far from material and technical sources on the other side of the Atlantic. For example, 10 of the most outstanding objects are paintings done on tanned hides. Very few of these remain from Colonial times, and their inclusion 68

in the gift represents a priceless contribution to the research world. The gift does not include any material from the Fred Harvey Indian Arts Collection, most of which is at the Heard Museum in Phoenix, Arizona. The family-owned Fred Harvey Company was actively collecting by the early 1900s. Its collections of Indian and Spanish items were long displayed in Fred Harvey Hotels throughout the west, stimulating sales to eastern tourists. In addition, it also displayed a scholarly interest in southwestern ethnological materials, serving as a source of quality pieces for museums and collectors. When the hotels and restaurants were sold in 1966, the Fine Arts Collection continued and was made available to the public through loans to various museums. Recently these loans were converted to gifts. In donating materials to the International Folk Art Foundation, the Harvey Fine Arts Collection honored the late E. Boyd, nationally known curator of Spanish Colonial Art at the Museum of International Folk Art. The gift is, in part, a tribute to her pioneering efforts in her long association with the Harvey family in urging that the collection be preserved as a living study guide to Indian and Spanish Colonial cultures.

Noteworthy Organizations and Publications Southern Folklore Newsletter The Centerfor Southern Folklore Newsletter is a semiannual publication which serves as a clearinghouse of information on folklore and media projects across the country. Each edition contains a calendar of events, a progress report of current field work, and information on new films, videotapes, records, and publications. Information and subscriptions may be obtained from the Center for Southern Folklore, P.O. Box 40081, 1216 Peabody Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee 38104.

Landmarks Society of Western New York Founded in 1937, the Landmarks Society of Western New York is now one of the largest and most effective preservation organizations in the nation. Its primary goal is to encourage public participation in the conservation and enhancement of the buildings and neighborhoods that give our communities their unique flavor and beauty ... to adapt them to the needs of the present so that they may lend dignity, continuity, and variety to the future. Guided by the principle that landmarks must serve a useful purpose, the Society works with individuals, interested groups, and government officials to achieve its goals. For more information contact: The Landmark Society, 130 Spring Street, Rochester, New York 14608.

Living History at Historic Bethlehem,Inc. In 1741, an industrious group of middleEuropean Protestants founded Bethlehem on the Pennsylvania frontier where the Monocacy Creek flows into the Lehigh River and a fresh water spring provided an abundant supply of water for the new community. The Moravians, who purchased 500 acres from William Allen as agent for the Penn family, came to the New World to spread the word of God to the Indians, the blacks, and the German settlers with no church affiliation. The community they built was communal and economically self-sufficient, while receiving spiritual and worldly advice from the central church in Herrnhut, now in the German Democratic Republic. In little more than five years after their arrival, the Moravians had built an industrial area along the Monocacy Creek that boasted 32 industries. Cloth was fulled and dyed, grains were ground for flour and feed, pottery was produced and sold for household and community use, hides were


tanned and tawed, and flax was processed to produce linen and linseed oil. The Moravians sold the linseed oil and tobacco to get money for items they could not produce within the community, such as salt, iron, and gunpowder. As an unusual frontier community, Bethlehem attracted visitors from its very beginnings. Colonial notables stayed at the Crown Inn and, after 1758, at the Sun Inn. Select members of the community served as guides for non-Moravian visitors. Four- and five-story limestone structures housed both the residents and their industries. Culture was equally important and music was an integral part of life in Bethlehem. Soon after its founding, the community imported an organ, established instrumental and vocal choirs, and made violins and other instruments. The economic and physical planning of the community was also of interest to other colonists, specifically the advanced technology incorporated in the 1762 Waterworks. Historic Bethlehem, Inc. was founded in 1957 to preserve and interpret Bethlehem's heritage. The City of Bethlehem leased the 10-acre Industrial Area to HBI in 1966. Since that time, HBI has restored the 1761 Tannery and the 1762 Waterworks, reconstructed the 1764 Springhouse, and identified the foundations and locations of numerous other buildings in the industrial complex. A grant from the State of Pennsylvania for restoration of the 1869 Luckenbach Grist Mill as part of Bethlehem's Human Resources Center, will provide workshop space for local and regional craftspeople—continuing the cultural tradition of crafts in Bethlehem. HBI interprets the Colonial crafts and industries that formed the basis of the Moravian economy in the Industrial Area. The 1761 Tannery was one of the major industrial buildings because of the importance of leather during the 18th century. The building was restored and now serves as HBI's main museum, with exhibitions of the tanning process, other industrial activities, and three working craftspeople. The 1762 Waterworks, considered the first municipal water-pumping system in the American colonies, was always of particular interest to visitors. The building was restored, and the interior wooden wheels and pumping mechanisms have been reconstructed according to the original plans found in the Moravian Archives in Herrnhut. The system pumped fresh spring water 320 diagonal feet to

the residential community located above the industrial area. The Moravian Museums interpret the religious and social history of the first residents of Bethlehem. Displays of artifacts, exhibits, and artwork of the Moravians are housed in the Gemein Haus, the oldest structure in the community. The Apothecary Museum attests to the medical skill of the Moravian brethren. Twice during the Revolutionary War, soldiers of the Continental Army were housed in the 1748 Brethren's House and ministered to by the Moravians. The Historic Bethlehem Folk Festival provides an annual opportunity for visitors to learn about Moravian culture as re-created at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Craft demonstrations, including broommaking, gunsmithing, woodworking, chair-caning, fancy paper cutting, illuminated writing, and stenciling illustrated the Germanic background of the Moravians. Lectures, music, food, and tours of the Moravian Museums are also major attractions at the Festival. Historic Bethelem Inc. is a non-profit, educational organization open to everyone interested in the heritage of Bethlehem and the Lehigh Valley. For membership information, write HBI, 516 Main Street, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18018. HBI operates the 18th-century Industrial Area and owns the 1810 John Sebastian Goundie House on Bethlehem's Main Street.

1. Book and Binding, 18th century, Mexico. Silver tableware, 18th century, Mexico. Our Lady of Guadalupe bulto, circa 1830, New Mexico. (Fred Harvey Collection; Museum of International Folk Art Foundation Holdings)

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2. Treen ware was in common use in early American settlements. Lewis E. Everline produces bowls and trenchers at the Festival. (Historic Bethlehem, Inc.) 3. William E. Laidman, of Central Moravian Church in Bethlehem, strings the wicking materialfor Moravian beeswax candles used for church festivals and other special occasions. Fringed paper collars are added once the candles have cooled. The men of the Church make 10,000 candles annually for local and mission use. (Historic Bethelehem, Inc.) 4. For several years, Evelyn Daniels has been doing theorem painting at home. She dyes cotton velvet with tea, then applies color with a wool cloth through stencil templates. Detail can be added with a brush. Some of her designs are reproductions of early paintings, others are 4. adaptations. (Historic Bethlehem, Inc.) 69


REPORT ON THE DOCENT COMMITTEE

EXPERIMENTS IN THE SPRING PAVE WAY FOR NEW PLANS IN THE FALL Catherine Calvert Docent Reporter

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Well-decorated boxes and theorems, and a beginner's knowledge of folk art, were the results of the stenciling project organized by the docents and the Riverside-Goddard Community Center. This was a successful pilot project to experiment with new ways of reaching children.

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1. With Q-tips, brushes andfabric-wrapped fingers, the.children stenciled their boxes. (Photography by Michael Hunold) 2. The children proudly display their stenciled designs. (Photography by Michael Hunold) 3. Roberta Sieber leads a group of8-year-olds through thefolk art exhibition at the Goddard Riverside Community Center. (Photography by Suzanne Feldman) 4. During a recent study trip, textile conservationist Pie Galinat talks to docent Lane Maurer about work on this Star of Bethlehem quilt. (Photography by Karen Schuster)

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Friends of the Docents

Active Docents as of May 1, 1979 Sue Ann Abernathy LeeAnn Aukamp Julia Baughman Hyla Bertash Priscilla Brandt Cathie Calvert Lucy Danziger Deborah Davis Davida Deutsch Marie Smith DiManno Susan Earle Elin Ente

Suzanne Feldman Migs Fiend Susan Flamm Betsy Flynn Irene Goodkind Heather Hamilton Louise Hartwell Joyce Hill Ellen Howe Jean Hudson Gwen Kade Dorothy Kaufman

Jana Klauer Susan Klein Sudee Kugler Wendy Lavitt Lane Maurer Sallie Nelson Diana Niles Sara Parter Sheila Rideout Maralyn Rittenour Lucille Rosen Cynthia Schaffner

Linda Schrader Karen Schuster Myra Shaskan Roberta Sieber Suzy Stern Phyllis Tepper Eleanora Walker Meryl Weiss Marsha Zipser Pilar Zuleta

Joyce Cowin Roberta Gaal Laura Henning Toby Landey Sally Lubell We are grateful for the fifteen Junior League women who participated in the Docent Program this year.

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RECENT ADDITIONS TO MUSEUM COLLECTIONS

GOOD FORTUNES BLOWN OUR WAY Laura Byers Exhibition Coordinator

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Not all good things come in small packages, as two recent and hefty gifts to the Museum of American Folk Art make clear. In addition to several special items given these past few months, Dorothy and Leo Rabkin have promised their celebrated collection of wind toys, whirligigs, and sculpted wood figures to the institution. Amidst the excitement generated by the proposed gift, President of the Board, Ralph Esmerian, announced his intention to award the Museum with a valuable portion of his personal folk art collection. Such major gifts as these contribute enormously to the overall growth of the Museum. The full size of the Rabkin collection, which is estimated at more than 1,000 pieces, will not be known until an inven72

tory is completed. With an exhibition of the Rabkin gift planned by MAFA for the fall of 1980, Museum staff will shortly begin counting the assortment which contains objects ranging from a few inches to many feet high and represents 19th- and 20th-century America at its most whimsical. In contrast to the strictly focused attention of the Rabkin collection are those objects promised to the Museum by Ralph Esmerian. The gift demonstrates the multiplicity of the collector's interest and includes several pieces made by acknowledged folk masters. Most precious, perhaps, is the Rooster carved by Wilhelm Schimmel. "Old Schimmel" was an itinerant Pennsylvania German craftsman who carved for his keep. In so doing, he founded a localized tradition and left upwards of 500 pieces, now avidly collected. In addition to Schimmel's Rooster, Mr. Esmerian has promised the Museum three ceramics and three watercolors. Two of the promised ceramics are Pennsylvania German: the Horse and Rider sculpture of glazed redware, circa 1880, and the sgraffito plate, circa 1820. The sculpture was exhibited at The Brooklyn Museum between 1937 and 1977. Expressive yet traditional, the plate pictures an

arrangement of tulips and birds and is in near perfect condition. A finely tooled ceramic bear, dated 1870, is yet another piece promised by the Museum's President. The redware sculpture is attributed to John Bell of Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, and thus complements another Bell-made ceramic given to the Museum earlier this year. Much of the 19th-century American folk painting, particularly watercolor, was produced by educated young ladies with time to devote to artistic recreation. Each of the watercolors promised by Mr. Esmerian falls within this category of folk art. Four hand-inked and colored pages are part of a "metamorphosis" book made by 15-year-old Betsey Lewis in 1801. Each of the verses Betsey illustrated, including The Peaceable Kingdom, Sweet Flocks, The Eagle, and Old Spring, were designed to provide the young with spiritual and moral guidance. The Annunciation, a watercolor illustration of the


Biblical passage, is a similar sort of work It is the gift of Dorothy and Allan Kaufman of New York City. The death of the country's first great leader, George Washington, plunged the nation into mourning and gave birth to a 19th-century fashion, the mourning picture. Though clearly of this tradition, two watercolors promised to the Museum by Ralph Esmerian, General George Washington on Horseback, circa 1820, and A Girl Presenting a Wreath, circa 1830, are captivatingly and uniquely naive. Some weeks ago, the Museum was paid a visit by a contemporary folk artist from Berryville, Arkansas. Grandma Fran, a "sweet-style" painter whose corn-

pioneer in the study of American quilts, Peto authored three books. Examples of her quilting may be seen in the Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn, Michigan. A variety of folk objects, large and small, simply delightful and deeply thoughtful, compose the roster of this season's gifts. To its most generous friends, the Museum of American Folk An expresses its sincere gratitude. 1. Dancing Man with Bugle Whirligig. Artist unknown. 1950. Wood and metal. United States. H. 37". (Promised lift of Leo and Dorothy Rabkin)

5. positions reflect her own rural upbringing, presented the Museum with Evening on Ice. The painting joins MAFA's other contemporary paintings including Monday Morning (Miners Going to Work), 1966. The creator of that work, Jack Savitsky, was born in 1910 in Silver Creek, Pennsylvania, and has been a miner in Lansford, Pennsylvania, for most of his life. Monday Morning is the gift of Arnold Fuchs of Miami, Florida. Collectors gather material for a number of reasons, usually related to the reputation of either the particular piece or the artist. Sometimes an object becomes important by virtue of its association with a great or interesting person. So it is with a fragment of applique given by Alfred Rosenthal of Spring Valley, New York. The framed applique bouquet was made and signed in 1959 by Florence Peto. A

2. Man in Boat Whirligig. Artist unknown. Late 19th century. Wood and tin. United States. H. 15/A0. (Promised gift of Leo and Dorothy Rabkin) 3. Rooster by Wilhelm Schimmel. Second half of the 19th century. Wood, carved and painted. Cumberland Valley, Pennsylvania. H. 814".(Promised gift of Ralph Esmerian; photography by Yorkville Studio) 4. The Annunciation. Artist unknown. 1830-1860. Watercolor on paper. Eastern U.S., possibly New York. 10" x 123 / 4". (Gift of Dorothy and Allan Kaufman; photography by Yorkville Studio) 5. Appliqued Flowers and Bird by Florence Peto. 1959. Linen and cotton. United States. 9" x 12". (Gift of Alfred Rosenthal; photography by Dia Stolnitz) 6. Monday Morning (Miners Going to Work) by Jack Savitsky. 1966. Oil on board. Lansford. Pennsylvania. 59" x 25". (Gift of Arnold Fuchs; photography by forkville Studio)

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FOLK ART CALENDAR ACROSS THE COUNTRY

Current through January 8, 1980 A COLLECTOR'S CACHET OF AMERICAN ANTIQUES. Be able to distinguish quality Americana by learning how to look, what to look for, and where to look. Gain cognition and expertise from seeing private collections, museums, auction houses, antiques dealers, restorers, and corporate collections. Your guide is Helaine Fendelman, antiques lecturer, freelance writer on antiques, author of Tramp Art, Museum of American Folk Art guest curator, and a member of the Appraiser's Association of America, Inc. Class size is limited. Admission fees where applicable are not included. In case of absenteeism, a substitute may be sent. Guest fees are $15 on a reservation basis; $5 of the fee is a donation to the Museum of American Folk Art. Time: 11 A.M. to 12:45 P.M. Fee: $70 per person for five sessions, $10 is tax deductible as a benefit for the Museum of American Folk Art. Dates: Tuesday, September 25, October 9, November 13, December 4, January 8. Gallery Passport, Ltd., 1170 Broadway, New York, New York 10001.

mounted at The Museum of Art, Science & Industry, Bridgeport, Connecticut. The Lyman Allyn Museum, New London, Connecticut, will feature the exhibition from February 3 to March 15, 1980. Current through January 27, 1980 SIXTH ANNUAL DOLL/DOLLHOUSE SHOW. Collectors from a widespread area are participating in this annual exhibition. Wilton Heritage Museum, 249 Danbury Road, Wilton, Connecticut 06897. Current through April 27, 1980 REFLECTIONS OF 19TH-CENTURY AMERICA: FOLK ART FROM THE COLLECTION OF SYBIL AND ARTHUR KERN. The faces and places of 19th century America—portraits in oil, pastel, and watercolor, still lifes, mourning pictures, landscapes, seascapes, farmscapes, historic and religious paintings, and family documents. Museum of our National Heritage, 33 Marrett Road, Lexington, Massachusetts 02173.

Current through January 13, 1980 THREE CENTURIES OF CONNECTICUT FOLK ART.

Current through May 18, 1980 LINEN-MAKING IN NEW ENGLAND, 1640-1860.

Over 250 works of art have been assembled, from private and public collections, for an exhibition that will examine and illustrate the role of folk art within the context of Connecticut cultural history, from the 17th through the 20th centuries. The exhibition explores the lives of native artists and craftsmen; it traces their artistic styles and identifies their tools, methods, and techniques; and finally, links it all to the rich and varied heritage of Connecticut. Organized by Art Resources of Connecticut, with Alexandra Grave, curator, the exhibition will travel throughout the state until July 1980. A well-illustrated catalogue, Three Centuries of Connecticut Folk Art, with 15 color and 90 black and white illustrations, will accompany the exhibition. Currently

The processes of producing linen cloth from growing the flax plant to weaving the cloth, plus an historical essay on the cottage industry of linen-making in New England, compose this joint exhibition of The Museum of Our National Heritage and The Merrimack Valley Textile Museum. Actual demonstrations of the linen-making processes will take place in the gallery. This traveling exhibition has been organized by The Merrimack Textile Museum in conjunction with the Museum of Our National Heritage and will be mounted at the New Hampshire Historical Society in Concord, New Hampshire, following its initial exhibition at the Museum of Our National Heritage, 33 Marren Road, Lexington, Massachusetts 02173.

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January 5-February 3, 1980 QUINTESSENTIAL QUILTS: THE GREAT AMERICAN QUILT CONTEST. The quilts were originally chosen from 10,000 national entries in the "Great American Quilt Contest" in 1977, sponsored by the U.S. Historical Society, the Museum of American Folk Art, and Good Housekeeping Magazine. Quilts representing every region of the country are included in this exhibition, including "Ray of Light" by the contest's National Winner, Jinny Beyer of Fairfax, Virginia, as well as "Leda" by Janny Burghardt of Washington, D.C., and "Labels" by Pauline Hancock of Indian Head, Maryland. In addition to the quilts, text panels relate the history of quiltmaking and the art of quilts. "Quintessential Quilts" is being circulated nationally by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES). The host museum from January 5 through February 3 is the J.B. Speed Art Museum, 2035 South Third Street, Louisville, Kentucky 40208.

January 13-March 30, 1980 YOUR WELLWISHER, JOHN BROWN WALKER. An exhibition of over 60 paper cut-outs done by a midwestern paper cut-out artist. A catalogue to the exhibition is available. The Museum, Michigan State University, West Circle Drive, East Lansing, Michigan 48823.

February 26-May 18, 1980 AMERICAN FOLK PAINTERS OF THREE CENTURIES. Presented as part of the Whitney Museum of American Art's 50th anniversary celebration, "American Folk Painters of Three Centuries" will be the first exhibition to focus on a selected group of American folk painters and to present them as individual creative talents. Thirty-six artists from the 18th, 19th, and


THE MUSEUM SHOP-TALK

Elizabeth Tobin Manager

Winter is here, bringing with it lots more time for indoor projects. Give a new dimension to walls, floors, furniture, fabric or any other flat surface by stenciling patterns that are traditional or your own creation. Once the stencils are prepared and cut they can be used over and over. In this issue of The Clarion we are presenting a set of patterns taken from the stencil bedcover dated 1825-1835 that was presented by George E. Schoellkopf to the Museum of American Folk Art for its permanent collection. The spread appears in full color on the cover of The Clarion, Winter 1978. The Art of Decorative Stenciling (paperback 9.95) by Adele Bishop and Cile Lord is the perfect how-to book for beginner or pro. Having first researched the historical aspects of stenciling, these authors have updated stenciling techniques through their own years of experience and by using present-day materials such as quick-drying japan paints and transparent plastic stencil material. Their written and illustrated directions on each aspect of stenciling enable you to read and see exactly how to begin and how best to continue. The book contains chapters entitled "Material and Equipment," "Preparing the Stencil," "Stencil Technique," "Measuring and Placing Designs," as well as projects arranged in

(Continuedfrom previous page.) 20th centuries will be represented by three to eight works each. A 216-page publication with color plates will accompany the exhibition. Whitney Museum of American Art, 945 Madison Avenue at 75th Street, New York, New York 10021.

progressive difficulty, and actual stencil patterns. Early New England Wall Stencils, a Workbook (8.95) by Kenneth Jewett begins with brief but specific directions, describing basic stenciling tools, materials, and techniques. Mr. Jewett has selected and reproduced 95 stencil patterns chosen from among those created by late 18th-century New England itinerant stencilers. He has illustrated 9 different overall wall treatments selected from these early recorded designs. It is possible to follow his suggestions or fashion your own designs from among the many central motifs and vertical and horizontal borders all in keeping with the early New England tradition. About Wall Stenciling (4.00) by Alice Bancroft Fjelstul and Patricia Brown Schad gives a brief history and set of instructions with 20 pages of full-size early American stencils which may then be traced and transferred to appropriate stencil material. As the authors suggest, the stenciler can leave out certain parts of a pattern or add a leaf to complete a design. Each slight irregularity adds to the charm of the room." John C. Day offers two books with authentic American stencils from the late 18th to mid-19th century. Pennsylvania Dutch Cut and Use Stencils (2.75) has 47 full-size stencils; Early American Cut and Use Stencils (2.75) has 45 full-size stencils. The stencils in both books are printed on medium-weight manila paper. Early American Stencils on Walls and Furniture by Janet Waring (reprint of first 1937 edition, 5.00) opens with a chapter entitled "The Stencil: An Introduction," which records the centuries-old, world-wide history of stencils. "Part One:

Stenciled Walls" concentrates on documented designs (dating from the early 1800s) discovered mostly in New England. There are many photographs indicating design variations among the borders, vertical patterns, and central motifs. There are also a few pages on stenciled floors, those country substitutes for inlaid floors of Oriental carpets. "Part Two: Stenciled Furniture" features chapters with descriptions and photographs of "Fine Furniture," "The Hitchcock Chair," "Composition and Technique," "Tin and Velvet," "Pennsylvania Furniture," and "William Eaton and George Lord." There are two books by Nina Fletcher Little which contain chapters on stenciling. The first is American Decorative Wall Painting 1700-1850 (7.50). Chapter VIII, "Stenciled Walls Throughout New England, Imitation of Paper Hangings by a Mechanical Process," and a portion of Chapter XI, "More Examples of Varied Kind, Executed in a grand and Rural manner and at most reasonable rates," discuss stenciling. Her second book, Floor Coverings in New England Before 18.50 (3.00), has a few pages on "Floor Cloths, Both Imported and Domestic." As the author states on page 19, "both painted and woven coverings often appear in equally important rooms of the same house." Each book uses a different approach to the ever-increasing renewal of interest in the decorative art form—stenciling. When ordering from The Museum Shop, please note: Members should subtract 10%. Add 8% tax if mailed within New York City; local tax if mailed within New York State. Add $1.50 for a single item; .50 for each additional item to cover postage and handling.

March 6-May 4, 1980 NEWLY DISCOVERED PAINTINGS BY THE BORDEN LIMNER

Borden Limner, now tentatively identified as John S. Blunt. Newly discovered paintings and a keystone signed portrait shed new light on the Blunt paintings which will provide the basis for this exhibition. Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York 10019.

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In 1976 Robert Bishop mounted at the Museum of Art, University of Michigan, a retrospective exhibition devoted to The

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OUR GROWING MEMBERSHIP

JUNE 1 - AUGUST 31 The Museum trustees and staffextend a special welcome to these new members: Gerald M. Aiello, Brooklyn, New York Sara Amatniek,Pelham Manor, New York Nancy S. Ames, New York City Lynne Anderson, Midland Park, New Jersey A. Annese, Westfield, New Jersey Florence Aronoff, Monsey, New York Florence D. Arrow, Los Angeles, California Ashton-Osband Antiques, New York City Virginia Avery, Port Chester, New York Mrs. Jerome Badner, New York City Caroline A. Baker, New York City Baltimore Museum of Art Library, Baltimore, Maryland Anne W.Baxter, Palo Alto, California Mr. and Mrs. Merwin Bayer, New York City Patrick Bell, New Hope,Pennsylvania William B. Bellows, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts Carol Berman,Scranton, Pennsylvania Vikki E. Berman, Hartford, Connecticut Lucille D. Bethke, Dundee, Illinois Rochelle Bezozo, Woodmere, New York Sylvia P. Bloch, Jamaica, New York The Blue Quail, Solana Beach, California Bruce and Linda Bodner, New York City Claire P. Bradley, Baldwin, New York Penny M. Brick man, New York City Patricia Janis Broder, Short Hills, New Jersey Sue Browdy, New York City Edward J. Brown, New York City Francine Brown,Point Pleasant, New Jersey P. Bryant, Stonington, Connecticut Barbara B. Buchholz, New York City Edward Carey, New York City Valerie B. Scho Carey, Ypsilanti, Michigan Leonard J. Carlson, Pekin, Illinois Dudley I. Catzen, Stevenson, Maryland Elizabeth Cetta, Staten Island, New York Dr. and Mrs. John B. Chewning,Cincinnati, Ohio Jennie Chinn, Whittier, California Mary Ciccone, Flushing, New York Margaret Collier, Westbrook, Connecticut Mary C. Concilio-Nolan, New York City Muriel A. Connery, New York City Joseph F. Cullman III, New York City Penney Dante, New York City Mrs. Donald L. Davis, Friendship, Indiana Helen A. Dimos, New York City Mr. and Mrs. E.C. Durell III, Lumberville, Pennsylvania Piper Durrell, Christiansburg, Virginia Norman Epstein, Mattapan, Massachusetts Marjorie Eyrick, New York City Miriam Farkas, Brooklyn, New York Susan H.Faulkner, New York City Joan Fielstra, Sound Beach, New York Laura Fisher, New York City Brent Flohr, New York City Deborah A. Flynn, Cambridge, Massachusetts Ann Foss, Brooklyn, New York Mr. and Mrs. Thomas W.Frank, New York City Phyllis Frankel, New York City Frick Art Reference Library, New York City

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Janet Cooper Futterman, New York City Charles and Margaret Gehm, Brooklyn, New York D.K. Gifford, Roswell, Georgia Mr. and Mrs. C. Edgar Gilliam, Jr., Roswell, Georgia J.T. Gleeson, Tucker, Georgia Joyce Golden, New York City Mr. and Mrs. Maitland A. Gordon, Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania Robert Graul, Leesport, Pennsylvania John C. Green, Salisbury, Maryland Marianna Greene, Dallas, Texas Tatyana Gribanova, Flushing, New York Mrs. Walter Austin Griess, Eutaw, Alabama Margaret Griffin, St. Paul, Minnesota Mrs. J. Blaine Griffith, Jr., Sewickley, Pennsylvania Henry R. Griffiths, Sergeantsville, New Jersey Roberta Halporn, Brooklyn, New York Marilyn Hamel, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Walter Hamilton, New York City Sharon Lee Harkey, Brooklyn, New York Warren Harlan, Jersey City, New Jersey Dorothy B. Harman, Brooklyn, New York George Delancey Harris, Jr., New York City Patrick D. Hazard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Mr. and Mrs. Max Helf, Pleasantville, New York Alice Hemenway, Ithaca, New York Renee L. Hertz, New York City Leslie Hillel, Chappaqua, New York Laurie C. Hoeberechts, New York City Mrs. John B. Horton, Greenwich, Connecticut John J. Hughes, Stratford, Connecticut Hillary Hulten, Short Hills, New Jersey Sucy Hunnicutt, Mobile, Alabama Gloria Jaguden, Chicago, Illinois C.T. Jameson, Berkeley, California Robert Janning, Cincinnati, Ohio Jill Jarnow, Northport, New York Mrs. E.D. Jernigan, Jr., Chickasha, Oklahoma Ann R. Jones, Baton Rouge, Louisiana Jeanne P. Jones, Colebrook, Connecticut Clare Jordan, Huntington, West Virginia Jean Marie Jusko, Bridgewater, Connecticut Jimmy Kaina, New York City Edna Kandle, Wilmington, Delaware Susan Jackson Keig, Chicago, Illinois Mr. and Mrs. D. O'D. Kennedy, New York City Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Keno, Mohawk, New York Monika Kind, New York City Marsha Klusmeyer, New York City Florence Laffal, Essex, Connecticut Helaine W.Lane, Houston, Texas Peter M. Ledwith, Milton, Ontario, Canada Robert Lescher, New York City Joan Levine, Springfield, New Jersey Verena Levine, Durham, North Carolina Barbara Lewis, New York City Los Angeles Public Library, Los Angeles, California Phyllis M.Lotz, New York City Chester I. Lowenthal, New York City Elizabeth M.Lunau, New York City Kathleen Mahoney, New York City Mrs. Frederick A. Mann,Topeka, Kansas N.J. Maynard, London, Ontario, Canada

Nancy Mark,Stamford, Connecticut Mrs. W.G. McConnell, Westmount, Quebec, Canada Peter J. McCusker, Upper Brookville, New York Anne Locke McGilvray, Brooklyn, New York Bruce L. McGranahan, Contoocook, New Hampshire David McInnis, Rye Beach, New Hampshire McKinney Library, Albany, New York Bette K. McNelly, Wethersfield, Connecticut Jo Meltzer, Kew Gardens, New York Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada Diane Merkel, New York City Rosemary Meyer,San Francisco, California Jo Meyrowitz, Kew Gardens, New York Hedwig Michel, Estero, Florida Yvonne B. Miller, Camp Hill, Pennsylvania Ell Miocene, New York City Margaret Molnar, Zurich, Switzerland Mrs. H. Leslie Moore II, Dallas, Texas Betty Ann Moyski, Denver, Colorado T.H. Mulligan, Brooklyn Heights, New York Ian Muncaster, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada Mrs. Lawrence Nachman, Greenwich, Connecticut Deborah Nadoolman, Beverly Hills, California Jane Noble, Brooklyn, New York Charles Novak, New York City Pamela Orton, Kansas City, Kansas Joyce M. Ouchi, Beechhurst, New York Evelyn Parker, Brooklyn, New York Mr. and Mrs. Warren L. Passmore, Millington, New Jersey Joseph and Joan Patrick, Industry, Pennsylvania Charles R. Penney, Lockport, New York Mrs. H.A. Petrie, Sedona, Arizona Mrs. Arthur D. Pinkham, Jr., New York City Anna Lou Plott, New York City Doris M.Porter, Greensboro, North Carolina Jim and Autry Powell, Hillsboro, Oregon Roger H. Prager, Niantic, Connecticut Annette Proimos, Jamaica, New York Kathi J. Ramos, New York City Allen Walker Read, New York City Mrs. William Reinhardt, Port Washington, New York Mr. and Mrs. Henry H. Rice, New York City Marty Rockett, Lebanon, New Jersey Florence Rood, New York City Gloria Rosdal, College Point, New York Joanna S. Rose, New York City Josee Rostenberg, White Plains, New York Judy Ryder, Rockville, Maryland Judith Sagan, Chicago, Illinois Saint James Antiques, Oak Park, Illinois Phyllis Salak, Fairfax, Virginia John C. Sawhill, New York City Frances M.Schwartz, New York City Harriet Schwartz, Jericho, New York Milton Sherman, Great Neck, New York Marvin Sloves, New York City Joan E. Socolof, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey Peter Socolof, Kew Gardens, New York Sylvia Spar, Brooklyn, New York Laurie Standish, New York City Mrs. G.I. Starr, Champlain, New York


Nancy Starr, New York City State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin Caren Sturges, Princeton, New Jersey Edward G. Sullivan, Honolulu, Hawaii Susan Sunderland, Honolulu, Hawaii Patricia Sweeney, West Babylon, New York Ruby Takanishi, New York City Patricia L. Thomas, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico Mr. and Mrs. G. Tornicelli, Fountain Valley, California John Tucker, Westport, Connecticut Phyllis A. Turner, Hinsdale, Illinois Mrs. T. Arnold Turner, Jackson, Mississippi Susan Van Trees, Los Angeles, California Mary Le Varlet, Paris, France Robert and Nancy Vignola, New York City Joel R. Weber,Stamford, Connecticut Bente Weinberger, Jonstrup, Denmark Harold L. Wekselblatt, College Point, New York Mr. and Mrs. Ira Wender, New York City

Diana Helwig White, New York City Douglas A. White, Worthington, Ohio Patricia M. Whitman, Stamford, Connecticut Claire B. Windisch, New York City Harriet Wiswell, Southport, Connecticut Wendy Worth, New York City Arlene Wotanowski, New York City Abbie Zabar, New York City Mr. and Mrs. Daniel A.Zilkha, New York City Peter E. and Joy Zwanzig, Roosevelt Island, New York We wish to thank the following members for their increased membership contributions and for their expression of confidence in the Museum: Patricia D. Bethke, Armonk, New York Fenton L.B. Brown, New York City Alan Cober, Ossining, New York Albert Davidson, I3ayshore, New York James S. deSilva, Jr., LaJolla, California

Susan S. Earle, New York City Mrs. Richard Ernst, New York City Beverly Field, Dallas, Texas Mr. and Mrs. George Garfunkel, New Rochelle, New York Mrs. Gerald E. Gaull, New York City B. Grenell, Redondo Beach, California Dixon Merkt, Guilford, Connecticut Dorothy C. Miller, New York City Kal Noselson, New York City Mrs. Judd Pollock, Darien, Connecticut Cynthia V.A. Schaffner, New York City • Robert Shallow, Woodbury, New York Doris L. Silver, Brooklyn, New York W.Simmons, Grosse Pointe, Michigan Scudder Smith, Newtown, Connecticut Mrs. Stanley Tananbaum, Harrison, New York Mrs. Ralph E. Walters, Greenwich, Connecticut Jonathan B. Weller, New York City Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Williams, Litchfield, Connecticut

BOOK REVIEWS

Jack T. Ericson Editor Dewhurst, C. Kurt, MacDowell, Betty, and MacDowell, Marsha. ARTISTS IN APRONS. FOLK ART BY AMERICAN WOMEN. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1979. 202pp., 6 x 9 in., 28 color and 153 black/white illus., biographies, biblio., index, paper, $9.95.

too many cliches about the role of women in our society. Under scrutiny many of these cliches will have to give way to a more in-depth understanding and appreciation of the diverse roles played by women of various social classes throughout our history. The authors of this pioneering work compel us to reevaluate the role of American women as artists in the folk tradition. It is this aspect of their work that will continue to make such a major contribution to the history and understanding of American folk art.

E.P. Dutton With an introductory note by Joan Mon2Park Avenue dale and a foreword by Agnes Halsey New York, New York 10016 Jones, the three authors launch into an intriguing and well-written account of Ericson, Jack T., ed. folk art by American women from the FOLK ART IN AMERICA. PAINTING 17th century to the present. In pursuing AND SCULPTURE. New York: Maythis broad subject it is necessary to / 2 x 11 flower Books, Inc., 1979. 175p., 81 discuss the role of women in a changing in., 337 black/white illus., biblio., index, society and then to discuss the work of paper, $7.95. identified American women folk artists in the prevailing society. Here, change in the Jack T. Ericson has given to scholars, collectors, and folklorists of American role of women and the medium of their folk art an excellent anthology from the art work is the key factor. The authors' Magazine Antiques divided in three parts: use of this approach has been handled art in perspective, paintings, and folk with scholarly attention to recent monoHe determines these three sculpture. evidenced graphs on women's studies as in the extensive footnotes at the end of topics in his introduction by defining folk each chapter and the bibliography. To art as "objects created as art by unfurther aid our understanding of the topic trained painters and sculptors." Ericson brief biographical sketches and photothen summarizes the history of American interest in folk art including the names of graphs of the artists are offered, where such information exists. early collectors and locations of the earliest exhibitions. with American history still abounds

The reprints in Part One, range from the first pivotal articles, "What is Primitive and What is Not?" and "What is American Folk Art?" to a recent work, "How Pictures were used in New England Houses 1825-1850." Within this section Ericson emphasizes problems of definition and derivation of subject matter. Painting, Part Two, includes articles on individual portrait artists, conversation pieces, and landscapes. _Ericson's introduction outlines the history of portraiture, who the portrait artists were, how and what they painted, and their customers. Sculpture, Part Three, identifies several individual sculptors and discusses figures and figureheads, gravestones, and weathervanes by unknown artisans, all under the umbrella of sculpture. The anthology concludes with a general but comprehensive bibliography and a complete index. The reprints are clearly printed and thoroughly illustrated with only a few pictures too dark for background details. We should be grateful to Jack Ericson for this useful, beginning guide to American folk art as we move onward in study. Reviewed by Bryding Adams, Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts, WinstonSalem, North Carolina. Mayflower Books, Inc. 575 Lexington Avenue New York, New York 10022

77


UM

Title THE ART OF THE WEATHERVANE Curator: Ralph Sessions Exhibition Designer: Adele Earnest

SCHEDULE OF MUSEUM EXHIBITIONS

Members' Private Preview

Public Opening

Closing

December 5, 1979

December 6, 1979

February 24, 1980

The weathervane as a work of art will be exemplified by antique weathervanes from the Museum's permanent collection, from private collections, and from public institutions. In addition, the creation of a weathervane from the original design to a complete piece will be demonstrated through an audio-visual presentation which will include a craftsman utilizing antique tools and techniques to raise a piece. The exhibition will be enhanced by panels detailing manufacturing techniques for mass-produced weathervanes. This exhibition is made possible through the participation and generous contributions of Kenneth Lynch & Sons, Inc., of Wilton, Connecticut. NEWLY DISCOVERED PAINTINGS BY THE BORDEN LIMNER Curator: Robert Bishop Research Assistants: Joyce Hill and Heather Hamilton

March 6, 1980

March 7, 1980

May 4, 1980

In 1976 Robert Bishop mounted at the Museum of Art, University of Michigan, a retrospective exhibition devoted to The Borden Limner, now tentatively identified as John S. Blunt. Newly discovered paintings and a keystone signed portrait shed new light on the Blunt paintings which will provide the basis for this exhibition. ENGLISH NAIVE PAINTING Exhibition Coordinator: Laura Byers

May 15, 1980

May 16, 1980

August 31, 1980

English naive paintings ranging from portraiture to genre and dating from the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries are to be featured in this exhibition from the collection of Mr. and Mrs. A. Kalman, London, England. The Kalman Collection has been exhibited extensively throughout Europe and its first appearance in the United States will be at the Museum of American Folk Art. Following this initial presentation, it will tour throughout America. WHIRLIGIGS AND WIND TOYS: PROMISED BEQUESTS FROM THE COLLECTION OF LEO AND DOROTHY RABKIN Curator: Patricia Coblentz

September 8, 1980

September 9, 1980

October 26, 1980

Leo and Dorothy Rabkin, longtime friends of the Museum of American Folk Art, have generously made much of their very extensive collection available to the Museum in the form of a promised bequest. This exhibition will focus upon a small segment of their holdings of whirligigs and wind toys from the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, all of which have human figures built into their design. SMALL FOLK: A CELEBRATION OF CHILDHOOD IN AMERICA Curators: Sandra Brant and Elissa Cullman

November 6, 1980

November 7, 1980

January 11, 1981

This major exhibition of over 300 objects in all media of folk art will be a comprehensive view of the life of children in the 18th and 19th centuries. The exhibition will be divided into four areas: "A Child's Depiction," presented in paintings, sculpture, and prints; "A Child's Delight," featuring children's playthings; "A Child's Discipline," represented in needlework and calligraphy; and "A Child's Domain," illustrated in objects relating to the physical and psychological well-being of children, including quilts and bedcovers, furniture, and birth and death certificates. A presentation of the exhibition is scheduled for The Seibu Museum in Tokyo, Japan, after its initial showing in New York City. Presentations are tentatively scheduled in other Japanese cities as well. 78


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elde geope gintiques A significant example of the 19th century American female folk artist. A finely executed watercolor pinprick on paper by the grandmother of Charles Snow, Richmond, Va. With flakes of mica applied to the vase and an inscription which reads: "Drawn from flowers taken from the garden where Charlie loved so well to gather them to deck his mother's hair. Painted by his grandmother for his mother, in commemoration of his love for her and the beautiful." size: 18" X 15"

Fine examples of American Folk Art and Paint Decorated Furniture Box 69C, Rt. 202 New Hope, Pa. 18938 215-794-8161

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Young girl holding a basket of berries, and a moss rose in a landscape background. Attributed to Prior-Hamblen School circa 1835. Oil on canvas, 36 x 28 inches

Exhibiting WinterAntiques Show January 26-Feb. 3.

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Museum of American Folk Art Annual House Tour Celebrate Spring 1980 by participating in the Museum of American Folk Art's Fifth Annual House Tour during the first week of May. In order to highlight a number of lovely gardens at the participating homes, we have changedfrom our traditional early November date. This year's tour promises to be the best ever, including a dramatic mixture of New York's most exciting residences, several superb art collections, imaginative gardens, and a festive cocktail reception. All this on a sunny Saturday in New York in May. What could be a better way to welcome Spring! All proceedsfrom the House Tour benefit the Museum of American Folk Art. Tickets are $35. Watch for details in the March issue of The Clarion. Jana Klauer, Chairman Annual House Tour


rosebrooks Transparencies of "Country Kitchen" (48" x 60", oil on canvas) and other work by this talented American folk artist can be provided. Exhibition by appointment only. The Folk Art Gallery also features one of the most extensive selections of European naives — induding Yugoslavian glass paintings and Polish wood sculpture—in the U.S. Phone or write for information.

Folk Art Gallery Box 498•Cambridge,Mass.02138 (617)-646-6215

Destination: Oblivion Steel rails first bound our nation together, but now many of America's unique train stations face bleak futures or total destruction. What a shame to lose them! In some parts of America, concerned people have found innovative and modern uses for these old structures. They've been rejuvenated as banks, restaurants, apartments and shops. You too can help save America's historic buildings. Join The National Trust for Historic Preservation. For more information, write Membership Department, Office ofPublic Affairs, The National Trust for Historic Preservation, 740 Jackson Place, NW, Washington, DC 20006.

It's time we stopped filling up every square inch of space in our cities with new construction and start preserving space. Space to walk. Room to be. Protect the human and environmental quality of your community by joining the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Historic preservation means more than saving old houses. Write: National Trust for Historic Preservation, Department 0606, 740 Jackson Place, NW, Washington, DC 20006.

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INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Ackerman,Paul L. 85 America Hurrah 84 American Art & Antiques 15 American Country Antiques 86 American Folk Art Company 19 American Primitive 82 Block, Huntington T. 80 Borton, Sally 18 Channel Thirteen 21 Country Curtains 85 Daniel, Allan 1 Fabian Gallery 83 87 Folk Art Gallery French, S. K. 85 Inside front cover Fuller, Edmund 80 Galinat, Pie 88 Greenwillow Farm Ltd. 83 Griffin's Antiques Haders, Phyllis 19

88

79 Janos & Ross Inside back cover Johnson, Jay 17 Just Us on Court Avenue 86 Kornblau, Gerald 82 Leech, Robinson, Associates 14 Lynch, Kenneth 81 Mather, Davis 12 Miller, Steve 80 Muleskinner Antiques 79 Newman & Chase 16 New York-Pennsylvania Collector, The 13 Nineteenth Century Magazine 81,83 Ohio Antique Review 84 Olde Hope Antiques Outside back cover Sotheby Parke Bernet 81 Tewksbury Antiques 2 Woodard,Thos. K. Woods,Ann 20


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The Clarion (Winter 1980)  

The Art of the Weathervane, by Ralph Sessions • Patrick J. Sullivan: Allegorical Painter • The Museum’s Good Friend: William Accorsi • A Bri...

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