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THE CLA 1'10 AMERICA'S FOLK ART MAGAZINE The Museum of American Folk Art New York City FALL 1982




We are always interested in buying new craft and country folk items.

969 Lexington Avenue(at 70th Street) New York, N.Y.10021 •Tel 212•7446705 Monday thru Saturday, 1000am to 5:00 pm.

79 Jobes Lane,Southampton Long Island, N.Y. 11968• Tel:516• 283 • 2061 April thru December

Dealing in Investment Quality American Folk Art.

American Folk Art 17 East 96th Street New York, New York 10028 (By appointment only (212) 348-5219)

Four Working Shorebirds by A.C. Crowell, ca: 1900from a magnificent collection of thirtyfive of the best by Crowell, Wm.Bowman, John Dilly, Thos. Gelston, Geo. Boyd, Harry Shourds, Obediah Verity, Wm. Southard, Joseph Lincoln, Mason Decoy Factory and others. All in superb original condition. Sold as a collection only.


The Barbara Johnson Whaling Collection: PartII

Very fine carved and inlaid Nantucket sewing box, circa 1840, height 5/ 3 4inches, width 121 / 4 inches, depth 9/ 1 2inches.

Auction: Friday and Saturday, September 24 and 25 at 10:15 am and 2 pm each day at Sotheby's York Avenue Galleries in New York. Exhibition opens Saturday, September 18. This auction will include a selection of prints, scrimshaw, whaling gear,folk art, whaling logs,journals and related marine arts. Illustrated catalogues will be available approximately four weeks before the auction. For more information, contact Nancy Druckman or William W Stahl, Jr., at(212)472-3512.

SOTHEBY'S Founded 1744

Sotheby Parke Bernet Inc., 1334 York Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10021 2

SRAEL SACK N, 15 EAST 57-rui STREET,NEW YORK,N.Y. 10022•(212)PL3-6562 Established 1905

Our latest brochure #37 is now available at $8.00 per copy

Hepplewhite birch octagonal-top candlestand with original grained decoration to simulate walnut, the top exhibits an exotic pattern contained in a painted crossbanded border. Portsmouth, New Hampshire, circa 1790-1800. A related or identical stand is in the Corbitt-Sharp House, Odessa, Delaware. Ilcight 27 / 3 4inches. top 297/8 inches by 14/ 3 4inches.

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STAIR RUNNERS Introducing our own collection ofnew Rag Carpet Stair Runners handwoven exclusively for us in traditional and original patterns. (Also available in wider widths for assembling room size rugs.)

icS Blanche Greenstein Tom Woodard Open Monday—Saturday 11:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m.

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We are always interested in buying rare and unusual quilts, pictorial, crib, doll, and Amish quilts, paintedfurniture, andfolk art. Photos returned promptly. 4

THE CLARION li gM Contents FALL 1982

26 THE WORLD OF OLOF KRANS Merle H. Glick Catalog of the Exhibition

34 AMERICAN FOLK ART IN BRITAIN James E. Ayres Profile on the American Museum in Britain in Bath

40 NEW DISCOVERIES IN HOUSE,SIGN AND FANCY PAINTING Jacquelyn Oak Versatility was a trademark of the nineteenth century artist

44 BUTTER MOLDS AND PRINTS Paul E. Kindig Miniature sculpture from the early American home dairy

52 GRANDMA MOSES Jane Kallir Jane Kallir explores the artist behind the myth

Current Major Donors Letter from the Director Checklist: The World of Olof Krans


9 31


Calendar Museum News

56 59 60

Membership Index to Advertisers

61 80

Cover: Rooster Wilhelm Schimmel(1817-90) Carlisle, Pa. Second halfofthe 19th century. Wood, carved and painted. h.81/2 Museum ofAmerican Folk Art, gift of Ralph Esmerian. Photo courtesy ofHarry N. Abrams,Inc., Publishers, New York, Treasures ofAmerican Folk Art. The Clarion is published three times a year by the Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd St., New York, NY 10019;(212) 581-2474. Annual subscription rate for MAFA members is included in membership dues. Copies are mailed to all members. Single copy $4.50. The Clarion, America's Folk Art Magazine. FALL 1982 Published and copyright 1982 by the Museum of American Folk Art 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York 10019 The cover and contents of The Clarion are fully protected by copyright and may not be reproduced

in any manner without written consent. Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the Museum of American Folk Art. Unsolicited manuscripts or photographs should be accompanied by retum postage. The Clarion assumes no responsibility for the loss or damage of such material. Change of Address Please send both old and new addresses and allow five weeks for change. Advertising. The Clarion accepts advertisements only from advertisers whose reputation is recognized in the trade, but despite the care with which the advertising department screens photographs and texts submitted by its advertisers, it cannot guarantee the unquestionable authenticity of objects of quality or

services advertised in its pages or offered for sale by its advertisers, nor can it accept responsibility for misunderstandings that may arise from the purchase or sale of objects or services advertised in its pages. The Museum is dedicated to the exhibition and interpretation of folk art and feels it is a violation of its principles to be involved in or to appear to be involved in the sale of works of art. For this reason, the Museum will not knowingly accept advertisements for The Clarion which illustrate or describe objects that have been exhibited at the Museum within one year of the placing of the advertisement.

Board of Trustees

Museum of American Folk Art

Board of'frustees


Executive Committee

Adele Earnest M. Austin Fine Barbara Johnson Judith A. Jedlicka Margery G. Kahn Jana Klauer Susan Klein Ira Howard Levy Cyril I. Nelson Kenneth R. Page

Ralph Esmerian President Frances S. Martinson Executive Vice President Alice M. Kaplan Senior Vice President Lucy Danziger Vice President Karen S. Schuster Vice President William I. Leffler Treasurer Howard A. Feldman Secretary Catherine G. Cahill

Cynthia V.A. Schaffner David Walentas Andy Warhol Robert N. Wilson William E. Wiltshire III Trustees Emeritus

Mary Allis Cordelia Hamilton Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr. Marian W. Johnson Louis C. Jones Jean Lipman

Current Major Donors The Museum of American Folk Art thanks its current major donors for their generous support: AMAX Foundation, Inc!' American Broadcasting Companies, Inc* American Stock Exchange, Inc'? Amicus Foundation Inc. Estate of Effie Thixton Arthur Bankers Trust Company* William Bernhard Bemhill Fund Bloomingdale's* Bristol-Myers Fund* Catherine Cahill Lily Cates CBS, Inc' Chase Manhattan Bank, N.At, Chemical Bank* Chesebrough-Ponds, Inc.* Coach Leatherware* Consolidated Edison* Coopers & Lybrand* Culbro Corporation* Joseph F. Cullman III Louise B. & Edgar M. Cullman Foundation Mr. & Mrs. Frederick M. Danziger Adele Earnest Echo Scarfs, Inc!' Ralph Esmerian Exxon Corporation* Eva Feld Estate of Morris Feld Howard A. Feldman Austin Fine The Estate of Col. Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch Grace Foundation, Inc:, Susan Zises Green Gulf + Western Foundation* Justus Heijmans Foundation 6

IBM Corporation* Institute of Museum Services International Paper Company Foundation* Japan-United States Friendship Commission Johnson & Johnson* The Junior League of the City of New York Mrs. Margery G. Kahn Margery & Harry Kahn Philanthropic Rind The J.M. Kaplan Fund, Inc. Estate of Theodore H. Kapnek Mrs. Francis Kettaneh Jana Klauer Anne Baxter Klee Mr and Mrs. Robert Klein Krikor Foundation Jo Carroll Lauder The Lauder Foundation William I. Leffler Ira Howard Levy R. C. Lilly Foundation Howard and Jean Lipman Richard & Patricia Locke Joyce Longworth R.H. Macy Co. Inc.* Manufacturers Hanover Trust* Marsh & McLennan Companies, Inc* The Joseph Martinson Memorial Fund The Helen R. and Harold C. Mayer Foundation, Inc. Elizabeth McCormack Robert & Meryl Meltzer Fund Mobil Corporation* Morgan Guaranty Must Company* National Endowment for the Arts New York State Council on the Arts New York Telephone Company* Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation* Otis Elevator Company* Philip Morris, Inc:, Dorothy and Leo Rabkin The Richard Ravitch Foundation RCA Corporation*

The Reader's Digest Association* Rockefeller Brothers Fund Rockefeller Center, Incl` Dorothy Roberts—in memory of Paul Roberts Mrs. John D. Rockefeller 3rd Mr. and Mrs. Jon R. Rotenstreich Lorna Saleh Cynthia V. A. Schaffner Schlumberger Horizons, Ine Karen S. Schuster Mrs. Samuel Schwartz The Seamen's Bank for Savings The Seven-Up Company Shiseido Cosmetics (America) Ltd" Arman & Louise Simone Foundation Sanford & Patricia Smith Galleries, Ltd Sotheby Parke-Bernet, Inc* The Meyer Steinberg Foundation Martha Stewart The Stitchery, Sumner Gerard Foundation Maureen Taylor Alfred Tananbaum Foundation, Inc. Tarex Foundation Time, Inc.* The Isaac H. Tittle Fund United Technologies* H. Van Ameringen Foundation Estate of Jeanette Virgin David Walentas Warner Communications, Inc* The Xerox Foundation* *Corporate Members A portion of the Museum's general operating funds for this fiscal year has been made available through a grant from the Institute of Museum Services, a Federal agency that offers operating and program support to the nation's museums.


We cordially invite you to enjoy a unique dining experience where the menu changes monthly with the bountiful harvest ofthe land. Your enjoyment ofauthentic American cuisine is enhanced because it is experienced amidst a permanent exhibit ofearly American artifacts, graciously loaned by the Museum ofAmerican Folk Art. Come andpartake ofAmerica's culinary and artistic heritage. Luncheon and dinner are served Monday through Friday; Saturday, dinner only. Ampleparking isprovided. For reservations call (212)938-9100.

VISTA HOTEL At New York's World Ikade Center



An important historical quilt celebrating the Centenial. The center is an engraved handkerchief originally sold as a souvenir of the 1876 Philadelphia exposition.


Exhibiting Fall Antique Show September 30 - October 3 Passenger Terminal Pier. New York City.

PROVENANCE: Exhibited Independence Hall for the Bicentenial Celebration of the American Bald Eagle.

MADE IN AMERICA 1234 Madison Ave.(bet. 88th & 89th Street) New York, NY 10028-(212) 289-1113 Open Mon. -Fri. 10:30 - 6:00, Sat. 11:00 - 5:30

Letter from the Director Dr. Robert Bishop

Phrenological Head Alexander Ames Buffalo, New York area mid 19th century Polychromed Wood 163/8 x 13 x 1981.24.1 The Head is included in the traveling exhibit, American Folk Art, Expressions of a New Spirit, and was part of the generous bequest to the Museum ofAmerican Folk Art by the late Jeanette Virgin, a longtime member andfriend of the Museum. Photo: Terry McGinniss

The Museum continues to expand its exhibition and educational activities and plans additional programs for its members and the public at large. The special exhibition, "The World of Olof Krans': curated by Illinois art historian Merle Glick, will offer museum visitors their first comprehensive view of the paintings of Krans, a Swedish immigrant who in 1850 joined other members of the religious, socialistic community first established at Bishop Hill, Illinois, in 1846. Also included in this exhibition will be weathervanes, furniture and other decorative arts made and used by the adventurous settlers in their frontier community. The Museum wishes to thank Ronald Nelson, State Historian of Bishop Hill State Historic Site and members ofthe Illinois State Legislature for their willingness to loan pieces for this historic presentation. The show opens September 29, 1982 and extends through January 2, 1983. This exhibition was made possible in part by funds from the Caterpillar Foundation and The Swedish Council of America. The Museum staff has just completed work on a 148-page all color catalog which will accompany a special exhibition to England,France and Germany in 1983 and 1984. American Folk Art, Expressions ofa New Spirit showcases many remarkable works of American folk art from the Museum's permanent collection. The exhibition and catalog were made possible by a grant from United Technologies of Hartford, Connecticut. Upon its return to the United States the show will tour nationally under the auspices of the American Federation of Arts. Special notice should be made of the generous support made available to the Museum of American Folk Art by Manufacturers Hanover for the exhibit, "Recent Acquisitions from the Howard and Jean Lipman Collection': and to Mt and Mrs. Lipman for their ongoing interest in the Museum. The Lipmans have made it possible for the Museum of American Folk Art to acquire several wonderful pieces for the permanent collection and have pro-

vided substantial financial support for the maintenance and cataloguing of these pieces. They have also deposited their extensive folk art library with us. The Masters Program in Folk Art Studies, established by the Museum and New York University, continues to attract a record number of applicants. Over 650 potential students competed for 30 openings in the program this fall. The professional level of the student body is most impressive and it is generally felt this educational program will become increasingly important in future years. Mayor Koch will once again declare "American Folk Art Festival in New York City" this fall in honor of the Museum of American Folk Art. Special events include the Fall Antiques Show, produced by Sanford L. Smith Associates and chaired by Karen S. Schuster and Cynthia V.A. Schaffner. This year the event will be held Thursday, September 30 through Sunday, October 3, with a special preview to benefit the Museum on Wednesday, September 29. Save that date! Just a few days earlier the Museum will introduce its extensive reproduction program in a storewide preview at Bloomingdale's on September 15. Reproductions of furniture, textiles, ceramics and other home furnishings based upon objects in the Museum's permanent collection will be featured in this most impressive effort which was shepherded by Hermine Mariaux of Hermine Mariaux, Inc. A special folk art film festival is yet another feature of the fall Folk Festival. Presented in conjunction with the Donnell Library at 20 West 53rd St.; some twelve films about the folk arts and artists in America will provide attendees an unprecedented view of the best films in the field. For more information regarding this event contact Susan Saidenberg, Curator of Education at the Museum. We are moving forward on all fronts. Bring your friends to the Museum and share with them America's great folk heritage. 9

Museum of American Folk Art

MARNA ANDERSON GALLERY 40 east 69th street, new york 10021 (212) 249-8484

Administration Dr. Robert Bishop, Director Gerard C. Wertkin, Assistant Director Lillian Grossman, Director's Secretary Denise Czarnomski, Bookkeeper Anne Minich, Director of Development Robert Culicover, Development Assistant Susan Saidenberg, Curator of Education Claire Hartman, Registrar/Exhibition Coordinator Joan G. Lowenthal, Director ofPublications Susan Flamm, Public Relations Nancy Scaia, Membership Secretary Marie DiManno, Museum Shop Manager Elsie Dentes, Assistant Shop Manager Pat Locke, Assistant to the Registrar Richard Griffin, Clerk Joseph Minus, Gallery Assistant Howard Lanser, Joseph D'Agostino, Exhibition Designers

Development Advisory Committee Theodore L. Kesselman, Executive Vice President, Bankers Trust Company Robert M. Meltzer, Vice Chairman of the Board, Triangle Pacific Corporation Harold R. Talbot, Jr., Managing Director, Marsh & McLennan International, Inc.

Programs Irene Goodkind, Nancy Brown, Co-Chairwomen Friends Committee Cheryl Mayor, New York University Program Coordinator Lucy Danziger, Susan Klein, Docent Program Consultants Eleanora Walker, Exhibitions Previews Coordinator Phyllis Tepper, Docent Scheduling Mary Buchan, Junior League Liaison Priscilla Brandt, Trips and Seminars

Portrait of a Fall River Lady. Prior-Hamblen,circa 1850. Oil on Academy Board, 171/2"x 13".

The Clarion Anne W. Troutman, Editor Joan G. Lowenthal, Associate Editor Ira Howard Levy, Design Consultant Topp Litho, Printers Ace Typographers, Typesetters

Museum Shop Staff Sheila Carlisle, Elizabeth Cassidy, Bernice Cohen, Anne DeCamp, Rita Geake, Mary Greason, Felice Gunz, Lisa Haber, Renee Heilbronner, Annette Levande, Vincent Mantia, Robin McCoy, Isabel Mills, Pat Pancer, Maria Salantro, Myra Shaskan, Paula Spruck

by appointment


* The New York City Auction specializing in primitive Americana. Monthly Sales • Fine Quilts • Folkart • Handmade Rugs • Baskets • Crocks • Vintage Clothing • Early Paintings • Primitive Furniture


Guernsey's Country Auction

New York, N.Y • Tuxedo Park, N.Y 212-628-1702 (Mailing Address: Guernsey's Auction, Tuxedo Park, N.Y 10987)

Embroidered Bed Cover

A Rare And Important Museum Quality Textile This is one of only a handful of known examples of wool embroidery on dark wool ground. All of the other known examples are now in museums or private collections. The style and design are reminiscent of those fabulous bed ruggs, the

difference being in the all over pile of the rug. Of New England origin, probably Connecticut Valley, this piece is wool crewel yarn embroidered in chain stitch on a dark blue ground. All yarns being handspun and vegetable dyed. c 1790-1810 96"x 80"

For similar bed covers see: Stafford & Biship: "America's Quilts & Coverlets". Pg. 64 and 65. Bishop: "New Discovers in American Quilts". Pg 28 and 29. Nelson: "The Quilt Engagement Calendar 1979". Plate 43.

Stephen & Carol Huber, Inc. ..smett,s, tWg5,': 110%1_,*• 12

Exhibiting in the "Fall Antiques Show" Sept. 30- Oct, 3, Passenger Terminal Pier Hudson River & West 48th Street, N.Y.C.

82 Plants Dam Road, East Lyme, CT 06333 (203) 739-0772 Specializing in fine quality American furniture and needlework.

PATRICIA ADAMS Box 959 Evanston, Illinois 60202 Phone:312-869-6296 By appointment 30 minutesfrom downtown Cbicago

Specializing in 18th & 19th Century Americanfurniture, paintings andfolk art.

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Warren, Illinois shop open week-ends May through November 25 miles east ofGalena on the historic Stage Coach Trail


Top row: Tiny Rarities in Staffordshire Spatterware: 13 / 4"-2" T. Bowls in the "Beehive", "Two-Men-On-A-Raft", "Windmill" & "Headless-Peafowl" Patterns plus a'Yellow Spatter Cup Plate with Cockscomb, 4" Diam.

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Center row: Geometric banded Mocha Spill Holder, 5/ 1 4"T.; Very Rare Pineapple Pattern Blue Spatterware Cream Jug, 3/ 1 2" T.; Gaudy Dutch "Sunflower" Plate, 10" Diam. Bottom row: Blue/White Spongeware Pitcher, 9" T.; Very Rare Dedham Pottery REVERSE (Counter-Clockwise) RABBIT Plate, Impressed "CPUS" & signed "FS", 10" Diam. (Rd: Hawes, The Dedham Pottery, "Only three of these Counter-clockwise plates are now known to the author") 19thCentury Chalkware "Rabbit with Hearts" painted on its chest and forehead, 4" T.

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Exhibiting in the "Fall Antiques Show" Sept. 30- Oct, 3, Passenger Terminal Pier Hudson River & West 48th Street, N.Y.C.

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FALL ANTIQUES SHOW "It was exciting, overwhelming and frankly dazzling" MAINE ANTIQUE DIGEST

"A four star show if collectors rated antiques shows the way Michelin rated restaurants" PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER

"Wonderful and interesting, attractive and exciting, good looking and well presented and just plain great" ANTIQUES & ARTS WEEKLY, NEWTOWN BEE

"The major Americana show in the country—no other show cornbines such a high standard of quality, quantity and variety" OHIO ANTIQUE REVIEW "How do you know when fall begins? For collectors of Americana there's no question about it—the signal event is the Fall Antiques ShowANTIQUE MONTHLY "An all-American celebration" NEW YORK DAILY NEWS "A great all-American antiques show" HOUSE BEAUTIFUL

"A show no serious collector of Americana will want to miss" NEW HAVEN REGISTER

"An Americana extravaganza" .....a presentation that is bound to change New Yorkers' views of an tiques shows" NEW YORK TIMES

"One of the great events in New York" WOR RADIO









Produced & Managed by Sanford L. Smith & Associates, Ltd.

Just Published! A pictorial and narrative history of one ofthe earliest American Folk Arts.

EARLY AMERICAN STONE SCULPTURE Found in the Burying Grounds of New England By Avon Neal and Ann Parker "This beautiful book provides a comprehensive sampling of America's extraordinary outdoor museums—the burying grounds of New England. Miss Parker's photographs and the authors' gravestone rubbings are reproduced so faithfully that they may be compared in quality with the originals." Mary Black, Curator of Paintings and Sculpture, New York Historical Society, was lavish in her praise for this uniquely illustrated, carefully researched edition. Created by America's foremost stone rubbers and leading authorities on New England gravestones, this boxed edition is much more than another art book. The authors provide historical detail about 42 of New England's most representative gravestones. And they illustrate, both photographically and by the use of their refined rubbing techniques, the actual stone carvings. In addition, the publishers include with each copy an original rubbing, matted and suitable for framing. This rubbing is taken directly from the stone and is

signed by the authors. The Deluxe Edition also comes with the rubbing, plus two of Miss Parker's original photographs—processed, mounted, and signed by her. Your Choice ofTwo Editions— Limited to Just 475 Copies The book features the stones on oversize, facing pages (11" X 32" overall). The rubbings are printed on art laid stock and the text and photographs on coated paper. Deluxe Edition: 175 copies, boxed. Hand bound in full mottled calf with a blindembossed gravestone design on the cover. Comes with an original signed rubbing and two signed, selenium-toned silver prints. Extra-Illustrated Edition: 300 copies, boxed. Bound in quarter mottled calf and printed boards. An original, signed rubbing is included. For more information about how you can become one of the few who can own this beautiful folk art edition, please call or write:

SWEETWATER EDITIONS 205 East 78th Street, Suite 1D, New York, N.Y. 10021 212/688-3035


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A sampling of our fine new and made-to-order quilts, antique quilts, wall hangings, and pillows, baskets, painted furniture, dolls, whirligigs, stenciled floor cloths, decoys, redware and scissors-cuttings. Superb quality at affordable prices.

HANDN1NDS 37 Maple Street Summit, New Jersey 07901 (201) 273-0707


Specializing in American Antiques of the 18th & 19th Centurie s

Shaker Rare Tilt-top Candlestand Sabbathday Lake, Maine, c 1850


Open Tuesday-Sunday 10:00 to 5:30 pm

Directions: Less than 1 hour from N.Y.C. Spring St. is located just off Rte. 35, 7.5 miles east of 1-684. From Merritt Parkway, take exit 38 (Rte. 123) north to Rte. 35. Turn left. Spring St. is 3rd road on right. Opposite big church.


eritage Trail ntiquesShow _


n to 9:30p.m. Sunday noon to 6:00p.m. authentic 18th- and early 19th-century American antiques. --joit he discriminating collector窶馬ovice or advanced

eonvention eenter Admission $4.00 Tea Room

: 4 teld,Illinois 7ng in cooperation with the

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write: E Phipps, PO. Box 44, Higanum, Connecticut06441窶「 Telephone(203)345-2416

The xteenth Annua

CAllt itiques effmerica's premier show o 100 handsome displays of-17 9th century fu-rniture E9-9 decorations Jo'r the iscerning- collector

griday, Aatarday &9e5unday

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State Armory, Capital Avenue at Broad Street

Friday 4-10 p.m. Sat.1-10 p.m. Sun. 1-8 p.m. Admission $4.00 Free Parking Tearoom A benefitfor the eight historic house-museums maintained by the Antiquarian & Landmarks Society, Inc., ofConnecticut


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Collectors of Americana consider floorcloths an ) authentic feature of colonial decor. For today's /kO 4 popular 'country look," floorcloths (as wall hang4 /% t 0 ings or floorcoverings) are an important and colorful graphic accessory. They are extremely dura4 0% • ble and may be swept or damp mopped. 4 0

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Stenciling is an old art, practiced in nearly every part of the world. In Colonial America, itinerant artists used stencils to decorate floors, walls and canvas floorcloths using designs based on expensive carpels.





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Court Ave. hal

J & S Schneider 299 N Court Ave.•Tucson. Arizona 85701 (602)622-3607•Appointment Advised



Acrylic on linen canvas 18" x 20"

Country Doctor


MILWAUKEE, WI 53202 (414) 278-0357

Exclusive distributor for Pat Thomas Dealer inquiries invitied 21

"Uncle Sam" Whirligig, Kilbuck, N.Y., ca. 1900-1920, wood and hand wrought metal, traces ofred, white and blue paint,49" x 29". Provenance available.

is pleased to announce the opening of our new gallery in Soho. We specialize in truly exceptional examples of early and twentieth century American Folk Art including sculpture, paintings, quilts,furniture and accessories. 475 Broome Street, New York City 212 966-0541 Tuesday-Saturday 10-6

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Exhibiting in the "Fall Antiques Show" Sept 30- Oct 3, Passenger Terminal Pier Hudson River & West 48th Street, N Y C


820 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y., 10021 Between 68th & 69th Street Monday-Saturday 12:00-5:00 P. M. â&#x20AC;˘ 212 628-5454






1314 Twenty-First Street NW Washington DC 20037 Monday-Saturday 11-6 (202) 775-9460

Merle H. Glick


In 1846, many hundreds of immigrants from Sweden settled on the fertile prairie of Central Illinois, populating a village they named Bishop Hill. It was a religious communal society under the leadership of strong-willed laymen who chose to flee the state church of Sweden. The great migration from European countries to escape poverty, lack of opportunity, or religious persecution is common to the ancestry of millions of Americans. But the settlement of six hundred like-minded citizens from one area of Sweden was not the ordinary case. Hard work, strong leadership and singleness of purpose produced a community that rose swiftly in terms of economic success. By 1850 when Olof Krans arrived from Sweden as a thirteen year old boy with his parents, the Bishop Hill Colony, in only four years, had built large buildings, developed thousands of acres of fertile farm land and were producing grain and textiles in sufficient quantities, beyond their own needs, to sell to outsiders. Olof Krans toiled in the fields along with the hundreds of men, women and children who had their assigned tasks in this communal society, which thrived for about fifteen years. He joined the Union Army for a brief period ofservice in the Civil War (Fig. 1), returning to the Bishop Hill area to operate a mobile photographic studio long before he began to paint portraits. Painting of a different kind, however, was Krans' occupation for over fifty years. He lived in several communities near Bishop Hill supporting his family with his "trade" as a commerical paper hanger, a painter of houses, stores,farm buildings, and signs, and a decorator of walls and woodwork. With no known academic training, he must have sensed a need to adapt his skill as a utilitarian painter to create scenes of Colony life while he could still remember his own boyhood experiences and could tap the memories of surviving Colonists. Although

many of them were photographed in later years, (providing a source for Krans' portraits) there were few photographs of Colony operations during the communal era before the Civil War. Stories and legends could be written down or repeated, but how it looked remained only in Colonists memories. Not much is known about Krans' earlier interest in "Art for History's Sake:' as George Swank entitled one chapter in his book Painter Krans. Swank, a local historian, and a Galva, Illinois printer has compiled the only book devoted to the artist's life and works, although there are several published histories of the Colony which invariably use Krans' paintings as illustrations. "Father had a strong sense of the historical:' is a quotation attributed to the artist's son, but few paintings survive from the pre-1890 period, if, in fact, there were many. An auditorium curtain.commissioned for the community center in Bishop Hill is the earliest known major work, entitled Bishop Hill in 1855. Done in 1895, it was a grand 15 by 10 foot panorama of the village for which he received $65 plus a testimonial supper and a gold cane. A smaller canvas of this scene was done in 1911(Fig. 2). The popularity of this mural must have motivated the artist to paint other historical scenes for the approaching golden anniversary of the Colony settlement. It was a long, hard summer of spare-time painting in 1896. We do not know in what order they were done, but in historical sequence, his Bishop Hill 1846(Fig. 3)shows the temporary living quarters where colonists suffered their first winter in Illinois. Earthen dugouts,lined with logs, provided dormitory-like space for 25 to 30 persons in each unit. Krans' pleasant scene of orderly rows of cabins and leafy trees must have reflected old settlers' typical memory ofjust the pleasant things, not the hardships. Malnutrition and disease caused the

1. Olof Krans in His Union Suit, OlofKrans, 1908. Oil on canvas. 36 x 22 inches. Private collection. Krans served eight months in the Union Army, receiving a medical discharge in 1862.

The World of Olof Krans will be on view at the Museum of American Folk Art galleries from September 29,1982 through January 3, 1983. Merle H. Glick is a trustee of the Lakeview Museum of Arts and Sciences in Peoria, Illinois. He collectsfolk art and lectures on Illinois history. This Exhibition was made possible in part by funds from The Caterpillar Foundation and The Swedish Council of America.


2. Bishop Hill in 1855, Olof Krans,1911. Oil on canvas. 18 x 24 inches. Collection of Illinois Department ofConservation, Bishop Hill State Historic Site. Paintedfrom a photograph ofan auditorium curtain which Krans had donefifteen years earlier.


4. Red Oak Monument, Olof Krans, 1911. Oil on canvas. 133/4 x 18 inches. Collection ofIllinois Department of Conservation, Bishop Hill State Historic Site.


3. Bishop Hill 1846, Olof Krans, 1896. Oil on canvas. 33/ 1 2 x 45/ 1 2inches. Collection ofthe Illinois Department ofConservation, Bishop Hill State Historic Site. The Colonists'first winter in America was spent in these dug-outs along a ravine in the center ofthe settlement of Bishop Hill.


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death of some fifty persons that first year, commemorated by Krans in his Red Oak Monument painting (Fig. 4). The Colonists settled in rural Illinois because of its agricultural potential. It was necessary to "break the sod' a difficult job of plowing the undisturbed prairie. One of Krans' paintings depicts long lines ofoxen pulling the heavy plow. Another shows men planting grain, and a well-known favorite shows a row of women dropping kernels ofcorn along a line held by two men. This typical Krans symmetry is shown in Harvesting (Fig. 5) where a seemingly choreographed line of men swing their scythecradles in unison, making precision-cut swaths in the standing wheat. Again,the women provided the stoop-labor, binding the grain into sheaves. As summer in Bishop Hill progressed, hay for the oxen, holies and milk cows was mowed, stacked and hauled to the barns, dramatically illustrated by Krans in It Will Soon Be Here (Fig. 6). There is a sense of urgency in this scene as hay is pitched by men to the top of the overflowing haywagon, while the dark clouds of a typical Illinois summer storm approach ominously. Women outnumbered the men in this utopian society and had to assume work that was normally in the male province. Women Driving Piling(Fig. 7) shows a group of women around a tall frame supporting a heavy weight. With each woman having a rope to pull, their concerted effort lifted the weight. When released, it fell on the post being driven into the stream bed, forming the piling for an Edwards River bridge near Bishop Hill. Krans was obviously inspired by the reception he received in 1896 from the old settlers who marvelled at the way the "Wizard7 as he was sometimes called, was able to capture the scenes of Colony life. Many of the original immigrants were still living and lots of reminiscing was surely generated by Krans' canvases. He continued producing genre art after 1896 but his subjects were varied and, strangely, did not dwell on Bishop Hill Colony history. There were surely many more scenes of Bishop Hill Colony life that Krans remembered and could have painted. Instead he experimented with landscapes, animals (Fig. 8), and people—especially portraits (Fig. 9), which must have been an extension of his desire to record history. George Swank sums it up so well in his Painter Krans:

"It is an anthology in art—that collection of faces without smiles and eyes which seem intent on recapturing another remnant of their immigrant experience. Even brief biographical glimpses behind those portraits provide a deeper appreciation ofthe people who labored in this new world settlement—visages etched not only with toil and sorrow, but alsofaith and determination:' "The portraits outnumber by far the scenes of Colony life, because the main Krans interest was in people as individuals, and with eachface he lifted many rank-and-file Colonists above communal anonymity:' Photography put earlier folk portraitists out of business but it was a help to Krans. Most of his portraits were done after the turn of the century from old photographs made much earlier in local studios. Thus,his motive might be questioned since his subjects' likenesses had already been recorded. But photographs were small, in black and white or sepia,lacking in uniformity, and no doubt Krans set out to create a special gallery offaces of those hardy ancestors who started it all—who made the history which we find so interesting today. A cross section ofthe crafts which thrived during the Colony's fifteen communal years is also shown in the current exhibition—furniture, weavings, tools, ironwork. The Swedish immigrants brought to America a variety of skills which were quickly utilized to provide for their own needs and to gain income for the Colony through the sale of rugs, linen, brooms, and furniture. It is remarkable how their intense work efforts were productively organized—until mismanagement of their material success, along with economic recession, led to an end of the communal arrangement in 1861. Olof Krans was not an itinerant artist nor a commerical portraitist. He was a sign painter, a paper hanger, a painter of storefronts and outbuildings. He later developed the skill to paint portraits and scenes of places and events which appealed to his Swedish friends and relatives. Why, then, is Olof Krans acclaimed as one of the Midwest's most important folk painters? Primarily because he recorded visually the history of an unusually prosperous experiment of utopian life which has caught the fancy and interest of both Colony descendants and historians across the country. Krans' paintings are important not only as folk art as such, but they enhance the fascination with the story ofthe Bishop 29

5. Harvesting, OlofKrans, 1896. Oil on canvas. 4inches. Collec1 4 x 46/ 1 29/ tion ofthe Illinois Department ofConservation, Bishop Hill State Historic Site. Most Colony members were engaged in agricultural tasks, regardless ofage or sex.

Hill Colony. Most of his paintings were given by him to the Old Settlers Association, and are now displayed in the Old Colony Church at Bishop Hill. They are a vivid record of the people and activities which formed this remarkable chapter in the settlement of Illinois. From this collection,owned by the State of Illinois, and from other museums and private collections, A Prairie Vision: The World of OlofKrans is presented to visitors to The Museum of American Folk Art, September 29, 1982 to January 3, 1983. For Further Reading George Swank,Painter Kransâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;OK ofBishop Hill Colony, Galva, Illinois: Galvaland Press, 1976

6.It Will Soon Be Here, Olof Krans, c. 1896. Oil canvas. 22 x 36 inches. Collection of the Illinois Department of Conservation, Bishop Hill State Historic Site. An approaching storm gives this scene a sense ofurgency as Colonists hurry to load the hay on the wagon.

Anna Wadsworth Murray, "Olof Krans' View of Bishop Hill Colony" The Clarion (Spring-Summer 1981) 8. Bear and Elk Fighting, OlofKrans, c. after 1900. Oil 4 inches. 1 on canvas. 30 x 36/ Private Collection. Krans painted many animal pictures in his last years and was especially attracted to deer and elk, even though these animals, including bear, were not known in the Bishop Hill area.

Anna Wadsworth Murray, "Olof Krans:' Chicago History (Winter 1981-82) Margaret E. Jacobson, "The Painted Record of a Community Experiment': Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 34(June 1941) David G. Love, A Prairie Dream Recaptured:' American Heritage (October 1969) Nancy Lindberg, Faces of Utopiaâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Bishop Hill Family Album, Chicago, Illinois, Herbert Tinzke Designs Inc., 1982

7. Women Driving Piling, OlafKrans, 1896. Oil on 4inches. 1 canvas. 34 x 46/ Collection ofthe Illinois Department ofConservation. Bishop Hill State Historic Site. Hard physical labor was required of women as well as men, even in construction projects such as a bridge across the Edwards River.

Olov Isalcsson and Soren Hallgren, Bishop Hill: A Utopia on the Prairie, Stockholm, Sweden, LT Publishing House,1969

9. Rev. Jonas Olson, Olof Krans, c. after 1900. Oil on canvas. 24 x 18 inches. Collection ofIllinois State Department ofConservation, Bishop Hill State Historic Site. This is typical ofsome 65 known portraits done by Krans, mostlyfrom old photographs.


The World of Olof Krans

Prepared by Merle Glick, Guest Curator Dimensions are in inches and are listed in order of height, width and length or depth. 1. Olof Krans Self Portrait Signed,"Tabbo OK 1913" Olof Krans(1838-1916) Galva, IL 1913 Oil on canvas Unframed: 24 x 18" Collection of Chicago Historical Society 2. Mrs. Beata Krans Signed,"Mrs. Beata Krans 1811 1906" Olof Krans Location unknown 1906 Oil on canvas Unframed: 28 x 20" Collection of Chicago Historical Society 3. Olof Krans in his Union Suit Signed, "01Crans at 22Nd 1908" Olof Krans Galva,IL 1908 Oil on canvas Unframed: 36 x 22" Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds Everett, Sr. 4. Olof Johnson Olof Krans Galva,IL Circa 1900 Oil on canvas Unframed: 28 x 22" Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds Everett, Sr. 5. Peaceable Kingdom Signed,"And A Little Child Shall Lead Them" Olof Krans Galva,IL 1900-1915 Unframed: 18 x 24" Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Braman

7. Bishop Hill in 1846 Signed, "Bishop Hill 1846 OKrans 1896" Olof Krans Galva,IL 1896 Oil on canvas Unframed: 331 / 2x 451 / 2" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation S. Bishop Hill in 1855 Signed,"Bishop Hill as seen from North of The Edwards in 1855, Painted 1911 01Crans" Olof Krans Galva,IL 1911 Oil on canvas Unframed: 18 x 24" Collection ofIllinois Dept. of Conservation 9. It Will Soon Be Here Signed, "It Will Soon Be Here, OK" Olof Krans Galva, IL Circa 1896 Oil on canvas Unframed: 22 x 36" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation 10. Albert Krans with Horses Signed, "01Crans 1911" Olof Krans Galva,IL 1911 Oil on canvas Unframed: 18 x 24" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation

11. Women Driving Piling Olof Krans Galva,IL Circa 1896 Oil on canvas Unframed: 34 x 461 / 2" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation 12. Betrothal Certificate Signed,"OJT-CLD" "Den 16 Maii 1849" Artist Unknown Bishop Hill, IL 1849 Watercolour on paper Unframed: 15 x 11" Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association 13. Red Oak Monument Signed, "Painted 1911 by OK" Olof Krans Bishop Hill,IL 1911 Oil on canvas Unframed: 13/ 3 4x 18" Collection of lllinois Dept. of Conservation 14. Peter Helstrom Signed,"Peter Helstrom" Olof Krans Galva, IL Circa 1900 Oil on canvas Unframed: 24 x 18" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation

15. Mary Malmgren Signed,"The First Child Born At Bishop Hill Mrs. Mary Olson" Olof Krans Galva,IL Circa 1900 Oil on canvas Unframed: 24 x 18" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation 16. Sigrid Stenberg Signed, "Sigrid Stenberg" Olof Krans Galva,IL Circa 1900 Oil on canvas Unframed: 24 x 18" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation 17. Peter Johnson Signed,"Peter Johnson, bro. of Eric Johnson" Olof Krans Galva,IL Circa 1900 Oil on canvas Unframed: 24 x 18" Collection ofIllinois Dept. of Conservation 18. Jonas Olson Signed,"Rev Jonas Olson" Olof Krans Galva,IL Circa 1900 Oil on canvas Unframed: 24 x 18" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation 19. Nils Bjork Signed, "Nils Bjork" Olof Krans Galva,IL Circa 1900 Oil on canvas Unframed: 30 x 24" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation 20. Peter Krans(1840-1912) Olof Krans Galva, IL Circa 1900 Oil on canvas Unframed: 24 x 18" Collection of Merle H. Glick

6. Harvesting Olof Krans Galva,IL Circa 1896 Oil on canvas Unframed: 29/ 1 2x 461 / 2" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation 31


21. J. Pemberton Gibbs Olof Krans Galva, IL 1911 Oil on canvas Unframed: 36 x 20" Collection of City of Galva,IL, Fire Department 22. Fire at Red Oak Olof Krans Galva,IL 1910-15 Oil on canvas Unframed: 23 x 32" Collection of Clara Morthland 23. Bear and Elk Fighting Olof Krans Galva,IL 1905-10 Oil on canvas Unframed: 30 x 361 / 4" Collection of Merle H. Glick 24. Prairie Grove Signed,"OKrans 1901" Olof Krans Galva,IL 1901 Oil on canvas Unframed: 24 x 30" Collection of Merle H. Glick 25. Olson Farm,Sweden Olof Krans Galva,IL Circa 1900 Oil on canvas Unframed: 16/ 1 4 x 221 / 2" Collection of Kennedy Galleries, Inc. 26. Serving Tray Olof Krans Galva,IL 1892 Oil on metal tray Oval: 19 x 24" Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association

27. Rade Sign Signed,"OK" Olof Krans Galva, IL 1880-90 Painted wood with carved decoration 25 x 94 x 11 / 2" Collection of Merle H. Glick 28. Weathervane; Eagle Attributed to Adolph Neumann Bishop Hill, IL Circa 1860 Tin 24 x 36" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation 29. Cradle Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL 1850-60 Wood 23x 17 x 33" Collection ofIllinois Dept. of Conservation 30. Bible Table Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL 1850-60 Wood 5 x 25 x 18" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation 31. Candle Tree Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL 1850-60 Carved wood,tin 325/s x 19 x 19" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation

32. Rocking Chair Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL 1850-60 Painted wood 44 x 211 / 4 x 33" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation

38. Toy Horse Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL 1860-80 Polychromed wood 1 4" 63/4 x 2 x 7/ Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds Everett, Sr.

33. Clock Face Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL 1850-60 Painted wood 501 / 2"diameter Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation

39. Thread Winder Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL Circa 1850 Walnut 141 / 4x 12 x 101 / 4" Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association

34. Kitchen Chair Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL 1850-60 Painted wood 1 4x 18" 32 x 13/ Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation

40. Lantern Artist unknown Bishop Hill,IL Circa 1855 Punched tin 17 x 51 / 2"diameter Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association

35. Spinning Wheel Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL 1850-60 Wood 36 x 21 x45" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation

41. Scutching Knife Signed,"BHCO" Artist unknown Bishop Hill,IL Circa 1850 Incised pine 5 x 251 / 2" Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association

36a. Woven Rug Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL 1850-60 Woven cotton 30" wide Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation 36b. Woven Rug Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL 1850-60 Woven cotton 30" wide Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation 37a-f. Bricks Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL Circa 1850 Clay 4 x 8x 2/ 1 2" Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation


42. Stencil, "Bishop Hill, Henry Co. IL." Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL Circa 1855 Cut sheet metal 6/ 1 4x 101 / 2"oval top Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association 43. Goose Basket Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL Circa 1850 Willow splints with pine base and lid Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association 44. Basket(melon) Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL Circa 1850 Willow splints, oak handle 13Âźx 14x 13" Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association

54b. Bit Unidentified colony blacksmith Bishop Hill, IL 1850-60 Iron, wood Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation 54c. Loop Unidentified colony blacksmith Bishop Hill, IL 1850-60 Wrought iron Collection of Illinois Dept. of Conservation 55. Bible Artist unknown 1850-60 Paper bound in tooled leather Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association

45. Salt Box Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL Circa 1850 Walnut 14 x 19 x 93/s" Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association

50. Tea Pot Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL Circa 1850 Copper, wrought iron, walnut 11 x 6 x17" Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association

46. Trinket Box in Shape of a Shoe. Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL Circa 1860 Incised pine 25A x 11 / 2x 6/ 1 4" Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association

51. Cooking Spoon Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL Circa 1850 Hardwood 51 / 4 x 22/ 3 4" Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association

47. Double Rolling Pin Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL 1850-60 Hard maple 3/ 1 2x 4/ 3 4x 20" Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association

52. Water Jug Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL Circa 1850 Wood 6/ 1 2x 6/ 1 2x 81 / 2" Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association

48. Coffee Grinder Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL Circa 1850 Walnut, wrought iron 7/ 1 2x 51 / 2x 111 / 2" Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association

53. Door From Bjorkland Hotel Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL Circa 1850 Painted and grained wood, brass number plate 82/ 3 4x 331 / 2x 1" Collection ofIllinois Dept. of Conservation

49. Food Mixer Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL Circa 1850 Walnut, string 13/ 3 4x 211 / 2" Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association

Ma.Foot Scraper Unidentified colony blacksmith Bishop Hill, IL 1850-60 Wrought iron Collection ofIllinois Dept. of Conservation

56. Basket(square) Unknown Bishop Hill Colony artisan Bishop Hill, IL 1850-60 Willow, hickory handle 10 x 111 / 2x 111 / 2" Collection of Richard Anderson 57. Linen Towell Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL 1850-55 Woven homespun linen Collection of Bishop Hill Heritage Association 58. Lantern Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL Circa 1850 Wood,glass 11 x 7 x 7" Collection of Clara Morthland 59. Wooden Chest Artist unknown Bishop Hill, IL 1846-50 Wood, wrought iron strapping 9/ 3 4x 133 / 4x 20" Collection of Clara Morthland





An important collection ofAmericanfolk art resides at the American Museum in Britain, Claverton Manor Bath. Author James E. Ayres herein provides a comprehensive survey of American vernacular artfrom a uniquely British perspective. In Britain, there remains a prejudice against art from "below the salt:' Though there are many folk museums in Britain today, they are primarily concerned with folk life and rarely with folk art. Few books have been published on the subject and there are no public galleries that specialize in showing such work. This arbitrary division is epitomized by the life of an eighteenth century pioneer of folk life studies, Tim Bobbin'. As a schoolmaster, he published a book on and in the Lancashire dialect during a time when dialect and music were the main aspects offolk tradition that were taken seriously in Britain. Under another name, that of John Collier (1708-1786), he was a folk painter and known as the "Lancashire Hogarthr Despite his reputation in both these aspects of folk tradition, he is remembered today as a writer and musician only, and forgotten or disdained as a folk painter. Despite these attitudes, it seems likely that the first public exhibition of folk art was organize.d in London as long ago as 1762 by Bonnell Thornton and William Hogarth under the auspices ofthe fictitious "Society of Sign Painters!' These were propitious beginnings but inspired few imitators until this century. It was not until nearly two hundred years later that the American Museum in Britain and its folk

art gallery opened to the public. The bulk of the American folk art collection at Claverton is shown in a converted stable. The building plan is semicircular; the collection unfolds as one moves round the building. Since the roof ofthe building is pitched in only one direction, one section of the stable accommodates larger objects and those most appropriately viewed from below, such as weathervanes and whirligigs. The other side of the gallery is sympathetic to smaller items which are hung on the piers between the windows. The barn siding of the American Museum is painted in the earlier craft-based tradition with a representation of the capture of Major Andre and some fine paddle steamers, which are reminiscent of the work of Rufus Porter and his school. In addition to the folk art exhibited in this gallery, other important collections may be found in the main building. Most dramatic ofthese is the work on view in the New Mexican rooms, including a Morada complete with its passionate and fervent religious images. The retablos painted on pine panels prepared with gesso, the similarly painted bulto of the crucified Christ and the gentle image of St. Francis are echoes of Romanesque Spain in the 'New World: Here we have a folk art that must

be seen apart from the more domestic or temporal work of the Eastern Seaboard which reflects the Northern European character of its immigrants. In moving round the sequence of period rooms in the main house,the sophisticated restraint of the Shaker room is followed by the uninhibited flamboyance of the Pennsylvania German(Deutsch or Dutch)interior which contains theirfractur-schrift as well as examples of their painted furniture and tin. To an English eye, much of this 'tole peinte' bears a striking resemblance to the painted 'roses and castles' so beloved of the families that once plied the canals of Britain in their narrow boats! The debate currently taking place in the United States,(see Perspectives ofAmerican Folk Art edited by Quimby and Swank,Norton for Winterthur; New York, 1980), concerning the notion of 'folk art' finds no echoes in Britain, where there is little awareness of an art outside the parameters of the main schools or their provincial variants, (well discussed by Trevor Fawcett in The Rise of Provincial Art, Clarendon Press; Oxford, 1974). From a British standpoint some of the questions posed by American scholars, such as Kenneth Ames and Henry Glassie, seem wayward. It is, I would suggest, reasonable to question the traditional in-

James E. Ayres is Director ofThe John Judkyn Memorial in Bath,England. His books include British Folk Art, English Naive Painting 1750-1900and The Shell Book of the Home in Britain. Indian Weathervane, artist unknown, early 19th century. Painted sheet metal. 58/ 1 2x 27 inches. Although most weathervanes are viewed as silhouettes against the

sky, it is not unusualfor details to be painted on, as in this example.

elusion in folk art of work that was produced in elegant surroundings such as a ladies' finishing school, but what of the remainder? How were such artists considered by themselves and their contemporaries? Surely this is the relevant question. Here, necessary historical facts may be found which, as Kenneth Ames pointed out, will not be provided by aesthetic judgement. Ofthe great American folk painters, it is remarkable how many were trained in the 'art and mystery' of painting. That is to say, they were taught how to grind pigment and mix it with various media. They were also shown how to prepare surfaces as various as wood,canvas and metal for painting. In the eighteenth century, these methods were learned by both academic painters and house painters. The development of flexible metal tubes for paint in the 1830s enabled some artistsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;today designated as 'fine artists'â&#x20AC;&#x201D;to abandon the craft of their art. For many craftsmen, however, the tradition remained. Although defining the term 'folk artist' remains problematic when looking at the eighteenth century, by the nineteenth century it is through the artists' relationship to the craft of painting 36

Race Rack Tout, attributed to Charles Dowler, late 19th century. Providence, Rhode Island. Carved and painted wood. 66 x 17 x 13 inches including plinth.

Horse, Sulky, and Driver, artist unknown, circa 1900. New England. Carved and painted wood, wire and cloth. 22 x 14/ 1 4x43 inches. The treatment of the horse anticipates the work of the sculptor Elie Nadelman, one of thefirst great collectors ofAmericanfolk art.

that many folk artists may be identified. It could be argued that it is no coincidence that men like Winthrop Chandler, Edward Hicks and Rufus Porter were trained in the craft of painting. Nineteenth century British trade directories established a clear distinction between those listed as "ARTISTS: Portrait, Landscape, Miniature" and those placed under the heading "PAINTERS: House, Sign, &e.'. William Bagshaw of Rugby, who painted portraits of livestock in the 1840s, is even listed under "PLUMBERS & GLAZIERS:" Portraiture, as the main source of livelihood for artists in America and elsewhere,is represented particularly well at The American Museum by a pair of portraits of a girl and a boy attributed to William Matthew Prior, and a striking representation of Mrs. Garrett du Bois, attributed to Ammi Phillips,in which black and white are used as brilliant 'colors: The pair of pictures of Mr. and Mrs. Babcock are by William Jennys whose work could be described as provincial. Indeed, William Jennys may well have been English in origin as Richard Jennys(a possible relation) is known to have been. Among landscapes, it is appropriate that Egg Rock by Thomas Chambers should

have found its way back to England where the artist was born in 1808. Watercolor pictures by both professional and amateur artists are also well represented. Among these are examples of profile portraits by Joseph H. Davis in which his 'sitters' invariably are shown standing on an elaborately patterned and colored carpet. Other portraits in the collection are in pastel with details such as a book or a watch rendered in gold leaf, a true continuation of the 'limner' tradition of illuminated manuscripts. During the first half of the nineteenth century, three art forms were much in vogue with the preceptress and her charges in the girls' schools of America: theorem painting using stencils, the calligraphic picture executed with steel-nibbed pens, Decoy Duck, 'Armstrong Featherweight Decoy," circa 1900. Illinois. Painted canvas sewn over kapok body with glass eyes. L. 13 inches. Decoys of this type are rare but point to the native American way of making decoys out of bird skins.

and the mourning pictures so redolent of the Romantic Movement's sense of elegiac gloom. Whilst all of these were known in Britain at this time, none of them seem to have been very popular. It has been suggested that the mourning picture held a special relevance in America following the death of George Washington. As for those examples of virtuosity with the pen, Ambrose Heal in his English Writing Masters and their Copy-Books 1570-1800 (Cambridge University Press, 1931) has shown that the fashion for such work appeared in England a century earlier than in America. The rarity of English theorem paintings on velvet compared with the abundance of surviving American examples presents more of a problem. Mrs. Phelps ("late Vice-Principal of Troy Female Seminary") condemned such paintings in her book The Female Student (Boston, 1833). In her view, "handsome pictures ... made" by these means were limited since "they are almost wholly mechanical operations!' Fortunately, many were made in America. The American Museum has some particularly good examples, not to mention its stenciled bedroom from the La Salle House in

Windham, Connecticut, complete with its stenciled feather-edged paneling, stenciled cotton coverlet and stenciled chairs. The carvers of cigar store Indians and ships' figureheads handled a material of great complexity. It is not generally appreciated that wood technically is more difficult to carve than either stone or marble. To do so with the consummate ease of those whose work is represented at Claverton presupposes training. Such an assumption may be made about the craftsman, indeed artist, who carved the fine Race Track Toutâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;so remarkably similar to one that was in the collection of the late Stewart E. Gregory that it was attributed to Charles Dowler of Providence, Rhode Island. The American Indian has long been used as a symbol of America but its enthusiastic use in the second half of the nineteenth century is notably poignant. So far as the cigar store Indian is concerned, the use of this particular subject is probably largely coincidental. In seventeenth century England, the carved wooden figure of a Blackamoor was used by advertising tobacconists as a reference to the slaves that worked the plantations in America. Blackamoor figures usually are depicted as wearing a kilt and

headdress of tobacco leaves. It seems likely that at some point these leaves were mistaken for feathers. Herein probably lies the unlikely parentage of the cigar store Indian. This hypothesis apparently is confirmed by the absence of cigar store Indians as early as the Blackamoor.3 The American Museum in Britain boasts no less than three cigar store Indians, one of them a rare female figure and another carrying an upraised tomahawk, probably carved by John L. Cromwell of Williamsburg, New York, who is known to have been a ship's carver. All of these figures, in the quality of their carving and sensitive polychrome treatment, hark back to medieval Europe, to an age before the Renaissance, when painted wood was considered appropriate for the mainstream of sculptural expression. Another unusual wooden sculpture is the Horse,Sulkey and Driver, a piece which anticipates the work of Elie Nadelman, one of the first collectors of American folk art. Many fine examples of this late work,often executed by carvers trained in central Europe, may be seen in Lady Bangor's Collection at Wookey Hole near Wells, England. The American Museum, however, is particu37

Tm Wedding Anniversary Gifts, artist unknown, late 19th century. Tin. Many objects were made out of tinned sheet iron. These were tenth anniversary gifts. A general view of the Folk Art Gallery which stands in the spacious grounds of Claverton Manor, Bath, the home of The American Museum in Britain.


larly fortunate to possess an early American wooden sculpture: a roundabout figure of a giraffe that once graced the Hiram J. Halle Collection. The collection also includes some fine examples of whirligigs and weathervanes in carved wood,cast iron,and repousse copper, as well as an eagle in the manner of Wilhelm Schimmel. Indeed, ornithology as seen by man as predator, is represented by a fine series of decoy ducks, including a most unusual one made of leather filled with kapok,6 and an outstanding group of decoy snipe. Another type oflure in the collection is a fine scarecrow. With its carved wooden head, fireman's coat, and a battered black silk hat, it once served quite the opposite function from the decoy duck. The art of the ship carver is represented most exceptionally in a dramatically powerful and large figurehead of a Mohawk warrior. On a very different scale, the dentistical skill; as Melville described it, of the scrimshaw artist is shown in the whaling exhibit in the main museum. The best example is the engraved whale's tooth made in 1829 on board the Susan of Nantucket, a vessel renowned for the quality of its scrimshaw. In the late nineteenth century, as sails gave way to steam and wooden walls to ironsides, so the shipcarver's art declined. Despite the deep-seated sense of tradition found amongst all seafarers, woodcarving on iron ships was too much of a contradiction to survive. In America, carvers like Samuel Robb of New York or A.E. Anderson of Bristol, Britain, turned to other vehicles to carry their skills. In Britain, this was limited since by-laws passed in the eighteenth century largely eliminated the traditional shop sign. In nineteenth century America, however, three-dimensional shop signs were more popular than ever before. In both countries, the age of steam destroyed the art of the ship carver. It was steam that powered the fairground rides which bore the exuberant decoration David Braithwaite so aptly termed "demountable baroque!" The work of the carousel carvers in late nineteenth and early twentieth century America has long been present in Britain as it was imported here at the time of its manufacture. The Folk Art Collection shown at Claverton Manor is not simply a sampling

of works but is particularly strong in several departments of the subject, None of these riches would be available to the public in Europe were it not for the imagination and dedication ofthe two co-founders of The American Museum in Britain, the late John Judkyn and Dr. Dallas Pratt. In setting up the Museum,they were assisted by the very practical skills of Mr. C.A. Bell-Knight and many others on both sides of the Atlantic, in particular, Miss Mary Allis, an advisor on the musem's collection offolk art. But above all, the pleasure afforded by this collection is due to the individual craftsmen and artists who created the objects that are a part of America's tradition. NOTES 1. For more information on Tim Bobbin, see Rochdale Art Gallery catalog 23 February-23 March 1980. 2. Forfurther information on this exhibition of 1762, see Jacob Larwood and John Camden Hotten, The History of Signboards,London,1866,P.521. 3. As yet, the origin of canal boat art is unknown. See A. J. Lewery, Narrow Boat Painting, David & Charles, Newton Abbot,1974. 4. See section on "Painters and their customers" (p. 15-24) in James Ayres' English Naive Painting 1750-1900, Thames & Hudson, New York, 1980. These values survived in the post-medieval world where most journeyman skills were an integral part ofarchitecture,far removedfrom the portability of easel painting. 5. The latter dates to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; while the cigar store Indian datesfrom the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. 6. A type of decoy that receives a passing mention on page 15 ofJ. Mackey's American Bird Decoys, Bonanza Books, New Yirrk, 1965. 7. David Braithwaite, Fairground Architecture, Hugh Eveleyn, London, 1968. 8. The textiles at Claverton Manor really demand a separate article. Suffice it to say that the collection of quilting and patchwork is second to none. Good examples of hooked rugs may also befound there.

Mrs. Garrett DuBois,(died 1802), attributed to Ammi Phillips, circa 1800. Oil on canvas. 27x22 inches. In this portrait the black of the dress is handled as a rich 'color' made all the more dramatic by the white collar and the browns and yellows of the grained chair.

Scarecrow, artist unknown, 19th century. Carved wood with silk hat, woolen overcoat and other 2inches. This impressivefigure, 1 textiles. H. 71/ with its miraculously preserved clothes, wasfound in Vermont.

Boy with a Watch, R.W. and S.A. Shute or Mrs. R.W. Shute (working alone), circa 1834-1836 New Hampshire or Vermont. Watercolor, pastel and gilded details on paper. 19x 27 inches. In 1672, William Salmon defined "limning" as 'Art whereby in water Colours we strive to resemble Nature." This medieval traditionfor the illuminated picture complete with gilded details persisted into the 19th century. 39

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nineteent '0'During the first decades of the sonably met the growing demand for reafarmers perity produced newly-affluent rated in a recorded and their homes decosign and fancy" painters embellished a variety of decora ited means ofthe new democracy's"common man:' Fo seum, Shelburne, Vermont, was the subject of the recent held at the Museum of Our National Heritage, Lexingto art forms 0,14tAY CZ4}7,11 which displayed the many skills of for his COUNTRY feels, and carriages with equal enthus portraits have never been published beof which trade signs, clocks, military and ern and But POLK of house slop our WATER-WHEELS. ,decoration, and portraits by Ezra throp Chandler, Edward Hicks, and Joseph Whiting described documentation procedures and illustrated the namental painters.** Founded in 1947 by Electra Have "collection of collections:' In addition to folk art and paint decoys,scrimshaw,ceramics, glassware, carriages and oui collections now housed in 35 buildings have aidel nineteenth-century folk artists whose work might otherw 2

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century, a group oftalented, though often untutored, artists iced portraits and ornamental painting. Economic prosand merchants who wanted their likenesses stylish a manner as they 4z„,, could afford. "House, e and useful objects to suit the taste and urnfrom the collection of The Shelburne Muhibition "House, Sign ,and Fancy Painting" Massachusetts. The exhibition included a variety of folk rsatile nineteenth-century artists who painted chairs,walls, sm.*In addition to the works illustrated here many fore the exhibition featured 2 tav heraldry painting, examples Ames, John S. Blunt, WinStock. Of special interest was an area which ,advertisements of several newly-discovered oreyer Webb, The Shelburne Museum has been called a furniture, Electra Webb acquired dolls, quilts, toys, tools, anding examples of vernacular architecture. The Shelburne scholarly research and increased our understanding of e remain obscure. »»+ ,


1. Political banner, c. 1844. Oil and 2 x 35'! / painted paper on cotton.511 Many nineteenth century artists advertised that they painted military and civicflags and banners ofevery variety. In the presidential campaign of1844, Henry Clayfavored a protective tariff to encourage home manufactures while James K.Polkfavored a reduced tariff that somefeared would "stop the water wheels" ofAmerica. Although Polk won the election, passage ofthe Walker Tariffof1846 did not deter American manufacturing. 2.Lift-top chest with grained decora2 x 41 1 tion, 1820-1840.Pine. 42/ x 18'! The painted decoration, done in brown on a yellow ocher ground, is almost identical to that seen on two documented storage boxesfrom the Colrain, Massachusetts region. A roll ofputty(orfingers)pushed with a circular movement created thefan or wheel-like decoration. An abstract shell-like motifforms the central design ofthe lift-top. 3.Portrait ofEunice Eggleston Darrow Spofford. Signed "No.40 by N. North/Mrs. Eunice SpaffordIAE 55 years1Holley.11834". Oil on wood 2 x 235X Noah North 1 panel. 27/ (1809-1880)worked as a portraitist in western New York and Ohio during the 1830s. His advertisements ofthe 1840s indicate that he did carriage, sign, house, and ornamentalpainting and also worked as a daguerreotypist. This portrait displays North's skills as both a portrait painter and an ornamental craftsman. Painted and stenciled chairs were usedfrequently as props in nineteenth centuryfolk portraits and in this case, North actually stenciled and striped the chair's gold decoration. The work ofNorth and his contemporaries will be the subject ofa major exhibition plannedfor 1984. 4.Inscription on back ofportrait of Eunice Eggleston Darrow Spofford. 5.Stenciled trunk. Pine. 15 x 33 x 14'! This small storage trunk has survived with many of its geometric designs intact. Red, yellow, green, and black on a light-brown ground, the stencil motifs are similar to those seen on walls andfloors. The trunk's interior is lined with Boston newspapers dated 1812 and 1813.

Storage box. Signed "SamuelH. Young/of Chatham November 28th 18357 Pine.53/9 4': The spongework decora3 2 x 7/ 1 x 14/ tion in brown on yellow ocher ground was achieved by the use ofputty. The artist may be Samuel Hinckley Young who worked in Chatham, Massachusetts in the 1830s.

"Purrington and Taber Painters" trade sign, c. 1876. signed "CS.Raleigh:' Oil on canvas. 36 x 29!Charles Sidney Raleigh(1830-1925)began work as a painter in the 1870s in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Although he concentrated on ship paintings and marine scenes, his trade card also listed house, sign, carriage, and ornamentalpainting as part of his repertoire. While employed by the Fairhaven. Massachusetts, decoratingfirm of Purrington and Taber, he painted their trade sign. The eagle and shield and tracery embellishment also appear in the remaining examples ofhis house decoration.

GTM Chest ofdrawers, 1806, with later decoration. Maple and chestnut.46/ 1 2 X 39/ 1 2 X 19!An inscription on the back ofthe bottom drawer reads "This Chest Was Bought of---By Zebus - Bristol(?)in 1806 June/Price seven dollars:' The upper two drawers arefake and the top lifts up to reveal a storage compartment. The expansive, freehand decoration, done in red, is ofa later date, probably about1830-1840. A Rhode Island origin has been suggested because ofthe woods and construction. Ifthis is the case, "Bristol" in the inscription might refer to the town in Rhode Island.

Fireboard, 19th century. Oil on wood. 25/ 1 2x 39/ 1 4'.' During the summer when fires were not needed, afireboard served the practical purpose ofsealing off thefireplace. The trompe oeil design of this board,from a house in Suffield, Connecticut, retains the appearance ofa brick fireplace with a pot offlowers infront. Twofireboards with simulated-brick decoration have been attributed to wall painter Jared Jessup. "Games on Ice c. 1855. Signed on verso under lining "By Wm. M.Prior, Baltimore:' Oil on canvas. 15/ 1 2x22/ 3 4': Prior's "fancy pieces:' which were either designed or copied, included imaginary scenes such as this one. Most documented examples datefrom the late 1840s and 1850s although Prior advertised them as part of his ornamental work as early as 1831. Another winter landscape, in a private collection, showing similar skaters and cottages, has recently come to light. Jacquelyn Oak is registrar of the Museum of Our National Heritage in Lexington, Massachusetts.




NINTs Miniature Sculpture from the early American home dairy



In the early seventeenth century, Europeans transplanted to America began to import cattle from their homelands, as a basic food source for their families and to provide some cash income. Generally this cash came from selling butter, which had fairly good keeping qualities as compared with milk. These pioneers brought with them the European tradition of marking butter with a design from a carved wooden butter print. In England this practice was so common that a child was sometimes referred to as a "butter print" of the parent.' By the eighteenth century, "print" butter was commonly used in American farm homes and was a commodity in such mar-

kets as Philadelphia and smaller towns. The designs imparted by the beautifully carved prints served a double purpose: they decorated a gracious table, and they carried the imprimatur of a maker of known quality. In today's margarined, cholesterol-free world decorated print butter has all but vanished, but the artistry of those who created the early butter prints is finding a new appreciation by admirers of folk art. Four years ago, The Museum of Michigan State University initiated a Butter Print and Mold Project to accumulate a photographic inventory of representative designs and assemble information concerning

Paul E. Kindig, retired after forty-one years with the General Electric Company, is Adjunct Specialist in History for The Museum at Michigan State University. He has directed the Butter Print and Mold Project since its inception in 1978. Photographs by the author. 45

origins and uses. Data has been recorded for approximately 1200 of these and over 1000 have been photographed. Butter molds consist of a case, which measures the correct amount of butter, and a plunger which carries the design and also pushes the butter out of the filled case. Butter prints consist only of a carved design with a handle; the design is pressed against the butter in a container or, more often, against a weighed-out pat. While the plunger type molds, massproduced in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, are the most common form, butter prints predominated in the early days and generally have the most

interesting designs. Butter prints and molds fall into three categories: primitive, craftshop and factory-made. While these categories represent an evolutionary development from "one-man one-mold" to eventual mass production, primitives continued to be made after the advent of mechanized woodenware factories, especially in remote areas. PRIMITIVE PRINTS AND MOLDS Primitive butter prints and molds are one-of-a-kind and are completely hand carved. Typically, the blanks were whittled, not turned, and were either created on the farm or, according to some specu-

1. Massive primitive butter print, whittled out of one piece of wood, 12.5 cm. diameter, 12.5 cm. high. Plant with largeflower (poppy?), star. Initials "SCS" probably added, as they are not reversedfor printing on butter. Collection of Old Sturbridge Village. 46

2. There is practically no information available at this date concerning the makers ofprimitive and craftshop molds and prints. No doubt the identities of most of the makers will continue to be lost in the mists of time; unless, as in isolated instances, the item was monogrammed orfound at the place of original use, or both, as in the case of the mold made and used on the Robinson Farm (Rokeby) near Shelburne, Vermont. Dimensions:10.0 x 12.5 x 4.5 cm. Collection ofRokeby Museum.

lation, purchased from itinerant woodcarvers. Designs, though on occasion unique, were more often interpretations of indigenous motifs, such as tulips and hearts in Pennsylvania German communities, or familiar aspects of country life, such as flowers or farm animals. (Fig. 1). CRAFTSHOP PRINTS AND MOLDS Craftshop prints and molds are generally lathe-turned, with skillfully executed designs which are often repetitively produced. Lathe holes on many early examples have been smoothed with a knife or chisel. Often a pattern was used to repeat the designâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a device which was to be the prototype for factory-produced molds.

(Figs. 3 and 4). FACTORY-MADE MOLDS In the last half of the nineteenth century, woodworking factories made butter molds along with other treenware (bowls, measures, scoops, ladles, steak pounders and rolling pins). These factory-made butter molds usually were of the plunger type, consisting of a case, a print and a handle. An important event in the factory-made butter mold business was the patenting by John S. Bullard of Chagrin Falls, Ohio of a process for "making molds of a uniform definite size by one continuous operation as to give exact measurement of weight, which cannot be done with the old

mode of constructing them:" Almost 250,000 of these molds were made by Bullard in the year 1876,3 and, although standardized in their design, as illustrated by this wheat mold (Fig. 5), they were superior to many of the competitive factorymade molds. A related patent for boring butter mold cases had been granted to Mr. Bullard in 1864,'but it is the date of his second patent, April 17, 1866, that is stamped on the molds in many collections. The Bullard factory finally closed in 1895,5 but by that time another innovator, W. C. Freeman of Kalkaska, Michigan, entered the business. The 1892 Freeman

5. Print and case ofBullard butter mold. Print 9.0 cm. diameter. Case 11.9 cm. diameter. Wheat. Collection ofMichigan State University Museum.

3,4. The professionalism of craftshop printmakers is illustrated by these pig and cow prints. The small oval pig print is a delicately detailed representation ofa unique motif; it is the only pig print seen to date, and is complemented by a nicely turned handle. The cow, with distinctive eyes, horns and udder, is to befound in a number of collections. The craftshop that made it probably used a pattern to repeat the design.(Pig)4.0 cm. diameter, 5.0 cm. high. Collection ofMr. and Mrs. William Harleton.(Caw)11.4 cm. diameter, 7.3 cm. high. Collection ofPennsylvania Farm Museum, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 47

catalog offered molds of the Bullard type, but also featured a new square mold, stating that "noting the call on the market for a first class square mold, we have built latest improved machinery for manufacture of these goods7 In 1898 Mt Freeman obtained a patent on a four-part rectangular mold intended to simplify the filling and ejection of the butter.6 While not stamped with any identification, these Freeman molds have been observed in various collections. CRAFTSHOP PRINTMAKERS In the case of craftshop prints and molds, it is becoming clear that certain items were made not only in the same shop

6. Craftshop butter print, tulip with innovative use of V-cut, clockwise notched border. Diameter 11.7 cm. and 10.7 cm. Collection ofHenry Ford Museum, The Edison Institute. 48

but by the same person. In two instances, unique style and individual designs seem to qualify the makers for artistic recognition. We have labeled them according to their style, the "Bold Abstractionist" and the "Romantic Traditionalist:' THE BOLD ABSTRACTIONIST From a total of nine prints found to date and attributed to the "Bold Abstractionist' we can pinpoint certain common design elements and structural characteristics: a clean sweeping interpretation of traditional design (a unique style for butter prints), a notched border slanting clockwise, an unusual flat-ended handle flared at the end with three lathe marks (almost

7. Craftshop butter print, abstract eagle, clockwise notched border. Diameters: 11.7 cm., and 11.1 cm., 6.4 cm. high. Collection ofMr. and Mrs. Richard Flanders Smith.

without exception, not more than one lathe mark appears on butter print handles), the use of green wood for turning the blank, and the wood grain running crosswise rather than laterally through the handle and the print. The last two factors resulted in these prints assuming a slightly oval shape over time, as the green wood became seasoned. Since there is a paucity of documentary evidence relating to the origin of these prints, we can only speculate as to regional derivations. Two straws in the wind point to Pennsylvaniaâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;five prints are now in Pennsylvania collections, and four are in collections that originated in Pennsyl-

vania. Furthermore, five of the designs are tulips, a traditional Pennsylvania German motif. Dating, once again, is speculative, but the lathe work and the stylized Pennsylvania German design seem to point to the first half of the nineteenth century. (Figs. 6 and 7). THE ROMANTIC TRADITIONALIST The prints of the unknown carver whom we call the "Romantic Traditionalist" exhibit a romantic interpretation of common motifs, including tulips, wheat, grapes and a basket offlowers, and are among the most beautiful prints we have come across. Unusual deep dots are found on four of

8. Craftshop butter print, sheaf of wheat, very deeply cut, with two large stars surrounded by deep dots. Simple straight notched border. Diameter 13.3 cm., height 14.0 cm. Collection ofPennsylvania Historical and Memorial Commission, William Penn Memorial Museum.

these prints. Each print has a concave flare from the handle to the perimeter, permitting exceptionally deep carving in the middle of the print. The artist was obviously familiar with Pennsylvania German motifs, and all of these prints are in Pennsylvania collections. The time frame seems to be the early nineteenth century. (Figs. 8 and 9). â&#x20AC;˘THE JOEL HOCHS Since museum records rarely contain any information on print origins,a genuine feeling of discovery and surprise occurred at the William Penn Memorial Museum in Harrisburg,Pennsylvania, where one print was found displaying the truly unique fig-

9. Craftshop butter print, grapes on stem with leaves, individual grapes 1.0 cm. deep. Simple straight notched border. Diameter 12.3 cm., height 14.3 cm. Collection ofPennsylvania Farm Museum, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 49


ure of an elephant(a totally uncharacteristic Pennsylvania design) as well as the name of the maker. The print was donated in 1929 by L.A. DeTurk of Kutztown and carved by "Joel Hoch, Moselem, Berks County7 (Fig. 10). Also in the William Penn collection are two flat pine prints with straight sides and rounded ends, each carved with a double wheat design, the initials "JH" along with the dates 1842 and 1867 appearing on the back of each. An almost identical double wheat pattern was found in the RockfordKauffman Museum in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, with the initials "HH" and the date 1858 (Fig. 11). William Penn records also

show another print with the initials "JH" and the date 1829, as well as a flat rectangular pine print dated 1846, with an elaborate tulip and bud design and two sets of initials on the back: "JH" and "EM:' (Fig. 12). When it was learned that the unusual shape of the double wheat prints resembled the decorated roof tiles of the Oley Valley near Moselem, which is in Richmond Township, the opportunity to track down the origin of these prints became irresistible. The name Hoch and its Anglicized version, High, have been common in Berks County for over two hundred years. The

only Joel Hochs recorded in the genealogy are: Born: 1815 Died: ? Joel John 1824 1873 Joel Joel H. 1830 1908 Joel 1934 Joel 1860 The evidence for Joel John (born 1815) being the carver of these prints is the most compelling. Although his date of death is not recorded, it is known that a daughter of his was born in 1880, which is well beyond the last butter print date of 1867. All but the first of the dated prints (1829) have been examined and the initials appear to have been cut by one person. Obviously,of

10.Butter print onflat lathe-turned blank with separate lathe-turned handle, the carving somewhat unskilled. Elephant on platform With leafand flower, and double notched border. Diameter 10.2 cm., height 10.5 cm. Collection ofPennsylvania Historical and Memorial Commission, William Penn Memorial Museum.

II. Butter print,flat with straight sides with curved ends. Double sheaf of wheat with V-cut geometric design on sides, simple notched border. Dimension: 15.0 cm x 9.6 cm. x 3.0 cm. Back shows initials "IIH" and date 1858. Collection ofRockford-Kauffman Museum, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 50

all of the Joels listed, only Joel John could then, were most probably gifts for his wife conceivably have carved the 1829 piece. and daughter. Although Joel John's exact place of resiOne can never really know where an dence is not recorded, it is known that his investigative journey will lead. When refather died when Joel was sixteen, his turning full circle to the original elephant mother remarried a man from Richmond print that began this process of discovery, Township, and one of Joel's brothers lived the conclusion appears to be that the Joel in Richmond Township. John, to whom the other carvings can be The two prints illustrated here, with the reasonably traced, is not the Joel Hoch double set of initialsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the tulip and bud who carved the elephant. The elephant print dated 1846 and initialed "JH" and carving is less sure, the structure is en"EM" and the double wheat print dated tirely different, as are the style and subject 1858 and initialed "HH" provide the most matter, and there are neither initials nor a convincing corroboration. Joel John mar- date. A later period is also suggested by ried Esther Merkel, and his third child the professional lathe job on the blank. born in 1847 was named Hetty. The prints, These considerations seem to point to

either the Joel born in 1860 or to the Joel whose birth is unrecorded but who died in 1908. Finally, the Joel who died in 1908 had a brother who was the leader of the Republican Party in Berks County for twenty-five years, providing a rationale for the unique design of the elephant and the clue to its apparent maker. Any information or suggestions from museums and private collectors which will add to the material at hand or provide new sources of documentation or classification for butter prints and molds would be welcomed and appreciated.

1. The Oxford Universal Dictionary, London: Oxford University Press, 1955 P. 241. 2. U.S. Patent N. 54054, April 17, 1866. 3. The Exponent, Chagrin Falls, Ohio, February 1, 1877. 4. U.S. Patent N. 43092, June 14, 1864. 5. Letter of Marion E. Goldback, Librarian, The Chagrin Falls Historical Society, February 11, 1980. 6. U.S. Patent N. 598755, February 8, 1898.

12. Butter print, rectangular,flat, tulip and bud design springingfrom central square, heavily notched border. Back corners beveled. Dimensions:15.2 cm. x 7.7 cm. x 2.5 cm. Back shows initials "JH" and "EM" and date 1846. Collection of Pennsylvania Historical and Memorial Commission, William Penn Memorial Museum.


Grandma Moses The Artist Behind the Myth* by Jane Kaffir Jane Kallir is codirector ofthe Galerie St. Etienne in New York City, and author of The Folk Art Tradition: Naive Paintings in Europe and the United States.

The Sunday country wanderer with a penchant for out-of-the way antiques shops,or the city dweller with a passion for the rough-hewn authenticity of the self-taught painter, seldom thinks of folk art as a controversial field. On the contrary;folk art is cozy, comfortable, accessible. And yet, perhaps partly for these reasons, it is, and always has been, controversial. Folk art breaks all the rules. It exists beyond the pale of academic standards, in a self-created world all its own. That is why, at the beginning of this century, the pioneer modernists championed it. It is also why, today, proponents of an avant-garde now ensconced in the art academies so often belittle it. Yes, folk art is cozy, comfortable and accessible; in short, critics contend, it is insignificant. As, in the last decades, the ties between folk art and the avant-garde loosened, a barrier was erected between what one might call the "classical" folk art of the early twentieth century and before, and contemporary folk art. Those who appreciated the former did not necessarily condone the latter. Dividing the two categories, and herself increasingly a subject of controversy, was a little old lady from upstate New York, Anna Mary Robertson(Grandma) Moses.

Moses was one of a number of American folk painters discovered in the period between the two world wars. This fertile era forfolk art appreciation not only generated some of the first real interest in older folk forms, but, encouraged by the fledgling Museum of Modern Art, fostered the acknowledgement of contemporary examples of the genre. Moses, born the same year as John Kane, made her museum debut some twelve years after he did, together with retired garment-worker Morris Hirshfield. Of this generation, these three namesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Moses, Kane and Hirshfieldâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;together with that of Horace Pippin, are today best remembered. All four, with little hope of ever selling their work, originally turned to painting as a pleasant hobby. Since all but Moses died within a few years of being discovered by the art establishment, only she ever had the opportunity to come to terms with her art in a professional manner. Moses was one ofthe first folk painters since the nineteenth century limners to find a sustained market for her work. The result was that she approached painting with a seriousness of purpose rarely encountered in the amateur and, over the course of her twenty-odd year career, displayed a depth

Chromolithographic reproduction with pencil outlining by Moses. Possibly cutfrom a greeting card. 5/ 3 4x 7/ 3 4". Note how the composition concentrates on theforeground, virtually eliminating the background landscape.

Color photo-offset reproduction with pencil outline by Moses. Possibly cutfrom a greeting card. 6x 8". Here the emphasis is on a sweeping panorama; the tree in theforeground is used to provide scale.

*based on the book of the same title, to be published by Clarkson Potter in thefall 011982.


of development seldom found in folk art. Unlike many folk artists who seem to come to their tasks full-blown and never progress beyond their initial efforts, Moses needed time to evolve what came to be known internationally as the "Grandma Moses style." Her background was that of a nineteenth century farmwife and homemaker—piecer of quilts, a knitter of stockings. A fondness for bright colors and pretty pictures characterized the artist from early childhood, but only when her children were grown did she have time to indulge these inclinations. Though she painted on scraps of materials she found

around her farm—a bit of threshingmachine canvas, a fireboard, an old window from a caboose—her first serious artistic efforts were undertaken not in paint but in yarn. One may surmise that the elderly grandmother initially had a more varied and appealing selection of wool available to her than she had of paint. Furthermore, lacking proper brushes, she found that she was able to achieve greater precision with a needle. What she called her "worsted" pictures proved popular with both family and friends, so much so that she began to make them fairly regularly. Eventually, however, she became

worried about the impermanence of the medium, which faded after prolonged exposure to light and was subject to the ravages of moths. When her sister suggested that a paintbrush, after all, might be easier on her arthritic fingers, Moses eagerly took to the suggestion. Moses' first paintings, like many of her yarn pictures, were often copied from printed sources. Like almost every folk painter before her—from Edward Hicks to Morris Hirshfield—she was drawn to old engravings and popular lithographs. For the self-taught artist, found images, assembled according to personal whim and taste, have historically substituted for formal art training. To such influences, each artist brought his or her own stylistic and motivational approaches. Moses' technique immediately transformed preexisting material into something unique and personal. Inspired by her needlework experiences, she placed an unusual emphasis on paint density and texture. Pigment was applied like yarn—in broad, smooth swaths or short, stitchlike dabs. As the artist's dexterity and the quality of her materials improved, she found she was actually able to surpass her needlework methods in paint.

Down in the Valley, 1945. Oil on masonite. 10 x 12". Private collection. By combining the two reproductions. Moses was able to showforeground and background simultaneously.


In addition to her stylistic modifications, Moses was soon driven to make compositional alterations in her printed sources. Certain preexisting arrangements did not entirely conform to her own sense of design. Others, though attractive to her, seemed incomplete. She was quick to notice that the nineteenth century academic approach to landscape, typified by such practitioners as Currier and Ives, was relatively restricted. Genre scenes concentrated on the foreground, relegating the landscape to a subordinate role, while pure landscapes lacked the genre elements she craved. Combining the two viewpoints became one of the key aspects of the Grandma Moses style. Most important of all, however, was her own direct observation of the scenery around her. It was not long before Moses' artistic tendencies sparked a desire to paint her home environmentâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;farms and hills for which she could obtain no printed models. According to the artist, the revelation that enabled her to break decisively from her copied source material came to her quite suddenly. One day, she happened to glance at the shiny chrome hubcap of a car that was parked in her driveway. There she saw reflected the entire valley below her house, with its trees and fields and farms. It was

Horse and Buggy (Studyfor "Covered Bridge with Carriage"). Pencil on thin paper. 2/ 1 4 x 4". Note how the artist has reduced this configuration to its most basic contours.


this sort of broad, all-encompassing pan- As a painter, she created subtle layers of orama that she would hereafter try to cap- color and texture to capture the various ture in her art. tones of changing seasons and weather Having formulated her own approach to phenomena. composition, Moses continued to freely Works from Moses' mature period interpolate individual elements derived of the mid-1940s may be characterized from prints. Small vignettes, often based by their broad perspective and perfect on magazine clippings and greeting cards, balance between landscape and genre, were incorporated in a broader scheme between painterly realism and formal drawn from nature. While the latter was abstraction. However, the artist, never surprisingly realistic, the former were content to mimic a standard approach, highly abstract. As clearly revealed by her preferred to vary her format. She painted preliminary sketches, the artist defined in a number of sizes and shapes, and condetails such as people and buildings pri- stantly tested new compositional alternamarily by means of simple contours. Re- tives. Finally, in the early 1950s, traces of duced to their fundamental shapes, these a new style began to emerge. Moses gravielements would later be filled in with a few tated toward a narrower horizontal format bold jolts of pigment. By comparison with that favored a 50:50 division between forethe stylization of these vignettes, Moses' ground and background. The resultant rendering of nature was remarkably com- compression of the background landscape plex. Striving to achieve verisimilitude, marked a distinct departure from her earshe perceived that every segment of the lier predilection for sweeping views. landscape contained a multitude of colors. Moreover, it related directly to one of the By intertwining and blending these chief traits of her late style: loose, almost shades, she achieved far greater tonal ve- expressionistic brushwork. Forms, esracity than many contemporary folk paint- pecially in the distance, became iners, who are inclined to view compositions creasingly abbreviated, delineated by the solely in terms of monochromatic blocks. most fleeting strokes of the brush. Finally, Possibly it was Moses' needlework back- in 1960 and 1961, paint and color took over ground that enabled her to separate natural Moses' compositions entirely. Images beelements into their component hues. came submerged in a network of pigment

Halftone newspaper illustration with pencil out1 4x 35/8". lining. Approximately 2/

that gave the whole greater textural unity. The objective realism of her early work had been transformed into a subjective expressiveness that was almost visionary. When Moses died in 1961 at the age of 101, she was an international sensation who had been headline material for so long that many had begun to resent it. At the heart of the controversy surrounding her were some crucial questions concerning the nature of folk art per se and, specifically, of folk art in the twentieth century. Whether one considers folk art to have been forever annihilated by the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century depends very much on one's definition of the genre. Folk art has assumed so many guises at so many times in so many places that the only definition of any lasting significance is a negative one. Folk art is art outside the mainstream of western culture, influenced by our academic tradition, but never absorbed by it. Not a style, but a state of mind, it can exist anywhere, even in today's modern world. Great folk artists create their own styles, and the greatest grow and develop in the same way that academic artists do. This, in the final analysis, is what Grandma Moses achieved. Covered Bridge with Carriage, 1946. Oil on 1 2x 21½". The Shelburne Museum, masonite. 27/ Shelburne, VT.

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Object Is Our Message by Susan Saidenberg

In the world of museums, objects are our most compelling resource. As the repository of art objects, museums play a unique role in the development of children into visually educated adults. Much of the learning that goes on in schools derives from texts which contain ideas digested by their authors. A museum's collection of objects allows children to make direct contact with art, and to respond to these objects in an individual way. There is an inherent integrity directly communicated by original works of art. The times in which we live are marked by a decline in literacy and appreciation or support for the arts. Objects are tangible evidence of the best of the past and perhaps will inspire us to ask more of the future. Objects—a floating decoy, and standing decoy, a butter mold, a carved wooden spoon and a Lincoln whirligig—form the nucleus of a "World of Wood': the first outreach kit developed by the Museum of American Folk Art. As the only urban folk art museum in the United States, we have received many requests from teacher community groups and children for information about folk art to share with their schools. In response to these inquiries we have developed an outreach program focusing on the major content areas of the collection. "A World of Wood" takes folk art beyond the walls of the museums into schools across the country. By offering these materials relating to American folk art we also wish to increase children's understanding of their unique American folk art heritage. "A World of Wood" explores the role of wood in the lives of Americans during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In a land covered with forests, wood was the most abundant natural resource. Americans used wcipd for housing, ships, tools, fuel and everyday household utensils. In effect, wood was used for many purposes for which we now use plastic. Those who made their homes and tools were often the same men and women who created folk art objects for work, play and home. True folk artists, they used easily available materials 56

to create objects which were both useful and beautiful. They had a keen sense of color and design, a sense of humor,and an inner artistic vision which made their creations—whether a mold to decorate butter or a plaything for a child—things of beauty. Examining the work of America's ordinary people gives us an opportunity to look at the development of the United States in terms of the skills, needs and attitudes of common folk. Children are often exposed to the ideas of great Americans who, as the leaders of the nation, were the most literate and educated members of society. It is often difficult to find information about the majority of the people. In the absence of written materials, a work of folk art conveys an immediate understanding of the maker's intention. For instance, whirligigs and wind toys which show women churning, men working and slaves in denigrating tasks, reflect the daily concerns of an essentially agrarian society and provide clues to stereotypical images of minority groups. The kit, "A World of Wood': is introduced to children through an introductory

slide lecture. The first segment of the kit recreates the experience of coming to the museum for a guided tour. The first slide lecture illustrates the wide range of American folk art objects presented in the Museum's permanent collection. Thematic slide lectures on decoys, household objects, and whirligigs draw upon the Museum's recently enriched collections. The household objects lecture illustrates the degree to which gifted country folk artists made and decorated all the objects for their home, and includes such pieces as the wonderful wool winder in the shape of a woman,a dower chest for Ann Beers, and the whimsical paw-printed tall case clock. The slide lectures and 'handling objects' are a point of departure for the individual activities presented in the teacher's guide. The art activity sheets, photographs, and supplementary materials provide the opportunity for individual exploration of folk art. A child can hold the objects in the kit, and establish a personal relationship with the work of art. These materials encourage children to interpret in a personal way the information

they have acquired. The most successful museum experiences relate folk art to the world of the children in school. "A World of Wood:' includes a series of follow-up projects for making a piece offolk art using contemporary materials and mounting exhibitions in the classroom. The teacher's guide also suggests ways of integrating folk art into the social studies, math, and language arts curriculum after the kit has been returned to the museum. Flexibility and clarity were the guiding concerns in the development of the design and format of the outreach kit. Each kit includes a teacher's guide in looseleaf notebook form with a table of contents, background information on folk art, an explanation of the themes, the slide lectures, activity sheets, bibliography and evaluation form. Since we wanted to reach a broad audience, the materials were designed to appeal to children of many different age groups. The decoys segment of the kit is suitable for children in grades one through six. The younger children use both an outline and photographs to design their own decoy. By comparing the finished drawings, they are made aware of the idea that each decoy maker interpreted his subject in his own way. Older children are given information about Elmer Crowell and play the role of a reporter interviewing this renowned decoy carver. Younger children might use the slide of a witch whirligig to design a whirligig to celebrate a favorite holiday or event. Older children, looking at the slide of the Uncle Sam whirligig and handling the Lincoln whirligig, learn that patriotism is an important theme in American folk art. One activity sheet urges them to design a whirligig depicting a current social or political figure.(During an exhibition of whirligigs at the Museum in the fall of 1981, a group of sixth graders was asked to draw a political whirligig. One girl designed a powerful whirligig depicting the Ayatollah Khoumeni standing on a wheel populated by American hostages.) The kit format relies upon an easily

recognizable set of logos. Aware of the tative of the International Paper Comlimited time available to teachers who pany Mill in Jay, Maine, and the staff of might use the kit, we adopted a duck logo the Children's Museum of Maine. The for the decoys, a spoon for household ob- Museum expressed interest in acting as a jects, and a figure with paddle arms for coordinating facility in Maine. The Intertoys. The logo is repeated in the topright national Paper Company public relations corner of each sheet for easy identifica- manager suggested sending an announcetion. The material suitable for younger ment of the program to each state teachers children is denoted by a solid black logo association. while the materials for older children is This outreach program will be available indicated by a logo of the object in outline. for loan to schools in the fall of 1982. A We field-tested the materials for the kit school may borrow the entire kit. in schools in the New York City area dur- However, to meet anticipated public reing the spring of 1982. When we took the sponse, we have also prepared twenty-five kit to the fifth grade at P.S. 59 in Manhat- teacher's guides and slide presentations tan we showed the slide presentation. which may be used independently of the Then we divided the class into two groups, kit. We hope that "A World of Wood" is one for handling objects, the other for the first in a series of educational programs activities relating to decoys. In the group which will take the collection of the discussion which followed, the children Museum of American Folk Art to schools offered some inventive suggestions for and communities across the nation. For clarifying the projects. further information contactâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; "A World of Wood" was made possible by a generous grant from the International Paper Company Foundation. An article Susan Saidenberg about the kit has appeared in the spring Curator of Education issue of "Community Focus:' a nationally Museum of American Folk Art distributed newsletter published by the 49 West 53 Street Foundation. The kit recently travelled to New York, N.Y. 10019 Maine for a pres \ tation to a represen- (212)581-2474


Museum News

AMERICAN FOLK ART FESTIVAL IN NEW YORK CITY September 15—October 3, 1982 Mayor Koch, recognizing the importance of the Museum of American Folk Art in the cultural life of New York City, has proclaimed an American Folk Art Festival in New York City. This will be the occasion for a number of folk art exhibitions, benefits for the Museum and related events around New York. BLOOMINGDALE'S "AMERICA THE BEAUTIFUL" OPENING NIGHT BENEFIT Wednesday, September 15, 1982 Save this evening for a gala black-tie dinner-dance presented by Bloomingdale's for the benefit of the Museum to launch the new reproduction program, based on works of art from the permanent collection. Two hundred years of American design, with styles ranging from William and Mary to 19th century country styles will be represented. The collection includes furniture, fabrics, yard goods, wall coverings, bed and bath linens, table linens, home fragrances, dinnerware, housewares and sewing kits. The income realized from the event is earmarked for the endowment fund and will further our educational, cultural and exhibition programs. Tickets for the benefit are $150 per person. Please call the Museum for further details. A PRAIRIE VISION— THE WORLD OF OLOF KRANS Tuesday, September 28, 1982 A special preview ofthis major exhibition will be held this evening from 5-7 pm,for members only, at the Museum. It marks the first time a major retrospective of this important American folk artist will be seen outside of Illinois. The exhibition will remain on view through January 2, 1983. FILM FESTIVAL AND PHOTOGRAPHIC EXHIBITION AT THE DONNELL LIBRARY Tuesday September 28—Friday, October 1, 1982 The Museum will present a series of films relating to American folk art in the Donnell Library auditorium. Each day at noon,the program will explore a different aspect of American folk art by combining a series of short films with an introductory talk on the subject. A photographic exhibition of the Utopian religious community of Bishop Hill, Illinois will also be on view during this time. FALL ANTIQUES SHOW OPENING NIGHT BENEFIT Wednesday September 29, 1982 "America at Home" is the theme for the benefit opening of the 4th annual Fall Antiques Show, to be held from 6-10 pm at the Passenger Terminal Pier


(Berths 1 and 2) on the Hudson River at West 48th Street. The Fall Antiques Show produced by Sanford L. Smith & Associates, features 90 dealers from 18 states who will exhibit the finest examples of American antiques and fine art, and runs from September 30 to October 3, 1982. Cynthia Schaffner and Karen Schuster are cochairwomen of the opening night benefit, which will celebrate the American table, with adaptations of recipes from 18th century cookbooks, presented by The Silver Palate, well-known for their distinctive cuisine. Seasonal flowers, berry branches and bittersweet arrangements by Howe Florists have been inspired by designs in quilts, theorem paintings and samplers. Benefit tickets are $50 per person, and may be purchased at the Museum. Honorary patrons of the event include Mr. and Mrs. Harry Belafonte, Mr. and Mrs. Tom Brokaw, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Redford and Mrs. Phyllis George Brown of Kentucky. FALL ANTIQUES SHOW—SPECIAL EVENTS Thursday, September 30—Sunday, October 3, 1982 On Thursday, September 30th, the Museum is offering a walking tour preview at 11:30 am, prior to the public opening at noon. Guided by internationally known quilt dealer Phyllis Haders and Museum Friends committee member Dianne Butt, the walkthrough will highlight the booths and trends at this year's show. The $25 fee includes admission, guided tour, catalogue and refreshments. American Antique Discovery Day is a first at this year's show on Friday, October 1st, from 2-5 pm. William C. Ketchum, Jr., lecturer, author, museum Jamie Wyeth, noted American artist and Museum consultant and guest curator of the Museum of Amer- member, gets acquainted with Father Time,from ican Folk Art will offer oral appraisals at$5 an object. the permanent collection. Mr. Wyeth is on the honorary committeefor the September 15th Museum Kentucky craftswoman, Minnie Bates Yancy, will benefit at Bloomingdales. be at her loom weaving rag rugs and wonderful wearables. Her handwork may be purchased through the Museum Shop, which will again be at the Fall Antiques Show. The Museum Shop will also feature a unique selection of hand-crafted objects in the American folk tradition made especially for home and hearth. On view during the Show is a special Museum loan exhibition of Grenfell rugs, an export cottage industry developed in Nova Scotia and Labrador, curated by Sally Nolan. Made in the home for the home, these beautifully designed mats evoke the color and motifs of the northern landscape. The show is open from 1-10 pm daily and 1-6 pm Sunday. Admission is $5. There are free shuttle buses running between the Museum and the Pier continuously,from one-half hour prior to the show's opening to one-half hour after the show closes.


SOUTHWESTERN RELIGIOUS FOLK ART Through September 6, 1982 Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Colonial Williamsburg, VA 23185. The gallery will feature images of saints—both paintings and sculpture—all drawn from the famed Taylor Museum collection at the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center in Colorado. The more than 80 works displayed expose a wide range of styles and media from 1700 to 1900. Created in New Mexico and southern Colorado in the 18th and 19th centuries by Hispanic folk artists, they filled the need for devotional objects in churches and homes of isolated mountain villages. TEN AFRO-AMERICAN QUILTERS September 8-30, 1982 Worlds Fair of Energy, Folklife Pavilion, Knoxville, TN. Approximately 30 Afro-American quilts, photographs of African textiles, portraits ofthe quilters, and a twenty-minute slide lecture narrated by the quilters will be presented in this exhibition produced by The Center for the Study of Southern Culture, The University of Mississippi. This show will continue to travel through 1984. Bookings are currently being accepted by Bill Schinsky,Southern Arts Federation, 1401 Peachtree St., N.E., Suite 122, Atlanta, GA, 30309,(404) 874-7244. ETHNIC NOTIONS: BLACK IMAGES IN THE WHITE MIND September 12—November 7, 1982 Berkeley Arts Center, 1275 Walnut Street, Berkeley, CA 94709. An exhibition of black Americana from the collection of Jan Faulkner, illustrating, as the subtitle states, the Afro-American stereotype and caricature. TWO CENTURIES OF QUILTS Through September 12, 1982 The Warren County Historical Society Museum, 105 S. Broadway, Lebanon, Ohio 45036. Over 100 quilts will be featured including an 1850s quilt which was a prize winner at the Ohio State Fait Quilting demonstrations and bees will run throughout the month, with a quilt frame set up in the museum for visitors and members to try their hand at this centuries old art. THE PAINTINGS OF MARCUS MOTE 1817-1898 Through September 30, 1982 The Warren County Historical Society Museum and the Glendower State Memorial, 105 S. Broadway, P.O. Box 223, Lebanon, Ohio 45036. Mote is remembered as an American primitive painter, who was also responsible for introducing art classes to the Indiana public school system. Approximately 50 examples of his work will be on display including still life, portraits and landscapes.


JAPANNED TINWARE Through January 2, 1983

Montgomery Museum of Art, Montgomery, Alabama. Alabama quilts from the Robert and Helen Cargo Collection.

The Museum of Our National Heritage, Lexington, MA 02173. Over 300 objects of decorated tinware arranged to present a survey ofthe craft in America,the known centers of family industries, techniques, distribution methods, and European and Oriental influences.

TUCSON COLLECTS—AMERICANA October 17—November 26, 1982 Meson Museum of Art, 140 North Main Avenue, Meson, Ariz. 85705. This exhibition will feature all types of 17th, 18th and 19th century American arts. Included will be furniture, paintings, prints, sculpture, toys, quilts, coverlets, silver, pewter, scrimshaw, lighting devices, blown and pressed glass, pottery, Chinese export, porcelain,trade signs, hand tools, clothing, toleware, basketry, decoys, weathervanes, kitchenware, woodenware, tinware and needlework from 'Meson collections. AMERICAN FOLK SCULPTURE FROM THE COLLECTION OFDOROTHY &LEO RABKIN October 23—January 9, 1983 Nassau County Museum of Fine Art, Northern Boulevard, Roslyn, Long Island, NY 11576. More than 100 objects from the Rabkin collection, a promised gift to the Museum of American Folk Art, will be on exhibit, including whirligigs, wood carvings, dolls and Shaker items. The show was organized by the Museum of American Folk Art and curated by Elizabeth Warren and Ann Dauberman, interns from the New York University Master of Arts Degree program in Folk Art Studies, in cooperation with the Nassau County Museum of Fine Art. GEORGE WASHINGTON: AMERICAN SUPERHERO Through October 31, 1982 The Museum of Our National Heritage, Lexington, MA 02173. Commemoration of the 250th anniversary of the birth of George Washington. Portraits, prints, relics and memorabilia, statues,folk art, and participatory display area for both children and adults. THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMAN SCHRANK, 1750-1820 Through November 20, 1982 The Heritage Center Museum of Lancaster County, King and Queen Street, Lancaster, PA. The exhibition will include ten great schranks made in the Lancaster County, Pennsylvania area—three of painted wood and seven of natural-grain walnut. Vernon Gunnion, curator of collections of the Pennsylvania Farm Museum at Landis Valley, is guest curator of this exhibit. FABULOUS FELIPE'S IMAGINARY MENAGERIE Through 1982 Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe, NM 87503. Exhibition of the nearly life-size wooden animals carved by Tesuque,New Mexicofolk sculptor Felipe Archuleta.

ELEGANT EMBELLISHMENTS: FURNISHINGS FROM NEW ENGLAND HOMES,1660-1860 Through January 30, 1983 Museum of our National Heritage, 33 Marren Rd., Lexington, MA 02173. Arranged chronologically, the exhibit of over 130 objects begins with 17th century furniture and proceeds through sections devoted to Queen Anne, Chippendale, Federal, Empire, and the Victorian revivals. A separate section of painted furniture, 1800-1860, looks at the vernacular interpretations of high-style designs that relied on brightly painted decoration. Examples of paintings and prints, silver, glass and ceramics from each of the periods complete a comprehensive view of New England furnishings over a period of200 years. The objects on display have been chosen because of their rarity and their historical or artistic importance. THE ORNAMENTAL PAINTER,1820-1860— NEGLECTED BUT NOT FORGOTTEN Ongoing Museum of the Historical Society of Early American Decoration, Inc., Dove St. and Washington Ave., Albany, N.Y. Painted tinware including trunks, coffee pots, trays from tinshops in Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania and Maine, papier mache and furniture. SPANISH COLONIAL/MEXICAN ART Ongoing Roswell Museum and Art Center, Roswell, N.M. Santos, furniture and painted images on wood, canvas, paper, metal or hide, including images carved in the round and painted which were brought to New Mexico by the Spanish. A MATTER OF IDENTITY Ongoing National Archives, 8th Street and Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20408. A major exhibit of unusual early American records including frakturs culled from the Archives' Revolutionary War files. SAN'TOS DE PALO COLLECTION Ongoing El Museo del Barrio, 1230 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10029. The museum possesses the largest collection of Puerto Rican Santos in the United States. The Santos de Palo(wooden saints) are hand-carved and painted religious statues, created throughout Spain and Latin America.


Day Excursions


HUGUENOT STREET, New Paltz, NY Saturday, September 25, 1982 Huguenot Street is the oldest street in America, with its original houses. The stone houses were builtfrom 1692-1712,and through the efforts of the Huguenot Historical Society and family associations, these houses which will be visited, have been marvelously maintained. A special guided tour has been arranged and your lecturer on the bus is a direct descendant of one of these leading families who lived on this street. Luncheon at DuBois Fort(1705). Time: 7:45 am — 6:00 pm. Fee:$50 per person. Departing: Sutton Theatre, 57th St. and Third Ave; a Westchester pickup will be made in Yonkers at 8:20 am, at the Howard Johnson parking lot (across from Gimbels).

HILLSTEAD MUSEUM, Farmington, CT, NEW BRITAIN MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART, New Britain, CT Saturday, November 6, 1982 (A) The Hillstead Museum, once a private home,designed by Stanford White to resemble Mount Vernon, includes furnishings, porcelains, and high quality paintings by Monet, Degas, Whistler and Mary Cassatt. These works of art are on a no-loan basis and can only be seen here. (B) The New Britain Museum is a choice repository for American paintings, dating from the 18th-20th century. Excellent works by Thomas Sully, Benjamin West, the Ashcan School, the American Impressionists and the Wyeths are all represented here. Luncheon at Avon Old Farms Inn. Time: 8:30 am — 6:00 pm. Fee: $60 per person. Departing: Sutton Theatre, 57th St. and Third Ave.; a Westchester pickup will be made enroute in Elmsford, NY at the Masters Shopping Center parking lot, Route 9A at 9:10 am.

Beecher Stowe reflects her tastes in furnishings and lifestyle. Luncheon at the Brownstone. Time:8:45 am— 7:00 pm. Fee: $60 per person. Departing: Sutton Theatre, 57th St. and Third Ave.; a Connecticut pickup will be made enroute at Exit 3, New England Thruway, Greenwich (parking lot is on the left side of the exit) at 9:25 am. THE YALE CENTER FOR BRITISH ART AND BRITISH STUDIES, New Haven CT, THE YALE UNIVERSITY ART GALLERY, New Haven, CT Saturday, November 20, 1982 (A)The Yale Center, designed by the late Louis Kahn is the gift of Paul Mellon and contains his famous collection of British landscape paintings and portraits from the 15th — 19th century by artists such as Hogarth, limier, West and others. (B) The Yale Art Gallery, also designed by Louis Kahn, houses quality works of Mediaeval, Renaissance, 19th and 20th century European and American paintings and furnishings; also a splendid contemporary gallery and indoor and outdoor sculpture. We will visit the recent Katherine Orday bequest of superb paintings. A stop will be made at the Bienecke Rare Book Library. Luncheon at La Rotisserie Normande. Time: 8:30 am — 6:00 pm. Fee: $52 per person. Departing: Sutton Theatre, 57th St. and Third Ave.; a Connecticut pickup will be made enroute at Exit 3, New England Thruway, Greenwich (parking lot is on the left side of the exit) at 9:10 am.

BRANDYWINE RIVER MUSEUM,Chaddsford, PA, LONGWOOD GARDENS, Kennet NEWARK ART MUSEUM,Newark, NJ, THE BALLANTINE HOUSE, Newark, NJ, PRISquare, PA VATE CONTEMPORARY ART COLLECTION Saturday, October 2, 1982 (A)The Brandywine River Museum is an ele- Friday, November 12, 1982 gant converted grist mill which houses a per- (A) The Newark Museum will have as their manent collection of Andrew Wyeth paintings, current exhibition, American Folk Art, and Brandywine artists and changing exhibitions. Century of Revival, a 19th century furniture exhibit. Highlights from the permanent collecLuncheon at Chaddsford Inn. (B) Longwood Gardens, an outstanding dis- tion will also be seen. play garden was acquired by Pierre Samuel (B) Ballantine House was the home of Peter duPont for his personal use as a country estate Ballantine of Ballantine Beer, which represents and these gardens were executed under his own late Victoriana and is superbly furnished in that period. Luncheon at Fornos. direction. Time: 8:30 am — 6:00 pm. Fee: $65 per person. Time:9:30 am — 4:00 pm. Fee: $50 per person. FAIRMONT PARK HOMES,Philadelphia,PA. Thursday, December 2, 1982 Departing: YMCA, 5 W. 63rd St.; a New Departing: YMCA,5 W. 63rd St. Fairmont Park homes will be decorated for Jersey pickup will be made at the Old North WADSWORTH ATHENEUM, Hartford, CT, Christmas as they would have looked in the Terminal, Newark Airport at 8:50 am. MARK TWAIN and HARRIET BEECHER early 18th and 19th century. Included will be the American wing of the Philadelphia Museum, STOWE HOMES WINTERTHUR, Wilmington, DE which will also be decorated for Christmas. Saturday, November 13, 1982 Saturday, October 16, 1982 The Winterthur Museum, once the original (A) The Wadsworth Atheneum is the oldest Luncheon will be at Dumphys. home of the duPont family from 1830-1951, public museum (1844) and is renowned for its Time: 8:00 am — 6:30 pm. Fee:$60 per person. reflects the richness of American life at its best; great Italian baroque paintings, the Wallace Departing: YMCA, 5 W. 63rd St.; a New its superb furnishings, fabrics, porcelains and Nutting collection of 17th and 18th century Jersey pickup will be made enroute at the Old paintings. You will visit the George Wash- American furniture, and the finest Meissen por- North Terminal, Newark Airport at 8:20 am. ington wing, Conservatory and Gardens before celain in the world, plus an incredible early Please make checks payable to the Museum of a specially arranged tour of the main Museum. American silver collection. Luncheon in the Garden Pavillion. Time: 8:00 (B)The personality of Mark'Min is revealed American Folk Art,49W.53rd St., New York, am — 6:30 pm. Fee: $65 per person. Departing: in the Victorian home which has fine examples NY 10019. YMCA, 5 W. 63rd St.; a New Jersey pickup of Louis Comfort Tiffany stained glass, stenwill be made at the Old North Terminal, ciled walls, as well as the original furnishings of the family. The personality of Harriet Newark Airport at 8:20 am. 60

Day Excursion Registration Form

Name Address City Telephone (day) Member


State (Evening) Non-member

Total fee enclosed $

Title of tour 1








Please address your correspondence to: TOURS, Museum of American Folk Art, 49 W. 53rd St., New York, NY 10019


American Folk Art Sidney Gecker

We offer an extremely varied selection offine American folk art. We specialize in fine, decorated slipware, particularly from Pennsylvania and the Shenandoah Valley. Also weathervanes,eighteenth and nineteenth century oil paintings, watercolors and miniatures.Tole,chalkware, woodcarvings and painted furniture. Come and visit us. You will be pleased with the quality ofour collection, which you will find is also sensibly priced.

226 West 21st Street New York, N.Y. 10011

(212)929-8769 Appointment suggested



January—March 1982 We wish to thank the following members for their increased membership contributions and for their expression of confidence in the Museum: Marjorie E Chester, NY, NY J. D. Clayton, Brooklyn, NY Susan L. Cullman, Briarcliff Manor, NY Daniel & Ellen Einhom, Hewlett Bay, NY Sharon Eisenstat, Summit, NJ Joy C. Emery, Grosse Pointe, MI Mr. & Mrs. S. M. Feder, Scarsdale, NY Patty Gagarin, Fairfield, CT Merle H. Glick, Pekin, IL Dr. & Mrs. Donald Glugover, Scotland, CT Mary T. Greason, Forest Hills, NY Julia Hahn, Westport, CT G. William Holland, Philadelphia, PA Jean Croy Hudson, NY. NY Guy Johnson, Red Band, NJ Paulette Kaufmann, NY, NY David Krashes, Princeton, MA Mr. & Mrs. Gerold Klauer, NY, NY Martin Landey, NY, NY Alfred J. Law, NY, NY Mrs. Bertram K. Little, Brookline, MA Mr. & Mrs. Robert Meltzer, NY, NY George H. Meyer, Birmingham, MI Mrs. Richard J. Miller, Wayland, MA C. M. Mollett, Hutchinson, KS Jane I. Ohly, Rehoboth, MA Mrs. W. E. Simmons, Grosse Pte Farms, MI Louise Simone, Green Farms, CT Edward B. Stvan, Chargrin Falls, OH Mrs. Jeffrey Urstadt, NY, NY

January—March 1982 The Museum Trustees and Staff extend a special welcome to these new members: Lynn Ahrens, New York, NY George Amann, St. Louis, MO Mrs. Lois Avigad, New York, NY Mr. & Mrs. Leonard Balish, Englewood, NJ Didi & David Barrett, New York, NY Phyllis Barr, New York, NY Mr. & Mrs. Frank Barsalona, New York, NY Laurie Benjamin, Stamford, CT Mr. & Mrs. Suresh L. Bhirud, New York, NY Doris A. Bilodenu, S. Deerfield, MA James W. Blain, Kettering, OH Mary K. Borkowski, Dayton, OH Cynthia Bowers, New York, NY Carol Bowie, Columbia City, IN Adele P. Bradlee, Fairfax, VA Edwin Burrows, New York, NY 62

VP Carapella, Glen Allyn, IL Althea E. Carlson, Wrightsville Beach, NC MJ Carter, Manchester, CT Linda W. Chapin, Orlando, FL Lori Christmastree, Buffalo, NY Lorraine Cook, New Yolk, NY Gayle M. Dahl, Byron, MN LW Dannemille, Canton, OH R. 0. Davies, M.D., Bremerton, WA Sarah De Beaumont, London, England Mr. & Mrs. Frank DePalma, Mahwah, NJ Joann Dowing, Winnetka, IL Wiliam C. Engvick, Orinda, CA Barbara A. Filler, New York, NY Louise Finochio-Atelier, Marble Head, MA S. Fleming, Warrenton, VA Carol Freidus, Rye, NY Doris H. Fry, Delmar, NY Peter Gabriel, Bayside, NY Anne T. Gallant, Ramsey, NJ Linda Marie Gallo, New York, NY Nina Gibans, Shaker Heights, OH Mr & Mrs. Eric Gleacher, New York, NY Roberta Gluesenkamp, Beaverton, OR Doris Goldstein, New York, NY Susan Zises Green, New York, NY Jorge M. Gutierres, Clifton, NJ Lisa Haber, Scarsdale, NY M. J. Haner, Newark, DE Margaret L. Hargrove, Wellesley, MA Sarah F. Harris, Morristown, NJ Kathe Haskell, Los Gatos, CA George B. Henry, Armonk, NY Mrs. E. W. Hess, Barboursville, VA Jerry Heymann, New York, NY Ronald & Alice Hoffman, New York, NY Mr & Mrs. Dale Horst, Nutley, NJ Alice C. Hudson, New York, NY Anne R. Hudson, Grosse Pte Shores, MI Rene fifer, New York, NY Barbara Jaffe, New York, NY Mrs. H. W. Jasper, Kitchener ONT Canada Sally P. Johnson, Essex, NY Carol A. Jones, New Bremen, OH J. Knowles, Salem, OR Mrs. Robert Knowles, W Hartford, CT Mrs. I. J. Konrad, Harbor Springs, MI Michael & Kathy Krogman, New York, NY Patricia Lauder, Darien, CT Mrs. L. G. Lindsay Jr, St Paul, MN Mrs. Rochelle Litke, Studio City, CA Thomas Lloyd, New York, NY Barbara Lubell, Peekskill, NY Rev. Richard Manzeemann, New Hartford, NY Susan Marcus, New York, NY Rachel Martens, Philadelphia, PA Helen McDonald, Jersey City, NJ Heath B. McLewdon, Summit, NJ Barbara Mintz, New York, NY Amanda Mitchell, New York, NY Catherine Modica, Cambridge, MA Sarah J. Morthland, New York, NY

Mrs. David W. Murray Jr, Sarasota, FL Elaine Myers, San Francisco, CA Mr. & Mrs. Richard Netter, New York, NY Phoebe Newman, Great Neck, NY New Trier Township High School District, Winnetka, IL Mary K. O'Melveny, New York, NY Mary Obrist, Canastota, NY Kate L. Oppenheimer, Salisbury, CT Mrs. S. Howard Padwee, Ardsley on Hudson, NY Andrew Parker Jr, Washington DC Kenneth Pellman, Lancaster, PA Edith Phelan, Golf, IL Dorothy Polansky, Weston, MA Barbara Raussin, St Louis, MO Jilly Jayne Read, Athens, GA Carole P. Ridolfine, Clarsburo, NJ Regina S. Rivera, New York, NY Linda Robertson, Decatur, IL A. B. Rosenberg, Locust Valley, NY Frederic G. Ruffner III, Grosse Pte Farms, MI Frederick G. Ruffner Jr, Detroit, MI Peter E. Ruffner, Grosse Pte Farms, MI Elvira Ryan, Virginia Beach, VA Jessica Schein, New York, NY Jennifer A. Schell, Kent, CT Leah L. Schlenger, Lambertville, NJ Diane Scott, Brooklyn, NY Nancy L. A. Sheble, Chevy Chase, MD Dorothy H. Smith, Wappingers, NY Bonnie P. Stevenson, Summit, NJ Mary M. Strong, Saybrook, OH Catherine Sugrue, Jacksonville, FL Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence Suslow, Scarsdale, NY Corinne Sweeny, St Paul, MN Christina Thurston, Manchester Center, VT Craig Tomkinson, Rowayton, CT Alison K. Townsend, Denver, CO Arno Uhlhom, Glen Ellyn, IL Katherine W. Watts, Baton Rouge, LA Laurie Weitzenkom, Washington DC Dennis L. White, Huntingburg, IN Ruth Wilson, Fort Mitchell, KY Steven A. Wright, Mill Valley, CA Wendy S. Wubbels, Newport News, VA Carol Ann Zappetti, Sands Point, NY Artic Art Gallery, Denver, CO Cabin Creek Interiors—Mrs. Bayne Mahary— Macon, GA E. M. Donahue LTD, New York, NY Herman & Herman Attorneys—Russ M Herman— New Orleans, LA Medical Dental Center—Michael Baten MD PC, Santa Fe, NM Musee du Quebec, Quebec Canada The Franklin Mint Corp., Franklin Ctr, PA University of Mississippi—Ella King Torrey— University, MS



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Sales in N.Y., L.A., S.F. & D.C. Other cities by request








Exhibiting our collection of antique quilts in New York City during the FALL ANTIQUES SHOW Call (212) 734-9030 for appointment.



58 EAST 13TH STREET • NEW YORK, N.Y. 10003 • TEL. 533-5550


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Photos of current collection available Write to be included on our mailing list.


Thursday,September 30 at 6PM Exhibitions: Tuesday & Wednesday September 28 & 29,9A.M.-7PM.

22/ 1 4" x 22/ 1 4"


79" x 911 / 4"

A lavender and white "Burgoyne Surrounded" quilt 79" x 911 / 2" and miniature trial quilt 22/ 1 4" x 22/ 1 4" signed & dated 1933, Wabash County, Indiana.

An outstanding collection of American quilts, Victorian whites & other country clothing, folk art, furniture, paintings and accessories in the American country style.

it. Auctioneers: Jesse Bien, Wm. J. Fischer 10% Buyer's premium charged. Consignments or outright purchases solicited. Member: Appraisers Association of America, Inc.









Antiques. Arts & Antiquarian Books

Our monthly antiques newspaper should be Your source for antique collecting

4 South Main Street Pittsford, N.Y. 14534 716-381-3300




Concord fl ntiques Fairs

Whirligig, C. 1975

Willie Barton Bruce Brice David Butler Milton Fletcher Clementine Hunter

Sr. Gertrude Morgan Helen Pickle Mose Tolliver Chief Willey Malcah Zeldis

831 St. Peter Street New Orleans, Louisiana 70116 (504)524-9373

New Hampshire Highway Hotel


Cb1Atice, CAI name. maij no-E te familextr1-0 OLt. & Q Clin ofer-i-ncl 64-'1) of life tont ),96715 and 1-tatQat s to members and frien.d5 0 Me, Acoecan, cf DITY1.8ri:eart (‘52:11k.0, (1t—t-.. C;ILIti.t.40z,l, ' 91 (


of90(-0'sett Cr retaii 'e u awl:tiny oj9oar °Lel? ficime (tact Ecilec,.tion? r tovuld pou, , love- Cc mom -51,z_ed color; fioc.,kec arid --tedinique? CIPlease kilczC in. vane2e cf ticur iry/a;ry --that - inLi zff% of Truf t-e9ularfee tA.Y.11 6e the'ulltwied)) 'crsoActi pcf,pmeri.60 C')Ik:ArtiIctijncL


8:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.

Mallogrd by S. K. FRENCH

ccou3.0kx 3E ?Ii.or harnePark,o/Y,

1983 JANUARY 16th FEBRUARY 20th MARCH 20th APRIL 10th

Box 62, Exeter, N. H. 03833




Quilts and Patchwork

The City Curtain


Country Curtains are a tradition ... years of old-fashioned quality and conscientious service. Country Curtains have lent their special warmth to American Homes from Nantucket to Nob Hill. This elegant curtain was inspired by the stately houses on Boston's Beacon Hill. The pearly white or ecru antique satin fabric, a silky rayon/acetate blend by Waverly, is edged with an exquisite 21 / 4" tassel fringe. 90" wide per pair. Lengths of 54, $35.00 pair, 63" or 72" long,$40.00 pr;81"or 90" long, $46.00 pr; 102" or 108" long, $55.00 pr. Valance, $18.50 each. Tiebacks,$8.00 pr. Check, money order, Mastercard or Visa. Postage/handling: under $100 add $3.00, over $100 add $4.00. Mass. res. add 5% tax. Free catalog. Phone: 413-298-3921. Satisfaction guaranteed.

Reproduced from Nineteenth Century Quilt Top

Hand Quilting of Antique Quilt Tops Authentic Quilt Reproduction Traditional and Contemporary Karen F. Berkenfeld 150 West 79 Street N.Y.C. 10024 (212)799-3321


COUNTRY CURTAINS Name Address City State


Stockbridge, Mass. 01262



Custom Made Stretchers for displaying Quilts & Hooked Rugs Rag Carpets sewn together for Area Rugs

Pie Galinat 230 wlOth St., n.y. , n.y. 10014 (212) 741-3259

0 Please send free catalog

Winterthur Portfolio A Journal of American Material Culture

Unwritten links to the past More and more, the documents we use to read the past have three dimensions. WP is a unique scholarly journal that provides a means of understanding the American past which exclusive attention to political and literary history cannot offer. Written alike for the specialist and the broadly educated reader interested in cultural history, the essays in each issue of WP not only examine the art and artifacts of America: they offer clues to the minds and imaginations of both the sometimes extraordinary people who created these objects and the often ordinary people who used them.

CURRENT AND FORTHCOMING ESSAYS Jules David Prown, Style as Evidence Trudy Baltz, American Pageantry and Mural Painting: Community Rituals in Allegorical Form Simon J. Bronner, Investigating Identity and Expression in American Folk Art Mary Ellen Hayward,Urban Vernacular Architecture in Nineteenth-Century Baltimore Peter M. Molloy, Nineteenth-Century Hydropower: Design and Construction of the Lawrence Dam,1845-48 John Michael Vlach, American Folk Art: Questions and Quandaries Winterthur Portfolio is edited by Ian M. G. Quimby and Catherine E. Hutchins of the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum. Founded as a hardcover annual in 1964, it continued in journal form beginning in 1979.

20% DISCOUNT with this coupon

Winterthur Portfolio (ISSN: 0084-0416) published triannually

One-year discount subscription rates: E Institutions $45.00 0 CAA Member $22.50

E Individuals $25.00 0 Students $20.00

Name Address City



Visa and Master Card accepted. Please mail this coupon with payment, purchase order, or charge card information to The University of Chicago Press, 11030 S. Langley Ave., Chicago, IL 60628. 11/81 car


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(212) 469-0030 Quilting Classes in Manhattan and Brooklyn. Catalog available for quilting supplies.



PIRrhoo, W'et

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Nbrammlm .An sks4 Niz-isKANN waanaum MINtaM COME QUILT WITH ME P.O. Box 1063, Cadman Plaza Station Brooklyn, New York 11202

Early 19th Century signed Winder Rocker JAA Job A. Allen NY State in original mustard paint.


' select g o'i4deaIei viIo3eze /8tk and early 19 6anta _primitive, country, ancl_firmal.firnifure dis ..e15ed in room Settings tn an 1804 bliekrill hativ and adjacent shv Qyplis, stoneware, baskets, Oriental items anarugs,_folkartiyantfigs glass, china, iron, ti5le, cox( brass, cienntate, and the unusual, comprise a 7vondeul variety ofoutstanding anfiques the early de-cor or collectial








John J. Dubiel â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Evelyn S. Dubiel P.O. Box 296, Glastonbury, CT (203) 633-7750

FOLK ARTISTS Specializing in oils, watercolors, shorebird decoys, etc. Exhibiting at the Litchfield Inn, Litchfield, CT on November 6th, 1982.


Cabinetmaker 17th & 18th Century American Antique Furniture Copies 18th Century Co. Durham, CT 06422 Tel. (203)349-9512 or (203)757-6214 Exhibiting at the Litchfield Inn, Rt. 202, Litchfield, CT Traditional Americana, Nov. 6, 1982

AMERICANA TRADITIONAL CRAFTS AND FOLK ART This exhibition and sale will be held on Saturday, November 6th, 1982,from 10:00 a. m. to 5:00 p.m. in the Litchfield Inn, Litchfield, Connecticut. The Inn is located on Rt. 202, 1-3/4 miles west of Litchfield center.

The show willfeature the work of master craftsmen, each skilled in the individualized hand production of only thefinest traditional Americana. THE PARTICIPATING ARTISANS ARE: RITA BORDEN & DIANA SARTOR Stencilled Floorcloths 56 Juniper Lane Glastonbury, CT 06033

LORRAINE HARDENBROOK Hand-Sewn Bandboxes 114 Hubbard Street Glastonbury, CT 06033

MAGGIE McLEA Hooked Rugs and Textiles 1634 Hebron Avenue Glastonbury, CT 06033

ARTHUR E. SINGER Cast Iron Firebacks 2-1/2 Avery Street Mystic, CT 06355

JOHN J. & EVELYN S. DUBIEL Folk Art Paintings & Theorems Carved Shorebird Decoys 43 Harvest Lane, Glastonbury, CT 06033

JOANNE KOST Quilter 172 Stevens Lane Glastonbury, CT 06033

MICHAEL SARRIE Blacksmith R.R. 2, Childs Hill Road Woodstock, CT 06281

MARTHA WETHERBEE Shaker Basketmaker Star Route, Box 35 Sanbornton, NH 03269

CRAIG H. FARROW Cabinetmaker 18th Century Co. Durham, CT 06422

PAUL D. LYNN Potter Located on Route 169 So. Woodstock, CT 06282

MARION SCANNELL Weaver 117 Boston Post Road East Lyme, CT 06033

Admission: $2.00 7!

These re-creations of Early American lighting fixtures and some 250other models may be seen in ourshop. The rod arm chandelier shown on the left, and about 250 other such chandeliers and sconces, faithfully follow the design of colonial craftsmen of some 200 years ago. These fixtures of unlacquered brass take on a rich patina as they age. Also available with an antique pewter plating over solid brass. The chandelier on the right and other sconces,lanterns, shades,planters and liners are all handmade.We also do specialty sheet metal work in brass,copper, pewter and tin. Come visit our shop or send $3.00 for a catalog describing about 50 chandeliers and sconces.

Authentic Designs

330 East 75th St., Dept. E New York, N.Y. 10021 (212)535-9590

32 Spring Street


New York, NY 10012

Craft International MAGAZINL QUARTERLY THE CRAFTSLD VVOR OF THE MODERN OF THE CI is for everyone—makers, collectors, administrators, writers, publishers, gallery and shop

owners, scholars—hungry for information about the worldwide scene of craft activity. WATCH FOR CI'S SPECIAL ISSUES ON AFRICA, CHINA, LATIN AMERICA PLUS NEWS, REVIEWS, GRANTS, TRAVEL AND MORE. Please send me a one-year subscription beginning with the current issue.

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$14.00 while making a valuable or contribution to the Museum of American Folk Art. Antique Monthly will contribute $7.00 in your name to the MAFA operating budget rt when you clip the coupon below and send it with your check. Every month Antique Monthly will bring you the latest information you need to enjoy your onth" , antiques to the fullest. Y Unique columns like Potpourri, Insight Into Silver, and Furniture Forum answer your specific questions while extensive coverage of major shows and exhibits keep you abreast of current market trends. The Museum of American Folk Art will receive needed financial support for the upcoming year. Act today! Enjoy Antique Monthly and support the Museum of American Folk Art.

American Folk A

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Uplio1Stere4 5of4,s 4r'l

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frj AneelliouSe.DcAigns

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2.75 Brintori Bridge, Road .W6g,ChastAr ,1A 0'580 (Y4 mut oFF RI. 2.01 , 115 • 399-0560 ,Frnik towcodsaketil,




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American Folk Art Address Book Edited by Jean Lipman and Tom Armstrong

$15.50 Postpaid 60 illustrations, 48 pages of full color

A durable, practical, and beautiful version of the most indispensable book in any household, enlivened by masterpieces of American folk art. Here is a handsome, unique address book that will give pleasure every time it is used. Twenty-four glorious examples of American folk art in full color, selected by Whitney Museum directors,form the alphabetical dividers and include such classics as Girl in Red with Her Cat and Dog, Bird of Paradise Bride Coverlet, and Edward Hick's Cornell Fann to such lesser known delightful works as an American flag farm gate and an 1880 Valentine. In addition to paintings,at least one example ofeach form offolk art is represented: sampler, quilt, decoy, Indian chief, weather vane, gravestone, ship's figurehead, and furniture. Created by a well-known designer, the address book is eminently practical and inviting, with a top spiral binding, stiff covers, and address pages of heavy stock. Here is an address book designed to be enjoyed for years. Jean Lipman,former editor of Art in America, is an expert on American folk art. Tom Armstrong is the Director of the Whitney Museum of American Art. To order, simply fill in the order blank along with a check or money order for $15.50 (includes postage and handling) made out to: Folk Art America, P.O. Box 6,Lynchburg, Virginia 24505 VISA and MASTERCARD also accepted

Parade Figure carved and painted wood circa 1850 height 22-

Please print clearl, Name


Address City/State/Zip VISA



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vAnt. tq e Review • Coming Events

• History • Lace •

`710 •

c▪ .▪ ; • .4

from the diary of Elder James Prescott on a visit to the New Lebanon Shaker community, October 5, 1860... • blz


"... they pay 120 dollars a ton for Broom Corn, delivered in Albany, from the Swede Community in Illinois."

• 1. 4"


• E. •

The only publication covering the antique marketplace from the Hudson to the Missouri

• Restoration • Samplers •Trends • Shows• Spinning Wheels• Stoneware• Tools• Toys • SUBSCRIBE TODAY! ELEVEN ISSUES PER YEAR MONTHLY EXCEPT JANUARY • $18.00 Enclosed for one year subscription - 2nd class mail C $32.00 Enclosed for two year subscription - 2nd class mail O $38.00 Enclosed for one year subscription - 1st class mail

Ohio Antique Review P.O. Box 538 Worthington, Ohio 43085 CALL TOLL FREE: 1-800-525-9391, EXT. 538

Name Address _ City/State Signature


Marblizing Graining Murals Stencil Period interiors "Anything in Paint" (603) 286-3046


limn your likeness Paintings done in 1800's costume. Submit photos, one unsmiling. Backgrounds may be plain, scenic, with pets, art objects.

Arlene Strader golk Art Portraits 100 S. Montgomery St., Union, Ohio 45322 Phone (513) 836-6308 â&#x20AC;˘ By appointment

Aarne Anton 242 W. 30th St. NY, NY 10001

Mon.-Fri. 10-5:30 (212) 239-1345

David Marshall carved sandstone heads contemporary naive sculpture ht. 5-7 inches

IleH sa42nH 43a9OOMc

The Ames Gallery features the work of contemporary California artists and American folk art & artifacts. Concurrent with the changing exhibits, our extensive collection of tramp art, cookware, quilts, contemporary folk painting, and sculpture are always on view. For current exhibit information, hours, or for an appointment, phone us or write to: Ames Gallery 2661 Cedar Street Berkeley, CA 94708 415 845.4949


-.4""- â&#x20AC;˘


ANTIQUES ly And The Arts \Veek.

The Bee Publishing Company Church Hill Road Newtown, CT 06470

p19 ine r; pitance pectalists 4 - siik16 4



HUNTINGTON T. BLOCK INSURANCE 2101 L Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20037 Telephone 202/223-0673 or Toll Free 800/424-8830 Telex 892596

dlfus amencanL)) filkart NommemiS wiminftS

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bettie mintz p.o. box 5943

bethesda, maryland 20014 near Washington, D.C. 301-652-4626 79

EPSTEIN/POWELL AMERICAN PRIMITIVES Jesse Aaron Eddie Arning William Dawson Uncle Jack Dey Antonio Esteves Howard Finster Victor Joseph Gatto

S.L.Jones Inez Nathaniel Old Ironsides Pry Nellie Mae Rowe Jack Savitsky Mose Tolliver Luster Willis and others Victor Joseph Gatto

22 Wooster St., New York, N.Y. 10013, By Appointment(212)226-7316

1 2x 11) (Pen and ink on paper, 8/

Index to Advertisers

Aarne Anton, American Primitive 77 Patricia Adams 13 79 All of Us Americans Back cover America Hurrah American Country Store Front inside cover 71 Americana 77 Ames Gallery 10 Marna Anderson 78 Antiques and the Arts Weekly 69 Antiques Center at Hartland 73 Antiques Monthly 72 Authentic Design 69 Kenneth J. Butler Betty Carrie 66 Bea Cohen/Russell Scheider 13 Come Quilt With Me 69 Connecticut Antiques Show 18 Country Curtains 67 72 Craft International Dilworthtown Country Store 73


John Dubiel 70 Eisenberg Folk Art Gallery 24 Epstein-Powell 80 Fall Antiques Show 14 Craig H. Farrow 70 Felicity 67 Folk Art America 74 S.K. French 66 Pie Galinat 67 Gasperi Folk Art Gallery 66 Sidney Gecker 61 Green Hill 19 Greenwich Auction Room, Ltd. 63 Guernsey's Auction 11 Hammer & Hammer 74 Handmaids 16 Heritage Trail Antiques Show 18 Steven-Carol Huber, Inc. 12 79 Huntington T. Block Jay Johnson Back inside cover Just Us On Court 20

Marston Luce Made In America Steve Miller Museum of American Folk Art NY-PA Collector Ohio Antiques Review Anthony Petullo Fine Art Ricco-Johnson John Keith Russell Israel Sack School House Antiques Sotheby Parke-Bernet, Inc. Arlene Strader Sweetwater Editions Quilts Unlimited Vista International Hotels Watermelon Patch Wiggins Bros. Winterthur Portfolio Thomas K. Woodard

25 8 1 73 65 75 21 23 17 3 13 2 76 15 63 7 64 76 68 4

Tuesday thru Saturday 12 p.m. to6 p.m. (212)628-7280

1044 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10021

America's Folk Heritage Gallery


Come visit us at our new location at 1044 Madison Avenue between 79th & 80th Sts.



@AIWA_ (WILL 316 EAST 70th ST., NEW YORK, N.Y. 10021


Unique pictorial crazy quilt, wool and cotton, dated 1898. This extraordinary quilt made by Lelia Butts Utter depicts forty-one inhabitants of the WorchesterSouth Mountain area of New York's Delaware County. Each figure, appliqued in relief, has been carefully embellished with individualized period attire including jewelry, pocketbooks, fur coats, etc. 84"x76"

We are always interested in buying heirloom quality quilts and textiles; especialy unique examples, containing pictorial or patriotic motifs. Crib and children-sized quilts are of particular interest. Please write, snapshots or polaroids are helpful.

Please visit us when you are in New York City our hours are Tuesday窶認riday 12-7 pm, Saturday 12-6 pm Closed Monday.

The Clarion (Fall 1982)  

The World of Olof Krans • American Folk Art in Britain • New Discoveries in House, Sign, and Fancy Painting • Butter Molds and Prints: Minia...

The Clarion (Fall 1982)  

The World of Olof Krans • American Folk Art in Britain • New Discoveries in House, Sign, and Fancy Painting • Butter Molds and Prints: Minia...