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THE CLA1'ION AMERICA'S FOLK ART MAGAZINE The Museum of American Folk Art New York City

E7117 1


c_/1.LLAN L. DANIEL American Folk Art and Country Furniture In New York City By appointment Telephone (212)799-0825 (if no answer leave message at(212)787-6000)


Sheraton curly maple decorated work table. The top is centered by a classical scene. Salem, Massachusetts, circa 1800-1820. Ht. 361 / 2",Wd.201 / 4", Dp.16"

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"Funny Papers Quilt," made as a family project during the winter of 1916 at the Savery Farm on West Hill Road, Middlefield, Mass. by the children of Augustine and Jane Savery: Elizabeth, Edward, John and Lillian. Portrayed are popular comic strip characters of the period. 74 x 90 inches. We wish to purchase unusual quilts, textiles, andfolk art offine quality. Photos promptly returned.


Table of Contents Letter from the Director Robert Bishop,Ph.D.

The Decorative Arts Trust Gray D. Boone


Folk Art: The Heart of America Elaine Eff


Three Centuries of Connecticut Folk Art Alexandra Grave The Folk Spirit of Albany Tammis Groft



News from the Friends Committee Karen Schuster


Report on the Docent Committee Lucy Danziger


Schedule of Museum Exhibitions

47 Signs of the Times Salvatore G. Cilella, Jr.

Book Reviews Collecting Colonial Spanish Art of the Americas James F. Adams,Ph.D.


The Museum Shop-Talk Elizabeth Tobin



52 Coming Events at the Museum


Folk Art Calendar Across the Country 59 Noteworthy Events The Friends of the Shakers Flo Morse Center for Museum Education Barbara Fertig Folk Arts and Crafts of the Susquehanna and Chenango River Valleys Richard Barons Cover Illustration: Eagle and Chain Paper Cut. Artist Unknown. 19th century. Mid-Atlantic States. 12"x 16".(Betty Sterling) Change of Address Please send both old and new addresses and allow five weeks for change The Clarion, America's Folk Art Magazine, Summer 1978. Published quarterly and copyright 1978 by the Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York 10019. The cover and contents of The Clarion are fully protected by copyright and may not be reproduced in any manner without written consent. Unsolicited manuscripts or photographs should be accompanied by return postage. The Clarion assumes no responsibility for the loss or damage of such material.

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Advertising The Clarion accepts advertisements only from advertisers whose reputation is recognized in the trade, but despite the care with which the advertising department screens photographs and texts submitted by its advertisers, it cannot guarantee the unquestionable authenticity of objects or quality of services advertised in its pages or offered for sale by its advertisers, nor can it accept responsibility for misunderstandings that may arise from the purchase or sale of objects or services advertised in its pages.


Museum of American Folk Art

Board of Trustees: Mr. Ralph Esmerian, Chairman Barbara Johnson,President Mrs. Ronald Lauder, Vice-President Mrs. Richard Taylor, Vice-President Mr. William Leffler, Treasurer Kenneth Page, Esquire, Secretary Miss Mary Allis Mrs. James Burke Mr. Lewis Cabot Mrs. Phyllis D. Collins Mrs. Frederick M.Danziger Mrs. Adele Earnest Mrs. Jacob M.Kaplan Mr. Ira Levy Frances S. Martinson, Esquire Mr. Basil Mavroleon Mr. Cyril I. Nelson Mrs. Derek Schuster Mr. Andy Warhol Mr. William Wiltshire III Mrs. Dan R. Johnson, Trustee Emeritus Mrs. Norman LassaIle, Trustee Emeritus Mrs. Howard Lipman, Trustee Emeritus The Honorable Helen S. Meyner, Trustee Emeritus Museum Staff: Dr. Robert Bishop, Director Patricia L. Coblentz, Assistant Director Kathleen Ouwel, Exhibition Coordinator Robin Harvey,Business Manager Dia Stolnitz, Secretary Lillian Grossman, Secretary Lucy Danziger and Susan Klein, Co-chairmen,Docent Committee Cynthia Schaffner, Weekend Coordinator, Docent Committee Karen Schuster, Chairman, Friends Committee Roberta Gaal, Chairman, Education Committee Deborah Yellin, Membership Secretary The Museum Shop Staff: Elizabeth Tobin, Manager Sylvia Bloch Kevin Bueche Joan Falkins Sally Gerbrick Phillida Mirk Hazel Osburne Meryl Weiss The Clarion Staff: Patricia L. Coblentz, Editor Jack Ericson, Book Review Editor Helaine Fendelman, Advertising Manager Ann Gold, Designer Topp Litho,Printers


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An important Pilgrim Century carved and painted pine and oak chest, Massachusetts, 1690-1710, length 461/2 inches, Property of the Estate of Mabel B. Thatcher, New Canaan, Connecticut; sold on Saturday, April 29, 1978 at Sotheby Parke Bernet for $50,000.

Portrait of a Young Boy by R. W. and S. A. Shute, Massachusetts, circa 1840, 4 x 181/2 inches, 1 watercolor, 27/ from the Collection of Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Carbisch; sold on April 27, 1978 at Sotheby Parke Bernet for $42,500.

A rare pair of King Eider decoys from Monhegan Island, Maine, to be sold in the fall at the Eighth Annual American Heritage Society Auction of Americana

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"The Collector" focuses on the New York-Pennsylvania collecting scene, with occasional forays further afield into New England and Ohio. Here, eleven times a year, you will find a wide range of auction coverage - from major metropolitan shows to country auctions. (We feel you want - and need - both kinds of prices.)


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2 1. Centennial Quilt Pa. 1876, 70" x 90". Red, blue, orange, green, brown on white. Repro. Dutton quilt engagement calendar 1975. Reproduced Orlofsky, p. 168. Exhibited Hirschl & Adler Folk Art show Dec. 1977. In lucite frame. 2. Log Cabin "Courthouse Steps" Conn. c. 1910, 60" x 71". A unique variant made of black satin ribbon. The lines of the pattern are formed by red and blue selvedges. Repr. Holstein plate 83 color. Also Jean Lipman's Provocative Parallels. 3. Cactus or Peony Pa. c. 1840, 83" x 84". Red, orange, green. Repro. Orlofsky, p. 115. Repro. Lipman Flowering of American Folk Art, p.270. Exhibited Whitney Folk Art Exhibition 1974.

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Letter from the Director

Dear Members and Friends: The Museum of American Folk Art has continued to attract broad national and international attention for its programs and exhibitions in the last several months. A major exhibition of American weathervanes was presented at the Ginza Hall, Shiseido Company, Tokyo, Japan, from March 2 through March 28. This special loan exhibition received national attention when an 8-minute segment devoted to the show was produced for Japanese television. Ratings indicated that some 35,000,000 people were interested enough to tune in and see some of America's most exciting folk art weathervanes borrowed from Mama Brill and Tom Anderson, David Davies, Richard and Eileen Dubrow, Laura Harding, Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr., Jay Johnson, Leo and Dorothy Rabkin, and Gladys Sanders, all friends of the Museum; from my personal collection, and from the permanent collection of the Museum of American Folk Art. Special projects recently generated by the Museum have included the installation of a small decoy exhibition at the Cosmopolitan Club in New York City, supervised by Kathy Ouwel, exhibition coordinator, and Corrine Farkouh, museum intern. The Rockefeller Brothers Fund and the Council on Museums and Education in the Visual Arts held a reception for the staff and members of the Center for Museum Education from George Washington University in the Museum galleries. The reception celebrated the publication of their book, The Art Museum as Educator, edited by Barbara Y. Newsom of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and Adele Z. Silver. The Museum hosted a special evening cocktail reception for members of the College Art Association during their convention. The staff kept the Museum open and planned both the Council on Museums and Education and the College Art Association receptions. The New York museum community was made more aware of folk art when the Museum hosted a special one-day workshop, part of a four-day program sponsored by the New York State Council on the Arts. Museum directors and professional staff from New York State gathered for a special training program in "Non-Governmental Sources of Income for Small Museums." Folk Art was again brought to a large uninitiated audience when several examples from private donors were included

Dr. Robert Bishop with a Japanese representative at the Ginza Hall, Tokyo, Japan.

in the Channel 13 auction on May 11, 12, 13, and 14. The Museum was represented in the auction when I served as an auctioneer and appeared for two guest interviews. This gave me the opportunity to call attention to our new outreach program which takes our trained docents into the public schools to teach young students about American folk art. A booklet designed especially for schoolchildren has been created to accompany this project. The 12-page booklet was written by Cathie Calvert, Cynthia V.A. Schaffner, and Lucy Danziger and designed and illustrated by Migs Feind. A generous donation from Mr. and Mrs. Robert Klein made the publication of the booklet possible. Our Assistant Director, Patricia Coblentz, has just completed teaching a 6-week course in American Furniture for Marymount College and arrangements have been finalized for her to instruct a 12-week course for The New School on the same subject in the fall. We will continue to provide high visibility for the Museum through lectures in the community and in other states. Both Mrs. Coblentz and I have lectured to many different groups recently and our schedules for the future include workshops and seminars in New Jersey, Ohio, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New York City, and Albany and Cooperstown, New York. 15

Through our highly successful internship program, we have trained 14 students in the last few years. Robin Harvey, our most recent intern from Parsons School of Design and Northern Arizona University, has been added to our staff where she will supervise accounting procedures and assist with Museum development. Interviews have been held for new interns and during the summer, Albert Key from Lake Forest College; Micheline Nicaise from Brussels, Belgium; Meredith W. Mendes from Brown University; and Yona Zeldis from Vassar College will join the staff as summer interns. Although numerous other projects, including the Museum lecture series, have come to an end for this season, the Museum staff, in conjunction with the Friends Committee and

The weathervane installation at the Ginza Hall, Tokyo, Japan. Kathy Ouwel and Mrs. Robert Siffert of the Cosmopolitan Club admiring the decoy display in their lounge area.


Docents, has scheduled exhibitions and other special events well into 1980. To enable us to continue expanding our educational and exhibition programs, we need your assistance. I would like to ask every reader to take it upon himself to obtain a new member for the Museum. Our membership benefits have increased substantially and giving a membership to a friend will not only help us to grow, but will bring folk art into their lives. Join your Museum trustees and staff in making the 19781979 year our most important one to date. RobertBishop,Ph.D. Director



THE HEART OF AMERICA June 26-October 15, 1978 Museum of American Folk Art, New York

Elaine Eff, curator THE HEART MEANS WHAT TO WHOM? Christian doctrine

Love Piety Repentance Charity

Ancient Chinese

Center of personality

Ancient Greek



Spiritual contemplation "The heart of the believer is the throne of God."

Pennsylvania Germans

The womb made visible Center of man's nature

Yuma,Shoshone tribes



Sun within man

International Order of Odd Fellows

"The hand is open to denote giving, and the heart in the palm denotes cheerful giving."


St. Catherine of Siena St. Francis de Sales St. Augustine St. Theresa

olk Art: The Heart of America" celebrates the heart motif in its numerous forms and applications in traditional American arts; none of which are coincidental or unintended. Careful inspection of the objects will reveal the heart as it has been carved in wood or stone, punched or stamped in tin or leather, painted or drawn on wood, canvas, pottery or paper, cast in iron or stone, cut from metal, paper, or wood, cut-out of iron or fabric, applied and inlaid in ivory,incised into ceramics, shaped from clay or steel, and stitched, hooked, or woven into a textile. In short, it is a timeless motif found in all mediums and in all regions. The heart appears on objects which are decidedly intimate such as busks, love letters, and jewelry, as well as on.those of seemingly impersonal utility such as waffle irons or slawcutters. It is the ultimate symbol used to depict one's innermost affection and is therefore incorporated in most items intended as tokens of love. It belongs equally to the design t

This exhibition was made possible in part with fundsfrom the National Endowmentfor the Arts, Washington, D.C.

world of men as it does to women. Ironmongers can still be found turning the ends of forks and fireplace utensils into perfectly formed hearts, much as a woman can be found embroidering or quilting a heart in cotton or wool. The word "heart" in its various recognizable forms has precursors in Middle English (herte), Anglo Saxon (heorte), Old Norse (hjarta) and even Ancient Egyptian (AR TT) writings. The Teutonic and Latin "cor" better suggests the derivation of the term—the center or the core,from which all things originate. We, of course, are most interested in the heart form than the linguistic origins, but its use in language can serve to shed light on its representational usages. The earliest graphic depiction of the heart appears in the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead. Osiris, the chief god, was symbolized by the fig-bearing sycamore tree, the Holy Persea, the fruits of which were said to resemble the human heart. It was believed to yield a medicinal potion used in the treatment of heart disorders. As chief god, it was one of Osiris's duties to judge the sins of the dead. The heart, the seat of intelligence according to Egyptian belief, was customar17

ily removed from the body of the dead. A scarab, with the inscription, "On my heart confess not against me as a witness" was placed in the emptied cavity. The heart was weighed on a scale against an ostrich feather. If balanced, the sinner's guilt was absolved. Prior to 2250 B.C. Egyptian medical treatises reveal that blood vessels led from the heart to the limbs, instructing movement, thus its association with the mind, the organ of thought. The Book of the Dead depicts the judgment scene with a heart on the balance that resembles a keystone rather than the form we know today. A slightly varied form appears in Ancient Mexico carved in stone and in temple frescoes. Attempts to pinpoint the exact date or place for the emergence of the heart form as we know it today continue to prove futile. The fact that the mirror-image, a geometric convention, is a perfect design solution in whatever medium cannot be overlooked. The design appears independently in widespread periods and places since all that is needed is a compass, an instrument readily available. The heart is one of the simplest and most pleasing geometric forms that can be created by the junction of two or four compass-drawn circles, figure 1. Its formulaic perfection allows it to be translated into wood, paper, textile, ceramic, or metal with equally satisfying results. The Sacred Heart,found exclusively in the Roman Catholic tradition since the 16th century, more closely resembles the anatomical heart. The Sacred Heart has long been used in conjunction with numerous other symbols (flames,crosses, swords, crowns of thorns) to change its meaning or represent one of many figures associated with Christ. It is rare to find examples of the Sacred Heart that have been executed by an untrained hand for incorporation in the ecclesiastical paraphernalia of the Church. Churches bearing names of saints related to the Sacred Heart have historically chosen their altar ornaments from abroad or from accomplished painters and carvers. The localized practice of carving household saints (bultos) and panels (retablos)found in the Southwestern states, primarily New Mexico and Arizona, is an indigenous folk art, conceived and executed with a personal involvement and satisfaction. Bultos from this region rarely include the heart, whereas those from Puerto Rico often include it. However, the Sacred Heart is well suited to the two-dimensional retablo. The English had a long history of incorporating the heart into trade signs to advertise everything from marriage insurance (two right hands holding a heart) to surgical instruments and coffins. Richard II (King of England, 1377-1399) used as his symbol a hart—a young stag—chained and crowned

Figure 1.


in gold. Oral transmission has understandably confused the term such that a 16th century tavern called The White H(e)art was reported to have a sign featuring the geometric heart, a blasphemous faux pas. It is interesting that we carry on today the same confusion with the words deer and dear. The four suits in a deck of playing cards familiar to Americans: hearts, diamonds, clubs and spades allegedly originated in that form in 1392 in France. The heart(coeur)represented the Church (Jesus's Sacred Heart?); diamond or arrowhead, the vassals or archers; club or clover, the tenders of the flock; and spade or lance point, the knights. In Europe, only France and England used this deck. The Puritans in New England also included the heart motif in their decorative arts. We find examples of carved and incised hearts in furniture both in 17th century Lancashire (England) and in this country along the Connecticut River Valley. The earliest known extant gravestone incorporating the heart is the 1674 stone of Sarah Long in Charlestown, Massachusetts. For the Puritans, the heart was associated with the soul in bliss and always in direct opposition to the imagery of death. For example, heart-shaped cherub faces, angels' wings, or hourglass globes featured the heart, figure 2. The hand of numerous otherwise unidentified New England

Figure 2.

carvers was recognizable by the use of the heart as the mouth or head of an effigy figure. The spirit symbol frequently used by rural carvers was the winged heart, but we also find the motif as the shield in which the name was cut, as the body of a figure, as jewelry on effigy portraits, or used to flank and support effigies. The heart has long been associated with European artisanry. German, French, and Swiss design traditions deserve much of the credit for the predominance of the motif in our graphic vocabulary. The commonly held myth that the Pennsylvania Germans exclusively used the heart motif must be dispelled. The heart is not uncommon in the folk arts of every region in this country. The heart remembers as well in Nebraska, Texas, and Oregon, though hardly as early as in the Eastern states, figure 3. The motivation behind the widespread use of the heart in the decorative arts of Germans in America has been explored by scholars for decades. One early theorist proclaimed that the heart in Pennsylvania German arts represented the womb made visible, a somewhat convincing argument for birth and baptismal certificates, but one that falls flat when we consider its use in songbook plates or on furniture. A more recent researcher concludes that the predom-

Figure 3. Catalogue no. 131

inance of the motif speaks to the "unselfconscious taste of the population rather that prehistoric symbols or Christian mysticism."' The decoration of certificates was actually a creative convention that arose from a legal requirement in Germany. As the Sacred Heart is a chapter in Catholic arts, fraktur decoration would be its Protestant counterpart. With the Reformation, the spheres of religious worship were secularized. Colonial settlers and later migrants to this country brought a tempered religious climate. Biblical references to the heart found favor with zealots as well as the less ardent. "Man looketh at the outward appearance but the Lord looketh on the heart" (I Samuel 16:7) is reminiscent of the Egyptian preoccupation with the heart's purity at death (judgment). The Pennsylvania Germans, Protestants from the Rhineland, Alsace, and German Palatinate, adapted the heart into their design vocabulary with an ease unmatched by any other group in this country. The 51st Psalm, "Create in me a clear heart" often appears in their illuminated drawings. Das Herz des Menschen (The Heart of Man), originally published in Wurzberg, Germany, in 1732 and printed and reprinted in Carlisle and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, after 1825, was perhaps the single most important treatise on moral perfection in the informal doctrine of these peoples. Emblems depicting the heart in all stages of development— sinner, repentant, convert, zealot—were repeatedly copied by adults and schoolchildren in various media as a reminder that "from the state of the heart, which is the habitation of good and evil, the whole man must be judged."2 Embroidered Mennonite and Pennsylvania German hand towels often contain a cryptic reference to the heart in the circular form

The late 18th-century home of Alexander Long in Salisbury, North Carolina, is one of the rare examples of vernacular architecture that incorporates the heart in decorative brickwork.(Photograph courtesy of Bernard Herman) Figure 4.

of the acronym OEHBDDE: "0 Edles Herz Bedenk Dach Dein Ende"("Oh noble heart reflect on thine end"). 0 EE DU DB An equally inspired contemporary religious artifact from the workshop of former bicycle repairman-Baptist preacher, Howard Finster of Summerville, Georgia, suggests an ardent if not fanatical interpretation of the wisdom of Jesus Christ, figure 5. Finster titled the piece "I Preach 24 Hours a Day from Hearts without any Charge" in the manner of his own evangelical style, figure 5. In the Pennsylvania German communities in particular, identifiable hands have distinguished themselves as what might be called "Heart Artists." Francis Portzline, of Dauphin County, was a key heart artist for it was his trademark to incorporate the heart in numerous playful combinations 19

Figure 5. Catalogue no. 129


on hand-drawn records. We find the heart almost hidden in his entwined heart logo, in the wings of his birds. Friedrich Krebs, another 19th century schoolmaster and fraktur artist, rarely executed a certificate without a printed or drawn central heart. "The Cumberland Valley Artist," who has been familiarly dubbed "The Nine Heart Artist," is known from Maryland to Canada for his distinctive use of hearts within hearts to contain the textual material, figure 6. NonPennsylvanians have also distinguished themselves for their repeated use of the motif. William Murray, a Mohawk Valley, New York, schoolmaster, has adorned dozens of family records with his unmistakable red and black watercolor hearts. A still unnamed maker of family records from the southern Maine-New Hampshire border area is known only as the "Heart and Hand Artist," a rebus that he uses for his signature. It is possible but unnecessary to read a deeper meaning into the final form of a carved or stitched heart. At some point we must merely accept the interrelationship of the medium, the tools, and the individual genius of the creator. It is interesting to note that of the 130 objects on exhibition, three-quarters were made by men, and over one-third were made for women. If we were to examine the intent of the hearts employed in handmade items of both utility and beauty we would discover a limited set of motivations behind their creation, generally falling into five major categories: Religious/Ritualistic; Fraternal; Love/Friendship; Identification; Manipulation of materials. In the discussion above, the religious associations were outlined. The heart, severed from its purely religious connotations during the Renaissance has outlived its earliest exhortations of faith and piety to survive for use in these other categories. Rituals in which the heart figures prominently include birth and baptism, marriage and death. Records of these rites of passage, markers, and ceremonial effects will often include the heart. Amish brides stitch hearts of thread into layers of their marriage quilts. Its persistence as a death motif is further attested to in Queena Stovall's contemporary painting of a country funeral in which the flower festooned heart wreath serves as a living consolation to the bereaved. Several native American Indian tribes include the heart in their design repertoire. Hearts can be found among the Passamaquoddy and other Northeast Woodland tribes as well as Tlingit (Northwest coast), Yuma, Porno, and Shoshonea (California) ritual and utilitarian wares. We are unfortunately more often reminded of the Victorian souvenir items, beaded pillows and trinkets made for the tourist by entrepreneurs eager to profit from the mobility and romanticism of the period. Since 1782 men have been incalculably proud to wear the Purple Heart as a reward for combat wounds (awarded posthumously after World War I). The first Purple Heart (designed by Pierre Charles L'Enfant) was a heart-shaped purple cloth embroidered with a wreath surrounding the word "Merit" and with edges of silver rope. Today the award

Figure 6. Catalogue no. 44 is of "purple plastic and gold colored metal" and sports the profile of General Washington who first conferred it for "singularly meritorious action" after the Revolutionary War. Fraternal orders such as the, International Order of Odd Fellows (I0OF) and the Masons have embraced the heart in their often mystifying accumulation of symbols. The Odd Fellows are identified with the three chain-links of Friendship, Love, and Truth and the Heart in Hand symbolizing the unselfish giver whose hand is always extended to a brother, figure 7. Masonic regalia includes the "sword pointing to a naked heart" demonstrating "that justice will sooner or later overtake us; and although our thoughts, words and actions may be hidden from the eyes of man, yet that all seeing eye! [sic] ... pervades the inmost recesses of the human heart, and will reward us according to our works."3 In both orders, the hand-crafted iconography can be found on interior and exterior architectural elements, on ceremonial objects such as aprons and furniture, in textiles, and in murals. The heart is used as a means of identification, as a signature or a brand to denote ownership, location, or manufacture, figure 8. It appears in the signature of at least three northeastern potteries: the Charlestown Pottery (Massachusetts), Old Bridge Pottery (Middlesex County, New Jersey), and

David Morgan's pottery (New York City). The Charlestown potters not only stamped hearts into the clay body to indicate their work, but more practically to show the gallon capacity of the vessel by the number of stamped hearts. Philadelphia in 1745 boasted at least three fire companies which incorporated the heart in their communal logo. The members of the Assistance, Hand in Heart, and Heart in Hand companies probably decorated their hats, buckets, and pumpers with the motif, although no examples survive today. Hearts as tokens of love and friendship have been exchanged for centuries. The association of the heart with romantic love in particular is a 19th century notion. The late 18th century, especially after the death of George Washington was a time of great sentimentality. Young girls and women in seminaries created exquisitely simple tokens of affection and respect for their teachers and schoolmates. Often mistaken for mourning jewelry, the heart-topped plinth spoke to life rather than death—in the manner of Puritan gravestone imagery. We tend to assume that hearts indicate love due to an American misconception of the valentine as an ultimate expression of affection. Love tokens that could be hand delivered were exchanged widely in this country during the 1760s since the cost of postage and delays in handling letters 21

Figure 7. Catalogue no. 26

paper hearts and hands are representative of such crafts at mid-century. The gift of gloves on Valentine's Day may have risen from the play on the word G/LOVE or merely as a formal convention, a personal yet not too intimate gesture of affection. It is said that the gloves presented on Valentine's Day were to be worn on Easter Sunday. The final category of creations of the heart are those that are nothing more than an exercise resulting from the manipulation of materials, often for no other reason but for the sake of ornamentation. The tail of a wind-toy or a weathervane may be heart-shaped to better catch the wind. Heated iron is especially conducive to the curves of the heart lobes. Soundholes in musical instruments like the dulcimer and its ancestor, the scheitholt, are heart-shaped for aesthetic reasons only. We know that the heart has been a strong part of oral

It by post hampered courtship. The American handmade valentine developed after 1800 when magazines and newspapers printed sonnets and verses to be copied. Printed valentines, as we know them today, did not appear until after 1840. The origin of Valentine's Day, February 14, has roots as tenuous to confirm as those of the heart motif. The Roman St. Valentine, a friend to persecuted Christians, was martyred on February 14 in the year 270 A.D. Coincidentally the Feast (Festival) of the Lupercalia, a rite of spring honoring the birth of Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome, took place on February 15, until it was done away with along with many other Pagan rituals. It was replaced with a Christian celebration and given the name of the saint whose day was closest—St. Valentine. The first evidence of written valentine greetings occurs in the 14th century in England. In 1660, Samuel Pepys, the diarist refers to an exchange of valentines. Germany, Italy, and France no longer celebrate the day. Our country and England alone continue the tradition of February 14 as a day for lovers. Tokens and notes of endearment are found executed in almost every material, in predictable forms such as folded puzzle purses, papercuts and carvings and highly personalized idiosyncratic ones such as chip carvings or scrimshaw teeth. Publications such as Godey's Lady's Book and Harper's Weekly promoted the occasion by suggesting verses as well as cut paper projects for men and women. The woven 22

Figure 8. Catalogue no. 23


traditions for ages. Myths and tales handed down over generations include bizarre almost heinous episodes of thefts and banquets featuring the heart of the protagonist. We encounter myths from remote lands in which the heart of man was created from iron extracted from the earth. The fact that we find so much ironwork incorporating the heart motif seems to be a logical extension of man's creative and emotional energy. American tales have travelled circuitous, almost miraculous routes. They describe magical heart removals, substitutions, transformations, and cures. One of the best loved ballads sung in infinite variants tells the story of an unrequited love. This version of "Barbara Allen," collected in Kentucky in 1933, provides as vivid an image as do many of the pieces included on exhibition: "They buried her in the old churchyard, Sweet William's grave was nigh her, And from his heart grew a red, red rose, And from her heart a briar."4 Whether a symbol of piety, proprietorship, or deep affection, the heart motif seems to hold a permanent place in American folk arts. Attempts to pinpoint a single definitive source for its form are futile. Its longevity can be credited to its universal formula and its complete simplicity. Perhaps there is a lesson in its purity of execution; a reference to the enduring nature of the uncomplicated. The survival of the motif is a tribute to the persistence of generations of dabblers and artists who continue to rediscover and share the beauty of basic forms, and leave a legacy for users, thinkers, and appreciators of these labors of love.

HEARTFELT THANKS Heart hunting in some regions can prove particularly rewarding. Curators often find themselves with difficult tasks, but locating hearts in the midst of valentine season while living on the border of the German culture regions of Pennsylvania was like a godsend. The objects exhibited in "Folk Art: The Heart of America" represent a survey of the wealth of heart-filled objects that abound in this country. An attempt has been made to choose from a wide material, geographic, and temporal range to demonstrate the ubiquitous and enduring nature of the heart motif. The generosity of many individuals and institutions made this exhibition possible. Thanks are extended to the hundreds of individuals who shared their collections and information. Heartfelt gratitude is offered to all of those who fed, entertained, educated, assisted, and otherwise made this project possible: Bryding Adams, Robert Bishop, Patricia Coblentz, Allan L. Daniel, Adele Earnest, Monroe Fabian, Wolfgang Fleischhauer, Ann and Milton Goldberg, Robin Harvey, Joan Heald, Lou and Aggie Jones, Suzi Jones, Joel and Kate Kopp, Mary O'Meara, Kathy Ouwel, Dia Stolnitz, and Fred Weiser. Elaine Eff Guest Curator Footnotes 1. 2. 3. 4.

Weiser. The Heart of Man,p. 7. Cross, p. 63. Niles, No. 36A, p. 205.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Rev. Thomas G. Benarrell. The Brotherhood of Odd-Fellowship. Indianapolis: Brotherhood Publishing Co., 1875. Peter Benes. The Masks of Orthodoxy. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1977. Henry S. Borneman. Pennsylvania German Bookplates. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania German Society, 1953. Dr. Helmut Bossert. Encyclopedia of Ornament.Berlin: Ernst Wasmuth, 1937. Walter E. Boyer. "The Meaning of Human Figures in Pennsylvania Dutch Folk Art", Pennsylvania Folklife. Fall, 1960. Rudolph Brasch. How Did it Begin? London: Longmans, Green, and Co. Ltd., 1965. Anthony Bridge. "The Life and Death of Symbols," Myth and Symbol. (F.W. Dillistone, ed.) London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1966. Miller Christy. The Trade Signs of Essex. London: Griffith, Farran, Okeden and Welsh, 1887. Robert Thomas Rundle Clark. Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt. London: Thames and Hudson, 1959. Jeremy L. Cross. The True Masonic Chart. New Haven: n.p., 1826. Jean Cuisenier. French Folk Art. Tokyo: Kodansha International, Ltd., 1976. Des Herz des Menschen. Wurzburg: University of Wurzburg, 1732. George Ferguson. Signs and Symbols in Christian Art. London: Oxford University Press, 1954. E.H. Gombrich. "Boticelli's Mythologies; A Study in the Neo-Platonic Symbolism of his Circle," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, VIII, 1945. Catherine Perry Hargrave. A History of Playing Cards and a Bibliography of Cards and Gaming. New York: Houghton, 1930. Barbara Jones. Design for Death. New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Co.Inc., 1967. Evans E. Kerrigan. American War Medals and Decorations. New York: Viking Press, 1964. Jacob Larwood and John Camden Hotten. English Inn Signs. London: Chatto and Windus, 1951. Frances Lichten. Folk Art Motifs of Pennsylvania. Hastings House Publishers, Inc., 1954. Allen I. Ludwig. Graven Images. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 1966. Donald A. Mackenzie. Egyptian Myth and Legend. London: Gresham, 1913. Henry C. Mercer. The Bible in Iron. Doylestown, Pa.: The Bucks County Historical Society, 1961. John Jacob Niles. The Ballad Book of John Jacob Niles. New York: Dover, 1960. Adolphe Riff. "La survivance et l'origine de quelques ornaments geometriques en Alsace," L'Art Populaire en France, No. 1, 1929. Earl F. and Ada F. Robacker, "The Far From Lonely Heart," Pennsylvania Folklife, Lancaster, Pa., Vol. 17, No. 2,Winter, 1967. Julius Friedrich Sachse. The German Pietists ofProvincial Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Printed for the Author, 1895. Margaret B. Schiffer. Historical Needlework of Pennsylvania. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1968. Frank Staff. The Valentine and its Origins. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Pub., 1969. John Joseph Stoudt.Pennsylvania Folk Art. Allentown, Pa.: Schlecter's Press, 1948. The Heart ofMan. Harrisburg, Pa.: Theo F. Scheffer, 1842. Dr. Karl Thomae, ed. Das Herr, Im Umkreis des Glaubens, Biberach an der Riss, 1967. Paul Tillich. "The Religious Symbol," Religious Experience and Truth. (Sidney Hook ed.) New York: New York University Press, 1966. Robert Trent. Hearts and Crowns. New Haven: New Haven Colony Historical Society, 1977. Frederick S. Weiser and Howell J. Heany. The Pennsylvania German Fraktur. Breinigsville, Pa.: The Pennsylvania German Society and Philadelphia: The Free Library of Philadelphia, 1976. Ralph N. Wornum. Analysis of Ornament. London: Chapman and Hall, 1877. 23


FURNITURE 1. Side table Artist unknown Circa 1930 Wood, painted Virginia 31"x 18" Ralph and Susie Smith 2. Great Crown Chair Possibly Nathaniel Street (1692-1748) 1725-45 Maple and ash, painted Norwalk area, Connecticut 48-7/8" x 24-3/8" x 15-3/4" Lillian Blankley Cogan 3. Plank Chair Artist unknown (Moravian) Circa 1850 Wood, painted Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 35" x 191 / 2 "x 151 / 4" Moravian Museums of Bethlehem

Catalogue no.5

6. Cradle Artist unknown 1789 Walnut,sulfur inlay Pennsylvania 22" x 38" x 17" Private Collection

4. Conestoga Wagon Seat Artist unknown Circa 1780 Poplar, splint seat Pennsylvania 181 / 4"x 421/2"x 201 / 2 " Metropolitan Museum of Art, gift of Mrs. Robert W. de Forest

7. Cradle Artist unknown Circa 1880 Wood, painted New Hampshire 25" x 34" x 18" Kelter Malce

5. Lad derback Chair Artist unknown Circa 1790 Wood,painted;splint seat Maine 35" x 19" Kelter Malce

8. Music Cabinet Artist unknown Circa 1930 Wood, chip carved Hornell, New York 33/ 1 2 "x 19" x 171 / 2 " Mr. and Mrs. Joseph T. St. Lawrence


9. Blanket Chest Artist unknown Walnut, pine inlay 1795 Lancaster County,Pennsylvania 281 / 2 "x 48" Private Collection 10. Blanket Chest Artist unknown 1680 Pine Wethersfield, Connecticut 25" x 50" x 191 / 2 " "EG" stamped in center of decoration probably stands for Elizabeth Griswold. Lillian Blankley Cogan 11. Blanket Chest Artist unknown 1784 Pine, painted

13;4" x 301/2"x 17-3/4" The Bohnes, Newmanstown, Pennsylvania 19. Cigar Store Figure John Philip Yaeger (1823-99) Circa 1876 Wood, painted Baltimore, Maryland H. 42" Yaeger's daughter, Eva Isabelle, is reputed to have modeled for this figure which stood in front of a tobacco shop in Baltimore. Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore 20. Miniature Doughbox Artist unknown 1800-1830 Cherry, cedar, sugar pine, painted Probably Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania 11" x 17" x 10" Philadelphia Museum of Art, gift of Titus C. Geesey

Catalogue no. 7

Catalogue no. 12 Dauphin County(now Lebanon), Pennsylvania 21/2" x 48'4" x 23" Inscribed with name of owner "Johan Georg Wolfensperger." Historical Society of York County, Pennsylvania 12. Door Artist unknown 1780-1800 Pine, painted Berks County,Pennsylvania 69" x 36" Philadelphia Museum of Art, gift of Titus C. Geesey 13. Hanging Pie Safe Artist unknown 1882 Pine, tinned sheet iron Berks County, Pennsylvania 36/ 1 2 "x 38" x 21" Mr. and Mrs. Walter C. Moser 14. Glove Box Artist unknown Circa 1920 Cigar box wood New York State 8" x 9" x 61 / 2 " Raymond Saroff

15. Box Artist unknown Circa 1830 Pine, carved and painted Massachusetts 4" x 7-3/4" Inscribed with the name "Rebecca E. Lord" for whom it was made. Bertram K. and Nina Fletcher Little 16. Box Artist unknown Second half of the 19th century Walnut, whalebone inlay New England 4/ 1 2 "x 4" x 81 / 2 " Barbara Johnson 17. Bible Box Artist unknown Circa 1800 Spruce, painted Ephrata Cloister, Pennsylvania 7"x 16"x 12" Historical Society of Berks County 18. Box Artist unknown 1870-80 Wood, painted and smoke grained Maine 25

WOODEN OBJECTS 21. Scheitholt Artist unknown 1781 Wood Pennsylvania 34" x 5" The Scheitholt is one of a family of stringed instruments which originated in Northern Europe and migrated to this country through the Germans who settled in Pennsylvania and Virginia. It is the direct antecedent of the Appalachian dulcimer. Ralph and Susie Smith 22. Dulcimer Edsel Martin 1968 Wood Swannonoa, North Carolina 411 / 2 "x 4/ 1 2 " Bill Ferris 23. Tavern sign (Fig. 8) Artist unknown 1802 Wood, painted New Hampshire 48" x 271 / 4" America Hurrah, N.Y.C. 24. Odd Fellows Sign Artist unknown Circa 1900 Wood, painted Eastern United States 81 / 4" x 37" Mr. and Mrs. John Wallach 25. Whirligig Artist unknown Circa 1880 Pine, painted Lancaster County, Pennsylvania 17" x 24" Private Collection 26. Carving (Fig. 7) Artist unknown Circa 1910 Wood,painted Western United States 7-3/4" x 61 / 4" Howard Rose 27. Frame Artist unknown Circa 1843 26

Woods, stained Massachusetts 12/ 1 2 "x 81 / 2 " Frame appears original to the silhouette which carries the inscription "Pinxit by P. Lord, 14 Central Street, Lowell, Mass., July 17, 1843." Bertram K. and Nina Fletcher Little 28. Busk Artist unknown 1775-1800 Maple, mirror glass Massachusetts 14-3/4" x 2/ 1 2 " Busks or corset stays were often carved by sailors for their sweethearts. Bertram K. and Nina Fletcher Little

Catalogue no. 36

29. Cakeboard Attributed to John Conger 1828-32 Mahogany New York City 13"x 111 / 4" Private Collection 30. Mirror Artist unknown 18th century Walnut Pennsylvania 19" x 9" From the Titus C. Geesey Collection 31. Butterprint(round) Artist unknown Circa 1850 Maple Pennsylvania Dia. 5" Rock-Ford-Kauffman Museum, Lancaster, Pennsylvania 32. Butterprint (half round) Artist unknown Circa 1850 Maple Pennsylvania 1 2 "x 7" 3/ Rock-Ford-Kauffman Museum 33. Butterprint (rectangular) Artist unknown 1856 Pine Pennsylvania 3/ 1 2 "x 51/2"

Initials "EB" carved on reverse, probably the owner. Rock-Ford-Kauffman Museum 34. Goat Yoke Weaver (Mennonite) 1875-1900 Hickory and walnut Lancaster County, Pennsylvania 11"x 15" Barbara S. Janos and Barbara Ross, New York City 35. Wool Reel Artist unknown Circa 1840 Pine, painted New England 411 / 2 "x 261 / 2 " Private Collection 36. "All-of-a-piece-carving" Necklace Artist unknown

Circa 1810 Watercolor and ink on paper Rockingham County, Virginia 12-5/8" x 151 / 2" Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center

39. Scoop Possibly G.J. Trullinger Circa 1900 Wood,painted Found in New York State L. 13" Oliver Clark 40. Spoon Artist unknown 18th century Wood Possibly Connecticut L. 91 / 2 " Lillian Blankley Cogan

43. Birth and Baptismal Certificate of Mary Anna Egly Francis Portzline 1831 Watercolor and ink on paper Dauphin County, Pa. 15" x 101/2" Portzline's trademarks include the entwined hearts, circle of hearts, and heart wings on birds which he incorporates in most of his works. Dr. and Mrs. J.E. Jelinek

41. Slawcutter Artist unknown Circa 1850 Pine Pennsylvania 261 / 2 "x 81 / 4" Private Collection

PAPER 42. Birth and Baptismal Certificate of George Manger (Monger) Artist unknown

44. Birth and Baptismal Certificate of Jacob Gebogren (?) (Fig. 6) "Cumberland Valley Artist" 1804 Watercolor and ink on paper Pennsylvania or Maryland 13" x 151 / 2 " Private Collection

Catalogue no. 42

20th century Pine, painted New England L. 37" Patricia Coblentz 37, Crooked Knife Artist unknown (Northeast Woodland Indians) 1890-1900 Wood,iron Maine 11" x 1-3/4" Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Balish 38. Bowl Artist unknown Circa 1710 Ash or maple burl Possibly Connecticut 11"x 91 / 2 " Lillian Blankley Cogan

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45. Pinprick Picture Artist unknown Circa 1825 Watercolor and pinprick on paper 6" x 5-1/3" Private Collection

52. The Heart of Man Printed and published by Theo. F. Scheffer After 1842 Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 1 2 "x 4-3/4" 6/ Translated from the original German version of 1732, this volume was popular among the Pennsylvania Germans for its lessons extolling the virtues of a good heart. Benjamin Nussbaum Foundation

46. Album Pages Betsy Lewis January 1801 Ink on paper Dorchester, Massachusetts 7/ 1 2 "x 6" The verse contained in this exercise is from Oliver Goldsmith's popular poem, "The Deserted Village," of 1770. Howard Rose 47. "Tattooer's Flash"(Sample) Artist unknown 1912-20 Ink and dye on cardboard Virginia Beach, Virginia 15" x 20" Frederick Fried 48. Family Record of Peter I. Nellis William Murray (died 1828) Circa 1805 Watercolor and ink on paper Mohawk Valley, New York State 15'%"x 11-3/4" Allan L. Daniel

53. Hearts and Gloves(3) Artist unknown Circa 1850 Cut and woven paper 2" to 3-3/8" graduated Mrs. Richard Riddell

Catalogue nos. 53 and 54

51. "The Perfect Heart" David Bixler 1828 Watercolor and ink on paper Lancaster County,Pennsylvania 13"x 10" Free Library of Philadelphia

54. Lock and Key Artist unknown Circa 1850 Cut paper 3" x 1-1/8"(key), 1 2 "(lock) 4/ 1 2"x 2/ Mrs. Richard Riddell 55. Forget-me-not Andrew Wittkamp Circa 1820 Cut paper Mid-Atlantic States 15-3/4" x 9/ 1 2 " Mrs. Richard Riddell Catalogue no. 59

49. Family Record of Charles Ricker "Heart and Hand Artist" Jan. 12,1855 Watercolor and ink on paper Southern New Hampshire 12"x 15" Allan L. Daniel 50. Love Token Daniel Peterman (1797-1871) Circa 1840 Watercolor and ink on paper Manheim Township, York County, Pennsylvania 9/ 1 2 "x 71 / 2 " Peterman made this love token for his wife's sister, Catharina Stambach, probably on the occasion of her wedding or anniversary. Catharina asks "Who loves me?" and her husband replies "I, I, I." Donald and Dian Staley 28

56. Eagle and Chain Papercut Artist unknown Circa 1875 Cut paper Mid-Atlantic States 12"x 16" Betty Sterling 57. Valentine Artist unknown Circa 1830 Watercolor and ink on cut paper Pennsylvania 14" square Private Collection 58. Valentine Artist unknown 1754 Watercolor and ink on cut paper Pennsylvania 12" square Private Collection 59. Papercut Artist unknown Circa 1850 Gold paper, cut Pennsylvania 16" x 20" Robert Bishop 60. "The Word of the Holy Alpharine and Omega to a Saint of His Eternal Glory" Rufus Bishop (Shaker) April 21,1844 Ink on paper New Lebanon, New York 3-15/16" x4" Shaker Community, Inc. 61. Family Record of Robert Washburn J. Dalee Circa 1830 Watercolor and ink on paper Cambridge, New York 14"x 12" Allan L. Daniel 62. Love Knot and Rebus Artist unknown Circa 1840 Watercolor and ink on paper Pennsylvania 4" 1 12" x 12/ A rebus is a puzzle in which pictures are substituted for words. Mrs. Richard Riddell

Catalogue no. 63

63. "A True Lovers Knot" Artist unknown Circa 1820 Watercolor and ink on paper Pennsylvania 151/2"x 9/ " 2 1 Mrs. Richard Riddell 64. Puzzle Purse Artist unknown Circa 1805 Ink and watercolor on paper New England

"square 2 1 12/ This message unfolds to reveal the words of an unrequited suitor. Mrs. Richard Riddell

65. Woven Hearts(5) Artist unknown Circa 1850 Cut and woven paper Eastern United States "graduated 2 / 2" to 41 Mrs. Richard Riddell 29


66. Heart and Chain Artist unknown 1875-1900 Tinned sheet iron Connecticut 3-3/4" x 111 / 4" Possibly created for a tenth (tin-ten) anniversary present. Nancy and Gary Stass

67. Cookie Cutter (Heart in Hand) Artist unknown Circa 1850 Tinned sheet iron New York State 4-3/4" x 2-3/8" Jack T. Ericson

68. Cookie Cutter (Hand in Heart) Artist unknown Circa 1850 Tinned sheet iron New York State "x 2-3/4" 3/ 1 2 Jack T. Ericson

69. Cookie Cutter (Heart beside Hand) Artist unknown Circa 1850 Tinned sheet iron Pennsylvania 3/ 1 2 "x 3/ 1 2 " Moravian Museums of Bethlehem

Catalogue nos. 67and 68

70. Candlesticks Artist unknown Circa 1860 Tinned sheet iron, punched Pennsylvania 101 / 2 " From the Titus C. Geesey Collection 71. Coffeepot Artist unknown Circa 1860 Tinned sheet iron, punched Pennsylvania 11" x 6/ 1 2 " Rock-Ford-Kauffman Museum

77. Hobgoblin Weathervane Artist unknown Circa 1900 Wrought iron New York State 17" x 42/ 1 2 " America Hurrah, N.Y.C.

72. Sconce Artist unknown 1830-60 Tinned sheet iron, punched New England 13-3/16" x 3-3/4" Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum

78. Waffle Iron Artist unknown Circa 1840 Cast iron Pennsylvania 6-3/4" x 281 / 2 " A compass, a Masonic symbol, is incised on the outside. William Penn Memorial Museum, Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission

73. Box Possibly J.E. Cross 1852 Tinned sheet iron, punched Pennsylvania 8-13/16" x 13-3/8" x 91 / 2 " Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum

79. Trivet Artist unknown 1800-25 Wrought iron Botetourt County, Virginia 11 / 2 "x 914" x 4" The terminal is a snake figure. Roddy and Betsy Moore

74. Spoon "C.R." 1750-1800 Iron, brass, copper inlay Pennsylvania L. 15-3/16" Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum

80. Trivet Artist unknown 1830-50 Wrought iron Pennsylvania 21 / 4"x 7-1/16" x 4/ 1 2 " Philadelphia Museum of Art, gift of Titus C. Geesey

75. Fork Attributed to Peter Eisenhaur 1776 Hereford Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania Steel, brass inlay L. 15-1/8" Inscription reads "M. Eisenhaur," probably Martin. Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum 76. Weathervane Artist unknown Circa 1860 Iron, tin, lead, pine Pennsylvania 331 1 2 " / 2 "x 47/ 30

Said to be from the S.S. Pierce Mansion in Boston. Private Collection

81. Trivet Artist unknown Circa 1800 Wrought iron Pennsylvania 11 / 4"x 7" x 4/ 1 2 " James C. Sorber 82. Betty Lamp Artist unknown 1800-50 Wrought iron Pennsylvania 4-3/4" x 41 / 4"x 31 / 4" William Penn Memorial Museum, Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission

91. Branding Iron Winnie Kizer 1908-15 Wrought iron Prairie City, Oregon 5" x 36" This cattle brand is still in use. Rodney Rosebrook

TEXTILES 92. Bridal Quilt Artist unknown (Amish) Circa 1890 Wool Lancaster County,Pennsylvania 83" square Phyllis Haders Catalogue no. 73

83. "God's Well" Stoveplate Martic Furnace (1751-93) 1760 Cast iron Lancaster County,Pennsylvania 23" x 20" Historical Society of Berks County 84. Doorlatch Artist unknown Circa 1870 Wrought iron Pennsylvania L. 20" James C. Sorber

87. Hinge Artist unknown Late 18th century Wrought iron Pennsylvania 29"x 11" James C. Sorber 88. Toaster Artist unknown Circa 1800 Wrought iron Pennsylvania 10" x 16" x 12" James C. Sorber

85. Warming Shelf Artist unknown Late 18th century Wrought iron Pennsylvania 12" x 131 / 2 " James C. Sorber

89. Flap Jack Shovel Artist unknown 1856 Steel Pennsylvania 191 / 2 "x 31/4" Philadelphia Museum of Art, bequest of R. Wistar Harvey

86. Trammel Artist unknown 18th century Wrought iron Pennsylvania L, 32" James C. Sorber

90. Double Trammel Artist unknown 1750-1800 Wrought iron Pennsylvania 41-5/16"x 15-7/8" Philadelphia Museum of Art, The Harrison Fund Purchase

93. Cradle Quilt Top Artist unknown Circa 1880 Cotton, reverse applique Pennsylvania 35" square Phyllis Haders 94. Quilt Mrs. Israel B.(Mattie) Yoder (Amish) 1900-10 Cotton Ohio 78" x 67" This "Heart and Gizzards" pattern is perhaps the only pieced quilt that incorporates the heart figure and name. Barbara S. Janos and Barbara Ross, New York City 95. Quilt Artist unknown Circa 1865 Cotton New England 91" square Frances Martinson, Esq. 96. Quilt in the Heart and Feathers Pattern Artist unknown Circa 1850 Cotton Pennsylvania 87" x 88" Philadelphia Museum of Art, gift of Titus C. Geesey 31

Catalogue no. 96

97. Bedcover Hannah Riddle 1870 Felt, wool, and velvet, appliqued and embroidered Woolwich, Maine 77/ 1 2 "x 76" Harriet Griffin Gallery

98. Rug Artist unknown 1875-90 32

Wool on burlap New Hampshire 1 2 " 191 / 2 "x 40/ Raymond Saroff

99. Rug Artist unknown 1875-1900 Wool, applique and embroidered Ohio 291 / 2 "x 66-3/4" Burton and Helaine Fendelman

100. Needlework Picture Artist unknown Circa 1850 Cotton thread on linen 10" square This love token was probably made by a sailor. The knee motif was often found in sailors' mementos. Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Balish 101. Sampler Rachel Robbins 1823

Wool on muslin Connecticut 12½"x 171 / 4" Dr. and Mrs. J.E. Jelinek 102. Family record Lorenza Fisk 1811 Concord-Lexington, Massachusetts Silk on linen 18-3/4" x 161 / 4" Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum 103. Hand Towel Maryen Brestle 1834 Silk and cotton on linen Pennsylvania 59" x 15" Davida and Alvin Deutsch 104. Spread Artist unknown Circa 1780 Wool New England 96" x 99" From the Titus C.Geesey Collection

108. Rug Artist unknown Circa 1875 Cotton and wool on burlap New Jersey 22" x 38" America Hurrah, N.Y.C.

110. Masonic Apron Artist unknown Circa 1815 Watercolor on silk New York 24-1/16" x 23-1/8" Davida and Alvin Deutsch

109. Rug Artist unknown Circa 1875 Wool on burlap, embroidered Lancaster or Dauphin County, Pennsylvania 28" x 41" Private Collection

111. Grain Bag Samuel Kener (owner) Circa 1828 Unbleached tow, ink Lancaster County,Pennsylvania 59" x 19" Private Collection

Catalogue no. 102

105. Jacquard Coverlet Attributed to David D. Haring May 1,1833 Wool and linen West Norwood,Bergen County, New Jersey 76" x 931 / 2 " Made for Leah Garbarrant. Claudia Hopf 106. Blanket Artist unknown Circa 1825 Wool, woven and embroidered Hudson River Valley 70" x 88" William Penn Memorial Museum, Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission 107. Blankets Probably "A.K." Circa 1825 Wool, woven and embroidered Pennsylvania 68" x 92" Probably made as part of the dowry for the betrothal of A.K. and V.D., these blankets are nos. 17 and 18 of a sizable household trousseau. America Hurrah, N.Y.C. 33


112. Plate Signed "H.R." 1804 Red earthenware, white slip, sgxaffito decoration Pennsylvania Dia. 11-3/4" Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum

113. Butterprint Artist unknown Circa 1800 Red earthenware, lead glaze Pennsylvania Dia. 4-3/4" Philadelphia Museum of Art, Baugh-Barber Fund Purchase

114. Jug Charlestown Pottery 1812-20 Stoneware Charlestown, Massachusetts 15" x 9" Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr.

Catalogue no. 112

115. "Kissing Jug" D.X. Gordy 1974 Stoneware Westville, Georgia 9/ 1 4"x 51 / 2 " The Gordy family has been engaged in traditional pottery-making for several generations. Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr.

116. Jug Old Bridge Pottery of Jacob Van Winkle, Gen. James Morgan, Jr., and Branch Green 1805-22 Stoneware, cobalt decoration Middlesex County, New Jersey 15-7/8"x 101 / 2 " Dr. Arthur Goldberg

117. Plate Artist unknown Circa 1810 Red earthenware, slip decorated Probably Pennsylvania Dia. 131 / 4" Dr. Arthur Goldberg

Catalogue no. 118

118. Inkwell Attributed to John Holland (1781-1843) Circa 1825 Red earthenware, white slip, copper and manganese Salem, North Carolina 4-3/4" x 5" Holland,a Moravian, was the Master Potter in the community of Salem from 1821 until 1843. Old Salem, Inc. 119. Bottle Possibly Henry William Stiegel Circa 1775 Blown and enameled glass Possibly Manheim, Pennsylvania 51 / 2"x 2/ 1 2 " Rock-Ford-Kauffman Museum 120. Covered Jar Jacob Scholl Circa 1830 Red earthenware, white slip, sgraffito decoration, lead glaze Montgomery County,Pennsylvania 9" x 7-1/16" Philadelphia Museum of Art, Baugh-Barber Fund Purchase

MIXED MEDIA 121. Pie Crimper Artist unknown Circa 1840 Bone Pennsylvania 7" x 2" Moravian Museums of Bethlehem 34

122. Brooch Artist unknown Circa.1810 Ivory, incised and colored, brass Maryland Dia. 1-13/16" Hearts on a plinth suggest a token friendship rather than mourning. Woven locks of hair and the initials "MS" appear on the reverse. Maryland Historical Society

123. Scrimshaw Whale's Tooth Artist unknown Second half of the 19th century Whale ivory and abalone inlay New England H. 61 / 4", W. 2" Barbara Johnson

124. Sword and Case Artist unknown Circa 1880 Swordfish bill, wood, painted and stained 331 / 2 "x 7-3/8" Possibly New England Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr.

125. Key Basket Artist unknown After 1860 Leather, stamped and stained Possibly Richmond, Virginia 8" x 8" Found primarily in the south, these baskets were made as housewarming gifts for new brides. Lindsay Grigsby

128. "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" Queena Stovall 1953 Oil on canvas Lynchburg, Virginia 28" x 40" Randolph-Macon Woman's College Art Gallery 129. "I Preach 24 Hours a Day From Hearts Without any Charge" (Fig. 5) Howard Finster 1977 Enamel on masonite Summerville, Georgia 80" x 25" Jeffrey and C. Jane Camp 130. Sacred Heart Retablo Artist unknown 19th century Wood, painted New Mexico 12" x 8" Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe 131. Photograph of a Gravemarker (Fig. 3) Artist unknown Circa 1900 Wrought iron. West Point, Nebraska Photograph by Michael Shonsey 132. Gravemarker Laurence Krone (died 1836). Circa 1830. Stone Wythe County, Virginia Approximately 30" x 16" Photograph by Roddy Moore

126. Headband Artist unknown (Tlingit tribe) Circa 1890 Glass beads on wool Northwest Coast 7½"x 15-3/4" Jonathan Holstein

127. "My Valentine" Theora Hamblett (1895-1977) 1974 Oil on canvas Oxford, Mississippi 18" square Bill Ferris

LENDERS TO THE EXHIBITION: Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Williamsburg, Virginia Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Balish, Englewood, New Jersey Dr. Robert Bishop, New York City The Bohnes, Newmanstown,Pennsylvania

Jeffrey and C. Jane Camp, Tapahannock, Virginia Oliver Clark, Los Angeles, California Patricia Coblentz, New York City Lillian Blankley Cogan, Farmington, Connecticut Allan L. Daniel, New York City Davida and Alvin Deutsch, New York City Jack T. Ericson, Ridgewood, New Jersey Burton and Helaine Fendelman, Scarsdale, New York Bill Ferris, New Haven, Connecticut Free Library of Philadelphia Frederick Fried, New York City Titus C. Geesey Collection Dr. Arthur Goldberg, Closter, New Jersey Harriet Griffin Gallery, New York City Lindsay Grigsby, Richmond, Virginia Cornelia GromadzIci, Greenville, Delaware Phyllis Haders, New York City Herbert W.Hemphill, Jr., New York City Bernard Herman, Newark, Delaware Historical Society of Berks County, Reading, Pennsylvania Historical Society of York County,Pennsylvania Jonathan Holstein, New York City Claudia Hopf, Stouchsburg, Pa. Barbara S. Janos and Barbara Ross, New York City Dr. and Mrs. J.E. Jelinek, New York City Barbara Johnson,Princeton, New Jersey Kelter Make,New York City Joel and Kate Kopp, America Hurrah, N.Y.C. Mr. and Mrs. Bertram K. Little, Brookline, Massachusetts Frances Martinson, Esq., New York City Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City J. Roderick Moore, Ferrum, Virginia Moravian Museums of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania Mr. and Mrs. Walter C. Moser, Allentown, Pennsylvania Museum of International Folk Art, Sante Fe, New Mexico Benjamin Nussbaum Foundation Old Salem, Inc., Winston-Salem, North Carolina Laura Payne, Shelburne, Vermont Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Randolph-Macon Woman's College Art Gallery, Roanoke, Virginia Mrs. Richard Riddell,Washington, D.C. Rock-Ford-Kauffman Museum, Lancaster,Pennsylvania Howard Rose, New York City Rodney Rosebrook Mr. and Mrs. Joseph T. St. Lawrence, Suffern, New York Raymond Saroff, New York City Shaker Community, Inc. Ralph and Susie Smith, Washington, D.C. James Sorber, West Chester, Pennsylvania Donald and Dian Staley Mr. and Mrs. Gary Stass, New Canaan, Connecticut Betty Sterling Ross Trump, Medina, Ohio Mr. and Mrs. John Wallach, Washington, D.C. William Penn Memorial Museum, Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission, Harrisburg,Pennsylvania Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Delaware and several private collections

Phalarope carved by Richard Orcutt, 1977. (Richard Grave)

Three Centuries of Connecticut Folk Art Alexandra Grave, curator T

nspired by the Bicentennial celebration, individual states .1. have begun to examine their own particular folk culture through folk art. Next year, Connecticut will bring together three hundred years of her rich folk heritage, in an exhibition which will circulate through the state. Connecticut folk artists, sensitive to those who settled this region, have documented their traditions and attitudes within the special framework that the state provides. The exhibit will include some two hundred pieces of art, some by well recognized folk artists, but will emphasize those only partially researched or not seen before by the public. The purpose of the exhibition is to focus public attention on the enormous range of fine folk art in Connecticut, and to encourage further interpretive study of folk artists in the state. Connecticut,in many ways, reflects an entire New England region; however, paintings, needlework, trade and tavern signs, woodcarving, masks, unusual furniture, work in glass, clay and tin, are far more locally characteristic than is supposed. Although Connecticut is a small state, which began as a confederation of three tiny towns on the meadows of her central river, her steady growth reflects huge tracts of time and history. Her character has been labeled "curiously ego36

centric" and has emerged proud, patriotic, frugal and pious. For some, she is known for her strongholds of education and economic prosperity, her fine inventors, builders and lawmakers. Others remember Connecticut river valleys and huddled hills, greak oaks and cedars, harbors, granite ridges, the smell of wild grape. Folklore spins tales of Indian spirits, "noises," phantom ships, and wooden nutmegs. The Connecticut folk artist has recorded the character of this region from the difficult days of the Puritan colony to the present. Historic Connecticut burying grounds echo Puritan ritual in red sandstone. The need to bring down wild game for food into the salt marshes of Long Island Sound, gave rise to the tradition of the carved bird, made originally by Indians in crude shapes of root and mud. Prudence Punderson, in her "First, Second, and Last Scene of Mortality" reflects pre-Revolutionary traditions in an embroidery with crimped floss silks. After the Revolution, the Connecticut limner, along the Boston Post Road, and from town to town, recorded a new and self-reliant middle class, who took great pride in portraits of themselves and of their families. Reuben Moulthrop, Arnmi Phillips, John Brewster, Jr., Jonathan Budington and Dr.

Samuel Broadbent, whose works are included in the exhibition, reflected the prosperity and confidence of their sitters. Shipbuilding and shipping, mainstays of Connecticut economy, gave rise to figureheads and ornamental carvings. Ventures for fruits, wine, ivory, and spices bred wealthy shipowners, whom painters Jurgan Frederick Huge and Isaac Sheffield provided with detailed portraits of ships and sea captains. Others painting in the folk tradition provide important records of the character of Connecticut: town views, landscapes, factory and mill towns, village greens, scenes of daily life, family and social gatherings. National figures on shields, drums, and posters echo Connecticut's response to American events. Women of wealthy Connecticut families, and young girls in female academies, produced fine needlework, watercolors, and mourning pictures. After mid-nineteenth century, Connecticut folk art reflects a continued climate of prosperity; a favorable situation prevailed for industry, due largely to the state's industries resulting from the Civil conflict. Foreign immigrants came in large numbers and swelled labor forces. The second part of the century saw the Connecticut farmer leave his family farm, and immigrants move into rural areas, many taking advantage of the abandoned farm. The cultural homogeneity of Connecticut's native stock was transformed into a mosaic of Irish, Poles, Scandinavians, Germans, Slovaks, Italians, Blacks, and Spanish Americans, mingling traditions from other lands with old Yankee heritage. Although some Connecticut folk art forms have declined and some vanished, there are curious survivals and adaptations of old traditions. To celebrate the Bicentennial, women all over the state took up their needles to produce outstanding quilts, one in particular illustrating the texture of different cultures is the bright silk and satin quilt made by Puerto

Rican women of New Haven, depicting the passage to America with symbols of unity and new roots. Long gone is the female academy in Litchfield, the papier-mache clocks and painted drums, but the circus of Bill Brinley and the Mystic Paper Beasts treat children of all ages to new magic. Woodcarver Richard Orcutt continues the tradition of the carved bird; John Vivolo creates his "wooden children," welcoming arms outstretched. Along back roads the trade sign reappears in modern dress; huge painted strawberries lure the motorist to a roadside stand on the Durham Road, and a gigantic workman, sledge hammer in hand, guards the hill at United House Wrecking in Stamford. Some artists make whole private universes, wondrous stuff from obsessive dreams. Although there has been considerable research and restoration work done in Connecticut, such as the Reuben Humphreys portraits believed to have been painted by Richard Brunton during his stint at Newgate Prison in 1800, many folk pieces, especially in rural areas, are in need of research and repair. As extensively as possible, this exhibition will connect Connecticut folk art to those who brought it into being. The artists' lives, circumstances and tools of the trade will be examined to help tell the story. Next year's exhibition is being organized by Art Resources of Connecticut, a recently formed visual arts service agency fostered by the Connecticut Commission on the Arts. Alexandra Grave will serve as curator, Ruth Wolfe will co-author and edit a fully illustrated and comprehensive catalogue with Ms. Grave. The exhibition is scheduled to open in New England's oldest art museum, the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford in early October of 1979. From Hartford,it will leapfrog across the state and perhaps into the states of Massachusetts and New York. A host of ancillary events; demonstrations, lectures, concerts of folk music and dancing will surround the exhibition.

Wyllys Mansion, 1st, Hartford attributed to George Francis, a Hartford, Connecticut, carriage painter. (The Connecticut Historical Society) 37

Mrs. Romanta Woodruff by Samuel Broadbent, 1819.(The Connecticut Historical Society) 38

Major Reuben Humphreys attributed to Richard Brunton, circa 1800. (The Connecticut Historical Society)

Metal Whirligig found in Clinton, Connecticut. (Tom and Gloria Elliot)

Bissell Tavern Sign from South Windsor. (The Connecticut Historical Society)


Man on Black Chicken by John Vivolo, 1974. (Mr. and Mrs. Julius Laffal)

Miniature Circus by William Brinley. (Barnum Museum)


The Folk Spirit of Albany Tammis Groft


or the first time the folk art from the collection of the Albany Institute of History and Art was brought together last winter for a major exhibition, accompanied by a fully illustrated catalogue. All of the 120 works date from the 18th and 19th centuries and were either made by Albany area artists, are likenesses of Albany related people, or are landscape or genre scenes from the upper Hudson Valley. More than half of these works were exhibited and published for the first time and together they constitute a significant regional folk art collection as amassed by the Albany Institute over the past 100 years. The "Spirit of Albany," expressed in the art produced during the 18th and 19th centuries, emphasizes a rich historical and cultural heritage. Much of this art was done in the folk tradition and The Folk Spirit of Albany illustrates how some Albanians viewed themselves and their surroundings. Albany's folk spirit derives from at least three distinctive aspects of her history. First was the influence of the early Dutch settlers who, aside from developing a strong mercantile system, brought with them from the Netherlands a love for art. This latter feeling was most aptly expressed in the early 18th century Hudson Valley portraits and scripture paintings, the so-called "Patroon School." A second aspect which encouraged folk art to flourish here was Albany's commercial prosperity, a result of its strategic location at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers. This prosperity brought considerable wealth to the area and the means for the emerging middle class to indulge its interest in art in the 19th century. The third aspect was Albany's picturesque setting in the Hudson Valley, which drew numerous artists to the area to record the beautiful river and highlands. As a comprehensive regional collection, virtually all of the characteristic forms of folk art are represented from the early Patroon School paintings to late 19th century horse and house portraits; each a reflection of some aspect of Albany's history. The art tradition of painting portraits of wealthy Dutch merchants and scripture scenes from the Bible flourished

Pau de Wandelaer (1713-?), attributed to the Gansevoort limner, possibly Pieter Vanderlyn,circa 1730, Albany County, oil on canvas, 44-7/8" x 35-3/4". In the background of this painting is one of the earliest known painted views of a Dutch sloop. (Albany Institute of History and Art; gift of Mrs. Catherine Gansevoort Lansing)

in the Hudson Valley during the only extended period of peace in New York State (between Queen Anne's War (circa 1715) and King George's War (1745))in what was otherwise more than a century of war. Six paintings of this Patroon School were selected for the catalogue from the Albany Institute's collection of thirty six. It is generally assumed that during wartime neither leisure time nor money is directed towards the arts. An exception to this generalization is American engraved powder horns, a distinctive form of early American folk art which is predominantly a military tradition. Most horns made in New York depict the Hudson River and the city of Albany, reflecting the singular importance of this region in American military history. The quality of the folk art of Albany was enhanced by the prosperity of its residents. Professional folk artists and craftsmen alike were drawn to the Albany region as the demand increased for portraits and landscapes. The affluence of the upper Hudson Valley also supported the growth of academies and seminaries where it was fashionable for young 41

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101 Nathan Hawley, and Family, Novr 3d, 1801, signed "William Willkie," Albany, New York, watercolor on canvas, 15-3/4" x 20". Nathan Hawley was the keeper of the jail in Albany and William Willkie, according to family tradition, was a prisoner in the jail. (Albany Institute of History and Art)




A View of the Northeast and Southeast Corners of North Market Street and Maiden Lane 1800, attributed to James Eights, circa 1850, watercolor on paper,6¼"x 7-7/8".(Albany Institute of History and Art)

ladies to learn needle and ornamental work along with the rest of their studies. In the last half of the 19th century another aspect of Albany's prosperity supported the art tradition of painting horses kept for both racing and recreation. House portraits and street scene paintings were also popular in this region. Fritz Vogt is well known for his drawings of houses and farms made during the 1890s in the five counties west of Albany. The Albanian, James Eights, painted the streets of Albany in the 1840s and 1850s as they appeared a half century earlier. Eights recorded some of the last vestiges of Albany's Dutch culture, and his nostalgic inclination to record Albany's past also influenced other artists who copied his works and painted other street scenes in a similar manner. The artists represented in this collection reflect the full range of painting in the folk manner. The folk artist, broadly

defined, is a self-taught artist working outside of the fine arts tradition developed during the Renaissance. The art produced, whether decorative or utilitarian, was the personal expression of the maker and reflected the society in which he lived. Five types of folk artists are represented in this collection. The most numerous group is the professional (defined as one engaged in a specific occupation for profit, or as a means of livelihood) whose work is characterized by a high quality of execution in the folk tradition and is easily recognized by the artist's successful and distinctive style. The work of Ammi Phillips, William Jennys, Thomas Chambers, James Bard, Samuel Robb, and John Conger exemplifies this type. A second type of artist is the craft tradition artist who, through his career as a craftsman, was familiar with the artistic potentials of paint, wood, and metal and created artistic works as a logical and lucrative extension

View of State Street Albany, by John Wilson, 1848, watercolor on paper, 201/4"x 28%". (Albany Institute of History and Art)



of his craft. The artists Ezra Ames and Horace Bundy were craftsmen who first painted and decorated signs, sleighs, and furniture and later painted portraits. The third type is the event-inspired artist who recorded events in which he participated or personally observed. In this collection the artist A.W. Harris's Hoo Doo Team is an excellent example of the point in hand. A fourth type of artist is the leisure-time or Sunday painter. These artists' occupations were listed in the Albany City Directories as wife, mechanical engineer, landscape gardener, peddler, and moulder, indicating their artistic endeavors were created in leisure moments for personal pleasure. One artist's name was printed in italic type which denoted "persons of color" in the Albany City Directories. A fifth significant type of artist was the schoolgirl whose talent in needlework, painting and drawing is well represented in the collection. Two centuries of upper Hudson Valley history have been expressed in the folk tradition through

the eyes of these various types of area artists in portraits, mourning art, samplers, quilts, decorated stoneware, wooden Indians, weathervanes, and tavern signs. The Folk Spirit of Albany represents a unique cultural heritage. The art produced, expressed in many traditions by well-known, little known, and unknown artists, is a reflection of the region. Its counterparts, however, can be found all over America, revealing the "spirits" of other artists, people, and their environs. Funds for the exhibition and catalogue were provided by the New York State Council on the Arts. The Woman's Council of the Albany Institute provided a grant for the conservation of many of the paintings and frames. The 86 page catalogue may be obtained by writing The Museum Shop, Museum of American Folk Art, 49 W. 53rd Street, New York, NY 10011. The cost is $6.00 plus $1.00 for postage and handling (New York State residents please add appropriate sales tax).

Gourley Mourning Picture, artist unknown,circa 1814,chenille, silk, and paint on silk, 18-3/4" x 221/2". This picture portrays an actual churchâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the Reformed Dutch Church of Albany. (Albany Institute of History and Art)



Island Park Raceway,signed but illegible, circa 1888, oil on canvas, 291 / 2 "x 39-7/8". Island Park Raceway, owned by Erastus Corning, was located on an island in the Hudson River between Albany and Troy. The City of Albany appears in the background of this rare landscape and house portrait. (Albany Institute of History and Art; gift of Dr. and Mrs. Roderic H. Blackburn) The Hoo Doo Team/Owned/by H. and H. Yates/Geo. White/Driver/A.W. Harris./Painter./ Feb./1853., watercolor and paper cutouts on paper, 12" x 40/ 1 2".(Albany Institute of History and Art; gift of Mrs. William Rausch)





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Powder horn, signed "Benjamin Golding/His Horn made at/Albony [sic] Sept. 1, 1777," horn, 12" x 3". (Albany Institute of History and Art)

Still Life on Velvet, signed "Painted in 1825 by Elizabeth Pitkin," oil on velvet, 12-3/4" x 20".(Albany Institute of History and Art; gift of Miss Emily Penfield)


SIGNS OF THE TIMES Salvatore G. Cilella, Jr., Executive Director Historic Bethlehem, Inc.

"Signs were hung out on all sides to allure him; some to catch him by the appetite, as the tavern and victualling cellar. .." Henry David Thoreau, Walden 1854.

he tradition of good food and drink in America's taverns nd inns has been encrusted in the myth and romance of the "good old days." In reality, the forerunners of today's modern hotels were quite primitive. Although they provided shelter and sometimes a meager sustenance, they were often drafty, uncomfortable and crowded. Travel was not a recreational diversion but a necessity. Laws governing taverns and the use of spirituous waters date back as far as 1633, according to the Connecticut Historical Society's Morgan B. Brainard 's Tavern Signs. At that time the Massachusetts General Court passed a law forbidding the sale of "strong waters" without the governor's permission. Nothing strong was permitted to Indians. Despite New England's several restricting laws, taverns mushroomed as fast as the countryside's picturesque white churches. Mary C. Crawford noted in her book Social Life in Old New England that many taverns were built immediately next to the town meeting house. With the inns came the tavern signs. Jean Lipman has pointed out in her book American Folk Decoration that tavern, trade, and inn signs "make up one of the largest groups of folk decoration." Despite that fact, very little information exists on the subject. Practically every commercial establishment of the 18th and early 19th century possessed a sign advertising its goods and services. Signs ranged from the cigar store Indian to the barber pole. Generally, they had a threefold purpose according to Erwin Christensen's Index ofAmerican Design. Primarily, signs were designed for the general populace—


few of whom could read. Most signs depicted food, drink, or in the case of trade symbols, actual pictures of merchandise. It is an irony of historic development that today's traffic signs are experiencing a revival of symbols at the expense of words. A second, yet basic purpose was commercial—to sell goods and advertise services. Third, the sign reflected the taste, wealth, and standing of the proprietor whose shop was depicted by his sign. The craftsman or sign painter was, as Christensen has described him, "below the level" of the portrait painter. Many portraitists began as sign painters; some became full-time portraitists but continued as sign painters to supplement their income. Nathaniel Wales of Litchfield, Connecticut, a portrait painter, advertised in 1806: "Tavern signs may be had with different devices, glass signs, neatly enamelled, with gilt letters; or any common gilt or plain sign, as may best suit the employer." In 1808, Abner Reed advertised a supply of signs "ready painted of various devices, the name only wanting to complete them for hanging." Stephanus Knight did everything from move houses to paint signs. His gravestone inscription—as quoted in Morgan Brainard's "A Jack of All Trades"— sums up his active life and is probably typical of the tavern sign painter. It read: Stephanus Knight Born 1 772 Died Feb. 16, 1810 Painter, Gilder, Carpenter Joiner, Mason, Plasterer Sign Painter, etc. He was a busy man. Small wonder that he lived but 38 years. Few pre-Revolutionary War tavern signs are extant. The earliest known surviving specimen is a sign referred to as the "E.B." sign dated 1749. It is part of the large Morgan B. Brainard collection of signs now in the Connecticut Historical Society. The New York State Historical Association in Cooperstown, New York, possesses a fine though not large assemblage of business and commercial signs rich in variety. Ten of these can be tentatively identified as inn or tavern signs. They are: "Good Food and Drink," "Andrew Jackson," "J. Williams," "Bull's Head," "R. Chadwick," "American House," "Sheaf of Barley," "J. Wells," "C. Hotchkis," and "Bump." The first four bear no resemblance to the traditional, flat, woodenpaneled sign so often associated with these symbols. The most delightful is a three-dimensional, wood sculpture in the shape of a man with a top hat, figure 1, carved in the tradition of the cigar store Indian. It is three feet high and has the legend "Good Food and Drink" inscribed on its base. Its carver is unknown but the date has been estimated circa 1810. Fortunately, the provenance of the figure is documented: it is from the King of Prussia Inn near Doylestown,Penn47

sylvania. Although the "Good Food and Drink" symbol does not fit into the pattern of the traditional, one-dimensional, wooden sign decorated on both sides, it obviously qualifies in that class of objects referred to as tavern signs. Another sign in the New York State Historical Association's collections is known simply as "Andrew Jackson on a Horse," figure 2. It is 47 inches high, of cut-out sheet iron, and polychromed on one side. We can place its date at mid-19th

Andrew Jackson on a Horse trade sign, artist unknown, mid19th century, H. 47", sheet iron.(New York State Historical Association)

Man With a Top Hat trade sign, artist unknown, circa 1810, H. 36", wood.(New York State Historical Association)


century. At first glance "Jackson" appears to have been a weathervane but its large size negates that notion. No lettering is evident. Obviously it does not fit the traditional pattern of the tavern sign. The "J. Williams Hotel" sign, figure 3, is the most fullydocumented. It originally hung in front of a tavern built in 1792 by Zachariah Field in Ashfield, Massachusetts. Field sold the tavern to J. Williams in 1816 when the sign was first displayed. Williams operated the inn until 1838 when he sold it to Harrison Foote, the owner until 1846. The many Masonic symbols evident on the signâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;moon crescent, cross keys, surveyor's instrument and right-angle (all carved in relief)indicate that Williams was an active member of the local lodge. Indeed, one John Williams of Ashfield was a Mason but it is unknown if he owned a hotel during the period immediately before or after 1816.

The sign is oval, measures 30% inches high and 38% inches wide. It bears the inscription "J. Williams, Jrs. Hotel" on both sides in addition to the already mentioned Masonic symbols. The central feature of the sign is the carved eagle which now serves as the official "logo" for the New York State Historical Association. Thirteen stars form an arc over the eagle near the top. The obverse shows a crude representation of an Indian hunter with bow and arrow, animals (probably deer), and a single tree. The most unusual aspect of this particular sign is that it is made of marble banded in iron. Marble tavern signs are indeed rare and this particular one epitomizes the highest state of the sign-maker's art. Equally rare is the double oil on canvas reputedly done by Hudson River landscapists Thomas Cole and Frederick Church, figures 4 and 4A. This sign consists of two oil renderings of slightly different bulls' headsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;one on each side. Evidently, the canvases, both of which measure 34-3/4 inches by 27-3/4 inches, were mounted after the paintings were executed. Although documentation is lacking on Church and Cole's collaboration, each side is an individual rendering by an unusually talented artist and the paintings seem to support the family legend, though no similar examples of the work of either artist is known. There is speculation, however, that one of Cole's early teachers was an itinerant sign painter from Ohio. The origin of this sign has been definitely pinpointed to the Bull's Head Tavern, Catskill, New York. It dates from the first half of the 19th century. Because of the frail nature of the media it is difficult to imagine how a double oil on canvas painting was used as an outdoor advertisement. Since no legend or inscription is apparent it might be assumed that the sign was used indoors, although no evidence exists to support this notion. Perhaps the finest example of the so-called traditional tavern sign with flat, scrolled panel, framed by turned posts

J. Williams, Jr's. Hotel trade sign, artist unknown,circa 1792,30/ 1 2 "x 38/ 1 4", marble banded in iron.(New York State Historical Association)

Bull's Head Tavern trade sign, reputedly done by Thomas Cole and Frederick Church, 19th century, 34-3/4" x 27-3/4", oil on canvas. (New York State Historical Association) 49

is the "R. Chadwick Inn" sign, figure 5. It has undergone repainting and the date on the bottom scroll has been obliterated except for the first two digits "17" which place the sign in the 18th century. One side depicts an inn with a red roof and an overhanging tree on the left. Below is the inscription "R. Chadwick Inn" in two lines and black lettering. The opposite side shows a tree and a tethered black horse with the same wording in two lines. More often than not, tavern signs were altered rather than replaced when an establishment changed hands. After the Revolution, many inns and taverns repainted their signs to indicate their change in allegiance from George III to the newly formed United States. Close inspection of the "R. Chadwick" sign indicates that the inn and sign once belonged to another owner. If the underpainting could be deciphered, a giant step would be taken to unravel its origin. The "American House" sign is also somewhat of a riddle. It possesses scrolls top and bottom yet lacks the turned posts found on the Chadwick sign. Some tavern signs usually have one date. The "American House" has three; "1771" on the top scroll, "1819" on the bottom scroll, and "1869" centered on the middle of the panel sandwiched between the words "American" and "House." It is obvious that this sign has also been repaintedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the name "H.F. Foster" is barely legible below the more recent word "House." The lettering is black on a white background on both sides of the sign. 2 inches. Solid documentation / It measures 46 inches by 411 is lacking. The "Sheaf of Barley" sign which measures 29 inches by 63 inches shares an equal dearth of information. Yet, it is probably one of the finest examples of folk art decoration in the New York State Historical Association's entire trade sign collection. The scrolled top is dated 1804. The bottom panel is inscribed "Lansing's Inn" below the large sheaf of barley which is central to the sign. Nothing else is known of this sign, save that it was bought from a private individual from Woodbury,Connecticut, in 1958. After the turn of the century and well through mid-19th century, the tavern and trade signs underwent a mild revision. The upright, scrolled and turned vertical symbol gave way to the simpler, scroll-less, horizontal sign. Many were square or oblong and uncluttered in design and construction. The New York State Historical Association is in possession of two such signs. The first measures 27 inches by 36 inches and both sides are decorated identically with the inscription "J. Wells Inn" and an American eagle facing right. On the eagle's chest is a red and white striped shield. Two 11 -inch pieces of wood have been nailed to one side 6 inches from the vertical edges to hold the separating boards together. The sign is undated but according to records it came from the "Inn of John Wells of Earlville-1790." The information is a small extension of what appears on the sign. The other horizontally-oriented sign in the collection bears the legend "C. Hotchkis Inn" in two lines. As the Wells' sign, the Hotchkis is lacking in basic documentation. The only available information concerns the physical properties of the 50

4" x / R. Chadwick Inn trade sign, artist unknown, 18th century, 391 23-3/4", wood.(New York State Historical Association)

object itself: it is wooden and measures 18 inches by 36 inches. The "Bump Tavern" sign was repainted when the inn changed hands in 1842. As a result one side still bears the earliest inscription. Erwin H. Austin, an artist-designer from Voorheesville, New York, did a careful paint analysis. According to his report, the iron-framed, elliptical wooden sign underwent four repaintings. The first wording on a dark blue background read: "Windham House" and "Jehiel Tuttle" in two lines with a horse between the lines. The second paint job involved only a slight change in colors but no change in inscription. The next repaint came after the tavern was sold to

Bump Tavern trade sign, artist unknown, 19th century, wood.(New York State Historical Association)

Bump. His name was struck over Tuttle's in red and gold. The last change was a complete repaint in dark blue and the inscription read "Drover's and Traveler's" and "Hotel" in two lines. Presently, it is restored to show Tuttle's name on one side and Bump's on the other, figures 6 and 6A. Both tavern and sign came from Windham, Greene County, New York, in the Catskills on the Windham-Ashland Road. Today, the sign sits atop a post in front of Bump Tavern in the Association's Village Crossroads at the Farmers' Museum. The Tavern was moved to the Crossroads in the 1950s where it occupies a central location. Obviously, this tavern and sign represent the most complete documentation of any of the ten inn or tavern signs in the New York State Historical Association's collections. Tavern signs, as other physical tangible objects from our past, can be and are documents of human endeavor. The inscriptions and legends carved, drawn, and painted on inn signs represent the art of the craftsman and the status of the innkeeper. Regional, sectional, and national differences

are reflected by tavern signs equally as well as furniture and the decorative arts. During the 1930s the Pennsylvania Works Project Administration did a study of inn signs in that state. The Administration concluded that tavern owners there preferred the word "inn" whereas New York and New England proprietors favored the word "tavern." Four of the Association's signs described above are inscribed with the word "inn" and are probably of New York or New England origin. One is marked "House." The J. Williams sign refers to the establishment as a "Hotel." The Jackson, "Good Food and Drink," and the Bull's Head signs give no indication of what their owners chose to call their establishments but do say something of what they thought of their businesses. In addition to regional differences, stylistic changes have altered the orientation and shape of tavern signs. According to a study done on Morgan Brainard's collection of signs by The Connecticut Historical Society in 1958, inn signs fall into two large chronological types. The study showed that between the middle of the 18th century until circa 1830, signs generally were more ornate, vertically oriented and followed more closely the architectural elements popular at that time. This entire group has similarities to contemporary furniture and architecture too prominent to ignore. The second large group of Brainard's signs roughly fall into the first half of the 19th century. They are much simpler in design, horizontally oriented and, oddly, bear little relationship to the surrounding maelstrom in contemporary Victorian furniture and architecture. Under the impact of the Industrial Revolution after the Civil War, Americans turned away from the handmade, handpainted way of life. The inns and taverns eventually became the hotels and motels we know today. Neon, electric light bulbs, steel, and plastic have replaced wood and stone. Many of the inns and taverns have long since been lost. Only their signs remain as documents of their existence and, in some cases, of the human activity within their walls.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Morgan B. Brainard. "A Jack of All Trades," Connecticut Historical Society Bulletin, July 1956. . Tavern Signs. Hartford, Conn.: The Connecticut Historical Society, 1958. Erwin 0. Christensen. Index of American Design. New York and Washington: The Macmillan Company and National Gallery of Art, 1950. Mary C. Crawford. Social Life in Old New England. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1914. Jean Lipman and E. Meulendyke. American Folk Decoration. New York: Oxford University Press, 1951. 51

Collecting Colonial Spanish Art of the Americas James F. Adams, Ph.D. Temple University

he first art of Spain to be seen in the Americas undoubtedly came on the sails of Spanish ships and on the banners of the conquistadors. This was the beginning of the Spanish influence which continued for more than 300 years during the Colonial period leaving a fascinating legacy of art and architecture. Only a handful of North American scholars have exhibited any interest in the rich heritage of art found throughout the Latin countries and reaching into the southwestern part of the United States. While it is understandable that the artistic roots of the United States are basically European in nature, it is unfortunate that this influence has closed our eyes to the artistic wealth in our own hemisphere. When an occasional Colonial Spanish art treasure appears on the market, it frequently goes unnoticed, or, if noticed, is judged by the standards of Europe rather than being recognized as meritorious in its own right. Even within the countries of origin, Colonial Spanish art has gone largely unrecognized as evidenced by the loss of more than ninety percent of the period's art through decay and neglect. With the exception of the contributions of our indigenous Indian artisans, there is no art more truly "American" than that produced in Mexico and Central and South America between the fifteenth and the nineteenth centuries. It is, perhaps, a comment on the perceived importance of Colonial Spanish art that this article is being written by a psychologist-collector rather than by an art historian or a museum curator of the Colonial period in the Americas. Until 1717, Spain governed its possessions in the New World primarily through the Viceroyalties of Peru and Mexico. There were no independent countries. In fact, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, Latin America was still mostly controlled by Spain. While the motivations of the Spaniards focused largely on the wealth they could remove from the

All objects from the collection ofDr. James F. Adams


San Jeronimo by Diego de Borgraf(d. 1686), canvas, Mexico,64" x 40". The painting bears a marked similarity to an engraving of St. Jerome by Justus Sadeler. Figure I.

colonies and take back to Spain, they did leave a legacy of art and architecture which ranges over a continent and a half. Although the influence of the Spaniards is manifest in the art of the Americas (particularly that of Murillo, Ribera and Zurbaran whose paintings were shipped in large numbers to the colonies), new traditions developed. Sometimes these were in parallel to Spain, but, as often as not, they merged with the artistic talents and traditions of the Indians such as the Aztecs, Mayas and Incas. In addition to the influence of Spain, it is of interest to note that many early paintings can be traced to Flanders, figure 1, as literally thousands and thousands of Flemish prints were sold in the Spanish colonies. Centers of art sprang up in several locations in Mexico as well as in such cities as Bogata, Quito, Lima, Cuzco and Potosi in South America. From these centers, a number of excellent artists who had their early training in Spain and Italy influenced the developing art of the Americas. Their impact is noticeable on many of their students of the next generation; however, when one considers the total artistic output during the Colonial period, the mark of trained artists is negligible. The reason for this is that art was a modality of religious expression for even the common man and the vast majority of Colonial art came from unknown artists. Their talent varied tremendously but the sincerity of their need to express themselves artistically is not debatable. The net effect of their efforts was a wide range of art, a substantial proportion of which could be classified as folk art. Within the Latin countries today, there are relatively few museums devoted to the Colonial period. The best ones are found in Mexico and Peru which were the primary centers for artistic development. This is not to deny the value of collections found elsewhere in Latin America but only to note that, as a rule, they are much more provincial. An example is the beautiful collection of paintings depicting the life of St. Francis of Assisi in the Franciscan Monastery in Santiago, Chile. The Franciscans and Dominicans were most influential on the developing artisans of the period. To the present time, there has been little transfer of art objects between Latin countries. In my experience, there is no museum containing a representative cross section of art from the centers of the Colonial period. The public collections of Colonial art in the United States tend to focus on specific countries also. Small collections are housed within prominent museums such as The Brooklyn Museum (New York), the Hispanic Society of America (New York), the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and the Museum of New Mexico (Santa Fe), but one seldom has the opportunity to see the collections as they are usually in storage. An exception to this can be found in the Stern-Davis Peruvian collection (35 items)in the New Orleans Museum of Art and the Freyer Peruvian collection (32 items) housed in the Denver Art Museum. It is a sad commentary on the perceived importance of Colonial Spanish art collecting to note that there has never been enough interest by a major museum to muster an exhibition that cuts across

the wide variety of art modalities developed throughout Mexico, Central and South America. Further, no major museum has made any concerted effort to enhance its collections in the Colonial Spanish area. A number of years ago, while traveling in the Latin countries, I was depressed by the neglect of the Colonial art. Realizing that it was only a matter of time before it would be impossible to assemble representative works of the period, I decided to build a collection in the hope that one day an appreciation for the Colonial period would develop. At the time I had no idea of the amount of energy I would have to devote to the maintenance of these treasures. Professional art restoration was a luxury not within my limited budget and, therefore, I needed to develop new skills. On the positive side, doing my own restoration has produced a number of learning experiences I could have gained in no other way. I learned that linen (the traditional support for a painting) was almost never used by the Colonial artist. Further investigation revealed that Spain placed such a high tax on linen that the cost was prohibitive for most artists in the New World. The result was that cloth of native fibers or cotton was woven and used for painting. It could be argued that the stretching nature of cotton would work against the lasting quality of the painting. After working on well over one hundred of these works of art, I have concluded that it was this very quality which preserved the art for posterity in the face of extreme neglect. Paintings which had torn away from their strainers, instead of completely disintegrating, flexed with the air currents and survived for a much longer period of time. Wood, copper sheets, and walls were used to support oil paintings and occasionally one even finds paintings on discarded vestments. In any case, the Colonial artist had few of the resources which were available to the European artist. His pigments came from the land and the sea and his turpentine and mixing oils were all produced locally. The ingenuity of the Colonial artisan is a constant source of delight. Take,for instance, the problem of fastening a painting to the strainer. Nails were expensive and hard to obtain so they were seldom used. Excellent glues were produced and this was the popular solution. The support was tightly stretched and then glued to the strainer. I have removed "canvases" from strainers which had been attached for well over two hundred years. The glue was as firm as the day it was put down. Occasionally, I have received help from termites which have eaten away most of the strainer and still the glue has held the fragments of wood. The procedure of gluing to the strainer has also contributed to the destruction of Colonial paintings. If paintings became damaged, they were simply cut from the strainer rather than cutting the wood from the painting. It is not unusual to discover a painting which has had from two to four inches removed from the margins. There was another commonly used method to fasten down a canvas. Pegs were hand-carved and pushed through the support into predrilled holes on the edge of the strainer. 53

Santisima Trinidad, artist unknown, copper,late 17th century, Mexico, 5" x 4". When the three figures of the Godhead are painted in human form, they are frequently known as the "Forbidden Trinity." Figure 2.

In one instance, I found an artist who very carefully carved small wooden tacks, head and all, for this purpose. I have seldom found signs of previous restoration on my paintings. Perhaps twenty or so have been touched by a restorer, including one who used sections of the Mexican flag for patching material. Considering the climatic conditions and the possibility of insect damage, it is amazing that these works of art have survived at all. However, most of the damage has been the result of human carelessness. Few of the paintings received even a coat of varnish to protect them in their centur54

ies of exposure to temperatures varying from steaming coastlands to frigid mountains. The brightness of colors, after cleaning and varnishing, is startling considering the environments to which they have been exposed. Occasionally, special problems tax the ingenuity of the restorer. For example, what does one do with a coat of volcanic ash? In addition to fabric supports of various materials, wood was most common. If the wood was properly aged and coated with gesso, a substance similar to plaster which was applied to prepare a smooth surface, and free from the termites,

Crucifijo, artist unknown, ivory, 18th century, Peru, L. of figure, 7/ 1 2". Figure 4.

wt.* Ai alâ&#x20AC;˘**, IOW San Antonio y El Nino Jesus, artist unknown, feather mosaic, late 16th century, Michoacan, Mexico, 17" x 12". Figure 3.

it is likely to have survived in amazingly good condition. Many small paintings used in private altars were subjected to soot and flames from candles. In some areas of Latin America, panels with burn marks are highly prized as religious antiquities and are thought to bring good luck. If one of these panel paintings had been blessed by a priest for religious purposes and it was decided to remove it from its religious context, a common method of deconsecration was to burn the painting slightly with a flame. This practice was also used with Santos, the small wooden sculptures of saints so popular in places of worship. The finest of the small paintings were done on sheets of copper, figure 2, an expensive material when compared to the availability of wood. The age of the painting can frequently be determined by the thickness of the copper. During the seventeenth century, a rather thick, hand-hammered copper was used. In the eighteenth century, the thickness of the copper, still hand-hammered, became less; and in the early part of the nineteenth century the copper became even thinner and was then rolled out commercially. Copper, because of 55

its sympathetic coefficient of expansion, was an excellent support; many paintings on it have survived with relatively little damage. One of the most delicate and unusual items in my collection is a sixteenth century feather mosaic, figure 3, made by an Aztec artist. It has survived because it was fastened to copper. To my knowledge, the only other example in the United States of a feather mosaic, in somewhat deteriorated condition, is in the possession of The Metropolitan Museum of Art where it at one time was thought to be a fifteenth century Italian work. Sculptured works of art were primarily made from wood although occasionally stone, marble or ivory was used. Ivory sculpture was inevitably done by a highly trained artist, figure 4, (see photograph). Wood sculpture runs the gamut from very crude folk art to work of great design and beauty. With the more refined wood sculpture, the wood was first carved; the face was carved separately if glass or other materials were used for eyes and after the eyes were inserted, the face was glued to the remainder of the head; hands were tenoned into the wrist; and gesso was then applied to the wood. The majority of Santos were completed by one of two methodsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; estofado, figure 5, or polychromado. Estofado means that fine details were etched into the gesso. The robes of the saint were gold leafed and painted in such a manner that the estofado, the gold leaf, and the pigments were combined into intricate patterns. The last step was to apply the proper colored pigments to the face, arms, hands, etc. The design on the gesso was eliminated in the polychromado method and the artist proceeded directly to the gold leafing or painting. The same procedures were used with carving in three-quarter relief on wood panels or retablos. The term retablo is also used for any panel of wood which contains a painting. All of this work is still done in the Latin countries today but it lacks the beauty and skill which were the hallmarks of the Colonial artist. There were other variations in the making of Santos. In my collection there is a St. Michael whose clothes and wings are made of hand-hammered silver with a floral design. The silver was beaten to the shape of the statue and only the skin of the legs, arms, and face was covered with pigments. Wax was infused with the oil pigments to give a luminescent skin tone, reminiscent of alabaster, to the faces of Mary and Joseph in a Colonial nativity scene. Finally, there is a Santo that appears to be wood, but in reality was made of a fabric impregnated with pigment for color and rigidity. The Colonial artisan who made frames was a superb craftsman, figure 6. As might be expected, many of the frames have suffered the ravages of insects and my own appreciation of the skill of these Colonial artisans has been greatly magnified by the necessity of having to carve a number of frames

San Jose, artist unknown, hand-carved with estofado, 18th century, Mexico, H. 25". The silver staff and crown are from the same period. Figure 5.


San Nicolas Obispo, artist unknown,canvas,Cuzco,Peru, 26" x 191/2". The frame is original to the painting. Figure 6.

San Miguel Arcangel, artist unknown, tin, late 19th century, Mexico, 14"x 1014". Figure 7.

for my paintings, figure 7. The Colonial framer was often held in higher esteem than the painter. It is a matter of record that the frame was frequently done first with the painter assuming secondary importance by being asked to fill the prescribed dimensions. In Peru, the plentiful supply of quicksilver encouraged the artisan to inlay mirrors into the design of his frame. Semiprecious and precious stones and polished minerals were also used in this manner in a number of countries. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, gold leaf was popular as ornamentation for Colonial paintings. It was used as decoration on garments and for crowns and halos. Because the gold was laid on flatly with little attempt to fit it in with the depth perspective of the painting, unusual results were unintentionally obtained. In spite of this, the gold greatly enhances the beauty of the art. The Peruvian Cuzco School is particularly well known for its ornate gold work, as well as for the multicolored birds that flash through the air or rest in the trees. The most familiar type of "Colonial Spanish" art is the ex-voto. These are usually small primitive paintings on wood or tin executed by the recipient of a perceived miracle, and taken to the church in thanksgiving for an answered prayer.

They frequently depict the miraculous quite clearly and may have an inscription describing the event. Antiques dealers are familiar with the ex-voto and generally give it far greater age than is warranted. This is particularly true of those on tin, most of which came from Mexico. As rolled tin was not available prior to the middle of the nineteenth century, very few of these delightful little paintings fall into the Colonial period. However, their merit as folk art should not be denied and the events they depict are fascinating to the collector. With their age held in mind, a collection of true Colonial art would suffer if one did not stretch one's time perspective a little and admit them as full-fledged acquisitions. The distance between Europe and the Spanish colonies produced a number of interesting variations in acceptable iconography. For example, painting the Holy Spirit in the Trinity as a human was forbidden by Rome. Apparently the word did not reach the colonies, or was ignored, and it is common to find examples of the Trinity painted in this form. The "Forbidden Trinity" is a common subject in Colonial Spanish art, figure 2. The only angels ever to be painted with "modern" military attributesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;muskets, etc.â&#x20AC;&#x201D;were developed in Bolivia by an unknown artist who is now known as the Master of Calamarca. 57

Apparently, new legends also developed concerning the saints. There is a Peruvian St. Nicolas of Bari in my collection which has two small animals, dogs or donkeys, at the bottom, one white and the other black. However, the head on the white animal is black with the reverse being true for the other animal, figure 6. I have been unable to discover the significance of these animals. Perhaps a reader can be of assistance. The subject matter of Colonial paintings reveals that in addition to the Holy Family, some of the more popular saints were: Madre Dolorosa, El Nino de A tocha, La Virgen de la Guadalupe, Santa Rosa de Lima, San Jeronimo, and, of course, San Antonio, San Francisco, and Santo Domingo. Sculptures within the churches were often the subject matter for the artist's paintings. From these were produced what are called statue paintings. La Virgen de la Merced, figure 8, is a good example of this type of art. The face and the hands are extremely human while the robe fans out and is stiff and ornate. This delightful painting has a rich bluegreen background typical of Guatemala. At various times, the popularity for a subject was enhanced by a particular event. In 1650 a strong earthquake rocked Cuzco. A statue of Christ was taken from the Cathedral and paraded through the streets in a procession. It is reported that the tremors following the quake immediately stopped. Artists flocked to paint "Our Lord of the Earthquakes" and the crucified Christ with the lower part of his body covered with a "half-slip" was the result, figure 9. No Peruvian collection is complete without this painting. If I could have looked into the future when I began to collect Colonial Spanish art, perhaps I would have resisted the temptation and turned to some other form of investment. Collecting major works of art requires a responsibility to preserve and care for them. The paintings and sculpture need constant care and maintenance. Wood, which has adjusted to its environment, will react to changes in altitude, temperature and humidity. Paintings will develop bloom. It is not difficult to imagine that an Inca king, a conquistador or a saint is looking at you reproachfully for not giving him the attention he needs. I have become much more understanding of the problems of museums. On the other hand, there is a sense of satisfaction in knowing that you have preserved something worthwhile for future generations. Nevertheless, you wonder when and where it will all end.

La Virgen de la Merced, artist unknown,canvas, 17th century, Guatemala,24" x 20". Figure 8.

El Cristo de los Temblores, artist unknown,canvas, late 17th or early 18th century, Cuzco,Peru,63" x 431/4". Figure 9. 58

Noteworthy Events

Center for Museum Education Barbara Fertig, Coordinator

True Friends of the Shakers Flo Morse On a cold night in New York last January, a large crowd flocked to a lecture by Shaker Sister R. Mildred Barker and to a reception in her honor at the Museum of American Folk Art. In response to many requests received for information concerning Sister Mildred and the Shakers, we would like to invite interested people to honor Sister Mildred by joining the Friends of the Shakers. Founded four years ago, the Friends of the Shakers share in the preservation and restoration of the active, ongoing Shaker community at Sabbathday Lake, Maine, Sister Mildred's home. They have provided a security system for the 1794 Meetinghouse and the 1834 Ministry Shop, and have underwritten, among other things, the purchase of rare books, manuscripts, and the 123-reel microfilms of the Western Reserve Historical Society Shaker Manuscript Collection. Bigger projects have been proposed. The most compelling is to build a fireproof shelter for the exceptional contents of the Shaker Library. Fortunately, with the blessing of Sister Mildred and the other Maine Shakers, the group of Friends continues to grow. And like-minded people, who admire the folk arts of the Shakers and respect the religious impetus behind them, are invited to become true Friends of the Shakers of today. The Shakers at Sabbathday Lake will welcome the Friends on August 5 and 6, 1978, for their fourth annual meeting. It will be more like a reunion, as members gather from distant states as well as from New England. The program will be special. Professor Daniel W. Patterson, of the Curriculum of Folklore at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, will preside over an afternoon of Shaker

music. He will lecture on "The Distinctive Features of the Shaker Spiritual," the subject of his book to be published in the fall by Princeton University Press. Roger Hall of Stoughton, Massachusetts, a musician and Friend who presented a popular program of Western Shaker music at the Friends' meeting two years ago, will lead the singing of Shaker songs. On display will be rare Shaker tunebooks, manuscripts and musical instruments and inventions. One of them, a Shaker metronome or "mode-ometer," was used to provide the right number of beats per minute for a hymn or a march or quick dance. The 1978 Friends' weekend will include a reception at the community, a picnic on the shore of Sabbathday Lake, and participation in the traditional Shaker worship. On August 6 the 204th anniversary of the Shakers' arrival in America will be observed. To attend the August meeting and to become a Friend of the Shakers, please send a tax-deductible membership contribution (from $10 a year on up to $500 for life) to our corresponding secretary, Mrs. Donald Prentice, Box 36, Canton Center, Connecticut 06020. You will receive a membership card printed on the Shaker Press and a newsletter, also called "The Clarion," with full details about registering for the Friends' weekend at Sabbathday Lake August 5-6. As she adds new Friends to old, Sister Mildred has expressed the appreciation of the community in the words of an old Shaker song. Gospel kindred, how I love you Tongue nor pen cannot portray Feelings of such deep affection Growing stronger day by day. Bind these sacred ties together Seal with friendship ever true Show to all that Christ our Savior Is creating things anew.

On January 27, 1978, the Museum of American Folk Art joined the Rockefeller Brothers Fund in hosting a gathering of more than one hundred museum professionals from the New York area. The purpose of the late afternoon reception was to introduce the Center for Museum Education to museum people involved in education programs in the metropolitan area. The reception was also the occasion of the publication of The Art Museum As Educator, the long-awaited report on the practice of education in art museums. Barbara Y. Newsom, project director and co-editor of the report with Adele Z. Silver, announced the arrival of the 800-page volume, the result of a national study begun in 1973 by the Council on Museums and Education in the Visual Arts. The report, which includes documentation of programs, interviews with people who have made major contributions in shaping art museum education, and essays on the state of the profession, makes one recommendation for the future of museum education: the creation of a clearinghouse to continue and to update the report. The Center for Museum Education, located in Washington, D.C., has been established as this clearinghouse. Guests at the reception were introduced to the staff of the Center by Evan H. Turner, former director of the Philadelphia Museum of Art and Chairman of the Center's Advisory Council. Staff members Sue R. Hoth and Barbara C. Fertig presented the concept and the services of the Center. These include publication of an index to the Center's collection of materials in periodical format, the production of selected bibliographies, and, in 1978, the assembling of basic information packets on topics of particular concern to the profession, like the training and management of volunteers in museum education, programs for historic sites, school museum relations, and life-long learning. The Center provides an exchange of 59

ideas and program information, assistance in locating consultants and resources, and information of its activities to anyone interested in the process of education in museums. Among its clients are educators in zoos, historical organizations, science and nature centers, as well as the more traditional museums of history, natural science, and art. Teachers, parents, museum volunteers, and college libraries use the Center, too. These clients are also the contributors to the Center, whose collection of materials numbers over 5,000 documents. The Center is located on the campus of George Washington University, and is open to visitors weekdays from 9 A.M. to 5 P.M. The telephone number is 202676-6682. To be placed on the mailing list, write to: Center for Museum Education, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052. The Center's index to its collections is available by subscription; announcement of the availability of basic information packets will be made in the summer of 1978. View of Troy,Pennsylvania, by Henry Walton (1804-1865), Troy,Bradford County,Pennsylvania, oil on canvas, 1851.(Troy Public Library, Troy,Pennsylvania)

The Folk Arts and Crafts of the Susquehanna and Chenango River Valleys Richard Barons

A celebration of the fine art of the craftsmen and artists who worked and populated the Susquehanna and Chenango River Valleys from the 18th through the early 20th century comprised the recent exhibition at the Roberson Center for the Arts and Sciences in Binghamton, New York. The geography of the show stretched all the way from the Madison County and Cooperstown areas in the north central section of New York, down through the Chenango, Broome, and Tioga counties of the state. It then wound its way through Pennsylvania to Wilkes-Barre, Williamsport, and Harrisburg, splitting the counties of York and Lancaster and gliding through Maryland before spilling its waters into the port of Havre de Grace. There have been numerous exhibitions 60

and books about folk artists and craftsmen from the arbitrary lines of states or ethnic groups, such as the Amish, etc.; rather than from a natural geologic definition as this exhibition attempted to show. After more than two years of covering museums and private collections, the staff of Roberson Center discovered over 225 objects that represented the fine quality of material objects produced in the river valleys. More than half of the exhibited works had never before been shown publicly. Over 100 lenders included the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts; the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York; the Free Library of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; the Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico; the Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio; Greenfield Village and Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn, Michigan; the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Delaware; the Department of State Diplomatic Reception Rooms, Washington, D.C.; and numerous other museums and private collections. Tall-case clocks

Henry L. Wells, attributed to Susan Waters (1823-1900), Bradford County, Pennsylvania, oil on canvas, 1843-1845. (National Gallery of Art;gift of Col. Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch)

from Lancaster, Pa., samplers and embroideries from Harrisburg, Pa., decorative stoneware'from Williamsport and Harrisburg, Pa., Lehnware from Lititz, Pa., a signed fancy chair from Marietta, Pa., as well as over 45 Pennsylvania fraktur, 30 portraits, two dozen major pieces of furniture including a group of 12 dower chests were assembled. Cast iron stoves, wooden toys, silver, copper, pewter, and a group of stenciled, appliqued, and pieced bed covers completed the exhibit. Visually, it was one of the most exciting folk arts and crafts exhibitions to be mounted since the great "Flowering of American Folk Art" at the Whitney Museum in New York several years ago. A catalogue of "The Folk Arts and Crafts of the Susquehanna and Chenango River Valleys," with over 200 black and white illustrations and 8 color plates illustrating, besides things in the exhibit, some important landmark pieces not displayed in the show, is available for $7.50 including postage and handling from the Museum, Roberson Center for the Arts and Sciences, 30 Front Street, Binghamton, New York 13905.

The Decorative Arts Trust Gray D. Boone,President

People in America are captivated by the beauty and value of old things. Look at the King Tut phenomenon, the growth of our country's art and antiques industry to almost $4 billion annually, the enthusiasm for investment, the popularity of auction buying. This interest is healthy, but it demands careful direction. That need for direction is the basis upon which the Decorative Arts Trust exists. The DAT is a brand new organization which grew from the ideas of a group of curators, educators, dealers and collectors who saw our field's tremendous potential blossom a decade ago. They realized the need for guidance of that development and it was their foresight which insured the charter of the DAT

in Washington, D.C., last spring. Today this new concept is emerging as a source for accurate information and a meeting place for people who want to protect our irreplaceable decorative arts heritage. The only prerequisite for membership is an interest in decorative items made or brought to this country since Colonial days. Just how can the DAT serve that vital function? A number of programs are already underway and a great many dreams remain in the planning stages. Their implementation demands the support of people deeply committed to the arts in America. First, by offering membership to people everywhere, the DAT is establishing a broad base which includes the student, the person with just one or two family heirlooms, the curator of a rural house museum, and the sophisticated dealer or collector. Although these people represent divergent elements of our field, they are coming together to pledge their interest in the DAT and in what it represents. As members, many of these people met at the DAT's first national forum in New Harmony, Indiana, on April 21 through April 24, 1978. "Furniture of Federal America 1790-1830" was the theme of this inaugural event. New Harmony was chosen as the site because of its innovative history, its wonderful restoration effort, and its geographical proximity to members throughout the country. In addition to the national forum, which helped participants learn to organize similar educational sessions on the local and regional levels, the DAT offers a unique placement service for decorative objects. Museums and restorations submit their "want lists," detailing the items they need to furnish their collections. Then, the DAT works with collectors wishing to donate objects, using the central list to be sure items are placed where they are most needed. Mrs. Mark Munn of Hopewell, New Jersey, was the first donor to make use of this service recently when she gave a set of 12 William and Mary chairs to the restoration at Bacon's Castle owned by the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. Along with this referral service, the DAT serves as a source for information about objects themselves. Repairing a chair leg, removing white spots from a

table top, handling a water damage problem or tracing the provenance of a special pieceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;these are the information problems that plague collectors of every kind. Now, through the DAT, members learn who to ask, where to look and how to find the solutions to those special problems. While the DAT itself does not offer solutions, it does provide research guidance, setting up a direct channel between members and the best sources for answers. Looking for a speaker to keynote your next museum study session? Organizing next year's antiques show lecture? The DAT offers members a directory of speakers who are experts in various aspects of the decorative arts, their speech titles, and details on how to get in touch with them. Communication is the answer to many problems. And communication is the role of the Decorative Arts Trust. As a person dedicated to the decorative arts, your help is needed in establishing this communication network. Some of the country's foremost experts are already pledged to the success of the Decorative Arts Trust. Executive officers include: Dr. Richard Howland of the Smithsonian Institution, first vice-president; Marion Carson of Philadelphia, second vice-president; Joseph Butler, Sleepy Hollow Restorations, secretary; and Charles Wall, recently retired director of Mount Vernon, treasurer. Members of the DAT's board of governors include Dianne Pilgrim of The Brooklyn Museum; Graham Hood, Colonial Williamsburg; John A.H. Sweeney, The Winterthur Museum; Mrs. Alice Maxwell, Red Bank, N.J.; William Elder, The Baltimore Museum; J. Jefferson Miller, The Smithsonian Institution; Marvin D. Schwartz, Antique Monthly; Hortense Feldblum, Friends of Attingham ; Joe Kindig III, York, Pa.; Dr. Donald Shelley, York, Pa.; and Mrs. L.M.C. Smith, Germantown, Pa. John Hunt of Philadelphia is the DAT's legal counsel. Active membership is $15 per individual; contributing membership, $25; sustaining, $50; master, $500; and life, $1000. For details about membership, write to DAT executive director Dewey Lee Curtis, The Decorative Arts Trust, New Hope,Pa. 18938. The Decorative Arts Trust is preserving the best of the past for the future. Please join us. 61


News From the Friends Committee The Friends Committee is pleased to announce a gala benefit for the Museum of American Folk Art in cooperation with the annual Park Avenue Antiques Show. On March 6, 1979, we will host a special preview opening with all proceeds to the Museum. Cocktails and hors d'oeuvres will be served. Subscription tickets may be obtained in February. This promises to be one of our most exciting events. There has been a special addition to our Fall Bus Tour schedule which already includes the Salisbury Tour, September 9; and the Barnes Foundation Tour, December 9. We are now offering on October 21, 1978,in conjunction with Gallery Passport Limited, a one-day bus tour to the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Delaware. The cost of $55 per person includes the lecturer's fee, gratuities, deluxe coach transportation, admission to the museum, and luncheon in the garden pavilion on the museum grounds. Special arrangements have been made for us to view the 14 rooms of the south wing not ordinarily

included in the museum tour. The bus leaves at 7:45 A.M. from the YMCA at 5 West 63rd Street and returns to the YMCA at 7 P.M. that evening. We are limited to 40 people, so please make your reservations early. Address all requests to Bus Tours, Museum of American Folk Art. The Museum's mailing department needs help with the quarterly mailings of The Clarion and the announcements of the exhibition openings. I would like to see five of our members join in this effort by committing one day four times a year. The mailings will be prepared at the home of a staff member and not at the Museum. If you have the time, please contact Dia Stolnitz at the Museum office and leave your name and number. If you would like to join the Friends Committee, you are welcome to attend our next full committee meeting on Tuesday, September 19, at 5:30 P.M. at the Museum of American Folk Art. Karen S. Schuster Chairman

Report on the Docent Committee A group of the Museum's docents was introduced to the attractions of the New York State Historical Association at Cooperstown on May 5, 6, and 7. To the uninitiated, Cooperstown is synonymous with the Baseball Hall of Fame. To the initiated, it means Fenimore House and folk art, the Farmers' Museum, and a way of life that epitomizes the best of small town America. Cooperstown is a comfortable place, cognizant of its history, which is preserved both by institutions and the 62

individual efforts of the residents and owners of historic houses. The business aspect of the trip included a lecture on folk art by Dr. Louis C. Jones and his partner in scholarship (and wife), Aggie. Dr. Jones led an afterhours tour through Fenimore House, illustrating the points he had made in his lecture. Thus, the docents visited the "inner sanctum of folk art" and saw handmade cigar store figures and weathervanes, frakturs, portraits, landscapes, sculpture, and furniture.

Karen S. Schuster, Chairman Jana Klauer, Vice-Chairman Dianne Butt, Treasurer Cynthia V.A. Schaffner, Secretary Mama Anderson Lillian Brahms Barbara Butt Alan E. Cober Joyce and Dan Cowin Lucy Danziger David Davies Nancy Druckman Burton Fendelman, Esq. Helaine Fendelman Susan Flamm Julia Flowers Sarah Frassinelli Danielle Gaherty Judy Garfunkel Marilyn Glass Ellin Gordon Kaaren P. Gray Mrs. R.K. Greene Judith Guido Phyllis Haders Barbara Hess Jay Johnson Joan Johnson Beth Karson Susan Klein Edward F. Knowles Pete and Anne Lowder Mrs. Edwin H. Miller Samuel Pennington Lisa Puntillo Ruth Raible Virginia Saladino Myra and George Shaskan Scudder Smith Maureen Taylor Eleanora Walker Julia Weissman Riki Zuriff

Business was brisk Saturday morning. Six graduate students in the Cooperstown folk culture program presented summaries of their research projects. These talks covered a variety of topics, both historic and contemporary. The students also discussed the manner in which their research was done and the importance of photography as a research tool. The remainder of the weekend was less formal, involving visits to Fenimore House, the Farmers' Museum, and a walking tour of Cooperstown. Walking along the shores of Lake Otsego and the quiet streets of Cooperstown afforded a chance to assimilate all the folk art and all the history Cooperstown has to offer. Robin Harvey Museum Intern

The Museum Shop-Talk Elizabeth Tobin Manager Because the Museum of American Folk Art is just thatâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a museum of American folk artâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;The Museum Shop is a museum shop filled with books, catalogues, paper goods, consignment items, and merchandise relating to folk art, an educational opportunity relating to the past and present. All of the books and catalogues which appear in the carefully researched bibliography of each issue of The Clarion are available by mail from The Museum Shop. These lists include books presently in print and many of the books enumerated contain bibliographies for further research on the subject at hand. Jack Ericson, editor of The Clarion book reviews, indicates those books which can be purchased from The Museum Shop. Please remember your membership discount when applicable and add postage and handling if you should order any of the books reviewed. We welcome suggestions of any book titles with historical emphasis on folk

Large: $50

art that could be added to these bibliographies. Hopefully these books and catalogues will find their way to our bookshelves, so please make certain that they are, as the expression goes, "available in print" before writing us. Since summer makes many of us think of country places and country times, it seems appropriate to describe the work of Ivan and Donna Barnett who have captured the familiar and often beloved silhouettes of barnyard animals in both large weathervanes and miniature weathervane tin cutouts. After careful study and research of museum and private weathervane collections, Ivan designs the animal figures. He then finds weathered tin roofing, cuts and shapes the figures, and welds them to rods set into solid wooden blocks (approximate dimensions 16" by 18" including the block). Ivan has taught Donna to cut and shape the miniature weathervanes which she then welds to rods set into smaller blocks of wood (approximate

dimensions 6" x 10" including the block). Each weathervane is incised with Ivan's initials and dated. The resulting weathervane animals take on a sculptural aspect. Given certain lighting effects, they cast marvelous shadow shapes along a given wall, a dimension unknown among rooftop weathervanes. These weathervanes may be ordered from The Museum Shop. Please allow 10 weeks for delivery because each one is handcrafted and may have to be specially ordered if not in stock. September 15 is the deadline for Christmas delivery. The five illustrations indicate two prices: the first, for the large weathervane; the second, for the miniature version. Add $7 postage and handling for each large weathervane and $2.50 for each miniature vane. When ordering from The Museum Shop, please note the following: 1. List individual items and add total. 2. Members of the Museum of American Folk Art may subtract 10% from the total. 3. Add 8% tax if order is mailed to New York City. Add 7% if order is mailed elsewhere in New York State. 4. Add postage and handling charges as follows: $1 for a single item; 50 cents for each additional item.

Large: $65

Small: $12 Large: $55

Large: $65

Small: $15

Small: $15

Small: $12

Large: $65

Small: $15 63

BOOKS AND CATALOGUES ON POTTERY Barber, Edwin AtLee. The Pottery and Porcelain of the United States and Marks of American Potters. (reprint) n.p.: Feingold & Lewis, n.d.(1976). 20.00 . Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania-German Potters. (reprint) New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1970. 3.50 Bivins, John, Jr. The Moravian Potters in North Carolina. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1972. 12.95 Blair, C. Dean. The Potter and Potteries of Summit County Ohio 1828-1915. Akron, 0.: Summit County Historical Society, 1965. 3.50 Crawford, Jean. Jugtown Pottery: History and Design. Winston-Salem, N.C.: John F. Blair Publisher, 1975. 8.00 Guilland, Harold F. Early American Pottery. New York: Chilton Book Company, 1971. 12.50

Powell, Elizabeth A.Pennsylvania Pottery Tools and Processes. Doylestown, Pa.: The Bucks County Historical Society, 1972. 3.00 Smith, Elmer L. Pottery A Utilitarian Folk Craft. Lebanon, Pa.: Applied Arts Publishers, 1975. 1.50 Smith, Joseph Johnson. Regional Aspects of American Folk Pottery. York, Pa.: The Historical Society of York County, 1974. 5.75 Spargo, John. Early American Pottery and China. Rutland, Vt.: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1974. 12.50 Stradling, Diana. The Art of the Potter. New York: Universe Books, 1977. 6.95 Watkins, Lura Woodside. Early New England Pottery. Sturbridge, Mass.: Old Sturbridge Village, 1966. 1.25 . Early New England Potters and Their Wares. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1969. 17.95

Lasansky, Jeannette. Made of Mud. Lewisburg, Pa.: The Union County Bicentennial Commission, 1977. 6.95

Webster, Donald Blake. The Brantford Pottery 1849-1907. Toronto, Ont., Can.: The Royal Ontario Museum, 1968. 3.00

Osgood, C. The Jug and Related Stoneware of Bennington. Rutland, Vt.: Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc., 1971. 16.50

.Decorated Stoneware Pottery of North America. Rutland, Vt.: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1975. 19.50

The Pottery and Porcelain ofNew Jersey 1688-1900. Newark, N.J.: The Newark Museum, 1947. 2.00

Wiltshire, William E., III. Folk Pottery of the Shenandoah Valley. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1975. 7.98

Exhibition Schedule Title Folk Art: The Heart of America Curator: Ms. Elaine Eff Great American SamplersFrom The Collection of Theodore Kapnek, Sr. Curator: Mrs. Glee Krueger The Woman Folk Artist in America Curators: Kurt Dewhurst and Marsha McDowell


Members' Private Preview

Public Opening


June 26, 1978

June 27, 1978

October 15, 1978

October 30, 1978

October 31, 1978

January 7, 1979

January 15, 1979

January 16, 1979

April 29, 1979

Book Reviews Jack Ericson Editor

Items marked with an * may be purchased at the Museum Book Store. Members receive a 10% discount.

folk art is very like ours, indeed it follows the perimeters set by Lipman and Winchester in The Flowering of American Folk Art (1974), namely the arts "outside the territories held by scholars and collectors of fine arts and academic *The Animal Kingdom in American artists." The author has excluded objects Art. Syracuse: Everson Museum of which were mass produced but has Art, 1978. 109p., 9 x 6 in., 121 black/ included "utilitarian articles that were made with great artistry and which white illus., paper, $3.50. exceed the requirements of necessity." The Everson Museum's acquisition His emphasis is on the sculptural and in 1976 of a version of Edward Hicks's the pictorial. "The Peaceable Kingdom" served as a Mr. Ayres, who is the curator of focus for this exhibition which ran the John Judlcyn Memorial, follows from February 5 to April 2, 1978. his introduction with a useful chapter Many kinds of animals represented on methods and materials. Here, as in a broad spectrum of fine, popular, elsewhere, the references to early books and folk arts have been included. This in tangential areas create a very useful cornucopia of wild and tame beasts bibliography of historical background. attests to a long American "love affair" These are to be found in his footnotes with the animal kingdom. This "love at the end of each chapter, but not in affair" has been enhanced in the 20th his general bibliography at the end of century by a growing nostalgia for the book. While discussing mechanics, nature and the amusement, relief, and both the black and white and color delight animals give us. This exhibition illustrations are sharp and clear. In catalogue will delight animal lovers. general these are addenda to, rather Everson Museum ofArt than integrated with, the text. 401 Harrison Street The strongest chapter considers the Syracuse, New York 13202 rich British heritage of inn and trade signs, with special emphasis on tobac*Ayres, James. British Folk Art. Wood- conists' signs. If it sheds little new light stock, N.Y.: The Overlook Press, 1977. on the ancestors of our cigar store Indi144p., 9 X 10 in., 32 color and 268 ans, it does broaden the field, considering black/white illus., footnotes, bibliogra- "tobacco rolls" and "snuff rasps" as signs, both of which were new to me. phy,index, $25.00. Whether the carvers and their public Reviewed by Dr. Louis C. Jones, thought of the male figures with feather Director-Emeritus, New York State Hisheaddresses and tobacco skirts as blacks torical Association. or Indians remains a puzzlement. ProbWe have long been wondering in this ably they didn't think about it. country about British folk art. Did it The chapter on travellers (fairs, exist? Not since 1951, when Lambert circuses and canals) finds few American and Marx published their English Popular echoes, except for carousels and circus Art, has anyone sought to answer the wagon carvings, while the gay caravans question. This time the concept of of the gypsies and the bright, almost

Sicilian decorations on the canal boats and their accouterments are totally foreign to us. On the other hand, the chapter on maritime arts (figureheads, scrimshaw, ship portraits) reminds us how international were these areas of folk art. There is one exception: I think Mr. Ayres is quite correct in his assumption that the sailor-made portraits of ships done in wool on canvas were almost exclusively by Britishers. Once I did see a private collection of these and among them was one ship with an American flag and shields of stars and stripes in the corners. When it comes to the pictorial folk arts, the range, variety, and quality of the British examples that have so far come to light are much thinner and generally less interesting than ours. Some of the watercolor portraits are akin to the work of Henry Walton (who was born in England) and some of the oils call William M. Prior to mind but, as Mr. Ayres says, portraiture is uncommon as a major type of folk art in England. One gathers, however, that the portraits of prize farm animals abound. There is a very useful chapter, "Inside The Home," which will enlarge the historical horizons of students of stenciling, wall paintings, overmantels, and floor coverings. This is a pioneering book which has taken advantage of American scholarship where it could be useful, especially the counsel of the wisest scholar we have窶年ina Fletcher Little. It represents the beginnings of a British self-appraisal of their folk art and stands at about the point American scholars were when Jean Lipman wrote her American Primitive Painting (1942) and Folk Art in Metal, Wood and Stone (1948). It is a most welcome volume with a wide range of usefulness. The Overlook Press Lewis Hollow Road Woodstock, New York 12498

*Bird, Michael S. Ontario Fraktur: A Pennsylvania-German Folk Tradition in Early Canada. Toronto, Ont., Can.: M.F 窶「 Feheley Publishers Ltd., 1977. 144p., 9-3/4 x 8/ 1 2 in., 26 color and 217 black/white illus., footnotes, bibliography, index, $18.00. 65

Reviewed by Pastor Frederick S. the use by Mennonite families of the Pennsylvania German TaufscheM form. Weiser, and reprinted by permission the of Normally in Pennsylvania the Taufschein Quarterly Reggeboge. from Der Pennsylvania German Society, Vol. 12 (text and all) was reserved for children born into Lutheran and Reformed No. 1, January, 1978, pp. 14-15. families who baptized children as infants. A number of monographs in the last In Canada the form with its text slightly the to attention few years have directed existence of substantial Canadian Frak- adapted was used by a number of Fraktur artists for children born into Mennonite tur, but Michael S. Bird has produced and baptized no earlier than phefamilies the first generalized study of this Here again we have indicaadolescence. Pennsylvania Ontario the in nomenon tion of the borrowing that occurred. German community. Unless spectacular This reviewer must confess that the finds are made in the future, Professor chapter on "Fraktur as religious short volume illustrated Bird's handsomely art" finds in Fraktur a dimension that is not likely to need revision. We must over-romanticizes it and ignores its congratulate our Canadian cousins on production for quite mundane, secular art. folk their serious interest in their reasons: as gifts to students in the school, Michael Bird separates Ontario Frakas a supplement to a teacher's meager tur into three areas of provenance: the Niagara peninsula, Markham Township, salary, as gifts (in the case of Anna Weber) to pesty or curious or attractive children. and Waterloo County. He successfully Correspondingly, the religious element of isolates a number of "artists" at work the text is totally ignored. To print in each of these settlements. He provides reproductions of Fraktur today without biographical data about the known a translation of the entire text is tantaattributes the artists and summarizes mount to saying that the documents of the artistry of each. Since nearly all Ontario Fraktur is Mennonite in origin, speak only through their art. Alas, the original owners were literate souls, who this arrangement gives us a window obtained the pieces for the sake of the on the function of this form of folk texts. The art was a bonus. art in its culture. He also details some Anyone interested in Fraktur will comparisons to Pennsylvania Fraktur, need this book in his libraryâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;if he allowing us to see generous adaptation doesn't keep it at his bedside for sheer from the parent colony. enjoyment. Since discoveries in Pennsylvania which have not been printed could not M.F. Feheley Publishers Ltd. all be known to Mr. Bird, we cannot 5 Drumsnab Road expect him to have recognized that his Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4W 3A4 "nine hearts artist" was at work, perhaps as early as the 1820s, in the Cumberland Valley, from which place his Pennsylvania nickname "Cumberland Valley artist" has arisen. It seems highly likely that we are dealing here with a parochial Robert, ed. Lewis Miller's schoolteacher who emigrated to "Ober- *Bishop, Central Park." Dearborn, to "Guide canada" midpoint in his career. It is also Village and Henry Greenfield Mich.: apparent that someone in Canada copied 57p., 7 X 10 in., 1977. Museum, Ford this artist's work and improved upon illus., paper, black/white 56 and color 2 it! It may be that some of the work $2.00. done in the Niagara Peninsula was also that of teachers who moved from Bucks While living in New York City in 1864, Lewis Miller, a York, Pennsylvania, County to Canada. If not, they certainly carpenter, made 54 watercolor drawings borrowed format and detail from pieces of famed Central Park. His enjoyment brought along by settlers who treasured of the park is well illustrated in this them. This is an important clue to the diffusion of Fraktur design elements "guide." His pictorial attentiveness prowhich the case before us documents: vides us with an excellent insight into what the park must have looked like Fraktur was copied and revised and in 1864. Miller seemed to be particularly copied and revised from community to captivated by the bridges and other mancommunity. phemade structures. In many of the drawings interesting most the Perhaps he portrays himself sketching the scene. nomenon observable in this volume is 66

Each drawing includes a descriptive label, as well as a verse of poetry or a pithy aphorism, such as "Enough is a feast, too much a vanity." Occasionally he lapses into writing in German script. Miller is probably best remembered for his detailed drawings of his friends, neighbors, and clients in York, Pennsylvania, but both in York and in New York City he proved to be an observant reporter of everyday life. Greenfield Village and Henry Ford Museum Dearborn, Michigan 48121

*Conroy, Mary. 300 Years of Canada's Quilts. Toronto, Ont., Can.: Griffin House, 1976. 133p., 10 X 7 in., 23 color and 80 black/white illus., 15 patterns, bibliography, paper, $7.95. Mary Conroy undertook this book to prove that Canada has its own quilting traditions which pre-date the arrival of the English and later the United Empire Loyalists. She does of course recognize the great contributions of these two groups, as well as those of the numerous ethnic groups which arrived in the 19th and 20th centuries. Her thesis of a Canadian quilting tradition is expounded and defended satisfactorily. Her comments on 20th century quiltmaking are most informative. The Depression, followed by the Second World War, greatly increased interest in quiltmaking. During the Depression quilts were a necessity, either for home use or for sale for additional income; this was also the case in the United States. During the war hundreds of Canadian women's service groups supported war relief both by selling quilts and sending them abroad to the needy. Starting in the 1950s there was a great revival of interest in quilts, which was strengthened by Canada's centennial celebration in 1967. Traditional quilts continue to be made, but more and more quilts and quilting techniques are becoming an art form. Ms. Conroy has written an informative history of 300 years of Canadian quilting. It is to be regretted that the illustrations, particularly those in color, leave much to be desired. Griffin House 461 King Street West Toronto, Ontario, Canada MS V 1K7

*Cooper, Patricia, and Buferd, Norma Bradley. The Quitters: Women and Domestic Art. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1977. 157p., 9 X 8 in., 36 color and 52 black/white illus., $12.95. This most engaging book is a compilation of portions of oral history interviews of elderly women quilters in Texas and New Mexico; it is accompanied by photographs of some of the women and examples of their quilts. The Quilters is not a technical guide to quilting or a history of quilting, but rather the authors' attempt to paint a portrait of quilters in Texas and New Mexico. Because the authors see the quilts as an all-inclusive portrait of these women, they explore the relationship of quilting to the lives of the quilters. In this they succeed admirably. In essence the authors' study touches on much more than quilting. By using the techniques of oral history they have captured biographies of women who have lived from the days of dugouts and carriages to the time When men walk on the moon. Their work is an important addition to the history of American women. The authors have used the techniques of oral history, but have not worked within its disciplines. It would mean so much more if the speakers were identified as to name, place of residence, age, and date of interview. It would also be useful to know generally what material was excluded and if this excluded material would alter the authors' conclusions. Hopefully the authors will place their tape recordings, notes, and photographs in a women's history archive to preserve their important research. Doubleday & Company,Inc. 277Park Avenue New York, New York 10017

*"18th & 19th Century Naive Art." The Kennedy Quarterly, Vol. XVI No. 1, Jan., 1978. New York: Kennedy Galleries Inc., 1978. 64p., 8 X 10 in., 17 color and 40 black/white illus., paper, $3.00. The Kennedy Galleries hold a yearly sales exhibition of American folk art objects. Although it contains 17 portraits and 5 building scenes, this year's exhibi-

tion is heavily devoted to weathervanes and other sculptural figures. Perhaps this reflects the increased interest by collectors in America's manufactured weathervanes. All items in the catalogue are clearly illustrated and accompanied by intelligent descriptive and provenance notes, which appear at the back of the catalogue. This placement does not facilitate use of the catalogue. The Kennedy Quarterly is an extremely worthwhile publication devoted to American art, both fine art and folk art. It is recommended to those who wish to keep abreast of recent art history scholarship. Kennedy Galleries Inc. 40 West 57th Street New York, New York 10019

* Groft, Tammis Kane. The Folk Spirit of Albany. Folk Art from the Upper Hudson Valley in the Collection of the Albany Institute of History and Art. Albany: Albany Institute of History and Art, 1978. 86p., 81 / 2 X 11 in., 125 black/ white illus., bibliography, artist index, paper, $6.00. The Albany Institute of History and Art has an impressive collection of American folk art which is brought to light for the first time in this exhibition catalogue. Ms. Groft has selected 124 representative items from the museum's collection, including 18th and 19th century Hudson Valley paintings, portraits, landscapes, genre scenes, street scenes, farm and house portraits, horse and racing portraits, ship paintings, needlework, pottery, sculpture, and powder horns. The lengthy descriptions for each object testify to Ms. Groft's prodigious reliance on primary and secondary research, with the result that the descriptions are a scholarly summation of all the current information available about the object and its creator. This catalogue is of great value because of the research. The folk art of the Albany area well illustrates in microcosm the great 19thcentury flowering of American folk art. Albany Institute of History and Art 125 Washington Avenue Albany, New York 12210

*Schorsch, Anita. Pastoral Dreams. New York: Universe Books, 1977. 71p., 8 X 8 in., 12 color and 26 black/white illus., $5.95. Anita Schorsch is well remembered for Mourning Becomes America: Mourning Art in the New Nation, The Main Street Press, 1976. In Pastoral Dreams she records man's dependence on sheep and the attributes man assigns to sheep, primarily in the 19th century, through illustrations of American folk art, English portraiture, needlework pictures, rugs, and prints. Each of the illustrations is accompanied by a passage of prose or poetry which relates to the content of the accompanying illustration. In the first 23 pages Ms. Schorsch records her experiences in raising and caring for a flock of sheep. Her enthusiasm, enhanced by this handsome publication, provides for gentle reading. Universe Books 381 Park Avenue South New York, New York 10016

*Swan, Susan Burrows. Plain & Fancy: American Women and Their Needlework, 1700-1850. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1977. 240p., 81 / 4 X 9 in., 42 color and 123 black/white illus., footnotes, glossary, bibliography, index, $14.95. Reviewed by Virginia Parslow Partridge, Assistant Curator, Farmers' Museum, New York State Historical Association. Anyone writing a book on needlework at this time should approach the subject from a new angle as Ms. Swan has in this book. There are many books for the do-it-yourself audience, also many coffee table picture books. This book is neither of these, rather a book with fine illustrations and a text which takes a different approach. It is obvious that the author is deeply concerned with women's rights although this is not an in-depth study of female social history. The author has treated the subject of the needlewoman and the world she inhabited in an interesting and informative manner. She has drawn upon much primary source material in the form of wills, letters, diaries, inventories, and contemporary newspapers. 67

The book's purpose, according to the author, is to show the part that needlework played in the lives of women of the 18th and 19th centuries. Often the only education received by young girls was in needlework, both plain and fancy. The plain sewing is covered in the first chapter. Explored in the second chapter is the education of young women in day schools and seminaries. This chapter is illustrated with the many types of needlework products produced there. The author discusses "The Golden Years," the period from 1700 to 1750, in chapter three. This section of the book contains the best examples from the Winterthur Museum collection. The diversionary work of the ladies of the late 18th and early 19th centuries is the next subject discussed with examples of the white embroidery and other needlework of this period. The book closes with a short chapter on the period to 1850, using mainly illustrations of quilting. This book is an attractive volume of a convenient size for reading and is securely bound. It is well organized although the plates are hard to locate and it would seem preferable not to have separate numbering systems for the plates and the figures. The 42 color plates are handsome and well printed and appear to be true to color. Some of the 123 black and white figures are confusing to the eye and a few have so many objects included that individual items are not easy to identify by the captions. These illustrations are excellent on the whole and the book is well worth its modest price for them alone. The excellent captions include size in centimeters and inches; materials; colors and stitches used; date; provenance; known history of the item and its present whereabouts. Some illustrations are of objects other than needlework, but are pertinent to the text. In addition to the text and illustrations there are three appendices. First are the notes of references used arranged by chapter and page. The bibliographical information is complete which is especially helpful in the case of manuscripts and court records. Second is a good glossary of the terms used in the book which might be unfamiliar to many readers. The glossary is illustrated where necessary with line drawings and includes references to plates and figures. The textile terminology in the text and in the glossary is obviously an attempt on 68

the author's part to remove confusion. It is not entirely successful and a comprehensive work dealing with this basic subject is badly needed. There is in addition an excellent reading list. This includes, not only old and current books on needlework, but an even more comprehensive listing on the subject of women. There is also an adequate index. Susan Burrows Swan has written other books based on the needlework collections of the Winterthur Museum but this is her best effort to date. It should be of interest to everyone who is interested in the subject of American needlework and the circumstances under which it was produced. Holt, Rinehart and Winston 383 Madison Avenue New York, New York 10017

*Woodward, Richard B., ed. American Folk Painting. Selections from the Collection of Mr. & Mrs. William E. Wiltshire III. Richmond: Virginia Muse2 X 10 in., 51 color 1 um, 1977. 110p., 9/ illus., footnotes, index of artists, paper, $6.95. In her lucid and interesting introduction, Mary Black explains the rationale for the assemblage of this collection of 18th- and 19th-century American folk art by Mr. and Mrs. William E. Wiltshire III. Within a short period of time and with a good understanding of what they wanted, the Wiltshires were able to put together this impressive collection. They are to be congratulated on their good taste, their great interest in conservation, and for documenting their collection. Mr. Woodward's descriptions for each of the 51 items in the catalogue are well researched, providing both historical and genealogical information on the artists, as well as the subjects. He likewise provides provenance, exhibition, and bibliographical data. This exhibition catalogue has excellent color plates, although some blend into the inner margins and illustration No. 49 has been so closely cropped that a portion of the sky is omitted. In the next two years this exhibition will travel to nine major museums across the coun-

try. The generosity of the Wiltshires in sharing their collection with such a broad spectrum of the American public is to be applauded. American Federation of Arts 41 East 65th Street New York, New York 10021

*Wroth, William, ed. Hispanic Crafts of the Southwest. Colorado Springs: The Taylor Museum of the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, 1977. 118p., 2 X 11 in., 161 black/white illus., / 81 bibliography, paper, $8.00. This catalogue is the record of the first comprehensive exhibition devoted to contemporary Hispanic crafts of the Southwest. Included are sections, written by various experts, on Rio Grande weaving, colcha embroidery, furniture, woodcarving, jewelry, tinwork, and straw inlay. Accompaning the articles are 132 illustrations of historical and contemporary examples of Hispanic crafts. There are biographical sketches and photographs of 36 contemporary craftspersons, and, luckily for the collector, their addresses. Of particular interest is the article by Charles L. Briggs entitled, "To Talk in Different Tongues: The 'Discovery' and 'Encouragement' of Hispano Woodcarvers by Santa Fe Patrons, 19191945." Briggs thoroughly investigates the symbiotic relationship between the Hispano craftsperson and the Anglo scholar, artist, art dealer, and collector. Marianne L. Stoller's article on the reasons for the demise of traditional crafts in Colorado's San Luis Valley is of equal interest. The scholarly content of the six articles in this catalogue, plus the excellent photographs, recommends this book. Anyone with an interest in Southwest Hispanic crafts will want to read it. Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center 30 West Dale Street Colorado Springs, Colorado 80903

Coming Events at the Museum Tour to Russell Carrell's one-day antiques flea market, Salisbury, Connecticut. This is the oldest major flea market in the United States and is known for the quality and variety of objects displayed by the participating dealers. After visiting the flea market, the tour group will travel to the John Tarrant Kenny Hitchcock Museum in Riverton, Connecticut. The museum, once the old Union Church and now a landmark building, was established in 1972 as a tribute to Lambert Hitchcock, America's most prolific chairmaker who, during the 1800s, revolutionized chairmaking in this country. The museum houses an assemblage of paintdecorated furniture by Hitchcock and other 18th- and 19th-century craftsmen. Luncheon will be in a charming country inn. Date: Time: Departure: Fee:

Saturday, September 9, 1978 8:15 A.M. to 6:15 P.M. Sutton Theatre at 57th Street and Third Avenue $50 per person—$10 is tax deductible for the Museum of American Folk Art; make checks payable to the Museum of American Folk Art


Saturday, October 21, 1978 Time: 7:45 A.M. to 7 P.M. Departure: YMCA, 5 West 63rd Street Fee: $55 per person—$10 is tax deductible for the Museum of American


Folk Art; make checks payable to the Museum of American Folk Art Annual Manhattan House Tour, the best yet. A spectacular array of apartments and homes is planned, from the elegance of a New York landmark mansion to the unique and wonderful total refinement of an international artist—Colette. The styles of the homes involved are diverse and many happy surprises await the eyes of the visitor. Mark the date on your calendar and invite your friends to do likewise. It will be a wonderful day and all the fun is tax deductible. Last year's house tour drew a record number of participants and was a delight to all our guests. Homes included were a former Vanderbilt mansion, a Park Avenue apartment with a superb folk art collection, and the spacious beauty of art in Lowell Nesbitt's converted police stable. This year the reception following the tour will include wine and cheese amid a magnificent private art and antiques collection. A beautiful quilt donated by the Museum's good friend, Phyllis Haders, will be raffled off at the reception to a lucky tour guest. Date:

Tour to the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Delaware. Special arrangements have been made for our tourists to view the 14 rooms of the south wing not ordinarily included in the regular museum tour. Luncheon will be in the garden pavilion on the museum grounds. Reservations are limited to 40 people; early registration is recommended.


Time: Fee:

Saturday, November 4, 1978 11 A.M. to 5 P.M. $35 per person

Lecture by Theodore Kapnek, Sr., entitled "Samplers of American Life: Folk Art Needlework 1700-1850." Mr. Kapnek has, over the last 15 years, acquired outstanding samplers and formed an unprecedented collection. In their own way, samplers document American history just as thoroughly as a textbook and have the advantage of being a visual record as well. Date: Time:

Monday, November 13, 1978 6 P.M.

Warwick Hotel, 65 West 54th Street, New York City $3.50

Tour to the Barnes Foundation, Merion, Pennsylvania. The Barnes Foundation is well-known for its outstanding collections of oil paintings, including over 200 Renoirs, 150 Cezannes, and 65 Matisses, as well as its collection of Pennsylvania-German furniture and hardware. Luncheon will be in Wynnewood on the Main Line. Date:

Saturday, December 9, 1978 Time: 9 A.M. to 6 P.M. Departure: Museum of American Folk Art, 49 W. 53rd Street Fee: $45 per person—$10 is tax deductible for the Museum of American Folk Art; make checks payable to the Museum of American Folk Art

A series of antiques and art tours, "A Collector's Cache of American Antiques," presented by Helaine Fendelman, antiques lecturer and free-lance writer on antiques. Mrs. Fendelman will aid participants in distinguishing quality Americana by teaching them how to look, what to look for, and where to look. The class will visit the Upper East Side, Greenwich Village, Chelsea, Soho, and the West Side. The schedule will be announced each week to class members. Location of the first meeting will be mailed upon receipt of registration fee. Class size is limited to 15 adults. Admission fees, where applicable, are not included. Guests will be admitted on a reservation basis at $15 per person; $5 is tax deductible for the Museum of American Folk Art. Date:

Time: Fee:

Tuesdays, September 26, October 17, November 14, December 5, January 9 11 A.M. to 12:45 P.M. $65 for 5 sessions—$10 is tax deductible for the Museum of American Folk Art 69

A Folk Art Calendar Across the Country

Current through August 20 FRED SMITH AND HIS CEMENT FRIENDS. Robert Amft's photographs documenting Fred Smith's life-size outdoor cement sculptures of people and animals, now being preserved as the Wisconsin Park Project in Philips, Wisconsin. Museum of Our National Heritage, Lexington, Massachusetts. Current through August 31 WHITE WORK BED COVERINGS: MARSEILLES QUILTING, CANDLEWICKING, AND EMBROIDERY, 18001840. A special exhibition featuring "all white" bed coverings. The textiles are all from the DAR Museum Collection and feature important stylistic developments in needlework during the neoclassical era of American decorative arts. Twenty quilts and coverlets are on exhibition as well as the needleworking tools from the period. DAR Museum, 1776 D Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. Current through September 3 AN EXHIBITION OF FOLK ART featuring selections from the collection of Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr. Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Current through September 10 JESSIE C. KINSLEY (1856-1936): THE BRAIDED WALL HANGINGS OF THE ONEIDA COMMUNITY. Fountain Elms, Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica, New York. Current through September 17 WHILE AWAY THE HOURS: Nineteenth-century sailors' art including scrimshaw, baskets, and sailors' valentines made from seashells. Museum of Our National Heritage, Lexington, Massachusetts. 70

Current through September CHESTER COUNTY FURNITURE: THE FIRST CENTURY. Both fashionably styled and country-made chairs, tables, and chests, many of which descended through the families of early Quaker settlers, ranging in date from the early 18th to the early 19th centuries. William Penn Memorial Museum, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Current through October 29 IN WINTER'S SOLITUDE: THE FOLK SCULPTURE OF GUSTAV NYMAN. Woodcarvings and violins made by a Swedish immigrant who combined in his sculpture both the craft traditions of Sweden and the experiences of his life in America. Museum of Our National Heritage, Lexington, Massachusetts.

Current through October 31 HANCOCK SHAKER VILLAGE OPENS. Visitors are offered a diverse program of guided tours, slide programs, exhibits, and craft demonstrations. Permanent and changing exhibits and roomi settings in 19 buildings provide insight into Shaker life and customs. Special events: Farmers Market and picnic, July 15; Kitchen Sisters Festival, July 31 through August 5; Craft Festival, August 19 and 20; Autumn Weekend, September 30 and October 1. Shaker Community, Inc., Hancock, Massachusetts.

Current through October 31 FIRST IN THE HEARTS OF HIS COUNTRYMEN: FOLK ART IMAGES OF GEORGE WASHINGTON. Nineteenthand twentieth-century pieces, including oil paintings, works on paper, quilts, embroideries, chalk and cast-iron figures, woodcarvings, and furniture. Fraunces Tavern Museum, New York, New York.

Current through December 3 FORGED IN IRON: THE AMERICAN BLACKSMITH. An explanation of the blacksmith's important role in America, including information about forging techniques, the various smithing trades, and examples of wrought iron tools, utensils, and architectural hardware. Museum of Our National Heritage, Lexington, Massachusetts. Current to end of year FANTASY AND ENCHANTMENT: SELECTIONS FROM THE GIRARD FOUNDATION COLLECTION. The 100,000piece Girard Foundation Collection is the largest private collection of folk art in the world and includes needlework, a French puppet theatre, a miniature Mexican village, nativity scenes from Poland, and space toys from Japan, England, and Hong Kong. Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Current through January 7, 1979 ANTIQUE TOY TRAINS. Leading American and European examples made between 1880 and 1940. Museum of Our National Heritage, Lexington, Massachusetts. July 8-August 19 HISPANIC CRAFTS OF THE SOUTHWEST. The exhibition, featuring traditional crafts which have been carried on since Colonial times in Hispanic towns and villages of the Southwest, was organized by Dr. William Wroth, curator of the Taylor Museum of the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center. It includes historic pieces on loan from the Taylor Museum collection and work from more than 40 contemporary artisans from New Mexico, Colorado and Texas. The popular crafts on display will include the weaving styles of Rio Grande, Chi-

mayo, and others, delicate colcha embroidery, past and contemporary Santos, Spanish Colonial furniture, jewelry, tinwork, and straw inlays. William Rockhill Nelson Gallery and Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, Kansas City, Missouri.

July 13, 14, 15 FIRST CONTINENTAL QUILTING CONGRESS sponsored by Quilters Unlimited of Virginia. Three days of exhibitions, lectures, workshops, demonstrations, fashion shows, luncheons, and boutiques. Contact Sue Mitchell, 3043 S. Buchanan Street, Arlington, Virginia 22206.

August 4-27 1978 NORWEGIAN HERITAGE TOUR IV sponsored by the Norwegian-American Museum, Decorah, Iowa. Contact Norwegian Heritage Tour IV, c/o Mr. Dean E. Madden, P.O. Box 191, Decatur, Illinois 62525.

August 5-6 MEETING FOURTH ANNUAL FRIENDS OF THE SHAKERS at the Shaker Community at Sabbathday Lake, Maine. Special program on Shaker music, folk singing, picnic, reception, traditional Shaker Sunday meeting in the 1794 meetinghouse. New Friends and visitors welcome. Contact Mrs. Donald Prentice, Box 36, Canton Center, Connecticut 06020.

August 9-12 WEST COAST QUILTERS CONFERENCE. Contact DeLoris Stude, 3335 N.E. 53rd Street, Portland, Oregon 97213.

August 17-19 NORTHEAST ANTIQUES FORUM. Topics: "Maine Forms of American Architecture;" "Collectable Art of the Youngest Americans: Schoolgirl Embroidery 1640-1840;" "Stains, Paints, Varnishes and Finishes—What Did Early New England Furniture Really Look Like;" "America's Quilts and Coverlets— Great Crafts of the Past for the Art

Collectors of the Future;" "American Art Glass: Art for the Sake of Art;" and "New England Folk Painting." Speakers: Alice Winchester, Earle G. Shettleworth, Betty Ring, Dean A. Fales, Jr., Robert Bishop, Lyna Mueller, Ruth Wolfe. The Camden-Rockport Historical Society, Treadway-Samoset Resort, Rockport, Maine. August 26-October 8 NATIVE AMERICAN ART:PAST INTO PRESENT. An invitational exhibition of contemporary American Indian folk arts representing the work of some of the nation's finest American Indian craftspeople. Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado. September 3-October 15 AMERICAN FOLK PAINTING. Fifty paintings from the William E. Wiltshire III collection of 18th- and 19th-century American folk paintings. Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado. September 9 TOUR TO RUSSELL CARRELL'S ONEDAY FLEA MARKET, Salisbury, Connecticut. Tour includes a visit to the John Tarrant Kenny Hitchcock Museum at Riverton, Connecticut. Sponsored by the Museum of American Folk Art and Gallery Passport Limited. Contact Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York 10019. September 19 Opening THE IMAGES OF FOLK ART. The approximately 50 objects from The Cleveland Museum of Art and regional collections that comprise the exhibition will be studied as they correlate to three basic areas of the artists' lives: the beautification of home and necessities; the approach of spiritual belief and national consciousness; and image-making— the portrayal of family, community, and nature. The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio.

houses, antiques dealers, restorations, and corporate collections for the purpose of learning about American antiques. Tours guided by Helaine Fendelman. Tour size limited. Contact Gallery Passport Limited, 1170 Broadway, New York, New York 10021. September 30-October 1 WILDFOWL FESTIVAL. Numerous wildfowl art will be on display along with carving and painting contests. Auctions will be held on both days. Louisiana Wildfowl Carvers and Collectors Guild, 615 Baronne Street, Suite 303, New Orleans, Louisiana 70113. October 21 TOUR TO HENRY FRANCIS DU PONT WINTERTHUR MUSEUM,Winterthur, Delaware. Sponsored by the Museum of American Folk Art and Gallery Passport Limited. Contact Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York 10019. November 4 HOUSE MANHATTAN ANNUAL TOUR. Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York 10019. December 9 TOUR TO BARNES FOUNDATION, Merion, Pennsylvania. Outstanding collections of Pennsylvania German furniture and hardware and oil paintings, including over 200 Renoirs, 150 Cezannes, and 65 Matisses. Sponsored by the Museum of American Folk Art and Gallery Passport Limited. Contact Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York 10019. Fall 1980 THREE CENTURIES OF AMERICAN FOLK ART. Forty painters will be included with 316 examples of their major work. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York.

September 26-January 9, 1979 COLLECTORS CACHET OF AMERICAN ANTIQUES. Monthly visits to private collections, museums, auction 71

It's Time to Join! The Museum of American Folk Art is the foremost institution in the United States devoted solely to the collection, exhibition, and interpretation of American folk art. You are cordially invited to become a member of the Museum. Your membership will support the Museum in its continuing effort to fulfill its role as one of America's leading cultural institutions. Membership entitles you to the following benefits: • Free admission to all exhibitions at all times. • Private previews of all exhibitions. • Advance notice of all exhibitions, classes, lectures, concerts, tours and special events. • Annual subscription to The Clarion, America's Folk Art Magazine, published quarterly by the Museum of American Folk Art. • A 10% discount on all items purchased from The Museum Shop. • Reduced fee for classes, including quilting, needlepoint, rug hooking and rug braiding. • Reduced fee for lectures and concerts. • Reduced fee for folk concerts.

O Contributing Membership $50 All Family Membership benefits, plus two free guest admissions to exhibitions when accompanied by member. O Benefactor Membership $100 All Contributing Membership benefits, plus one free exhibition catalogue. O Sustaining Membership $250 All Benefactor Membership benefits, plus two free exhibition catalogues. O Patron $500 All Sustaining Membership benefits, plus free enrollment in special lecture series. El Sponsor $1,000 All Patron benefits, plus all exhibition catalogues. O Life Membership All benefits for life.


$5 O Student Membership Free admission to all exhibitions. I am enclosing payment for Museum membership for one year in the category checked above.

MEMBERSHIP CATEGORIES O Individual Membership $20 All membership benefits, for one year, as described above. O Family Membership $30 All Individual Membership benefits for the entire immediate family.

Name Address Telephone Many corporations match their employees' membership fees and contributions to nonprofit educational institutions. Please take a few extra minutes to ask your employer to consider participating in such a plan. All Memberships are Tax Deductible

Invest in the Future During the last several years, support from members and friends has been of vital importance to the growth of the Museum of American Folk Art. One of the ways in which you can insure perpetuation of our continuing programs is through a gift or bequest, a timeless expression of your concern for the Museum and its future. Gifts and bequests to the Museum may be made through endowment for general purposes or for a program of specific interest to you or to your family. The Museum of American Folk Art is a nonprofit educational institution. Gifts are deductible for the donor, subject to legal limitations concerning gifts to tax-exempt organizations. In order to provide for your continuing support to the Museum of American Folk Art, we recommend that you seek the assistance of your legal counsel or other advisers. The 72

sample form below may aid you in further discussions with your attorney.

day of On this 19_, I of , hereby give and bequeath to The Museum of American Folk Art, a New York nonprofit corporation, having its principal office at 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York, all my right, title, and interest in and to to be used by The Museum of American Folk Art for its general corporate purposes (for other specified purposes). I further agree to provide The Museum of American Folk Art with documents of title, interest, or assignment as The Museum of American Folk Art may reasonably request. Name Address

JOI-1N C. NEWCOMER. 1141 WASHINGTON ST., HARPERS FERRY, W. VA 25425 304-535-6902

Very Fine New England Bed Red and black graining with stencilled decoration-untouched Circa 1830 Portrait Signed: A.J. Arnold Romney, Virginia 1854 Oil on canvas—original Grained frame—untouched

Shop Hours. Saturday 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. and Sunday 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. or by appointment

011114/ Ek • 0114/-for, ,• 44, • 1•01 oti /4 111/ Dealers ill•04 444. ill141 •Rare Shaker., ftwair • •

for Museums • and Collectors


R.D. Box 226, Chatham, New York 12037 518-392-9654

For Impeccable Shaker


• •

norma&williamwangel american antiques andfolk art

IP_,....1160 • eipt,

• . WP • , 4 • • • .0: • •IIINb•40 • Wilft• • ' . • 00 *O. • • •• •

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11058 seven hill lane, potomac, maryland by appointment only

20854 301-299-8430

0, shop: 34 east loudoun St., leesburg, va. 22075 703-777-6991

CH-18- 6 Candle arms with plain electric cone H-17", W-26". $95.00

Patty Gagarin

Handmade reproductions of 18th c. lighting. Available either electric or for use with candle. The lighting devices have aged patina. Illus. Cat.$1.75. More than 50 examples.


Authentic Reproduction Lighting Co., P.O. Box 218, Avon,CT 06001

Folk Art • Paintings • Country Furniture By Appointment 203-259-7332 Banks North Road Fairfield, Connecticut 06430

From the collection of outstanding crib quilts

7-HE Cole-HAM Doa WEHT-- Dow vyow_ wow! TI-1E CALi(0 CAT (?PLIED "

The Gingham Dog and the Calico Cat applique and pieced circa 1910, Pennsylvania 28" x 35". Exhibited at "The All-American Dog" Museum of American Folk Art

Windmill Blades, Log Cabin circa 1870, Pennsylvania, 34" x 43" Exhibited at "A Child's Comfort" Museum of American Folk Art

GLORIA LIST By appointment only.


612 S. Barrington Avenue Los Angeles, California 90049

Phone (213)472-8629

19th century musical instrument found in the drama building of Bridgeton Academy in Maine. Never painted, the 43" long piece has pencilled hair on the horse and real hair on the man who once held the bridge for the strings.

z& Reed Period American Furniture

Folk Art â&#x20AC;˘ Toys â&#x20AC;˘ Weathervanes 5 Pump Street Newcastle, Maine 04553 Area Code 207-563-5633

Restoration & Conservation Specialists in Folk and Ethnographic Art

Experts in wood, metal, ceramic, stone & ivory 10 years experience references on request

Best Wishes from a friend of the Museum of American Folk Art

WHOLE ART, INC. Roger R. Ricco 217 E. 5th Street New York, New York 10003 (212) 982-4636 by appointment

Sandra Cliff is pleased to announce the opening of her shop at a new location. Underground Antiques 269 W.4th Street New York, New York

7ceded-44f 1fte5cadAeol4ey awe 74 euidandadd

2)cia, 70044

Oedeack. 12.P. 01175r

(2011 439-2221

Four thousand lanthnarks have been knocked down. Since 1930,four thousand of America's buildings of architectural and historical significance have been demolished. It's time to stop destroyingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;time to start finding adaptive uses for our historic structures. Let's put new life into our neighborhoods and cities; let's restore the landmarks we have left to imaginative modern uses. Join The National Trust for Historic Preservation; help preserve America's heritage for today and the future. Please send me more information on membership in The National Trust for Historic Preservation. Name Address City State Zip Mail to: Membership Dept..Office of Public Affairs, The National Trust for Historic Preservation.740 Jackson Place, NW, Washington, DC 20006.


cradle quilts amish & mennonite quilts splendid graphic quilts from the collection of

Rhea Goodman/Quilt Gallery, Inc. 19 East 80 Street, New York 10021 By Appt. only (212)535-4636

The John Tarrant Kenney rEITI CZCOCE ji 17SE Ulf 14

We cordially invite you to visit our museum any Saturday from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., now through May 30. Starting in June, and through the end of October, we'll be open every day except Sunday from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. — Heirloom Furniture on Display — — See Time-Honored American Craftsmanship — — Visit our Showroom and Gift Shop —


THE HITCHCOCK CHAIR COMPANY Riverton (Hitchcocks-ville) Connecticut



knnedy galleries

WE DISTRIBUTE THE FOLLOWING OUTSTANDING TITLES: BLACK & LOVELESS. The Undiscovered Kilim FALES. American Painted Furniture, 1660-1800 GENTLE & FIELD. English Domestic Brass GIRL SCOUT CATALOGUE. Loan Exhibition of the 18th and 19th Century Furniture 8t Glassware... 1929 Reprinted (Privately printed, no connection with the National Council of Girl Scouts) HOWARD & AYRES. China for the West. The Mottahedeh Collection. 2 vols. ITEN-MARITZ. Turkish Carpets SACK COLLECTION. Vols Ito V Individual volumes on request SCHURMANN. Caucasian Rugs STEBBINS. American Master Drawings and Watercolors STONEMAN. John and Thomas Seymour, Cabinetmakers in Boston with supplement supplement only THACHER. Turkoman Rugs Reprinted WALTON. Creamware and other English Pottery at Temple Newsam House, Leeds WILTSHIRE COLLECTION. American Folk Painting, selections from the Collection of Mr. & Mrs. William Wiltshire III. An Exhibition. Ltd. ed., bound & boxed



1972 1975

33.50 32.50



1977 1977

170.00 50.00 100.00





1959 1977

42.50 47.50 7.00 35.00





TIMOTHY TRACE Antiquarian Bookseller a' Red Mill Rd., Peekskill, N. Y. 10566 (914) 528-4074 SINGLE VOLUMES, SMALL COLLECTIONS' AND LIBRARIES PURCHASED, Highest prices paid for old, rare, and scarce ileitis of quality.

RUBENS PEALE (1784-1864)

/ 2x 27 inches, "Still Life," 1863, oil on canvas, 181 signed and dated lower right This excellent still life represents the high quality of American paintings that Kennedy Galleries sells to leading museums and art collectors throughout the world. Your inquiries are invited regarding our collection of 18th, 19th & 20th Century American paintings, drawings and sculpture.

I@,nedy aeries 40 West 57th Street, 5th Floor, New York 10019(212)541-9600 Co-Publishers of The American Art Journal Open Monday-Friday 9:30-5:30

The Antique Dealers Assn. of Berks Co., Pa. 30 Quality Dealers write for free map & brochure P.O. Box 1285, Reading, Pa. 19603

JANOS AND ROSS oo4ssowsw0000000fs)

our featured dealer of the month


CENTER DIAMOND Amish, Lancaster County, Pa., c. 1920, 82" x 82". Wool. In colors of red, purple, plum, and green The backing of this exceptional Center Diamond quilt shows the varied quilting motifs used.


THE GREATER READING ANTIQUES SHOW Aug. 15, 16, 17 Reading, Pa. Stokesay Castle

BARBARA S. JANOS BARBARA ROSS 110 East End Avenue (5E) New York, New York 10028 (212) 988-0407 by appointment only We wish to purchase fine quality crib quilts and American folk sculpture. Photos promptly returned.

FOR SALE Knowledge and rare beauty, concise information, social history, human interest, a glimpse back at our past,fresh visions, exuberant pride, naive determination, patriotism, simplistic eloquence, rural charm, vibrant colors and spontaneous symmetry, unsophisticated innocence, primitive pulchritude; the world from a different viewpoint.

FOLK ART The Special World found only in Books. We are the BETHLEHEM BOOK COMPANY and we specialize in selling books by mail on the subject of Antiques, Americana, Architecture, and Folk Art(especially Folk Art). Our volume of sales allows us the luxury of offering you savings of up to 60% off list price. Drop us a postcard with your name and address and we will gladly send you a copy of our most recent catalog. THE BETHLEHEM BOOK COMPANY BETHLEHEM SQUARE EAST STREET BETHLEHEM,CONNECTICUT 06751

Shooting Gallery by Camille Blair

Jeffrey and C. Jane Camp AMERICAN FOLK ART COMPANY 310 Duke St., Tappahannock, Va. 22560 by appointment (804)443-2655

naive lion gallery the animal in american folk art 19th & 20th century sculpture, paintings & drawings

215 E. 76th St., NY. (212) 988-9686 monday-saturday 11 a.m.-5 p.m. closed during august

The staff and management of


361 Bleecker Street New York City in historic Greenwich Village



••• ,

wish you a happy summer. Summer Hours Mon—Fri 12-8 (212)989-6760

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Ruffles of lace...enchantment at your windows! The finest blend of cotton and polyester permanent press edged with four inch cluny lace ruffles, copied from an authentic Old World pattern. Eggshell or white. All pairs are 90" wide. Lengths of 45, 54" or 63,$25.00 pair. Lengths of 72,81" or 90,$30.00 pair. Valance, lir x 80,$8.00 each. Add $2.00 postage and handling per order. Please specify eggshell or white. Send check, money order or use Mastercharge or Visa. Sorry no COD's. Mass. res. add 5% sales tax. Send for free catalog showing other curtain styles, bed ensembles and tablecloths. Satisfaction guaranteed.

John & Patricia Newton Marine & Americana Antiques Wiscasset, Maine 04578 (207) 882-7208 Appointment advised.


Dept.. 66, Stockbridge, Mass. 01262

Main Street


antiqueci lairds

,1978, EXETER, N.H. TOWN HALL June 1-2 WOODSTOCK, VT. COMMUNITY CTR. July 20-21 WOLFBORO, N.H. KINGSWOOD R.H.S. August 23-24 PETERBOROUGH, N.H. TOWN HOUSE October, 7-8 Managed by S.K.French Box 62 Exeter, N.H. 03833





(212) 929-3697

Theorem on Velvet 21" x 17" Boston,c. 1840 Ex. Edith Halpert Collection


Antique Toys

CANADA'S QUILTS by Mary Conroy "It is just as wrong to say that there is nothing distinctively 'Canadian' about Canadian quilts as it is to say that there is nothing distinctive about English as it is spoken in Canada. The differences are subtle, but they are real." 7 x 10 128pp plus 8pp colour section 75 black and white photographs $7.95 paper 20 line drawings Add .50 for postage and handling. Please send cheque or money order (no currency Please).

GRIFFIN HOUSE paperback division 461 King St. West, Toronto M5V 1K7, Canada

American Juvenilia 83

American Drawings-Fracturs-Prints and Paintings

Stephen Gemberling 24 East 81 Street, New York, N.Y. 10028 Wednesday-Saturday 10-5:30 737-2972 Summer Hours: Tuesday-Friday 10-5:30

Index to Advertisers Anderson, Marna 77 Annunziata Antiques 83 The Antique Dealers of Berks Co. Pa., Inc. 79 The Antique Trader 14 Authentic Reproduction Lighting 74 Bethlehem Book Company 79 Camp, Jeff and Jane 80 Christie's 10 Country Curtains 82 Daniel, Allan L. Inside front cover Diamant, H.& G. 9 Doyle, William, Galleries 8 French Antiques Fairs, E.M.C. 82 Fuller, Edmund Inside back cover Gagarin,Patty 74 Gemberling, Stephen 84 Goodman, Rhea 13,77 Greenwillow Farm 73 Griffin House 83 Hitchcock Museum, John Tarrant Kenney 77 Janos & Ross 79 Kelter-Malce 81 Kennedy Galleries 78

Kinnaman-Ramaekers 7 Larson, Isabelita 83 List, Gloria 74 Malik째, Kenneth & Ida 78 Marine Arts Gallery 6 The Naive Lion Gallery 80 The National Trust for Historic Preservation Newcomer, John C. 73 Newton, John & Patricia 82 New York & Pennsylvania Collector 12 Nineteenth Century 11 Reed, Patricia Anne 75 Sack,Israel 1 Seewagon, Butch outside back cover Snuggery Farm 81 Sotheby Parke Bernet 5 Tewksbury Antiques 76 Trace, Timothy 78 Underground Antiques 76 Wangel, William & Norma 74 Whole Art, Inc. 75 Woodard, Thos. K. 2


edmund I. fuller woodstock, n.y. 12498

by appt.


Assorted collection ofdog-related items forsale individually-or as collection

Butch Seewagon 40 Powells Lane Old Westbury, Long Island (516) 334-8039 callfor appointment

The Clarion (Summer 1978)  

Folk Art: The Heart of America • Three Centuries of Connecticut Folk Art • The Folk Spirit of Albany • Signs of the Times • Collecting Colon...

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