Page 1


The Museum of American Folk Art New York City


edmund I. fuller woodstock, n.y. 12498

by appt.


"VISIONS IN STONE is a provocative portrait of William Edmondson (ca. 1883-1951), a self-taught black sculptor. This full appraisal of a unique American artist portrays his work with a sensitive understanding of the man and his relationship with his environment..." $16.95

1 2 x 16 inches. Pair of portraits attributed to William Matthew Prior. Picture size: 12/

American Folk Art and Country Furniture In New York City By appointment Telephone (212)799-0825 (if no answer leave messsage at (212)787-6000)




4111r „ lir , i,



• ••.•***4 tce *of OF Sk *


4 j p„.4,00_ ilo,aA alr-4 40

ablurALtrisbvilia.WAL, Friendship quilt. Connecticut, circa 1845. Made by the ladies of the Litchfield Church, Litchfield Township, Bradford County. Presented to Mr. George W. Plummer of Athens Township in recognition of his faithfulness in conducting all the services of the church over a long period of time. We are interested in purchasing rare and exceptional quilts, textiles,folk paintings, weathervanes and paintedfurniture. Photographs returned promptly.


E 11 CONTENTS / Summer 1979 Cover: The Beautiful Unequaled Gardens of Eden and Elenale, maker unknown, cotton, Hawaiian Islands, undetermined date, 781 / 2" x 92". (Honolulu Academy of Arts)

Letter from the Director Hawaiian Quilts

Change of Address. Please send both old and new addresses and allow five weeks for change. Advertising. The Clarion accepts advertisements only from advertisers whose reputation is recognized in the trade, but despite the care with which the advertising department screens photographs and texts submitted by its advertisers, it cannot guarantee the unquestionable authenticity of objects or quality of services advertised in its pages or offered for sale by its advertisers, nor can it accept responsibility for misunderstandings that may arise from the purchase or sale of objects or services advertised in its pages. The Museum is dedicated to the exhibition and interpretation of folk art and feels it is a violation of its principles to be involved in or to appear to be involved in the sale of works of art. For this reason, the Museum will not knowingly accept advertisements for The Clarion which illustrate or describe objects that have been exhibited at the Museum within one year of the placing of the advertisement.


Thomas K. Woodard and Blanche Greenstein

Holy Land U.S.A. The Clarion, America's Folk Art Magazine, Summer 1979. Published quarterly and copyright 1979 by the Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York 10019. The cover and contents of The Clarion are fully protected by copyright and may not be reproduced in any manner without written consent. Unsolicited manuscripts or photographs should be accompanied by return postage. The Clarion assumes no responsibility for the loss or damage of such material.

Dr. Robert Bishop

Allan I. Ludwig

Collecting Children's Quilts Folk Arts in Sweden


Linda and Irwin Berman


C. Kurt Dewhurst and Marsha MacDowell

Noteworthy Events




Art of the Pacific Islands Georgia Art Bus Program Results of Sotheby Parke Bernet's Sale of the Stewart E. Gregory Collection Village Museum in Bucharest, Romania Textile Conservation Workshop Report on the Docent Committee News from the Friends Committee

53 55

Folk Art Calendar Across the Country


Recent Additions to Museum Collections Schedule of Museum Exhibitions Book Reviews




Our Growing Membership


The Museum Shop-Talk Index to Advertisers

65 72





Officers Ralph Esmerian, Chairman Barbara Johnson, Esq., President Alice M. Kaplan (Mrs. Jacob M.), Executive Vice-President Lucy Danziger (Mrs. Frederick M.), Vice-President Jo Lauder (Mrs. Ronald), Vice-President Maureen Taylor (Mrs. Richard), VicePresident Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq., Secretary William I. Leffler, Treasurer

Dr. Robert Bishop, Director Patricia L. Coblentz, Assistant Director Laura Byers, Exhibition Coordinator Robin Harvey, Business Manager Dia Stolnitz, Museum Coordinator Lillian Grossman, Secretary Kent Willingham, Clerk Marilyn Glass, Chairman, Friends Committee

Members Alice Burke (Mrs. James E.) Catherine G. Cahill Adele Earnest Phyllis Huber (Mrs. Richard M.) Margery G. Kahn (Mrs. Harry) Theodore H. Kapnek Jana Klauer (Mrs. Gerold F.L.) Susan Klein (Mrs. Robert) Ira Howard Levy Basil G. Mavroleon Cyril I. Nelson Kenneth R. Page, Esq. Diane Ravitch (Mrs. Richard) Karen S. Schuster (Mrs. Derek) Andy Warhol William E. Wiltshire III Trustees Emeritus Mary Allis Marian W. Johnson (Mrs. Dan R.) Louis C. Jones Jean Lipman (Mrs. Howard) The Honorable Helen S. Meyner


DOCENT COMMUNITY EDUCATION PROGRAM Lucy Danziger,Program Coordinator Susan Klein and Dorothy Kaufman, Education Coordinators Cynthia Schaffner, Correspondence Coordinator Priscilla Brandt and Dorothy Kaufman, Membership and Book Coordinators Phyllis Tepper and Marie DiManno, Outreach Coordinators

THE MUSEUM SHOP STAFF Elizabeth Tobin, Manager Kevin Bueche Sally Gerbrick Phillida Mirk Hazel Osborn Ashley Durham Osman Suzanne Stern

THE CLARION STAFF Patricia L. Coblentz, Editor Adrienne Walt, Editorial Assistant Helaine Fendelman, Advertising Manager Jeanette Young, Art Director Neal Davis, Designer Ira Howard Levy, Designer Comptype, Typesetting Topp Litho, Printers


Members from across the country will want to make a special effort to visit the current exhibition,"Hawaiian Quilts, Treasures of an Island Folk Art." Seldom before have so many unique examples of needlework art been presented in our Museum. Many of the quilts in this exhibition have never been out of the State of Hawaii prior to this time. Education continues to preoccupy much of the staff's time. During the winter semester Helaine and Burton Fendelman coordinated and taught a nine-session seminar on "American Folk Art" at the Scarsdale, New York, Adult School, in which I also participated. Such distinguished guest speakers as Mary Black, Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr., Dr. Louis C. Jones, George E. Schoellkopf; and Thomas K. Woodard and Blanche Greenstein were featured. This semester at New York University I presented a seminar which offered, for one of the first times, academic credits for studies in the folk arts. Guest speakers were: Mary Black, Nancy Druckman, Burton and Helaine Fendelman, Marcela T. Ginilewicz, Phyllis Haders, Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr., Dr. William Ketchum, Glee Krueger, and Gerard Wertkin. A similar course will be offered at New York University by the Museum of American Folk Art staff in the fall with speakers Mary Black, Patricia Coblentz, Burton and Helaine Fendelman, Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr., Dr. William Ketchum, Gerard Wertkin, and myself. Assistant Director Patricia Coblentz taught a twelve-week course, "A General Survey of American Period Furniture," for the New School for Social Research during the winter semester and will repeat it in the fall of this year. You may write the Museum for information concerning these projected courses. On March 28 the Museum hosted a special meeting of the New York City Museums Council where nearly 100 directors, assistant directors, and other staff members from sister institutions visited the special exhibition, "The

1. Woman Folk Artist in America," and gathered for dinner at the nearby Top of the Sixes restaurant. On a national basis the Museum cohosted a four-day (May 18-21) conference on folklore. This project, which focused on Folklore in New York City, was presented in cooperation with the New York Folklore Society, the Russian Division of Hunter College, the Balkan Arts Center, and the New York Center for Visual Anthropology. The Museum also participated in the Fifteenth Annual Art Show at the Goddard-Riverside Community Center, along with the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of the City of New York, and several private collections. I was pleased to be asked to present a talk on "American Folk Art" at this very special annual event, which included workshops, films, and slide demonstrations. Several pieces from the Museum's permanent collection were displayed in the Art Show which ran from April 27 through May 15. Numerous requests for back issues of The Clarion continue to reach the office

on a regular basis. It is our hope that in a future issue we will be able to reprint the first seven volumes to make this valuable research available to everyone. Of further interest, Ellen Howe, one of our docents, has just completed indexing the entire run of The Clarion. That, too, will be published in a forthcoming issue. The fall Clarion will be devoted to the special exhibition, "The Shakers in New York State," and to a two-day seminar now scheduled for September 14 and 15, which is being directed by Gerard Wertkin, a New York City attorney and prominent Shaker historian. It is expected that this seminar will be immensely popular and space will be limited, so make your reservations now for this important educational program. Shaker Sisters Mildred Barker and Fran1. Alice Kaplan, Trustee of the Museum;Mary Black, former Director of the Museum, now Curator of Paintings and Sculpture at The New-York Historical Society; and Marsha MacDowell, one of the guest curators for the special exhibition, at the Members' Private Preview of "The Woman Folk Artist in America."





ces Carr, Theodore Johnson, and other members of the Shaker community at Sabbathday Lake, Maine, will participate in this presentation. Be certain to reserve Tuesday September 11 for a very special preview of the Fall Antiques Show produced by Sanford Smith and Alison Mager. This preview, to be held at New York's Seventh Regiment Armory, will be open from 6 to 9 P.M. and will be a benefit for the Museum. The show extends through September 16. Of special interest to preview attendees will be the folk art exhibition, "Classics from the Collection of the Museum of American Folk Art." The antique show will feature American art and antiques and is planned to be the only quality presentation of its type to feature pieces from the Pilgrim century to the Arts and Crafts period. The Museum of American Folk Art is actually becoming more international in its membership, for, with the encouragement of trustee Ira Howard Levy, it appears that a new organization, "French Friends of the Museum of American Folk Art," might soon be a reality. Membership growth continues in a dramatic way. Thank you, every member, for your support and for your assistance in making this happen. The folk arts, a great cultural heritage in America, are finally achieving their much deserved recognition. And because of research done in the last fifty years, the major artists are no longer anonymous; a whole cast of folk art characters, with known personalities and known bodies of work, are now an important part of American art history. The Museum of American Folk Art, through its everexpanding exhibition and educational programs, has emerged as a primary factor in the long overdue hymn to America's native artistic expression. Dr. Robert Bishop Director

2. and 3.A 19th -century guilt by Susan McCord and a 20th-century painting by Malcah Zeldis were featured in "The Woman Folk Artist in America," which opened at the Museum on January 15, 1979. 4. Heather Hamilton, Museum Docent, discussing the "The Woman Folk Artist in America" with Henry Prebys, Manager of Display and Design at Greenfield Village and Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn, Michigan. 4.


The Friends Committee of the

Museum ofAmerican Folk Alt invites you to the



6-9 P.M.



Dress/Festive JIMA<

PREVIEW TICKETS-$35 PER PERSON Preview tickets honored throughout the week at the Fall Antiques Show HONORARY CHAIRMAN: JOSEPH PAPP






Artists in Aprons Folk Art by American Women by C. Kurt Dewhurst, Betty MacDowell, & Marsha MacDowell Introductory Note by Joan Mondale Foreword by Agnes Halsey Jones

Rarely have women folk artists been recognized for the importance of their contribution to the history of American art. This first book on the subject shows splendidly the many wonderful pieces by women folk artists in America, and evaluates their contribution in depth. The book also includes brief biographies of many of the artists. The full range of folk art, all known to have been done by women, is included in 26 color plates and 152 black-and-white illustrations: drawings, embroideries, watercolors, oil paintings, and quilts.

"Artists in Aprons is the story of American art as it was practiced by women in their homes . . . Their work is a marvelous legacy of formal invention, but just as wonderful is the spirit that these works embody." â&#x20AC;&#x201D;JOAN MONDALE

Available at bookstores $9.95, paperbound $16.95, cloth


(DUTTON) 2 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10016

SothebyParke Bernet the leading auctioneers of Americana

Sotheby Parke Bernet's most recent Americana Week of auctions achieved a total of almost $4 million— —more than any other auction firm's total annual sales of Americana

January 27,1979 The American Folk Art Collection of the Late Stewart E. Gregory — set a record for any sale of American Folk Art — established more than 17 individual records in naive paintings, weathervanes, carved figures and other folk art categories

January 30,1979 The Historical American Autograph Collection of the Late Nathaniel E. Stein —included the greatest assemblage of Johnson impeachment material to ever appear at auction — set a record for Zachary Taylor autograph

January 31 through February 3,1979 Fine American Furniture and Decorative Arts —established the record for any auction of Americana

Mr. William Stahl, our American Furniture and Decorative Arts Specialist or Ms. Nancy Druckman,our specialist in American Folk Art, would be pleased to talk to you about buying and selling at auction or how to prudently refine and upgrade your collection. Just call (212)472-3511 for an appointment.


NEW YORK 10021 212/472-3400 9

(212) 362-3434

Tues.-Sat. 11-6

River Oaks Center• at 2002 Peden Street• Houston, Texas 77019 Tuesday-Saturday, 10-5 Telephone (713)526-0095






III-on Court Ave. um° " J & S Schneider 299 N. Court Ave.•Tucson. Arizona 85701 (602)622-3607•Appointment Advised

Marvelously humorous men with pipes see-saw; paint is original and nicely crazed; stand is new and easily removed. 20" long, 14" high, not including stand. Exhibiting: Smith-Mager Antiques Fair, New York City, September 12 - 16, 1979.


WASHINGTON,CT. COLONIAL 5 bedrooms,fireplaces, 16 acres, pond, stream, fenced fields, barns, 200 years old. Offered at $280,000. More land available.

1 2acres, 2 greenhouses, barn, rushing SALISBURY HISTORIC FORMER TAVERN Circa 1740 Colonial, 7/ stream,6 bedrooms, 7 fireplaces, walk to all village offerings. Offered at: $330,000 Brochures and more information available by calling:

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Jana Klauer, Associate Norfolk res. 203-542-5360 wkends NYC res. 212-288-8667 wkdays

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(203)435-9891 REALTOR


Photographed at the Ebenezer Maxwell Mansion, Philadelphia by Dane T. Wells.

)9c nineteenth century Victorian heritage is NINETEENTH CENTURY This lavishly illustrated magazine of The Victorian Society in America is your window on the sumptuous world of Victorian sights and sounds, tastes and textures. NINETEENTH CENTURY is packed with entertaining and informative articles, book reviews, auction notices, and travel opportunities helping you get better acquainted with the architects, artists, and decorators who made those palatial Victorian residences and public buildings. For the basic $20 annual membership in The Victorian Society, four issues of NINETEENTH CENTURY will be delivered to your door. But this is only the beginning of membership benefits. Members receive ten issues of the Society's Bulletin, special book offers with savings up to 40%, and handsome invitations to meetings, workshops, symposia, summer schools, and tours. Victorian lovers, have more fun when you join The Victorian Society. Return this application and open a window on the NINETEENTH CENTURY today. 14


J9c THE VICTORIAN SOCIETY IN AMERICA East Washington Square, Suite 139 Philadelphia,PA 19106 I would like to receive NINETEENTH CENTURY and join The Victorian Society in America Name Address City

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Antiques â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Folk Art Graphic Textiles



316 EAST 70th St.

NEW YORK,10021

535-1930 212 ' 1U11-


American Quilts and Textiles,Primitive Paintings and Folk Art 15

1."Ku'u Hae Aloha" (My Beloved Flag), maker unknown, cotton, Hawaiian Islands, before 1918, 90/ 1 2" x 841 / 2". (Honolulu Academy of Arts, Gift of Mrs. C.M. Cooke Estate)


Catalogue to the Exhibition at the Museum ofAmerican Folk Art July3to September2,1979


The Hawaiian kapa-apana (patched-cloth or quilt) occupies a unique place in quilting history as a localized adaptation of a popular folk art. Quilt-making on the Islands flourished as a colorful yet functional medium of creative expression for individual women who are not professional artists yet exhibit highly refined aesthetic sensibilities in their work. The boldness of the symbolic designs, with their rhythmic fluidity, is made all the more striking when enhanced by the

brilliant colors appliqued with two whole pieces of material. The technique of motif construction, folding and cutting, is also unique. All these elements combine to create a characteristic and distinctive Hawaiian artifact appreciable for its artistry and its function. Before the advent of American missionaries and their wives, sewing was not a part of native Hawaiian life. Clothes and bedding were made of tapa, the pounded bark of the paper mulberry

and breadfruit trees, and merely required tying. The earliest account of needle and thread in the Islands describes a sewing lesson for the Queen Dowager, Kalakua, widow of Kamehameha I; her sister, Namahaua, also widow of the king; and two wives of the chief Kalanimoku, all of whom had boarded the brig Thaddeus at Kohala as it was sailing along the Kona coast from New Eng3."Ke Kahi 0 Kaiulani" land. On the last day of the long journey to (The Comb of Kaiulani), Kailua, Hawaii, Mrs. Lucy Thurston recorded maker, unknown, cotton, Waimea on the Island of in her journal: "Monday morning, April 3,1820, 12" Hawaii, before 1918, 88/ the first sewing circle that the sun ever looked x 84".(Honolulu Academy down upon in this Hawaiian realm was organized. of Arts, Gift of Mrs. Kalakua, Queen Dowager, was directress. She Richard A. Cooke) requested the seven white ladies to take seats 4."Na Kalaunu me na with them on mats, on the deck of the `Thaddeus.' Kahili"(Crowns and KahlMrs. Holman and Mrs. Ruggles were executive is), "Mother Rice," cotofficers, to ply the scissors and prepare the work ton, Island of Kauai, 1886, . . . The women of rank were furnished with calico 75" x 75". (Honolulu Academy of Arts, Gift of patchwork to sew, a new employment to them." Mrs. Thomas D. King, Jr.) The women knew little of each other's languages but a dress "in the fashion of 1819" was cut out 5."Na Kalaunu" (Crowns), maker unknown, for the tapa-skirted Kalakua. It is possible that cotton, Hawaiian Islands, the first quilt in Hawaii was accomplished from / 2" x before 1918; 821 the patchwork squares done that day. 811 / 2". (Honolulu Academy Hawaiian bedding prior to the introduction of Arts, Gift of Mrs. C.M. of cloth quilts was typical of the South Seas: Cooke Estate) coarsely woven mats (lauhala) piled on the stone 6."Kaomi Malie" (Press floor with a top layer of more finely woven Gently), maker unknown, mats (makaloa on Kauai and Niihau) as mattress. cotton, Hawaiian Islands, Everything was kept scrupulously cleanâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the / 2". before 1918, 85"x 831 floors by sweeping, and the bedding by washing, (Honolulu Academy of Arts, Gift of Mrs. Albert sunning, and, when not in use, storage in the Wilcox) rafters with the fragrant seeds of the mokihana tree. The height and fineness of the bedding 7."Lihilihi Anuenue" corresponded to the rank of the owner. The (The Edge of the Raincustomary coverlets (pa'u o Lu'ukia) were four bow), maker unknown, Hawaiian Islands, 88"x 87". white tapa sheets with a fifth sheet decorated (Honolulu Academy of with geometric designs on top. The designs were Arts, Gift of Mrs. C.M. pressed on the tapa bedcovers bit by bit with Cooke Estate) small stencils dipped in native dyes. Pa'u o Lu'ukia means "robe of Lu'ukia" and refers to the story of a legendary New Zealand woman who came to Hawaii wearing a beautifully decorated tapa over four white ones. The first systemized attempt at sewing instruction on the Islands was initiated by Maria Ogden in 1828; she taught domestic arts to girls and nursed the sick on Kauai and Lahainaluna, Maui. For 20 years, starting in 1838, she taught at the Wailuku, Maui, boarding school for girls. In 1836, and for 29 years thereafter, Lydia Brown taught on Maui, Hawaii, and Oahu. Spinning cotton, carding and weaving wool, and sewing were some of the things her students learned. Quilts at first were made at the various missionary schools in the manner of New England designs of the period. "Friendship blocks" and an occasional finished quilt were sent from the 2."Ke Kumu Waina" (Grape Vine), maker unknown, cotton, Waimea on the Island of Hawaii, before 1918, 84" x 84". (Honolulu Academy of Arts, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Richard A. Cooke)


Eastâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a year's journey around Cape Horn from Boston. They were used as patterns and inspiration in sewing classes and distributed among Hawaiian women at sewing bees. The ship Rover in 1822 conveyed "a bedquilt from the young ladies in Miss E. Dewey's school, Blanford, Massachusetts, for Kaahumanu, which was very acceptable to this honored female ruler." In 1830 Mrs. Laura Fish Judd received a friendship block quilt from back east; each block was stitched with a Bible quotation and name of the donor. In 1845 the Princess Pauahi (Mrs. Charles Reed Bishop) completed a silk patchwork quilt under the guidance of Mrs. Amos Cooke, an instructress at the Royal School. In 1858 the girls' Lima Kokua Society on Oahu presented a pieced quilt to the missionary Bingham family. Hawaiians were accustomed to buying large pieces of cloth for sewing material. Scraps, which would have had to be made by cutting up new cloth into bits to sew back together again, did not really seem very practical. It is thought that the original bold Hawaiian designs, a radical departure from New England patterns, derived from the transfer of the stamped tapa patterns on the pa'u o Lu'ukia bedding to the appliqued quilts. There is a lovely story of the first quilt made in this manner: a young Hawaiian woman laid a sheet for a quilt on the grass to bleach one morning. When she returned in the late afternoon, her eye was intrigued by the pretty and intricate patterns cast on the white cloth by the dancing shadows of the nearby lehua tree branches. She forthwith cut her turkey red drill in the design she had perceived and laid it over the white in applique. This way of finding a pattern is not far from the methods used by quilters today. The oldest Hawaiian patterns were made primarily of turkey red on white, like the old tapa bedding. New England quilts of the time were often one color on white also. Older Hawaiian patterns are of simpler design, with less contrasting material, than later patterns. Probably the influences of the old tapa patterns and the New England quilts combined to produce the distinctive Hawaiian form. Quilts were made for a processional presentation to the Prince of Hawaii on his first birthday in 1858. Naturally, the women were stimulated to incorporate native patterns of expression for their own royalty. To construct the usual Hawaiian quilt of square shape with unbroken or slightly broken border, the woman first chose her design (lau) and cut it out of tapa or paper folded 4 or 8 times over itself to obtain an overall pattern of repetition, like our way of cutting paper snowflakes. Often there was one cutting for the border (maile lei) and another for the center medallion. This prac-

9. 8."Niumalu" or "Nawilili Beauty," Mrs. Montgomery, cotton, Hawaiian Islands, 1930, 91" x 61". (Honolulu Academy of Arts, Gift of Mrs. Dora Isenberg) 9."Ka Ua Kani Lehua" (The Rain That Rustles Lehua Blossoms), maker unknown, cotton, Hawaiian Islands, 2"x 84". (Honolulu Academy of / late 19th century, 751 Arts, Gift of Mr. Damon Giffard)



10. Quilt, maker unknown, cotton, Hawaiian Islands, 19th century, 95" x 85". (Honolulu Academy of Arts, Gift ofMrs. Herman V. Von Holt)

11. "Kuli Puu" (Bent Knee), maker unknown, Island of Kauai, early 20th century, 92" x 82". (Honolulu Academy of Arts, Gift of Mrs. C.M. Cooke)


tice, unique to Hawaiian quiltmakers, insures exact replication of the motif throughout. Some women were skilled enough to cut the pattern freehand. The materials, a large white sheet for background (kahua) and colored material for applique, were washed and shrunk. The most common early color was turkey red. Later, orange, blue, purple, and green on white were frequently used. Usually no more than two colors were employed; favored choices were red and yellow, the royal colors, on white. After the pattern was cut out of the material, it was carefully basted (Pa'i) on the background,

working from the center outward. For turning and appliqueing (humu wi/i or kawili), overcasting was most often used, but featherstitching, crossstitching, and cat- or blanket-stitching were sometimes seen. Initially hand-carded wool, from the sheep brought to the Islands in the 18th century, was used for stuffing, but wool or cotton batting is used almost exclusively now. The stuffing was spread evenly over the backing (another white sheet), covered with the decorated top,and the layers tacked together. Quilting frames were built and used much like New England ones,except that Hawaiian "horses"for frame support were very low, since the women sat on mats when quilting.


Quilt stitching at first used parallel lines and diagonal squares, like patchwork quilts, but soon expanded to more intricate designs such as "turtle's back" (hono ipu), shell, and other forms taken from tapa designs. The contour, or ripple, quilting created a flowing effect reminiscent of ocean waves breaking on the Islands and required careful attention to shape and angle so that all the rows, or waves, break at the same point. This "following the pattern" freehand (humu-lau) was stitched in a series of lines inside and outside the outline of the design and parallel to it, leaving scrolls in the spaces between. Although at first quilting was done at bees, as taught by the missionary ladies, it became the practice for one person to do all the work to insure uniformity. In choosing a design for the kapa, the quilter had several options. She might use a pattern her mother used, or one given her by a friend, or devise one herself. A finished quilt might be dedicated to someone, much the way an author does a book, with great seriousness. Many were dedicated to Queen Liliuokalani, the last ruler before the monarchy was overthrown. In the past, only the closest of friends exchanged patterns, and a quilter was obliged to be wary of having her design "lifted," perhaps from a quilt sunning on a clothesline, before the work was completed. The culprit might be subtly slighted in song, but the code of Mana held that to steal a pattern was to steal something of the owner's soul or power. For this reason it is only recently that kapa exhibitions and a general sharing of patterns have occurred. The name the quilter gives the design is retained so long as the pattern is recognizable, though colors change and variations evolve. Sometimes the meaning of the name is a secret known only to the one bestowing it, while others represent distinct and literal themes. Some patterns derive from images that float up from unfocused states of consciousness, as in the case of a pattern that formed in the mind of a woman drowsing by her child's sickbed. She worked on the quilt through the course of the illness and presented it to her daughter upon her recovery. Another woman, feeling shamed at being disinherited and guiltless for marrying a non-Hawaiian, dreamed of a quilt design which she named Ka La'i o Pua (The Calm of Pua Lane) upon its completion. Some women feel such a strong personal involvement with their design and work that they give their kapa a name unrelated to the true meaning it has for them, rendering the content of many quilts mysterious to others, as with Press Gently. Many themes are naturalistic, reflecting the richly varied vegetation of the Islands. In


the old days the breadfruit plant was the most often depicted, but fig, papaya and pumpkin leaves, ferns, baskets of flowers, turtles, outspread octopi, mamo bird feathers, and the crescent moon (Mahina) were also used. Later lily of the valley (Lilia o ke Awana), fuchsia, Japanese lily (Lilia o Sepania Kepani), pineapple, carnation (poni-mo'i), grapevine (Ke Kumu Waina), ohelo berries, hibiscus, prickly pear (panini), dahlia, lehua blossoms, violet, narcissus, American beauty, sunflower, calla lily, chrysanthemum, tiger lily, and ostrich plumes were introduced. Various lei patterns, such as Lei Mamo are common. Places of personal significance are commemorated in kapas, especially in connection with an event. Examples are The Rain That Rustles Lehua Blossoms(Ka Ua Kani Lehua);The Banks of Kanaha Stream (Lihi-wai 0 Kanaha), a favorite on Kauai; The Beautiful Mountain of Haleakala (Kuahiwi Nani o Haleakala), in which the center of the design represents the crater; and the Kipahulu Wind That Steals Love (Ka Makaui Ka'ili Aloha o Kipahulu), reputedly stolen and renamed from Rain That Makes Noise on the House. Events of the quilter's day also made their mark, as with Halley's Comet (Ka Hoku Hele Oka Pakipika); The Pearl of the Pacific, noting the discovery of pearls in Hawaii; and Birth of Puu Kiai, a volcano quilt. Hawaiian royalty inspired many quilts: Kaiulani's Comb and Kahili (Ke Kahi o Kaiulani), Kamehameha IV's Crown, Kaiulani's Wreath, The Palace Chandelier, Crowns and Kahilis (Na Kalaunu me na Kahili), The King's Flower Vase, The Pink House in the Palace Grounds, and Lau Kala, or silver wreath from a coin of the Kalakana era. These quilts were done to memorialize the royal family after the overthrow of the monarchy. My Beloved Flag (Ku'u Hae Aloha) is the most revered and popular pattern, with many variations, such as Kuuhae Hawaii. The Hawaiian national flag was taken down for two months in 1893 during civil unrest and women made many flagpatterned quilts to perpetuate the knowledge of it. Upon Hawaii's becoming a territory in 1898, the flag was still used as a territorial flag, and in 1959 became the state flag. It is interesting to note that the depiction of birds, animals, or people is considered unlucky. A striking exception is The Beautiful Unequaled Gardens of Eden and Elenale (Na Kihapai Nani Lua 'Ole 0 Edena a Me Elenale). Adam and Eve are seated beneath a tree around which is entwined the devil in the form of a serpent. An angel above the tree is holding an open book under the legend "Mahina'ai 0 Edena"(Garden of Eden). The left side of the quilt shows two figures in royal court dress and regalia standing beneath the branch of a tree under the legend "Ke Apo 0 Ke Kauoha"

(The Embrace of a Commandment). The man, with a large Hawaiian crown above his head, is identified by the name Elenale and the woman by the name Leinaala. Elenale and Leinaala were the principal characters in a Hawaiian romantic story that was popular in the late 19th century. The beautiful Leinaala was held captive by a witch in Manoa Valley and rescued by Elenale who took her to live in his exquisite garden. The anonymous maker of this quilt has made an analogy between the Garden of Eden and that of Elenale, and likened Elenale's love for Leinaala to the first love of Adam for Eve. It should be noted that Elenale and Leinaala are portrayed as Hawaiian royalty. The figures were copied from photographs or lithographs, and a full-length view of Queen Emma (1836-1885) can be identified as the source for the figure of Leinaala. New designs are continually being made. Unfortunately, as is true on the mainland, some impatient quilters use machines to finish their work. Quilting as a folk art is still highly respected, although the effects of modern lifestyles considerably diminish the artistic innocence of today's quiltmakers. This collection, assembled and exhibited for the first time at the Museum of American Folk Art, offers a new view of a culture peopled with sensitive, imaginative, and independent artisans whose bold, ingenious expressiveness is permanently stitched into each of these proudly executed "textile paintings." Due to their extreme rarity, the fact that they are irreplaceable, and the deep affection held for them by the Hawaiian people, this occasion most likely marks the one and only time they will all be exhibited together. Thus, we are privileged, though briefly, to take pleasure from their unique beauty, for they all are like one named for a gentle breeze, Ka Makani Aloha,"the wind that wafts love from one to another."

12. "Lei Mamo," maker unknown, cotton, Hawaiian Islands, late 19th century, 80" x 80". (Honolulu Academy of Arts, Gift of Mr. Damon Giffard) 13."Ka Mokupuni Kihapai" (The Garden Island), designed by Mrs. Mahikoa, cotton, Island of Kauai, c. 1904, 831 / 2" x 731 / 2". (Honolulu Academy of Arts, Gift of Mrs. C.M. Cooke Estate)


14. Quilt, maker unknown, cotton, Hawaiian Islands, 19th century, 991 / 2" x 84". (Honolulu Academy of Arts, Gift of Mrs. Herman V. Von Holt)


Bibliography Sheila Betterton. Quilts and Coverlets.(London: American Museum in Britain, 1978, pp. 70-72) William Tufts Brigham. Ka Hana Kapa, the Making of Bark-cloth in Hawaii. (Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1911) Helen Inns. Your Hawaiian Quilt. (Honolulu: Hawaii Home Demonstration Council, 1957) Stella M. Jones. Hawaiian Quilts. (Honolulu: Honolulu Academy of Art and Daughters of Hawaii, 1930; reprint 1973) Edith Rice Plews. "Hawaiian Quilting on Kauai," address given to the Mokihana Club at Lihue, Kauai, March 1, 1933.(Kauai Museum Publications, 1976) 14.


CATALOGUE OF OBJECTS "Niumalu" or "Nawilili Beauty" Mrs. Montgomery 1930 Hawaiian Islands Cotton 61" x 91" Honolulu Academy of Arts, gift of Mrs. Dora Isenberg, 1940 "Ka Ua Kani Lehua"(The Rain That Rustles Lehua Blossoms) Maker unknown Late 19th century Hawaiian Islands Cotton 751 / 2"x 84" Honolulu Academy of Arts, gift of Mr. Damon Giffard, 1959 "Lei Mamo" Maker unknown Late 19th century Hawaiian Islands Cotton 80" x 80" Honolulu Academy of Arts, gift of Mr. Damon Giffard, 1959 "Na Kalaunu me na Kahili" (Crowns and Kahilis) Probably made by "Mother Rice" (Mrs. William Harrison Rice) 1886 Island of Kauai Cotton 75" x 75" Honolulu Academy of Arts, gift of Mrs. Thomas D. King, Jr., 1973 "Lihilihi Anuenue" (The Edge of the Rainbow) Maker unknown Early 20th century Hawaiian Islands Cotton 88" x 87" Honolulu Academy of Arts, gift of Mrs. C.M. Cooke Estate, 1938 "Na Kalaunu"(Crowns) Maker unknown Before 1918 Hawaiian Islands Cotton 26

/ 2" 821 / 2"x 811 Honolulu Academy of Arts, gift of Mrs. C.M. Cooke Estate, 1938 "Ka Mokupuni Kihapai" (The Garden Island) Designed by Mrs. Mahikoa Circa 1904 Island of Kauai Cotton / 2 " / 2"x 731 831 Honolulu Academy of Arts, gift of Mrs. C.M. Cooke Estate, 1938 "Na Kihapai Nani Lua 'Ole 0 Edena a Me Elenale"(The Beautiful Unequaled Gardens of Eden and Elenale) Maker unknown Before 1918 Hawaiian Islands Cotton 86" x 98" Honolulu Academy of Arts, gift of Mrs. C.M. Cooke, 1929 Crib Quilt Mrs. Nashioka Circa 1938 Honolulu, Hawaii Cotton 36" x 42" Dale Harimoto Hawaiian and American Flag Quilt Maker unknown Circa 1900 Hawaiian Islands Cotton 90" x 88" Private Collection Hawaiian Flag Quilt Maker unknown Probably early 20th century Hawaiian Islands Cotton 88" x 82" Bernice P. Bishop Museum, given in memory of Mrs. Hattie Davis Wolley "Lilia" Maker unknown Probably early 20th century Hawaiian Islands Cotton 771 / 2" x 751 / 2" Bernice P. Bishop Museum "Kuuhae Hawaii" Maker unknown Probably early 20th century Hawaiian Islands Cotton

84" x 84" Bernice P. Bishop Museum, given in memory of Miss Lucy Wilcox Applique quilt Maker unknown 19th century Hawaiian Islands Cotton 991 / 2" x 84" Honolulu Academy of Arts, gift of Mrs. Herman V. Von Holt, 1966 Quilt with letter "M" in center Maker unknown 19th century Hawaiian Islands Cotton 85" x 95" Honolulu Academy of Arts, gift of Mrs. Herman V. Von Holt, 1966 "Ke Kalaunu, Me Ka Lei" (Crown and Wreath) Maker unknown Circa 1900 Hawaiian Islands Cotton 781 / 4"x 771 / 4" Daughters of Hawaii American Flag Quilt Maker unknown Early 20th century Hawaiian Islands Cotton 84" x 833/4" Daughters of Hawaii "Kaomi Malie"(Press Gently) Maker unknown Before 1918 Hawaiian Islands Cotton / 2" 85" x 831 Honolulu Academy of Arts, gift of Mrs. Albert Wilcox, 1927 Flag quilt Maker unknown Late 19th century Hawaiian Islands Cotton Approx. 80" x 80" Private Collection "Birth of Pu'u Kia'i" Marsha Isoshima Morrison 1977 Hawaiian Islands Appliqued and quilted fabric Approx. 70" x 90" Paul Caponigro

400 Kt Kati,

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ii "Na Kihapai Nani Lua 'Ole 0 Edena a Me Elenale" (The Beautiful Unequaled Gardens of Eden and Elenale), maker unknown, cotton Hawaiian Islands, before 1918, 781 / 2"x 92". (Honolulu Academy of Arts, Gift of Mrs. C.M. Cooke) "Ku'u Hae Aloha"(My Beloved Flag) Maker unknown Before 1918 Hawaiian Islands Cotton 1 2"x 84/ 90/ 1 2" Honolulu Academy of Arts, gift of Mrs. C.M. Cooke Estate, 1938 "Kull Puu"(Bent Knee) Maker unknown Before 1918

Hawaiian Islands Cotton 92" x 82" Honolulu Academy of Arts, gift of Mrs. C.M. Cooke, 1929 "Ke Kumu Waina"(Grape Vine) Maker unknown Before 1918 Waimea on the Island of Hawaii Calico on cotton 84" x 84"

Honolulu Academy of Arts, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Richard A. Cooke, 1927 "Ke Hahi 0 Kaiulani" (The Comb of Kaiulani) Maker unknown Before 1918 Waimea on the Island of Hawaii Cotton 1 2"x 84" 88/ Honolulu Academy of Arts, gift of Mrs. Richard A. Cooke, 1927


HOLY LA\D USA. A Consideration of Naive and Visionary Art 28


ALLAN I. WDWIG I first saw Holy Land U.S.A. several years ago as we made our way to Maine for an annual vacation. Looking for all the world like a cemetery, it perched on a hill next to the highway. I was, however, puzzled because there seemed to be a profusion of slightly out-of-scale stucco buildings hugging the side of the hill. At the time I had no idea that this was Holy Land U.S.A. on Pine Hill in Waterbury, Connecticut, created by John Greco and his many friends and associates. This site, in my opinion, must take its place alongside other such Naive and Visionary projects as Simon Rodia's "Watts Towers" in Los Angeles; S.P. Dinsmoor's "Garden of Eden" in Lucas, Kansas; Jesse Howard's "Signs and Wonders" in Fulton, Missouri; Clarence Schmitt's "Towards Journeys End" near Woodstock, New York; and Herman

Rusch's "Prairie Moon Museum and Garden" in Cochrane, Wisconsin.1 The Pine Hill site is announced in large commercial display letters set up on scaffolding (fig. 2) and the ensemble is topped by a large metal framed cross, again fabricated in display lettering form, which lights up at night. The landscape is remote and barren, relieved only by scrub bushes and some small trees. The use of large display lettering lends a quasi-commercial note to the cluster of monuments and is part and parcel of its unique style (fig. 5). Much of the Peace Through Love and Law monument is made up of such parts. On the other hand most of the "architecture" at Holy Land is fabricated out of thin board with stucco facings. The structures are then polychromed in light pastels to give a sense of the original Bethlehem or the Old City of Jerusalem (fig. 1). As you will note from an examination of the photograph, this grouping has a sense of stylistic unity and construction lacking elsewhere, suggesting that it was the first large scale project to be undertaken and perhaps the only grouping

1. An overview of the replica village of Bethlehem with parts of the Old City of Jerusalem in miniature in the background. There is a Nativity scene in the grottolike opening in the foreground of the photograph.


2. 2. Sign for Holy Land U.S.A.,formed from commercial display lettering. Note the large Cross in the background which lights up at night. Pine Hill, Waterbury, Connecticut. 3. Detail of the replica of the Dome of the Rock monument. 4. The replica of the Dome of the Rock.


to be thought through completely. The scale is miniature as in all models. In the foreground, an arch of a grotto may be seen and this is a large Nativity which will loom larger as our story unfolds. While one admires the zeal and energy it must have taken to see such a communal project to completion, one senses something quite odd about the obvious desire for replicas. The site, as a whole conjures up the somewhat uncomfortable vision of an ancient cult of relics now transformed into a modern cult of replicas. The obsession to simulate a past culturally and historically inaccessible, to appropriate it symbolically so to speak, is characteristic of much building of this type and bears further examination. The transformation of relic into replica reaches a height of Surreal perfection in a plaque (fig. 3) housed within a replica of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (fig. 4). The legend impressed into the stucco with large letters and then painted in a bright color for clarity reads: "Rough Reproduction of Footprint Jesus Left on the Rock When He went to Heaven." Just above the legend there is an impression of a foot, clearly visible in fig. 3. When I saw this monument, I suddenly realized that in a sense I was not looking at a reproduction at all but rather seeing the landscape of a mind and that I had inadvertently stumbled upon something unique in the field of Naive and Visionary art. Looking about, I could not help feel that in some way here was the real thing. What on earth could such a reaction mean in the light of the fact that I was looking at a clumsy reconstruction? Surely this and other monuments on the site, even now crumbling away after less than a quarter of a century, are but vague memories of various shrines, grottoes, and other monuments found in the Middle East. By the real thing, I mean the marvelous ability of the whole environ-

ou REPRO oucliâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;tw, OF FOOT PilitA7 JESUS LEFT ON ROC%



ment to convey something of the vision of John Greco in all its idiosyncratic authenticity. For in spite of the fact that we were experiencing a PEACE THRU LOVE 6 LAW fiction, I felt that I was sharing something far more important and authentic. I felt that I was sharing an inner vision made real, a manifestation of a man's lifelong dream come true and it was this feeling that made me exclaim that surely this was the real thing. At Pine Hill can be observed many, although not all, of the characteristics that have come to be called Naive and Visionary art. I am grateful to Martin Friedman, Director of the Walker Art Center, for his masterful essay on the subject.2 The major personalities involved with these sites share many similarities and we note that the majority were elderly when the projects commenced just before or after retirement. This is certainly true of John Greco. In general, the level of education in the liberal arts tradition was quite circumscribed and in this sense Greco differs from the others because he became a well known local attorney. On the other hand, his training seems to have been what we would call narrowly vocational and as such there is still a great deal to the theory that these environmental artists were undereducated. I suspect that the putting up of the Mete legend noted in fig. 3 would have been beyond CHARITY AND the pale for an educated mind. It is this kind of naive approach which links John Greco with LOVE ARE other such visionaries and with Surrealism.3 aele ea_ GOD Another characteristic shared by visionaries is a lifelong interest in religious or spiritual matters. Although this dimension is strong in most of the sites, it is not universally true. For example, Grandma Prisby's "Bottle Village" at Santa Susanna, California, is, in the main, secular in motifs although there is, to be sure, a little chapel. Nevertheless, in most of these sites one senses a strong religious motivation and wonders if a belief in God might not have provided the high level of energy and industry needed to sustain such large scale environmental projects without vast funding? other such projects in that it was a communal An obvious lack of knowledge of the world grass roots project with semi-official ties to the of art appears to unite these personalities also. Roman Catholic Church.4 Nevertheless, without None seems to have had any professional training the driving force of the personal vision of John as an artist nor would we wish to call any of them Greco it would never have come into being. All "art lovers" or "collectors" in the conventional of these sites seem to be, as Martin Friedman sense. It seems an odd locution of the individual wrote, handmade universes of the mind which psyche that these people turned to the plastic are fundamentally symbolic in character. arts to express themselves rather than to literature, Being concerned with symbolism, rather than poetry, theatre or music. Another feature which with considerations of style, is shown in a graphic brings together these lonely figures is that when way when we compare the sophisticated Crucithe initial enthusiasm begins to wear thin and the fixion ensemble (fig. 7) composed of three life"Seer" advances towards infirmity and very old sized freestanding bronzes, to the crudity of age, the monuments begin to fall to ruin, mira stucco Devil figure (fig. 6) wearing a rather roring the rise and fall of the individual personality silly Halloween mask. The Crucifixion scene, as he or she prepares for death. with the viewer as witness to the sculptural event, Holy Land U.S.A. is currently in that sorry is no doubt a memory of Italian works such as state for Greco is now in his mid-80s. On the Niccolo dell Arca's Lamentation, in S. Maria other hand, the Pine Hill site is different from della Vita in Bologna, or Guido Mazzoni's similar DN./ Ul it:41IDEA TNE LION AND TNI â&#x20AC;˘SWOOMS DNA. DI TUMID INTO'FIAWSNARIS AND'DMA.'iNTO


5. 5. Peace Through Love and Law monument. This was originally part of another Cross replaced by a new one seen in the background of figure 1.


group in S. Anna dei Lombardi in Naples which set the stage for a long series of Tableaux Vivants.5 The stucco Devil figure is diverting and shows how considerations of style never were paramount at Pine Hill. Notice the inscriptions at the base of the Crucifixion. These verbal signs are everywhere at Holy Land. This is another feature of much Naive and Visionary art, although it is not universally true. More characteristic of what we consider Folk art are the painted figures of Adam and Eve (fig. 8) in a garden of plastic flowers simulating the Garden of Eden. The diversity of styles is what is most apparent at Pine Hill and makes this site somewhat different from many of the other environments we have been considering as comparative material. Holy Land U.S.A. is then, according to my thinking, an intuitive expression unbounded by considerations of style. Symbolic and expressive values are paramount and one senses a latent hostility towards aspects of style per se. In wandering over the site for several weeks with my camera and tripod, I had the strong impression that a discussion of form rather than content would be taboo. There seemed to be a kind of mind-set expressed in the monuments which did not want to be made aware of what we would call formal values because any such notion implied learning and the object of the site was not to learn something new but to teach and preach. I believe that the naive desire to express symbolic values without the intercession of purely formal considerations may be something of a general rule for pure Naive and Visionary art and differentiates it from what we would normally call Folk art. In the latter, there is an obvious joy in working with materials of various types and a very evident awareness of play in the highest meaning of the word. It is this sense of working with materials and using them imaginatively for their own sake which seems to be lacking when we approach pure examples of Naive and Visionary art. Unfortunately for the categorizer there are probably no pure examples. For instance Simon Rodia's "Watts Towers" have elements of both Folk and Visionary art. In spite of the fact that in most specific cases the categories tend to blend together, I think that the point is clear enough. What style there is in these visionary environments, and there definitely is style, is purely intuitive. To think in terms of style would be considered somehow less authentic, less honest. This plunge directly into symbolic themes and motifs without a care about the forms in which they are expressed is probably what differs Naive and Visionary art from true Folk art and of course from the Decorative arts in general. The making of all art is, after all, to transform, to create illusions, to dissemble, and to manipulate form


for its own sake as a more or less conscious activity. Such activities are a far cry from the more limited desire to teach and preach or to express revealed truths via what people in the educational field call visual aids. The desire to express symbolic values at Pine Hill is validated as Naive and Visionary by the denial of any conscious consideration of style. John Greco and associates were obviously in need of putting their private visions into concrete and public form, but a knowledge of the history of any craft or even of form-making itself had no place in this dreamlike symbolic world. Another aspect of Naive and Visionary art which Pine Hill shares with other sites and which tends to differentiate it from true Folk art is a kind of fundamentalism. Whether we are dealing with religious or secular motifs, the simplifications of form and content are extraordinary. I would even go so far as to suggest that it is this blunt primordial quality which links such sites up with Surrealism and which fascinates us today. Although we can barely make mention of these complex connections, we can cite some primordial characteristics. For example, the

6. Detail of a stucco and plaster polychromed figure of the Devil with a Halloween mask. 7. Crucifixion Tableaux Vivant The centralfigures are in the round and made of bronze while the flanking figures on the two Crosses are wooden cutouts. 8. Detail of the figures of Adam and Eve. Wood cut-outs polychromed.



9. 9. Detail of sign reading, "God is Love." Sign painting materials on side of building. 10.The Seven Gifts of the Holy spirit sign. Paint over sheet metal on wood.


motto "God is Love" (fig. 9) may be seen on many monuments at Pine Hill. The formula is found again and again and can be repeated but not enriched. God is love and that is that. If you don't know what that means, too bad. And yet, in looking at this extraordinary example of the sign-painter's art with its three-dimensional effects, I must confess that I did not know what the author meant. Did he mean the kind of love a father has for his daughter or the kind of love a husband has for his wife? Are we speaking of carnal or spiritual love or both? Are there not then different kinds of love and does not our language impoverish the very notion of complexity and richness by not admitting more than one simple motto to define a myriad of feelings and ideas? If indeed Pine Hill purports to teach and preach about the nature of love, why are these fundamental questions not answered, but only formulae repeated? We are told, for example, that we must exhibit charity and wish to know if this is a kind of love? If so, what kind? It is simply not enough to pile up bricks and stucco and tell us that "Where Charity and Love are, There is God." The slogan then, becomes the reality and there is nothing behind it but another slogan and this is true of much propaganda and we feel disturbed. The medium has indeed become the message and all of the richness and variety of the original conception is lost in the process. To replace the lost richness is one of the problems of art, but here we have nothing more than massive simplifications which end in ideological confusion. The very idea that we might be dealing with symbols which are complex, elusive, and ambiguous is hardly imagined. God is love and that is that.


For example, the idea that the concept of charity is often touchingly expressed by the image of a mother and child is hardly imagined. This utter lack of sensibility, this collapse of the imaginative faculties and the naive focus on a slogan without any real form seem to me something of a definition of a great deal of Naive and Visionary art. It is certainly a definition of what we see going on at Holy Land U.S.A. and probably accounts for the fact that many educated people are revolted by the site. It seems to me that the makers of such monuments tend to believe that there is no 'thickness' or 'refractive' quality between what they mean to say and the way they say it. They would probably be astonished to hear that they are not teaching so much as confusing us. The sign or slogan becomes "the thing in itself," symbol and symbolized become utterly confused. In this world of the naive and primordial imagination the way we come to know what we know and how we think about modes of expression is never contemplated. One accepts formulae as given. We are, after all, exploring the landscape of the mind where visions come into being and as with all visions they are best not tampered with. Paralleling the idea that there is a kind of fundamentalism of form and content at work at Pine Hill is the notion that everything must be spelled out for us in the most literal way. As we have already noted, Holy Land U.S.A. presents us with a bewildering variety of signs telling us to do this and to think that. We feel that we are being browbeaten into accepting an argument from a well rehearsed salesman and we recoil in horror. We are being sold a system of belief in a shrill manner and we don't like it. We do not

wish to suspend our critical faculties so easily. In some cases a suspension of belief could lead to aesthetic delight, but we all know that there is a sinister side to it. I found much of the sign language frightening. In one example (fig. /0), we are told that among the many gifts of the Holy Spirit we must count "Fear of the Lord." Of course, this is true in a more complex way, but what a strange gift from a God of love! We are not so much impressed with the fact that the slogan is wrong (we all know what it means), as that it is wrongheaded. In yet another context, John 15:13 is quoted that there is no greater love than to lay down one's life for a friend. This motto is about death but the citation has been ripped from a larger Biblical framework which is an affirmation of life and not death. It is this literal tearing apart of the whole fabric of belief, the isolating of little bits and pieces and the odor of fear that are appalling at Pine Hill and yet a fundamental part of much Naive and Visionary art. One senses the same kind of zeal and religious intensity which often bear evil fruit and are, therefore, threatening. And yet at the same time we are sympathetic because one cannot doubt the good intentions of John Greco and his many associates. Allure and revulsion are here combined. The site is alluring because there is something fascinating and primordial about all visionary messages and revolting because the faculties of sensibility, knowledge, taste, and intelligence are of no use to us in this world of feeling and passion. We find this shrill, passionate strain in the signs of Jesse Howard and in the Crucifixion of Labor of Dinsmoor,for example. But all of this is as it should be for Naive and Visionary art would not be interesting if it were not primordial and thus touched with danger. This ability to shock our civilized sensibilities is what makes the Pine Hill site so real and authentic in spite of the fact that we know it is nothing more than a fiction. The ability to shock our sensibilities may be due to the conflation between symbol and symbolized. The symbols have become so 'thin' and 'transparent' that the difference between the symbol and what it symbolizes dissolves. For example, on a shrinelike replica of an altar (fig. 11) we read the following motto both pressed into stucco and nailed onto a plaque with hardware store alphabets: "Without the Bible the Greeks Came to the Idea of God and Built an Altar to Him. To the Unknown God." Acts 17:22 is cited. Fine and good. This is supposedly a replica of an altar from which St. Paul preached. The afterword is the real stunner and reads as follows: "St. Paul Addressed the Greeks from this Altar." This is the cult of replicas conflated into utter confusion. The reflective capacity that made the author of the motto under the replica of the Dome of the Rock state that it was a "rough reproduction" has now


.61AILL01_4m1 _



A C T.S.n12


vanished and we are contronted with the assertion that the altar that Paul found at Mars Hill is now in Waterbury, Connecticut, when we know that it is not. The replica or the symbol has been invested with something of the real thing. Such examples of the confusion between symbol and symbolized show the a-rational, primordial mind at work. Martin Friedman wrote that projects of this kind, although he did not specify Holy Land U.S.A. among his examples, eventually consume their makers and, for them, replace the real world itself with a world of their personal dreams. Surely this has taken place at the Pine Hill site and accounts for its sense of power and authenticity. The idea that the dream has become more real than the reality of the outside world is another way of saying that the thin line between waking and dreaming has been blurred. In this blurring effect we move towards the real goals of Surrealism and so it is not an accident that sensibilities reared upon Modern art should find sites of this type most appealing. The project was the dream of John Greco who has spent the last 23 or so years of his life actively engaged in it and who is now about 83 years old. Greco has had a very interesting history which puts him in a class by himself in relation to the authors of other Naive and Visionary sites. But this too is as it should be because one of the characteristics of the artists involved is a rampant individuality. A shoemaker's son, he was born in Waterbury, Connecticut, in the last century, was taken back to Italy as an infant, and did not return until he was about 13. One likes to imagine that it was in Italy that he absorbed a sense of

11.Replica of a Greek Altar. Stucco and stone with impressed lettering.


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the profusion of styles and the desire to embody spiritual values in visual form. Upon his return from Italy, Greco worked in a shoe repair shop on Union Street. When he was about 20, he had thoughts of entering the Church and made overtures to St. Mary's Seminary in Baltimore, Maryland. In point of fact, he actually spent a year of study at Siplician Seminary of the Catholic University of America reading theology. The latter probably accounts for the profusion of signs quoting Scripture at Holy Land U.S.A. and the sense of both teaching and preaching. He then decided on a career in law and, according to the literature available on him, entered Yale Law School. Greco later became a well known local attorney. With this background he cannot be classified as an uneducated visionary, but because most of his education was what we would now call vocational we can say that his career still bears some similarity with others we have studied. Greco has been very active in civic and Church affairs in Waterbury for many years and this too differentiates him from other naive and visionary artists who more often than not have achieved very little in a worldly sense. I am thinking here of such figures as S.P. Dinsmoor and Jesse Howard in particular. In 1943, Greco was instrumental in setting up a rather important Nativity scene on the Green in Waterbury and if large oaks from little acorns grow, surely this was his acorn. The Nativity is still given pride of place on Pine Hill. Greco was in fact so active in Church affairs that in 1957 he was made a Knight of St. Gregory by Pope Pious and on his 80th birthday was honored by Governor Ella Grasso. Again in 1957, one year after Holy Land U.S.A. opened, he was made an honorary citizen of the town of Bethlehem and so his honors are international in scope and he is a local celebrity. In 1934 he organized the Campaigners for Christ, a Catholic lay organization, to visit various sites and explain the faith at a grass roots level. This and the Nativity scene of ten years later resulted in the Pine Hill site of 1956. The site is immense as these things go and covers some 12 acres. It was obviously too large for one man to build by himself and here is where the community leadership of Greco came to the fore. The fact that Greco elicited the enthusiastic cooperation of the people of Waterbury differentiates this from other Naive and Visionary sites in America. From its inception, the site was conceived to be a public monument and certain conditions had to be met. For example, there had to be adequate parking, signs, guidebooks, toilets, and snack facilities. Greco originally asked that the site be staffed by Franciscan Brothers; however, the 12.The Tower of God. Cement blocks with stucco.

Archbishop of Hartford, John F. Whelan, suggested that the Filippini Nuns would be suitable and this provides the semi-official status of the site and again differentiates it from other such enterprises. Such semi-official status is, however, not all that unusual in forms of popular art for we all know that in spite of the fact that the New England Puritans carved a profusion of religious symbols on their tombstones, the burials themselves were civil rather than religious but nevertheless drenched with religious connotations. What then was the purpose of Holy Land U.S.A.? According to the literature the project was meant to increase one's knowledge of the Bible and to inspire good will and understanding between all men and between all religions. This is certainly a worthy goal and one can say that John Greco and his associates have kept their promise. The Tower of God (fig. 12) is an illustration of the concept. The four-sided edifice is composed of cement blocks and suggests that here, as in other monuments, the symbol comes before all considerations of style for it is not nearly as sophisticated in the use of materials as Herman Rusch's "Ancient Tower." And so Herman Rusch was undoubtedly making both Folk and Naive and Visionary art while Greco at Pine Hill in this example was doing the latter. Notice that positive and negative forms have been pressed into wet stucco. This technique is quite common in sites of this type. The same technique was used by Simon Rodia, Fred Smith, Herman Rusch, and Grandma Prisby. The actual carving of stone was not as prevalent as one would have expected, although it is not totally absent. I imagine that the use of wet materials and molds of various kinds was much quicker than any other method and this is probably as it should be. Because none of these sites was meant to be an exhibition of technical or formal skills, but rather a display of symbolic content, we can certainly understand why subtractive techniques were not often employed. The other sides of the Tower of God are devoted to the Christian and Moslem walls (fig. 13) and in the shadows, the Hebrew wall. Obviously a great deal of thought went into planning the symbolic content but almost none to the form in which it was embodied. This is another indication that we are confronting the landscape of the mind which usually does not deal with specific forms but with shifting and formless dreams. When we come to embody our dreams and have no technical or formal training, we often end up with something as charming and authentic as the Tower of God. Turning back to the stated goals of the Pine Hill site, we mentioned that the reasons for it included a desire to increase our knowledge of the Bible and to inspire good will and under13.Moslem and Christian faces of the Tower of God. Cement blocks and stucco.


standing. Why could not this admirable goal have been accomplished by the Campaigners for Christ which Greco organized in 1934? Obviously there is something more to the Pine Hill complex than is outlined in the literature. Once again Mr. Friedman has some well-considered thoughts on projects of this kind. Visionaries, he says, are obsessed with the need to build and occupy private utopias and in "going public," Holy Land U.S.A. is nonetheless a very private vision. The doing, the making, the organizing, the excitement of great projects being carried out in God's name become a kind of sacred activity. The purpose of Holy Land U.S.A. then, is to perform a ritual act of building for the greater glory of God. The purpose becomes the accomplishment of the act itself and all of this has slightly less to do with teaching and preaching than originally suspected. One senses that as old age and retirement approached, Greco wanted to devote his remaining years to the praising of God and what could be more appropriate than to build? Pine Hill, however, is not a shrine or a regular house of worship. Without a keen appreciation for the Surreal, we would not really understand why we are 15.


fascinated by the site. Surrealism has, after all, time itself are part of the Surrealist vision and freed our imaginations so that we can appreciate these relationships certainly bear further study. all forms of popular and Folk art as aspects of I was also struck by the odd juxtapositions human creativity. The Surrealists taught us that in of the sacred and profane which in any other age spite of the fact that all forms of Folk and Popuwould have been kept apart. In the facade of lar art were once looked down upon, these artists a cement wall (fig. /5) we note molded praying were the closest to the primordial and that is hands (borrowed from Durer) are juxtaposed where many sophisticated modern artists wanted with a sign which advises us to buy ice cream to be. and hot dogs. Pray and eat Pizza. That such In addition, Surrealist art theory has made juxtapositions no longer arouse controversy shows us aware that the primordial impulses that surge how far we have appropriated the Surrealist up from the unconscious make environments aesthetic, or how far the Surrealist vision has ensuch as Pine Hill possible, if not any the less trapped us, depending upon your point of view. improbable. These landscapes become personal Holy Land U.S.A. currently stands in virtual fictions and they touch a deep chord in all of ruin and isolation for a new highway construction us. Indeed, much of what we have seen going on project has made access even more difficult than at Pine Hill can stand as a definition of the Surheretofore. Tourists have dropped from a high realist epoch. Many artists of that period searched of 44,000 per year to a mere trickle today. Volunout the primordial and allowed the passions and teer help which was so enthusiastic years ago concerns of the unconscious mind to speak via has gone on to other civic activities. Now only a variety of automatic techniques. Many Surtwo people help Greco maintain the site. But realists had an aversion to the technical polish while the unique monument lasts, all of us conand high finish of art and tried to make their cerned with Naive and Visionary art should do works look rude and artless. Such artists were what we can to help Greco in his lonely task of almost always concerned with creativity, sponkeeping a dream alive. taneity, lack of sophisticated techniques, and the Notes direct expression of unconscious activity. 1. Martin Friedman "et al", Naives and Visionaries Finally, the Surrealists taught us that the (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1974). This book gives closets of our minds have a collection of quite the reader an insight into many sites created by Naive extraordinary juxtaposed images. The Pine Hill and Visionary artists. It is highly recommended and was site abounds with such visions which are as authen- part of an exhibition organized by the Walker Art Center tic as many Surrealist paintings hanging in our in Minneapolis. 2. Ibid., p. 7. Friedman's introduction to the subject best museums, I was particularly struck with the is outstanding and I have borrowed from his ideas expathetic little sheet metal Noah's Ark which tensively. Holy Land U.S.A. was not included as one of confronts a colossal modern factory (fig. 14). the sites in this extraordinary exhibition. The view symbolizes a Pine Hill more and more 3. Professor Steven C. Foster of the University of Iowa, and a specialist in both Modern and Folk art, removed not only physically but psychologically from Waterbury by a new highway. And so we feel was the first to point out the close connections between Surrealism, Dada, and much Popular, Folk, and Naive and a sense of shock and loss at how time mocks our Visionary art. Because these ideas are very new indeed, fondest hopes and desires and eventually makes research is just now beginning. fools of us all. For what we see here are the ruins 4. Research materials for this essay have been compiled from various brochures and literature available on of a man's dreams. How small and pathetic are the site. Titles for all items will be given as follows: 1. our most significant efforts while in contrast Holy Land Replica, Waterbury, Connecticut (small color a modern factory looms large in the background brochure, undated). 2. Holy Land U.S.A., Pine Hill, and dominates the landscape. Over the years, Waterbury, Connecticut (6-page typed booklet with visionaries extend their imaginary worlds outwards illustrations, undated). 3.A Pictorial View of Holy Land U.S.A. (28-page booklet heavily illustrated but without and are eventually imprisoned by them. Their pagination). 4. Bob Green, "Dark Days Befall Waterbury's transformed environments transform them and Holy Land," Waterbury American (Waterbury, Conn., come to represent true reality and the outside Sept. 15,1978), p. 1. world becomes a kind of fiction or fantasy. The 5. Charles Seymour, Jr., Sculpture in Italy: 14001500 (Baltimore, Md.: Penguin Books Inc., 1966), Plates ruthless eye of the camera rips the veil from 125,126,127, pp. 184,187. our eyes and in Surreal terms shows us what is real and what is false. Thus the feeling of loss is very real at Pine Hill, for even a few years ago Dr. Allan I. Ludwig is Derendinger Professor of the one could see the lonely figure of Greco, now an History of Art at Bloomfield College. He received his aged man, struggling to keep back the imperious Ph.D. degree from Yale where he also did his underhand of time from destroying even more of his graduate work in art and is widely known both as the author of the standard work on New England Stonecherished world. From spring to fall Greco has carving and as a photographer. toiled and one can sense the heartbreak and even All photography by Allan I. Ludwig. rage he must feel as his dream crumbles all about All photographs Copyright Allen I. Ludwig, 1977. him. But decay, collapse, and the mysteries of

14.A view from Pine Hill, Waterbury, Connecticut, showing factory and Noah's Ark ofsheet metal in the foreground. 15.Detail of wall with molded praying hands from Durer and refreshment sign.




People are infinitely creative in using their spare time, whether it's mastering chess, tennis, the alto recorder or entertaining children from their previous marriages. For us, nothing quite equals the "lure" of an all-consuming art project. About 10 years ago, after viewing and gathering art since our teens, we became ever more deeply curious about the definitions of art, where and how to find it at its source and how to package it for exhibition. Over the succeeding years, we became increasingly committed to the custodial aspects of art. Some call it collecting, but "custodian" seems a more compatible word. This is not merely semantics, for we deeply believe that we are, in effect, minicurators in a sort of domestic art waystation for the future. It was with this somewhat idealistic approach that we began "Project Crib Quilt" several years ago: to form a nucleus of excellent to spectacular crib quilts suitable for exhibition. A long history of acquiring art to the limit of our resources and a knowledge of 20th-century Abstraction made it apparent that antique American quilts represented a still relatively affordable art form with direct lineage to 20th-century Imagery, but at substantially lower cost than even fine prints (fig. 1). Many before us had become excited by the folk, graphic, or technical qualities of quilts. Nevertheless, few collections included many crib quilts. There are many possible explanations for this exclusion, and scarcity is the most obvious one. The smaller quilts were made less often and used more frequently, often passed on from child to child to a point of deterioration. In fact, we have estimated that there are probably less than 1500 fine children's quilts surviving in America today. The best preserved of these may result indirectly from the high infant mortality rate during the 19th century,for it seems logical that the quilts of deceased children were more often packed away and saved. Preference for larger quilts may also have related to the postwar familiarity and appeal of the huge wall-size images emerging since the American Abstract Expressionist Movement in painting. Still another explanation is probably dealer profit-motive. Before 1970, when full-sized quilts rarely brought more than several hundred dollars retail, how could one expect a miniature replica to bring more than a fraction of that amount? We have taken the position that the best children's quilts are not miniature replicas, but truly special. First, traditional patterns, repeated so often in larger quilts, were seldom adaptable to crib size, forcing creative resolution which, in turn, made them unique pieces. Second, smaller sizes often demanded different technical competence, not unlike the difference between eye surgery and orthopedics. Third, their scarcity enhanced the potential significance of a collection

of them. Three important collectability criteria were thereby met by children's sized quilts: rarity and uniqueness with capable execution. In addition, we appreciated the fact that the images were also by American women artists (then, as now, an underprivileged minority) and frequently antique, albeit with a "modern" feeling. The fashionable juxtaposition of graphic quilts in homes with modern paintings, period furniture, and all manner of decorative styles attests to the wide appeal of these objects. Indeed, the contemporary enthusiasm for brown tones with many decorators is a repetition of a vogue fashionable in quilts after manganese bronze was introduced into textile printing in 1825. This observation underscores but one aspect of a continuity in design sensibility which appears to have transcended generations. At the time of our decision to begin a cohesive crib quilt collection, there was no collector frenzy for them as there was, for example, with samplers and weathervanes.(By contrast, there were three commercial crib quilt shows in the second half of 1978). Applying the laws of supply and demand, we knew it was inevitable that others would reach our logical conclusion, and we decided to comb the market quickly. That year, the Museum of American Folk Art had an exhibition of children's quilts. The catalogue supplied us with names of some owners and dealers to contact. One person led to another until, before long, it was possible to speak directly to nearly 50 quilt enthusiasts or specialists between New York and California. Unlike contemporary and modern art, New York City is not the only major marketplace for great quilts. Many quality quilts do filter to dealers in New York, but the chance of finding a superb Eastern United States crib quilt for sale in Missouri is much greater than finding a DeKooning or Rockwell painting there. Nonetheless, some of the dealers in New York and Boston played a very important role in our search for quality above all else. After all, the highest form of dealer is teacher as well as salesperson. He or she welcomes serious curiosity and delights in exposing the viewer to a few guiding principles, especially if such effort may result in the emergence of a collector. As one could anticipate, some of these individuals have become good friends as well as valued sources of information and knowledge. After seeing literally hundreds of large and small quilts and reading as much as we could from the available literature, we began to develop a feel for the definition of quality in this unique art form. We decided that antique American quilts, at their best, may represent one of the most advanced levels of professionalism in folk art, often requiring a long apprenticeship. Yet, while technical expertise is important it is not para-







mount,for many a rough-sewn gem reflects true some quality works do come from the "woods," creative genius in the inspired placement of its so beating the bushes can be of value. More and small, found fragments of cloth. On the other more, however, it is "buyer-beware." Recently, hand, it is hazardous to evoke "primitive" or there was a large article in a trade publication "folksy" as euphemisms for amateurish or techreviewing a quilt exhibition in Pennsylvania. nical incompetence. As with any art form, a Surprisingly, the dealer was not one we knew. We unique and pleasing image is also important and learned we were the first to call as a result of the it should remain fresh and interesting, even after article, and, after a pleasant conversation, the a long period of viewing. Our crazy quilt with dealer sent us on approval a "Diamond-in-the log cabin border (fig. 2)is an example of one of Square" Pennsylvania Amish crib quilt. Aware of the most common quilt formats elevated to the rarity of such crib quilts, we were ecstatic "unique" status by its creator's use of border in expectation. How stunned we were to receive materials. In the best examples the elements of a "New Wine in Old Bottles" quilt which almost the quilt, if not the entire image, are miniaturized any novice should have recognized from the (fig. 3) and evoke a feeling of suitability for fabrics, stitching, and aging as a very recent "baby." Expertise in quilting is separate from remake. Our nine-patch with multiple borders graphic quality and at times may almost overremains one of a handful of Pennsylvania Amish whelm the other elements of the quilt (fig. 4). crib quilts known to have survived (fig. 6). Of As for materials, the finest silks and velvets may course, we reimbursed the dealer's postage for yield the world's most boring image, yet witness the Diamond-in-the-Square, but declined the the high spirit of that rare and beautiful combinaquilt. Such examples are apparently getting more tion of just the right choice of ordinary farm and more frequent as the rarity, hence profitfabrics (fig. 5). Age of the quilt is important, both motive, in American crib quilts increases. from the standpoint of history and the degree The major quilt dealers, like dealers of any sort, of exposure of the artist to modern society. Those have long-established lines of supply. It is imposindustrial and social forces that changed the role sible to avoid crossing these paths if one's search is of women in America also freed them from the truly intensive. "Pickers," as they are called, necessity of quilt-making, allowing them to pursue as well as smaller backwoods dealers, are often this craft as much for its artistic as its utilitarian intensely loyal to larger dealers who are willing value. to purchase the entire quality spectrum rather Regrettably, a final element for crib quilt than only the exceptional quilts. Nonetheless, collectors to consider is authenticity. Once one a few will sell outside the chain, knowing that leaves the relatively small nucleus of really knowlthe collector is often more willing to pay retail edgeable dealers in America, he is often on his prices. Some become successful enough to begin own. Large quilts cut down to crib size, album advertising themselves as dealers. One such backsegments built up to crib size, recent knockoffs woods dealer, contacted through an advertisement, of old themes, and reuse of old fabrics and thread refused to violate her commitment to a New York are but a few possible ways a naive buyer can be City dealer by selling directly to us while we misled. Sadly, such "incorrect" examples may were living in New York. How very much we be sold by some of the best-intentioned dealers respected her for her loyalty until she later volunwhose eye for authenticity may be suboptimal or teered to sell to an intermediary who could then who have not screened their merchandise carefulsell freely to us! Another such dealer told us ly. We purchased a rare center-medallion crib quilt at a show that she resented a competitor selling a year or so ago from an honest, well-heeled to us rather than to her. What the jealous dealer collector-dealer who did not have to sell quilts had not appreciated was that we had contacted her for a living, much less pass off incorrect ones. competitor well in advance of the show and promSoon after receiving it, we realized from the ised to meet her there at opening time. Knowing quilt's back and binding that it had been cut who is going to be attending or exhibiting at a down. Of course, the dealer was embarrassed and show allows the serious collector a slight edge happy to refund our payment. That dealer simply in terms of advance planning of potential purwas unaware that the quilt had been altered. chases. If it had been possible to purchase what one One can usually find these grass roots folks, wanted from only the hard-core nucleus of dealers, along with many well-established dealers, buying we probably would have done so. The time, effort, and selling at the opening previews or opening and expense of telephoning, travel, and one-day minutes of important antique shows. Learning of mailings back and forth easily negate any savings these events is easy through trade publications, realized by buying at the grass roots level. Also, or word-of-mouth from collectors and dealers. we learned long ago that a first rate work that Some show sponsors will even allow collectors appears overpriced today will often seem reasonto pay dealers' set-up fees without actually exable tomorrow. Nevertheless, as mentioned earlier, hibiting, which affords another mechanism for

1. Log Cabinâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Windmill Blades or Pineapple Variation. Probably Pennsylvania. Circa 1870. 46" x 46". This crib quilt is an extraordinary example of craftsmanship and sophistication in composition and color. The inconspicuous red and white plaids and stripes and the multiplicity of pieces suggests the possibility that the quilt was made by a member of the Mennonite Order. 2. Log Cabin Bordered Crazy Quilt. Circa 1885. 61" x 40". The relatively unremarkable center section, made of a miscellaneous assortment of materials, is surrounded by a log cabin border. Unification of the chaotic fabrics is improved by repetition of a rose-shaded apple or full moon in the center of each log cabin motif 3. Lady in the Lake. Ohio Amish. Circa 1915. 41" x 30". Hundreds of triangles make up a complex miniature pattern. The commotion and tumult of a frenetic center panel is constrained by a Roman Stripe border of solid color cotton rectangles enclosed in a pink cotton border. (Photo by John Kasparian, New York)

4. Flowers and, Birds. Chintz applique. Circa 1820. 34" x 30". A centered urn and flower bouquet and eight peripheral birds have been ait from chintz and appliqued onto a white muslin background with red sawtooth border. Spectacular quilting of th, background and appliques adds to the overall beauty of this crib quilt.



5. Rooster Crazy Quilt. / 2"x 39". Circa 1880. 391 Large irregular pieces of ordinary wools and cottons are highlighted by several varieties of coarse featherstitching and embroidered plants, birds, and farm animals. In the center section a magnificent rooster or game cock struts in crowing posture with sweeping white tail feathers. 6. Pennsylvania Amish Nine-Patch Variation. Circa 1880. 49" x 49". Wools and cottons are mixed in this rare Lancaster County example. Butternut or walnut hull home-dyed backing with black quilting in chevrons, squares, and intersecting S-scrolls. This image has continuity with Piet Mondrian, Paul Klee, and Josef Albers.


seeing what is available during the pre-show period when dealers often trade among themselves. Hence, it is possible for anyone to join the dealers' "action" at shows, if he is willing to exert himself. Unfortunately, the ever-increasing demand for crib quilts usually results in the necessity to make almost instantaneous purchase decisions. A very knowledgeable dealer whom we know barely escaped buying a cut-down quilt due to pressure from two other dealers who were examining the same quilt at the opening-bell moments of a show. Sometime ago, we locked horns with another collector on a fine quilt in one of the shows. We did not feel combative, so we deferred on the quilt, only to purchase it from the collector several months later. In addition to conventional antique shows, there are documented sales of quilts at auctions as early as 1727. Some of the real grass roots buying still occurs at country auctions, often in Pennsylvania, where several dealers may group together to buy a given piece, then sell it to one of their group at a higher, secondary price before sale on the open market. Hence, a country auction is about as "country" as a country lawyer. Occasionally, a fine crib quilt will also come to auction in the major metropolitan auction houses. We recently acquired the John M. Lyon Centennial Christmas Quilt at New York's PB 84 albeit


at Sotheby prices (fig. 7). Early this year some of the remaining crib quilts of a West Coast dealer were also sold at Sotheby's. Acquiring from collectors provides some interesting stories as well. A collector, like a museum, occasionally deaccessions works, either to upgrade, because of change in taste, an offer impossible to refuse, or for some other reason. Since deaccessioning frequently goes hand-in-hand with trade or purchase of new work, an active collector might be transformed into a dealer before he is even aware of it. Several such dealer-collectors have emerged in New York and elsewhere, frequently operating by appointment from their home. While their material is often unique, their attachment to the objects sometimes results in prices more than reflective of quality. Obviously, the relationship between buyer and seller in these contexts may also be distinctly different from less personalized encounters in the usual commercial environment. One of our most unusual contacts with such a dealer-collector took place between the dealer's Oriental meditation sessions. Conventional collectors (non-dealers) may be even more of a challenge. First, it is not entirely polite to call a stranger and say that you covet his or her quilt which you saw in that show in Georgia. Second, if such a cherished item does become available, the asking price may be staggering.


Sometimes it is not so easy even to find the collector. Not so long ago, we searched out an album quilt, developing a "lead" based upon only two facts: the owner lived in Connecticut and was an active folk art collector. Our "Heart and Hat" quilt (fig. 8) was obtained as a result of a letter that we once sent to its owner, advising that if he ever wished to deaccession the work, we would be pleased to be first in line to care for it. We soon learned that several dealers had also contacted this collector. But this is the nature of supply and demand. Of course, the major hazard to a dealer making such a purchase is that he, too, will become attached to the object, hence pushing him into the collector category. Indeed, several of the quilts in our group have come from the private collections of commercial dealers who had lovingly displayed them on their own walls for a number of years. What to do with 50 or 60 quilts also becomes an interesting issue. Fortunately, they are small, unbreakable, and easily transported, displayed, and rotated. Most of our quilts, along with many of our other works of art, are in dark storage at any given time, since part of our obligation as custodians is preservation. Storage without light doubtless explains the long-preserved quality of old master prints and other works of art, including textiles. In spite of these protections from ex-

posure, we are delighted that the collection was selected for exhibition in the Spring of 1979 by the Baltimore Museum of Art. Curator Dena Katzenberg must have had some greater vision in mind when she selected Mother's Day for the opening of the crib quilt exhibition by the Museum's Friends of the American Wing. Perhaps the most intriguing aspect of our experience in this regard has been the process by which a group of quilts has grown to become fit for the label "collection." In becoming worthy of this label, an assemblage of objects no longer can exist as a static entity, but almost takes on a life of its own,requiring care, attention, and quality control, much as a child would require. So we are constantly upgrading, seeking out just the right quilt to fill one or another real or imagined gap. Of course, one must take care in this setting to be certain that he is controlling, rather than controlled by the collection, lest collection become obsession. Say, we just heard about a really great example in Minnesota


7. John M. Lyon Centennial Christmas Quilt. New York State. 1876. 411 / 2"x 411 / 2". A variety of red and green applique forms suggesting foxes, wreaths, and holly fill,the center. The applique border is formed of red calico bowknots and green swags. This crib quilt illustrates the reverse applique technique. 8. Hat and Heart Quilt. New York. Circa 1850. 341 / 2" x 321 / 2". A charcoal cot,ton high hat is appliqued to the upper portion of a white cotton panel. A red vioolen heart and appliqued message to Young Squire Baldwin fill the lower half This unique crib quilt is one of America's most frequently exhibited and reproduced miniature textiles.

(Photography, with the exception of Fig. 3, by Greg Heins, Newton Center, Massachusetts)



FOLK ARTS IN SWEDEN Focus on Nordiska Museum and Skansen Open-Air Museum/Stockholm The early study and collection of the folk arts in Scandinavia has been credited to Artur Hazelius of Sweden. The culmination of Hazelius's work is the impressive collection housed at the Nordiska Museum in Stockholm. Hazelius initially mounted an innovative exhibition at the 1878 World's Fair in Paris that in the words of Bernard Olson, founder of the Danish Folk Museum, "clearly sets itself apart from the rest of the exhibition with its amassed industrial wonders and trifles, manufactured for the occasion and worthless afterwards. Here was something newâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the emergence of a fresh museum concept associated with a class, the life and activities of which had hitherto been disregarded by the traditional and official view of what was significant to scholarship and culture." Today, Hazelius is known for his foresight in preserving folk culture in Scandinavia as Denmark, Norway, and Finland were all to establish national folk museums based on Hazelius's vision. While each Scandinavian country operates a major national museum devoted to folk culture, each treats not only its own national heritage but also folk materials from all of Scandinavia. The folk arts of Scandinavia have been produced for centuries and museums formulate exhibitions and their collecting patterns by attempting to depict the life and work from the end of the Middle Ages right up to the current day. The Nordiska Museum provides a remarkable encounter for those travelers with a developed interest in the folk arts. In addition to housing Scandinavia's largest library of cultural history, which is open daily to the public, it is the center for the folklife research institute operated in conjunction with the University of Stockholm. Exhibitions trace the evolution of folk patterns through such exhibits as "Swedish Peasant Costumes"; "Life in the Home and Handicrafts"; "Tradition and the Present in House, Household Goods and Festivals"; "Food and Drink"; "Village, Farm and Labor"; "Hunting"; "Fishing"; and "Nordic Folk Art." The overriding conceptual approach to folk material culture attempts to place folk objects in the context of their use. Nordic folk art, like its American counterpart, requires supplementary

definition and an accompanying exhibition catalogue describes Nordic folk art as "representative of provincial art-handicrafts ... the objects we exhibit are all of high quality, many of them are the work of craftsmen. They are not amateur products but the result of conscious composition and of the personal aesthetic conception of the maker." The visitor to the Nordiska Museum will be immediately impressed with the intricate and highly developed carving tradition that prevails in Swedish folk art. Both Renaissance and German Baroque decorative styles have exerted influence on the folk arts of Sweden and Scandinavia, as the provincial carvers strove to replicate the popular styles of the upper classes and nobility. Mangle boards, distaffs, scutching knives, batlets, tankards, ale vessels, and other assorted functional objects for the home received the most patient attention of the carver, as many of these pieces were presented as gifts of betrothal or were used for festivals and in traditional ceremonial ways.

Opposite 1. The Nordiska Museum, founded in 1873. 2. Exhibition area of hand work from Dalarna region. Note the example of wall painting on the right, Nordiska Museum. 2.


While the figurative carving frequently defies adequate description, one is also impressed with the application of strong vital colors to these objects as well as to furnishings (even more highly developed is the painted woodwork of Norwegian folk artists). The strength of Swedish painting lies in the numerous wall paintings still extant. Motifs are drawn almost exclusively from Biblical stories and among the most popular are the Magi on horseback visiting Jesus as an infant, the marriage feast of Cana, and the story of the "Wise and Foolish Virgins"â&#x20AC;&#x201D;which was also a popular textile motif. These wall paintings of the 17th and 18th centuries were painted by itinerant artists and they vary considerably in style. Research has identified the richly illustrated 1618 edition of the Gustavus Adolphus Bible and later editions as the primary sources for these wall paintings that appeared in a wide range of houses from rural farms to small cottages. Geographically, the southern area of Sweden has been the most prolific area for wall hanging paintings, although the northern region (particularly the Dalecarlia region) has left a legacy of more diverse motifs and aesthetic innovation. While it is virtually impossible not to shortchange some areas of fine folk artistry, the mediums of wrought iron, ceramics, textiles, birch bark work, and furniture deserve inspection by folk art "aficionados." Americans are quick to associate "rosemaling" with Scandinavian decorative arts and yet this tradition has been primarily a Norwegian technique that varied geographically according to the mountain valley settlements in Norway. Still, painted furniture abounds in Danish, Finnish, Norwegian, and Swedish museums and some magnificent examples can be viewed at the Nordiska Museum (fig. 3). To complement one's visit to the Nordiska Museum, Skansen, the oldest open-air museum in the world, is directly across from the Nordiska. Originally established in 1891, again by Artur Hazelius, it was designed to "preserve a bit of Sweden before the spread of industrialization completely changed Swedish society." Hazelius planned Skansen to be "a place where the lives of everyday people could be presented in a living way." There are over 150 buildings that have been moved from all parts of Sweden to represent distinctive regions, classes, and chronological periods. The academic field of inquiry known as ethnography had its beginnings here at Skansen and the mission of the work carried on today at Skansen is to continue the investigation of old houses and buildings still standing throughout Sweden. Social patterns of daily life in all the nuances of Swedish folk life, are studied and documented. But the field work takes place out of view of the visitors to Skansen, who are more

3. Cupboard by Iver Gunderson Ovstrud, Numedal, Norway, 1745, Nordiska Museum. 4. Interior of Delsbo farmstead with painted wall painting from Halsingland, Sweden, Skansen Open-Air Museum.



likely to encounter farm animals roaming among the farm buildings, traditional Swedish folk music in the air, folk dancing, and celebrations throughout the park-like atmosphere of Skansen. Traditional folk patterns of life are carried on by Skansen employees who engage themselves in authentic Swedish embroidery, rather than attempting to engage visitors in an item-by-item description of the contents of each building. The effect enables the visitor to sense the purpose that Hazelius proposed,"to see how people lived and how they spent their lives." If you go: The Nordiska Museum and Skansen are located on the island of Djurgarden, which is about a 10-minute bus ride from the center of Stockholm. Bus numbers 44 and 47 both run regularly to Djurgarden (there is also a large amusement park there as well as the Wasa Museum). Ferry service is available from Slussen throughout the year and summer ferry service is available from Nybroplan. Hoursâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;The Nordiska Museum: 9:00 a.m.5:00 p.m. daily; Skansen: 8:00 a.m.-11:30 p.m. daily. Guidebooks are available in English. Some hints: Parking is very difficult on Djurgarden and buses are easily accessible. The Nordiska Museum is large and has regular and special exhibitions worthy of consideration. Cafeteria service is available. Skansen has several entrances and an elevator system provides access to the upper reaches of the open-air museum. Like the Nordiska, to give Skansen a fair visit one should choose comfortable shoes and set aside an adequate amount of timeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; preferably, one day at each site. Evenings are particularly festive at Skansen, and it is a gathering place for local Stockholm residents as there are restaurants, snackbars and stalls. There are also dance floors for dancing and from the middle of May to August, there are folk dance performances at 2:30 p.m. and 4:00 p.m. Concerts of chamber music and a number of other events occur annually. Traditional Swedish festivals, such as the midsummer celebrations, are also held at Skansen.

The Clarion is pleased to announce the start of a series of articles, "A Traveler's Guide to Museums." Co-authored by C. Kurt Dewhurst and Marsha MacDowell, curators of folk art at Michigan State University, the articles will be devoted to acquainting readers with little known but important folk art museums in Europe. Funded by a Museums Professionals Grant from the Smithsonian Institution, the couple toured the Scandinavian countries gathering information, materials and tips for folk art enthusiasts.

5. Distafffrom osterbotten, Finland, mid-19th century, H. 21", Nordiska Museum.


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"The Art of the Pacific Islands" Exhibited at the National Gallery of Art The National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., is presenting "The Art of the Pacific Islands," scheduled for July 1 through October 14, 1979. The most comprehensive exhibition on this subject ever mounted, it will focus on the visual arts of Polynesia, Micronesia, Melanesia, and New Guinea. These Pacific Island groups were not discovered by Europeans until the 16th century when Captain James Cook made contact with the inhabitants. These cultures, remaining essentially unaffected by contact with the West




until well into the 19th century, produced powerful works of art independent of any impetus other than their own traditions and the talent, vision, and craftsmanship of their own artists. Owing largely to historical factors, including early downgrading by missionaries and later neglect by Western art historians, the arts of the islands remain less well known or appreciated than those of pre-Columbian and African cultures. Research since World War II and the discovery of unknown styles in areas explored only in recent decades have greatly increased knowledge of the cultures and peoples represented in this exhibition. Devoted to the major achievements of the islands' visual arts in a variety of media, including wood, ivory, barkcloth, feather work, bone, and shell, the exhibition will present over 400 examples of the finest work extant, rigorously selected for their pristine relationship to the original cultures. These pieces demonstrate the artists' sculptural mastery combined with striking use of color, their employment of simple but elegant abstract design, and their great variation of form, particularly that of the human figure. The majority of the objects come from the earliest periods of Western contact and exploration, with many dating back to the voyages of Captain Cook and other early visitors to the different areas. Included will be intricately carved wooden figures, masks, canoe ornaments, decorated weap-

ons, ceremonial implements, and feather capes, to name a few. Many of the objects are over life-size, among them a large figure of the Hawaiian War God, Kukailimoku, and a 20-foot figure of a crocodile. The objects are being lent from about 70 public and private collections in the United States and abroad. A fully-illustrated catalogue written by Douglas Newton, Adrienne Kaeppler, and Peter Gathercole, with a preface by J. Carter Brown, Director of the National Gallery, will accompany the exhibition. The concept of the installation is a voyage through the island groups from east to west, beginning in Hawaii. The route then takes the visitor through the small island groups of Polynesia and related areas of Micronesia, traverses the large islands of Melanesia, and culminates in New Guinea. This plan is designed to illuminate the interrelationships of the style areas and to illustrate recurrent themes in Pacific Islands art. For further information contact the National Gallery of Art, Sixth Street at Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20565, telephone 202 7374215. 1. Mask. Papua, New Guinea, Torres Strait. Turtleshell, sennit, wood, human hair, and cassowary feathers. H. 20". (Raymond and Laura Wielgus collecton) 2. Crocodile. Papua, New Guinea, East Sepik Province. Painted wood. L. 270". (Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas)

The Georgia Art Bus Program The State of Georgia has found a novel as well as convenient way of presenting folk art exhibitions to the schools and to the public. They have instituted the Georgia Art Bus Program, a major visual arts project, which transports school exhibitions featuring folk art and contemporary crafts to various communities. Two buses operate within the state, one servicing the northern region and another the southern. The North Bus contains a large exhibition entitled "Contemporary Crafts in Folk Art." Divided into four main areas of interest, wood, metal, clay, and fiber, this exhibition creates a three-dimensional environment by demonstrating the artistic process through displays, photographs, and descriptions. The South Bus transports an exhibition of "Patterns," a visual awareness experience which presents the idea of patterns in works of art. Viewers are able to participate in this show by manually experimenting with buttons, switches, and knobs. Fascinating for students, this exhibition is sophisticated enough to captivate adult audiences as well. In its eighth year, the Georgia Art Bus Program operates year-round. The brightly painted buses provide their own form of advertising and have met with great popularity. Although the purpose of the Program is to provide the Georgia public school system with a unique learning experience for their students, the Program has also been designed for the enjoyment and appreciation of adults. The exhibitions, which remain at each location for three weeks, incorporate original works by outstanding Georgia artists as important elements of the overall theme. Teachers of all subjects are prepared for the project, and a professional artist visits each school for a week during the course of the show. Not only available to school children, the exhibitions are open to the general public for several days at each stop. Each bus also contains a Community Touring Show. This show has a wide diversity of styles and media produced by Georgia's artists, and is a part of the

permanent collection of the State. While the bus is in the host community, works from this show may be displayed in a local public place (e.g., library, hospital, prison, community arts agency, gallery, etc.). The Georgia Art Bus Program is made available free of charge to schools in Georgia through a grant awarded to the Georgia Arts Alliance by the Georgia Council for the Arts and Humanities. Other sponsors include: the Atlanta Arts Alliance, Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College, the National Endowment for the Arts, the Citizens and Southern Banks in Georgia, the First National Bank of Atlanta, and the National Bank of Georgia. For further information, please contact Cary Beck, Suite 1600, 225 Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Ga. 30303,404 656-3967.

Results of Sotheby Parke Bernet's Sale of the Stewart E. Gregory Collection The collection of the late Stewart E. Gregory grossed $1,340,450, setting the auction record for any sale of American folk art and for any single-owner auction of Americana. Hundreds of bids were placed prior to the sale from around the country and more than 1000 people overflowed the auction room. Prices repeatedly soared many times above estimates. Seventeen individual world auction records were posted including the record for any WEATHERVANE— $25,000 (est. $8-10,000), copper Indian "Mashamoquet" figure; FOLK CARVING—$30,000 (est. $10-15,000), wood bust of Capt. M. Starbuck, Nantucket; FOLK ART TOY—$11,000 (est. $68,000), carved Civil War toy; DECOY— $12,500 (est. $4-6,000), Canada Goose; PORTRAIT BY JOHN BREWSTER,JR. —$67,500 (est. $25 -35,000), "Portrait

of a Child"; AND MANY OTHERS. (Originally printed in Sotheby Parke Bernet publication, The Department of Museum Services Newsletter, AprilMay, 1979)

The Village Museum in Bucharest, Romania For travelers en route to Romania, a definite point of interest is the Village Museum,located at Soseaua Kiseleff 28, Bucharest. This open-air ethnographical museum consists of a large assemblage of houses, household implements, and folk art objects from all over the country. Designed to simulate an authentic Romanian village, it includes approximately 300 buildings with different uses which make up the historic, economic, social, and artistic environment of a pre-19th century settlement. The pieces of folk art express feelings about Romanian spirituality as well as being fine examples of common utilitarian objects which give information and insight about their heritage. Founded in 1936 by Professor Dimitrie Gusti, the former head of sociology at the University of Bucharest, the Village Museum instituted and has succeeded in maintaining high scientific standards. A strict adherence to the idea of authenticity and expertise governs the selection, research, and conservation methods. The buildings have been disassembled, removed from their original sites, and then reassembled by local craftsmen in accordance with building techniques of their area and period. A scientific team acquired the 25,000 pieces of Romanian folk art, all of high artistic value. As an educational as well as recreational facility, the Village Museum has established contact with a number of Romanian and foreign ethnographical specialists who are interested in using it as a model institution for developing similar museums in other areas. The Village Museum is open Tuesday through Sunday between 10:00 A.M. and 6:00 P.M. Telephone number is 17 59 20. 51

The Textile Conservation Workshop A new facility has just opened that can provide reliable care for your antique textiles. The Textile Conservation Workshop is a nonprofit organization, located in northern Westchester County, New York, that is designed to offer a wide variety of conservation services both to organizations and to private individuals. These services include all aspects of preparation for storage or exhibition, from cleaning, mounting, and packing to many more specialized protective


measures. All work is preceded by a condition report describing detailed information on the historical background, fiber and design construction, dye fastness, and the present condition of each textile. This report is accompanied by an estimate report with recommendations for treatment and expected costs. Due to their fragility, their sensitivity to environmental abuses such as light, heat, moisture, insects, and dirt, as well as the wear resulting from their use, textiles present special problems to the conservator and demand highly individual and specific attention. The Textile Conservation Workshop is headed by Patsy Orlofsky, an authority on 19th-century American textiles and co-author of Quilts in America. The entire staff has a thorough background

and knowledge of the textile industry, conservation, ethnography, and archeology. The Workshop provides its services to museums, historical societies, restorations, collectors, and antiquarians, and is open Monday through Thursday, 9:30 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. For appointments or additional information please contact The Textile Conservation Workshop, Main Street, South Salem, New York 10590, telephone 914 763-5805. (Ed. note: This facility is not to be confused with the Textile Conservation Center described in the Fall 1978 issue of The Clarion, pp. 42-43.) Patsy Orlofsky and Karen Clark prepare to roll an antique quilt. (Photo courtesy ofJoyce Goldberg, The Newtown Bee, Newtown, Connecticut.)


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STENCILING, QUILTING:NEW WAYS TO REACH THE COMMUNITY Catherine Calvert Docent Reporter For days the children of P.S. 69 stitched on their quilt squares, miming in miniature the quilting bees of a hundred years ago. Heads bent, brows furrowed in concentration, they worked together while the quilt bloomed like a flower in their hands. How do you teach an assortment of 8-year-olds about American folk art? By inviting them to the Museum of American Folk Art and then following up with visits to local elementary schools presenting one of the docents' quilt workshops. After days of work, encouraged by docents Hyla Bertash, Suzanne Feldman, Louise Hartwell, and Gwen Kade, and the children's mothers and grandmothers, the big day cameâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;time to finish off the quilt by tying it, and carrying it in triumph to be mounted in the hallway of their school. Working as a docent involves much more than simply standing in the galleries, primed for questions, during the Museum's hours. Many docents are involved in extending the Museum's outreach into the community by concentrating on reaching the youngest museum-goers. Too many people have memories of being dragged through


1 and 2. Cynthia Schaffner (left in photo 1) and (with back to camera in photo 2) discussing the special exhibition, "The Woman Folk Artist in America," with students in the Museum galleries.


3. 3.P.S. 69 children displaying the quilt they created under the leadership of Museum of American Folk Art docents. 4. A group of docents visited the Connecticut Historical Society in Wethersfield, Connecticut, in April and Lucy Danziger snapped their picture in front of the Webb House. First row: Joyce Hill, Ellin Ente, Priscilla Brandt, Ellen Howe, Suzanne Feldman, Roberta Sieber. Second row: Pilar Zuleta, Lane Maurer, Susan Klein.



endless marble corridors on fifth-grade field trips and led up to peer at pictures they had little knowledge of and less interest in. By going into the schools, Museum docents hope to make children's first experience of folk art a personal, meaningful one, either through "handson-the-needle" projects, or amplifying a slide show with word games and puzzles that amuse as they teach. Cynthia Schaffner, who has visited Brearley and Spence schools with an introductory lecture on folk art, found students' enthusiasm and knowledge high. Often the school's initial invitation was for something as simple as a showcase exhibition of hooked rugs and baskets. When interest was stirred by seeing the objects, the Museum was invited to visit the fifth and tenth grades, which were studying American history. "We took a large variety of objects for them to see and touch—quilts, decoys, samplers, baskets, a hogscraper candlestick." The newly-refined slide show of pieces from the Museum's collections, developed and pioneered by Cynthia, garnered "unbelievable enthusiasm. They knew The Peaceable Kingdom, loved the Flag Gate, and recognized it as a gate. When a fraktur was shown, one fifth grader started translating it, using her own knowledge of Yiddish."

Some new crossword puzzles and "find the hidden word" games underlined the vocabulary that was being used. And the students simply enjoyed the objects. "I think they had great visual excitement, took a lot of pleasure in seeing the folk art. They responded immediately to the `folky' quality— flatness, naivete." Cynthia adds, "I think children love the Museum—it's so friendly and cozy." Many return with their parents. Another lecture at Spence inspired the fifth grade to visit the Museum a month later. The school visits, which include trips to Rye Country Day and Berger Community College, are aimed at developing new enthusiasts for folk art. "Every contact you make eventually results in something for the Museum." In late spring, an ambitious program was developed by Marie Smith DiManno to support the spring show of folk art at the Goddard Riverside Community Center on the upper west side. Six hundred children from the first to the sixth grades were taught to stencil, with the help of Museum docents and the Center staff, experimenting with a theorem painting or decorating one of the 300 cigar boxes that Marie had painted ochre. She and other volunteers scissored heart, tulip, and bird designs out of old x rays, to be used with acrylics

to form the designs. Marie, who has a degree in art curriculum planning, also developed a "match the picture" game to increase the children's interest in the exhibition they would see. There have been expeditions for the docents—to Pie Galinat's quilt restoration workshop, to the New Haven Historical Society, to a special preview of the late Stewart E. Gregory's personal collection of folk art, and lectures from Pat Coblentz during a year that has seen the docent program grow and broaden. "Every docent seems to be doing the most she can," says Lucy Danziger, head of the Docent Committee. "I'd especially like to recognize Sudee Kugler, who's advised on art projects and 'spread the word' outside the New York area, and Phyllis Tepper, who represented the Museum so well at the Northeast Museum Council Conference. And, too, I'd like to commend the gallery docents— they're the backbone of the organization."

We are grateful for the fifteen Junior League women who participated in the Docent Program this year.

Active Docents as of April 1, 1979 Sue Ann Abernathy LeeAnn Aukamp Julia Baughman Hyla Bertash Priscilla Brandt Cathie Calvert Patrice Clareman Deborah Davis Davida Deutsch Marie Smith DiMann° Susan Earle Ellin Ente

Suzanne Feldman Migs Fiend Susan Flamm Betsy Flynn Irene Goodkind Heather Hamilton Louise Hartwell Ellen Howe Jean Hudson Gwen Kade Margery Kahn Dorothy Kaufman

Friends of the Docents Jana Klauer Susan Klein Sudee Kugler Wendy Lavitt Lane Maurer Susan Metcalf Sallie Nelson Diana Niles Sara Parter Maralyn Rittenour Lucille Rosen Cynthia Schaffner

Linda Schrader Karen Schuster Myra Shaskan Roberta Sieber Cathy Somer Phyllis Tepper Eleanora Walker Meryl Weiss Pilar Zuleta

Joyce Cowin Roberta Gaal Laura Henning Toby Landey Sally Lubell


Active Members as of April 1, 1979

Marilyn Glass, Chairman Jana Klauer, Vice-Chairman, House Tour Joyce Cowin, Vice -Chairman, Benefits Dianne Butt, Treasurer Cynthia Schaffner, Secretary

Mama Brill Anderson Carol Bohdan Odessa Bourne Lillian Brahms Barbara Butt Alan E. Cober Daniel Cowin Lucy Danziger David Davies Nancy Druckman Burton Fendelman, Esq.

Helaine Fendelman Susan Flamm Sarah Frassinelli Danielle Gaherty Judy Garfunkel Irene Goodkind Ellin Gordon Kaaren Parker Gray Mrs. Richmond K. Greene Judith Guido Phyllis Haders

Barbara Hess Jay Johnson Joan Johnson Susan Klein Edward F. Knowles Sudee Kugler Pete and Anne Lowder Helen McGoldrich Mrs. Edwin H. Miller Samuel Pennington Lisa Puntillo

Ruth Raible Virginia Saladino Karen Schuster Myra Shaskan George Shaskan Scudder Smith Maureen Taylor Eleanora Walker Meryl Weiss Julia Weissman Riki Zuriff



Current through September 3 EXHIBITION OF LEWIS MILLER DRAWINGS. A rare 1850s sketchbook of Virginia scenes was recently presented to the Williamsburg Folk Art Center. Nineteenth-century Virginians are depicted with naive charm in these watercolor drawings by folk artist Lewis Miller. The sketchbook includes 147 drawings which present scenes of everyday life in Virginia during the 1850s, botanical studies, and a series of European views. Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Collection, Williamsburg, Virginia 23185. Current through September 15 FRENCH FOLK ART. This show features the decorative arts of rural France from the 18th and 19th centuries. It is on loan from the French National Museum of Folk Arts and Traditions, Paris. Museum of Our National Heritage, 33 Marrett Road, Lexington, Massachusetts 02173. Current through September 30 THE ARTS OF NATIVE AMERICA. A continuation of "A Native American Arts Festival," initiated and organized jointly by the Native American Programs, Native American Studies, and the Dartmouth College Museum & Galleries. The Festival features exhibitions of a wide spectrum of Native American culture, past and present, by presenting an instructive integration of art, artifacts, and documents. Dartmouth College Museum and Galleries, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755. Current through September 30 REDWARE POTTERY IN CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA. This loan exhibition consists of nearly 200 pieces of red earthenware used and made in central Pennsylvania in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Extensive documentation accompanies the display of pottery, including newspapers, wills, census records, deeds, oral accounts, etc. William Penn Memorial Museum, 3rd and North Streets, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17120. 56

Current through October 5 THIRD ANNUAL WORKSHOPS OF HISTORICAL AMERICAN TRADES at Eastfield Village. Dedicated to the preservation of Historical American Trades, all of Eastfield's resources will be available to workshop participants, providing an ideal historical atmosphere in which to study and work. Courses are offered in Tinsmithing and Housewrighting. For additional information write Eastfield Village, Box 145, R.D. East Nassau, New York 12062. Current through October 7 HANCOCK SHAKER VILLAGE OPENS. One of the longest-lived Shaker communities, made up of 20 restored buildings surrounded by gardens, orchards, fields, and woodlands, opened to the public on June 1. First settled in 1780, the Hancock Shaker Village has served as a private museum since 1960. The Village features the preparation of Shaker-style meals in their modern kitchen facilities, a Book Store, Gift Shop, and Kitchen Sisters' Good Room. Special events include: broom making workshop, July 28; all-day Farmer's Market with picnic, August 4; week-long Kitchen Sisters' Festival featuring World's Peoples' Dinners (early reservations recommended), August 5 through 11; Craft Festival, August 25, 26; Shaker breakfasts served (early reservations recommended) September 30, October 7 and 14; Autumn Festival, October 6, 7. Shaker Community, Inc. P.O. Box 898, Pittsfield, Massachusetts 01201. Current through October MADE IN FAIRFIELDâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;WILTON. Wilton Historical Society, 249 Danbury Road (Rt. 7), Wilton, Connecticut 06897. Current through October THE MUSEUM VILLAGE IN ORANGE COUNTY. Considered one of the country's largest outdoor museums of 19th century technology, the Museum Village offers entertaining and educational programs of exhibits, craft demonstrations,

and special Sunday events depicting the way our forefathers lived. Beginning with the age of homespun, crafts, and emerging industry, and ending with the start of the Industrial Revointion, the Museum's more than 30 exhibit buildings house thousands of artifacts and tools illustrating the era. Museum Village in Orange County, on Routes 6 and 17, Monroe, New York 10950. Current through 1979 BAROQUE TO FOLK. Folk arts of the colonies of Spain as they relate to one another in content, form, and style. Special emphasis upon 19th-century New Mexican folk art as a primary example of a regional style. Religious art from Spain and her former colonies of New Mexico, Mexico, Guatemala, Columbia, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Goa (Portugese) and Ecuador are among the approximately 150 to 200 objects on display. Decorative arts illustrating the variety and similarities of various colonial styles are also shown. Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501. Current through 1979 FANTASY AND ENCHANTMENT: SELECTIONS FROM THE GIRARD FOUNDATION COLLECTION. This exhibition aims to give the public an overview of a collection which is being donated to the State of New Mexico and will be housed at the Museum of International Folk Art. On display are toys and dolls, textiles, paintings, and sculpture from many countries, installed in fun and imaginative settings designed by Alexander Girard. Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501. Current through 1979 MUSEUM OF INTERNATIONAL FOLK ART'S 25TH ANNIVERSARY EXHIBITION. Items from the collections of the Museum of International Folk Art will illustrate the variety of its holdings in celebration of the museum's Silver Jubilee. Labels will inform the viewer

concerning the history of the museum, its foundress Florence Dibell Bartlett, and the plans for the new Girard Wing scheduled for construction this year. The folk art exhibited will consist of outstanding examples of sculpture, textiles, costumes, paintings, furniture, and decorative arts from many parts of the world. A small publication will accompany the exhibition. Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501. July 1 -October 14 THE ART OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. The most comprehensive exhibition on this subject ever mounted will focus on the visual arts of Polynesia, Micronesia, Melanesia, and New Guinea. Presenting over 400 of the finest works extant in a variety of mediums, the pieces range from textiles and utilitarian objects to ceremonial implements, primitive jewelry, and decorated weapons. A fully illustrated catalogue will accompany the exhibition. (For further information please see "Noteworthy Items" section, this issue). National Gallery of Art, Sixth Street at Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20565. July 1 -October 31 SHEET METALWORKING IN AMERICA. The very American trade of sheet metalworking is the subject of this historical exhibition. On display are all aspects of the craft including tinware, architectural fragments, and metalworking tools, in order to present the full range of sheet metalwork in America. Besides these artifacts, paintings by John Niro, a trained sheet metalworker and gifted folk artist, depicting interior and exterior scenes of sheet metal shops represent an early 20thcentury view of the craft. The Farmers Museum, New York Historical Association, Lake Road, Cooperstown, New York 13326. July 3-September 2 HAWAIIAN QUILTS. This exhibition of rare Hawaiian quilts marks the first time that many of these needlework gems, made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, have been shown outside the Hawaiian villages where they were first crafted. These unique quilts reflect an affinity of Hawaiian quiltmakers with their natural surroundings, expressed in

bright, bold floral motifs and abstract symbols, enhanced with waves of quilting stitchery flowing gently around each detail. The Honolulu Academy of Arts and the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, as well as several private collectors, are loaning outstanding examples for this premiere showing on the mainland. The Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53 Street, New York, New York 10019. July 31 -August 12 AMERICAN FOLK ART. An exhibition from the collection of Richard G. Durnin, New Brunswick, New Jersey and Norway Center, Maine. Works will include 19thand 20th-century paintings, decoys, and textiles. An opening reception will be held on Tuesday, July 31 from 6:00 to 8:00 P.M. Western Maine Art Center, Norway, Maine 04268. August 4-5 A FESTIVAL OF MORAVIAN ARTS. Historic Bethlehem Inc. and the Moravian Museum have joined to sponsor this festival which includes craft demonstrations, lectures, music, food, and tours of the museums operated by the two organizations. The Moravians were a group of middle-European Protestants who purchased 500 acres of Pennsylvania frontier from the Penn family in 1741 and founded Bethlehem. The settlement they built was communal and economically self-sufficient, containing 32 industries and receiving spiritual guidance from the central church in Germany. The Festival of Moravian Arts illustrates the importance that the combination of technology and culture played in the lives of these people, and how together they made unique and significant advancements in the areas of art, music, crafts, industry, and religious and social history. Historic Bethlehem Incorporated, 516 Main Street, Bethlehem,Pennsylvania 18018.

August 6-10 and August 13-17 1979 COVERLET WORKSHOP. The Bishop Hill Heritage Association is sponsoring this workshop for all those who wish to study old fiber skills firsthand. Held at the Bishop Hill Colony, a town originated by Swedish colonists who formed a communal society which was dissolved in 1861, the program will include guest speakers and tours and beginning and advanced courses in

spinning, dyeing and weaving. Registration fee is necessary. Bishop Hill Heritage Association, P.O. Box 1853, Bishop Hill, Illinois 61419. August 11 -September 9 QUINTESSENTIAL QUILTS: THE GREAT AMERICAN QUILT CONTEST. The Great American Quilt Contest was sponsored by Good Housekeeping Magazine, The U.S. Historical Society, and the Museum of American Folk Art. Thirty-seven quilts chosen from 10,000 national entries in the competition are touring the country under the sponsorship of SITES (Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service). Quilts representing every region of the country are included in this exhibition, from the "Ray of Light" National Winner in Virginia to the "Hats and Patches" quilt from Beaverton, Oregon. The exhibition is accompanied by text panels presenting the history of quiltmaking, quilts as art, and the different techniques of this craft. State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 816 State Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53706.

September 25-November 18 THREE CENTURIES OF CONNECTICUT FOLK ART. Opening in the autumn at the Wadsworth Atheneum, "Three Centuries of Connecticut Folk Art" will travel to seven institutions in five Connecticut towns until July of 1980. The exhibition is devoted to the examination and display of folk art in Connecticut and will feature items of high quality in all mediums. Sponsored by Art Resources of Connecticut, a visual arts service agency fostered by the Connecticut Commission on the Arts, it is hoped that this exhibition will encourage further exploration and interpretation of the state's folk art, as well as stress the need for its preservation and active conservation. Wadsworth Atheneum, 600 Main Street, Hartford, Connecticut 06103.

October 19-November 18 AN EXHIBITION OF THE WORKS OF SUSAN C. WATERS. Portraits are the main focus of this special exhibition, with some examples of the artist's later Victorian painting. A catalogue will be available. Longwood Fine Arts Center, Longwood College, Farmville, Virginia 23901.




AMERICA CELEBRATES ITS PATCHWORKED PAST Laura Byers Exhibition Coordinator It wasn't all that long ago that country furniture decorated only rural homes and folk art was for people who didn't know any better. Times have changed and with them the interests of American collectors. Not since the Arts and Crafts Movement of the 19th century have humble handicrafts so captured public fancy. Much of this renewed interest focuses on quilts, and understandably so. American quiltmakers have developed an almost timeless language. While the painstaking handiwork of these textiles speaks to us from times past, the visual imagery of the quilt is spare, decisive, sometimes deceptive; in a word, contemporary. The Museum's permanent collection has been enhanced recently by the addition of three quilts: a bride's quilt top in the Bird of Paradise pattern, the Centennial quilt, and a block-patterned pieced quilt. The quilt top, so-called because it was never stitched to a fabric backing, was acquired for the Museum by its Board of Trustees. It has dazzled many a viewer including those who attended the Whitney Museum of Art's exhibition, "The Flowering of American Folk Art," in 1974. And no wonder. The piece is a brilliant collage of animals, flowers, and people in cotton, wool, silk, and velvet. Its history, which tells the story of a bride never wed, is no less captivating. The few existing clues that explain the quilt top's past are enough to set


romantic individuals dreaming. The bridal quilt is the traditional culmination of a young girl's effort. In some cases the bride designed and stitched the top, but was not allowed to quilt it. In other instances, it was the groom who created the applique pattern for the top. The Bird of Paradise bride's quilt top was never finished and never used. It is speculated that, for one reason or another, the marriage never took place. One block in the right central portion of the textile contains a stylized portrait of a young girl. The block on her left is curiously nonspecific, decorated only with border detail. Evidence supports the theory that this block was originally intended to contain a portrait of the groom. One of the most remarkable features is that the paper patterns for the fabric appliques have been preserved and are now part of the collections of the Museum of American Folk Art. Among these paper patterns is one that was never used—the cutout portrait of a young man, presumably the groom. Through information printed on the newspaper patterns it has been possible to date the manufacture of the textile to between 1858 and 1863. Several other pieces of evidence have not yet been put to such conclusive ends. First, the coverlet is accompanied by a daguerreotype of a young woman who bears a startling resemblance, given the limitations imposed by the fabric medium, to the figure portrayed on the quilt top. Second, the horses decorating the work have been named "Ivory Black," "Black Hawk," "Flying Cloud," and "Eclipse" by the stitcher. Possibly these names could be traced to livery stables and racetrack records in an effort to identify the needleperson. Such information presents a fascinating challenge to future scholars. Of similar stature to the Bird of Paradise quilt top is the Centennial quilt presented to the Museum by Rhea Goodman of New York City. Relatively little is known about this newly-acquired

piece. It was discovered at a flea market in Salisbury, Connecticut, eight or nine years ago and, though the name of the maker or owner, G. Knappenberger, is emblazoned on its upper and lower borders, the origin of the quilt could not be established with any certainty. The Centennial quilt nevertheless speaks for itself. Myron and Patsy Orlofsky chose to illustrate it in Quilts in America (New York: McGraw Hill, 1974) and, noting the bold designs one associates with the rural arts of Pennsylvania, have speculated at the textile's origin. Pattern marks this quilt's greatness. The design symbols used—organic motifs and lettering—are regularly sized and spaced. At no time does the design falter, but keeps a steady cadence. At no time does pattern retreat, but advances at a uniform pace. As Patsy Orlofsky has remarked, "The theme of the Centennial is not by happenstance illustrated. This piece fully captures the excitement of this particular moment in history." Finally, Carol Wien of Coral Gables, Florida, has donated a block-pattern pieced quilt, notable for the fineness of its stitchery. These three quilts continue to generate the excitement of their original inspiration. Also noteworthy is a medley of contemporary folk painting recently given to the Museum. Jean Troemel of St. Augustine, Florida, has presented the Museum with Ship Chanderly by the Florida folk artist Earl Cunningham. In this imaginative harbor scene, flamingos roost atop palm trees and ships float in a golden sea. Circus Parade, a gift from the artist Kathy Jakobsen, is a boisterous depiction of the circus come to town. By contrast is Eunice McCloskey's gentle vision of Ridgway Sixty Years Ago. McCloskey is known for her reminiscences in picture and. word of Pennsylvania's rural past. Recent gifts dating from the 19th century include Quaker Woman, an anonymous and sober oil study given

1. Applique' quilt top in the Bird of Paradise pattern. Artist unknown. Poughkeepsie, New York. 1858-1863. Cotton, silk, wool, and velvet on cotton. 87"x 711 / 2". Gift of Catherine G. Cahill, Mrs. Frederick M. Danziger, Ralph Esmerian, Barbara Johnson, Esq., Mrs. Jacob M. Kaplanâ&#x20AC;&#x17E; Mrs. Ronald Lauder, and William E. Wiltshire III. 2. Applique'and patchwork Centennial quilt by G. Knappenberger. Probably Pennsylvania. 1876. Cotton. 70"x 90". Gift of Rhea Goodman.




by Dorothy Miller (Mrs. Holger Cahill) and four tinsel pictures given by Mr. and Mrs. Day Krolik, Jr. (see The Clarion, Winter 1978). Our sculpture collection is growing by leaps and bounds with contributions from Merle Glick, of Pekin, Illinois; Roderick and Betsy Moore of Ferrum, Virginia; and Mr. and Mrs. Edward Meyers of New York City. Mr. Glick has stepped forward once again with a rich variety of fish, duck, and shorebird decoys. His gift includes shorebird carvings by Herman Glick of Havana, Illinois; fish decoys by Miles Smith of Marine City, Michigan; and a canvasback drake by the Peoria, Illinois, carver Charles Schoenheider, Jr. Like these decoy carvers, Burlin Craig and Ben Ortega are contemporary masters of traditional subjects. Craig hails from Vale, North Carolina. His grotesque jug is the gift of Roderick and Betsy Moore.


St. Francis, by Ben Ortega of Tesuque, New Mexico, is the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Edward Meyers. Ortega is well-known for his carved and assembled sculptures in cedar, drift-, and cottonwood. In summary, recent gifts to the permanent collection span the 19th and 20th centuries and represent a variety of artists, media, and traditions. They are of such quality and variety, in fact, that acknowledgment here barely suffices. The Museum's appreciation will live well into the future and the prosperity of these recent months will be shared publicly for years to come.


3. Circus Parade by Kathy Jakobsen. Michigan. 1979. Oil on canvas. 24" x 36". Gift of the artist. 4. Grotesque Jug by Burlin Craig. Vale, North Carolina. 1978. Glazed redware. 111 / 4"x 9". Gift of Roderick and Betsy Moore. 5. Fish decoys. Circa 1930. Wood, tin. Left to right: Northern Michigan, L. 8 3/4"; Illinois, L. 8/ 1 2"; Marine City, Michigan, L. 17", made by Miles Smith; Northern Michigan, L. 8"; Northern Michigan, L. 7". Gifts of Merle Glick. 6. Bluebell duck decoy. St. Clair Flats, Michigan. Circa 1930. Carved and painted wood. L. 151 / 4". Gift of Merle Glick. No. 3, Photography by Seth Joel Photo Studio No. 4, 5, and 6, Photography by Dia Stolnitz



Members' Private Preview

Public Opening


Hawaiian Quilts July 2, 1979 July 3, 1979 September 2, 1979 Curators: Thomas K. Woodard and Blanche Greenstein This exhibit of rare Hawaiian quilts marks the first time that many of these needlework gems, made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, have been shown outside the Hawaiian villages where they were first crafted. These unique quilts reflect an affinity of Hawaiian quiltmakers with their natural surroundings, expressed in bright, bold floral motifs and abstract symbols, enhanced with waves of quilting stitchery flowing gently around each detail. The Honolulu Academy of Arts and the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, as well as several private collectors, are loaning outstanding examplesfor this premiere showing on the mainland.

September 13, 1979 September 14, 1979 November 21, 1979 The Shakers in New York State Curators: C. Eugene Kratz, Karl Mendel and Cynthia Rubin This three-part exhibition will feature Shaker dwellings, artifacts including furniture and other decorative arts, as well as the crafts as developed and practiced by the Shakers in New York State. Through the years there have been numerous exhibitions devoted to Shaker works of art, but until this show, none have blended the arts with the crafts to produce a cohesive exhibition that truly represents the Shaker contribution to America's history.

December 5, 1979 December 6, 1979 February 24, 1980 The Art of the Weathervane Curator: Ralph Sessions The weathervane as a work of art will be exemplified by antique weathervanes from the Museum's permanent collection,from private collections, and from public institutions. In addition, the creation of a weathervane from the original design to a completed piece will be demonstrated by a craftsman who will use antique molds, tools, and techniques in "raising" a piece. The exhibition will be enhanced by panels detailing manufacturing techniques for mass-produced weathervanes. This exhibition is made possible through the participation and generous contributions of Kenneth Lynch & Sons, Inc., of Wilton, Connecticut.



American weaving technology and protion and the form and function of each vides an overview of how these proof these three types of baskets. An fessional weavers conducted their busihistorical overview accompanied by strikness. A short-title list, a section devoted ing photographs provides historical into weavers' trademarks, a list of institusight into 19th-century basketmaking tions which hold extensive coverlet and marketing. This book has two check*Heisey, John W. lists, one of documented basketmakers A CHECKLIST OF AMERICAN COVER- collections, a glossary, and a geographical and the other of traditional contemporLET WEAVERS. Williamsburg: The Co- index complete this work. One of the highlights of this well-designed and ary Pennsylvania basketmakers. lonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1978. handsome book is the excellent illustraJeanette Lasansky is to be congratu149p., 8 x 10 in., 10 color and 115 lated for these two studies. In addition black/white illus., glossary, bibliography, tions which have been placed throughout the text. to her own skills, she was assisted by index, $10.00. photographer William W. Irwin and Joy Slepin Mrs. Between 1825 and 1875 professional designer Constance Timm. The results Rockefeller Abby Aldrich Folk Art Center weavers in the United States produced of this union are two handsome publicaPO Box C thousands of coverlets. A Checklist tions which will delight and inform Williamsburg, Virginia 23185 of American Coverlet Weavers focuses the reader. primarily on the professional weavers Union County Oral Traditions Projects who used a hand-powered loom with a Lasansky, Jeanette. Court House Jacquard type attachment. By 1825 MADE OF MUD. STONEWARE POTLewisburg, Pennsylvania 17837 the Jacquard attachment was in common IN CENTRAL TERIES PENNSYLVAuse in America. The variety of coverlet NIA. 1834-1929. Lewisburg, Pa.: Union patterns then available for public conCounty Bicentennial Commission, 1977. sumption greatly increased; the resulting BOOKS RECEIVED 59p., 8 x 10 in., 56 black/white illus., competition made for an excellent bibliography, appendix, index, paper, product which usually sold for between $6.50. $2.00 and $3.00 per coverlet. By 1875 *Branin, M. Lelyn. *WILLOW,OAK 8z RYE BASKET TRAthe individual weaver was being superTHE EARLY POTTERS AND POTDITIONS IN PENNSYLVANIA. Lewisseded by industrialization in the form TERIES OF MAINE.Middletown, Conn.: burg, Pa.: Union County Oral Traditions of the power loom. Wesleyan University Press, 1978. 262pp., Projects, 1978. 60p., 8/ 1 2 x 101 / 2 in., During the heyday of American 7 x 10 in., 67 black/white illus., notes, 98 black/white illus., checklists, biblicoverlet production, 1825-1875, over appendices, index, $22.00. Wesleyan ography, index, paper, $7.00. 900 coverlet weavers were at work University Press, Middletown, Connectiin the United States. The Checklist Made of Mud focuses on central cut 06457. A well-researched history of contains an alphabetically arranged list Pennsylvania in the 19th century. The Maine pottery traditions. Recommended of weavers, birth and death dates, geofirst stoneware pottery started in this for libraries and serious researchers/colgraphical areas where each worked, area in 1834; most stoneware potteries lectors. years within which each worked, and were established by the 1850s and in the number of coverlets made by each full operation during the peak production *Dewhurst, C. Kurt, and MacDowell, that were located in the survey conMarsha. period of the 1870s. The potters were ducted by the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller RAINBOWS IN THE SKY. THE FOLK primarily first and second generation Folk Art Center. The amount of research ART OF MICHIGAN IN THE TWENGermans who had arrived in America involved in compiling this checklist TIETH CENTURY. East Lansing: Michin the 1840s. The pottery produced was prodigious. The result is a highly igan State University, 1978. 128pp., was utilitarian ware with the usual useful resource tool for collectors, 8/ 1 2 x 11 in., 199 black/white illus., blue cobalt whimsical decorations of museum personnel, and the general bibliography, $5.00. The Museum,Michthe Victorian period. A checklist is igan State University, East Lansing, public who want to identify the maker, provided which supplies the name, Michigan 48824. A study of contempoprovenance, and pattern of a 19thperiod of production, and marks used century Jacquard coverlet. rary folk art and artists in Michigan. by each potter covered in this study. Accompanying the checklist is an Recommended for libraries and colWillow, Oak & Rye Basket Traditions introduction which covers 19th-century in Pennsylvania deals with the construclectors.

Jack T. Ericson Editor


*Byers, Laura. 'TILL DEATH DO US PART': DESIGN SOURCES OF EIGHTEENTH CENTURY NEW ENGLAND TOMBSTONES. New Haven: Yale Center for American Art and Material Culture, 1978. 22pp., 9 x 6 in., 16 black/white illus., bibliography, paper, $3.00. Yale University Art Gallery, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520. An exhibition catalogue. *Elwood, Marie. FOLK ART OF NOVA SCOTIA. Halifax: Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, 1976. 59pp., 9 in. sq., 12 color and 73 black/ white illus., paper, $3.00. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, 6152 Coburg Road, P.O. Box 2262, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3J 3C8. An exhibition catalogue, but one which should be read by collectors. "THE FOLK ART MUSEUM." El Palacio, Quarterly Journal of the Museum of New Mexico. Winter, 1978, vol. 84 no. 4, $2.00. Museum of New Mexico Press, P.O. Box 2087, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87503. This issue of El Palacio is devoted to the history and description of the collections of the Museum of International Folk Art in Santa Fe.

Katz, Elaine S. FOLKLORE FOR THE TIME OF YOUR LIFE. Birmingham: Oxmoor House, 1978. 242pp., 6/ 1 2 x 91 / 2 in., 59 black/ white illus., bibliography, $9.95. Oxmoor House, P.O. Box 2463, Birmingham, Alabama 35202. A do-it-yourself instruction book for folklore/folklife research, with a chapter on contemporary folk art. Keck, Caroline K. HOW TO TAKE CARE OF YOUR PAINTINGS. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1978. 96pp., 6 x 9 in., 51 drawings, index, paper, $5.95. Charles Scribner's Sons, 597 Fifth Ave., New York, New York 10017. A reprint of Mrs. Keck's 1954 guide on preservation and restoration, this work is highly recommended for libraries, museums, and collectors. *Murphy, Stanley. MARTHA'S VINEYARD DECOYS. Boston: David R. Godine, 1978. 165pp., 10 x 91 / 2 in., 7 color and 145 black/ white illus., $25.00. David R. Godine, Pub., 306 Dartmouth St., Boston, Massachusetts 02116. A handsome book, recommended to libraries and collectors.

Hornung, Clarence P. TREASURY OF AMERICAN ANTIQUES. A PICTORIAL SURVEY OF POPULAR ARTS & CRAFTS. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1977. 175pp., 9 x 11 in., 450 color illus., paper, $8.95. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 110 East 59th St., New York, New York 10022. Popular and folk art illustrations from the Index of American Design. Rhodes, Lynette I. AMERICAN FOLK ART. FROM THE TRADITIONAL TO THE NAIVE. Cleveland: The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1978. 116pp., 8/ 1 2 x 7 in., 6 color and 88 black/white illus., notes, catalogue, bibliography, paper, $5.00. Cleveland Museum of Art, 11150 East Boulevard, Cleveland, Ohio 44106. A lively indepth interpretation of American folk art, both traditional and contemporary. Recommended for libraries and collectors. *Schorsch, Anita. THE ART OF THE WEAVER. New York: Universe Books, 1978. 256pp., 8/ 1 2 x 11 in., numerous illus., index, paper, $8.95, hard cover, $12.95. Antiques Magazine Library Series. Universe Books, 381 Park Ave. S., New York, New York 10016. A compilation of articles from The Magazine Antiques.

*Neal, Avon, and Parker, Ann. *Good, E. Reginald. SCARECROWS.Barre, Mass.: Barre PubANNA'S ART. THE FRAKTUR ART OF lishing, 1978. 96pp., 8 in. sq., 92 color *SIMPLE GIFTS. HANDS TO WORK ANNA WEBER, A WATERLOO COUNillus., paper, $6.95, cloth, $12.95. ClarkAND HEARTS TO GOD. A LOAN EXTY MENNONITE ARTIST, 1814-1888. son N. Potter, Inc., 1 Park Ave., New HIBITION OF SHAKER CRAFTSMANKitchener, Ontario: Pochauna PublicaYork, New York 10016. A picture SHIP PRIMARILY FROM HANCOCK tions, 1976. 48pp., 10 in. sq., 19 color book-and what appealing photographs SHAKER VILLAGE, MARCH 20-MAY bibliography, illus., black/white and 22 by Ann Parker. 21, 1978. Storrs: The William Benton $12.95. Von Nostrand Reinhold, 135 *QUILTERS CHOICE. QUILTS FROM Museum ofArt, 1978. 39pp., 7 x 9/ 1 2 in., West 50th St., New York, New York THE MUSEUM COLLECTION. Law7 black/white illus., paper, $.75. Wil10020. A must for anyone interested in rence, Kan.: Helen Foresman Spencer liam Benton Museum of Art, UniverFraktur. Museum of Art, 1978. 78pp., 8 x 10 in., sity of Connecticut, Storrs, ConnectiHamburger, Marilyn G., and Lloyd, 8 color and 64 black/white illus., index, cut 06268. An exhibition catalogue. Beverly S. paper, $5.00. Pub. Dept., Helen PoresVon Rosentiel, Helene. COLLECTING FIGURAL DOORSTOPS. man Spencer Museum of Art, University AMERICAN RUGS AND CARPETS New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1978. of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66044. FROM THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 1 2 x 11 in., 12 color and 64 100pp., 8/ Include 50 cents for handling. A picture TO MODERN TIMES. New York: black/white illus., 25 drawings, bibliogbook. William Morrow and Co., 1978. 192pp., A.S. $12.95. raphy, appendix, index, Reilly, Elizabeth C. 9 x 11 in., 32 color and 200 black/ Barnes and Co., Box 421, Cranbury, A DICTIONARY OF COLONIAL white illus., 30 drawings, glossary, bibNew Jersey 08512. A well-documented AMERICAN PRINTERS' ORNAMENTS liography, index, $25.00. William Morrow and illustrated collectors'guide. AND ILLUSTRATIONS. Worcester: and Co., 195 Madison Ave., New York, *Jones, Karen M. American Antiquarian Society, 1975. New York 10016. A well-illustrated and FROM A TO Z. A FOLK ART ALPHA515pp.,.8 x 11 in., 2000 black/white well-documented history of American BET. New York: Mayflower Books, illus., indexes, $45.00. University Press floor coverings. Recommended for liInc., 1978. 54pp.,8/ 1 2 x 91 / 2 in., 24 color of Virginia, Box 3608 University Station, braries and collectors. illus., $7.95. A Main Street Press Book. Charlottesville, Virginia 22903. As design Mayflower Books, Inc., 575 Lexington sources for American folk art, this work Items marked with an * may be purAve., New York, New York 10022. needs to be studied by museum personnel chased at The Museum Shop. Members and serious collectors. A charming picture book. receive a 10% discount.


OUR GROWING MEMBERSHIP JANUARY 1 -MARCH 31, 1979 The Museum trustees and staff extend a special welcome to these new members: Edith Mulhall Achilles, New York, New York Mr. and Mrs. Martin S. Ackerman, New York, New York Elizabeth Adams, Boston, Massachusetts Patricia Adams, Evanston, Illinois Barbara D. Allsop, Upper Montclair, New Jersey Doris Antun, New York, New York Art Institute of Chicago, Ryerson 8c Burnham Libraries, Chicago, Illinois Richard S. Axtell Antiques, Deposit, New York Claire Hodges Bagale, Victor, New York James E. Barker, Ontario, Canada Caroline W. Batson, New York, New York Lanelle Beil, Okemos, Michigan Cynthia Beneduce, New York, New York M.J. Biscontini, Kingston, Pennsylvania Mrs. Eugene A. Bond, Dorset, Vermont Mr. and Mrs. Dan Bottorff, Linden, New Jersey Kathleen O.G. Bower, Madison, Connecticut Ronald Brady, New York, New York Marilyn Bragdon, Carmichael, California Mia Brandt, Atlanta, Georgia Marcia Brandwein, East Hills, New York Henry S. Brightman, Short Hills, New Jersey Brenda Brimmer, New York, New York Mrs. Edward C. Britt, Newark, New York Pamela Eve Brodie, New York, New York Simon J. Bronner, Bloomington, Indiana Doris Brosk, New York, New York Mr. and Mrs. A. Bruesewitz, White Plains, New York Donald A. Bush, Eaton, Ohio Mrs. William L. Camp, Birmingham, Alabama Charles H. Carpenter, Jr., New Canaan, Connecticut Lillian Ahrens Carver, New York, New York James F. Channing, APO Miami, Florida Rebecca Churchill, San Antonio, Texas Mr. and Mrs. L.D. Coblentz, Dearborn, Michigan Dorothy E. Coe, Atlanta, Georgia Carole Collins, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada Debra Collins, Bayshore, New York Mr. and Mrs. Daniel J. Comerford III, Stony Brook, New York Grace K. Cooper, Brooklyn, New York Stephen H. Cooper, New York, New York Shirley J. Corey, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Susan L. Cullman, Briarcliff Manor, New York Martha Currie, Warren, New Jersey K. and A. David, Brooklyn, New York Rosalie Davidson, Brookline, Massachusetts Maureen Decherd, Dallas, Texas Mrs. George W. DeVoe, Bridgewater, Connecticut The Dietrich Foundations, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Robert A. Dodd, Washington, D.C. Laurel Doody, New York, New York Harriet Dow, Albany, New York Mrs. William Lamar Doyle, Houston, Texas Dorothy Dubno, Long Island City, New York Mrs. E. Alexander Dudley, Charlottesville, Virginia Barbara Duffy, New York, New York Robert C. Eldred Company, Inc., East Dennis, Massachusetts Bonnie Ellis, Minneapolis, Minnesota


Gene Epstein, New York, New York Rachelle Epstein, New York, New York Liselotte G. Esselborn, Brooklyn, New York Blanche T. Farley, Troy, New York Mrs. James A. Farmer, New York, New York Andrea Fein, Chicago, Illinois Robert Fleet, Tyler, Texas Janet Fleisher, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania Valerie Dunn Flitter, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania John Floyd, Birmingham, Alabama Annette Fordin, Brooklyn, New York Nina Fout, Middlebury, Virginia Bernard Fradin, Quality House, New York, New York Charlotte Franklin, Winnetka, Illinois Timira Freedman, Swampscott, Massachusetts Doris Gabari, New York, New York Pie Galinat, New York, New York Maria Geczy, New York, New York Mrs. Charles M. Gilbert, Lafayette, Georgia Richard K. Glover, Sewickley, Pennsylvania Lila Goddard, Winnetka, Illinois Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Goldstone, New York, New York Annamarie Gonda, New York, New York Mr. and Mrs. James Goodman, New York, New York May Goodman, Rye, New York Susan Goodman, Huntington Woods, Michigan Michael Goyda, East Petersburg, Pennsylvania Susan Gray, New York, New York Elizabeth Griffith, McLean, Virginia Robert Grimaldi, New York, New York Gail Gutradt, Cambridge, Massachusetts Kathryn Haeberle, Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire Kate Hansen, New York, New York Mrs. W.B. Hardman, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada Linda Harman, New York, New York Judy Havill, Camp Dennison, Ohio Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Hill, New York, New York Gudrun Hoerig, New York, New York Esther Hoffman, Fairfield, Connecticut Charles E. Holman, San Diego, California 13arbara A. Hood, Holcomb, New York Mrs. Saul Horowitz, Jr., Scarsdale, New York Dr. and Mrs. W. Dale Horst, Nutley, New Jersey Mrs. Phillip Howlett, Greenwich, Connecticut Dick and Glendora Hutson, Berkeley, California Hazel Hynds, Orange, California Joanne Isaac, Quakertown, Pennsylvania Joan Emily Jensen, Staten Island, New York Mr. and Mrs. Oliver Jensen, Old Saybrook, Connecticut Wanda H. Johnson, Rothsville, Pennsylvania Joan Johnston, Williamsville, New York Nancy R. Jones, Duxbury, Massachusetts Maureen Kearney, Cedar Grove, New Jersey Peggy Keating, New York, New York Beryl Kende, New York, New York Phyllis Kirkpatrick, Shelburne Falls, Massachusetts Bonnie Koloc, Chicago, Illinois N. Kranitz, Hartsdale, New York George and Barbara Laurence, Riverdale, New York Linda C. Lefko, Rochester, New York Carol Levin, Brattleboro, Vermont Mr. and Mrs. John Levin, New York, New York Jean Linden, Kew Gardens, New York Mrs. L.G. Lindsay, Jr., St. Paul, Minnesota Jovin C. Lombardo, M.D., New York, New York

S.L. Lovejoy, Pismo Beach, California Margaretta Lovell, New Haven, Connecticut Darvin Luginbuhl, Bluffton, Ohio Stephen and Charlene Malarick, Brookline, Massachusetts N. Frank Maldonado, Schaefferstown, Pennsylvania Mary Manly, New York, New York Evelyn Martin, New York, New York Margaret McCurry, Chicago, Illinois Stuart Y. McDougal, Ann Arbor, Michigan Edythe McKee, Stamford, Connecticut Margaret J. McKenna, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Dr. and Mrs. D.C. Mendelson, New York, New York Eleanor Mezer, Arlington, Massachusetts Jean K. Mindnich, Short Hills, New Jersey S. Mitchell, Southfield, Michigan Jane Moore, New York, New York Vera E. Moore, Spring, Texas James T. Murray, Evanston, Illinois Museum of Our National Heritage Library, Lexington, Massachusetts Eugene B. Navias, Boston, Massachusetts Mrs. Charles P. Neidig, Haverford, Pennsylvania Joyce J. Newman, Asheville, North Carolina Dr. and Mrs. M. Newman, St. Louis, Missouri Marion L. Nickel, Staatsburgh, New York Vanessa Norris, Albany, California Caryn Nuttall, Quebec, Canada Haje Boman O'Neil, New York, New York Mrs. I. Dudley Orvis, Weston, Connecticut Mimi Packman and Tom Sisco, Cambridge, Massachusetts Mrs. Edward Parmacek, Atherton, California Margaret Pennington, New York, New York George Pfiffner, New York, New York Pineapple Primitives, Brooklyn Heights, New York Frank S. Pollack, Highland Park, Illinois Bonnie D. Poloner, New York, New York Laurie M. Power, Whittier, California Dr. D.J. Procaccini, Boston, Massachusetts Sheila Rideout, Woodbury, Connecticut Janet E. Rogers, Sugar Loaf, New York Jean R. Rorke, New Canaan, Connecticut Willa S. Rosenberg, New York, New York K. Ross, Lebanon, New Jersey Marjorie Rossiter, West Nyack, New York Gretchen S. Sabin, Austin, Texas Leslie Salz, New York, New York Nancy Christie Sander, New York, New York Judy Sandler, Newton, Massachusetts S.M. Sanfilippo, Southold, New York Peggy Sanford, Weston, Connecticut Jean-Michel Savoca, Breadline, New York, New York Mr. and Mrs. Harold P. Schneider, Lawrence, New York Barbara Schwartz, New York, New York Linda Seems, West Trenton, New Jersey Shelley Seldin, New York, New York Claire Seltzer, Riveredge, New Jersey Felicia Sessums, Houston, Texas A.M. Shapiro, New York, New York Robert F. Shapiro, New York, New York Mrs. Arthur C. Shea, Greenwich, Connecticut Dr. Donald A. Shelley, Boyertown, Pennsylvania Ann Short, New York, New York Joanne Silver, Chicago, Illinois Mitchell and Ellen Silver, Brooklyn, New York Sixty-Sixth Street Florist, New York, New York Mrs. Ernest L. Smith, Potomac, Maryland Sandra Smith, Aspen, Colorado

Susan Spitz, New York, New York Marianne Sprague, Hermosa Beach, California Mrs. James R. Squire, Lincoln, Massachusetts The Squires Antiques, Etc., Lenox, Massachusetts Ronnie Stern, Maplewood, New Jersey Irene R. Stone, Ghent, New York Susan Stratton, New York, New York Sterling Strauser, E. Stroudsberg, Pennsylvania Clem Streck, Exeter, New Hampshire Melissa Tardiff, New York, New York Mimma Terenzi, Rome, Italy Mrs. Thomas W. Thoburn, Jr., Hudson, Ohio Sylvia Thompson, Malibu, California Mrs. P. Trebilcock, New York, New York Marilyn A. Tuchow, Birmingham, Michigan Jane Ulmer, New York, New York University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City, Iowa Henry Van Amerigen, Paris, France Kathy Snyder Van den Bosch, Shillington, Pennsylvania Durelle Van Zandh, Fort Worth, Texas Ann Z. Venieris, East Rochester, New York Moira Wallace, Woodbury, Connecticut David B. Ward, Essex, Connecticut Ann Z. Wareham, New York, New York Mark Watson, Locust Valley, New York Paul Weiner, Boston, Massachusetts Harold H. and Judith R. Weissman, New York, New York Mr. and Mrs. Robert Weller, New York, New York Henry Whitehill, New York, New York Mrs. Robert Wilbur, Waynesboro, Virginia Richard H. Witnier, Jr., New York, New York Stephen M. Wittenberg, Longmeadow, Massachusetts

Neil Wolinski, The Cultured Seed, New York, New York Carol C. Woodbridge, Princeton, New Jersey Barbara and Raymond F. Wright, Nyack, New York Dr. Lewis Wright, Midlothian, Virginia Mr. and Mrs. Peter Zaglio, New York, New York Dorothy Zeidman, New York, New York Marjorie Zelman, Croton-on-Hudson, New York Mr. and Mrs. Howard Zipser, New York, New York Pilar Zuleta, New York, New York

We wish to thank the following members for their increased membership contributions and for their expression of confidence in the Museum. Mr. and Mrs. Jerome Aron, New York, New York Roderick H. Blackburn, Kinderhook, New York Mr. and Mrs. E.C. Braman, St. Paul, Minnesota Mr. and Mrs. David L. Chambers, Ann Arbor, Michigan Harold H. Corbin, Falls Village, Connecticut Mrs. Arthur Cowen, Jr., New York, New York Millia Davenport, New York, New York Marie Smith DiManno, Breezy Point, New York Mr. and Mrs. Albert F. Dock, Essex, Connecticut Mr. and Mrs. Joel S. Ehrenkranz, New York, New York

Mr. and Mrs. John Falk, Brooklyn, New York Mrs. Grace Fasano, E. Norwich, New York Mr. and Mrs. Norman S. Freedman, Mamaroneck, New York Mrs. K. Evan Friedman, New York, New York Dr. Alvin E. Friedman-Kien, New York, New York Patty Gagarin, Fairfield, Connecticut Phyllis Haders, New York, New York Walter A. Hamilton, Scarsdale, New York Mr. and Mrs. Walter Hess, Jr., New York, New York Robert Robertson Hilton, Tokyo, Japan Mr. and Mrs. Elliott Kamen, New Hope, Pennsylvania Mrs. Noel Levin, New York, New York Mrs. Richard Mayer Livingston, New York, New York Byron Lloyd, Brooklyn, New York Theodore J. Lynch, Edison, New Jersey Elizabeth S. Mankin, Kent, Connecticut Thomas E. Norton, New York, New York Mrs. J.R. Perrette, New York, New York The Honorable and Mrs. Leon Polsky, New York, New York Mr. and Mrs. Richard Ravitch, New York, New York Stanley P. Sax, Birmingham, Michigan Mr. and Mrs. Timothy J. Stevenson, Manchester Center, Vermont Irving and Phyllis Tepper, Valley Stream, New York Mrs. Clare Eddy Thaw, Scarborough, New York Vintage Ladies, Greenwich, Connecticut Gladys G. Weber, New City, New York Mr. and Mrs. Robert Weller, New York, New York


Elizabeth Tobin Manager For those who were unable to see "American Folk Painting, Selections from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. William E. Wiltshire III" (January 15 through April 29, 1979), may I remind you that there is a 108-page catalogue for the exhibition with an introduction by Mary Black, former director of our Museum and presently curator of painting and sculpture at The New-York Historical Society. There are full-color representations of each of the 51 17th-, 18th-, and 19th-century paintings, along with information on identified painters, on subject matter and style, where exhibited, provenance, and further bibliographical reference material. The price is 6.95. For more information on painters

and paintings from the 17th through the 20th centuries, I am listing other books or catalogues providing reproductions, biographical information, and, in some instances, historical background. When ordering from The Museum Shop, please note: Members should subtract 10 percent from the total ordered. Add 8 percent tax if mailed within New York City; add local tax if mailed within New York State. Add 1.50 for a single item; 50 cents for each additional item to cover postage and handling.

Books and Catalogues on Paintings and Painters Bishop, Robert. The Borden Limner and His Contemporaries. Ann Arbor, Mich: The University of Michigan Museum of Art, 1975. 6.00 Ebert, John and Katherine. American Folk

Painting. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. 3.95 Hemphill, Herbert W., Jr., and Weissman, Julia. Twentieth-Century American Folk Art and Artists. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1974. 12.98 Lipman, Jean. American Primitive Painting. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1972 5.00 M. & M. Karolik Collection of American Watercolors and Drawings 1800-1875. 2 vols. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1962. 40.00 Miles, Ellen, ed. Portrait Painting in America, The Nineteenth Century. New York: Main Street/Universe Books, 1977. 7.95 Muller, Nancy C. Paintings and Drawings at the Shelburne Museum. Shelburne, Vermont: Shelburne Museum, 1976. 12.50 Savage, Gail and Norbert H., and Sparks, Esther. Three New England Watercolor Painters. Chicago: The Art Institute of Chicago, 1974. 4.75 Tillou, Peter H. Nineteenth-Century Folk Painting: Our Spirited National Heritage. Storrs, Conn: The William Benton Museum of Art, 1973. 12.50 Where Liberty Dwells: 19th-Century Art by the American People. Buffalo, N.Y.: Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 1976. 9.50


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Watercolor on Canvas 50" x 59"

Commissioned by The Order of United American Mechanics, a forerunner of the modern union movement, this dramatic painted shade was utilized as a teaching and demonstration aid. The vignette (center right) indicates how those who refuse to work, resorting instead to such crimes as picking pockets, can expect to be apprehended. The message is intensified by setting the scene in front of a fortress-like jail.

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The Clarion (Summer 1979)  

Hawaiian Quilts: Treasures of an Island Folk Art • Holy Land U.S.A.: A Consideration of Naïve and Visionary Art • Collecting Children’s Quil...