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The Museum of American Folk Art New York City

edmund I. fuller woodstock, n.y. 12498

by appt.

(914) 679-8696

Exhibiting "Fall Antique Show" Sept. 12-16, Park Avenue Armory, N.Y.0.

American Folk Art and Country Furniture In New York City By appointment Telephone (212)799-0825 (if no answer leave messsage at(212)787-6000)


Sheet iron weather vane, 41 inches long.




Amish"Grandmother's Dream"pieced quilt. Lancaster County,Pennsylvania.Circa 1890. Fromourcollectionofrare Amishquilts. We are interested in purchasing rare and exceptional quilts, textiles,folk paintings, weathervanes and paintedfurniture. Photographs returned promptly. We are located at the corner of 73rd Street and Lexington Avenue. We are open Monday through Saturday 11:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.



CONTENTS/Fall 1979 The Clarion, America's Folk Art Magazine, Fall 1979. Published quarterly and copyright 1979 by the Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York 10019. The cover and contents of The Clarion are fully protected by copyright and may not be reproduced in any manner without written consent. Unsolicited manuscripts or photographs should be accompanied by return postage. The Clarion assumes no responsibility for the loss or damage of such material. Change of Address. Please send both old and new addresses and allow five weeks for change. Advertising The Clarion accepts advertisements only from advertisers whose reputation is recognized in the trade, but despite the care with which the advertising department screens photographs and texts submitted by its advertisers, it cannot guarantee the unquestionable authenticity of objects or quality of services advertised in its pages or offered for sale by its advertisers, nor can it accept responsibility for misunderstandings that may arise from the purchase or sale of objects or services advertised in its pages.

Letter from the Director


The New York Shakers and Their Dwelling Places Shaker Industries

Cynthia Elyce Rubin

What Makes Shaker Furniture Shaker?

Dr. C. Eugene Kratz



"The Flame is Never Ceasing ..." Continuity in Shaker Life at Sabbathday Lake

Gerard C. Wertkin

Karl Mendel



Noteworthy Events 73 A Living History: The Shaker Museum's Education Kit Folk Art Calendar Across the Country Catalogue of Fall Antiques Show



Classics from the Collection of the Museum of American Folk Art Special Exhibition at the Fall Antiques Show Helaine Fendelman Coming Events at the Museum Exhibition Schedule

Shbp Talk




Our Growing Membership



Index to Advertisers The Museum is dedicated to the exhibition and interpretation of folk art and feels it is a violation of its principles to be involved in or to appear to be involved in the sale of works of art. For this reason, the Museum will not knowingly accept advertisements for The Clarion which illustrate or describe objects that have been exhibited at the Museum within one year of the placing of the advertisement.

Dr. Robert Bishop


Index to Advertisers Exhibiting at the Fall Antiques Show


Cover: Bride's quilt top in the Bird of Paradise pattern. Maker unknown. 1858-1863. Cotton, silk, wool, and velvet on cotton muslin. Near Poughkeepsie, New York. 87" x 71,4". An exuberant collage of animals, flowers and people, it tells the story of a bride never wed. (Gift of Catherine Cahill, Mrs. Frederick Danziger, Ralph Esmerian, Barbara Johnson, Esq., Mrs. Jacob M. Kaplan, Mrs. Ronald Lauder, William Wiltshire III) This four-color cover was made possible by the generous contributions of American Standard, Inc., Chase Manhattan Bank, and Danskin, Inc.






Officers Ralph Esmerian, Chairman Barbara Johnson, Esq., President Alice M. Kaplan (Mrs. Jacob M.), Executive Vice-President Lucy Danziger (Mrs. Frederick M.), Vice-President Jo Lauder (Mrs. Ronald), Vice-President Maureen Taylor (Mrs. Richard), Vice-President Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq., Secretary William I. Leffler, Treasurer

Dr. Robert Bishop, Director Patricia L. Coblentz, Assistant Director Laura Byers, Exhibition Coordinator Dia Stolnitz, Museum Coordinator Lillian Grossman, Secretary Kent Willingham, Clerk Marilyn Glass, Chairman, Friends Committee

Members Alice Burke (Mrs. James E.) Catherine G. Cahill Phyllis Collins Adele Earnest Margery G. Kahn (Mrs. Harry) Theodore H. Kapnek Jana Klauer (Mrs. Gerold F.L.) Susan Klein (Mrs. Robert) Ira Howard Levy Basil G. Mavroleon Cyril I. Nelson Kenneth R. Page, Esq. Diane Ravitch (Mrs. Richard) Karen S. Schuster (Mrs. Derek) Andy Warhol William E. Wiltshire III Trustees Emeritus Mary Allis Marian W. Johnson (Mrs. Dan R.) Louis C. Jones Jean Lipman (Mrs. Howard)


EDUCATION PROGRAM Suzanne Stern, Education Coordinator Susan Klein and Dorothy Kaufman, Docent Training Coordinators Phyllis Tepper, Marie DiManno, and Heather Hamilton, Outreach Coordinators Cynthia Schaffner, Correspondence Coordinator Priscilla Brant, Field Trips and Seminars Lucy Danziger, Docent Program Consultant THE MUSEUM SHOP STAFF Elizabeth Tobin, Manager Kevin Bueche Kay Mahootian Sally Gerbrick Phillida Mirk Hazel Osborn Ashey Durham Osman

THE CLARION STAFF Patricia L. Coblentz, Editor Robert Somers, Editorial Assistant Helaine Fendelman, Advertising Manager Jeanette Young, Art Director Neal Davis, Designer Ira Howard Levy, Designer Phototechnics, Typesetting Topp Litho, Printers


Growth and program development have been dramatic over the last year and much of the credit for the increased activity of the Museum is a direct result of intense personal interest and commitment from our dedicated Board of Trustees. The Old Glory Benefit, a trustee-sponsored special event held at South Street Seaport Museum comprised a handsome patriotic quilt show mounted by Kate and Joel Kopp and an evening of Music from Early America by Frederick R. Selch and The Federal Music Society. Many new friends and members joined our Museum family as a result of this gala. Trustee organizers of Old Glory were Jo Lauder and Catherine Cahill, who along with their hard-working committee, deserve special recognition for the evening's success. The Annual Bus Tour sponsored for members and friends by the Friends Committee of the Museum of American Folk Art once again provided the opportunity for New Yorkers to visit the Philadelphia University Hospital Antiques Show, one of America's most prestigious events of this type. Trustee Karen Schuster was the very effective chairman. Described elsewhere in this issue are detailed plans for Folk Art Festival Week in New York City. Mayor Edward Koch will issue a proclamation designating September 10-16 a time of city-wide celebration when the Museum of American Folk Art assumes leadership in the appreciation and understanding of the folk arts in the art capital of the world. Part of this week includes a very special antiques show - The Fall Antiques Show presented by Sanford Smith and Alison Mager at the Seventh Regiment Armory, Park Avenue and 66th Street. This initial presentation for the benefit of the Museum of American Folk Art will commence with a preview party co-hosted by Barbra Streisand and Joseph Papp. Reservations are limited so be certain to obtain your special preview tickets soon. Another important event during Folk Art Festival


Week is the international seminar devoted to the study of Shaker life in America which will be presented in the lecture galleries of Sotheby Parke Bernet. Distinguished scholars from across the country will gather to discuss those dimensions of Shaker life which cannot adequately be treated in the form of a Museum display. Special guests will include Shakers from the Sabbathday Lake community at Sabbathday Lake, Maine. Museum activities continue to generate recognition, both nationally and internationally. I am pleased to announce that the Museum has been awarded a generous grant from the Japan United States Friendship Commission to assist in touring the exhibition, "Small Folk: A Celebration of Childhood in American Folk Art," after its initial showing in New York City. Plans include presenting the show, curated by Sandra Brant and Elissa Cullman, at The Seibu Museum of Art in Tokyo, Japan, early in 1981 and in other cities in Japan as well. The Clarion has just been selected to receive the Mead Award of Merit in the 31st National Competition for the Graphic Arts. The citation accompanying the award is of special interest. It reads, in part: "We greatly admired both the design and contents of this fine issue, as well as your wise selection of typeface for the extensive amount of text matter. The articles are fascinating! The printing of its text pages in but one color effectively refutes a theory, held by some, that in order to be a successful graphic arts presentation, it must include the lavish use of four-color process. While the use of color in reproducing the works of art illustrated would have added to their



1. Mayor Edward Koch has designated September 10-16 Folk Art Festival Week in New York City. 2. Barbra Streisand, Co-Chairwoman of the Fall Antiques Show Benefit. 3. Joseph Papp, Producer of the New York Shakespeare Festival, Co-Chairman of the Fall Antiques Show Benefit. 3. 5

appeal, the lack of it in no way detracted from it." Development of the Museum professional staff continues at an impressive pace. Suzanne Stern has been appointed Education Coordinator and will assume responsibility for many of the educational activities previously administered by trustee Lucy Danziger. Susan Flamm recently joined the staff as Publicity Coordinator and through her fine efforts the Museum continues to maintain its high profile both nationally and internationally. Douglas Fischer, currently Director of the Regional Conference of Historical Agencies in New York, will join the Museum as Assistant Director - Finance early in September. Mr. Fischer brings to our institution extensive experience and through his skills our growth will continue. Museum interns during the summer have included Martha Cahn, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York; Dick Leong, The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Julia Liban, State University of New York at Albany, New York; Paula Radding, Syracuse University, New York; Robert Somers,


Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts; and Donna Stokes, State University of New York at Oneonta, New York. These talented young people have each in their own way added significantly to the Museum through their special projects which ranged from working with the press, cataloguing the permanent collection, organizing the photographic files, working with The Clarion, to assisting in the financial department. Internships are one way in which the Museum of American Folk Art is achieving its strong desire to focus upon education as a major part of general program development. I hope in the next few months to be able to announce the establishment of a graduate program in conjunction with a major university leading to a Master's Degree in the American folk arts. Discussions are currently being held with John C. Sawhill, President of New York University. Please be sure to save the week of September 10-16 for the Polk Art Festival for I know you will want to be involved with our many exciting programs. Dr. Robert Bishop Director

4. Susan Sutherland, public relations director for the Hyatt Hotels in Hawaii; Miss Hawaii for 1979, Sheron Le'i Husnani Bissen; Thomas K. Woodard and Blanche Greenstein, guest curators, at the gala opening for the special exhibition, "Hawaiian Quilts: Treasures of an Island Folk Art."

TRADE FIGURE life-size polychromed pine american early 20th century.



Sanford & Patricia Smith AMERICAN ANTIQUES—WESTERN SCULPTURE 1045 Madison Avenue at 79th Street, New York,New York 10021 (212)929-3121

Stein and Goldstein Carousel Horse, original paint and condition.

We invite you to our new expanded Gallery at 1045 Madison Avenue at 79th Street

Shaker Alfred sewing desk; maple and birch with curly ash drawer fronts.

Exhibiting in the Fall Antiques Show, Park Avenue Armory, New York City, Sept.12-16

Tues.-Sat. 11:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m.




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Sewing Desk,Enfield, N.H. Circa 1880-1890. Woods are Birds-eye Maple, Cherry, Walnut and Poplar. Essentially Victorian in feeling, a companion piece is part of the Philadelphia Museum of Art collection.


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Extremely fine and rare carved and painted wood American eagle, Wilhelm Schimmel,Cumberland Valley, Pennsylvania,c. 1870. Height 25 inches, wingspan 32 inches

Auction Saturday, September 15 at 10:15 am and 2 pm On view from Saturday,September 8 Catalogues will be available in September. Inquiries: Mrs. Nancy Druckman (212)472-3511 The standard commission charged to Sellers is 10%. All property sold is subject to a premium of 10% payable by all buyers as part of the purchase price.


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American Quilts and Textiles,Primitive Paintings and Folk Art 11

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Sept. 12-Oct. 19 American Standard Inc. 40 West 40th Street, New York Exhibition Center Mon.-Fri. 11-4


Pieced, Applique, and Amish Quilts Circa 1840-193() Mail address: 136 East 64 Street, New York, N.Y. 10021 (212)832-8181 15

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Back in March of 1976, the Ohio Antique Review began its successful feature, The Shaker Way, written by Associate Editor Charles Muller. That issue was our sixth one, and we were proud of its growing size — 44 pages. Today we're twice the size - the June, 1979 issue you see here was a fat 88 pages filled with more information about shows, auctions and Americana, from silver to pottery. Even Shaker pottery, with a new tidbit of research unearthed by Chuck Muller. And we're still the ONLY antiques publication carrying a REGULAR feature devoted to things Shaker. Since that first article, Chuck has covered stoves, corner cupboards, chairs, Ohio tables, prices, pottery, baskets, pieces at auction, collecting trends, and more prices. Searching through a seemingly inexhaustible store of knowledge to keep up with the growing interest in this unique expression of American culture, Chuck has kept our readers among the best-informed Shaker collectors and dealers around. We've kept pace with the rest of the market too, bringing you more news of shops, shows, auctions, trends, people, seminars, exhibits, everything that happens in the Midwest that is news to those everywhere interested in Americana. Our readers and advertisers are to be found from New England to California as well as in the Middle East. You can have all this and Shaker too, for $10.00 a year or $18.50 for two years; we publish monthly except January. Just send us your check, and we'll send you a subscription and a Shaker-generous bonus — your own copy of this June, 1979 issue with the article on Shaker pottery.




Send checks to: Ohio Antique Review Box 538 C Worthington, Ohio 43085






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The New York Shakers and Their Dwelling Places DR.C.EUGENE KRATZ President, The Shaker Heritage Society 2.

3. The term "Shakers," commonly used in reference to the United Society of Believers in the Second Appearing of Christ, originated as a mark of derision and disrespect. But, the lives and impact of Society members soon turned the term into a virtual synonym for multiple virtue, including perfection, patience, honesty, dependability and quality of life and workmanship. The "People Called Shakers," as Edward Deming Andrews referred to them', created a cultural, social, religious and economic ethos which even today presses its imprint into the fabric of American society, especially throughout those areas in which the Shaker communities began, flourished and declined. An examination of the places of their habitation, or "Dwelling Places," can provide a verbal and visual representation of the pragmatic impact created by the spiritual commitments of the Shakers and of the changes in their lifestyle and work wrought by periods of origin, affluence and decline. Shaker Beginnings The United Society of Believers in the Second Appearing of Christ--The Shakers--were an unusual group. They were called Christian and accepted many of the tenets held by traditional Christianity. But, they denied certain major elements of that faith. They were Americans by choice. But the Founders, who had just come from England to America, were considered by many fellow citizens to be traitors to a newly rising nation. They dealt with the rest of the World; but they considered its other citizens to be living less-than-perfect lives. So we must ask, "Who were these people and from where did they come?" Ideologically, the United Society of Believers can be traced to the thoughts of the Camisards of

France. In the mid-17th century, these people arose, expressing their religious beliefs through often violent emotional outbursts and conflict with the established churches. Persecutions beginning with the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 caused small bands of these early ecstatics to flee to other lands, including up-country England. In Manchester, in the mid-1740s their thoughts and patterns touched James and Jane Wardley, a husband and wife dissatisfied with the Quaker movement of England which they felt to be dead, lifeless and unemotional. James and Jane began to practice the Camisard style of emotionalism--and intensified and propagated it. Under their influence and teachings came Ann Lee, a young woman soon to be tragically bereft of four children in an undesired marriage and seeking emotional release from the bondage of life in the poorest sections of Manchester. It was this Ann Lee who was to become the guiding and motivating power behind this group as it grew slowly, but persistently, into a nuisance to the authorities and the established Church, soon reaching the point of such conflict that the group had to leave the environs of Manchester. And-move it did--to America under the visionary guidance of Ann Lee, who was to become "Mother Ann" to the thousands of faithful who would develop from and be drawn to her leadership and teachings. In July 1774, Ann, with eight of her followers, including her husband, set sail for the New World in the leaky vessel, the Mariah. On August 5, 1774, the small group landed in Manhattan, where they remained until the following year. In 1775, an advance party found outside of Albany, New York some swampy ground which could be leased cheaply from the Manor Rensselaerwyck. In 1776, the whole group, except for Ann's husband who had left them, moved permanently to Watervliet,

1. General View of Central Area, Watervliet Church Family 2. General View of Central Area, Watervliet North Family 3. General View of Central Area, Mount Lebanon Church Family Views 1, 2, and 3 illustrate the standardized central arrangement of Buildings for one Family.


wherein their lands lay and established the first Shaker Settlement in an area the Indians called Niskayuna, or "extended corn flats." In 1787, at Mount Lebanon, a group of the United Society first withdrew from the World to establish a separate community. The formal separation of the Niskayuna/Watervliet community followed only a few months later. Thus, historically, the origins of the Shaker movement must be attributed to New York State, where occurred the first landing, the first Settlement and the first withdrawn Communities. Shaker Withdrawal From the World During the early years of existence, the tenets of the United Society of Believers were largely unformed, the basic cardinal beliefs were unexpressed, the insistence on perfection was only a thought and the organizational framework had not yet been openly declared. Under "Mother Ann," as the Believers came to call her, such beliefs, practices, tenets and organizational concepts remained a thing of the heart--primarily her heart—and were not formalized. It was under the able leadership and organizational abilities of a fellow pilgrim and follower, James Whittaker; a converted local preacher, Joseph Meacham; and "Mother Lucy" Wright, that organization formally began and the Laws and Statements governing the Shaker movement were first formulated and codified. Under this leadership, four cardinal tenets were set forth as basic to the United Society of Believer faith: Confession of Sin, Celibacy, Common Possession of all Material Things, and the Perfection of Regeneration. At first, the Shakers lived among men and women of the World on their lands in the heart of Upstate New York. But, as they grew in faith, in definition of belief and in numbers, the World began to crowd in sufficiently to restrain them in the full exercise of their beliefs and practices. So, the Shakers withdrew to a separate existence in which they could seek to please God and serve Him without hindrance from the unbelievers whom Shakers termed the "World's People." Thus, the Shakers were essentially a group of Americans who, inspired by their religious persuasions, isolated themselves from the rest of the "People of the World" in separated communal villages composed of "Families" of Believers. However, the necessity for legal, economic and other essential contacts with the outside world could not be ignored. Thus, in the organizational structure of the Society, channels for maintaining essential contact with the World were provided. As the membership, productivity and commercial enterprises of the Shakers expanded, so the extent of contact between Shaker leaders and leaders of the World also expanded.


In similar fashion, as the peculiar worship practices of the Shakers became more widely known, greater exposure to the world followed; as the World's People increasingly made their way to the villages to observe the worship practices, whenever the Shakers would allow such visitations. Nevertheless, rather than providing to the World an acceptable religious persuasion, the Shakers came to be known for providing fine material items including such products as furniture, brooms, seeds, herbs, canned vegetables, dried sweet corn, leather goods, whips, boxes and baskets. The Shaker Search For Perfection in Utility As various objects came from the productive hands of the Shakers, each was created to be of the highest quality possible as a testimony of faith in God. Thus, Shaker-made products were much sought after and came to be the first large-scale demonstration of the adage later personified in the works of Fuller, Sullivan, and Wright who held that"Form follows function" and that the "Truest beauty is that of utility." In fact, the Shakers themselves expressed these very beliefs as aphorisms of their faith as they said that "Beauty rests on utility. That which has in itself the highest use possesses the greatest beauty."' The corollary to such expression soon became a basic tenet as the Shakers held that beauty was not to be sought for the sake of beauty only-- and that art for the sake of art was not appropriate to Shaker life, thought and practice. Elder Frederick Evans expressed the belief to one visitor in the early 1800s by stating that "The absurd and abnormal. It has no business with us. The divine man has no right to waste money upon what you would call beauty in his house or daily life while there are people living in misery."' The Revised Millennial Laws of 1845 solidly supports that position in its admonition that "Fancy articles of any kind or articles which are superfluously finished, trimmed or ornamented are not suitable for Believers, and may not be purchased or used; among which are...silver pencils,... gay silk handkerchiefs,...flowery painted clocks,... and many other articles too numerous to mention." The practical consequence of the twin beliefs that beauty was never to be deliberately sought and that the truest beauty is that which comes from utility became manifest in the Shaker intent and effort to make everything they created follow lines of perfection. Thus, their created and manufactured items came to be regarded as objects of art and things of beauty through the perfection of design, line and workmanship. Inspirational Drawings, produced during the Spiritual Emphases of approximately 1839-1859 are the nearest approach to intentionally created art

4. seen in Shaker efforts. It is difficult to say whether the Drawings were the effects of a Spiritual resurgence and presence--or, whether they were cultivated and used as a cause seeking to bring about the effect of Spiritual awakening and thus lead to greater growth rather than decline. Either way, the depictions by living Shakers of symbols representing the Spiritual World which now is and is to come remain as some of the most fascinating elements of Shaker creativity. As the Andrews stated it, "Whatever the source, the drawings are remarkable in that they reveal the heart of a folk, who, freed for a while to employ the medium, testified thereby to the simple beauty of their faith."5 Labels on Shaker herb, seed and vegetable containers can also be characterized as an art form. But, they constitute one of the least effective efforts and are considered to demonstrate no significant spiritual leadership in their design and production. Furniture is today the most widely known and

accepted single product which can be classed as a Shaker art form. It is characterized by lightness, delicate but strong turnings, solid joinings, grace and absence of unnecessary mass.

4. First Building at the South Family, Watervliet, 1880.

Search for Perfection in the Dwelling Places The Shakers extended their search for perfection beyond the daily objects of handwork. That search was also manifest in their places of dwelling. In that context, the term, "Dwelling Places," cannot be restricted to mean only actual places of personal residence for Society members, however beautifully these might reflect the emphasis on perfection. And, the term cannot be interpreted as in an architectural context. Rather, the term "Dwelling Place" refers to the entire environment and setting within which the Shakers "lived, moved and had their being." Thus, Shaker "Dwelling Places" included the houses of personal residence, the Meeting Houses, the housing for animals, the workshops, the gardens, the site, and even the arrangement of


buildings whose location on a site was also determined primarily by utility. Shaker leaders as early as Joseph Meacham described standardized building placement found satisfactory by multiple use. Commenting on the similarity among Community plans, one author has suggested that a Shaker picked up from one Community and transported instantly to another would feel no great disorientation, the basic plans were so similar.6 In an earlier writing, Charles Nordhoff also commented on this similarity among villages, noting that " their buildings...and in many other particulars, they are all nearly alike."7 Form and Function in Dwelling Places For ease of access, utility and efficiency, Shakers gathered their structures around a central axis, centering them around the Dwelling Houses of the brethren and sisters. Around those Dwellings grew the dwellings of the Ministry, the shops for brethren, shops for sisters, sales rooms, offices, various specialty work shops, laundry, barns and other accessory buildings. Generally, these gathered dwelling places were arranged with a road or .lane between, giving access to the buildings on either side of it, but not all village plans included such a road. A view of the Church Family Building Plan at Watervliet, dated 1838, by David A. Buckingham, depicts the gathered arrangement at that site, while early pictures of remaining buildings in New York Shaker Communities visually depict the gathered arrangements drawn by Buckingham at Watervliet and at other villages.' The general use of such an arrangement is commented on in verbal descriptions by visitors to sites outside of New York State. The Shaker Community of Alfred, Maine, for example is described as having dwelling places in separate buildings, of excellent repair, one line on each side of a main street.' A visitor to the Canterbury, New Hampshire Church Family in the later 1800s described the buildings there as being arranged on each side of the village street and including a Trustee House, a Post Office, a Printing Office, a School House, a Church, a Laundry and a Dairy.'" This centralized arrangement of buildings is also an excellent example of the manner in which form followed a function, only to have the form then further define the function. One must keep in mind that, in the Shaker work format, the actual place of residence and rest played a relatively minor part, for brethren and sisters spent comparatively little of their waking moments in the Dwelling House itself. They slept and ate there, then left for assigned work in other parts of their village. The structures in one Dwelling Area were designed to house and support one living unit of


Shakers, called a Family. As a Family grew numerically and in complexity of operations, so the number of structures grew in the central arrangement for that Family. As all available space in that grouping came to be filled with essential structures, new ones needed to house additional people or work functions could not be added. Thus, no new members could be added to that particular Family. At such a time, a new site was selected and a new Family unit was created, with its own gathered arrangement of Dwelling Places of various types. Thereby, the maximum size of a Family group was largely determined by the centralized arrangement which limited the number of structures that could be included in one site. Of course, the physical arrangement of Dwelling Places was but one factor leading to a decision to establish a new Family unit. Such a decision also required consideration as to the optimum number of members in the working and worshipping group called the Family. Change and Movement in Shakerism In a larger sense, the design, the arrangement, the construction techniques, the internal and external aesthetics all reflect and record the historical development, numerical growth and spiritual strength of the Shakers. However, the search for perfection within the Shaker Community, be it in dwelling places or other aspects, was not an overnight or immediate realization. It took place over a period of time. Actual change, movement, progression and development of the Society from one set of patterns in belief, practice, behavior and organization to another was generally accomplished gradually. Such change can be depicted most realistically as a smooth flow occurring over time, rather than as a sequence of distinct steps. Along such a continuum of change certain characteristics can be noted which enable us to divide the movement into several general phases. But, the exact point of transition from one period into another cannot be identified enough to mark specific dates. In fact, one clear characteristic of Shakers is that, while they were very similar in most respects, there was often a distinct time differential between the moment different communities adopted the same patterns. Thus, progress of life, order and characteristics of dwelling places was often different from one Community to another--and from one Family to another in the same Community. For example, at Watervliet, even after the Moses Johnson Meeting House with smooth Dutch Gambrel influence was completed at the Church Family, the first dwelling place built at the South Family was a sawn-board, one-room cabin. Nevertheless, observation of leadership, practice, economics, design and organization allow identifi-

5. cation of at least three major periods in Shaker history and development. These include a time of formation, a time of acceptance and a time of regression. For purposes of this discussion, we identify the three periods as a: Period of Origins or Establishment; a Period of Stability or Affluence; and a Period of Decline or Falling Away. The state of the arts, crafts and dwelling places of New York Shakers follows the same curve as do those three periods--developing, existing in full form, then falling away from previously established standards.

Period of Origins: The Period of Origins was truly a time of waiting--of incubation--of yet unrealized growth and expectations. It was a time, also, in which no clear form was revealed in the products of Shaker hands. But, these were years in which the Shakers had to grub out a meager existence from the swampy mire of their first leased land. They had to drain swamps and clear land for cultivation of crops to keep body and soul together. They had to live in simple log cabins. In short, they were primarily involved with staying alive physically; in having a roof over their heads to keep out snow and rain; and having

5. The Seed House of the Church Family at Watervliet shows how clean lines had effect even on working buildings.


walls around them to block out most of the winds. With their working hours consumed by manual labor required to maintain physical existence, the early originators of Shaker life and thought had little time to consider the form of Dwelling Place or other objects. They simply created living boxes in traditional form of the day, using timbers available around them as their basic materials. But, even during this time, they were concerned about the expansion of their beliefs. During this time of waiting, their "Mother Ann" constantly assured them that they would soon receive inquiries and new followers by the multitudes. And, her faith was rewarded. As the years rapidly passed, people began to come to the original Believers in increasing numbers. The enlarged group was able to move southward and obtain land more suited to their local needs. They were able to begin a second village at the Darrow Farm in Mount Lebanon, then to enter other lands to the east with the message.

Period of Affluence: By 1785, the progress of the movement was such that the group was able to free Brother Moses Johnson of Enfield, New Hampshire from other duties, enabling him, over the next decade, to design and begin erecting, or directing the erection of, ten Meeting Houses of delicate grace, balance, and elegance. This movement into aesthetically pleasing, functionally designed, yet simply constructed Dwelling Places for Worship marked the earliest beginning of the second period, the time of affluence and acceptability. As the Shakers became more affluent in finances, in acceptability, in people to work and in interpretive teaching, they could give more time, attention, and effort to creating Dwelling Places of more pleasing form. Thus, from the search for perfection in utility, Shaker Dwelling Places came to be characterized by the classic simplicity which comes to most minds today when reference is made to the Shaker building style. Basically derived from the World's style of the Federal period, the simplicity and classic lines of Shaker buildings stand today as monuments to form and beauty achieved in a search for perfection, according to their religious beliefs. In that search, structures were created to provide openness and easy access and egress. They were designed around the daily routine with no deliberate effort to make them beautiful. They sought to avoid all extraneous material, embellishment of line, and overwhelming mass. The revised Millennial Laws of 1845 gives some indication of the degree to which both exteriors and interiors of the Shaker Dwelling Places of the affluent period were prescribed. It dictates that "beading, moulding and cornices which are merely for


fancy may not be made by Believers,...odd or fanciful styles...may not be used...(nor may they) deviate widely from the common styles of building among Believers." The same law describes the colors of paint for all Shaker structures. Wooden buildings fronting the street were to be of lightest hue, but only the Meeting House was to be white. Interiors of residential dwelling houses were to have floors of reddish brown, if they were painted; while shop floors were to be a yellowish red.

Period of Decline. The third period, of decline or falling away, is marked by a reversal of the process noted earlier. The affluent stage was characterized by uplifted form following an increase in financial capability, numbers and acceptability. In the period of decline, a diminution in creativity, strength, and financial resourses followed a decline in numbers, the hiring of outside workers not dedicated to the perfection sought by true Shakers, reduced adherence to the Millennial Laws and chronological separation from the dedication of the Founders and early leaders. During this third period, the Dwelling Places of the Shakers began to show departures from the "common styles of buildings among Believers" referred to above. Externally, door sheds were expanded into full porches. Sleek roof lines sprouted Victorian carvings. The single dormer became a building-wide raised-roof protrusion. Colors departed from the schemes set forth in Millennial Laws. Internally, the changes of decline were also manifested as marks of the World's People intruded. Linoleum and Oriental carpet covered wooden floors previously painted or kept in spotlessly gleaming natural tone. Meeting House floors formerly sand-scrubbed by the young women of the Society were painted. The smooth surface of wooden or plaster wall and ceiling was often covered by the embossed tin so pleasing to the World's People. Prescribed Millennial Law colors were exchanged for colors of World preference. Household furnishings conformed to personal taste and more frequently included previously forbidden items such as multiple mirrors and devices of entertainment. At this point in decline, Shakers increasingly mingled with the world. Departed leaders were replaced by equally dedicated people, but there were simply not enough Shakers left to do the things which needed to be done. Hired people kept fields and raised crops, and made furniture. And, through it all, the Shaker Spirit diminished in total influence as numbers significantly dropped. Individually, Shaker people were gracious, loving and concerned. There just were not enough of them.


Present Status of Shaker Dwelling Places What remains today of the Dwelling Places of the Shakers? What physical evidences remind us of the presence and influence of this unusual group? At their peak, some 6,000 Shakers occupied 19 communities dispersed throughout the eastern half of the nation, from New York to Maine, back to Ohio and south to Kentucky. Of those sites, only two remain in Shaker hands. Some buildings and entire settlements have disappeared totally through the fires of carelessness or arson; through the indifference of neglect and lack of sensitivity and through deliberate demolition to "make way for progress." Some Society settlements have undergone transition in varying degrees and are being put to alternate uses in such capacities as schools, convents, prisons, nursing homes, private residences, and apartments. Two Shaker villages have experienced revival through loving hands and are now operated as Shaker restorations.

The Watervliet Niskayuna Dwelling Places What of the New York Shaker Dwelling Places where it all began? What, in particular, has happened to the Dwelling Place of the Shakers of Watervliet? There were three Shaker locations in New York State: at Groveland in northwestern New York State; Mount Lebanon in the east near the Massachusetts border; and Watervliet, eight miles northwest of Albany, the state capital. Groveland was the last of the three sites to be established and the first to be abandoned. Originally founded in 1826 at Sodus Point, the village moved to Groveland in 1836 and closed in 1892 when the residents moved to Watervliet. The structures have now largely disappeared, with the remaining buildings and site in use as part.of the New York State Department of Mental Hygiene System. Mount Lebanon was the second village to be created, the site of the first withdrawn Community and the last of the three to be closed. Those buildings still standing are in use as a private boarding school and as a residence for a small

6. The Trustee House of the Church Family at Watervliet demonstrates the effect of the porch on the clean lines of the earlier building.


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religious group. Watervliet, or Niskayuna, was the very first Shaker settlement, founded in 1775; the second site to be formed into a withdrawn community (in 1787); and the second of the New York communities to be closed, with the last Shaker leaving in 1938. The Watervliet site is fascinating in that it so clearly illustrates the evolution from beginning to affluence to decline and also illustrates the current fate of Shaker Dwelling Places through loss, adaptive use and restoration. Restoration versus non-restoration usage of the area. In mid-1970, a Site Utilization Study was done to explore some restorative or adaptive uses of certain existing structures. However, most of the remaining lands and structures remain in the hands of private owners at this time. In late 1977, the present non-profit Shaker Heritage Society was created as the focal point of efforts toward acquisition, restoration and operation. It is the intent of that Society to enhance and increase public awareness of the Shaker Heritage and to acquire, restore, and operate part of the Old Watervliet/Niskayuna Shaker Site as the historic, visitors', and scholarly center mentioned above. It is altogether fitting that such efforts be fruitful. Watervliet has been well-termed the "Jerusalem of Shakerdom." This Dwelling Place exemplifies the total pattern set forth in the search for perfection in all things through arts, crafts and dwelling places. At Watervliet can be seen evidences of the Period of

Origins, Period of Affluences, and Period of Decline. At Watervliet can be shown the effect of loss, adaptation and restoration. Here, Mother Ann lived and began her ministry. Here, she died and here she is buried. Here stand visible reminders of the heritage that her followers created through their dedication to the service of God. Here the Shaker lands and dwelling places are at one of the major crossroads of east-west and north-south travel in the northeast. Here a Shaker site is accessible easily by road, rail, water, and air. Here can be created a restoration which can give support to all other such restorations by focusing attention on the origins of the Shakers and the heritage they left in a major, capital district. Thus, we find ourselves feeling much as Abraham Lincoln might have felt at Gettysburg. Standing safely in the midst of a great field not long before torn asunder by shell and bullet and stained with the blood of valor, sacrifice, and dedication, Lincoln declared that it was not fitting for those present to dedicate that land but rather that they should be there dedicated by the blood of the brave men who fought and died there. That same feeling is what the Watervliet/Niskayuria restoration effort is all about. Thankfully, we have not been engaged in a great civil struggle and we've not seen thousands of lives cast away in divisiveness. We're not forced to stand on the scene of armed conflict. Yet, as we face the disappearing Dwelling Places


of the Shakers and as we sense the presence of those dedicated men and women who have gone before us, who have performed in the search for perfection, whose search manifested itself by transforming the very items of daily existence from the mundane into art forms; as we come to understand the continuing impact of those lives--then we feel that it is not really fitting for us to seek to dedicate those Shaker Dwelling Places. Rather, it is for us to be dedicated by the memories and evidences remaining--and through that dedication, realize how great will be the loss of something vital and valuable if efforts toward restoration should fail. The Challenge Today, the Covenant Rolls of Shakers contain the names of only nine Sisters, living in two locations. Thus, the full circle has come: nine arrived-nine remain. Yet, these gentle folk have left a gracious heritage. It is now fitting that we be dedicated by that heritage, that we talk of the arts, crafts and dwelling places of those friends—that we establish a temporary memorial to that heritage. And--it is fully fitting that we move to recognize the significance of the Shaker Dwelling Places permanently by supporting restoration efforts. We can understand the decline in Dwelling Places. We can appreciate the affluent style. We can recall with pride the period of origins. And, through it all we can, in our own way, continue


the search for perfection and say that it was good that these, our Shaker Friends, dwelt among us.

NOTES 1. Andrews, Edward Deming. The People Called Shakers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1953. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1963, title. 2. Andrews, Edward Deming and Faith. Shaker Furniture; Craftsmanship of an American Communal Sect. 1937. Reprint. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1964, p. 21. 3. Nordhoff, Charles. The Communistic Societies of the United States. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1966, p. 164. 4. Shaker Millennial Laws: Revised Version of 1845. Part III, Section IV. 5. Andrews, Edward Deming and Faith. Visions of the Heavenly Sphere. Charlottesville, Va.: Henry Francis DuPont Winterthur Museum and the University Press of Virginia, 1969, P. 5. 6. Sprigg, June. By Shaker Hands. New York: Alfred A. Knopf and Co., Inc., 1975, p. 91. 7. Nordhoff, Charles. Communistic Societies of the United States, p. 79. 8. Buckingham, David A. "A Delineation or View of the Village Called Church Family." Albany. 1838. (In the collection of the New York State Museum, Division of Historical and Anthropological Services) 9. Robinson, Charles Edson. The Shakers and Their Homes. Canterbury, N.H.: The Shaker Village, Inc., 1976, p.90. 10. Robinson, Charles Edson. The Shakers and Their Homes, pp. 109-113. 11. Shaker Millennial Laws; Revised Version of 1845. Part IV, Section IX.

8. The Ministry Room Door of the Church Family at Mount Lebanon illustrates a mixture of early classic lines of structure and the later intrusion of Victorian design during the period of decline. 9. The Attic Storage Room of the West Family at Watervliet shows the effect of the search for perfection even in structural members and storage not generally visible.



We labor with our hands and with our hearts to bring the higher conditions of happiness to each other. Mt. Lebanon Cedar Boughs Introduction Over two centuries old, the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, more commonly known as the Shakers, represents the most successful and productive religious communal experience in America. The sect, originating in England among a group of Quakers influenced by the French Prophets, was founded by Ann Lee. Eldress Marguerite Frost of the Canterbury, New Hampshire, community explained, "At that time in history woman was looked upon as incapable of being educated. The world considered that the brain of a woman was too light for much learning. She had no right over her own property, her children, or herself. Her husband could lawfully beat her if he used a stock no thicker than his thumb. Certainly no one whom she knew felt that Christ could dwell in a woman's heart."2 And when in 1770 Ann was put into prison for "profaning the Sabbath," she found the Secret of Life. She discovered that in the depths of the human spirit resides the latent Living Christ, the Christ of all ages, of all people regardless of sex. Also, she believed that no relationship whatsoever can be allowed to stand between the soul and God. Earthly marriage must give way so that the soul may be joined to Christ. Later, accompanied by 8 loyal disciples, she arrived in this country in 1774 and established the first Shaker settlement at Niskayuna or Watervliet, New York. By the spring of 1780 visitors were coming in crowds to see and hear her teachings. Many remained to become Believers and followed the faith the rest of their lives. The movement spread to other parts of New York including New Lebanon (called Mount Lebanon after 1860) and Groveland as well as to other states. But it is the New York communities that we will survey because here is the cradle of Shakerism. And it is the Shakers' productive activities, called "hand labor," their sacred and honorable commitment, that we will highlight.


Consecrated labor was the foundation of the Shaker beliefs. It was emotionally depicted by Shaker Charlotte Byrdsall. "It is the highest mark that can be placed upon our Zion home...How noble is the thought of elevated labor! The throbbing heart of the toiling millions of earth's children, with trusting hope, and uplifted eyes, are looking for the dawn of a brighter day."' And it is this principle of labor that is perhaps the keystone of the whole religious phenomenon, which "lays the foundation of joys beyond the tomb."4 The fusion of spiritual with temporal values may seem contradictory to the uninformed but that is to miss the point entirely. Shaker beliefs and work-style related to each other in a very fundamental way. Active labor was stamped on every aspect of life. Everything was not, however, subordinate or inferior to religion. To the Shaker, there was no concrete division between work and religion. The heavenly spirit imbued the whole of one's life and gave it meaning from within. Labor was not a fetish unto itself; the brethren and sisters worked steadily and diligently, taking care of their efforts. With their hands the Shakers worked to achieve a strong temporal order and in worship they labored to make the order a spiritual kingdom where true principle shall triumph in righteousness. In her instructions for the increase of the gospel among the Believers, Ann Lee used to say "the gospel is the greatest treasure that souls can possess; go home and be faithful; put your hands to work and give your hearts to God." Hand labor was of itself an integral aspect of the process of attaining God. Thus, great pains were taken by Mother Ann and the Elders to instruct Believers in the care and management of temporal matters. They were taught to be industrious, to be productive and thrifty, to be kind and charitable to the poor. These were considered matters of importance in order to secure a spiritual blessing. For it was always held up as a doctrine of truth that those who were unfaithful in temporal matters could not find protection of God in their own spiritual travel, which was, after all, the true riches of a

Shaker's life. Work was then only a channel through which to demonstrate the faith. Shaker members in good standing consistently expressed themselves in a balanced program of work and worship. With this in mind, we cannot then be surprised by the high quality and inventiveness of the Shaker industries. To fully understand a Shaker product, we must not be content to examine solely the product itself but must look at it within the frame of reference in which it was created. The 19th-century observer was able to record the Shakers at work and it is to their writings that we look for glimpses of the Shaker commitment. Communal historian Charles Nordhoff in 1875 described Mount Lebanon where "all the members are equally holden, according to their several abilities to maintain one united interest and therefore all labor with their hands in some useful occupation for the mutual comfort and benefit of themselves and each other and for the general good of the society or family to which they belong. Ministers, elders and deacons all without exception are industriously employed in some manual occupation, except in the time taken up in the necessary duties of their respective callings.'" He noted that even the Ministry at that time, Daniel Boler, Giles Avery, Ann Taylor and Peggy Reed, were observed working at basket-making. With the exception of those too old or too infirm, every adult was expected to work at manual labor. This applied also to the leaders. The Shakers felt this was as it should be and pointed out that Jesus had been a carpenter and Peter a fisherman. Whereas the non-Shaker might wonder at what could be imposed upon individuals to make them work so hard, it was not a rule that people shirked from. It was a moral value that all Shakers joyously upheld. The so-called "bread and butter" or "winter" Shakers who joined the Society in hard times and thought they would have an easy time of it, often left of their own accord because they simply did not fit into the dynamic work pattern. "You must not lose one minute of time, for you have none to spare" was an adage that was strictly adhered to. The same interior commitment that led the Believers to work industriously was also responsible for the excellent quality of their work. Whether a product was a chair, a broom, or a bottle of medicine, it was always the highest standard. Even in a small package of seeds, the buyer could be assured he was getting choice seeds and not an inferior mixture. In all the many kinds of Shaker products and items of their craftsmanship, whether medicine, foodstuffs, etc., the concept of goodness was inherent and carried the implication that mere ade-

1. Articles from the priced catalogue, Products of Intelligence and Diligence, published in 1908 by the Shakers of Mount Lebanon, New York. A wide variety of items were made from woven poplarwood fabric; these were intended for sale either by mail or in the Society's store. This ingenious material seems to have been exclusively a Shaker product. (Collection of Cynthia and Jerome Rubin)



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quacy was not a high enough standard. As perfectionists, the Shakers considered themselves better than the World's people in all temporal as well as spiritual matters. They sought to attain excellence which included a sense of permanence for all products that would allow any tangible item to stand forever on its own intrinsic merit. "Do all your work," Mother Ann Lee said, "as though you had a thousand years to live, and as you would if you must die tomorrow." The industries of the New York Shakers were numerous. As an outgrowth of their agricultural foundation, the medical, seed, and foodstuffs they produced were, at the beginning, products for their own needs but soon any excess was offered for sale, and, finally, many items were produced specifically to earn a living. Eldress Anna White stated, "the Shakers were the first in this country to introduce botanical medical practice. The first roots, herbs and vegetable extracts for medicinal purposes placed on the market having borne the Shaker stamp."째 Shaker interest in herbs and medicinal plants can be traced to around 1800. William Proctor, editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy reported in the January 1852 issue his interview with Shaker Edward Fowler. He told Proctor how in 1822 Drs. E. Harlow and G.K Lawrence of the Mount Lebanon Society "gave their attention to the business and introduced a more systematic arrangement and scientific manner of conducting it especially as to the seasons for collection, varieties and method of preparation. Since their time, the business has rapidly increased and especially within the last ten years. We believe the quantity of botanical remedies used in this country, particularly of indigenous plants, has doubled in less than that time."째 At that time there were 50 acres of physic gardens in Mount Lebanon all planted with different plants, including belladonna, poppies, lettuce, sage, summer savory, dock, marjoram, burdock, valerian, horehound aconite, hyoscyamus and taraxacum as well as some 50 minor varieties including rue, borage, hyssop, feverfew and pennyroyal. They collected about 200 varieties of indigenous plants and purchased some 30 to 40 others from other parts of the country and Europe, many of which were "not recognized in the pharmacopoeia or the dispensatories but which are called for in domestic practice and abundantly used."" The drying and storing of so many plants required a lot of space and several buildings including an herb house were constructed and used for the purpose. The herb house was described by Proctor as "a neat structure about 120 feet long by 38 feet wide, two stories high with a well lighted basement and airy garret." He continues to describe the medicinal operation


as only a first-hand witness can: "The basement is devoted to the pressing, grinding and other heavy work, whilst at one end the steam boiler is placed. The first story is used for packing, papering, sorting, printing and storing the products, whilst the second story and loft are used exclusively for drying and storing. Being well lighted and airy, these rooms are well fitted for the purpose. Racks of bundles are conveniently arranged along the centre on which the herbs previously garbled are placed to dry, which is rapidly accomplished by the free circulation of air that is maintained throughout. The sides of the second story room are arranged with large and tight bins, in which the plants are put as soon as they are properly desiccated, until removed from pressing. "Some plants which are very succulent, or viscid, and which are difficult to properly cure, as conium, hyoscyamus and garden celendine, are desiccated in a drying room, constructed for the purpose where a temperature of about 115째 F. is maintained. Most of the roots are dried in this way, after being sliced. "The Society have three double presses in constant operation, and occasionally use two others. Each of these is capable of pressing 100 lbs. daily, although of some kinds of material which require but little time 'to set', three times this quantity can be packed. "We were shown into the evaporating room where the vacuum apparatus is stationed. This consists of a globular copper vessel supported on cast iron columns attached to the floor, about the size of an ordinary sugar vacuum pan. The bottom is jacketted for applying steam heat, whilst there is an interior false top extending from the sides up nearly to the manhole at top, which prevents the vapor which may condense on the interior of the proper top from falling back into the bowl of the evaporator. They at present, have no steam engine, but use a peculiar arrangement for exhausting the air from the pan, which consists in attaching the condensing vessel to a vertical tube 30 or 40 feet high, in which a column of water is constantly and rapidly descending, the effect of which is to produce a constant suction, of sufficient force to keep the evaporator sufficiently exhausted. As the apparatus was not in operation during our visit, we had no opportunity of observing the condition of the barometer guage (sic). The water used for this purpose derived from a small dam fed by mountain springs in the higher portion of their demesne."" It appears that the Shakers contributed greatly to the manufacture of American pharmaceuticals at this time with such items as extracts, inspissated juices, essential oils, distilled and fragrant waters. According to George Hoffman in an article entitled "Mt. Lebanon Medicine Makers" published in The Pharmaceutical Era in 1920, the

2. Herb press from Watervliet, New York. (New York State Museum Collection, Albany; photograph, courtesy of Town of Colonie, New York) 3. Packaged herbs. Inspissated means thickened. The herb industry at Watervliet was considerable. Over 1827 items were advertised in catalogues. Watervliet, New York. (New York State Museum Collection, Albany; photograph, courtesy of Town of Colonie, New York)



Shakers propagated medicinal plants as early as 1825 (some sources dispute this and indicate that 1800 is the date and that actual sales began in 1825), long before such cultivation became widely spread in the United States. They also devised the famous system for taking down medicinal extracts "in vacuo" and their vacuum apparatus was a model for the great medicine industry of today. The Shakers first pressed herbs into small packages, and have sold as much as 75 tons of drugs, made up in small ounce packages in one year." In addition to the staple herbal and medicinal items, the Shakers met an ever-increasing demand for new medicinal products. The Shaker almanacs published in co-operation with Andrews Judson White are filled with advertisements and glowing testimonials for these medicines which were produced by the Shakers." The Shaker Extract of Roots, also known as Mother Seigel's Syrup, was a bottled fluid extract "in very strong and concentrated form" equal to a pound of herbs. It was alleged to have many healthful properties including the opening of "all the natural passages of the body" to cast out disease and build up the body with pure blood and sound nourishment. It was said to reach all diseases by purification and nourishment and cure indigestion, dyspepsia and all affections of the liver, bladder, and kidneys. "It is the most useful product of the Shakers' knowledge of the curative powers of a mountain of herbs." Sugar-coated Shaker Family Pills were advertised as being so necessary to the family's medicine chest that no family could afford to be without them. For constipation and sluggish liver, "they break up colds and fevers, and do away with bilious disorders. People who buy them once accept them as the best Cathartic Pill in the world." The Shakers were so enthused over the curative quality of the Shaker Asthma Cure that they offered a sample package free of charge and promised that "quiet refreshing sleep" would ultimately follow its use. Bottles of the liniment, Pain King, were sold for bruises, sprains, and wounds. No family could be fully provided against harm of daily accidents or "disasters" without it. Shaker Soothing Plasters were porous plasters of linen covered with India rubber. Used as a cure for pains in the back, chest, and sides, they were advertised as giving immediate relief. In 1884, their price was 25 cents each. "They never produce a blister, but merely draw through the skin the underlying inflammation that causes the pain from which the sufferer desires relief." The New York Shakers' list of successful medicines is impressive. Others include Norwood's Tincture of Veratrum Viride, made from American hellebore, a perennial herb. It was considered a calming remedy for irritabilities of the vascular


system and a pain killer; Compound Concentrated Syrup of Sarsaparilla; Digestive Pills for indigestion or dyspepsia; Improved Vegetable Renovating Pills, a safe and powerful cathartic; the Pthisis Eradicator, new cure for consumption; Seven Barks, a mixture of fluid extracts as tinctures; Shaker Cough Syrup based on wild cherry bark; Shaker Hair Restorer which restores gray hair to its original color; Imperial Rose Balm "unequalled for cleaning teeth, healing sore or spongy gums, curing pimples and also excellent for cleaning kid gloves"(!); the Shaker Vegetable Remedy for curing headaches and constipation; Shakers' Rose Cream for removing freckles and aiding in the relief of painful sunburn; Shakers' Tooth Ache Pellets; and Laurus Eye Water for the cure of acute inflammations of the eyes. Was it unusual for the Shakers to be able to produce such effective medicines? According to the Shaker Almanac of 1888, "By reason of their pure lives, the Shakers, are able to read the hearts and minds of men more gross and sensual than themselves. This being so, why should they not also be able to understand the character of disease and how to cure it better than those who have no insight into nature's mysteries." The Shaker garden seed industry was a natural complement to the medicinal herb industry and probably predated it by a few years. Manuscript sources cite 1795 as the first year garden seeds were systematically raised at Mount Lebanon. They had supposedly been sold prior to that at Watervliet as early as 1790. In those early years, seeds had been sold in bulk usually out of wooden barrels. The Shakers were the first to package seeds in individual paper packets. Ken Kraft in the story of the Burpee Seed Company, Garden to Order, states that the Shakers were "superb husbandmen and may have been the first to offer seeds in small paper envelopes, the cornerstone of today's big mail-order seed business, which could not of course, get under way before there was an adequate mail service, a 19th century development."" According to Edward Deming Andrews in The Community Industries of the Shakers (Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1932), from 1811-1840, the seed business was the chief industry at Watervliet with the sales amounting to thousands of dollars annually. In Mount Lebanon, the seed business gradually took on greater importance with an annual production circa 1815 in excess of 2,000 pounds which provided an income of well over $2,000. In the first 25 years of operation by the Church Family of Mount Lebanon, over 37,000 pounds of seeds were raised at a market value of over $33,000. In 1835 the first Gardener's Manual was issued by the Mount Lebanon Shakers. According to the foreword, the purpose of the booklet was

4. Labelfor Butter Beans. The packaging of vegetables in tin cans was a giant step in the country's march toward progress and was an important Shaker industry. (New York State Museum Collection, Albany; photograph, courtesy of Town of Colonie, New York)




5. Tin can, lid, and label for "Hermetically Sealed" green peas. According to an 1859 account book, the peas were first shelled and "riddled," or put through a coarse sieve. After parboiling, they were placed in tins, and the caps, "perforated (by) a very small hole for ventilation," were soldered onto the cans. The holes were also sealed with solder, but after the cans had been boiled for two hours the holes were touched with the soldering iron to allow the escape of steam. The holes were resoldered, and the cans boiled two hours longer. The specially designed tin cans were manufactured at the Shaker tin shop on the road to the river farm. (New York State Museum Collection, Albany; photograph, courtesy of Town of Colonie, New York; caption from Recapturing Wisdom's Valley by D. M. Filley) 6. Shaker packaging began with wooden buckets and barrels and then progressed to glass jars and "hermetically sealed" tin cans. This tin can label for Fresh Tomatoes was but one product produced by the Watervliet, New York, community, Anna Case, Trustee. (New York State Museum; photograph, courtesy of Cynthia and Jerome Rubin)





"to enable our trading customers, while furnishing their assortment of Garden seeds, to afford instructions, at a trifling expense to such of their customers as may wish to obtain some practical information relative to the raising and management of those valuable kitchen vegetables which are considered the most useful and important in a family."'' Some 70 assorted varieties of culinary vegetable seeds were offered. Later, in the Annual Catalogue and Amateur's Guide to the Flower and Vegetable Garden, 1886 edition, the Shakers explained how their reliability and integrity should give utmost confidence to the consumer for their product. "Very few of the seed dealers raise the seeds they sell; consequently, they know very little of their quality. Nearly every variety of seeds that can be successfully raised in this climate is either grown by us or under our immediate supervision. We exercise the greatest care that all seeds sold by us shall be true to name and of the best quality."" In this catalogue there were offered 204 different varieties of garden vegetables, including 18 varieties of peas and the introduction of Shakers' Early Sweet Corn, prized for its "extreme earliness, great productiveness and largeness of ear." Eighteen varieties of medicinal and sweet herbs were offered, all at 5-cents a package, and 398 varieties of annual, biennial, and perennial flowers were available including 8 colorful varieties of phlox Drummondii, considered the "finest annual in cultivation" of which a good bed "is a sight that dazzles the eye with its brilliancy." The Shaker seed industry was important not only for the Shakers but for all our agricultural history as well. The Shakers helped to develop new varieties and to sustain a record of a high quality product at a fair price. Shaker seeds were sold in country stores throughout the United States and were instrumental in the development of American agriculture. The business of drying sweet corn is a related one, which began at Mount Lebanon in 1828 and continued throughout the century. Andrews says that "although it is well known that the Indians knew the art of drying corn for food, the Shakers were said to be the first to engage in the occupation on a considerable scale." In the April 1879 issue of the Manifesto, the entire operation of producing dry sweet corn is explained. "It was cooked by boiling on the cob, in a large iron kettle; taken from thence, cut off with knives and dried in the sun, on boards. In 1840 the first dryhouse was erected, having runways extending out from it, for large platforms on wheels to pass in and out, thus more easily caring for the corn, exposing to the sun, and preserving it from the rains, or dews by night. On


these platforms the corn was spread very thickly, and raked at intervals to let the warm air percolate every kernel. It was a slow and tedious process."" The problem was obviously with the weather because the success or failure of the crop depended on the sun's rays. A cold or rainy day could make the batch sour. Then extra help would be added to stir it more frequently with the hope that the sun would come out and dry it. But the Manifesto indicated better times were in store for the corn's manufacture with subsequent mechanized machines and quoted from an article in the Chatham Courier: "Only a small portion of the corn is grown upon the farms belonging to the community, but contracts are made with farmers throughout the town who deliver the husked corn at prices ranging from sixteen to twenty dollars a ton and nearly all the families are busied in taking care of it during a portion of August and September. The establishment at the Second Family is perhaps as extensive as any. Here Clinton Brainard—most genial and gentlemanly of Shakers—presides and has reduced the work to a method which seems absolute perfection. Work begins very early in the morning, for the ten-hour plan does not obtain here just at this time. The farmer drives his load of husked corn, carefully covered from dust and sun, upon the platform scales, is weighed, then passes into a building where ready hands pick the ears into small square baskets. They receive none but perfect ears, excluding all less than four inches in length. If an ear is too mature, it is used for seed. If any be too small or mouldy or otherwise exceptionable, the farmer must take home a lunch for his porkers. The baskets of corn are closely packed upon an elevator, a rope is pulled and the engine in the basement lowers them into a steam box, where they are subjected to about six minutes of rather intense cooking. "This accomplished, a bell rings, and they rise, pass the first floor, steaming from their bath, to the second floor, where they are removed from the platform, which returns to repeat its office. The second floor is devoted to removing the corn from the cob. Here are three machines operated by steam, each capable of removing the corn from forty-five ears per minute. The machines are fed directly from the baskets, while the cobs shoot through an inclined tube into the carts, and are drawn away. The machines seem to belong to the workingman's party inasmuch as they will not work - sometimes. They are a new and novel invention, which does not seem to be quite perfected as yet. Quite as interesting, if less rapid, are the movements of some comely Shaker girls, who, in an adjoining room, by the aid of a peculiar series of fixed knives and the deftest of white hands, make the machine seem rather inferior after all."

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7. Broadside advertising some 79 varieties of Shaker's seeds all priced at 6 cents (each paper), circa 1848. (Collection of Cynthia and Jerome Rubin)

NEW-LEBANON, COLUMBIA CO., N. Y. 4 ,. ,,,-4110t1IP••illF4D-4-'NJ The following are selected from the numerous varieties of Culinary Vegetables, as most useful, choice, and best calculated to repay the expense of cultivation, and as such they will prove themselves,

Swe,t or Sugar. Corn • • - Early rairukt. Beans -lluTiDiw.f (*ratiberrv, Or Large Butter. R1111111112' Clapboart .I, or Case Knife. White. or Kidney. Early White Bush. • • • • • • Early White Mountain Bush. Early Purple Bush. • • • • • • Early China Red-Eye Bush. Peas— Early Kents. • • • • • • Tall Sugar (edible pods.) Large White Marrowfat, Early Frame, or True June. • • • • • • Early Washington. Pumpkin—Large Cheese. Beet — Mangel-Wurzel, (very large.) French Yellow Sugar. • • • • White French Sugar, or Mesita. Long Dark Blood. • • • • • Early Bassino,(fine for table use.) Early Blood Turnep. Early Red Scarcity. Onion—White Portugal. Yellow Dutch. Large Red. Parsnep—Long White. Carrot—Early Horn. Long Orange. Large Long White. Spinage—Round Leaved. Cucumber—Early Frame. • • • • • • Early Cluster. Extra Long. Long Green. Watermelon—Large Long-Island. Muskmelon—Long Yellow. Early Nutmeg. • • Green Citron. Squash—Winter Crookneck. • • • . • Summer Crookneek. • • • •• • Golden Bush, or Scollop. sweet Potato, or Sugar. • • Valparaiso, or Spanish.

l. T.inkard. Wiril.• Fiat liuteh. • Red Top, or Striped Leaf. Ilittahagn, or Yellow Sweedish. Radish—Short Top Scarlet. Scarlet Turner) Rooted. Large Dutch. Long Salmon. Black Spanish, or Winter. Peppergrass—Double Curled. Rhubarb, or Pie Plant. Vegetable Oyster, or Salsify. Nasturtium, Lettuce—White Loaf. Early Curled. Green Ice Coss. Large Cabbage Head. • • • Frankfort Head. Large Green Head. I Cabbage—Early York. Early Sugar Loaf. Large Drumhead Winter. ...• Green Globe Savoy. Red Dutch (for pickling.) Cauliflower—Fine Early. Celery—White Solid. parsiey_lionlile Curled. Sage-- F:tigl Bummer Savory. Egg Plant—Purple. Pepper—Bell, or Ox Heart. • • • • • Large Sweet, Tomato—Large Red. Large Yellow. •• • Asparagus—Giant. Saftun—American. Turnep

AMOUNT. Papet,. at fi Box

Customers who take seeds to sell on Commission, will confer a favor by observing what kinds sell best in their respective neighborhoods, and by sending orders calculated accordingly.

N. B. Orders should be forwarded in July pr-ceding the time of sale, addressed to EDWARD FOWLER, Agentfor the Society.


"The corn falls into larger baskets, which are placed upon a car and then rolled along a track which connects, by means of a long bridge, the building we have just left with the kiln. The corn is then placed in long shallow pans and subjected to an even heat from the roaring furnaces below. In this manner two kilns full are dried in twentyfour hours. The dried corn is then passed through a mill which winnows from it every particle of silk or husk which may be with it, and placed in a large bin. A tube passes from this to the lower story. A barrel is placed on the scales, a slide pulled in the conductor and the barrel filled to a certain weight. It is then headed, marked and is ready for shipment. In this manner they expect to fill twelve hundred barrels this season. They also put up a fine shelf package for grocers' retail trade. Every step is surprisingly neat, and unlike many establishments, seeing the preparation actually gives one a relish for the thing prepared.'"' It is obvious from the industries already discussed that women and children were important in the industrial structure of the community. Although women worked solely in some industries, such as sewing, weaving and cloak-making, they were integral parts of others, such as the herb, seed, and food industries. Often their name became synonymous with the unsullied reputation of the craft itself. The Shaker theology afforded complete equality to women. Ann Lee believed that by granting equal rights to women, she would correct an essential injustice in the existing social order. She also believed that God is eternal unity, one in being, male and female. She came to know that women, too, could receive the spirit of Christ. This was an essential factor in the economic order of the Society. The manufacture of Fancy Goods was an industry which appealed to the 19th-and early 20thcentury tourist, who visited the Shaker community while on tour in the Berkshire region and Lebanon Springs. In a 1902 advertising brochure for the celebrated hotel, Columbia Hall, "the gem of the Berkshires" at Lebanon Springs, the Shakers are described as a religious sect "visited annually by thousands of strangers, who take great interest in their unusual manner of living and worship. Visitors are received into the Society's various workshops and gardens throughout the week.' 22 Poplar-work was an ingenious Shaker craft that seems to have been exclusively theirs. In order to fashion the varied boxes and assorted items out of the poplar woven fabric, a lot of work had to be done to reach the final stage. Poplar trees were cut and sawed into 24-inch lengths; the wood had to be kept frozen at all times so it would produce a very smooth shaving. Split shavings were im-


mediately discarded. The sticks were further planed into very thin strips and processed by being straightened out and dryed. Next, the weaving began. A woven cloth-like fabric was produced onto whose wrong side a plain white paper was pasted for strength and to prevent raveling. Lengths and widths were cut into the proper dimensions for the different articles of boxes, accessories, and trays. Most boxes had a wooden bottom and were often reinforced with cardboard on the sides and top, edged with kid leather, and lined with satin. A wide variety of items was made. In the catalogue, Products of Intelligence and Diligence, the Church Family Shakers of Mount Lebanon offered for sale poplar-work boxes in a number of different shapes, including a handkerchief box, jewel box, work bag with a poplar bottom, and spool stand with a poplar needlebook. These were often adorned with little satin ribbon bows. Accessories for sewing boxes included a pincushion, needlebook, beeswax, and emery. Another noted product was the Shaker Cloak, advertised as a "handsome, comfortable woman's wrap . . . distinguished in appearance and possessed of excellent wearing qualities." Although a Shaker style, it became a fashionable item of clothing for members of the outside world. Women could send their measurements to Eldress Emma J. Neale at Mount Lebanon and choose from a selection of colors and wool fabrics. Soon they would be in receipt of a superbly draped and handworked Shaker Cloak. In Products ofIntelligence and Diligence, we are told "For more than a century past various productions from the Shaker work rooms have been before the public, always receiving therefrom much commendation for thoroughness of construction, simplicity of character and originality of design. Making the Shaker Cloak, which is an unique and comfortable garment, is one of the principle industries carried on at the present time and commands large patronage.' 23 Another Shaker product that found a ready market in the outside world was the rich, delicious applesauce made from dried apples immersed in a boiled down sweet cider. Apples were extensively raised. In the July 1906 issue of Good Housekeeping Sister Marcia Bullard wrote how the Shakers cared for the apples: "As soon as the fall apples began to accumulate we used to have 'paring bees' several times a week. That sounds quite delightful, I dare say, but as a matter of fact, it was far from amusing. In the first place, we were all very tired after a hard day's work, in the second, the brethren sat on one side of the washhouse, the sisters on the other, and general conversation was absolutely forbidden. . The brethren ran the noisy paring machines . . . and we sisters trimmed and

cored while the children emptied pails of apples or refuse. The work went on until everybody was nearly asleep-for, remember we all rose at 5 in the morning-and until fifty or sixty bushels of apples had been prepared." The apples were then dried in the drying house where the large stove and roaring wood fire was kept stocked. The apples were kept in a bin, and when stirred from time to time, would be dried in 24 hours. The Shakers felt that apples dried in this manner were whiter and more flavorful than sundried ones. When cool, they would be packed into barrels to supply the pie and "sauce" for the winter. Inferior apples became cider or vinegar. Near Mount Lebanon was a grove of nearly a thousand sugar maple trees so the making of syrup and sugar became an important industry. In the early 1900s the syrup was entirely for home consumption when a 2-gallon jug would be opened each Sunday morning for the family's breakfast of maple syrup served over boiled rice. But the sisters did make quantities of little scalloped maple sugar cakes for sale, some plain and others with nuts. The preparation of dairy products, cheese, and butter, as well as the manufacture of jellies, preserves and canned vegetables were steady and important industries. Other foodstuffs became popular: tomato catsup, cucumber pickles, strawberries, dried elderberries, sugared lemon and orange peels, candied nuts, and sweet flag root to name just a few. The broom industry was not only prosperous for a number of communities but as quoted by T. Kaiandri, an interviewer of Elder Leopold Goepper, the broom had become an emblem of the Shakers. "Its manufacture is one of their favorite industries and they have more ways of making it useful than are known to the outside world. They never disgrace it by making it stand behind the door as if it were responsible for the untidy litter around the house. The Shaker broom is always hung up against the wall when not in use."" The Shakers of Watervliet are credited with being the first colony to raise broom corn and to manufacture brooms as early as 1789. Theodore Bates of the same community is credited with inventing the flat broom, a more efficient tool than the earlier primitive round broom, usually just a bunch of stiff corn with a protruding stick or handle. The round broom had a difficult time getting into corners and tended to wear down in peculiar shapes; it also could be uncomfortable to use. On the other hand, the flat broom alleviated all these problems and was able to clean in areas where the round broom had not been able to fit; it could also hang easily from the pegboard, an important feature for the Shaker home. For it is, above all, the ever-present pegboard which could be seen throughout every Shaker community. In


•CLOAK 8. every room, the ever-useful Shaker pegboard with rows upon rows of wooden pegs was a constant symbol of Shaker order. Andrews wrote that "by 1805, at least, the broom industry at Mount Lebanon was in full swing and brooms and brushes were being delivered to Albany, Boston, and Hudson"" as well as to other nearby towns. This became a steady business for most Shaker communities throughout the century with a wide inventory of different broom-related products being manufactured; among them, the common broom, ceiling broom, broom-corn brush, utility brushes of all sorts, dustpan brush, whisk broom, scrub brush and clothes brush. Indeed, the broom that sweeps clean is a fitting symbol for the Shakers. For their clean and neat interiors were mere echoes of their peaceful exterior. One of the most astute observers of Shaker life and culture, Hepworth Dixon in New America recalls "No Dutch town has a neater aspect, no

8. The cover photograph of a form letter advertising the famous Shaker Cloak. Its back folds were supposed to be a secret known only to a few Shaker sisters who would be in charge of making them. In 1901 Eldress Emma J. Neale received a trademark that covered the design of the Shaker cloaks. (Collection of Cynthia and Jerome Rubin)


9. Circular saw blade. Watervliet, New York. The New York Shakers are credited with a number of significant inventions including the circular saw. They did take out patents for some of their inventions, including chair feet (a metal ball and socket device), fly trap, greencorn cutter, pea shell, fence post, and improvements in waterwheels. (New York State Museum Collection, Albany; photograph, courtesy of Town of Colonie, New York)


bottom of a soft wood, such as pine. "Fingers" or "lappers" formed the joinery; they were usually fastened with short copper rivets and while many boxes were varnished, others were painted. They were often sold in nests, consisting of 12 boxes and then later of 9, 7, or 5. Fitted with lids or handles, they became "carriers" and were often outfitted as sewing boxes by the sisters. Their interiors were lined with silk; the sewing implements, pincushion, emery, beeswax and needlecase, were attached by little ribbon bows. They quickly became a popular shop item." Since the Shaker societies were foremost self-sufficient in most areas, it is not surprising that they developed numerous miscellaneous industries according to their needs and to the raw materials that were in the vicinity. At the East Family in Mount Lebanon, natural deposits of red clay, used in making bricks, also became useful in the manufacture of clay pipes in the early 1800s. In those days the Shakers themselves were not restricted from smoking, but gave up the habit after the Civil War. Tinsmithing was an early occupation. Its products were often practical items needed in the community. Tin sheets were converted into milk pans, pails, measures, skimmers, oil cans, dust pans, and countless other utensils. While primarily these were to supply the community, surplus articles were sold. Many of the designs albeit simple were Moravian hamlet a softer hush. The streets are traditional to the era, and therefore, it is mainly quiet . .. workrooms, barns, tabernacle, stables, through documented pieces and through the examkitchens, schools and dormitories-not one is either ination of existing Shaker patterns that we can foul or noisy; and every building, whatever may be definitely identify Shaker-made tin. its use, has something of the air of a chapel. Flannel, buckles, buttons, coopers' ware, dipThe paint is all fresh; the planks are all bright; pers, cheese hoops, sieves, pens, chairs, wool cards, the windows are all clean. A white sheen is on whips and whiplashes, coonskin fur gloves, yarn everything; a happy quiet reigns around. Even in mops, palm-leaf bonnets, baskets, feather and what is seen of the eye and heard of the ear, splint fans, penwipers, door mats. All these items Mount Lebanon strikes you as a place where it is were Shaker products, and the list could continue always Sunday."26 for countless pages ad infinitum. However, it is not the broom, not the brush, Our limitations are of space, not of lack of manot the clean-planked floors that is the best reterial. The reasons for the New York Shakers' demembered product today. It is the oval box. cline and dissolution of industries are many and All types of boxes were made but the simple design complex. We can't dwell on it here but thinking of the oval box has captured the spirit of today's back to Hoffman's article on Shaker medicine, we Shaker admirer. Its originality and utility have the remember his concluding paragraph: "The flower same wide appeal now as it did then. gardens, once the model of horticultural art for At first, the boxes were entirely made by hand. an admiring world, have now passed into disuse. Later, improvements in time-saving devices were Where once the sturdy handmade gate was swung adapted. However, Andrews makes sure to note it has fallen and.lies rotting there. Birds build that any automatic element in such early machinery nests in the shops where useful things to man were was largely absent and "it is wrong to consider made. They fly in through the broken panes of such articles as oval boxes, sieves, tubs, pails etc. glass. It is a sad, sad sight indeed to witness the as machine-made products. The machine was destruction of the works of man by time. And nothing more than a refined tool and each box then we look back when Shakerism was at its had to pass through the hands of the individual height and then turn to see it as it is today, we may craftsman, process by process.''" well with Whittier repeat: Tor of all sad words of The rims of these boxes were usually fashioned tongue or pen, the saddest are these, "it might from a hardwood, such as maple, with top and have been."'""

But Shakerism is not dead. Perhaps the Believers failed to establish a lasting Heaven on earth, but they made significant contributions to the development of America. Their many inventions and products have left an indelible imprint on the American way. And their continual high standard of quality has shown a fine example for all to follow. In their own communities, the social evils and injustices of today's society-poverty, unemployment and crime-were non-existent and demonstrated to the outside world that the Shaker ideal was not one of ambivalence. The seeds of Shaker rightness, the sense of permanence are locked into all the objects displayed in this exhibition. Shakerism is alive in all our hearts that feel deeply moved to have just touched a small portion of the Shaker way. We can't help but believe that theirs is a lasting and eternal ideal whose time will be forever.

NOTES I. Ann Lee had become friendly with Jane and James Wardley, originally Quakers but who had broken away from the Society of Friends. They formed a religious group known for its shouting and singing which was called by some the "Shaking Quakers." This was the result of the direct influence of a few of the Cevenole prophets from Southern France, who had fled persecution after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. They had gone to London where they were called the French Prophets. Here they rekindled the frenzied trances that had characterized their movement in France. They also confessed their sins and waited for the Second Coming of Christ, two integral facets of Shaker theology. 2. Frost, Marguerite. "The Prose and Poetry of Shakerism," Philadelphia Museum Bulletin LVII, Spring 1962, p. 68. 3. Byrdsall, Charlotte. "Labor," The Shaker Manifesto, Vol. IX, June 1879, p. 126. 4. Ibid. 5. Green, Calvin and Wells, Seth Y. A Summary View of the Millennial Church. Albany, N.Y.: Packard & Van Benthuysen, 1823, p. 28. 6. Nordhoff, Charles. The Communistic Societies of the United States. Reprint. New York: Hillary House, 1961, p. 139. 7. Andrews, Edward Deming and Faith. Shaker Furniture: The Craftsmanship of an American Communal Sect. 1937. Reprint. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1950, p. 12. 8. Green and Wells. A Summary View of the Millennial Church, p.31. 9. White, Anna and Taylor, Leila S. Shakerism: Its Meaning and Message. Columbus, 0.: Fred. J. Heer, 1904, p. 315. 10. Proctor, William. "New Lebanon: Its Physic Gardens and Their Products," American Journal of Pharmacy, January 1852, p. 89. 11. Ibid. 12. Ibid., pp. 89-90. 13. Hoffman, George Niles. "Mt. Lebanon Medicine Makes...the Shakers," The Pharmaceutical Era, July 1920, p. 197.

14. The following descriptions of Shaker medicinal advertising claims have all been quoted from various advertisements in a number of Shaker almanacs, including New Favorite Cooking Receipts of the Shakers and Illustrated Almanac for 1883 and The Mystery Explained, 1886. 15. The 100th Anniversary of the Founding of a Community. Almanac for 1888. New York: A.J. White, 1887, p. 27. 16. Kraft, Ken. Garden to Order. New York: Doubleday, 1962, p. 23. 17. Andrews, Edward Deming. The Community Industries of the Shakers. Boston: Emporium, 1972, p. 73. 18. Shakers' Descriptive and Illustrated Annual Catalogue and Amateur's Guide to the Flower and Vegetable Garden. New York: Shaker Seed Co., 1886, p. 5. 19. Andrews. The Community Industries of the Shakers, p. 84. 20. "Society Record," The Manifesto, April 1879, p. 87. 21. Ibid., p. 88. 22. Columbia Hall, Lebanon Springs, N. Y. 1902, p. 12. 23. Products of Intelligence and Diligence. Mount Lebanon, N.Y.: Shaker Church Family, (1908), Introduction, p. 1. 24. "Taken from the Cincinnati Post, Elder Goepper tells of the Philosophy of Shakerism," The Manifesto Vol. XVII, Canterbury, June 1887, p. 138. 25. Andrews. The Community Industries of the Shakers, p. 130. 26. Dixon, William Hepworth. New America. Leipzig: Bernhard Tauchnitz, 1867, Vol. II, p. 73. Dixon's personal observations on the Shakers are fascinating. He was, at first, directed to them after asking for the best place to collect American shrubs and flowers. He was consequently told that no one in either New York or Massachusetts could match the Shakers in producing seeds and plants. His curiosity had been piqued. 27. Andrews. The Community Industries of the Shakers, pp. 160-161. 28. In many communities, the Shaker shop or store was the place where the world's people mingled with the Believers. The sisters conducted the business and sold their products, such as sewing boxes, knitted articles, pincushions, fancy goods, foodstuffs, and later, postcards and stereographs. Today, the two remaining Shaker communities at Sabbathday Lake, Maine, and East Canterbury, New Hampshire, both have shops where items of Shaker interest may be purchased. 29. Hoffman. "Mt. Lebanon Medicine Makes...the Shakers," p. 231.



GERARD C.WERTKIN The Sabbathday Lake Shakers open their 185-yearold Village to tourists during the summer months, but the extensive herb gardens at the southern end of the Maine community's 1900-acres are not part of the regular Shaker Museum tour. Visitors occasionally do ask to see the gardens, and the Shakers courteously will provide a guide, but it is more likely that any outsiders to be found among rows of lemon verbena, camomile and pennyroyal will be serious horticulturists or professional herb growers who have come to consult with Village herbalists. At Sabbathday Lake, the herb gardens are not particularly ornamental, nor are they in-

tended to be. Rather they are at the heart of a 1. Sabbathday Lake, thriving industry.' They also dramatize a profound, Maine. Moses Johnson if scarcely recognized, fact. Shaker life is changing. Meetinghouse (1794) and Ministry's Shop (1839). Ten years ago, it was possible to find herbs at The doors of the meetingSabbathday Lake. A small garden in front of the house are open again dur"Girls' Shop," a white clapboard building former- ing the warmer months of the yearfor public worly housing the young girls of the community, but ship services. The family then serving as the Museum reception center, was chapel in the 1883 Central planted in sage and dill and mint. It was a conven- Brick Dwelling serves this ient place for teenage guides to tell guests the story purpose in colder weather. of an industry which had its beginnings in the earli- (Private collection) est days of the Shaker Society, when Believers went into the meadows and woods surrounding their rural villages to gather herbs and roots for medicinal use. The guides might recount that the commercial growing, preparation and sale of herbs began among the Shakers about 18203, and that it continued to be a significant element in the economic structure of the communities until the end of the century.' Having seen the Village's impressive 1824 Herb House, the visitor might have sensed the historical importance of the herb industry to the Shakers - but in the face of the old building, now vacant and awaiting restoration, and the little garden planted in herbs - the conclusion that this was part of the Shaker past, like so many features of Shaker life, would have seemed inescapable. As an historian of the movement observed, even in the Shaker community which has had for many years the "most favorable" situation for survival, the spirit was "backward-looking rather than forward-looking."5 Curiously, this observation was apparent to everyone but the Sabbathday Lake Shakers themselves. How the little group of Believers could avoid what to many has been an obvious, if unhappy, conclusion, may be explained by contrasting the recent history of the Maine Shakers with that of the United Society' as a whole. In 1947, for example, the press contained sad reports of the removal of the last group of aged Shaker sisters from their home at Mount Lebanon, New York, "across the mountain" to Hancock, Massachusetts, where care could be provided more efficiently for them. The closing of the Society's "mother" community,' for 160 years its "centre of union," the source of much of the inspiration for its tradition in the arts and crafts, and the residence of many brethren and sisters of noble spirit and exceptional talent, was seen as a painful extension of a proccess of disintegration which began following the Civil War. It was scarcely noticed, however, that at Sabbathday Lake, Maine's northern outpost of Shakerdom, it was "business as usual." While wistful farewells were being extended to the last of the Lebanon Shakers,' the community in Maine still housed a fine complement of children and young Believers. Its schoolhouse,' then located just to the north of the Village's 1839 Ministry's Shop, offered the primary grades of edu-


2. Providing inspiration to a new generation of Believers, Sister R. Mildred Barker is the current leader of the Sabbathday Lake Shakers. Serving her family at various times as head cook, "caretaker" for the children, Sunday School teacher, librarian, and Trustee, Sister Mildred is known for her efforts to preserve the Shaker musical heritage. (Photograph courtesy of United Society of Shakers, Sabbathday Lake, Maine)


cation not only to Shaker girls and boys but to the children of neighboring farmers. The crafts tradition continued in the person of the accomplished Brother Delmer C. Wilson(1873-1961), who was producing, "as late as the 1950's, oval boxes and carriers superior in lightness and delicacy to anything made during even the golden age of Shaker craftsmanship." Young sisters waited upon and received inspiration from such saintly Believers as Eldress Prudence Stickney(1860-1950) and Eldress Harriett Coolbroth(1864-1953), who passed on a precious heritage in faith and in song. In a community without substantial investments or collective wealth, work continued to be the order of the day. Sister Eva Libby(1872-1966), as handsome in feature as she was strong in dedication," traveled among summer resorts in New England until 1957 arranging sales of Shaker-made goods: boxes, poplar ware, "fancy work," pin cushions and sewing notions, aprons and pot holders, knit and embroidered goods, and confections and "sweetmeats." The Shaker Store was open to the public six days a week from 7:30 in the morning to 8:00 in the evening in a building which until 1955 housed the nation's last Shaker post office." Village apple orchards were in full production and farm produce of many varieties was raised for home consumption and sale to the "World." In its devotional life as well, the community stayed close to the ways of the faith. It may not be widely known that day-to-day religious observances by which life in the United Society was ordered for so many years were all but abandoned during this century, either because of loss of numbers or the age or indifference of members except in Maine. Elsewhere, Shakers who were so inclined might attend a nearby Protestant church or seek the services of a friendly minister. At Sabbathday Lake, however, the tradition of Believers in worship continued without interruption. Sunday meetings included the singing of simple, frequently childlike but profoundly moving prayer-songs of the early Shaker musical heritage as well as the hymns and anthems of the later period, and personal "testimonies" reflected a comfortable familiarity with the history of the Church and the legacy of its founder and her disciples. These, then, were the Sabbathday Lake Shakers at mid-century. Busy at work and at prayer, concerned for the welfare of children who would be with them for yet another decade," living out lives of simple consecration in a communal structure most of them had known since early childhood, they had little reason to speculate about the future." The desolation of other Shaker communities was not experienced here. Competent community management under Elders William Dumont (1851-1930) and Delmer Wilson required the moving or razing of structures no longer in use in

2. order to minimize the community's substantial tax base, reduce the likelihood of fire in disused buildings and maintain order in the Village. Consequently, Sabbathday Lake retained a fresh appearance, unlike Mount Lebanon and other places, where great dwelling houses and shops and barns, locked and shuttered, and quiet streets, created a doleful atmosphere and were constant reminders of other days. Certainly there was a steady diminution of numbers and a curtailment of community activities, but the decline was sufficiently gradual to be almost unnoticed. All these factors tended to encourage a spirit of continuity at Sabbathday Lake during a period when other Shaker Villages were "closing out." Proof of this steadfastness may be found in the careful stewardship in Maine of the Society's temporalities. Although a little antiques shop was-maintained by the community for some years, and Shaker furniture or small crafts originally intended for home use may have been sold from time to time to meet pressing obligations, or given to friends or associates, the wholesale dispersion of the products of Shaker crafts shops was unknown at Sabbathday Lake. Moreover, the community's

3. fine Shaker library and its priceless archives remained intact. This is not to suggest, however, that the Sabbathday Lake Shakers were untouched by years of disintegration, retrenchment and consolidation in the United Society at large. In 1931, the Shaker community at Alfred, Maine, was closed and its members resolutely but with some sorrow moved to Sabbathday Lake. The loss to the world not only of most of the children loved and raised in the celibate Society, but of mature members who no longer found the Shaker way congenial, was a recurrent and troubling experience. The consolidation of the Shaker school district with that of New Gloucester in 1950 and the ending of the long tradition of Shaker primary education created problems for the children remaining in the Shakers' care, who now were required to attend school outside the protected confines of the Village, and often felt pitied by others." The closing of other Shaker communities, the loss of opportunities for intervisiting with members of a larger household of faith, and the distance and inactivity of an increasingly aged and enfeebled Ministry," which no longer appeared responsive to their

needs, promoted a sense of isolation among at least some members of the Society at Sabbathday Lake. Still, Shaker life continued with surprising robustness in the Maine community. The heritage of the Church was protected aild nurtured by such concerned latter-day Believers as Sister Della Haskell(1899-1969), poet, student of Shaker spirituality and a lover of the Society's religious life; Sister Ethel M. Peacock(1887-1975), who organized the Shaker Museum at Sabbathday Lake in the 1930s as a place where the inspired craftsmanship, innovative technology and remarkable folk tradition of the Shakers could be interpreted and exhibited; Sister Eleanor Philbrook(1899-1976), a trustee of the Church, whose concerns "for the home" even in the midst of serious illness provided an extraordinary example of personal courage; and the community's current leader, the irrepressible Sister R. Mildred Barker, full of wisdom and hope, chronicler of the Society's history, preserver of its heritage in manuscripts and books, and singer of its songs. Committed to the historical traditions of the Church, to its emphasis on simplicity and community, while open to change

3. "While wistful farewells were being extended to the last of the Lebanon Shakers, the community in Maine still housed a fine complement of children and young Believers." Here Sister Mildred poses with nine of her girls at Sabbathday Lake in the 1940s. Sisters Frances Carr and Marie Burgess, both active in Village life today, are standing, first and third from the right. (Photograph courtesy of United Society of Shakers, Sabbathday Lake, Maine)


4. "The last of her generation among the Maine Shakers," Sister Eva Libby (1872-1966) served as Associate Eldress and Trustee at Alfred until moving to Sabbathday Lake when the two communities consolidated in 1931. She tended the family gardens, participated actively in the "sisters' trades," and arranged sales of Shaker products in New England summer resorts. (Photograph courtesy of United Society of Shakers, Sabbathday Lake, Maine)


in light progressivism inherent in the Shaker way, each of these Believers helped foster that optimistic, affirmative approach to life that has been a distinguishing characteristic of the Sabbathday Lake Shakers in the second half of the 20th century.'' Today the spirit of hopefulness is giving way to one of immediacy and expectancy. If the pace of Shaker life in Maine is still measured, the step is noticeably more lively. Encouraged by a steady flow of visitors and young seekers from the world who seem drawn to their tradition, the Shakers have been reassured that the "farewells" for so long expressed by observers were premature; that Believers still have contributions to make; and that the testimony of the woman they acknowledge as "Mother of the New Creation" will not be lost. It is a belief tempered only by the realization that planning for a Shaker future places more responsibilities on them - and involves far greater risks than living a Shaker past. But it is a challenge the Sabbathday Lake Shakers increasingly appear ready to accept. No discussion of continuity in Shaker life can proceed for very long without a consideration of the question of "numbers." One of the first questions to be asked by inquirers invariably involves the membership statistics of the Church. "How many of you are there?" the visitor will want to know. To Shakers, who see themselves as part of the Church of Christ - the Church invisible, 4. transcendent and eternal - the question is irrelevant. They frequently reply that Mother Ann of the Spirit in the World," the Shakers would say. resolved the matter many years ago for Believers. Its largest accretions have followed religious revivSpeaking to a group of followers soon after the als, such as those of the "New Light" Baptists in opening of the Gospel in America, she referred to New Lebanon, New York, in 1779, the Kentucky Revival in the early 1800s and the Millerite exthose called out of the course of the World to follow the Christ "and of their bearing and citement of the 1840s, when hundreds hearing the travailing for other souls." Numbers are unGospel of Christ's Second Appearing left the course important. "If there is but one called out of a of the World to enter the Society." Later in the generation, and that sotl is faithful, it will have to 19th century, and through most of the 20th centravail and bear for all its generation . . tury, the testimony seems to have been withdrawn But this answer is unlikely to satisfy the persistent from the world, the leadership of the United inquirer. Pressed for details, the Shakers may refer Society primarily being concerned, perhaps understandably, with the care of an aging population, to the growth and decline of the institution. When Ann Lee arrived in New York, only eight the maintenance and disposition of properties and followers accompanied her. In the two decades prethe investment of funds. During this period, most ceding the Civil War, more than 6000 Believers Shaker communities, including that at Sabbathday resided in 18 communities in New England, New Lake, came to rely for continuity on the children York, Ohio, and Kentucky." Today the number is who were left in their care, expecting that many very close to the original nine. But that number upon reaching adulthood would elect to remain may be deceptive in gauging the strength of the with them; as we have seen, fewer and fewer Society or its prospects for survival. stayed as the years passed. All this, however, may be changing. A community founded on a doctrine requiring The fact of Shaker survival for over 200 years the celibacy of its members in imitation of the life must point to an essential strength in the Church of Christ obviously cannot grow through natural and its way of life, and many Believers have increase. It must rely on admissions from the waited patiently for the day when a "new age of World. Successive generations of Believers have spirituality" would bring greater receptivity to its been brought into the Church through its sensitivity religious message. Writing in 1904, the gifted to the religious currents of the day, the "moving


5. Sister Eleanor Phil-


brook (1899-1976), for many years Trustee of the Sabbathday Lake Society, in front of the Shaker Store, 1970. Located in the 1816 Trustees' Office, the Store carries a variety of Shaker-made goods and the community's famous herbs and herbal teas. "It is true that our numbers are few but..,the principles of Mother's Gospel are deeply entrenched in many more hearts than ever before. We feel that it is not dying out, nor ever will, for the principles of truth and right are eternal." Philbrook, Eleanor. "Home Thoughts from Sabbathday Lake," The Shaker Quarterly, Summer 1961, p. 79. (Photograph courtesy of the author)



0 5. Eldress Anna White (1831-1910) of Mount Lebanon suggested confidently that "[a]s mankind progresses in evolution toward pure spirituality, more and more will individuals find in advancing Shakerism, the physical, intellectual, social and spiritual necessities of being, met and satisfied.'"' Beginning with one or two individuals in the late 1950s, and accelerating with the advent of the 1970s, seekers, at first tentatively and later with greater boldness, have found their way to the Church." The possibility of a new generation of Shakers is no longer an academic question. As we shall see, however, it is not without serious problems. If one cannot consider the question of continuity in Shaker life for very long without addressing the issue of "numbers," it is equally true that one must also acknowledge the most pressing problem among the Shakers today, the very profound division which exists between the communities at Sabbathday Lake and Canterbury, New Hampshire. Heirs to one of Shakerism's proudest traditions, the Canterbury Shakers long ago and not without some regret committed themselves to the policy of closing out their community." Concerned for the integrity of the Church, questioning the motives of young seekers, and fearful of the burdens that growth would impose on an

older generation of Believers, they refused to consider the admission of new members. Their concerns, of course are not unrealistic; indeed, they are shared by the Sabbathday Lake Shakers themselves. But the conditions that have prevailed in New Hampshire are different than those in Maine, and the Sabbathday Lake Shakers believe that if these problems are addressed openly and honestly, solutions may be found. It would be inappropriate in this forum to consider the controversy between the communities in detail or to identify the personalities involved or their respective positions, except perhaps to note that its basis is the very question being discussed here. Two of the Shakers residing in Canterbury are surviving members of the Society's Parent Ministry; on the advice of counsel, they have chosen to extend the decision taken at Canterbury to Sabbathday Lake. Pointing to the provisions of the Covenant," which states that "the door must be kept open for the admission of new members into the Church," the Sabbathday Lake Shakers have challenged their authority to do so. The issue is complex and it has resulted in a breakdown in relations which is deeply distressing to both sides. While they work quietly for the resolution of these problems, the Sabbathday Lake Shakers con-


6. Sister Ethel Peacock (1887-1975) at a loom for weaving strips of poplar wood. Fashioned into boxes of various sizes and shapes and lined with silk and other fabrics, poplar "!fancy work" was an important product of the Sabbathday Lake Shakers until the 1960s. Today woven rugs and mats are produced in the community. (Photograph courtesy of United Society of Shakers, Sabbathday Lake, Maine)


tinue to order their community life in the timehonored traditions of the Maine Shakers. The bell at the top of the Village's 1883 Central Brick Dwelling may be heard announcing the time for changes in the day's activities, members still take three-week "terms" in the kitchen, much of the customary hand labor is done, and the spirit of community may be experienced. But there is more. Young people have been permitted to enter the family, either as provisional members or to volunteer service, and they have helped bring new inspiration to Shaker life. The crafts tradition is beginning to see a rebirth. Several of the community's countless spinning wheels and looms have been placed in working order, and spinning, weaving and dyeing are being undertaken in the Village for the first time in many years. One longtime Shaker, an accomplished seamstress (who even now takes special orders for the famous Shaker cloak), may be seen at her loom producing small carpets, mats, and table runners which are purchased by admirers almost as soon as they leave her shop. Other woven and knit goods offered for sale in the Shaker Store are produced from the wool of the Society's little flock of sheep. Even the barnyard is active again. Worship services today are more exuberant. No longer held privately in the family chapel of the Brick Dwelling, Shaker meeting is open again to the public. Visitors from the World are present every week and participate freely in the service, many having learned some of the Shaker songs from the community's well-received recording. Frequently they include members of other Christian religious communities with which the Shakers have established close relations in recent years. The exchange has resulted in mutual benefits. The liturgical practices, for example, of the well-known Benedictine community at Weston, Vermont, have been influenced by the monks' visits to Sabbathday Lake, and the Shakers are able again to experience a sense of belonging to a wider fellowship. The religious testimony of the Church is no longer withdrawn from the world. Through an active program of community outreach, the Sabbathday Lake Shakers have conducted worship services as far away from home as Ohio and in such diverse places as the Divinity School of Yale University and the Chapel of St. Elizabeth of Hungary at the Ann Lee Home in Colonie, New York, originally the meetinghouse of the Watervliet Shakers. There is also an impressive educational program. Utilizing the rich archival resources of the Shaker Library, the Institute of Shaker Studies was established at Sabbathday Lake about four years ago. Since then, it annually has offered courses, seminars, workshops, and lectures on almost every aspect of the Shaker experience. In conjunction with the University of Southern Maine, it provides facilities for the earning of college credits in

6. Shaker studies. Part of these concerns are also expressed in the Society's publishing and printing endeavors, the most recent example of which is Sister Mildred's introduction to the history of the community, The Sabbathday Lake Shakers: An Introduction to the Shaker Heritage. And, of course, there is the herb industry. Until the old Herb House itself is restored, the packaging of herbs grown in the Society's gardens must be done in the spacious Ironing Room of the community's Laundry or Sisters' Shop. Community members and their young helpers often work late into the night to fill orders from customers, and the attendant chores of bookkeeping, purchasing supplies, packing and shipping, not to mention cultivation, gathering, harvesting, drying and processing herbs, now touch the life of almost every member of the community. Herbs, incidentally, are packed in tins bearing labels printed in the Village by a family member; the extent of the industry today makes even this a prodigious undertaking. Shaker life is not intended to be static. There can be no doubt that continuity is bringing change with it, but the Sabbathday Lake Shakers welcome

7. Continuing the Shaker crafts tradition into the 1950s Brother Delmer C. Wilson (1873-1961) served the Sabbathday Lake community as Elder and Trustee. A talented farm manager, businessman, builder, and orchardist, he is remembered for his deep commitment to the ways of the faith. He is pictured in his shop, circa 1912, with some of the oval "carriers"for which he was famous. (Private collection)



8. 8. Until the consolidation of New Gloucester schools in 1950, the Shaker School provided primary education for young Shakers and the children of neighbors. Children continued to be an important part of life at Sabbathday Lake until the early 1960s. Here, in a snapshot from a Shaker family album, the little girls of the Village pose with their housemother, circa 1950. (Photograph courtesy of United Society of Shakers, Sabbathday Lake, Maine)

changes grounded in their faith, nourished by their tradition, and expressing the spirituality of their way. As one Shaker put it "[c]onditions suited to the needs of the new age will develop and take on form. The Shaker faith and the Shaker life, will, from its elastic nature, be ready to receive the impress of newly revealed truth and expand in new forms.' 25 True to the best of their great heritage, the Sabbathday Lake Shakers intend to remain open to the moving of the Spirit. It may be too early to predict the outcome of their efforts, but if there is to be no future for the United Society, it will not be for want of trying.

(A delegation of Shakersfrom the community at Sabbathday Lake, Maine, visited New York as guests of the Museum of American Folk Art, September 13-15, 1979, to participate in the Museum's Shaker Conference and to lead a worship service in the traditional manner of Believers. The author of this report, a long-time friend of the Shakers and coordinator of the Conference, has been in a unique position to observe developments in Shaker life over the last decade. -Ed.)


NOTES 1. The title is taken from a Shaker hymn probably composed by Elder Joshua Bussell(1816-1900) of Alfred, Maine, during the Civil War. Its first stanza is as follows:"The gospel is advancing and freedom is commencing/With leaping and with dancing we'll hail the Jubilee./The fire is increasing, the flame is never ceasing,/ I feel I am releasing and now I will be free." See Daniel W. Patterson's notes to the Sabbathday Lake recording, Early Shaker Spirituals (Rounder Records, 1976). 2. Two recent articles calling attention to extraordinary revitalization of an industry are: Paadeau, Marius B. "Anyone for St. Johnswort?" Down East, July 1974, pp. 64-67; and Belanger, Gretchen. "Herbalist Brings Growth to Sabbathday Lake Shaker Community," Countryside, January 1977, pp. 26-28. 3. Herbs may have been sold to the world as early as 1800, but 1820 is generally given for the commencement of the Shaker medicinal herb industry. See: Andrews, Edward Deming. The Community Industries of the Shakers. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1932, pp. 87-111 (an illuminating discussion of the subject); also, Miller, Amy Bess. Shaker Herbs: A History and a Compendium. New York: Clarkson N.

Potter, Inc., 1976 (delightful illustrations of herbs drawn by the talented Sister Helena Sarle of Canterbury, New Hampshire, in 1886-1887). 4. The industry effectively came to an end with the discontinuance in the 1930s of the manufacture and sale of "Norwood's Tincture of Veratrum Viride" at Mount Lebanon, until its rebirth in the early 1970s at Sabbathday Lake. 5. Melcher, Marguerite Fellows. The Shaker Adventure. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1941, pp. 263-264. 6. The formal name of the Shaker Church is the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing. 7. The Society at Mount Lebanon, New York, was the first Shaker community to be brought into "Gospel order" under the Ministry of Father Joseph Meacham in 1787, although the antecedents of the community at Watervliet, New York, are earlier. Mount Lebanon, as seat of the Central or Parent Ministry of the United Society, was considered the Shakers' "mother" community. 8. "Farewells" to the Shakers or comments on their "passing" have been a staple of periodical literature for over 75 years. For some of the countless articles in this genre, see: Richmond, Mary. Shaker Literature: A Bibliography. Hancock, Mass.: Shaker Community, Inc., and Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1977. Many others, outside the scope of Mrs. Richmond's monumental work, were contained in newspaper reports. 9. Built in 1880, the schoolhouse was sold to a neighbor and moved just south of the Village to his farm for grain storage in the 1950s. Friends of the Sabbathday Lake Shakers now seek to purchase and restore the building at its original site. A program centering on the schoolhouse and "school days" among the Shakers was held as part of the annual meeting of The Friends of the Shakers, August 3-4, 1979. For a history of the schoolhouse, see: Carr, Sister Frances A. "The New Gloucester Shaker School and Its Teachers," The Shaker Quarterly, Spring 1961, pp. 16-20. 10. Johnson, Theodore E. Hands to Work and Hearts to God: The Shaker Tradition in Maine. Brunswick, Me.: Bowdoin College Museum of Art, 1969, n.p. 11. Barker, Sister R. Mildred. "In Memoriam, Eva May Libby, 1872-1966," The Shaker Quarterly, Spring 1964, 1966, pp. 3-4. 12. The story of the post office is told by the last Shaker postmistress, Sister Eleanor Phi!brook, in "A Brief History of the Shaker Post Office, Sabbathday Lake, Maine," The Shaker Quarterly, Spring 1964, pp. 38-40.

Wilson (1866-1947) of Canterbury. 17. Faith Andrews, who with her late husband, Edward Deming Andrews, did much to foster the growing national appreciation for the Shaker heritage, remembers visiting Sabbathday Lake. Unlike other communities, "Where was an entirely different atmosphere, of fun, a very jolly feeling." "It was marvelous," she has said, "just like going home." Emerich, A.D. "A Conversation with Faith Andrews," Shaker: Furniture and Objectsfrom the Faith and Edward Deming Andrews Collections. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973, p. 29. 18. Testimonies of the Life, Character, Revelations and Doctrines of Mother Ann Lee and the Elders with Her. Albany, N.Y.: Weed, Parsons & Co., 1888. 19. The precise number of Shaker communities is somewhat problematical because there were many "outfamilies," short-lived communities, and groups of Believers living together in various stages of community organization which were never brought into "Gospel order." The total number, however, is frequently given as 19, which includes the Society at West Union, Indiana, that existed from 1810 to 1827. 20. Andrews, Edward Deming. The People Called Shakers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1953, pp. 18, 73-75, 223. 21. White, Anna and Taylor, Leila S. Shakerism: Its Meaning and Message. Columbus, 0.: Fred. J. Heer, 1904, p. 393. 22. The moving appeal of one seeker may be found in: Benning, Arlen. "Blueprint to Simplicity," The Shaker Quarterly, Fall 1962, pp. 97-101. "Though many years have gone their way since the long ago times when a large membership was commonplace among them, the restless wind seems, currently, to be engaged in a turning back...Talk of revival is more open these days, surrounding us with an air of expectancy and the feeling of imminent good to come. Potential converts to Shakerism are coming forward. They require an answer." (p.99) 23. This policy was given its final expression several years ago when the lands and properties of the Canterbury Shakers were conveyed to Shaker Village, Inc., a not-for-profit corporation seeking to restore the Village as a public museum. 24. Each Shaker community is organized pursuant to the provisions of a Covenant, a legal instrument, which sets forth the respective rights and obligations of the members and the community officers. In its present form, it was drafted in 1830, and adopted by the several communities over a period of several years. 25. White and Taylor. Shakerism: Its Meaning and Message, p. 393.

13. The children's orders at Sabbathday Lake were not empty until the early 1960s. 14. One Shaker sister, the amiable but somewhat taciturn hostess at the Sabbathday Lake Trustees' Office for many years, once replied to my question this way: "The future? Well, we never thought about it very much. I guess there was always too much to do." Then, looking at me as if the question had never occurred to her, she said, "I suppose we just thought it would go on forever." 15. Rogers, C. Talbot. "The People called Shakers," Down East, October 1957, p. 23. 16. In the 1940s, the Ministry was composed of Annie Rosetta Stephens (1850-1947) of Mount Lebanon; Frances Hall (1884-1957) of Hancock; and Josephine E.


1. Lift-top blanket chest. Maker unknown. Mount Lebanon, New York. Circa 1860. Pine. H. 19", / 2", L. 31". BasiW. 131 cally this is a six-board chest; however, the sides have the distinctive Shaker half-moon cutout arch.

(Private collection) 2. Armed rocking chair. Maker unknown. Mount Lebanon, New York. 18201830. Tiger and plain maple. H. 44". This sister's rocker, made for Shaker use only, has the arms pegged to the front posts. The scroll arms, which are minus the typical mushrooms, indicate the early period in which this chair was produced.

(Private collection)


What Makes Shaker KARL MENDEL "To every action there is a reaction" is a fundamental concept of the science of physics. But to the historian, especially a social historian, the same premise applies to his social science, too. Thus, when a social historian considers and evaluates the American and the Western European world of the three decades following World War II, he cannot but be reassured that once again this historical tenet affirms itself in the history and lifestyles of these tempestuous years. During the 1950s, 1960s, and the earlier part of the 1970s, America and Western Europe saw a vivid, articulated reaction to the ornate, pompous, and convoluted ethos of the Victorian and Edwardian eras which had been so powerful in the periods just before the two world wars. This was


the period during which the cities of this country and European cities arising from the ruins of war built themselves anew by the dictum of the Bauhaus School that "less is more." Not only buildings became simplified in design, but also lifestyles, clothes, amusements, and decoration reverted into the latitudes of simplicity themselves. In the United States, this reversion to simpler things encouraged a revival of interest in the past--in a time when America developed its own inimitable culture and handiworks. These preceding decades have contained a national reappraisal of and a renewed appreciation for the myriad things of America's past--buildings, arts, crafts, and styles. Heightened interest and fuller appreciation of these unique vestiges continues unabated to the present day. The nationwide, increasing interest in American antiques and the continually escalating prices for all types of Americana are indications that it may be more acute today than ever before. In no field of American antiques has this been

3. Two-piece sewing desk. Maker unknown. Mount Lebanon, New York. 1810 -1820. Pine and maple. H. 44", W. 271 / 2". Unlike later sewing desks, this one was made to be used by only one Shaker sister at a time. (Private collection) 4. Three-slat-back rocking chair. Maker unknown. Mount Lebanon, New York. Circa 1830. Maple. H. 41". This early rocker was made for Shaker use only; probably for a specific Shaker sister. The rockers are pegged onto posts back and front, and because of their short length are sometimes referred to as "suicide rockers." (Private collection)

Furniture Shaker? so evident as with Shaker crafts. Just in the past few years--probably dating from the 1974 bicentennial of the Shaker movement in this country--the increasing national awareness of the Shakers, their furniture, their crafts, and their communities has burgeoned. Conversely, only two Shaker communities remain--Sabbathday Lake, Maine, and Canterbury, New Hampshire; and only nine sisters compose the Shaker world today. It is ironic that as the Society itself has diminished in size, its artifacts have become some of our most treasured and valuable symbols of the Shaker patrimony. By far, of all of our Shaker inheritance, none is more outstanding or emblematic of this very special group of creators than Shaker furniture. But this furniture is not just a large, material creation of the Shaker idyl. It is also an embodiment of the Shaker ideals. Generally, Shaker furniture is essentially very simple, very harmonious to the beholder, very chaste of line, the embodiment of skillful construction and solidity.

Indeed, it is in more instances than not an incarnation of the Shaker song, "The Gift to Be Simple." Generically, Shaker furniture was little different from Colonial pieces which preceded them. As the Shaker scholars, Edward and Faith Andrews, have explained, "The Shaker chairs may well have been directly derived from colonial slat backs; the trestle-board table and light stand from their early American prototypes. In like manner, the drop-leaf tables, chests of drawers, beds, and stools, suggest an undeniable affinity to earlier forms."' Shaker furniture grew out of the need to furnish the interiors of the structures which were built to meet the requirements of the growing communities. And it should always be remembered that the Shakers built their furniture wholly for themselves and their specific needs with, of course, the exception of the Shaker small-furnishings industry which developed at Mount Lebanon, New York, in the latter part of the 19th century and continued into


5. Three-slat-back rocking chair. Maker unknown. Mount Lebanon, New York. Circa 1830. Maple. H. 41". Two-step stool. Maker unknown. Mount Lebanon, New York. Last half of the 19th century. Butternut. H. 14", W. 14". Two-piece sewing desk. Maker unknown. Mount Lebanon, New York. 18101820. Pine and maple. H. 44", W. 27/ 1 2". Maple sewing case and pincushion with wooden screw attachment; the receptacle holds thimble and thread. H. 8/ 1 2". Stack of three graduated oval boxes. 1 2". Oval carL. 6" to 3/ rier. L. 13". (Private collection) (Photography by John Dwyer)


The size of chairs varied greatly also. Many chairs, the first half of this century. Products of this not for sale to the "World," were made specifShaker manufacture were usually just for sale to the general public, "the World," and consisted ically for a certain Shaker person or a particular only of chairs, footstools, cushions, rugs, and oval chore to which one sat; and, therefore, each beboxes. But other than these public sales pieces, it came a unique Shaker product in itself. must be reiterated that those inimitable pieces of Also there were differences in other types of Shaker furniture which are the "show horses" of Shaker furniture. Because of the different native museums and private Shaker collections today woods available to Shaker craftsmen in the various were made by the Shakers for their own needs and communities, one will find that two very similar use only. These are the pieces truly representative pieces of furniture might vary greatly in wood of Mother Ann's injunction, "Do all your work stock--one piece in cherry and butternut or maple as though you had a thousand years to live, and from one community, and possibly the like piece as you would if you must die tomorrow.'" in walnut and pine from another. Further, because Yet, in spite of the fact that Shaker furniture of the varying usages for the same type of furniwas created independently by each community for ture from community to community, variations its own needs, surprisingly there is a definite and adaptations would be done for it, as witgeneralized uniformity of constructional and nessed by the double-tiered candlestand in this aesthetic design which continues throughout all exhibition--most Shaker candlestands had only a Shaker furniture. Large or small, irrespective of one-tier top. Another example of variation from purpose, all Shaker furniture was made with two item to like item is the fact that the tops on some primary virtues in mind, utility and fine craftsman- candlestands are made of one piece of wood only, ship. Each piece was made to be used most effiand on others they are composed of two pieces of ciently and expeditiously and in such a manner wood almost imperceptibly joined together. Thus, that it could contribute to the orderliness and the cabinetmakers who constructed the Society's cleanliness of Shaker communal life and of and by furniture followed no hard and fast rules of conitself could be easily cleaned and, if necessary, struction. Theirs was handwork directed and stored effectively. Therefore, all Shaker furniture dictated by need, materials at hand, and by methis out-and-out very plain, very simple, very unods which alone accomplished the purpose of the adorned. It is sensible, pragmatic to nearly the piece being made. Subsequently, there is no one furthest degree. But its very pragmatism gives it a definitive, obdurate way Shaker furniture is conbeauty, a chasteness, a satisfaction which possibly structed. There are countless variations and excephas only been equaled in our time by the furniture tions to every piece of Shaker furniture within the of such innovators and purists as Mies van der confines of the accepted general Shaker pattern Rohe, exemplified by his Barcelona chair, or or mode. Frank Lloyd Wright, attested by his furniture deAnother characteristic of Shaker furniture, signed for Chicago's Midway Gardens, or Eero which is inherently sensed but most often not Saarinen, embodied in his 1948 fabric-covered, articulated in commentaries on Shaker furniture, plastic-shell chair--to name a few. is its wholly and extremely linear manner of form. However, notwithstanding the general overall The composition of each specific piece of Shaker uniformity of Shaker design from the sect as a furniture gives to the beholder's eyes a totality whole, there were local Shaker-community varithat implicitly communicates a whole form effectations in certain small elements of the furniture. ing a vertical or horizontal axis of statement. An As one becomes familiar with Shaker furniture, analysis of the whole piece of furniture shows that one perceives the variations, for instance, of the its subsequent parts are of the same linear manner finials on chairs. Take, for example, the chairs dis- as well--horizontal and vertical elements summing played in this exhibition, which come from either themselves into the totality itself. Shaker cupthe Mount Lebanon or Watervliet communities. boards and chests of drawers, as seen from the Though generally the finials are similar, those of examples in this exhibition, are composites of the Mount Lebanon chairs have the "acorn" of multiple horizontally linear drawers as well as horthe finial much smaller than the "acorns" of the izontally-vertically linear cupboard doors. Shaker Watervliet chairs. The ridge, or collar, midway of tables, though giving a wholly vertical (e.g., canthe neck of the finial, is much more delicate on the dlestands) or horizontal (e.g., long working table) Mount Lebanon chairs than that on the Watervliet impression, have in their composition the contrary chairs. There were other variations also, such as in elements of north-south, east-west or angled lines design and number of slats in ladder-back chairs; in as a result of their tops and legs. Whatever the the forward ending of the arm of armchairs; in the piece then, all is linear. various types of materials used to seat and, where Very seldom is the circular form and/or arc necessary, back chairs--cane for some seats, rush used in Shaker design; and when it is incorpoor wood splint on others, and woolen or cotton rated, it is most assuredly a sudsidiary element--a tapes of a wide variety of colors on ladder backs. means for a purpose only. Generally speaking, the


circle as,a form in Shaker furniture is most frequently found as a top on candlestands and nightstands. Yet even this statement is sometimes contradicted by the fact that some Shaker candlestands and nightstands have square rather than round tops. Knobs on Shaker furniture are round most probably because they are incidental and give a note of punctuation, for they could just as well be square. The cousin of the circle, the arc or arch, is even less frequently used in Shaker furniture. Its most common usage is its employment as a leg to a small stand or as a top configuration for a slat on a basically linear Shaker chair or for a utilitarian purpose in the arm of a chair. Then why this paucity of curving usage? Most likely because the circle and curve were interpreted by the Shakers as embellishments, less true than the honesty of the straight line itself. There was purity, affirmation, integrity, cleanliness in the linear; the curve seemed in comparison weak, negating, and superfluous. The Shakers forswore all vanity and pretense. God is pure; the Shakers believed in purity; thus, their furniture must be pure. Linear furniture gave purity; the embellishment of the curvature did not. Hence the scarcity of the round or semiround form in Shaker furniture. Along with form, another hallmark of Shaker furniture is the expert craftsmanship of its production. Nearly all Shaker furniture was finished unsigned, for the Millennial Laws of 1845 decreed, "No one should write or print his name on any article of manufacture, that others may hereafter know the work of his hand."3 Even though this rule was relaxed later in the century and a few pieces of furniture of this later period are attributable, most pieces of Shaker furniture are anonymous works. But whatever Shaker was the joiner and/or wood-turner, the end product was one of fidelity to the highest standards of the craft. And irrespective of the Shaker location in which the piece served its place--be it meeting house, domestic quarters, shop, or barn--each piece was made with the same quality of workmanship. The wood was prime; the joining still adroitly pegged, mortised and tenoned, turned, or dovetailed; and the finishing attained not only the purpose of the piece, but also a compliment to the eye. Moreover, many of the Shaker pieces are possessed of ingenuity. Drawers could open from either side of a stand or were placed at angles to each other so that the piece of furniture could serve two persons at the same job at the same time. Chairs were given ball-and-socket fittings at the lower extremities of the back posts so that the Shaker occupant could lean backwards safely, front posts off the ground, without tipping over. Heights of dining table chairs were decidedly lowered so that the chair, when not in use, fit under its table. Considerable numbers of cup-


boards were built into walls to conserve space and provide tidiness; sewing desks and sideboards had pull-out surfaces which allowed more working space or cutting areas. Thin colored washes were perfected so that the finished surfaces of a piece of Shaker furniture might still reveal--as ancient Japanese wood sculptures do--the marked inherent beauty of the wood grain or its aberrations. For a people who held themselves separate from the rest of the World and for a group of people wholly rural instead of urban, the Shakers perfected improvements and built the accoutrements of their habitations and industry far differently and disproportionally better than their worldly contemporaries. Lastly, Shaker furniture has come down to us of the present day as the precursor from the last century of what today is considered "modern design" furniture. Certainly what in the 1950s was the rage for home decoration—"Danish and Swedish Modern"—was a direct derivative of Shaker originals. And the current popular Contemp Look of pacesetting home design--the sparse, enigmatic Italian Mode--has surely its ancestors in 19th-century American Shaker furniture. And most probably in future decades, as the pendulum of home-furnishings styles vacillates from one extremity of the fashion spectrum to the opposite extremity, Shaker furniture will remain a clarion of some of the best and most sincere productions of the American ethic. It can and will continue to be a sentinel of some of the most utilitarian, the purest, the most original, and the most integral creations in the whole history of world furniture. It will always stand by itself alone. And it will ceaselessly relate by its form and its competency the story of that matchless little band of American iconoclasts who created for themselves a Peaceable Kingdom on earth. In the opinion of many of today's knowledgeable furniture authorities, the best of Shaker furniture now has come to have an equal place alongside the best of other American furniture creations--be they from Philadelphia, Boston, or New Hampshire. Indeed Shaker furniture is an epitome in itself.

NOTES 1. Andrews, Edward D. and Faith. "Craftsmanship of an American Religious Sect," The Magazine Antiques, 1928. 2. Testimonies of the Life, Character, Revelations and Doctrines of Mother Ann Lee and the Elders with Her. Albany, N.Y.: Weed, Parsons & Co., 1888, pp. 242-243. 3. Shaker Millennial Laws; Revised Version of 1845. Section XII, Par. 4 in Andrews, Edward Deming. The People Called Shakers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1953, p. 274.


A Living History:

The Shaker Museum's Education Kit The idea of a museum without walls is not new, but as an approach to studying folk culture the concept has only recently begun to be developed. Today, a museum without walls most often means a traveling kit of artifacts and educational materials which may be loaned to a school class studying a certain culture. The Shaker Museum in Old Chatham, New York, has put such a traveling kit together with some 38 various items packed into a portable suitcase. In six months the kit has been used by school classes of all ages, both as preparation for a visit to the museum and to provide direct experience of Shaker culture when a field trip was impossible. The kit's contents stress the tangible, or participatory, elements of the Society's rich culture: an oval box (reproduction), a triptych map of the New Lebanon Shaker Village, and a record of songs. The Shakers led simple, productive, and orderly lives, lending themselves well to representation by multimedia materials. The Millennialists were not spiritual to a fault; they were very much in touch with the physical world--the environment, products of physical labor, and handicrafts. Articles of their daily lives convey a great deal about what was important to them; they strove to embody their creed's spiritual values in every fruit of their labor. Examples of Shaker culture included in the kit are: a cornhusk doll; rosewater; a seed packet template; miniature furniture; fresh herbs; dried apples; flax; broomcorn; and dairy samples. These offer the student the chance to get his or her "hands on" the culture and make discoveries for himself.

Other forms of Shaker artistic creativity are: broadsides; ledger samples; ads and catalogues; spirit drawings, and poetry. The Shakers were fond of taking photographs within their communities and permitted outsiders to do so as well. The kit contains large photos of Shaker life, with interpretive questions, and a slide show assembled from the museum's collection of prints. These artifacts are placed in context by readings which briefly examine various themes such as communal life, technical ingenuity, religious life, and resource conservation. Aided by an instruction manual, the teacher is free to do whatever he or she wishes with these materials. Besides annotating the contents of the kit, the manual offers many possible activities and directions for student explorations. One teacher, wishing to use the kit in a social studies class, divided his students into groups and had each group explore one topic such as food, crafts, religion, or history. Like the Shakers, who divided

their labor and then pooled their resources, the students all delivered reports to the class on their discoveries. Another teacher, excited by the addition of museum resources to her classroom routine, had the students prepare a mock exhibition in the classroom, entailing everything from the research to the labeling. An art teacher had each student try a Shaker activity such as raising plants from seeds, fashioning a candle sconce, or sewing an herbal sachet. Four copies of the kit, designed and prepared in less than one year by Jean Anderson, librarian of the Shaker Museum, on a C.E.T.A. grant, have already made many youngsters more aware of the local folk culture of their own areas. The Shaker Museum's director, Peter Laskovski, hopes that more teachers will recognize the active role a museum can play in education.

Contents of traveling kit produced by The Shaker Museum, Old Chatham, New York.



Current through September 30 THE ARTS OF NATIVE AMERICA. A continuation of "A Native American Arts Festival," initiated and organized jointly by the Native American Programs, Native American Studies, and the Dartmouth College Museum and Galleries. The Festival features exhibitions of a wide spectrum of Native American culture, past and present, by presenting an instructive integration of art, artifacts, and documents. Dartmouth College Museum and Galleries, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755. Current through September 30 REDWARE POTTERY IN CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA. This loan exhibition consists of nearly 200 pieces of red earthenware used and made in central Pennsylvania in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Extensive documentation accompanies the display of pottery, including newspapers, wills, census records, deeds, oral accounts, etc. William Penn Memorial Museum, 3rd and North Streets, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17120.

since 1960. The Village features the preparation of Shaker-style meals in their modern kitchen facilities, a book store, gift shop, and Kitchen Sisters' Good Room. Special events include: Shaker breakfasts (early reservations recommended), September 30, October 7 and 14; Autumn Festival, October 6, 7. Shaker Community, Inc. P.O. Box 898, Pittsfield, Massachusetts 01201. Current through October 14 THE ART OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS. The most comprehensive exhibition on this subject ever mounted will focus on the visual arts of Polynesia, Micronesia, Melanesia, and New Guinea. Presenting over 400 of the finest works extant in a variety of media, the pieces range from textiles and utilitarian objects to ceremonial implements, primitive jewelry, and decorated weapons. A fully illustrated catalogue accompanies the exhibition. National Gallery of Art, 6th Street at Constitution Ave N.W., Washington, D.C. 20565.

Current through October 5 THIRD ANNUAL WORKSHOPS OF HISTORICAL AMERICAN TRADES Dedicated to the preservation of Historical American Trades, all of Eastfield Village's resources will be available to workshop participants, providing an ideal historical atmosphere in which to study and work. Courses are offered in Tinsmithing and Housewrighting. For additional information write Eastfield Village, Box 145, R.D. East Nassau, New York 12062.

Current through October 24 ORIGINAL SHAKER MANUSCRIPTS. This special display of the earliest and rarest publications of the people called Shakers has been mounted in conjunction with the Museum of American Folk Art's exhibition "Shakers in New York State." On exhibit are unique Shaker manuscripts, rare books, photographs, spiritual drawings, music books, etc. The New York Public Library, Central Building, 42nd Street and 5th Avenue, New York City 10018.

Current through October 7 HANCOCK SHAKER VILLAGE. One of the longest-lived Shaker communities, made up of 20 restored buildings surrounded by gardens, orchards, fields, and woodlands, is open to the public from June 1 through October 7. First settled in 1780, the Hancock Shaker Village has served as a private museum

Current through October 31 SHEET METALWORKING IN America. The very American trade of sheet metalworking is the subject of this historical exhibition. On display are all aspects of the craft including tinware, architectural fragments, and metalworking tools, in order to present the full range of sheet metalwork in America. Besides these arti-


facts, paintings by John Niro, a trained sheet metalworker and gifted folk artist, depicting interior and exterior scenes of sheet metal shops represent an early 20thcentury view of the craft. The Farmers' Museum, New York Historical Association, Lake Road, Cooperstown, New York 13326. Current through October THE MUSEUM VILLAGE IN ORANGE COUNTY. Considered one of the country's largest outdoor museums of 19th-century technology, the Museum Village offers entertaining and educational programs of exhibits, craft demonstrations, and special Sunday events depicting the way our forefathers lived. Beginning with the age of homespun, crafts, and emerging industry, and ending with the start of the Industrial Revolution, the Museum's more than 30 exhibit buildings house thousands of artifacts and tools illustrating the era. Museum Village in Orange County, on Routes 6 and 17, Monroe, New York 10950. Current through November JOHN PAUL REMENSNYDER COL— LECTION OF AMERICAN STONEWARE. One of the country's most important stoneware collections, considered to be definitive in its emphasis on individual potters in the northeastern United States before the Industrial Revolution. The exhibition includes 150 of the more than 300 pieces collected by John Remensnyder of New York. Smithsonian Institution, Museum of History and Technology, Washington, D.C. 20560. Current through 1979 BAROQUE TO FOLK. Folk arts of the colonies of Spain as they relate to one another in content, form, and style. Special emphasis upon 19thcentury New Mexican folk art as a primary example of a regional style. Religious art from Spain and her former

colonies of New Mexico, Guatemala, Columbia, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Goa (Portugese), and Ecuador are among the approximately 150 to 200 objects on display. Decorative arts illustrating the variety and similarities of various Colonial styles are also shown. Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501. Current through 1979 FANTASY AND ENCHANTMENT: SELECTIONS FROM THE GIRARD FOUNDATION COLLECTION. This exhibition aims to give the public an overview of a collection which is being donated to the State of New Mexico and will be housed at the Museum of International Folk Art. On display are toys and dolls, textiles, paintings, and sculpture from many countries, installed in fun and imaginative settings designed by Alexander Girard. Museum of International Folk Art, Sante Fe, New Mexico 87501. Current through 1979 MUSEUM OF INTERNATIONAL FOLK ART'S 25TH ANNIVERSARY EXHIBITION. Items from the collections of the Museum of International Folk Art illustrate the variety of its holdings in celebration of the museum's Silver Jubilee. Labels will inform the viewer concerning the history of the museum, its foundress Florence Dibell Bartlett, and the plans for the new Girard Wing scheduled for construction this year. The folk art exhibited will consist of outstanding examples of sculpture, textiles, costumes, paintings, furniture, and decorative arts from many parts of the world. A small publication will accompany the exhibition. Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501. September 12, 13, 14 FALL ANTIQUES SHOW. The special preview to this antiques show is a benefit for the Museum of American Folk Art. Ninety dealers from 17 states will feature a complete spectrum of objects used in homes from the 17th century through the Arts and Crafts movement. Special guided tours of this outstanding exhibition will take place on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday before the general public is admitted. The tour fee of $15 per person includes the admission ticket which guarantees an additional visit to the show on any day

during regular visiting hours; the guided tour; a copy of The Clarion, America's Folk Art Magazine, published by the Museum of American Folk Art; and refreshments. 11:30 A.M. to 1 P.M. at the Seventh Regiment Armory, 67th Street and Park Avenue, New York City. Gallery Passport, Ltd., 1170 Broadway, New York, New York 10001.

October 12 TOUR OF SOCIETY HILL: PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA. Gallery Passport, Ltd., offers tourists the opportunity to step back to the 18th century in Society Hill. See Independence Hall, Christ Church, the delightful Perelman Toy Museum, and the Atwater Kent Museum, a little gem housing a potpourri of American folk art. Visit September 25, 1979-January 8, 1980 Philadelphia's finest Georgian-style home, A COLLECTOR'S CACHET OF the Powel House, and the Hill-PhysickAMERICAN ANTIQUES. Keith House, a spacious mansion filled Be able to distinguish quality Americana with superb Empire and Federal furnishby learning how to look, what to look for, ings. Luncheon at Head House. 8 A.M. to and where to look. Gain cognition and 7 P.M. $55 per person, $5 is a tax deexpertise from seeing private collections, ductible donation to the Museum of museums, auction houses, antiques dealers, American Folk Art. Departing from the restorers, and corporate collections. Your Y.M.C.A., 5 West 63rd Street, New York guide is Helaine Fendelman, antiques City. Gallery Passport, Ltd., 1170 Broadlecturer, freelance writer on antiques, way, New York, New York 10001. author of Tramp Art, Museum of October 14, 21, 28 American Folk Art guest curator 1976PUTTING BY FOR WINTER. 1977, and a member of the Appraiser's Visitors will have a chance to see how Association of America, Inc. Class size all the basic chores we take for granted is limited. Admission fees where applicable today were done 100 years ago. See are not included. In case of absenteeism, a cider, soap, yarn, dyes, hearth-baked substitute may be sent. Guest fees are $15 bread, candles, and many other goods on a reservation basis; $5 of the fee is a made the way they were during the ages donation to the Museum of American of homespun and crafts. In addition to Folk Art. Time: 11 A.M. to 12:45 P.M. these special events, there are interpretive Fee: $70 per person for five sessions, $10 demonstrations of 19th-century American is tax deductible as a benefit for the life at a Blacksmith's Shop, a Printer's Museum of American Folk Art. Dates: Shop, a Weaver's Shop, a Log Cabin, Tuesdays, September 25, October 9, a Potter's Shop, and a Broommaker's December 4, January 8. November 13, Shop. Museum Village, Monroe, New Gallery Passport, Ltd., 1170 Broadway, York 10950. New York, New York 10001. October 19-November 18 AN EXHIBITION OF THE WORKS OF September 25-November 18 SUSAN C. WATERS. THREE CENTURIES OF CONNECT— Portraits are the main focus of this ICUT FOLK ART. special exhibition, with some examples of Opening in the autumn at the Wadsworth the artist's later Victorian painting. A Atheneum, "Three Centuries of Connectcatalogue will be available. Longwood icut Folk Art" will travel to 7 institutions Fine Arts Center, Longwood College, in 5 Connecticut towns until July of 1980. Farmville, Virginia 23901. The exhibition is devoted to the examination and display of folk art in November 12 & 13 Connecticut and will feature items of A DAY IN HISTORIC BETHLEHEM. high quality in all media. Sponsored by A program of exciting boutiques, tours Art Resources of Connecticut, a visual of homes in the historic district, and a arts service agency fostered by the Tuesday afternoon tea at the Hotel Connecticut Commission of the Arts, it Bethlehem. This event will provide restois hoped that this exhibition will enration funds for Historic Bethlehem Inc.'s courage further exploration and interpre1810 John Sebastian Goundie House. tation of the state's folk art, as well as Reservations for the Tuesday tours and stress the need for its preservation and tea are limited, and tickets will be held active conservation. Wadsworth Athefor participants at the Hotel Bethlehem neum, 600 Main Street, Hartford, Conon the "day." Historic Bethlehem Inc., necticut 06103. 516 Main Street, Bethlehem, Penn. 18018.





MANAGED BY SANFORD L. SMITH AND ALISON MAGER Smith - Mager Antique Fairs, Inc. 152 Second Avenue New York, N.Y. 10003 (212) 777-5218 76

FALL ANTIQUES SHOW EXHIBITORS JILL & ED ABRAHAMS 760 Madison Ave./NYC 10021 (212) 988-4756 ALEXANDER GALLERY 996 Madison Ave./NYC 10021 (212) 472-1636 AMARIAH ANTIQUES 302 Elm St/Kalamazoo, Mich. 49007 (616) 345-4474 MARNA ANDERSON P.O. Box 108/Route #1 Topeka, Indiana 46571 (219) 593-2617 LINDA & DAVID ARMAN P.O. Box 3331/Danville, Va. 24541 (804) 799-6075

JAMES R. BAKKER ANTIQUES INC. 1 Liberty Square/Littleton, Mass. 01460 (617) 486-3603 LEONARD BALISH P.O. Box 25/124A Engle St./Englewood, NJ 07631 (201) 568-5385 THOMAS L. BANKS Route 100/Bally, Pa. 19503 (215) 845-3072

BARRIDOFF GALLERIES Annette & Rob Elowitch 242 Middle St./Portland, Me. 04101 (207) 772-5011 DARWIN D. BEARLEY 19 Grand Ave./Akron, Ohio 44303 (216) 376-4965 WILLIAM M. BECK 5402 Dickens Rd./Richmond, Va. 23230 (804) 264-1551 LEONARD BERRY & GORDON GREEK 726 N. Woodward/Birmingham, Mich. 48011 (313) 646-1996

LOUISE BEVILACQUA ANTIQUES 81 Moriarity Dr./Wilton, Conn. 06897 (203) 762-8458 MICHAEL BLACK, INC. Millbrook Antiques Center Franklin Ave. Route 44 Millbrook, NY 12545 (914) 677-3921 POLLY ROYCE/THE BLUE QUAIL 209 South Highway 101 Solana Beach, Calif. 92075 (714) 481-0908



JOAN BOGART P.O. Box 265/Rockville Center, NY 11571 (516) 764-0529 BRANDEGEE ANTIQUES, INC. 5639 Bartlett St./Pittsburgh, Pa. 15217

BRAD DEL SORBO 235 South Cross Rd./Chatham, NY 12037 TOM & NIKKI DEUPREE 480 North Main St./Suffield, Conn. 06082 (203) 668-7262

(412) 521-7583 T. BROWN 710 Waterdam Rd./McMurray, Pa. 15317 (412) 941-7143 0 CIRCA ANTIQUES/JUANITA GRUNDIN 1219 E. Las Olas Blvd./Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 33301 (305) 462-1704 ONA CURRAN 2336 Cayuga Road/Schenectady, NY 12309 (518) 372-3653 PAMELA CUSHMAN 21 Portland St./Yarmouth, Me. 04096 (207) 846-9038 0 ALLAN L. DANIEL 19 E. 76 Street, NY 10021 (212) 799-0825 CARTER de HOLL ANTIQUES 795 River Rd./Fair Haven, NJ 07701 (201) 842-7600

DIAMANT GALLERY 37 W. 72nd St./NYC 10023 (212) 362-3434 EILEEN & RICHARD DUBROW 9-20 166 St./Whitestone, NY 11357 (212) 767-9758 MICHAEL & JANE DUNN Box 216/Clavrack, NY 12513 (518) 851-7052 0 ROBERT EDWARDS P.O. Box 508/1111 Lancaster Ave. Rosemont, Pa. 19010 (215) 525-2150 LESLIE EISENBERG 118 Willow St./Brooklyn, Heights, NY 11201 (212) 625-3233 0 JOAN & RUFUS FOSHEE P.O. Box 531/Camden, Ma. 04843 (207) 236-2838 EDMUND L. FULLER Purdy Hollow Rd./Woodstock, NY 12498 (914) 679-8696


FALL ANTIQUES SHOW EXHIBITORS FRANK GAGLIO Primatiques P.O. Box 375/Wurtsboro, NY 12790 (914) 888-5077 FRANK GANCI Heath Lane/Schooley's Mtn, NJ 07870 (201) 852-0225 KATHRYN Sc FRED GIAMPIETRO 8 Paramount Ave./Hamden, Conn. 06517 (203) 787-3851 THERESA Sc ARTHUR GREENBLATT P.O. Box 276/Amherst, NH 03031 (606) 673-4401 JANE R. POLLOCK/GREENLEAF ANTIQUES 21 Greenleaf Ave./Darien, Conn. 06820 (203) 655-2744 WILLIAM S. GREENSPON 465 West End Ave./NYC 10024 (212) 787-2727 GREENWILLOW FARM LTD. Raup Rd./Chatham, NY 12037 (518) 392-9654 PHYLLIS Sc LOUIS GROSS 21 Walnut Court/South Orange, NJ 07079 (201) 763-5851

HAMMER Sc HAMMER 1238 Oak Ave./Evanston, Ill. 60202 (312) 869-6062 LEE HANES ANTIQUES 14 Massasoit Rd./Duxbury, Mass. 02332 (617) 934-2889 FREDERICK B. HANSON Box 35/RD 1/Keddysville, MD 21756 (301) 797-3895 HARVEY ANTIQUES 1231 Chicago Ave./Evanston, Ill. 60202 (312) 866-6766 NINA HELLMAN R.F.D. 1/Cedar Hill Rd./Bedford, NY 10506 (914) 234-3244 SAMUEL HERRUP ANTIQUES 11 Dean St./Brooklyn, NY 11201 (212) 875-5295 TIMOTHY Sc PAMELA HILL 56000 Ten Mile Rd./South Lyon, Mich. 48178 (313) 437-1538 HENRY B. HOLT 18 Oval Rd./Essex Fells, NJ 07021 (201) 228-0853



JANOS & ROSS 110 East End Ave./NYC 10028 (212) 988-0407

JAN & LARRY MALIS P.O. Box 211/New Canaan, Conn. 06840 (203) 966-8510


BETTIE MINTZ/ALL OF US AMERICANS 5530 Pemborke Rd./Bethesda, Md. 20034 (301) 652-8512

0 KATY KANE/ANTIQUE CLOTHING & QUILTS 31 West Ferry Street/New Hope, Pa. 18938 (215) 862-5873 MARYBETH H. KEENE 27 East Main St./Waterloo, NY 13165 (315) 539-8195 JOAN & LARRY KINDLER ANTIQUES, INC. 14-35 - 150th St./Whitestone, NY 11357 (212) 767-2260


JOHN C. NEWCOMER 1200 Washington St./Harpers Ferry, W.Va. 25425 (304) 535-6902

OLANA GALLERY/BERNARD ROSENBERG 6048 Delafield Ave./NYC 10471 (212) 796-9822

BEVERLY LABE/ADIRONDACK MEMORIES Thunderbird Dr. RD 2/Glens Falls, NY 12801 (518) 793-6426 LITCHFIELD HILLS ANTIQUES On-The-Green/Litchfield, Conn. 06759 (203) 567-8607 MARY LONGSWORTH 1141 Washington St./Harpers Ferry, W.Va. 25425 (304) 535-2385 SHIRLEY MOLBERT LEASS 14 Pound Holow Rd./01d Brookville, NY 11545 (516) 759-9602


JOSEPH PARI 3846 Whitney Ave./Mt. Carmel, Hamden, Conn. 06518 (203) 248-4951 THOMAS P. PASCAL/THE ANTIQUE SHOP 707 Main - Box 47 Harwich, Mass. 02645 (617) 432-4880 MIZZENTOP FARMS ANTIQUES 215 Ripton Rd./Huntington, Ct. 10648 (203) 929-7142


LUIGI PELLETTIERI 301 W. 108th St./NYC 10025 (212) 222-3975

JUST US ON COURT/J & S SCHNEIDER 299 North Court Ave./Tucson, Arizona 85701 (602) 622-3607

BARBARA & FRANK POLLACK 1303 Lincoln Ave. South/Highland Park, Ill. 60035 (312) 433-2213

MARY SNYDER Reinholds, Pa. 17569 (215) 267-5191

MAZE POTTINGER 1160 North Federal Highway/Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 33304 (305) 463-4518

MARLENE SELTZER 37 West 72 St./NYC 10023

WAYNE PRATT 257 Forest St./Marlboro, Mass. 01752

THE SERGEANTS 84 Obre Pl./Shrewsbury, NJ 07701 (201) 842-1407

0 PATRICA ANNE REED 5 Pump St./Newcastle, Ma. 04553 (207) 563-5633

SMITH GALLERY Sanford & Patricia Smith 1045 Madison Ave., at 79th St./NYC 10021 (212) 929-3121

BRIAN RIBA 112 Worth Court, South/West Palm Beach, Fla. 33405 (305) 832-6737

GRACE & ELLIOTT SNYDER Box 208/Kinderhook, NY 12106 (518) 799-6101

STELLA RUBIN 13501 Query Mill Rd./Gaithersburg, Maryland (301) 948-4187

EDWARD STECKLER 168 Governor St./Providence, R.I. 02906 (401) 272-1978

0 LINCOLN R. SANDER 270 Cannon Rd./Wilton, Conn. 06897 (203) 762-3265

STERLING & HUNT The Silver Flag Gallery P.O. Box 300/Bridgehampton, NY 11932 (516) 537-1096

RUSSELL SCHEIDER ANTIQUES Box 190/Merrimack, N.H. 03054 (603) 424-9224

STUART GALLERY 404 Park Avenue South New York 10016 (212) MU 3-3034

STEPHEN SCORE 159 Main St./Essex, Mass. 01929 (617) 768-6252



JAY ST. MARK & ISETTE NAPOLI RD 2/Huntingtown Rd./Newtown, Conn. 06470 (203) 426-4621

L.D WHITELEY GALLERIES 303 N. Sweetzer Ave./Los Angeles, Ca. 90048 (213) 658-8820

EDWARD STVAN P.O. Box 471/Chagrin Falls, Ohio 44022 (216) 247-6272

WILLOWDALE ANTIQUES 101 East Street Rd./Kennett Square, Pa. 19348 (215) 444-5377

ROBERT SUTTER/ANTIQUES IN WOOD 585 North Barry Avenue, Mamaroneck, NY 10543 (914) 698-8535

BETTY WILLIS ANTIQUES Jaffrey Rd./Marlborough, N.H. 03455 (603) 876-3983

CI TERRY ANN TOMLINSON P.O. Box 203 Woodstock, N.Y. 12498 (914) 679-6554 El WALKER VALLEY ANTIQUES P.O. Box 404/Walker Valley, NY 12588 (914) 744-3916 MERYL WEISS 300 West End Ave./NYC 10023 (212) 787-1779


HELEN WINTER GALLERY 40 Mill Lane/Farmington, Ct. 06032 (203) 677-0848




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CLASSICS FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART Special Exhibition at the Fall Antiques Show Helaine Fendelman,Special Curator The 1979 Fall Antiques Show will present dealers from California to Maine, from Michigan to Texas. This event is a fitting tribute to one of the most interesting and innovative museums in this country--the Museum of American Folk Art. In appreciation of the monumental support of the show's producers, the dealers, and the public, the Museum of American Folk Art is offering for exhibition some of the classics from its collection to be shared and enjoyed by the patrons of this exposition. "Classics From The Collection," which offers old friends to members and new treasures to all others, illustrates the broad range of the Museum's collection, which numbers over 600 pieces. The items exhibited were selected and installed with the help of Susan Flamm, Susan Rapoport, and Burton Fendelman. They were chosen because of their individuality and innate ability to speak for themselves in a crowded arena without the usual docent guided tours and detailed catalogues.



DS38}13ddliNID5t. "MN N31N33*-40... 1. Gabriel weathervane. Artist unknown. Possibly New England. Circa 1840. Sheet iron, polychromed. H. 291 / 4 ". (Gift of Mrs. Adele Earnest) 2. Bird of Paradise quilt top. Artist unknown. New York. 1858-1863. Cotton, silk. 87" x 711 / 2". (Gift of Catherine Cahill, Mrs. Frederick Danziger, Ralph Esmerian, Barbara Johnson, Esq., Mrs. Jacob M. Kaplan, Mrs. Ronald Lauder, William Wiltshire III)



3. Centennial quilt. G. Knappenberger. Possibly Pennsylvania. 1876. Cotton. 70" x 90". (Gift of Rhea Goodman)



4. Flag Gate. Artist unknown. From the Darling Farm, Jefferson County, New York. Circa 1876. Wood and metal, painted. L. 56". (Gift of Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr.) 5. Drop-leaf table. Artist unknown. Shaker, Mount Lebanon, New York. Mid19th century. Cherry and maple. H. 28'4". (Promised gift) 6. Father Time. Artist unknown. New York. Circa 1910. Wood and metal, painted. H. 48". (Gift of Mrs. John H. Heminway)


The Angel Gabriel weathervane floats freely from its human, earthly ties with belt blowing, the spectrum of the spirit heralding its very presence. The angel is sculpture presenting a form transcending the stationary. The message conveyed is especially meaningful, for the angel has been adopted as the logo for the Museum of American Folk Art. The Bird of Paradise quilt top is a textile telling a whole story, perhaps an entire novel. The creator completed her totality of expression, literally spinning a pictographic work of her life and time in the same manner that the Indians recorded their triumphs and sorrows on animal hides. The abstract execution is of interest to anyone who is aware that the earth is round and the sky is blue. The individual comments are so simple,'yet the total effect is overwhelming. The Centennial quilt is a dimensional kaleidoscope, so busy and colorful that it is a painting to be studied for its full appreciation. In addition, it is the zenith of folk art decoration with the universal traditional symbols of hearts for love, tulips for life. The written message "Centennial" is almost superfluous, for who could possibly not appreciate that the work of art is a celebration. The Flag Gate is not merely a utilitarian object but also a statement by the maker of love for his country. The message is to friends and neighbors and not to a commercial market where the meaning and personality of the piece would be lost. The Flag Gate is truly a great example of folk art because the decoration speaks more loudly than the object. The Shaker table, simple yet elegant in design and form, was not conceived as art, but as a utilitarian object for the Shaker community or for those who coveted the Shaker expressions. It is most distinctive for its originality, expressing the custom of a sect. It is folk craft and it is sculpture, a creative form that has endured with increasing appreciation. Father Time is the personification of the spiritual purveyor of the passing of civilizations. The unclothed body is beauty, an ephemeral vestige possessing nothing but purpose. Never mind the imperfection of the human form, for Father Time is the abstract work of a folk artisan expressing himself with his hands in a manner words can never convey. The Kansas Baby quilt is a story without words representing the time, skill, and love devoted to a new member of the community. The strong patterns and colors reflect the pride of the maker in being able to present the best available work to the young child. The powerful Saint Tammany weathervane, gargantuan both in physical presence and visual impact, is the standard for all weathervanes produced in the folk art tradition. It speaks of the




4 '


pride of fraternal organizations and of the spirit of the community in which it resided. How majestic the Indian is standing watch over his domain. Folk art is primarily a visual experience and words alone cannot express the aesthetic pleasures. You are invited to share the joy of studying these few objects while visiting the 1979 Fall Antiques Show and to visit the Museum of American Folk Art for more visual experiences with folk art.

7. Pieced and appliqued crib quilt. Artist unknown. Kansas. Circa 1861. Homespun. 36" x 363 / 4". (Gift of Phyllis Haders) 8. Saint Tammany weathervane. Artist unknown. Found in East Branch, New York. Mid19th century. Copper, molded and painted. H. 108.



With great pride, the Museum of American Folk Art announces an unprecedented week of folk art events, September 10-16, 1979. Mayor Ed Koch has established by proclamation that the Museum of American Folk Art is the officially recognized host of this significant and original Folk Art Festival. It will be a week for new discoveries and intellectual stimuli, a lively calendar of never-before experienced events. Spanning a wide range of topics, the week's highlights will include: a benefit preview opening of the Fall Antiques Show with Barbra Streisand as Honorary Chairwoman and Joseph Papp as Honorary Chairman; a premiere of a major Shaker exhibition, "The Shakers in New York State," at the Museum galleries, focusing on architecture, furniture, and arts and crafts; a series of satellite exhibitions on Shaker culture at four branches of the New York Public Library, including the screening of the film, The Shakers; a unique two-day Shaker seminar of lectures and slide presentations by fourteen speakers including members of one of the extant Shaker communities; a special exhibition at the American Museum of Immigration on Liberty Island; an actual reenactment of a Shaker meeting to be held at Trinity Church; and the introduction of an exciting new poster-size book devoted to the Museum of American Folk Art's permanent collection, published by Harry N. Abrams, Inc. By the declaration of the "Folk Art Festival," New York City, the art capital of the world, has recognized that the Museum of American Folk Art has established an important place for folk art in the cultural life of New York City. SCHEDULE OF EVENTS Monday, September 10: Rizzoli International Book Store, 712 Fifth Avenue Celebration of the publication by Harry N. Abrams, Inc., of Treasures of American Folk Art, Selections from the


Permanent Collection of the Museum of American Folk Art. Copies of the book will be autographed by Dr. Robert Bishop, Director of the Museum. Central Building of the New York Public Library, 42nd Street and Fifth Avenue second floor galleries The New York Public Library is a major repository of Shaker literature, including the earliest and rarest of the United Society of Believers' publications. These materials provide a comprehensive overview of the Shaker way of life. The following areas are covered: The Age of Manifestations; The Daily Life of Believers; Government and Discipline of the Church; Leaders and Personalities; Literary Influences; Modern Period: "Mother Ann's Work"; Music; Resources and Studies; Shaker Dances; Shaker History; Shaker Periodical Literature; Social Concerns; Theology. Numerous items including unique Shaker manuscripts, rare books, photographs, spiritual drawings, music books, etc., will be displayed. This exhibition was mounted by Gerard C. Wertkin, well-known Shaker scholar, with assistance from Lee Ann Aukamp and Dia Stolnitz. In addition, the Shaker influence on the performing arts is documented by original material in the form of photographs, written commentaries, and scores from the collection of the Library and Museum of the Performing Arts at Lincoln Center. Beginning in the 1920s, the Shaker influence on modern dance was felt as a serious response by Doris Humphrey in her dance, "The Shakers," and Martha Graham's ballet, "Appalachian Spring." These exhibitions will be featured through October 24. Library and Museum of the Performing Arts at Lincoln Center, 111 Amsterdam Avenue The little known area of Shaker influence on the theater is demonstrated by early prints of Shaker worship as "performance," minstrel show material, and

theatrical parodies of Shaker beliefs. This exhibition will continue through October. Donnell Library Center, 20 West 53rd Street A special screening of Tom Davenport's film, The Shakers, and 19th-century glass plate photographs from private collections will be on view through October 21. Jefferson Market Regional Branch of the New York Public Library, 425 Avenue of the Americas Display of important publications of the last 30 years on Shaker culture will continue through September 29. American Museum of Immigration, Liberty Island, New York Harbor Photographic exhibition documenting "The Shaker Search for New Horizons." Tuesday, September 11: Special Preview of the Fall Antiques Show, Seventh Regiment Armory, Park Avenue at 55th Street, 7-10 P.M. Joseph Papp, Producer of the New York Shakespeare Festival, has agreed to serve as Honorary Chairman, and Barbra Streisand will add her special luster as Honorary Chairwoman at the gala opening night party of this new all-American Fall Antiques Show. The Show, managed by Alison Mager and Sanford Smith, will extend through Sunday, September 16. "Classics from the Collection," an exhibition of masterpieces from the everexpanding permanent collection of the Museum of American Folk Art, will be a highlight of the Show. The Preview Benefit Committee has arranged an autumn bounty of Country Fare hors d'oeuvres and wine designed and catered by Martha Stewart of Westport, Connecticut. Wednesday, September 12: Special Exhibition of the Phyllis Haders Collection of Amish Quilts, American Standard Building, 40 West 40th Street The mounting of this special exhibition is sponsored by the Museum of American Folk Art.

Thursday, September 13: "The Shakers in New York State," special exhibition at the Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd Street The Museum feels that the contributions of the Shaker communities in New York State, which were the major source of inspiration for the development of a distinctive Shaker folk culture, must be presented in an appropriate manner. The communities of Mount Lebanon, New York; Watervliet, New York; and Groveland, New York (the earliest and latest of the major Shaker societies) included the seat of the central institution the Parent Ministry - and the home of many of the Society's most distinguished craftsmen and artisans. Through their innovative technology and genius for invention, the Shakers played important roles in the economic development of the regions surrounding their communities. Through their artistic vision and craftsmanship, they contributed greatly to our American heritage in the folk arts. The three-part exhibition, presenting many objects never before publicly displayed, examines the Shakers' contributions to American artistic and social history. Dr. C. Eugene Kratz, President of the Shaker Heritage Society, is the curator of the architectural segment and concentrates on the unique functional aspects of Shaker architecture. Karl Mendel, educator and collector of Shaker artifacts, deals with the design and craftmanship of over 40 examples of exceptional Shaker furniture. Cynthia Rubin, lecturer and scholar, focuses on Shaker crafts and their function as the economic base of the community. Installation of the exhibition will be designed and supervised by Frank Sierra, prominent New York City interior designer, whose design concepts will reflect the elegance of Shaker simplicity combined with a functional approach. Included among the lenders to the exhibition are the Hancock Shaker Village, the Shaker Museum at Old Chatham, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Philadelphia Museum, the New York State Museum at Albany, and several private collectors. Friday, September 14, and Saturday, September 15: "Shaker Life in America," seminar sponsored by the Museum of American Folk Art and presented at the lecture hall of

Sotheby Parke Bernet, 980 Madison Avenue This seminar, coordinated by Gerard C. Wertkin, New York City attorney and well-known authority on the Shakers, is designed to document the Shaker contribution to the artistic and social heritage of America. During the two-day conference distinguished scholars from across the nation will present papers dealing with those dimensions of Shaker life which cannot adequately be treated in the form of a Museum display. Exploring the Shaker way of life in its wonderful diversity, representatives from Shaker museums, restorations, and institutions will focus upon the social history, music, literature, philosophy, and the arts and crafts of the Shakers. Sunday, September 16: Special Ceremony at Trinity Church, 74 Trinity Place Many of the surviving Shakers, who will also be attending the seminar, will participate in this special service. Commemorative Service at the Foot of Manhattan Island This service, attended by the visiting Shakers and interested guests, will celebrate the arrival of Mother Ann Lee and her small band of disciples in Manhattan in 1774. Rizzoli International Book Store, 712 Fifth Avenue The Museum will be represented in the Fifth Avenue Street Fair, "New York is Book Country," by its new book, Treasures of American Folk Art. TENTATIVE PROGRAM FOR SEMINAR ON SHAKER LIFE IN AMERICA (as of June 30, 1979) Friday, September 14, 1979 9:00 A.M. Registration 10:15 A.M. Conference Opening Gerard C. Wertkin, Coordinator 10:25 A.M. Welcome Dr. Robert Bishop, Director, Museum of American Folk Art 10:30 A.M. Lecture to be announced 11:30 A.M. Shakers in Utopian Context Peter Laskovski, Director of the Shaker Museum, Old Chatham, New York Discussion of the Shakers

in the broader Utopian context of the 19th century. The Shakers were hailed as social reformers by the Utopian socialists of the day and their relation with leading figures in the movement provides a fascinating chapter in their history. 12:30 P.M. Lunch 1:45 P.M. Afternoon Session Comments and Introductions Gerard C. Wertkin 2:00 P.M. Spirit Drawings and Music Dr. Daniel W. Patterson, Chairman of the Curriculum in Folklore and Professor of English, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina Dr. Patterson's book, The Shaker Spiritual, has already been hailed as the most important new work of scholarship in Shaker studies to be published in at least a generation. 3:00 P.M. Black Shakers Richard Williams, Graduate of the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, New Brunswick, New Jersey A discussion of a little known but fascinating subject coming out of the Shaker experience - the full integration of black people into the Shaker Society. The focus of the talk is the small Shaker community that existed for many years in the heart of urban Philadelphia led by a remarkable black woman, Mother Rebecca Jackson. 4:00 P.M. Break 4:15 P.M.

Women in Shaker Life Virginia Weis, Professor of English at the University of the State of New York, Brockport, New York Well before "women's liberation" was a subject of serious consideration,


5:15 P.M.

6:00 P.M. 7:009:00 P.M.

the Shakers announced 1:45 P.M. the concept of Mother and Father in God and insisted upon total equality of the sexes in all 1:50 P.M. aspects of community life. Shakers and the World Flo Morse, author of Yankee Communes Discussion of the interaction of the Shakers with the world outside the communities. Close of Friday Session Reception 3:00 P.M. Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd Street Private viewing of the special exhibition, "The Shakers in New York State," for conference participants and speakers.

Saturday, September 15, 1979 9:30 A.M. Opening of Morning Session Gerard C. Wertkin 9:40 A.M. Watervliet, New York, South Family Dr. C. Eugene Kratz, President of the Shaker Heritage Society, Albany, New York The unique functional aspects of Shaker architecture in New York State. 10:40 A.M. Shaker Literature Mary Richmond, Compiler of Shaker Literature: A Bibliography The various aspects of the Shaker literary tradition. 11:30 A.M. Break 11:40 A.M. The Shaker World of Benson Lossing Don Gifford, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts For almost 100 years after it was published, Benson Lossing's 1857 article in Harper's Monthly was the basis of the popular conception of the Shakers. Mr. Gifford will present a study of Benson Lossing's original watercolors and drawings. 12:30 P.M. Lunch


3:45 P.M. 4:15 P.M.

5:15 P.M.

6:00 P.M.

Afternoon Session Comments and Announcements Gerard C. Wertkin Shaker Theology Theodore Johnson, Director of the Institute of Shaker Studies and of the Shaker Library and Museum, Sabbathday Lake, Maine Presentation based upon a searching analysis of the library collections at Sabbathday Lake. Shaker Graphics Robert Emlen, Associate Curator, Rhode Island Historical Society, Providence, Rhode Island The work of the Shaker graphic artist, Elder Joshua Busse11, is discussed in the context of graphic arts, architectural history, and industry. Break Shaker Furniture Mary Lynn Ray, Curator of the New Hampshire Historical Society, Concord, New Hampshire The underlying motifs of the Shaker Society's production in the arts. Shaker Life Today Sisters R. Mildred Barker and Frances Carr, Sabbathday Lake, Maine Dialogue focusing on the theological concepts around which the Shaker life was built. Conference Closing

Tickets to attend this weekend event are $40 to members of the Museum of American Folk Art and $45 to nonmembers. Further information may be obtained by calling the Museum at 212 581-2474 or writing the Museum of American Folk Art, 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York 10019.

C-4 1M

Title THE SHAKERS IN NEW YORK STATE Curators: Karl Mendel and Cynthia Rubin


Members' Private Preview

Public Opening


September 13, 1979

September 14, 1979

November 21, 1979

This two-part exhibition willfeature Shaker artifacts, including architecture, furniture, and other decorative arts, as well as the crafts as developed and practiced by the Shakers in New York State. Through the years there have been numerous exhibitions devoted to Shaker works of art, but until this show, none have blended the arts with the crafts to produce a cohesive exhibition that truly represents the Shaker contribution to America's history. THE ART OF THE WEATHERVANE Curator: Ralph Sessions Exhibition Designer: Adele Earnest

December 5, 1979

December 6, 1979

February 24, 1980

The weathervane as a work of art will be exemplified by antique weathervanesfrom the Museum's permanent collection, from private collections, andfrom public institutions. In addition, the creation of a weathervanefrom the original design to a completed piece will be demonstrated through an audio-visual presentation which will include a craftsman utilizing antique tools and techniques to raise a piece. The exhibition will be enhanced by panels detailing manufacturing techniquesfor mass-produced weathervanes. This exhibition is made possible through the participation and generous contribution of Kenneth Lynch and Sons, Inc., of Wilton, Connecticut. NEWLY DISCOVERED PAINTINGS BY THE BORDEN LIMNER Curator: Robert Bishop

March 6, 1980

March 7, 1980

May 4, 1980

In 1976 Robert Bishop mounted at the Museum of Art, University of Michigan, a retrospective exhibition devoted to The Borden Limner, now tentatively identified as John S. Blunt. Newly discovered paintings and a keystone signed portrait shed new light on the Blunt paintings which will provide the basis for this exhibition.

ENGLISH NAIVE PAINTING Exhibition Coordinator: Laura Byers

May 15, 1980

May 16, 1980

August 31, 1980

English naive paintings ranging from portraiture to genre and dating from the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries are to be featured in this exhibition from the collection of Mr. and Mrs. A. Kalman, London, England. The Kalman Collection has been exhibited extensively throughout Europe and its first appearance in the United States will be at the Museum of American Folk Art. Following this initial presentation, it will tour throughout America.


September 9, 1980

September 10, 1980

October 26, 1980

Leo and Dorothy Rabkin, longtime friends of the Museum of American Folk Art, have generously made much of their extensive collection available to the Museum in the form of a promised bequest. This exhibition willfocus upon a small segment of their holdings of whirligigs and wind toysfrom the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, all of which have human figures built into their design.


E : V AM

APRIL 1 - MAY 31, 1979 The Museum trustees and staff extend a special welcome to these new members: Mrs. Theodore Alfond, Weston, Massachusetts Antiques America, Tucson, Arizona Dr. James F. Arient, Naperville, Illinois Pauline M. Avdalas, New York City D.E. Baker, New York City Pat Balducci, New York City Walter Beardshall, Brooklyn, New York Geri-Anne Benning, Honeoye Falls, New York Priscilla Blakemore, New York City Mr. & Mrs. R.W. Bowman, Los Angeles, California E.P. Brand, Binghamton, New York Carol R. Braverman, Independence, Ohio Nancy & Ted Brooks, West Hurley, New York Mr. & Mrs. Allen Bullard & Family, Highland Park, Illinois Van Canonico, Shrewsbury, New Jersey Betty Carrie, Florham Park, New Jersey Ned Cartledge, Atlanta, Georgia Babette Cohen, Roslyn Heights, New York Mrs. Trammell S. Crow, Dallas, Texas Norma Dorfman, Bridgehampton, New York Lisa Fedon, State College, Pennsylvania Ronald A. Ferrara, New York City Thomas J. Foster, Boulogne, France Mr. & Mrs. B.H. Friedman, New York City G.S. Gaffney, Holmdale, New Jersey Barbara Gardner, Bayside, New York Marcela T. Ginilewicz, Scarsdale, New York Emory Goff, Brunswick, Maine Polly Goodwin, New York City Mrs. Hermen Greenberg, Washington, D.C. Greenfield Village & Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn, Michigan


Mrs. Ronald B. Hammond, Greenville, Michigan Mrs. Gordon H. Hayes, Buffalo, New York Karel R. Henry, Marshfield, Massachusetts David Herrmann, Bridgehampton, New York Mr. & Mrs. Barry Hirsch, New York City Mrs. Barry G. Huffman, Hickory, North Carolina Mrs. Raymond J. Johnson, Mercer, Pennsylvania Daniel Judwick, New York City Lena B. Kaplan, New York City Kei Kobayashi, New York City Judith Kraft, Saugerties, New York Mortimer Levitt, New York City Margaret M. Madigan, New York City Frances Manacher, New York City Mr. & Mrs. Anthony A. Manheim, Brooklyn, New York Susan Maresco, Santa Cruz, California Jo Ann Marion, Rockville, Maryland Christine & Chester Mayer, New York City Maze Pottinger Antiques, Fort Lauderdale, Florida Mrs. W.B. McCarty Jr., Jackson, Mississippi John L. Meekin, New York City Jean Muiznieks, Cranbury, New Jersey John C. Nagy, West Chester, Pennsylvania Deanna Nardozzo, State College, Pennsylvania Rosemary Pandolfi, Astoria, New York Linda Preston, Gladwyne, Pennsylvania Marian Probst, New York City Raku Inc., Santa Barbara, California Mr. & Mrs. Chris Regas, Perrysburg, Ohio James Rickard, South Woodstock, Connecticut Mr. & Mrs. Jon Rotenstreich, New York City Mrs. Francis E. Russolillo, Westfield, Massachusetts

Gary E. Russolillo, M.D., Suffield, Connecticut G. Sagone, New York City Stephanie Schus, New York City Cheryl Webb Scott, Wakefield, Massachusetts Stanley S. Shuman, New York City Helen Smagorinsky, Brockport, New York Deborah M. Smith, Silver Spring, Maryland Sanford L. Smith, New York City Elizabeth Steidel, Elmhurst, New York Kennetha Stewart, New York City Mrs. Lewis A. Swyer, Albany, New York Sandra Teepen, Yellow Springs, Ohio Gail B. Tewell, Matawan, New Jersey Ann Vidor, Santa Monica, California Cynthia J. Voelkl, Lisle, Illinois Loet Vos, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Mrs. Frederick L. Voss, Montauk, New York Richard Weston, Beverly Hills, California Wendy Willem, New York City Betty A. Willis, Marlborough, New Hampshire Julian B. Wolff, Wantagh, New York Eugene & Nine Zagat, Jr. New York City We wish to thank the following membersfor their increased membership contributions and their expression of confidence in the Museum. Patricia D. Bethke, Armonk, New York Fenton L.B. Brown, New York City Alan & Ellen Cober, Ossining, New York Mrs. Richard Ernst, New York City Mrs. Gerald E. Gaull, New York City J.B. Richardson, Jr., Westport, Connecticut Cynthia V.A. Schaffner, New York City Mrs. Stanley Tananbaum, Harrison, New York Jonathan B. Weller, New York City Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Williams, Litchfield, Connecticut

Invest in the Future During the last several years, support from members and friends has been of vital importance to the growth of the Museum of American Folk Art. One of the ways in which you can insure perpetuation of our continuing programs is through a gift or bequest, a timeless expression of your concern for the Museum and its future. Gifts and bequests to the Museum may be made through endowment for general purposes or for a program of specific interest to you or to your family. The Museum of American Folk Art is a nonprofit educational institution. Gifts are deductible for the donor, subject to legal limita-


tions concerning gifts to tax-exempt organizations. In order to provide for your continuing support to the Museum of American Folk Art, we recommend that you seek the assistance of your legal counsel or other advisers. The same form below may aid you in further discussions with your attorney.

On this day of ,I 19 of hereby give and bequeath to The Museum of

American Folk Art, a New York nonprofit corporation, having its principal office at 49 West 53rd Street, New York, New York, all my right, title, and interest in and to to be used by the Musuem of American Folk Art for its general corporate purposes (for other specified purposes). I further agree to provide The Museum of American Folk Art with documents of title, interest, or assignment as The Museum of American Folk Art may reasonably request. Name Address


Elizabeth Tobin Manager This summer the Museum of American Folk Art welcomed to New York a mainland first-an exhibition of Hawaiian Quilts from July 3 through September 2. For enthusiastic crowds of summer visitors it was their introduction to a quilt form recognized as distinctly Hawaiian. Many of the designs were single color applique, some bold, some feathery, applied to a second solid contrasting background. The decorative motifs were often inspired by native floral, fruit, or leaf formations, which were then expressed in designs based on the symmetry of a four-fold scissor cut having a common center. Then there were other quilt patterns inspired by flags, historical events, or people whose background was Hawaiian. Generally speaking, the quilting followed and reinforced the contours of the patterns in evenly spaced rows. The Museum Shop recommends two books available here though published in Hawaii. The Hawaiian Quilt by Napua•Stevens retails for 10.00 (no discount). This book gives explicit step-by-step written and illustrated directions on making either quilts or pillows. It includes such valuable information as choice of and directions for applique stitches and on designing your own patterns and yardage charts. Hawaiian Quilts by Stella M. Jones retails for 5.50 (no discount). This book contains a reprint of a long out-of-print brief monograph by the author on early history, techniques, and designs published by The Honolulu Academy of Arts during their quilt exhibition in 1930. The book also includes a completely illustrated catalogue of late 1800 and early 1900 quilts displayed during an exhibition, "The Quilt---A Hawaiian Heritage," held at the Honolulu Academy of Arts, October 13-November 18, 1973.

Because of our exhibition, "The Shakers In New York State," from September 14 through November 21, The Museum Shop has researched the following list of books, catalogues, and pamphlets on the Shakers. BOOKS AND CATALOGUES ON THE SHAKERS Andrews, Edward D. The People Called Shakers: A Search for the Perfect Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 1953. Reprint. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1963. 4.00 and Andrews, Faith. The Community Industries of the Shakers. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1933. Reprint. Charlestown, Mass.: Emporium Publications, 1971. 3.95 Religion in Wood: A Book of Shaker Furniture. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1966. '7.95 Shaker Furniture: The Craftsmanship of an American Communal Sect. 1937. Reprint. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1964. 4.00 Visions of the Heavenly Sphere: A Study in Shaker Religious Art. Charlottesville, Va.: Henry Francis DuPont Winterthur Museum and the University Press of Virginia, 1969. 15.00 Barker, Sister R. Mildred. The Sabbathday Lake Shakers: An Introduction to the Shaker Heritage. Sabbathday Lake, Me.: The Shaker Press, 1978. 3.00 Filley, Dorothy M. Recapturing Wisdom's Valley: The Watervliet Shaker Heritage 1775-1975. Edited by Mary L. Richmond. New York: Publishing Center for Cultural Resources, Inc., 1975. 5.00 Gardener's Manual. 1843. Reprint. Introduction by Amy Bess Miller. Hancock, Mass.: Hancock Shaker Village, 1976. 1.50 Handberg, Ejner. Shop Drawings of Shaker Furniture and Wooden ware, Vols. I, II, III. Stockbridge, Mass.: Berkshire Traveller Press, 1973, 1975, 1977. Each vol. 3.95 Shop Drawings of Shaker Iron and Tinware. Stockbridge, Mass.: Berkshire Traveller Press, 1976. 3.95 Illustrated Catalogue and Price List of Shaker Chairs. 1885. Reprint. Old Chatham, N.Y.: Shaker Museum Foundation, 1975. 50 cents Johnson, Theodore E. Hands to Work and Hearts to God: The Shaker Tradition in Maine. Brunswick, Me.: Bowdoin College Museum of Art, 1969. 5.95 Mary Whitcher's Shaker House-Keeper. 1882. Reprint. Introduction by Amy Bess Miller.

Hancock, Mass.: Hancock Shaker Village, 1976. 1.50 Meader, Robert F. Illustrated Guide to Shaker Furniture. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1972. 5.00 Melcher, Marguerite F. Shaker Adventure. Old Chatham, N.Y.: The Shaker Museum, 1975. 4.75 Miller, Amy Bess. Shaker Herbs: A History and a Compendium. New York: Crown Publishers, 1976. 12.95 and Fuller, Persis. The Best of Shaker Cooking. New York: Macmillan, 1976. 5.95 "Shaker Breads" from The Best of Shaker Cooking. New York: Village Kitchen, 1976. 1.50 Morse, Flo. Yankee Communes: Another American Way. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971. 4.95 Pennington, David and Taylor, Michael. A Pictorial Guide to American Spinning Wheels. Sabbathday Lake, Me.: The Shaker Press, 1975. 4.50 Piercy, Caroline. The Shaker Cookbook. New York: Crown Publishers, 1969. 2.98 Provensen, Alice and Martin. A Peaceable Kingdom: The Shaker Abecedarius. New York: Viking Press, 1978. 8.95 Richmond, Mary L. Shaker Literature: A Bibliography. Hancock, Mass.: Shaker Community, Inc., and Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1977. 45.00 Robinson, Charles E. The Shakers and Their Homes. 1893. Reprint. Canterbury, N.H.: The Shaker Village, Inc., 1976. 3.95 Rubin, Cynthia and Jerome. Shaker Miniature Furniture. Florence, Ky.: Van Nostrand Rheinhold, 1979. 7.95 Shaker Sweetmeats. Hancock, Mass.: Shaker Community, Inc., 1965. 1.50 Shea, John G. American Shakers and Their Furniture. Florence, Ky.: Van Nostrand Rheinhold, 1971. 16.95 Simple Gifts: Hands to Work and Hearts to God. Storrs, Conn.: University of Connecticut, 1978. 75 cents Sommer, Margaret F. Shaker Seed Industry. Old Chatham, N.Y.: The Shaker Museum, 1972. 2.00 Sprigg, June. By Shaker Hands. New York: Alfred A. Knopf & Co., Inc., 1975. 7.95

When ordering from The Museum Shop, please note: Members should subtract 10%. Add 8% tax if mailed within New York City; local tax if mailed within New York State. Add 1.50 for a single item; .50 for each additional item to cover postage and handling.



normamilliamwangel americanantiques

andfolk art 11058 seven hill lane, potomac, maryland by appointment only

20854 301-299-8430



A collection of over 300 photos from collections in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Virginia, Colorado, Maryland, Arizona, Kansas, Kentucky and New York. GUTHRIE & LARASON

Exclusive Distributors


CHALFONT, PA 18914 Please send me copies of THE BASKET COLLECTORS BOOK E Soft Cover @ $6.95 n Hard Cover @ $11.95 name.

310 Duke Street Tappahannock, Virginia 22560 804-443-2655

address. City. state:

zip: C.O.D. Orders add $1.00- Pa. res. add 6%


American Folk Art Company Jeffrey & C. Jane Camp

Welcome to FOLK ART CITY—U.S.A.

19th Century over mantle painting on wood, Connecticut.


Antiques 18th & 19th Century Country America Extraordinary PAINTED MIRROR,Second half 19th century, mirrored glass and wood painted with the figures of white pelicans standing on a tropical shore, lily pads in the foreground. 19 inches x 27 inches. NOTE:Top offrame bears the following stenciled advertisement —SMOKE AUSTIN NICHOLS &CO's IMPORTED SWEET VIOLET.

390Bleecker Street(11th Street) New York, NY 10014 (212)691-2183

Robert Sutter Antiques in Wood

Late 19th century framed pictorial hooked rug from Pennsylvania,cotton and wool on burlap, worked with gray, black, orange, magenta and navy-blue threads. 351 / 2inches x 23 inches. Mint condition. Exhibited New York,The Museum of American Folk Art, The All-American Dog, November 1977, illustrated in the catalogue, page 125.



Nettytkfaliam& Jill of Story Hill 2,5&ist 6'st4 Jima, Aieo gork, Airco &ark ivo / greleAltone:(.9>,?),_96W- 4766or 761-498> fffondajp-tiateasky;


Exhibiting in the Fall Antiques Show,September 12-16th, Park Avenue Armory at 67th Street, New York and The Washington Hilton Antiques Show, December 7-9th. Booth #3, Washington, D.0.

Good design &fine workmanship in Americanfurniture & wooden objects ofthe 18th & 19th centuries always on display in the store next door to my cabinet shop

585 NO. BARRY AVE. MAMARONECK NEW YORK 10543 914-948-1857. home By chance or appointment

I always have a wide assortment of city and country cabinetmaker's furniture to choose from. Whimseys, wooden toys. inlaid carved and painted boxes, desk boxes also on hand


-,_L[LEM RI Pg3 0 11MOU E INSUR CE SPECI LISTS 2101 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037 Ca// (202) 223-0673 or (800) 424-8830 (Toll free)

• Collectors • Dealers • Museums

Hepplewhite mahogany sofa, circa 1790. See Hornor's Blue Book, page 251, plate 4 u. (Juanita Grundin) 1219 East Las Olas Boulevard, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33301 (305)462-1704


Exhibiting "Fall Antique Show" Sept./2-16, Park Avenue Armory, N.Y.0.

, w4


.. ••


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Rare grouping of five black "Nut Head" figures. Found in Tennessee. Late 19th Century. They remain in their original state and are outstanding in every respect. Heights 9 to 11 inches


" I M,;/(4. FiARVE ril l=•,•:, "il •'!'•

.... _.., ANTIQUES

1231 Chicago Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60202 (312) 866-6766

Mary Strickler's Quilt

Kathy Schoemer Log Cabin. Circa 1880, Wool Challis

Fine Antique Quilts, Including Early Amish American Folk Art,Baskets and Hooked Rugs

An interesting and affordable collection of American country antiques offered for sale in our home. by appointment

936 B Street•San Rafael,CA 9490P(415)456-7394 •15 minutes North of San Francisco• Postcards of our quilts are available in The Museum Bookstore


New Canaan, Conn. 99

PATTIE K. BRYANT Contemporary Primitive Painter Studio 30 Diving Street Stonington, Conn. 06378 (203) 535-3900

P.O. Box 621 Southport Conn. 06490

"Contemporary Folk Paintings & Carvings" Oct. 13 — Nov. 3 Exhibiting September 12-16 at Fall Antiques Show 7th Regiment Armory Park Avenue at 67th Street New York, New York

We specialize in antique working spinning and weaving equipment and all associated paraphernalia.

Louise Bevilacqua Antiques Wilton, Connecticut 06897

203 762-8458 by appointment


Augusta Simon Armistice Day Nov. 11, 1918 New Canaan, Ct. 24" x 30"

WEBB & PARSONS Tues. — Sat. 10 — 5 134 Elm Street, New Canaan, Ct. 06840 203-966-1400

‘all° americalti filkart winmeft0 Quilts, weathervanes, wood figures and small Shaker inventions to be shown at the Fall Antiques Fair Sept. 12 - 16, Park Avenue Armory at 67th Street, New York

Fintiosle Ouilt Restoration , . , Custom Made ,5tretthers ..._ m for displav,ina Ouitts6- QARs, licolwd Rues , _s Rag Carpets sevn tociether for Rum


Pie Gatinat 230 V.10tb 5t.

bettie mintz p.o. box 5943 bethesda. maryland 20014 301- 652-4626

c) , ,

la* 212- VI,1 - 3259 &, N,r. , : figsi % .

P)C•\ -AI



FOLK ART 303 No. SWEETZER L.A..CA. 90048 BY APPOINTMENT (213/ 858.8820

, STATE OF THE ARTS SCRINSHANED SWIFT, 1880. Red and green decorations with inlaid motherof pearl, wade by Woody, a whaling sailor.


Hooked and hand sewn "Eaglet" child's bed rug, first quarter of the 19th century or earlier. Left handed child's writing arm Windsor in old green paint signed J.C. HUBBARD, BOSTON. L.T. Ward Bros. pin tail, Crisfield, Maryland, 1935. Punched tin coffee pot made by Gilbert in Pottstown, Pennsylvania on a New York state painted cricket.

The blue Qtail 181 h to I h Ccni lily

Cou ntry


(714)481-0909 209 South Htt. 101. Solana Beath, CA 92075

,hkg" Rare and Exceptional CENTER SQUARE Amish Bishop's Quilt, Lancaster County, Pa., c. 1907 Dated. Size 79" x 78". Wool. Full provenance to purchaser.

"Exhibiting: Fall Antiques Fair Sept. 12-16, 1979- Park Ave. Armory at 67th St. N.Y.C. We hope you will visit our booth."



BARBARA S. JANOS— BARBARA ROSS 110 East End Avenue(5E)— New York, N.Y. 10028 (212)988-0407 by Appointment Only


56000 TEN MILE ROAD,SOUTH LYON, MICHIGAN,48178 (313)437.1538


Paul L. Ackerman Antiques — Folk Art Graphic Textiles

Phone: 207-236-4832

Rockport, Maine 04856 Orange and red lightning bolt quilt, size 70" by 77", mint condition, signed and dated 1896-1916.





Invitati on ...tospendsometimeeach

month amongthefatest,most exquisite treasuresffthe ancientand modern World! "The most beautiful magazine printed in the English language," THE CONNOISSEUR contains full-colour plates, illustrations and authoritative articles on: CONNOISSEt Paintings Prints Tapestries Antiques Silver Jewelry Porcelain Glass Sculpture Architecture Furniture Arms& Armour Plus, definitive news on the showings, sales and events worth noting in American and European galleries, museums, auction rooms and private collections. '

The Enghsh hhh 1,10 nhhd The Indian.,and American ad A fredh look di Mon,and Company

6ONNOISSEUR $6.00 a copy. 1 year $48.00 (You save $24.00 from the singlecopy cost). 2 years $85.00 (You save $59.00 from the singlecopy cost). For these substantial savings,just fill in and clip out the Subscription Order Form below and mail it today. Your first copy will be on its way to you in six to twelve weeks. Watch for it! OM=

THE CONNOISSEUR P.O. Box 10120, Des Moines, Iowa 50350

Yes! Please send me THE CONNOISSEUR CI One year(12 months)for $48.00 (saves me $24.00 from the single-copy cost) Li Two years(24 months)for $85.00 (saves me $59.00 from the single-copy cost) fl Payment is enclosed 111 Bill me Initial here

Name please print

20th CENTURY AMERICAN FOLK ART a special exhibition — through September 29 Paintings and sculptures in various media by John Carlis, Minnie Evans, David Ellinger, Sherty Long, Jim McCloskey, Juan Muniz, Hebe Zack and unknown or unidentified self-taught artists

Address City

State THE CONNOISSEUR $6.00 a copy.





Zip F Si 9


37 West 57 St. New York 10019 tel 212/832-2255



Plow Weathervane Signed J. Howard & Co. Buying and Selling Fine American Folk Art.

By Apt. (914) 679-2753

Bernard Chester Dentan

Two odBsrtoc ad k iN e wyRd12498

Watercolor and ink by Geo. C. Kenney, Maine c. 1875-80. 36 x 22/ 1 2 in.

S 106

by Apt. (212) 787-2727 gi6 e5 w \‘/ Io esri EdyAv1e6024 Greenspon


(212) 924-7146 BY APPOINTMENT


All kinds of

Soft Folk Art


Kelter - Malce 361 Bleecker Street, N.Y.C. 10014, (212) 989-6760 in historic Greenwich Village, Tuesday through Saturday Noon 8 PM. 107


Concord Ontiques Fairs

New Hampshire Ilighway IIotel



4r 41



19th Cent. Countertop apothecary trade sign. Carved black man's head-bandaged and ready to ingest a white tablet. 19" High including base.

OCTOBER 21st NOVEMBER 18th DECEMBER 2nd Managed by S.K. FRENCH Exeter. N.H.

Tues. - Sat. 12:30 - 7:30 p.m.

Sandra E. Cliff (212) 741-1164

Mid 19th C. American Parade Banner Oil Painting on red silk. 21" x 26%2". Sgnd.: L. E. Stilz & Bro., also, C. V. Atkinson.

7e441-dairy 7btrefaed 704ecGrey curd 2,649 Zele.:14 -74 eT„,,,,,„,„d ,

Oede~.4. tp.OF,F5F

(200 4139-2221 108

A Shaker rarity A peg-leg stand from the Church Family, New Lebanon. Circa 1810. Ex. Andrews collection. Illustrated: Antiques magazine, Jan. 1933, P. 8, fig. 15 Shaker Furniture, Andrews; plate 12 Fruits of The Shaker Tree of Life, Andrews; p. 60; p. 208 Item No. 7 dimensions: top: 121 / 2"x 181 / 2" ht: 243 / 4" Pine, maple & birch. Original finish.

Richard ra Betty Ann Rasso East Chatham, New York (518) 392-4501


Elliott & Grace Snyder

Wide Lace Ruffles

Box 208 Kinderhook, N.Y. 12106 (518) 799-6101

Child's Log Cabin Quilt Silk piping with velvet squares and border. 52".sq. Exhibiting in the FALL ANTIQUES SHOW — Sept. 12-16th Park Avenue Armory, N.V C.

Ruffles of lace...enchantment at your windows! The finest blend of cotton and polyester permanent press edged with four inch cluny lace ruffles, copied from an authentic old world pattern. Natural or white. All pairs are 90" wide. Lengths of 45" or 54", $27.00 pair, 63" or 72" long, $30.00 pr; 81" or 90" long, $33.00 pr. Valance, 10's 80", $11.00 each. Please remember to add the 4" lace to the lengths listed. Add $2.00 postage and handling. Specify natural or white. Send check, money order or use Mastercharge or Visa. Mass. res. add 5% sales tax. Send for free catalogue showing other curtains, bed ensembles and tablecloths. Satisfaction guaranteed.


Dept 89 , Stockbridge, Mass. 01262


Watercolor portrait of a young woman, executed in shades of magenta and rose: posed before a landscape ofgreen hills and trees. 18"x 15W framed. Ca. 1830.

ROGER R. RICCO FOLK ART, QUILTS, TRIBAL SCULPTURE 114 W. 22nd St. N.Y. 10001, 212-255-6229 By Appointment

Frank &Barbara Pollack American Country Antiques & Art 1303 Lincoln Ave. South Highland Park,Illinois 60035

By App't Only 312-433-2213

Only 30 minutes from downtown Chicago or O'Hare Airport Exhibiting "Fall Antique Show" Sept. 12-16, Park Avenue Armory, N.Y.0.

Destination: Oblivion Steel rails first bound our nation together, but now many of America's unique train stations face bleak futures or total destruction. What a shame to lose them! In some parts of America, concerned people have found innovative and modern uses for these old structures. They've been rejuvenated as banks,restaurants, apartments and shops. You too can help save America's historic buildings. Join The National Trust for Historic Preservation. For more information, write Membership Department, Office ofPublic Affairs, The National Trust for Historic Preservation, 740 Jackson Place, NW, Washington, . DC 20006.


It's time we stopped filling up every square inch of space in our cities with new construction and start preserving space. Space to walk. Room to be. Protect the human and environmental quality of your community by joining the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Historic preservation means more than savirfg old houses. Write: National Trust for Historic Preservation, Department 0606, 740 Jackson Place, NW, Washington, DC 20006.

ERICA WILSON'S QUILTS OF AMERICA With 51 Winners of The Great Quilt Contest

Efil(L\A WILSOY, Q1'11:1'S 111EIIICA

The Great Quilt Contest, sponsored by the Museum of American Folk Art and the U.S. Historical Society, was the basis and inspiration of Erica Wilson's new book featuring a history of quilting in this country, full-color photographs of all prizewinning quilts (with patterns for 13 of them)and a portfolio of instructions for all manner of quilting techniques. 96 pages of full color. Coming in September


Ox moor House, Dept. C-50403, P.O. Box 2463, Birmingham, Al. 35201




Floorcloths For ten years FLOORCLOTHS INCORPORATED has been reproducing fine 18th and 19th century painted and stenciled canvas floorcoverings for the museum, historic restoration, and the private residence. This year we are adding an entirely new collection of documented designs for your selection. We also specialize in reproducing 18th and 19th century wall and floor stenciling and painting, as well as murals and painted window shades. For brochures and price lists please send $2.00 to: FLOORCLOTHS INCORPORATED P.O. BOX 812 SEVERNA PARK, MARYLAND 21146 or call — 301-647-3328

LITTLE BOY WITH BIRDS NEST mid 19th cent, colored pastel on sandpaper 18" w x 21"h plus frame




Abrahams, Jill & Ed 97 Ackerman, Paul L. 104 American Art & Antiques 30 American Folk Art Company 96 America Hurrah 11 107 American Primitive Anderson, Mama 103 24 Antique Collecting Antiques & the Arts Weekly 25 22 Antiques Trade Gazette 33 Antiques World 12 Apollo Magazine 100 Bevilacqua, Louise 17 Bishop, Adele Inc. 102 Blue Quail, The 98 Block, Huntington T. 34 Borton, Sally 100 Bryant, Pattie K. Christies 31 Circa Antiques 98 Connoisseur 105 Country Curtains 109 Daniel, Allan 1 7 Diamant Gallery Dentan, Bernard Chester 106 Floorcloths Incorporated 111 French, S.K. 108 Fuller, Edmund Inside front cover Galinat, Pie 101 Gallery Guide 19 Gordon, John, Gallery 105 Greenspon, William S. 106 Greenwillow Farm Ltd. 9 Guthrie & Larason 96 Haders, Phyllis 15 Harvey Antiques 99 Hill, Timothy & Pamela 103 Interview Magazine 13


Janos and Ross 102 Johnson, Jay Inside back cover 32 Just Us on Court Avenue Kelter-Malce Antiques 107 Leech, Robinson, Associates 29 Longsworth, Mary Antiques 20 Mather, Davis 103 Miller, Steve 28 Mintz, Bettie 101 Muleskinner Antiques 104 National Guard, The 26 New York-Pennsylvania Collector, The 35 Nineteenth Century Magazine 16 Ohio Antique Review 27 Oxmoor House 111 Pollack, Frank & Barbara 110 Portfolio Magazine 14 Rasso, Richard & Betty Ann 109 Reed, Patricia Anne 108 Ricco, Roger R. 110 97 Sales, Pat Schoellkopf, George 21 Schoemer, Kathy 99 1685 Mill House Outside back cover Smith, Sanford & Patricia 8 Snyder, Elliott and Grace 109 Sotheby Parke Bernet 10 Sterling & Hunt 111 Strickler's Mary, Quilt 99 Sutter, Robert 97 Tewksbury Antiques 108 Tri-State Trader 18 Underground Antiques 108 Wangel, Norma & William 96 Webb & Parsons 100 Whiteley, L.D. Galleries 101 Willowdale Antiques 23 Woodard, Thos. K., American Antiques & Quilts

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS EXHIBITING AT THE FALL ANTIQUES SHOW Abrahams, Jill & Ed 97 Anderson, Marna 103 Bevilacqua, Louise 100 Blue Quail, The 102 Circa Antiques 98 Daniel, Allan 1 Dentan, Bernard Chester 106 Diamant, Gallery 7 Fuller, Edmund L. Inside front cover Greenspon, William S. 106 Greenwillow Farm 9 Harvey Antiques 99 Hill, Timothy & Pamela 103


Janos & Ross 102 Johnson, Jay Inside back cover Just Us on Court Avenue 32 Longsworth, Mary 20 Mintz, Bettie 101 Pollack, Frank & Barbara 110 Reed, Patricia Anne 108 Smith, Sanford & Patricia 8 Snyder, Elliott & Grace 109 Sterling & Hunt 111 Whiteley, L. D., Galleries 101 Willowdale Antiques 23


Malcah Zeldis


(Oil on Masonite) 32" x 32"

JAY JOHNSON AMERICA'S FOLK HERITAGE GALLERY 37 West 20th Street, Room 706 New York, N.Y.10011 By Appointment:(212) 243-4336


s board

Hanging cupboard in butternut, maple chestnut and hemlock with a closed arch, rudimentary blocking untouched decoration, 33"x 34"

Robert & Rebecca Jorgensen, Richard C. Jorgenson, Pamela J. Willard Box 193 Route 1 Wells, Maine 04090 207-646-9444

1685 MillHouse F'71

Antiques in a 17th Century Setting

The Clarion (Fall 1979)  

The New York Shakers and Their Dwelling Places • Shaker Industries • “The Flame Is Never Ceasing...”: Continuity in Shaker Life at Sabbathda...

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