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THE CLARION AMERICA'S FOLK ART MAGAZINE The Museum of American Folk Art New York City Winter 1991-1992, Vol. 16, No. 4 $5.00

FRANK J. MIELE gallery — representing — Sylvia Alberts Sandra Berry Sally Cook Richard Gachot Josephine Graham George (Tom) Grant Stephen Huneck Jean Lipman Joe Little Creek Susan Powers Ed Rath Sophy P. Regensburg (estate) Brad Stephens David Stuart David Zeldis Malcah Zeldis Larry Zingale — also works by — Jacob W. Cabnet William "Ned" Cartledge Lon Chanukoff John "Uncle Jack" Dey Charles Dieter William Fellini Clementine Hunter James C. Litz Justin McCarthy Charles Munro Janet L. Munro Mattie Lou O'Kelley Joseph Pickett Mark Sabin Jack Savitsky Clarence Stringfield Kristin Nelson Tinker Inez Nathaniel Walker Floretta Emma Warfel Dan M. Yoder, Jr. — and original works in a 19th century style by — Hope Angier Gene Conley William R. Davis Kari Trotter Robert L. Trotter

1262 Madison Avenue New York, N.Y. 10128 (212) 876-5775


"The Bountiful Table in a Landscape" Oil on canvas, 14 1/2" x 25"(sight), Anonymous 19th century artist. A wonderful primitive still life. One of several superb examples of this scarce genre.

17 East 96th Street, New York, New York 10128 (212) 348-5219 Hours: 2:00 P.M. to 6:00 P.M. Tues. through Sat. & By Appointment



766 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK, N.Y. 10021 • 212-535-1930

Hooked rug with crossed flags and shield, dated 1865. Found in Searsport, Maine. 68" x 29" Patriotic Pictorial Album Quilt c. 1865 —98"x 84" In addition to four American flags and an eagle and shield, this unusual album quilt contains the Russian Imperial Standard, the French Tricolor, and two English Union Jacks. Also note the intricately worked hot air balloon in the lower center.

WANTED TO PURCHASE American and Native American quilts, rugs, textiles and beadwork that include American flags or patriotic motifs. Please call or write. Photographs promptly returned.



Eddie Arning December 12-January 18 We are pleased to announce our representation ofthe most comprehensive body of work by this important American Outsider.

Gallery hours are Tuesday-Saturday, 11 am -6 pm

105 HUDSON STREET/NEW YORK, N.Y. 10013/212-219.2756

MARTHAJACKSON Specializing in 19th and Early 20th Century Quilts ; 4*. IBA v414, Nix vs,


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Exceptional "Carolina Lily"in brick red and green prints on white. Fine quilting with stuffed vine border. Signed and dated 1870 Exhibiting: Westchester County Center Convent of the Sacred Heart White Plains, New York 1 East 91st St., New York City January 3-5, 1992 January 17-19, 1992 Formerly of Riverside, CT and Main Street Cellar, New Canaan,CT Vermont in-house showroom, By Appointment P.O. Box 430 Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (802)462-3152


New Lebanon, NY circa 1830-1840 Classic design and construction, of birch and pine in original red stain with later top touchup, Metal elbow shoulder brackets added by Shakers. Believed to be in the same condition as when acquired in 1940 from Mount Lebanon. Original brass pull, lipped drawer with beaded skirt and legs. Height, 26 3/8"

1101 Mooresfield Road, Wakefield RI 02879 By appointment(401)789-5380



Wreath ofFlowers appliqué quilt with exceptional stitchery. Dated 1849. 91 x 84 inches.

BLANCHE GREENSTEIN THOMAS K. WOODARD 799 Madison Avenue New York, N.Y. 10021 •(212) 988-2906 o Please note our new address. We have moved two blocks. We are always Interested in purchasing exceptional guilts Photographs returned promptly. Telephone responses welcome



The Museum of American Folk Art New York City

Volume 16, No. 4



DR. ROBERT BISHOP (1938-1991)

Winter 1991-1992


A Personal Memoir




The Household Saints ofPuerto Rico








American Victorian Tinsel Paintings















96 INDEX TO ADVERTISERS wood; 1884-1962; painted Hernandez, c. Manuel Caban HORMIGUEROS; MIRACLE OF COVER: 25 x 13/ 1 4 x 13/ 1 4". Collection of Alan Moss Reveron. The Clarion is published four times a year by the Museum of American Folk Art, 61 West 62nd Street, NY, NY 10023, 212/977-7170. Telecopier 212/977-8134. Annual 1991 by the Museum of subscription rate for members is included in membership dues. Copies are mailed to all members. Single copy $5.00. Published and copyright American Folk Art, 61 West 62nd Street, NY, NY 10023. The cover and contents of The Clarion are fully protected by copyright and may not be reproduced in any manner without written consent. Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the Museum of American Folk Art. Unsolicited manuscripts or photographs should be accompanied by return postage. The Clarion assumes no responsibility for the loss or damage of such materials. Change of Address: please send both old and new addresses and allow five weeks for change. Advertising: The Clarion accepts advertisements only from advertisers whose reputation is recognized in the trade, but despite the care with which the advertising department screens photographs and texts submitted by its advertisers, it cannot guarantee the unquestionable authenticity of objects or quality of services advertised in its pages or offered for sale by its advertisers, nor can it accept responsibility for misunderstandings that may arise from the purchase or sale of objects or services advertised in its pages. The Museum is dedicated to the exhibition and interpretation of folk art and feels it is a violation of its principles to be involved in or to appear to be involved in the sale of works of art. For thisreason, the Museum will not knowingly accept advertisements for The Clarion which illustrate or describe objects that have been exhibited at the Museum within one year of the placing of the advertisement.

Winter 1991-1992


Shoofly, Ohio, dated 1925, Mrs. Sam Hershberger, excellent condition.


American Masterpieces

S.L. Jones

Country Singer H 21" W8' D 10" Carved Polychromed Wood

Signed and Dated 1979

Contemporary American Folk and Outsider Art 14a North Meramec * St. Louis, MO. 63105 * (314)725-4334

Lurecea Outland, Strip Quilt, Alabama, 1989, cottons and cotton blends, 91 x 72 inches (uneven). A fine example of a pattern that reflects traditional strip-weaving techniques common in certain African textiles and preserved by a few African-American quilters in the South.

Robert Cargo

FOLK ART GALLERY Southern, Folk, and African-American Quilts Antiques•Folk Art Open weekends only and by appointment

2314 Sixth Street, downtown Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35401 Saturday 10:00-5:00, Sunday 2:00-5:00

205/758-8884 Home phone




(formerly Arctic Art)




















THE TARTT GALLERY • We maintain a continuous inventory of over three hundred items • Work by the well known, the little known and the unknown • Our specialty is the best from the South East

2017 Q St. N.W. Washington, DC 20009 Lonnie Holley, "Chris, my nephew: A handicapped child depends on many parts of others' bodies." 1991, plywood assemblage, 52 x 461/2".

Tel 202-332-5652 Fax 202-462-1019



t is on a sad note that I write my first editor's column for The Clarion. Although I did not know Dr. Robert Bishop well, having joined the Museum staff only a few months before his death, I feel his impact and presence around me every day and I, even in such a short time, know enough to mourn his absence. Our lead article, "Dr. Robert Bishop (1938-1991): A Personal Memoir," written by the Museum's acting director, Gerard C. Wertkin, briefly covers Bob Bishop's "kaleidoscopic" life and career in American folk art. Gerry Wertkin, who worked with Bob Bishop on a daily basis for over eleven years, generously shares with us his personal insights and reminiscence of a dear friend and colleague. Several years ago, Bob Bishop had a conversation with folk art enthusiast, Alan Moss Reveron about the religious folk sculpture of Puerto Rico. That conversation caused a network to develop from New York to Santa Fe to San Juan. As a result, the exhibition, "Santos de Palo: The Household Saints of Puerto Rico," organized by guest curator, Dr. Yvonne Lange, Director Emerita of the Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico, will open on January 7, 1992 at the Museum's Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square. We are delighted to be able to give you a preview of the show on pages 41 through 72 in this issue. Dr. Lange's essay, also called "Santos de Palo: The Household Saints of Puerto Rico," outlines the history of the carving of religious images for home veneration in Puerto Rico and explores the iconography of, and devotions to, the most popularly represented saints. Alan Moss Reveron and Liz O'Brien have written a companion piece, "The Saint Makers of Puerto Rico," which focuses on the santeros, or carvers of religious wooden images. Moss and O'Brien offer important biographical information on these traditional folk artists. The essays are enriched by 4.0 illustrations, including 28 color photographs by David Phelps. Marilyn Karmason's "Shimmering and Brilliant," starting on page 73, is an in-depth survey of tinsel painting. It offers a refreshing and upbeat look at a long neglected "slice of American Victoriana." Dr. Karmason's personal delight in her subject shines through this very informative piece. One could almost create a successful tinsel painting from the detailed instructions cited and charming illustrations. I am very excited about the future of the Museum of American Folk Art and The Clarion. I am dedicated to bringing you the best in the field of folk art scholarship and discovery, and sincerely welcome all of your thoughts and suggestions. On behalf of the museum staff, and particularly the staff of The Clarion, I want to wish you a joyous Holiday Season and a healthy and prosperous New Year!


THE CLARION Rosemary Gabriel, Editor and Publisher Ellen Blissman, Art Director MeII Cohen, Publications Associate Marilyn Brechner, Advertising Manager Hildegard 0. Vetter, Production Manager Craftsmen Litho, Printers Cosmos Communications, Inc. Typesetters MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART Dr. Robert Bishop, Director 1977-1991 Administration Gerard C. Wertkin, Acting Director Luanne Cantor, Controller Anson Lee, Assistant Controller Beverly McCarthy, Administrative Assistant Mary Ziegler, Administrative Assistant Sylvia Sinckler, Shop Accountant Maryann Warakomski, Accountant Brent Erdy, Reception Luis Fernandez, Manager, Mailroom and Maintenance Collections & Exhibitions Ralph Sessions, Chief Curator Alice J. Hoffman, Director of Exhibitions Ann-Marie Reilly, Registrar Karen S. Schuster, Director of the Eva and Morris Feld Gallery Catherine Fukushima, Assistant Gallery Director Stacy C. Hollander, Associate Curator/Lore Kann Research Fellow Lucille Stiger, Assistant Registrar Regina A. Weichert, Assistant Gallery Director/Education Coordinator Elizabeth V. Warren, Consulting Curator Mary Black, Consulting Curator Howard Lanser, Consulting Exhibition Designer Departments Beth Bergin, Membership Director Marie S. DiManno, Director of Museum Shops Susan Flamm, Public Relations Director Edith C. Wise, Director of Library Services Janey Fire, Photographic Services Chris Cappiello, Membership Associate Catherine Dunworth, Senior Development Associate Programs Barbara W. Cate, Director, Folk Art Institute Lee Kogan, Assistant Director, Folk Art Institute/Senior Research Fellow Phyllis A. Tepper, Registrar, Folk Art Institute Dr. Marilyn Karp, Director, New York University Master's and Ph.D. Program in Folk Art Studies Dr. Judith Reiter Weissman, Coordinator, New York University Program Cathy Rasmussen, Director of Special Projects Eugene P. Sheehy, Museum Bibliographer Katie Cochran Sobel, Coordinator, Docent Programs Howard P. Fertig, Chairman, Friends Committee Museum Shop Staff Managers: Dorothy Gargiulo, Caroline Hohenrath, Rita Pollitt; Mail Order: Vivian Adams, Coordinator: Diana Robertson; Volunteers: Marie Anderson, Laura Aswad, Judy Baker, Olive Bates, Jennifer Bigelow, Frances Burton, Evelyn Chugerman, Sarah Cooper, Ann Coppinger, Sheila Coppinger, Lisa DeRensis, Sally Elfant, Annette Ellis, Tricia Ertman, Millie Gladstone, Elli Gordon, Inge Graff, Cyndi Gruber, Edith Gusoff, Carol Hauser, Lynne Hellman, Elizabeth Howe, Bonnie Hunt, Eileen Jear, Nan Keenan, Annette Levande, Arleen Luden, Priscilla Machold, Katie McAuliffe, Laura McCormick, Kathleen McNamara, Nancy Mayer, Theresa Naglack, Pat Pancer, Marie Peluso, Mary Rix, Julie Robinson, Frances Rojack, Phyllis Selnick, Lorraine Seubert, Myra Shaskan, Denis Siracusa, Lola Silvergleid, Susan Singer, Joan Sorich, Blair Sorrel, Maxine Spiegel, Doris StackGreen, Sonya Stern, Mary Wamsley, Marian Whitley, Doris Wolfson. MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART BOOK AND GIFT SHOPS 62 West 50th Street, New York, NY 10012 212/247-5611 Two Lincoln Square (Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th) New York, NY 10023 212/496-2966


Embroidered Manta, Acoma Pueblo, circa 1840,52 by 40 inches. All reproduction rights reserved byJoshua Baer&Company. BETWEEN 1800 and 1850, embroidered

mantas produced at Acoma Pueblo were collected as tribute by the Spanish military. One manta was worth a year oftribute. Today, Acoma mantas are considered the rarest ofall Southwestern textiles. Less than 20examples are known to exist in museum and private collections. For further information please call Joshua Baer at 5o5 988-8944.

JOSHUA BAER & COMPANY ClassicAmerican Indian Art 116/ 1 2 EAST PALACE AVENUE


505 988 - 8944


HEAVYWEIGHT AMERICANA AT SOTHEBY'S This exceptional figure of a boxer is one of the prize examples of the works of art included in Sotheby's ImportantJanuary Americana sale. AUCTION:January 23 through 25 EXHIBITION: OpensJanuary 18 Illustrated catalogues are available at our offices and galleries worldwide. To order with a credit card, please call (800) 444-3709. INQUIRIES: Nancy Druckman at (212) 606-7225, Sotheby's, 1334 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 A very fine carved and painted pine figure of a boxer, American,late 19th century, height:6ft.8in.(2 m.3cm.). Auction estimate: $80,000-120,000




M UTH Contemporary American Folk Art Specializing in folk artists from the southwest Johnson Antonio

"Uncle Pete" Drgac


exclusive estate

Eddie Arning

Woody Herbert Navajo

Patrick Davis

Ike Morgan

Mamie Deschillie

Naomi Polk


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and 690 Gonzales #11 Santa Fe New Mexico 87501 (505)986-1 326 Woody Herbert "Bull"- wood, plaster, horn and wool, 36"x365(10'



•AMERICAN FOLK ART/VINTAGE DESIGN• 318 North La Cienega Boulevard • Los Angeles, CA 90048 • 213/652-5990


DARLING We Specialize in Unusual American Folk Art


Darling started painting in the 60's, depicting scenes of places he visited after his retirement. One day he decided to nail those paintings to the outside of his house in Santa Barbara, California, covering the house completely from top to bottom.

Gallery Hours: Tuesday — Saturday 11-6


SPOTTED CRITTERS FROM THE HILLS OF TENNESSEE Homer Green was born in 1910 in Coffee County, Tennessee. What began as a whimsy for Homer and his late wife Rilda grew into a menagerie as their yard was transformed into a folk art environment. G.H. Vander Elst is now offering a selection of Homer's Critters. Homer Green

G. H. VANDER ELST Non-Traditional Folk Art

5163 Waddell Hollow Road Franklin, TN 37064 (615)794-9631 By appointment or chance

Georgia Blizzard. Howard Finster - Joseph Hardin • Lonnie Holley • B.F. Perkins • Robert Roberg • Robert E. Smith • Hugo Sperger• Vannoy Streeter • Jimmie L. Sudduth • Mose Tolliver• Fred Webster •




2661 Cedar Street Berkeley, California 94708 510/845-4949 Bonnie Grossman Director • We specialize in exceptional 18th-20th Century handmade objects. Our extensive selection of quilts, carved canes, tramp art, folk paintings and sculpture are available for viewing. Phone for exhibit information, hours or information. Clay Pots by Georgia Blizzard, VA, c.1989


Photo: Ben Blackwell

Fine antique quilts, hooked rugs, primitive and folk art, American paintings.


THE QUILT GALLERY 1611 Montana Avenue Santa Monica, Calif. 90403 310 393 1148

Pieced & Applique "Star & Flowers", Ca 1870

Willie White (b.1907) Collection includes: J.B. Murray, Howard Finster, David Butler, Bessie Harvey, Sam Doyle, Mary T. Smith, Jimmy Sudduth, James "Son" Thomas, Royal Robertson, James Harold Jennings, Mose Tolliver, Lonnie Holley, B.F. Perkins, Clementine Hunter, Raymond Coins, Charlie Lucas, Junior Lewis, William Dawson and others.



4/11.• '"Brown Earth, Blue & Green Dragons" 22"x28"

7520 Perkins Road Baton Rouge, La. 70808 504-767-0526


MINIATURES through March 1992. The Kentucky Quilt Project's directors anticipate that more than 100,000 people will attend, For more information call Tel. 502/587-6721.

440 Art in the Age of Exploration

HOMAGE TO HANK GREENBERG; Malcah Zeldis; Detroit, Michigan; oil paint on Masonite board; 36 x 48". Courtesy of the New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, NY.

Malcah Zeldis Painting Goes to Fenimore House The New York State Historical Association, headquartered at Fenimore House, Cooperstown, NY, has recently launched a new acquisitions initiative to expand its collection of twentieth century folk art. The painting "Homage to Hank Greenberg" a highly charged, personal work, reflecting the childhood of the American folk artist Malcah Zeldis, was recently offered by the artist to the museum. The work will be included in a new folk art show, "Worlds of Art . . . Worlds Apart," to open at Fenimore House, the Association's museum headquarters in May 1992. For information Tel. 607/547-2533.

4140 Louisville Celebrates The American Quilt 1971-1991 From November 1991 through March 1992, Louisville hosts a multi-event celebration in honor of the twentieth anniversary


of the 1971 Whitney Museum of Art exhibition, "Abstract Design in American Quilts." A blockbuster when it opened, this centerpiece of the celebration has assumed heroic proportions as the single most significant contribution to the awareness of the American quilt as an art form. In February, five more exhibits will open. Always There: The African-American Presence in American Quilts will look at the full range of African-American contributions to mainstream American quilting. A Plain Aesthetic: Lancaster Amish Quilts at the J.B. Speed Art Museum will feature 40 Pennsylvania Amish masterpieces. Quilt Conceptions: Designs in other Media will exhibit at the Kentucky Art and Craft Gallery the work of artists in various media inspired by quilt designs. Narrations: The Quilts of Yvonne Wells and Carolyn Mazloomi will combine traditional African-American themes with contemporary visions at the Louisville Visual Art Association. At Zephyr Gallery, Quilts Now will exhibit quilts by some of the most accomplished quilt artists working today. All of these exhibitions will run concurrently

The National Gallery of Art will hold the most comprehensive exhibition in its fifty-year history, Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration. The exhibit, which will remain open through January 12, 1992, will include more than 600 paintings, sculpture, drawings, and decorative objects that represent the outstanding artistic achievement of major civilizations, as well as maps and scientific instruments, from Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Advance passes will be available through Ticketmaster locations and a limited number of sameday passes will be available on a first come,first serve basis in the National Gallery of Art's East Building at Fourth Street and Constitution Avenue, NW. For more information on passes, call 202/842-6684.

Turkish Folk Art in Sante Fe Turkish Traditional Art Today will remain on view at the Museum of International Folk Art in Sante Fe, New Mexico through December 1993. This comprehensive exhibition of a stunning array of Turkish artifacts emphasizes the religious and social environments that nurture the folk art of this ancient eastern Mediterranean nation — probing a culture that has long fascinated Westerners. For further information contact Tel.# 505/827-6451.

PLATE BEARING INSCRIPTION,"In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate," Nurten Sahin; Kutahya, Turkey; 1985. Courtesy Museum of New Mexico.

Conference Theme: Old Worlds/ New Worlds

HUMAN HEAD EFFIGY JAR; artist unknown; middle Mississippian culture (Nodena) 14001650; earthenware (Carson red on buff); 15.6 x 18.5 cm. Courtesy of the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution.

Hosted by The Philadelphia Ceramic Consortium, the National Council on Education for the Ceramic Arts will hold its 26th Annual Conference, March 4 through 7, 1992, in Philadelphia at the Wyndham Franklin Plaza Hotel, commemorating the cinquecentennial anniversary of Columbus' arrival in America. The Conference will examine the


MIN1A formation and change of American art and culture brought about by the successive waves of immigrants who came to build new lives in this "new world." In conjunction with the conference, a number of special exhibitions will be on view in galleries and museums in the Philadelphia area. For details regarding hotel and travel reservations contact Regina Brown 503/347-4394.

for their meticulous craftsmanship, subtle beauty, and for the insight into early American history that they provide. For further information Tel.# 213/857-6522.

Fraunces Tavern Museum addresses the role of the "common people" in the Revolution in its upcoming exhibit "Come all you Gallant Heroes:" The World of the Revolutionary Soldier on view from December 4, 1991, through August 14, 1992. The opening date commemorates the 208th anniversary of George Washington's farewell address to his officers in 1783, which was held in the Long Room at Fraunces Tavern. Fraunces Tavern Museum is located in Manhattan's financial district at 54 Pearl Street, at the corner of Broad Street. For further information Tel. 212/425-1778.

The Los Angeles County Museum of Art presents Samplers & Samplemakers: An American Schoolgirl Art 1700 to 1850 through February 2, 1992. Eighty samplers from the private California collection of Mary Jaene and Jim Edmonds are featured, supplemented by related pieces from the Museum's collection. These samplers are remarkable

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SAMPLER; Martha Mulford; New Carlisle, Clark County, Ohio; 1824; silk threads on linen; 17% x 18. Courtesy of Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

Winter 1991-1992


Revolutionary War Exhibition

American Samplers Go On View

IMIr- Rat-

Noah Kinney 191 2-1991

41 40




NOAH KINNEY 191 2-1991

Born 1912, Noah Kinney lived and worked his entire life on the family farm in Toiler Hollow in Northeast Kentucky. Renowned for playing traditional tunes on his guitar, he was known to an even larger public for his uniquely expressive wood sculpture. In 1975, after health problems forced him to retire from farming, he began carving and constructing animals (domestic, woodland and exotic), figures of national folk heroes such as Lincoln and Teddy Roosevelt, intricate models of early sawmills and farm machinery and an impressive series of near-lifesize musicians. His work, featured in the Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century American Folk Art and Artists, has appeared in numerous exhibitions including "Local Visions" and "0' Appalachia," both currently on national tour, and is in many major public and private collections. Together with his brother Charley, a folk art painter who died in April 1991, Noah represented a link with the past, sharing, for the asking, an encyclopedic storehouse of lore and local history.

CHARLEY KINNEY 190E1991. Correction — a picture caption in the 1991 Fall Clarion misidentified Charley Kinney; the picture was his artist brother,Noah.

Noah Kinney died at his home on September 24, 1991 after a long illness. He is survived by his artist wife, Hazel.

44 Quilt Museum Flood Emergency On August 11, 1991 The New England Quilt Museum in Lowell, MA, underwent six hours of flooding. The problem originated inside the building and involved its gallery, bookstore, reception area, and hallways. Fortunately, the museum collection and the quilts then on display were heroically rescued by the nearby National Park Rangers, volunteer quilters and staff. Luckily the famed newly acquired Binney Collection quilts were away being prepared for their much publicized premier showing. New dates will be announced eventually. Because the museum's programs and services are literally homeless, the most immediate need is an outpouring of contributions. Museum (Continued on page 22)


vt\dc ti AMERICAN FOLK AND OUTSIDER ART New Hours. TUES.-SAT. 11-6 6909 MELROSE AVENUE LOS ANGELES CA 90038 213-657.6369


ANTON HAARDT GALLERY David Butler Thornton Dial Sam Doyle Minnie Evans Howard Finster Sybil Gibson Lonnie Holly Clementine Hunter Calvin Livingston Charlie Lucas

ris, Sybil Gibson


R. A. Miller B. E Perkins Royal Robertson Juanita Rogers Mary T. Smith Henry Speller Jimmy Lee Sudduth Son Thomas Mose Tolliver Inez Walker


Mark your calendars ...

Visit my newly expanded shop! New York City's largest, most exciting selection of: antique quilts, coverlets, hooked rugs, paisley shawls, indian blankets,linens, vintage decorative objects and American folk art.

(212)838-2596 GALLERY 57


y 'I

lattan Art(t Anfiques Center

Unusual calendar quilt made by Miss Jennie Chestnut, Louisville, KY c. 1930.

1050 Second 56th St Nation's Largest New York,NY 10022 and Finest Antiques Center. (212)355 4400 104 Galleries Featuring Furniture, Silver,Jewelry,Oriental Open Daily 10:30-6,Suit 12-6. Convenient Parking. and Other Objets d'Ast. Open to the Public.

Mary T. Smith • Ruth Mae McCrane • Mose T. & Annie T. • Jimmie Lee Sudduth • Bernice Sims Bill Traylor • Thornton Dial • Willie White • Roy Ferdinand • Royal Robertson • B. F. Perkins Clementine Hunter • Singleton • Artist Chuckie • Fred Webster • Buzz Busby • Reggie


Clementine Hunter Preaching A Revival on Cane River oil on canvasboard 16" x 20"


Singleton /Ladder To Hell oil enamel on cedar, 25.5"x 18.5"


Information Packets Available




MINIATURES (Continued from page 19)

quilts, and even memorial quilts. For inquiries Tel.# 215/345-0210.

Director, Sue Thurman, has appealed for any gift to the museum — large or small. For more information about "Flood Emergency" call Tel.# 508/452-4207.

Ohio Decorative Arts Association

The Life of a Quilt Begins at the Mercer Museum A new exhibit, The Life of a Quilt is now showing at The Mercer Museum's Changing Exhibits Gallery, Pine Street, Doylestown, PA, and will run through May 1992. Visitors can discover the reasons why quilts continue to be such valued treasures. The exhibit will explore the personal aspects of friendship quilts, marriage

BRODERIE PERSE QUILT; Rebecca B. Warner; Yardley, Pennsylvania; 1857; applique technique on chintz fabric; 88/ 1 2 x 871/4". Courtesy of The Mercer Museum.

The Ohio Decorative Arts Council is pleased to announce the formation of the Ohio Decorative Arts Association, a group formed to encourage and assist in the identification, discovery, preservation, and purchase of Ohio Decorative Arts by public institutions within the State of Ohio. The Association will host a seminar on Ohio Decorative Arts in October of 1992. For more information on membership or seminar reservations, contact the Ohio Decorative Art Association, Tel. 513/871-6891.



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(Route 100 between Macungie and Trexlertown)

Macungie, Pennsylvania 18062


14G1444 Rea4 ettteily esk AileitPet,4,t4m4/‘ LATIN AMERICAN 8, HAITIAN FOLK ART

Jack Savitt, Representing

JACK SAVITSKY 20th Century American Folk Artist • Oils • Acrylics • Drawings


. ....





For Appointment Call



Haitian VaticJou Banner for Damballah


Friday, November 29-Saturday, January 4

Hand-painted, reproduction Fireboards, Wall Hangings and Theorem Paintings as featured in Early American Life, Country Living and other national magazines. Original Theorem Paintings available through the Frank J. Miele Gallery.


Sheepscot Stenciling RFD # 1, Box 613 Wiscasset, Maine 04578 (207)586-5692

Thursday, January 9-Saturday, February 15 NEW LOCATION: 560 BROADWAY • NEW YORK, NY 10012 •(212)431-0144

Send $2 with 524 SASE for color brochure. Winter 1991-1992


Catalogue V III:

Excellence InAmerican Design Current Offerings from the Collection of David A.Schorsch,Inc. $45.00 postage paid.

DAVID A. SCHORSCH iencaxIttwileal 30 EAST 76TH STREET, NEW YORK, NY 10021 212-439-6100


LETTEIS F IS OM THE DIRECTOR GERARD C. WERTKIN, ACTING DIRECTOR his is the first time since 1977 that The Clarion comes to you without a letter from Dr. Robert Bishop, for fifteen years the Museum's vibrant and talented Director. Bob died on September 22, 1991 following a long illness. His courage and perseverance during this time were an inspiration to all who knew the struggle he faced. Until the end of his productive life, he was at work directing the Museum's programs, planning its long-range projects and even dreaming about its future development. He was the driving force behind the Museum of American Folk Art for many years; it was his innovative and creative spirit that brought the Museum the international acclaim it now enjoys. It has been gratifying to members of the Museum's Board of Trustees and professional staff to witness the outpouring of support during this period of challenge and transition. The widespread recognition of Dr. Bishop's great contributions has been a source of pride to the entire Museum family. I should like to share with you the sentiments of some of the Museum's friends and associates:

sive reproductions of the American Folk Arts, in Japan. We are indebted to Mr. Bishop for the success as it was realized by virtue of his enthusiasm as a fine leader and as a friend." KAZUY0IIDA, Director, General Manager, International Operations Div., Takashimaya Co., Ltd.


all of us are in his debt in the way he brought folk art from a humble home on 53rd Street to the world at large. I know I speak for the entire membership in saying that we shall miss his optimism, ever-ready helpful advice and friendship." J.E. JELINEK, President, The American Folk Art Society. • • •

"The folk art field has lost one of its finest scholars and most vivacious enthusiasts! His passing leaves an immense void [and] we mourn along with you." BARBARA A. LUCK, Curator, The Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center. "He was still a young man and had so much more to give to the world of folk art to which he was devoted . . ." MATTIE Lou O'KELLEY.

Winter 1991-1992

"Aside from his many accomplishments as museum director, writer, lecturer, and educator, he was a rare individual who seemed always able to take time from his busy schedule to help those that sought his advice — students, collectors, aspiring writers . . ." FLORENCE LAFFAL, Editor, Folk Art Finder.

"Bob was imaginative and his administration can be credited with the high status the Museum of American Folk Art enjoys today" Yvonne Lange, Director Emerita, The Museum of International Folk Art. "I hope especially that his vital example will sustain all of you . . . as your programs move forward." ELIZABETH BROUN, Director, National Museum of American Art. "Dr. Bishop's profound knowledge of American decorative arts and depth of knowledge about American culture have enriched our program and greatly assisted the Agency in presenting programs overseas that illuminate American traditions." R.E. McDowELL, Director, Arts America, United States Information Agency. "Bob left a legacy and a very strong institution. One that brings us all great pride." JEANNE E BUTLER, Director, Challenge and Advancement Grant Programs, National Endowment for the Arts. "Takashimaya has been very privileged with the marketing of the exclu-

". . . he contributed greatly to the expansion of your museum and played an important role in the Folk Art movement in the U.S., and his death is a great loss to Japan as well as to the U.S." TOSHITADA NAKAE, President, Asahi Shimbun. "Dr. Bishop was the key link in the development of the America Collection introduced at the International Home Furnishings Market in High Point, North Carolina, just 10 years ago in October, 1981. It is growing and continues to flourish — a credit to Dr. Bishop's continued interest and support. The America Collection is probably the most successful such venture in the history of the furniture industry" R. STUART MOORE, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, The Lane Company, Inc. On October 17, 1991 the Museum family joined together in a memorial program for Dr. Bishop at Alice Tully Hall at Lincoln Center, followed by a reception in the Eva and Morris Feld Gallery. A report on this morning of shared memories will be included in the next issue of The Clarion. Thank all of you for your friendship and support. Through your caring and commitment, the legacy of Dr. Robert Bishop will never be lost.








Aarne Anton

AMERICAN PRIMITIVE GALLERY 596 Broadway Suite 205 New York, N.Y. 10012


Mon.-Fri. 10-6 Sat. 12-6

LEE STEEN •(1897- 1975) MONTANA WOOD FIGURES Lee Steen's figures of assembled wood forms and found materials remain animated and expressive as they once appeared in the fantastic and elaborate environment which he assembled around his home in Montana. A natural artist who was able to take materials from his surroundings and fashion figures that can appear moving, humorous, totemic, and surreal. The figures, heads, and birdhouses were rescued from destruction in the early 1970's and exhibited in several Western museums to enthusiastic response. They were forgotten in attic storage and have been rediscovered. We are offering a select group of Lee Steen sculpture that remains available. In addition we maintain an active inventory of American folk art of traditional 19th century forms, one of a kind pieces, and works of art by leading Outsider Artists. Our December show is Utilitarian Objects as Art photos sent on request.


EPSTEIN/POWELL 22 Wooster St., New York,N.Y. 10013 By Appointment(212)226-7316 Jesse Aaron Rifka Angel William Dawson Charlie Dieter Mr.Eddy Antonio Esteves Howard Finster Victor Joseph Gatto(Estate) Reverend Hunter James Harold Jennings S.L.Jones Lawrence Lelbduska Justin McCarthy Emma Lee Moss Inez Nathaniel Old Ironsides Pry Max Romain Nellie Mae Rowe Jack Savitsky Isaac Smith Clarence Stringfield Mose Tolliver Floretta Warfel George Williams Luster Willis and others

Circus: Tiger Leaps Onto Pony Justin McCarthy Covered With Zebra Skin (Oil on Board,24" x 24"),c. 1965

Barbara Olsen Photo by Jim Ferreira

BARBARA OLSEN STUDIO P.O. Box 10691 Pleasanton, CA 94588-0691 (510)846-7312 FAX (510)846-2410 By Appointment 24 x 30 • oil on linen • "Noah's Story" 28

JOHN C. HILL Antique Indian Art 6990 E. MAIN ST., Second Floor SCOT'ISDALE, AZ 85251 (602)946-2910 Specializing in early kachina dolls, historic Pueblo pottery, Navajo blankets and rugs, old jewelry and baskets.



BILL TRAYLOR PAINTINGS • DRAWINGS 15 November- 11 January 1992

BILL TRAYLOR Exhibition History • Public Collections Selected Bibliography Illustrated Catalogue Available 22 pages — $13 postpaid



50 WEST 57 STREET NEW YORK NY 10019 212 307-0400

Royal Robertson, "DiOs,"'. Mixed media oil poster board, 22" x • „

Bessie Harvey Mose & Annie Tolliver James Harold Jennings Sarah Mary Taylor Georgia Blizzard Chuckie Williams Sammy Landers ...others

We specialize in contemporary art by the self-taught southern hand. Call for an appointment, photos or information. 174 Rick Road • Milford, NJ 08848 908-996-4786 29


•Thirteenth Fall Antiques Show at the Pier

Santos de Palo: The Household Saints of Puerto Rico, a comprehensive exhibition exploring the tradition of wood santos — holy images — made in Puerto Rico in the nineteenth- and twentiethcentury is scheduled to open on January 7 and run through May 10, 1992, at the Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square. More than one hundred fifty significant examples have been selected by guest curator, Yvonne Lange from the acclaimed collection of Alan Moss. The exhibition and the accompanying education programming (label material, presented in both English and Spanish) will travel in the U.S. and Puerto Rico and have been made possible with the generous support of Anheuser-Busch Companies. Additional support for the exhibition has been provided with public funds from the New York State Council on the Arts and through a grant from The L.J. Skaggs and Mary C. Skaggs Foundation. Also scheduled to open at the Gallery on January 7 and continue until March 1,1992 is the exhibit Patterns of Prestige: The Development and Influence of the Saltillo Sarape. The Saltillo Sarape — a wearing blanket — is an important part of the textile legacy of the Spanish New World. Guest curator, Kathleen Whitaker has selected fifty dazzling weavings from prestigious public and private collections in the first major travelling exhibition. In addition,from March 5, through May 10, 1992,the Museum will present a selection of coverlets from the permanent collection organized by guest curator, Martha Leversuch. Drawn primarily from the Margot Paul Ernst and Cyril I. Nelson gifts to the Museum,the exhibition will focus on the history, weaving techniques, and design patterns of coverlet weaving in America from the late eighteenth- through the mid-nineteenth centuries. 30

•Trustee Writes Folk Art Book For Young Readers Harry N. Abrams Inc., Publisher, in association with the Museum of American Folk Art has just published Discovering American Folk Art — a book to acquaint persons of any age, but especially young readers, with American Folk art. Written by Museum Trustee Cynthia V.A. Schaffner,this reading and activity book includes easy-to-follow instructions for creative craft projects designed by coauthor Madeline H. Guyon. More than thirty works from the Museum's permanent collection illustrate the narrative, reinforcing the text to help the young reader discover an appreciation for the aesthetic qualities of folk art as well as giving insights into the daily life of Americans throughout this country's history. The "Folk Art Projects" section of the book gives the reader a chance to learn the creative process that went into the making of these objects by producing works which are derivative of those in the Museum's collection. Schaffner's book is dedicated to her daughter, and is a "thank you"to the children of her colleagues, who in the past spent countless hours at the Museum attending young peoples events. She hopes this book can be part of an exciting discovery of folk art for a new generation of folk art enthusiasts. Discovering American Folk Art is available at the Museum Shop for $24.95.

As the air turned crisp and leaves changed colors, antique collectors, dealers and casual browsers gathered on October 16, 1991 to attend the thirteenth annual Fall Antiques Show. Producer, Sanford L. Smith, dedicated the opening night Museum benefit preview,"to the memory of a unique and talented man, Dr. Robert Bishop." Honorary Chairpersons, Joyce B. Dinkins, who has gained welldeserved recognition for her tireless support of New York cultural institutions and Ralph Esmerian, dedicated president of the Museum's Board of Trustees, were on hand for the opening ceremonies. Warm thanks are also due to Trustees Susan Klein and Cynthia V.A. Schaffner Chairpersons of the event; Myra Shaskan, Ticket Chairperson; Vicki Tananbaum, Raffle Chairperson; Katie Cochran Sobel, Walking Tour Chairperson; and Katie Danziger, Junior Chairperson; members of the Steering Committee; Museum Board Members and all participants in the benefit. The evening was made possible, in part, with the generous support of Country Home Magazine. This year a raffle was added to help with the fund raising for the

SDNIINW110 08VH318

•Future Gallery Exhibition Openings

From left, Acting Director Gerard C. Wertkin with Honorary Chairperson, Joyce B. Dinkins and Producer Sanford L. Smith.


opening night benefit. The following are donors to the DISCOVER AMERICA/DISCOVER AMERICAN FOLK ART RAFFLE: Discover Santa Fe, New Mexico: Eldorado Hotel Santa Fe, NM; Discover Spring at Shelburne: Shelburne House,Shelburne Farms, Shelburne Museum,Shelburne, VT; Sony Software Corporation; Disover New York During January Antique Week: Hotel Wales, New York, NY,The Four Seasons, Sotheby's; Discover Bucks County: Country Home Magazine; Discover American Romance: David Ziff Cooking Inc., Morrel & Company. To spotlight the many collecting aspects of the Fall Antiques Show,the Museum arranged a series of successful Morning Walking Tours with Martha Stewart, internationally recognized authority on home entertaining,food and life-style; Mary Emmerling, author; and Elissa Cullman, partner, Cullman & Kravis, Inc. A very special thanks to the benefit caterer David Ziff Cooking, Inc.; Anthony — decorations that set the scene; and invitation designers, Ellen Blissman and Andrea Gallo. The Museum's major fund raising event, was attended by over one thousand supporters — there was an exciting air of renewed optimism among the dealers and collectors.

•On The Road And Going Strong "The Cutting Edge: Contemporary American Folk Art," an exhibition that opened at the Museum's Eva and Morris Feld Gallery in December of 1990 has traveled to New Britain, Connecticut; Laguna Beach, California; and Clayton, Missouri. Barbara Cate,the guest curator and Director of the Museum's Folk Art Institute and collectors, Chuck and Jan Rosena,k from Tesuque, New Mexico, have assembled a show of such diversity and spirit that it continues to be greeted with great enthusiasm. Winter 1991-1992

Rich Burk, Branch Manager of AT&T in Los Angeles, his wife. Linda, and Chuck and Jan Rosenak with HUMAN FIGURE by Raymond Coins at the opening of "The Cutting Edge: Contemporary American Folk Art" at the Laguna Art Museum, Laguna Beach, CA.

Alice Hoffman, Director of Traveling Exhibitions and Frances Martinson, Executive Vice President of the Board of Trustees & Co-Chairperson of the International Advisory Council and spouse, Paul, a member of the Council attended the opening at the Laguna Art Museum at Laguna Beach. Immediately following the opening,Stanton and Kelly Perry,friends of the Martinsons, hosted a party on behalf of the Museum,which provided a perfect meeting place for mem-

TRAVELING EXHI•MONS Mark your calendars for the following Museum of American Folk Art exhibitions when they travel to your area during the coming months: June 1, 1991-December 31, 1991 The Romance of Double Wedding Ring Quilts The Behring-Hofmann Educational Institute, Inc., an affiliate of the University of California at Berkeley Danville, California 415/736-2280 September 26, 1991-January 5, 1992 Memories of Childhood: The Great American Quilt Festival 2 New York State Museum Albany, New York 518/474-5375 November 11, 1991-January 6, 1992 Access To Art: Bringing Folk Art Closer Muscatine Art Center Muscatine, Iowa 319/263-8282 November 25, 1991-January 20, 1992 Beneath the Ice: The Art of the Fish Decoy National Art Museum of Sport Indianapolis, Indiana 317/687-1715 December 16, 1991-February 10, 1992 Discover America/Friends Sharing America: The Great American Quilt Festival 3 The Butler Institute of American Art Youngstown, Ohio 216/743-1711

December 16, 1991-February 10, 1992 Young People's America Fabric Drawing Contest: The Great American Quilt Festival 3 Children's Museum of Oak Ridge Oak Ridge, Tennessee 615/482-1074 January 20, 1992-March 16, 1992 Swiss Folk Art: Celebrating America's Roots Midland County Historical Society Midland, Michigan 517/835-7401 January 27, 1992-March 23, 1992 Harry Lieberman: A Journey of Remembrance Museum of Arts and Sciences Macon, Georgia 912/477-3232 February 10, 1992-April 4, 1992 Beneath the Ice: The Art of The Fish Decoy John G. Shedd Aquarium Chicago, Illinois 312/939-2426 February 23, 1992-April 5, 1992 The Cutting Edge: Contemporary American Folk Art Tampa Museum of Art Tampa, Florida 813/223-8130

For further information contact Alice J. Hoffman, Director of Exhibitions, Museum of American Folk Art, Administrative Offices, 61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023, Telephone 212/9777170. 31



Specializing in 19th and 20th Century Quebec Folk art.

Don Bundrick Leo Bryant David Butler

Bamma Quates

Minnie Evans

Sarah Raises

Rev, Howard Finster

Juanita Rogers

Lonnie Holley

Bernice Sims

James Harold Jennings

Mary T. Smith

M.C."5c' Jones

Jimmie Lee Sudduth

Joe light

Annie Tolliver

Calvin led Dog" Uvingston

"Midnight Mass" St. Hyacinthe Region, circa 1900. 35" x 20" x 191/4"

, /


Johnny Tolliver

Woodie Long

Mose Tolliver

Annie Lucas

Bill Traylor

Charlie Lucas

Inez Walker

Ancre McCa

Fred Webster

I / //



superb example of the "roccoco" style that was popular in the traditional Quebec church. The altar is formed with pieces of wood, joined like cables by the artisan, and mounted on balusters. A small mirror is fitted at the top, and at the back a primitive crèche is found. The scene includes a Deacon, clergy members, eight additional carved figures, and features wonderful polychromatic woodwork, all original paint.

440 BOUL. DE MAISONNEUVE QUEST MONTREAL, QUEBEC H3A 1L2 Tel.: (514) 499-0069 Fax:(514) 842-6725

"Honest Politician' By Bamma Quates, arx 34" Mixed media

2781 Zelda Road

Montgomery, Alabama 36106

(205) 270-9010 1-800-345-0538 In Alabama 1-800-235-6273 in USA


MUSEUM NEWS bers of the Museum's advisory council and patron members,and for the trustees and staff of the Laguna Art Museum. Our traveling shows reach a wide and varied audience across the nation and abroad, but also offer a forum for our many loyal out-of-town patrons and friends to exchange ideas and give us their valued insights and advice.

•Caracas Welcomes Exhibition The Venezuelan Minister of Culture, Jose Antonio Abreu, along with Ambassador Skol,opened the Latin American tour of the Continuing Traditions in American Folk Art(USIA)exhibit at the Banco Consolidado Cultural Complex in Caracas on July 16, 1991. Hundreds of invited guests and members of the media heard the Minister of Culture deliver a poetic tribute to the exhibit, The Museum of American Folk Art and to the United States, saying that the exhibit "not only illustrates the traditions that have endured in American Folk art, but also, like the poet laureate of the land of Lincoln (Whitman), brings to mind the clear contralto singing in the church loft, the river pilot who pushes the tiller with his strong arms,the farmer who pauses at this fence to contemplate his field of barley and oats,the young engineer steering the express train, the dockworker glistening with sweat under the weight of his load. All of them,embraced into one sovereign nation, are here with us tonight,singing from the west their solitary song, portent of a powerful New World." Reciprocating the Minister's words, Ambassador Skol discussed the many common themes connecting Latin American and United States folk art. Both Ann Marie Reilly, Museum Registrar and Sue Ann Hirshorn, Program Officer of USIA, were praised by the embassy for the lectures and press briefings they gave that helped generate added Winter 1991-1992

interest in the exhibition. The show will travel to Buenos Aires, Bogota, Brasilia, Montevideo,Santiago, and Mexico.

•Folk Art Explorers' Club News The Folk Art Explorers' Club has several exciting tours planned. Of special interest is a trip to Louisville, Kentucky from February 5 through 10, 1992,to coincide with the "American Quilt Celebration." In conjunction with this weekend event, members can attend lectures, conferences, special events, and visit private collections, museums, galleries and artists' homes. From October 3 through 14, 1992, members have the rare opportunity to tour Switzerland with the guidance of our Swiss members — it promises to be a most interesting trip. A detailed brochure was mailed with the Fall 1991 issue of The Clarion. Tours are booked on a strict first come,first serve basis, and recent trips have filled up quickly, so don't delay! For further information call Beth Bergin or Chris Cappiello tel. 212/977-7170.

•NYU and the Folk Art Institute Join Programs In the Fall of 1991, New York University and the Folk Art Institute (a division of the Museum of American Folk Art)signed an agreement for a joint venture that hopefully will benefit all concerned. Students enrolled in the New York University School, Department of Education, Health, Nursing and Arts Professions, Master's Degree Program in Folk Art Studies will attend their lecture courses at the Folk Art Institute, 61 West 62nd Street, 3rd floor. Such students will register at NYU,take courses at the institute and receive credit at NYU. For more information call Registrar, Heidi Trachtenberg at NYU tel. 212/998-5700.

•Special Programs Open to the Public The following free programs will be open to the public in conjunction with the Santos De Palo: The Household Saints of Puerto Rico exhibition, January 7 to May 10, 1992. "Santos de Palo: The Household Saints of Puerto Rico" Wednesday, January 8, 1992, from 6 pm to 7 pm Curatorial Lecture by Guest Curator, Dr. Yvonne Lange. Video Programs on Santos and Santeros (in Spanish, English translation available) January 7 to May 10th, 1992, continuous showing "Life of Florencio Caban," by Ricardo Alegria "El Santero/The Life of a Santero," by Zoilo Cajigas y Sotomayor Video interviews with Sena Caban, daughter of santero Florencio Caban; and with santero Carmelo Soto. Children's Storytelling Hour The Museum offers a biweekly storytelling hour as part of its Children's Education Program. Storytellers will read and perform a wide range of folk tales including stories related to objects on exhibition. Storytelling (for children ages 4 and above): Puerto Rican Folk Tales Saturdays: January 11, 1992 at 2 pm January 25, 1992 at 2 pm February 1, 1992 at 2 pm February 15, 1992 at 2 pm Storyteller Laura Sims Santos de Palo: The Household Saints of Puerto Rico and the accompanying educational programming have been made possible with the generous support of Anheuser-Busch Companies. Additional support for the exhibition has been provided with public funds from the New York State Council on the Arts and through a grant from The L.J. Skaggs and Mary C. Skaggs Foundation. Museum of American Folk Art Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square, Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th Streets, New York, NY 10023 For reservations and information call Education Office at 212/595-9533


Recently Discovered "Fishing By a Stream" Late 19th century depiction of2 men and their dog, at their fishing campsite. The painting is a masterpiece of folk imagery and folklore.

PORCELLI AMERICAN FOLK ART and AMERICANA 12702 Larchmere Boulevard (2nd floor) Cleveland, Ohio 44120 216/932-9087 or 231-2121 Tuesday-Saturday 11-5 or Appointment

Grisaille oil on board. 18" h x 24" w (possible indistinguishable signature in L.L.C.)

(When in Cleveland,please stop in, or call 216/932-9087)

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RARE & IMPORTANT AMERICAN FOLK ART The only New York gallery featuring authentic antique bird and fish decoys.

EXTREMELY RARE BRANT. Circa — late 1800s.

HERTER'S GREAT HORNED OWL. Circa — early 1930s. Highly effective crow decoy when government offered 10C bonus. Note beak is a bear's claw! Scarce and highly collectible. $1,700.


0400 <DO cl> c:D


(2) Oct)

Recently found on Cape Cod. Originated on Eastern Shore of Virginia. Bill is spiked through: head is pinned below neck seat. A great and lovely decoy. $3.000.

36 WEST 44TH STREET, NEW YORK, NY 10036 D (212) 391-0688 • ,e0





At exhibition of the Museum's Amish quilts, West 55th Street galleries, April, 1985

DR. ROBERT BISHOP (1938-1991)

A Personal Memoir Gerard C. Wertkin he late Sister R. Mildred Barker, senior trustee of the Sabbathday Lake Shakers, brought Dr. Robert Bishop and me together. Bob's brilliant eye had alighted on the clean, attenuated lines of Shaker furniture during the mid-1970s, before restlessly turning to other interests in the 1980s; this drew him to the little Shaker village in southern Maine, the state of his birth and upbringing. Years before, Bob bid a


Winter 1991-1992

resolute, if not entirely final, farewell to Maine. The harshness of winters down east never appealed to him, and visiting Readfield, his boyhood home, prompted memories of a less fulfilling, perhaps less happy time. Although thoughts of Maine generally caused Bob to shiver, there was something at Sabbathday Lake that absorbed him for a few years in the 1970s. Robert Bishop often asserted that he was not a religious person; he lived — how he lived! — in the here and now.

Despite the practical, uncomplicated view that he took of the world, there probably still was something of the mystic in him. The colorful walls of his warm, welcoming home in Manhattan's Chelsea district were crowded with the expressive, occasionally disturbing, works of religious visionaries — paintings of ritual, celebration and spiritual yearning — and Sister Mildred believed that something beyond furniture drew him to Shaker Village. Whatever the reason, Bob was once an 35

occasional visitor at Sabbathday Lake; it was there that I, as President of the Friends of the Shakers, had the privilege of inviting him to serve with me on the Board of the Shaker community's support organization. If this memoir begins with the Shakers, it is only because that was the point of my first contact with Bob Bishop. It is a mark of the exceptional versatility and broadness of vision that characterized him that virtually everyone who Bob knew well would tell the story differently For some, a common chord might be struck by an interest in the portraits of John Blunt, the nineteenthcentury painter whose career Bob chronicled in his 1975 doctoral work at the University of Michigan. Others might share with him a regard for the remarkably rich color tones and bold geometric patterns of Amish quilts, the subject of two of his most widely admired books. Some would join Bob in an appreciation of the art deco heritage and hot, sandy beaches of Miami Beach, where he maintained a home. Still others respected his commitment to the breeding and showing of championship Manchester terriers and Doberman pinschers. These and other — many other — involvements brought a talented, uncommonly diverse and often intriguing group of friends and associates to the world of Robert Bishop. Once there, it was difficult to leave. Bob lived as if in a kaleidoscope; those with whom he shared his varied interests could not help but be endlessly fascinated by the bright colors and delightful, surprising turns of a relentlessly creative life. Notwithstanding its tragic brevity, the record of Robert Bishop's life is long and distinguished, perhaps too full to recount adequately here. Bob himself placed little emphasis on his achievements. It was never what he had completed that mattered to him, but what he was next about to begin. Some of the accomplishments that were most meaningful to him were relatively little known to the public. In the last two or three years of his life, for example, Bob delighted in scouring flea markets with his dear friend and longtime editor, Museum trustee Cyril I. Nelson, in search of the work of a little-known Russian-American who designed plates, 36

candlesticks and various display pieces of pewter and other metals for production in his Connecticut shop beginning in 1932. The resulting exhibition, "Serge S. Nelcrassoff: Retrospective of an American Metalsmith," which Bob organized with his New York University graduate student, Ingela Helgesson, was presented at the 80 Washington Square East Galleries during the summer of 1990. It was a glistening gem of an exhibition, but it received little public attention. Bob was no less pleased with the result. He enjoyed the process of discovery and interpretation, and knew that others eventually would come to know and appreciate this work. When it came to objects of beauty, he was secure in his judgment and certain of his role as an innovator. In his own encomium to Bob Bishop, Cy Nelson, who dedicated The Quilt Engagement Calendar 1992 to his friend, credited Bob with first opening his "eyes and mind to the beauty of American folk art." "It was a great moment," Cy wrote, "for I realized that a new, highly significant part of my art education had begun." Few realize how greatly Bob relished the role of teacher and guide. In the early 1980s he and I shared a Museum office at 55 West 53rd Street. I witnessed his intensive work in preparing the detailed curriculum of the graduate program in American folk art studies at New York University, according to the rigorous, and often tiresome, requirements of the State education authorities. With the collaboration of his colleague and friend, Marilynn Karp, Bob oversaw the process by which the curriculum was adopted by the University in 1981. He was a dedicated and caring teacher, especially when he had the good fortune of teaching a "bright-eyed" student, as he put it — a student for whom the inspiration of his courses was just a beginning to a more personal pursuit into the world of folk art. Colleagues of Robert Bishop may be surprised to learn what an important emphasis education was in his professional career. I recall a long evening that Bob and I spent with Barbara and Tracy Cate in 1985. It was at one of his favorite restaurants in the Chelsea neighborhood near his home, and Barbara, who was to become Director of

the Museum's Folk Art Institute, had brought along the course listings for the new program, then merely an idea that Bob had shared with a few colleagues. By the end of the evening, the Institute's curriculum had been approved and a new Museum program was born. Within a year the Folk Art Institute had been accredited provisionally by the National Association of Schools of Art and Design.(I remember the visitation by the distinguished members of the Association's accreditation team; in their prior correspondence they wrote that they were looking forward to touring the Institute's "campus" with great anticipation. "I wonder if this is such a good idea:' I said with some trepidation to Bob, since it was I who was to be their escort through the partially rehabilitated dress shop at 51 West 53rd Street that served as the Institute's sole classroom and office. "Sure," he said with a characteristic combination of bravado and mischief — and with the reassuring confidence that he placed in his associates — "you know we'll get it done!" And, of course we did.) There was, of course, another side to Bob Bishop that was very different from the more private, introspective person I have described. He exulted in the public arena. I retain a vivid picture of him at the annual benefit opening of the Fall Antiques Show, walking along its broad aisles and sharing quips or knowledgeable comments with dealers and collectors, all the while gathering groups of admirers about him. He himself once dealt in antiques, before securing his education and going on to writing and museum work, and he retained an affectionate regard for dealers and a deep respect for the knowledge they acquired not only through continuing exposure to objects but from the risk-taking and the hard economic choices they faced each day. Bob Bishop relished creating opportunities for his friends to enlarge the scope of their personal horizons. This was his special gift. He often spoke for example, of the longstanding creative partnership that he enjoyed with Sandy Smith, who has produced the Fall Antiques Show since its initial presentation twelve years ago. Sandy first entered the field of show promotion through Bob's encouragement, "the THE CLARION

Winter 1991-1992

of the Museum," he once asked, "than . .. a program that celebrates the style, craft and history of what we exhibit?" That this program developed into an international undertaking was particularly gratifying to Bob. He always kept near his desk the albums prepared for him by Atsunori Andoh and Hirofumi Nakajima, and his other friends at Takashimaya — the Museum's exclusive licensee in Japan — and never tired of showing to his guests the photographs of the Museum's shops in Takashimaya stores in Tokyo, Osaka and other Japanese cities. Another program that combined Robert Bishop's interests as educator and showman was The Great American Quilt Festival, one of several initiatives of his that sought to draw American quilt collectors and quiltmakers into the Museum family First produced in 1986 in association with Sanford L. Smith & Associates, the Festival is built on a national contest and includes exhibitions of antique and contemporary quilts, lectures, workshops, a marketplace and a variety of special events. Barbara Bush served as honorary national chairperson of the 1986 Festival,

and tens of thousands of visitors came to New York for the event from around the world, as they would for the 1989 and 1991 Festivals. These events may be characterized as quintessentially in the "Bishop style": expansive, inclusive, embracing and ambitious. From

With catalogue of "American Folk Art: Expressions of a New Spirit," 1982


spark I needed," Sandy recently wrote, "to do something I had wanted to do for a long time." But while Bob spoke admiringly of the growth of Sanford L. Smith & Associates, he rarely mentioned his role in Sandy's career. He was never boastful except when speaking of the Museum, and remained refreshingly unpretentious throughout his professional life. Others experienced similar changes in direction through encounters with Robert Bishop. Bob drew me from a career in law to museum administration in 1980 — although he occasionally worried whether or not this represented a favor to me, especially when we found ourselves wrestling with the frustrating problems of financing the expanding operations of the Museum. Among my colleagues at the Museum — and elsewhere in the field of arts and antiques — are many who could tell similar stories. There were times when Bob found the constraints of the museum profession limiting; his personality was sufficiently complex to accommodate the scholar and the showman, but occasionally this resulted in a tension between the two poles of his interests. He always sought to extend and break down boundaries that he found artificial or confining. He felt at home in the academic world, but he was fascinated, almost naively, by the world of business. Perhaps that is why he appeared happiest in pursuits that combined both. He took special pride in the Museum's licensing program, which grew impressively under his leadership, and he earned the respect not only of corporate presidents but of managers at every level for his part in this collaborative effort. His visits each October and April beginning in 1981 to the home furnishings market at High Point, North Carolina with Hermine Mariaux, the Museum's licensing agent, were eagerly anticipated highlights of his year. There, in the showrooms of the Museum's furniture licensee, The Lane Company, Bob especially enjoyed good-natured banter with R. Stuart Moore, Lane's chairman; Scott Tyler, president; and other Lane executives as he assisted the sales force in interpreting the adaptations of original designs that formed The America Collection. "What better way to extend the work

One of Dr. Bishop's prize Doberman pinschers, Ch. Andelane's Indigo Rock, with handler, James I. Berger 37

Dr. Bishop and members of international Advisory Council on a "hard hat" tour of the work in progress at the Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square; November 12, 1988

this program developed a special category of museum membership called "The Quilt Connection." Bob greatly valued the talents and dedication of American quiltmakers. The Quilt Connection enabled him to establish close personal ties with many skilled textile artists. Showmanship came naturally to Bob Bishop. I remember spending a day in Maine with him before I came to work at the Museum. It was a rainy, summer's day and we had stopped to have lunch in the pretty coastal town of Belfast, after visiting with Betty Berdan and other dealers in Hallowell. Suddenly Bob jumped over a puddle â&#x20AC;&#x201D; "flew," might be a better way to describe it â&#x20AC;&#x201D; with such consummate grace that I sensed then what I would not learn until much later, that Bob was a dancer. Having left Maine as a very young man, he came to New York and earned a scholarship at the School of American Ballet, where he was enrolled from 1958 to 1960. He danced on Broadway and television and toured with the Metropolitan Opera. But even at this time in his early career, he was 38

drawn to antiques, an interest that he attributed to the influence of his grandmother, and he helped support himself as a dealer. It was also the beginning of his life-long appreciation of objects bearing the mark of their makers' genius and creativity and his pursuit of personal connoisseurship, especially in the field of American folk art. It is not surprising, therefore, to learn that one of Bob's stated objectives when he came to the Museum as director in 1976 was to build the permanent collection. In addition to his own gifts to the Museum, he inspired others to donate major works to the institution. The story of the growth of the Museum's permanent collection is outside the scope of this brief memoir but it would be impossible to consider Bob Bishop's contributions without mentioning a few highlights here. During the last year of his life, Bob worked assiduously with members of the Board of Trustees of the Historical Society of Early American Decoration and their consultant, Donald T. Oakes, in arranging for the transfer of hundreds of important decorative objects to the

Museum. Having collaborated with Bob on this project, I know how dear it was to his heart and how much he valued the new associations established as a result of these discussions. I recall the Spring, 1991, meeting of the Society's Board, which was held at the Museum. Illness was beginning to have its effect on Bob's strength and resiliency but even in his weakened condition he made a point of visiting with the Society's trustees and making them feel welcome. The accession of the Historical Society's collections was the last of many distinguished additions to the permanent collection that Bob arranged. Under Bob's direction, new accessions not only provided opportunities to bring works of art of importance into the Museum's collection, but new friends and supporters to its programs. I note, for example, the extraordinary collection of figural objects assembled by Bob's dear friends, Dorothy and Leo Rabkin, now a promised bequest to the Museum. Dorothy and Leo participate generously in virtually every aspect of the Museum; Dorothy serves as a memTHE CLARION

Mayor Edward I. Koch inaugurating the Museum's Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square; April 13, 1989. Seated: Mary Schmidt Campbell, New York City Commissioner of Cultural Affairs; Kitty Carlisle Hart, Chairman, New York State Council on the Arts; Dr. Bishop; Eva Feld; Gerard C. Wertkin

ber of the Museum's Accession Committee. Another major gift was the transfer of the holdings of Animal Carnival,Inc., the result of Bob's conversations with that organization's founder and leading light, Elizabeth Wecter. Mrs. Wecter, now a trustee and officer of the Museum of American Folk Art, not only oversaw the transfer from San Francisco to New York of the wonderful animal figures that comprised this collection, but was quick to make the move herself so that she could enter into the full life of the Museum. These acquisitions and others crowd the roll of the Museum's permanent collection. Gifts of Amish quilts by David Pottinger and William and Dede Wigton; the encyclopedic woven coverlet collection of Margot and John Ernst and important objects given by Jean and Howard Lipman, Ralph Esmerian, Cyril I. Nelson, Leonard and Evelyn Lauder, Sandy Smith and others helped create a collection truly representative of the field. Collection building was a pursuit that Bob Bishop emphasized throughout his fifteen years as director, but limitations in the collection never Winter 1991-1992

caused him to hesitate in planning new projects. Somehow, he always knew that he would be able to fill any gaps. I remember joining Bob in his early discussions with Gordon Bowman of United Technologies, an important Museum sponsor for almost ten years. Bob and Gordon planned a comprehensive exhibition of American folk art to travel to Europe, but their discussions began in late 1980 and early 1981 when the Museum's collection had not grown to its current strengths. While these plans were progressing, Bob began a series of conversations with the well known collector and scholar, Jean Lipman, with whom he enjoyed a long-standing relationship of mutual respect. Jean and her husband, Howard, had built a second collection of American folk art that filled their lovely Connecticut home, after the disposition of an earlier collection. Bob's conversations with Jean led to the purchase in 1981 of most of the contents of their home and the acquisition of the objects needed to make the plans Bob was discussing with Gordon Bowman a reality No one was more helpful in making the Lipman

purchase possible than Eva Feld, whose support and friendship for the Museum began with the establishment of a purchase fund for use in the Lipman acquisitions. The resulting exhibition and its European, Canadian and American tours would take Bob and the Museum's collection to major museums throughout the world. He was an inveterate traveler and enjoyed taking the Museum's message wide and far. Indeed, he spoke so well and convincingly of the Museum's programs that visitors to New York continued to be surprised at the limited space the Museum actually occupied in Manhattan. Adequate space for the Museum was a dream that Bob would see fulfilled, although his ultimate plans for the institution remain to be realized. Old friends enjoy reminiscing about the Museum as it was when Bob first joined its staff as Director in 1976. The Museum occupied the parlor floor of a brownstone at 49 West 531x1 Street and rented an additional space two floors above for its offices. In this rented gallery of approximately 1,000 square feet, located above a sandwich shop, the 39

At home on West 22nd Street, Manhattan, 1989

Museum had presented its exhibitions since the early 1960s. John Russell, art critic for the New York Times, called this humble but welcoming space one of Manhattan's "undiscovered treasures." There was no doubt, however, about its inadequacies. The staff was crowded into a single office, without space between the various desks, while Bob worked out of an adjoining closetsized cubbyhole. To those who visited the Museum of American Folk Art in the late 1970s there was nonetheless a special spirit that transcended its limited facilities. Bob never apologized nor equivocated. It was only a question of time, he knew, before improved quarters would be secured. By 1979 the Museum had acquired ownership of 45-47 West 53rd Street from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and in 1980 would control the four adjoining brownstones, as well. Museum offices and programs were soon spread throughout these buildings. In 1984, the Museum closed its galleries on 53rd Street and moved temporarily to the premises of the former Jazz Museum of America at 125 West 55th Street. Some of the staff moved to the new location with Bob, but most of the Museum's employees remained with me on 53rd Street. Although this represented an improvement, I missed the daily closeness of sharing an office with Bob, as we had for almost five years.. The attractive gallery and office space at 55th Street were only briefly to be a home for the Museum. Within two years, its owners proceeded with the demolition of the building and Bob and 44)

the Museum were on the move again, this time to offices on Park Avenue South. For two years, the Museum presented its exhibitions in such facilities as the IBM Gallery of Science and Art, The City Gallery and the PaineWebber Art Gallery, while Bob made efforts to solve the Museum's long-range needs for adequate space. During this time Bob encouraged the development of the Museum's well-known traveling exhibition program. Then, an opportunity arose to develop an underutilized public space on Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th Streets. During the late 1980s much of Bob's effort was devoted to the establishment of a new gallery at that location. With the help of Eva Feld, Frances and Paul Martinson, and other good friends and associates, Bob was to see the Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square open to the public in 1989. I remember Bob's pride during the opening ceremonies when Mayor Edward I. Koch and other leaders of New York's political and cultural life participated in an impressive series of inaugural events. Bob was a visionary; few of his colleagues had shared his view that a windswept plaza on the west side of Manhattan could be turned into an elegant gallery for the exhibition of works of art. The new museum gallery, located as it was in the heart of the Lincoln Center area, seemed especially appropriate in view of Robert Bishop's performing arts background and his love of opera and dance. As in so many other projects, Bob's success belied the doubts of critics who said that "it

couldn't be done." Bob published over twenty-five books on American folk and decorative arts during his career. Indeed, publishing was a special emphasis of his. Even before he came to the Museum of American Folk Art, this interest manifested itself in his early projects. He was a picture editor at American Heritage and during the 1970s served as Museum Editor at Henry Ford Museum/Greenfield Village. At the Henry Ford Museum he also served as a curator of furniture and American decorative arts. When Robert Bishop came to the Museum of American Folk Art, The Clarion had existed for several years as a members' newsletter. Although some of its issues contained articles of interest and depth, it was a modest undertaking when compared with The Clarion as it would develop under Bob's leadership. Although the actual editorship of the magazine would be held by several talented colleagues, Bob always retained a strong interest in the publication and helped mold its direction and design. His books â&#x20AC;&#x201D; which ranged in subject from folk paintings and sculpture to Victorian decorative arts â&#x20AC;&#x201D; were about as diverse as their author's interests. He also enjoyed helping others with publication projects and earned the respect of many of the country's leading publishers and editors. During the opening ceremonies at the new gallery, Bob was able to display publicly what many of us knew privately. He was a warm and genial host who enjoyed putting people at their ease and making them feel at home. It is impossible to recall Bob Bishop without remembering the beautiful evenings he hosted in the roof garden of his home in Manhattan. There, relaxed amid the plantings and flowers upon which he lavished so much attention, he was fully himself. Surrounded by his friends, enjoying the handsome Dobermans or Manchester terriers that always seemed to be about him, and engaging in convivial conversation, Dr. Robert Bishop seemed to be happiest. Although serious illness clouded his final months, he remained cheerful and optimistic. Just a few months before he died, he stood at his desk and said to me, "I truly love my job." This caring is evident in the extraordinary legacy that he leaves to all of us at the Museum and to the cultural life of the nation. THE CLARION

SANTOS DE PALO The Household Saints ofPuerto Rico he following essays accompany illustrations of selections from


the exhibition, Santos de Palo: The Household Saints of Puerto Rico, organized by guest curator, Yvonne Lange. The objects in

the exhibition are drawn from the collection of Alan Moss Reveron, New York City. "Santos de Palo: The Household Saints of Puerto

Rico," by Yvonne Lange, covers the historical and social background of Puerto Rico and the emergence and recognition of the traditional carving of wooden religious images for household veneration as a form of folk art. Dr. Lange explores the materials of production and the printed sources that the santeros, the sculptors of santos, use for inspiration and as models for their carvings, as well as the iconography and devotional representations of Christ, the Virgin Mary and the saints and the beliefs associated with them. "The Saint Makers of Puerto Rico," by Alan Moss Reveron and Liz O'Brien, covers the stylistic characteristics of specific santeros in localized geographical regions in Puerto Rico and offers significant biographical information, which up to now has been largely undocumented. The exhibition, Santos de Palo: The Household Saints of Puerto Rico is presented by the Museum of American Folk Art at the Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square, Columbus Avenue and 66th Street, New York City and will be on view from January 7 through May 10, 1992. The exhibition and accompanying educational programming have been made possible with the generous support of Anheuser-Busch Companies. Additional support has been provided with public funds from the New York State Council on the Arts and through a grant from The L.J. Skaggs and Mary C. Skaggs Foundation. Winter 1991-1992


Welcome to the Exhibit: The rich cultural heritage of Puerto Rico comes alive in the works collected in this traveling exhibition of religious folk art. "Santos de Palo: The Household Saints of Puerto Rico" will tour seven cities in the United States and Puerto Rico from January 1992 through April 1994 with historic wood carvings of religious figures known as santos (saints). By providing this opportunity to view the artistic expressions of many Puerto Ricans over the centuries, this exhibition will provide a blend of education, excitement and enjoyment. Anheuser-Busch Companies is proud to be associated with this historic exhibit. Our long-standing relationship with and commitment to Puerto Rico has provided us with an opportunity to sponsor this exhibit. The introduction of this art form to audiences throughout the U.S. reflects our ongoing support for Hispanic contributions to the artsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a living legacy that continues to entertain and inspire. Anheuser-Busch Companies anticipates that this exhibit will open the door to the rich culture and history of Puerto Rico.

August A. Busch III Chairman of the Board and President Anheuser-Busch Companies, Inc.



Santos de Palo The Household Saints of Puerto Rico Yvonne Lange

Like the Greek word "icon," the Spanish word santo (plural santos) is a generic term for any sacred or holy image made for church or household use. In Puerto Rico, the term santos applies chiefly to wood carvings (palo means wood) of the Roman Catholic celestial hierarchy made locally, outside of church control, by academically untrained folk artists called santeros. Those few women who engaged in the craft are called santeras. Santo carving reached its zenith in the last quarter of

the nineteenth century and first third of the twentieth and, although to a much lesser extent, is still practiced in Puerto Rico today.

uerto Rico is the most easterly island of the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean Sea. Its climate is tropical, its capital is San Juan, and its area is roughly 3,423 square miles. (Fig. 1). Two languages are currently spoken in Puerto Rico: Spanish, which has been





in use for five centuries, and English which became important when Spain ceded the island to the United States of America in 1898. The island became the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico in 1952. Christianity was introduced after Christopher Columbus discovered the island on November 19, 1493, on his Second Voyage to the New World. The period from colonization to 1800 is marked by stagnation when the population stood at only 155,406 inhabitants. Apart from construction of fortifica-

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Fig. 1 MAIN SANTO MAKING AREAS in Puerto Rico. Map drawn by Ethel Trimmer



tions and the posting of Spanish military staff to man them, Puerto Rico was largely neglected by Spain and sparsely settled until 1815 when a cedula de Gracia was approved with the stated aims of promoting migration to labor-short Puerto Rico and increasing economic activities. Thereafter, commerce and industry grew rapidly and attracted a substantial number of settlers who came largely from Catalonia and the Canary Islands. African slave labor was introduced from the early stages of colonization. The African and racially mixed population peaked in 1846 but declined to 38% of 953,243 inhabitants by 1899. There were two characteristic settlement patterns which were conditioned by the main agricultural pursuits. The African population was concentrated in the sugar-growing areas that were centered in the alluvial plains of the coast where they were the main labor force. The white and racially mixed peasant population, on the other hand, lived mostly in the cool uplands where they either earned their living as landless resident workers on the large coffee plantations or produced coffee and subsistence crops on their own small farms. Overland roads were limited and in poor condition; schools were few so illiteracy was high; medical facilities were inadequate; and churches, chronically short of pastors, were difficult to access. Religious sentiment, nevertheless, remained strong and favored a home-based cult qf the saints, with devotional and protective roles, that required holy imagery for its viability. It is in these mountainous areas, among the isolated and economically depressed rural dwellers (jibaros), that santos making predominated. The year 1898 brought a major change to Puerto Rico when it passed from the sovereignty of Spain to that of the United States. The direct hispanization of Puerto Rico came to an end as new political, economic, educational, religious, and trade conditions were imposed. The essentially agrarian nature of the economy was retained, however, until the 1940s, when a planned industrial program attracted rural dwellers to urban areas, giving rise to a better educated, less religiously inclined middle class. Also, population pressures were relieved by mass migration to the Unit44

ed States which offered greater employment opportunities.

he santos were an undetected form of folk art until 1931 when they were brought out from obscurity by the Dominican friars of the Dutch Province, established at Bayamon, who praised their simplicity and aesthetic appeal by exhibiting them at missionfairs in the Netherlands. In October 1935 a set of Three Kings made by Florencio Caban Hernandez received special recognition in an illustrated article in De Maasbode describing art at a mission-fair that had just opened in Rotterdam) From this early exposure, the santos have gone on to appeal to an ever-growing audience. They are avidly collected and routinely exhibited in Puerto Rico and abroad.


t bears repeating that the santos were created outside of church control and that they were intended for private devotion. The santero has no formal or academic training. He learns his trade mostly in a home environment by observing skilled family members. He uses tools that might be store-bought but more frequently are home-made from discarded items such as a straight razor. A vivid illustration is the collection of tools of the late Don Zoilo Cajigas y Sotomayor (Fig. 2). Such implements are sharpened and shaped to suit the individual santero. The material favored for santo making is wood, regardless of whether it is milled or unmilled, local or imported. On occasion, a figure is found to have been made from gesso or papier mache, or even lead. Templates (plantillas), such as the ones shown, were sometimes


Fig. 2 CARVING TOOLS owned in 1953 by Zoilo Cajigas y Sotomayor, c. 1875-1962. Courtesy Institut째 de Cultura Puertorriquena


used as labor-saving devices (Fig. 3). The santero is very versatile in creating form and size. Figures in the round (bultos) may be standing, kneeling, pr enthroned. They may be presented singly, grouped, in recessed panels, or in stage-like scenes in a niche. In earlier times, the santero made use of mannequins (santos de armazon) intended for dressing, or turned out images in glue-stiffened fabric (santos de tela encolada). Ordinarily, the figure is carved en bloc. On occasion, the head is made as a distinct unit and fitted into the mass of the figure. More often than not, the hands are fashioned separately then inserted and glued into holes hollowed out at the end of the forearm. These become easily detached, so that the very attributes that serve to identify the saints may be lost. Where arms present an anatomical challenge, santeros adopt the solution of carving the upper arm and forearm separately and joining them at the elbow and shoulder, by means of glue, dowels, or nails. Ears are either shaped or outlined in paint. The nose is always modelled. Mouth and eyes are generally grooved and then painted over, although there are many exceptions. Hair

and beard are either incised or painted in. Very rarely has actual human hair been used to cover the head. A few ambitious pieces exist where glass eyes were inserted into the head. Whether such figures were made locally or were introduced into Puerto Rico is difficult to tell. Where pegged wings and a halo are to be provided, slots are made in the back and a small hole is bored in the head. The use of pegs, however, is not consistent, although the technique is frequently employed to affix the legs of horses to the main body, hold The Three Kings on their mounts, attach wooden wings to angels and archangels, and secure a santo to its base. Pegs may be replaced by glue and even nails, particularly by those santeros who are lax in their attention to detail. / Depending on the santero, but especially among the earlier ones, features of monastic habit and folds of tunic and veil are carefully brought out in relief. Tendency towards stylization and reduction of the figure to its simplest lines are a more recent development and sometimes result from a lack of skill. Feet, except for those saints whose iconography requires that a leg

Fig. 3 TEMPLATES used by Claudino Mercado Rosario, 1896-1981

Winter 1991-1992

be shown, are schematic. An attached incised or sculpted crown is a common feature. Where the figure is enthroned, the throne itself may be a separate carving or part and parcel of the santo. There is wide variation in the style and form of both attached and detached thrones. Once the santero has finished carving the figure, the next step is to prepare it for painting and decorating. Gesso as a base for painting was superseded in the earlier part of the twentieth century by commercially bought animal glue dissolved in water(agua de cola) which became the common surface sealer or sizing. It was also used as a fabric stiffener. The tendency today is to apply paints directly to the wood after smoothing it with fine sandpaper or another abrasive material. Features such as hair, eyebrows, eyes, mouth, moustache, and beard, in addition to hands and feet and sometimes ears, are more often than not painted in or outlined with black paint. An evolutionary trend can be observed regarding paints. Early santos are painted in soft hues derived from homemade colors or powdered pigments which were mixed with linseed oil, while contemporary images display brighter colors derived from cheap house paints, enamels, artists' colors sold in tubes, and acrylics. Surface decorations tend to be restrained although lavish use of metallic paint is not an exception (Fig. 4) and "stars" and "daisies" characterize certain works. Not all santos stand on a pedestal (peana). Where bases are provided, they vary greatly in size and form; they range from the simple to the elaborate. They are frequently painted in a color that contrasts with the main figure and may be plain or decorated with incised patterns or painted designs. The height of the santos is so varied that it is not possible to establish a mean. The images fall into three broad categories. 1. Miniatures: under 4 inches, but excluding the small figure of the Child Jesus held by St. Anthony of Padua or St. Joseph or found sitting in the lap of the Virgin. 2. Regular size: 4 to 15 inches. 3. Large side: 15 to 25 inches, and taller in a few cases. 45

Fig. 4 VIRGIN MARY; Zoilo Cajigas y Sotomayor, c. 1875-1962; 231/2 x101/2 x6/ 1 4"

Fig. 5 NICHE CONTAINING OUR LADY OF MONTSERRAT (with seven holy cards); Ignacio Arce Sotomayor, c. 1858-1928; 141/2 x 101/2 x 51/2"

In the case of displaced pieces, it is difficult to say whether the large-size santo is related to function. It may have been intended for the private chapel (oratorio) of a wealthier member of the community, or it might have been placed over the grave of a deceased person. These are questions to which no answer is readily available. In each home, a sacred space was provided for the enshrinement of the family's favorite saints. Commonly, it was a niche (Fig. 5) or a small shelf serving as a home altar that hung, generally out of reach of children, on the wall of the sleeping quarters or living

area. It is the presence of the saints that dwelt there and their perceived efficacy that conferred sanctity on these humble devices.


he Puerto Rican santero is essentially a carver. His skills as a painter, are secondary. On the other hand, he shows great imagination when challenged by a narrative composition. His solution is the relief panel. He creates it by carving individual figures and affixes them to a background to give the illusion of depth, varying levels, and


movement. Such is the case of The Three Kings, symbolically representing the Gentiles, guided by the Star of Bethlehem, on their way to pay homage to the divinity of the newly born Jesus. See Figs. 6 and 7. For personalization of the figures, the santero is constrained by the iconographic conventions of Roman Catholic religious art that is rooted in the Middle Ages of Europe. This artistic scheme dictates vesture, symbols, and attributes, by which the individual saints are identified and recognized by their devotees. To finish a santo, to furnish it with its proper attributes, and THE CLARION

Fig. 6 THREE KINGS; Hipolito Marte Martinez (El Maestro Polo), c. 1866-1926; relief panel; 193/4 x 11 1/2"

Fig. 8 OUR LADY OF THE PURIFICATION (La Candelaria) attributed to Felipe Espada; 19th century; relief panel; 183/4 x 9" Fig. 7 THREE KINGS; attributed to Hick)lito Marte Martinez (El Maestro Polo), c. 1866-1926; painting on linen; 26/ 1 2 x 153/4"

to provide it with a suitable votive offering, often calls for great ingenuity based on the use of materials at hand. Wings made from tin are common, the flywheel from watchworks has become a halo, and even a crown made from coffin paper trim has graced the head of a santo. The santero is very versatile in creating form and size. For accuracy of representation, he is also heavily dependent on inexpensive prints that are available locally and are easily transportable to his workplace. This is a claim that must now be substantiated and illustrated by some examples which, of necessity, will be selective. A close resemblance may be observed between the image of Our Lady of the Purification (Fig. 8) and the print illustrated in Fig. 9. The original was made by Juan Perez in 1703. Several reproduced prints with varying Winter 1991-1992

modifications have been widely distributed since. The ruffled wimple framing the Virgin's face and the candleholder with tall taper in her left hand have remained constants. Note the correlation between the Mano Poderosa, The All Powerful Hand of Christ (Fig. 10) and its prototype (Fig. 11). A detailed description of the iconography and symbolism of this and other images is given under their specific headings. The inspiration for Our Lady of Perpetual Help (Fig. 12) is the chromolithograph of Nuestra Senora del Perpetuo Socorro. (Fig. 13). As her title implies, the Virgin's unfailing willingness to mediate with God for the welfare of human beings makes her popular among Puerto Ricans. The Byzantine aspect of the Virgin is rarely retained by the santero who, on the other hand, never fails to reproduce the archangels now transformed into simple


Fig. 9 PRINT of Our Lady of the Purification (La Candelaria) by Juan Perez, 1703; Courtesy Smithsonian Institution


Fig. 10 THE ALL POWERFUL HAND OF CHRIST; Florencio Callan Hernandez, c. 1876-1952; relief panel; 131/4 x 10'/4

Fig. 11 ITALIAN CHROMOLITHOGRAPH; The All Powerful Hand of Christ


angels. These celestial beings no longer hover over Mary and the Child but become shoulder borne by the Virgin. A graphic problem thus finds a plastic solution which, in turn, generates a new Marian advocation: Virgin of the Angels or Virgen de los Angeles. A migratory legend, common in Spain, is that of a bull whose odd behavior leads to the finding of a statue of the Virgin buried or hidden centuries earlier to save her from profanation by the occupying Moors. No fewer than 43 such incidents are the subject of popular Marian representations. Two prints of this type are known to have 48

circulated in Puerto Rico. The first is an untitled 1860s Spanish print now in the Alan Moss collection. Hardly decipherable, its condition is such that it is unlikely to have served as a santero's model. The second is a lithograph produced in France between 1852 and 1855. Despite its poor condition, it is reproduced as Fig. 14. It is labeled Our Lady of Montserrat in French, Spanish, and German. Since La Monserrate, patroness of Catalonia, is never associated with a bull, the presence of a man to her right and a bull to her left makes this mislabeled French print unique in the history of art. Owing to its rarity and to the fact that it was found in Puerto Rico around 1957 in an area where santeros are known to have worked, it is perhaps not too rash to suggest that it has generated The Miracle of Hormigueros which depicts the Virgin saving a local Aar() from an attacking bull (Fig. 15). Horrnigueros is the location of Puerto Rico's national shrine to Our Lady of Montserrat. In that church, there are two fairly modern ex-votos, a painting and a mural, that show the Virgin protecting a man from a charging bull. In my view, these depictions are less likely than a print to have served as the source of inspiration for the santeros' imaginative renderings of Our Lady of Hormigueros.2 A second Marian representation that is distinctly Puerto Rican is the Virgin of the Kings (Fig. 16). Although there is precedence for the title in the wellknown Nuestra Senora de los Reyes,3 patroness of Seville, there is no known composition — outside of the Puerto Rican — of the Virgin and Child with three diminutive kings. In support of the statement that a theme is never conceived outright by a santero and that his point of departure is invariably a visual model, Fig. 17 is offered in demonstration. Marian praises (goigs, in Catalan), illustrated with The Tree of Jesse — in essence, the royal descent of Christ from Jesse, father of King David — have been in wide circulation up to the present time. The hypothesis presented here is that The Tree of Jesse, with the four-king formula, served as the pictorial model for the Virgin of the Kings. By eliminating one king and retaining all the other characters, the group now traditionally called Virgen de los Reyes emerged in Puerto Rico THE CLARION

but with a new interpretation: the kings are no longer the forbears of Christ; they have become the Magi. Owing to the great popularity of The Three Kings in the island and the active celebration of their feast on January 6, this innovative Marian depiction has been readily incorporated into the local culture. It is emphasized that the connection between The Tree of Jesse and the Virgin of the Kings is purely pictorial and not thematic. In sum, the santeros' graphic sources were mainly of two kinds: popular religious prints (estampitas) and illustrated leaflets or broadside prayers (oraciones). Europe and Mexico were the main exporters of the devotional prints. These were sold at church doors, botcinicas (combination herb shops and religious supply stores), public markets, and by itinerant peddlers. The leaflet prayers, on the other hand, commonly based on European models, were printed locally and marketed through the same channels. Accordingly, owing to their heavy dependence on such graphic models, santeros are essentially copyists. This is not to deny that they adopt or adapt stylistic features from other santeros â&#x20AC;&#x201D; often family members â&#x20AC;&#x201D; whose work they admire, as Fig. 18 with its four models so vividly illustrates, or that they imprint their own individuality on their works by the manner in which they interpret their source material and handle the tools of their craft.

n the eyes of the Christian believer, unquestioning in his faith, images of the Trinity, Christ and the saints, are receptacles of divine energy. They are the visible embodiment of an invisible supernatural presence. They evoke the divine or saintly being they represent; they are not substitutes for them. The saints are powerful witnesses, or signs, of the holy. Accordingly, santos need not be skillfully carved or highly decorated to serve that function. However, before they can become the object of devotion and veneration, they must be blessed by a Roman Catholic priest. The same applies to a rosary which is no more than a store-bought article until the required benediction and indulgences are conferred on the beads. No


Winter 1991-1992

Fig. 12 OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP; Florencio Caban Hernandez, c. 1876-1952; 10/ 1 4 x 3/ 1 4 x 2/ 1 2"

Fig. 13 MEXICAN CHROMOLITHOGRAPH; Our Lady of Perpetual Help

prayers are said before a cross, crucifix, or holy image, until it has been consecrated in the orthodox way. Unblessed images are mere effigies. Puerto Ricans have a very personal view of the saints. Belief in their direct action in human affairs is commonplace. The powers of heaven can be tapped for spiritual sanctification and for earthly benefits such as recovery from illness, protection from physical danger, satisfaction of human needs, and solutions to the problems of daily living. No fewer than 115 members of the 49

Fig. 14 MISLABELED FRENCH PRINT of Our Lady of Montserrat, with title in French, Spanish, and German; 18505;(Owing to uniqueness of print, it is reproduced despite its poor condition) Courtesy Institut째 de Cu!tura Puertorriquena

Fig. 15 MIRACLE OF HORMIGUER05; Manuel Caban Hernandez, 1 4 x 131/4" c.1884-1962; 25 x 13/



Fig. 16 OUR LADY OF THE KINGS; Pedro Jose Cuperes Vasquez (Pedro Rosa), 1850s-1957; 6/ 3 4 x 31/2 x 41/2"

Fig. 17 CATALAN PRINT of praises to Our Lady of Montserrat, illustrated with Tree of Jesse and miniature kings. Courtesy Smithsonian Institution

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GOZOS DE NTRA. SRA. DEL CORO IGLESIA DE SANTA MARiA (SAN SEBASTIAN) Con amoroso desvelo El Autos mas soberano Os senatd por so mano, Custodia del mismo cielo, Para que conozca el suelo Sois del coro angelical: Virden del Coro Sadrada Lthracino5 tie tech+ cal. 'ASSN)


Sant Ignasi de Loyola funda amb WA la Companyia, i aprengue en la vostra escola qui funda l'Escola Pia; de Nolasc guia animosa molts captius heu llibertat: sempre amorosa, Princesa de :.1fontserrai (1551Âť jACINT VERDAGUER, Prey. SAN SEBASTIAN (GUIPDZCOA) ABRIL 1959


celestial pantheon are honored in Puerto Rico. Images of these saints reflect major religious devotions that are also celebrated by Roman Catholics in Europe, with three exceptions: The Holy Child of Atocha whose cult arose in Mexico in the nineteenth century, and Our Lady of Hormigueros and Our Lady of the Kings whose representations are specific to Puerto Rico. The Trinity: The Trinity is widely depicted in Puerto Rico even though the Trinitarian dogma of One God in Three Persons is a very difficult article of faith that defies human comprehension. The pictorial rendering of the idea of plurality within the unique, undivided Godhead, has never ceased to be a challenge to artists who, by and large, have resorted mostly to anthropomorphic and zoomorphic representations. There are three variations of the Trinity that are all horizontally arranged: 1. The Three Persons standing together are identical but distinguished by symbols. 2. God the Father and God the Son

are in the shape of human beings, while the Holy Spirit is portrayed as a dove (Fig. 19). 3. None of The Three Persons is alike. Christ: Among the christological depictions, the most numerous by far are the Cross and Crucifix. There is nothing unusual about this, since they are the most prevalent reminders of Christ's redemptive mission in practically every Christian home. A cross or crucifix is ordinarily located on the wall at the head of the bed, since the practicing Catholic is enjoined to meditate on the good and evil deeds of the day and to pray for divine forgiveness for transgressions before going to sleep. The prototype of the Mano Poderosa or Brazo Poderoso (The All Powerful Hand/Arm of Christ) in Fig. 10 is the holy card illustrated in Fig. 11. Italy and Mexico are two sources for this devotional print that is highly popular in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. The figures standing on the finger tips are arranged in the following order: Christ Child — thumb, because the efficacy of a hand

without a thumb is impaired, according to folk belief; Mary — index finger, Joseph — middle finger; Ana, maternal grandmother of Christ — ring finger; and Joachim, maternal grandfather of Christ — little finger. The nail wound of the Crucifixion in the palm identifies it as The Hand of Christ, while mourning angels bear the Arma Christi, that is the Instruments of the Passion that actualize the sufferings of the Redeemer and symbolize His victory over death. Concern for a Happy (or Holy) Death, a post Reformation devotion related to the salvation of the soul, underlies the grouping of The Extended Holy Family described above. Both Ana and Joseph are powerful intercessors for a holy death owing to the legend that, at their demise, they were assisted by Christ and the Virgin Mary. It is my personal opinion that this highly complex symbolism is no longer intelligible to the average individual and that the Mano Poderosa has ceased to play any part in the Holy Death devotion. In my view, it has acquired magical powers and is popular with local spiritualists, but its use does not

Fig. 18 OUR LADY OF MONTSERRAT; from left to right Justine Torres de Ramos, c. 1868-1954; widow of Jose Ramos; 75/4 x 4/ 1 2 x 3/ 1 2". Domingo Rojas (deceased); 9Y2 x 43/4 x 31/4". Unidentified santero; 91h x 4/ 3 4 x 31/4". Jose (Pepe) Ramos,'-1904; 71/2 x 3Y2 x 31/2"



Fig. 19 TRINITY; Benigno Soto,(deceased); 10 x 11 x 3"

appear to be restricted to them. The Virgin Mary:4 Let us now turn to the Virgin Mary, beloved and much honored in Puerto Rico. As an intimate mediator with God, the Virgin is the focus for pleas for relief from the many anxieties that afflict humanity. Accordingly, Marian devotions abound. They range from those promoted by the major missionary orders such as the Immaculate Conception (Fig. 20), Our Lady of the Rosary, Our Lady of Mount Carmel (Fig. 21), and Our Lady of Ransom (La Merced), to Our Lady of the Purification (Fig. 8), patroness of the Canary Islands to which many local families trace their origins, including those of several santeros, Our Lady of Montserrat (Figs. 5, 18, 22), patroness of Catalonia from which large numbers of immigrants came, Our Lady of Perpetual Help also known locally as the Virgin of the Angels (Fig. 12), and, of course, Our Lady of Honnigueros(Fig. 15) and Our Lady of the Kings (Fig. Winter 1991-1992

16). With the exception of the last two depictions that are peculiar to Puerto Rico, all the others are representations of Marian devotions that were widely practiced in Europe, especially in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries up to World War IL As powerful an intercessor as Mary is, Puerto Ricans do not limit their invocations to the Mother of God alone. They also address their petitions to various male and female saints who are especially venerated because they are efficacious as protectors or who specialize in the alleviation of certain ailments or problems. This confidence rests on age-old traditions. The Three Kings: It may be stated that, after depictions of the Virgin and Child, The Three Kings or Tres Santos Reyes are the most widely distributed and beloved figures (Figs. 6, 7, 23). They hold a special place in the hearts of Puerto Ricans who are taught to venerate them from early childhood,

and indeed, because of them, Puerto Rico is known as "The Land of Two Christmases:' Through United States influence, December 25 is widely observed as the Feast of the Nativity but no less significant is January 6, the Epiphany or Feast of The Three Kings. This is the continuation of a centuries old tradition practiced when the island was under the control of Spain. This public holiday is marked by religious rituals, appropriate songs and music, special foods, exchange of visits, almsgiving at church doors, fireworks, gift giving, especially to the children and the fulfillment of obligations for favors granted by The Three Kings. These commitments involve the making of home altars on which The Wise Men are displayed, as well as forming parandas, informal groups that wind their way, with musical accompaniment, from home to home in the community on the eve of the Feast of The Three Kings. There is endless variation in the representation of Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthazar, guided by the Star of Bethlehem, who ride on horses, sumptuously attired as kings with crowns or magi with Phrygian caps, or make their way on foot to Bethlehem. There they become an integral part of the Nativity scene, sometimes kneeling as they offer their exotic gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh to the Infant King of Kings. There is no consistent characterization of the kings and their horses, except for the black king, astride a white horse, who bears the Star of Bethlehem aloft, so that it looks more like a flower on a tall stalk than a star. An old Christmas carol (aguinaldo) proclaims that Melchior is black because he has been burnt by the rays of the Star! Melchor era blanco Melchior was white pero ahora es moreno, but now he's black, porque lo ha quemado because he's been burnt la estrella de Venus by Venus the Star. On the eve of the Feast of the Kings, grass is gathered and set out with water 53

Fig. 20 THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION; Francisco Rivera, c. 1840-1910; 15/ 3 4 x WA x 33/4"



Fig. 21 OUR LADY OF MOUNT CARMEL; Genaro Rivera Aviles, 1861-1941; 10 x 41/4 x 23/4"

Fig. 22 OUR LADY OF MONTSERRAT; Tiburcio Espada, c. 1794-1852; 3 4 x 5" 81/2 x 6/

Fig. 23 THREE KINGS; Genaro Rivera Aviles, 1861-1941; 81/2 x 12 x 3"

W'inter 199/ - / 992


for the mounts of the Magi by children of all economic and social levels who firmly believe that Melchior, the black king, is the most generous of the three and that he can be counted on to bring the best toys. Angels and Archangels: Angels of several types occur in Puerto Rico. They are often found in the Nativity scene although their presence there is not indispensable. In addition, they are the guardians of individuals, especially children, and are adept at bolstering flagging courage in the face of danger. The Archangel Raphael (Fig. 24), who always holds the miraculous fish with which the sightless eyes of Ibbias the Elder were cured of blindness, helps youths along the dangerous and difficult path of life. As Physician of God (Medico de Dios), St. Raphael is implored for the restoration of health. The Archangel Michael fulfills two distinct roles. He is the captain of the heavenly armies, and conqueror of Lucifer and the powers of hell. In his warrior stance, Michael is portrayed with the raised sword of victory about to strike a semi-human demon or grasping a lance in the act of piercing Satan (Fig. 25). In his second role as Lord of Souls, the winged but unarmed Michael holds the scales of judgment. He is assigned by God to receive the immortal spirits released by death. It is his task to weigh the souls in a balance. Those whose good works warrant it, he presents before The Throne of God, but those who are found wanting, he gives up to be purified in purgatory or punished in hell. It is to preserve them from the powers of the Devil that Michael is invoked by and for the dying. Saint Joseph: A carpenter by trade, spouse of the Virgin Mary and foster father of Jesus, Saint Joseph's protective role is brought to the fore at The Birth of Christ, The Flight into Egypt, and The Finding of the Savior in the Temple. The attributes that characterize San Jose are a regular or flowering staff, a lily as a symbol of purity, and the Christ-Child whom he ordinarily carries on his left arm (Fig. 26). St. Joseph is invoked by and for the dying, since he is believed to have been assisted at his own agony by Jesus and Mary He is honored as the guardian of the sanctity of the home. Saint Anthony: Saint Anthony of 56

Fig. 24 ARCHANGEL RAPHAEL; Juan Cartagena Martinez, c. 1891-1956; 10 x 4Âź x 31/4"

Padua is widely carved in Puerto Rico. He was born at Lisbon in 1195. He first joined the Canons Regular of St. Augustine, but, disenchanted with its religious spirit, he switched Orders and entered the Franciscan friary at Coimbra (Portugal) in 1220 where he changed his name from the original Fernando to the familiar Antonio. After missionary work in Morocco, he traveled to Assisi where his talents as a preacher were soon so evident that he was assigned to work among the heretics of northern Italy and southern France. A close friend of St. Francis of Assisi, the founder of the Franciscan Order, St. Anthony died young, at the age of 36, and was canonized soon after, in 1232. Anthony is one of the most easily recognizable saints (Fig. 27). He wears the great tonsure, is clad in the habit of the Franciscan Order with cowl and cord, and is variously symbolized according to his many ac-

tivities: with book or cross for the teacher or preacher, or with a lily or the Christ-Child for the saint. The allusion here is that the saint was expounding so eloquently on the Mystery of the Incarnation that the Infant descended on the book St. Anthony was holding. Known as El Milagrero, Anthony the wonderworker is venerated as the apostle of charity and invoked in both spiritual and temporal needs. St. Anthony is a household saint in the true sense of the word, being both respected and bullied by his Puerto Rican devotees. He is considered as the finder of lost objects, helper with animal diseases, protector against fire, bearer of news of absent ones, and patron of lovers and marriage. His devotees fulfill their contractual obligations when their petitions are granted, but his image may be beaten, plunged in a bucket of water, stood on its head, or turned to face the wall, when St. Anthony fails to grant the THE CLARION

Fig. 25 ARCHANGEL MICHAEL; Benigno Soto,(deceased); 81/2 x 43/4 x 4"

Winter 1991-1992


supplication. The wrath of suitor-less women is read in the following verse: Tengo a San Antonio I've turned St. Anthony puesto de cabeza, Upside down Si no me busca novio If he doesn't find me a suitor, nadie le endereza No one will turn him right side up. The supreme punishment for failure to furnish a husband is to remove the Divine Infant from the arms of the saint. In retaliation, perhaps, the spouse found by St. Anthony sometimes turns out to be a wife beater. Saint John the Baptist: The son of high priest Zacharias and the Virgin's cousin, Elizabeth, St. John retired as a young man into the desert of Judea to live an ascetic life and preach penance. At the age of 30, Jesus asked for and received baptism at the hands of John in the River Jordan. John's mission was brought to an abrupt end when, at the instance of Salome, he was beheaded by Herod Antipas, tetrach of Galilee, whom John reproved for his incestuous marriage to his niece Herodias, Salome's mother. The ascetic St. John who lived on locusts and wild honey in the wilderness is depicted wearing a short garment of camel's hair and a leather girdle round his waist, with light incisions conveying the appearance of hair (Fig. 28). The gesture of St. John's right hand, with upward pointing finger, emphasizes his role as preacher and Precursor of the Coming Messiah. Saint John is the patron saint of San Juan, the capital city of Puerto Rico, whose coat-of-arms bears the lamb and banner, attributes of The Baptist. Exclusive of the purely religious aspects of the Feast of St. John held on June 24, many popular beliefs and practices are associated with the celebrations. On the stroke of midnight, ushering in the Dia de San Juan, some people plunge into the sea or river waters to wash away "bad luck" or "depression" and even to "rejuvenate." On the eve of the Feast of St. John, single women resort to omens to forecast the type of man they will 58

marry, while persons who wish to know the future put the white of an egg in a glass of water and, on the following day, read the patterns formed and interpret them variously. Saint Raymond Nonnatus: Removed by Caesarian section from the womb of his mother who died in childbirth, St. Raymond acquired the surname non natus (unborn) when he came into the world at Portello in Catalonia (Spain) around 1204. San Ramon Nonato (Fig. 29) joined the Mercedarian Order dedicated to the redemption of captives in the time of the Reconquest of Spain from the Moors. According to legend, he gave himself in ransom and was imprisoned for several years at Algiers. Patron of Catalonia, he is widely invoked in the Iberian world, no doubt because of his difficult birth, by women in labor, as protector of the newborn, and as patron of midwives. Owing to the heavy migration of Catalonians to Puerto Rico in the nineteenth century, it is not surprising to find that San Ramon Nonato is highly popular on the island.

Fig. 26 ST. JOSEPH; unidentified santero from Yauco; 111/4 x 51/4 x 43/4"

There are far fewer female saints honored in Puerto Rico than male saints. This reflects the fact that the Church has canonized a much greater number of men. Saint Barbara: According to legend, St. Barbara was the daughter of a jealous pagan of Nicomedia who was afraid of losing her through marriage. Despite her confinement in a tower, she converted to the Christian faith. Enraged, her tyrant father beheaded her with his own hands, whereupon, he was struck dead by lightning. The cult of St. Barbara, who is one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers in Need, is strong both in the East and the West. Her protection is sought against thunderstorms and fire; she is the patroness of miners, firemen, and artillerymen. In keeping with Barbara's role as protectress of the military, a chapel at Fort San Cristobal in Old San Juan was dedicated to her. In 1898,a cannonball fired by the American fleet passed through a wall nine feet thick, injured no one, and stopped just short of the altar. Barbara's most distinctive attribute is a three-windowed tower, symbolic of the Holy Trinity and of Christianity, which she espoused (Fig. 30). Supporting Barbara's cult are leaflet prayers and votive candles, decorated with her picture, which are widely sold in botanicas. Within the context of Cuban santeria (syncretic phenomenon of fusion of Christian saints with African Gods) which spread to Puerto Rico through the influence of refugees from the Castro regime, St. Barbara is identified with Shango, the God of Thunder of the Nigerian Yoruba, and is also regarded as one of the Siete Potencias Africanas (Seven Deities of Africa). Prints and statues of St. Barbara now form part of the paraphernalia of local spiritualists. Anima Sola: Since the sixteenth century, numerous confraternities in Europe and Latin America have been dedicated to the release of the souls in purgatory through prayer. The cult of the Anima Sola (Fig. 31) is an extension of the devotion to The Holy Souls. Wreathed in leaping flames, and depicted as a woman with flowing hair and suppliant hands, this is no ordinary soul. She is the most lonely, most pitiful, most neglected soul â&#x20AC;&#x201D; hence her name The Most Forsaken Soul in PurTHE CLARION

1 4 x 4/ 3 4" Fig. 27 ST. ANTHONY OF PADUA; unidentified early santero from Aguada; 18 x 6/

Winter 1991-1992


Fig. 28 ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST; Juan Cartagena Martinez, c. 1891-1956; 171/2 x 73/4 x 41/4"



Fig. 29 ST. RAYMOND NONNATUS; Francisco Rivera, c. 1840-1910; 9/ 1 4 x 3Y2 x 3"

Winter 1991-1992


Fig. 30 ST. BARBARA: Francisco Rivera; 1879; 111 / 2 x 53/4 x 3/ 3 4 "



Fig. 31 THE FORSAKEN SOUL IN PURGATORY (Anima Sola); Manuel Caban Hernandez, C. 1884-1962; 7/ 1 2 x 2/ 3 4 x 11 / 2 "

Winter /991-1992


Fig. 32 URSULA AND THE ELEVEN THOUSAND VIRGINS; Francisco Claudio (Pacheco), ? -1940s; 71/4 x 12 x 7W

gatory. Numerous carvings and lithographs attest to the popularity of the anima sola in Puerto Rico where she is considered the protector of single men and women. Her popularity is greatest among women who seek her active intervention to attract a male partner or prevent one from straying. She is out of favor with men, however, possibly because they fear her ability to keep them under a woman's charm or to curb their roving spirit. The Eleven Thousand Virgins: A group of eleven identically clad female figures depict St. Ursula, a celtic princess, and her ten (or eleven) thousand companions who were martyred at Cologne by the Huns in the fifth century (Fig. 32). It is to this extravagant legend and to Christopher Columbus that the U.S. Virgin Islands owe their name. Ursula is invoked against the plague; she also extends her protection to orphans. Her cult inspired the found64

ing of the Ursuline Order. Prints imported from Germany served as the santeros' inspiration. More familiarly known as Las Once Mil Virgenes in Puerto Rico, they are credited with saving San Juan from attack by the English fleet in April 1797, when General Sir Ralph Abercromby laid seige to the walled island city. Bishop Juan Bautista de Zengotita y Bengoa, who had a great devotion to St. Ursula and her Eleven Thousand Companions, called upon the harried inhabitants to hold a nocturnal rogativa (public prayers and procession) and to implore for deliverance. Every able-bodied individual turned out bearing a lighted taper or flaming torch and marched through the streets to the accompaniment of music and peeling bells. The English, seeing the flare of lights and believing that reinforcements had unexpectedly reached San Juan island from across the bay, abandoned their unpromising seige.

elievers address the heavenly pantheon mainly by sight, through holy imagery and votive offerings; by means of the intellect, through private and public prayer; and by sound, with songs and music. All these expressions, which involve the emotions in varying degrees, may be termed devotional practices which presuppose social relationships between believers and supernatural beings. Such activities provide devotees with the means of interacting with God and His saints. Devotional images and their attendant practices need no further discussion while votive offerings do because they testify to contractual arrangements between devotee and saint. A petition incurs an obligation (manda)to make a special offering (promesa) in thanksgiving or gratitude for fulfillment of a request addressed to heaven. The vehicles for thanks are the ex-



voto (milagro or manda) which is by far the most widespread form of material gift (Fig. 33). It represents, in miniature, human and animal figures and those parts of the body that have recovered from disease, pain, or injury A santo who is efficacious is termed milagroso (wonder-working) and is often loaded down with home-made and store-bought ex-votos. Thick layers of paint are not a matter of aesthetics; they attest to the "power" of a wonderworking image and to its veneration. It is common for an unskilled petitioner to apply a fresh coat of paint in appreciation for favors received or for the saint's feast day. A fresh change of clothing is an appropriate gift to a santo de vestir (mannequin). Halos, crowns, and trinkets, in precious and base materials, come from donors of varying means. Grillas, diminutive oilburning lamps made by local tinsmiths, are set to burn on home altars. Tresses, sometimes intertwined with ribbon, because they are considered a woman's prize adornment, also rank as ex-votos. Finally a rosario cantao (social evening with invocatory prayers, songs, music, and special foods) may bring the community together to voice its collective thanksgiving. Living up to a promise is an obligation upon which one's well being is dependent as is implied in the following verse:

Quien promesas manda Whoever makes promises, y promesas paga, And fulfills his obligations al santo que sea To whatever saint petitioned, no le debe nada. Owes nothing further for favors received.

laims that household santos were made on the island from the inception of colonization are speculative and more likely to be erroneous because there is no mention of them in the several extant historical accounts that describe rural life from Discovery in 1493 to 1810. The most obvious means of establishing age is to find that the carving is dated. Such an occurrence is not frequent and those few dates that are recorded range from 1879 (Fig. 30) to recent times when santeros are responding to publicity and the tourist market by signing and dating their carvings. Based on current research, it may be concluded that, while this form of religious folk art might have been incipient prior to 1800, widely available litho-


graphic religious prints from the nineteenth century onwards gave this activity considerable momentum with full flowering of the movement occurring in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first third of the twentieth.

ike everywhere else, the products of industrialization are widely accepted by Puerto Ricans. Religious imagery is no exception. A large selection of brightly colored plaster and plastic statues and colored prints of the saints is available in public markets and religious supply shops in urban centers. This factor, allied to the more critical faith of the modern generation â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a corollary of education and secularization â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and social dislocation, resulting from emigration mostly to the United States, accounts for the decline in santos-making since the 1950s. The production of the remaining santeros actively practicing the craft is more likely to be acquired by the tourist and the collector for aesthetic reasons, rather than by contemporary Puerto Ricans for home veneration.5


YVONNE LANGE,PH.D., Guest Curator of the exhibition, "Santos de Palo: The Household Saints of Puerto Rico," is a native of Trinidad. She received her graduate degrees from the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Lange is a prominent consultant and lecturer and Director Emerita of the Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico.


Fig. 33 EX-VOTOS; tin and silver, in the shape of humans, animals, and parts of the body that have recovered from disease or injury

Winter 1991-1992

1. Jan, N. "Christelijke Kunst in de Missie-Landen," De Maasbode, Rotterdani, The Netherlands, Oct. 2, 1935, p. 5. 2. For a full treatment of The Miracle of Hormigueros, its background legends, and the process by which it evolved, see Yvonne Lange, Santos: The Household Wooden Saints ofPuerto Rico(Unpublished dissertation for the Ph.D. degree, University of Pennsylvania, 1975), pages 277-292. 3. The Title of Our Lady of the Kings derives from the royal origin of the donor ofthe statue, King Louis IX of France, to his first cousin, King Fernando II of Castille, the recipient. 4."Our Lady" and "The Virgin" are interchangeable titles that apply to Mary. Choice is a matter of the author's preference. 5. A detailed treatment and bibliography of the 115 devotional representations found in Puerto Rico can be obtained from Xerox University Microfilms, Dissertation copies, Post Office Box 1764, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48106.


The Saint Makers of Puerto Rico Alan Moss Reveron and Liz O'Brien

EDITOR'S NOTE: Illustrations, Figs. 3 through 33, referred to in this essay can befound in the previous essay, "Santos de Palo: The Household Saints of Puerto Rico" by Yvonne Lange.

an German lies in the wellwatered valley at the base of the Cordillera Central in the southwestern part of Puerto Rico. In the early years of colonization, San German rivaled San Juan as a center of interaction with the Old World, as the administrative seat of the western half of the island. The church of Porta Coeli, whose construction was initiated in 1606 by the friars of the Dominican Order, is central to the town's identity and to Puerto Rico's Hispanic heritage.' The origins of santo making in Puerto Rico are often associated with this historic town as two of its native artists, Felipe de la Espada (c. 1754-1818) and his son, Tiburcio (c. 1794-1852), practiced the art of making santos de palo. These small statues, carved out of wood for household use, represent the earliest examples of saint making by known artists in Puerto Rico. Despite the significance of santo making in the artistic and cultural achievements of Puerto Rico, few efforts have been made to glean reliable biographical information on these prolific folk artists. A notable exception is Santeros Puertorriquelios in which Teodoro Vidal Santoni brings together the data he collected on the lives of twenty-four carvers.2 Vidal, however, does not describe the stylistic characteristics of those santeros whose lives he studied, nor does he provide examples of their work. An attempt has been made here to fill this gap by illustrating a small selection of santos and



attributing them to the appropriate santeros. This preliminary effort will enable the reader to identify the stylistic properties of a variety of santeros and will also serve as a point of departure for comparative analysis.

San German Felipe Espada is a transitional figure in the history of santo making. Born in San German around 1754, he resided and worked there until his death in 1818. Although little has been published on his background as an artist, we suspect, based on his contributions

Fig. 34 ST. ANTHONY ABBOT; unidentified early santero from Anasco; 93/4 x 5 x

to the side altars of Porta Coeli, and the refinement of the small devotional figures attributed to him, that he may have had some formal training. Felipe's command of the human form and his expertise as a carver have inspired many to refer to him as "El Santero Erudito," erroneously suggesting that the artist was erudite in his knowledge, rather than expert in his craft. His figures in the round (bultos) are well proportioned and assume lifelike stances and movement. The dress of his subjects falls in graceful folds along the human form. He chooses subtle, muted colors for painting and does little to adorn his subjects with decorative patterns. This santero's skill as a carver is evident in the relief panel of Our Lady of the Purification (La Candelaria, Fig. 8), where every detail of the Virgin's attire and her attributes is carved. Subsequent santeros opted for a more stylized effect, relying largely on painted detail to highlight essential features or to adorn their subjects. Felipe's son, Tiburcio Espada, followed his father as a commissioned artist to area churches. As a santero, Tiburcio produced well-proportioned, beautifully carved images. Our Lady of Montserrat (Fig. 22) is a good example of Tiburcio's style. If we compare this Virgin with the estampa (Fig. 14), we see that Tiburcio faithfully transferred the printed source of his imagery to the wood statue. Note especially the head mantle, the position of the Christ-Child seated in her lap and the draping of her dress over her legs. It is hard to describe what differences exist between the work of this father and son. While the skill in carving figures, the formal draping of the dress and the soft colors of the two are comparable, there is perhaps someTHE CLARION

thing in the expression of Tiburcio's santos that makes them less detached and more sympathetic to the viewer.

Aliasco and Aguada The oldest santos of the Anasco area are attributed to an unknown artist whom we call the "Early Santero of Anasco." Without the aid of biographical data, it can only be estimated that the work of this santero was produced during the second half of the nineteenth century The Saint Anthony Abbot (Fig. 34) demonstrates well the style of this santero and contrasts nicely with the more formal appearance of the Espadas' work. Attempts at draping and movement are less successful than those of the San German artists, although the resemblance to printed European models is evident. Work by another santero of this period is found in neighboring Aguada. We refer to this artist as the "Early Santero of Aguada." The rather large St. Anthony of Padua (Fig. 27) has a special presence due to the volume of the form and his soft, life-like facial expression. Two prominent carvers of Aguada are Jose Ramos and his wife, Justina Torres de Ramos. Jose Ramos was known as "Pepe el Santero" and has also been known, albeit mistakenly, as "Pedro Ramos." Jose's wife, Justina, is one of a small group of female saint makers, (santeras), who have received only marginal recognition. Other santeras include Rosa Cartagena, Petra Arce and Nicomedes Perez, a carver of the Toa Alta region. Justina Ramos, who outlived her husband by more than forty years, continued making santos for many years after Jose's death in 1904. The highly stylized work of Jose and Justina Ramos is among the most easily identified of the Puerto Rican santeros. These simply carved figures are often diminutive in size and uniform in shape with prominent, oversized attributes. Their forthright expression and vivid colors render them accessible, even joyful, to the devotee. Figure 18 illustrates the influence that Jose Ramos had on the work of his wife and other area santeros. The four figures represented are all of Our Lady

of Montserrat executed in the Ramos style. The figure on the far right is the original work of Jose Ramos. The reader can see that the whole figure, including the Christ-Child, is carved out of a single block of wood, with the Child seated on the Virgin's lap, His arms raised over His head. So close is the similarity between Justina's work (far left) and that of her husband, Jose, that it is sometimes difficult to identify the artist with accuracy. The Aguada santero Domingo Rojas, clearly emulates the Ramos style (second from left.) Here we have the same seated Virgin and Child, carved en bloc. In this case, however, the Virgin holds the orb between her hands. "Mingo" Rojas, as he was popularly known, often carved the heads of his bultos with protruding ears and noses so that he is sometimes referred to by collectors as "El Narizon." The last piece (third from left) is by an unknown saint maker attempting to imitate the Ramos Virgin. The shape and posture of the Virgin and Child are copied from the original, however, certain distortions of form â&#x20AC;&#x201D; note that the arms are overly slender and that the Virgin's feet are out

of line with her legs â&#x20AC;&#x201D; reveal this as the product of an unpracticed hand. The identity of the Aguada santero known among collectors as Benigno Soto is somewhat clouded. Vidal suggests that there might be a case of mistaken identity with Benigno Lopez Ramirez of Moca,3 and Yvonne Lange indicates that Benigno Soto is from Mayaguez.4 Neither of these attempts to clarify his identity can explain the fact that santos by this artist are almost exclusively found in the Aguada area, nor can they account for the extraordinary number of carvings produced by his distinctive hand. The long, slender face and curved chin of Archangel Michael (Fig. 25) are two of the telling features of Soto's style. The form of the archangel stands in rigid triumph over the demon. His arms are bent at the elbow with both hands extending forward. The individually carved fingers of the left hand are typical of this artist. The tunic is polished to a smooth finish and simply painted in natural tones. Many of these traits are evident in the Trinity (Fig. 19). Here, the Father and the Son face each other in the same symmetrical

Fig. 35 NATIVITY; Quiterio Caban, c. 1848-1939; 9 x 81/2 x 5"




Fig. 36 THE LAST SUPPER; Claudino Mercado Rosario, 1896-1981; 8/ 1 2 x 32% x 8/ 3 4"

pose. Their faces are long and narrow with pointed beards and noses. Soto seems to have taken special care in executing the Holy Spirit, represented by the dove perched atop a neatly carved, decorative column. Considered a "national treasure" by the Instituto de Cultura Puertorriquefia, Zoilo Cajigas y Sotomayor (c. 18751962) gained great notoriety when he became the subject of a 1952 documentary film entitled "El Santero de Aguada."5 Cajigas was one of the few santeros whose lives spanned the many changes of saint-making in this century, from its waning importance in the countryside to its ultimate appreciation among collectors. The work of "Don Zoilo" is easily identified by its exuberant, lively style (Fig. 4) This twentieth century santero carved his figures in general, unrefined forms and lavished them with brightly colored and metallic paints. Cajigas made frequent use of patterned zig-zag and scalloped designs typical of primitive artifacts and modern art. Painted symbols such as crosses and stars are also indications of his originality as an artist.

Camuy The Cat& family of Camuy represents three generations of santeros beginning with Eduvigis Caban (c. 1818c. 1891) and his son, Quiterio Caban (c. 1848-c. 1939), and continuing into 68

the twentieth century with Quiterio's sons Florencio (c. 1876-1952), Manuel (c.1884-1962) and Raman (18811958). This prolific family of santeros dominated the production of images in the Camuy area and networked their distribution around the island. Ricardo E. Alegria took an original approach to the work of Florencio Caban Hernandez when he commissioned the santero to represent the events in the life of Christ. These efforts have been documented by Dr. Alegria in his film, La Vida de Cristo segtin el santero D. Florencio Caban,6 and publication, La Vida de Jesucristo segan el Santero Puertorriquetio Florencio Caban,7 and have also been the topic of a doctoral dissertation by Jose Ramos.5 The images of the Caban family are all relatively well-proportioned, symmetrical figures, generally with their hands extending forward. Although simple and stylized, many examples exhibit such distinctive details as the carved crown and trimmed cape of Our Lady of Perpetual Help (Fig. 12) or the scrolled frame of the relief by Florencio Caban (Fig. 10). On the whole, however, artists of the Caban family favored smooth, polished surfaces. Draping, where it occurs, is stylized in straight vertical lines or in one broad, asymmetrical fold. See Quiterio Caban's Nativity (Fig. 35). The faces of the Caban santos are relatively flat with little carved detail and small painted mouths. The Miracle of Hormigueros

Fig. 37 OUR LADY OF SORROWS -El Cacheton"; 16/ 1 2 x 61/4 x 61/4"


Puerto Rican santeros fashioned templates out of plywood or board, sometimes making use of commercial cartons. The use of these patterns is evident in the corresponding forms of the santero and the frequent occurrence of repetition within the body of each artist's work. Claudino Mercado's skill as a santero is well represented in his Last Supper (Fig. 36). The varied postures, costumes and expressions of Christ and his apostles demonstrate the versatility and concentration of the artist in representing this familiar scene. A number of the figures are carved en bloc while others have been assembled to achieve their appropriate stances. Here we see a pleasing balance of detailed carving and stylized form.


Fig. 38 CRUCIFIX; Juan Arce Sotomayor, c. 1854-1932; 24 x 53/4 x 53/4"

by Manuel Caban Hernandez (Fig. 15) is an exception to the Caban style as it is a commissioned piece (santo de encargo). This very ambitious work, standing 25" in height, is unusually large for household worship. The main figure of the Virgin is carved en bloc with the Child, crown and attributes made separately. The throne and layered base are fashioned out of commercial wood crates. The Virgin's tunic and mantle are carved with vertical folds and detailed trim. She and the Child are elaborately decorated with gold paint. The face of the Virgin is typically flat with a small mouth. Her expression is stern. The reader will notice that the simple, natural style of the farmer (jibaro) in the foreground is more representative of the Cat& style. Camuy was also the home of another accomplished santero of the twentieth century. Claudino Mercado Rosario (1896-1981) worked as a carpenter and furniture maker until 1928 when he took up santo-carving.9 Figure 3 shows examples of templates used by this artist in executing his forms. Various Winter 1991-1992

The county of Lares lies further inland, in the mountainous western portion of the Cordillera Central. Three artists are responsible for the majority of santos produced in this region. The first is an unidentified santero who earned recognition among collectors as "El Cachetfin" for carving figures with unusually large, rounded cheeks. The others are Ignacio Arce Soto (c. 18581928) and Pedro Jose Cuperes Vasquez (c. 1857-1957). Attempts to uncover the identity of El Cachet& have been unsuccessful, although it is suspected, on the basis of geography and stylistics, that he is somehow related to the Arce family In fact, a number of his works were included in a 1971 exhibition of the "Arce Group."'째 The highly-prized carvings of Cachet& are noted for their elongated, bottle-like forms. The carving of Our Lady of Sorrows (Fig. 37) bears the rounded chest and shoulders of El CachetOn. The work of Ignacio Arce Sotomayor is so visibly influenced by Cachet& that their pieces are sometimes confused. Our Lady of Montserrat in its original nicho (Fig. 5) possesses the elongated neck and full rounded chest of these two Lares artists. However, this piece is executed in a little more stylized fashion and is more neatly proportioned. It is of interest to note that the niche contains seven holy cards is-

sued by funeral homes in Mayaguez. They commemorate the death of individuals that occurred in the area surrounding Mayaguez, Afiasco, and Rincon. The placement of these mementos in the household shrine is a manner of entrusting to the Virgin the spiritual welfare of the souls of the departed in the after life. Another santero from the Lares area is Pedro Jose Cuperes Vasquez, commonly known as "Pedro Rosa" in reference to his wife's name. Born in the 1850s, Cuperes took up his vocation as a santero at an early age and continued his craft until he died in 1957. The body of work produced during the span of his long career is representative of the reduced, stylized fashion of modern santeros. Our Lady of the Kings (Fig. 16) illustrates the simple, restrained carving technique of this very prolific santero. His figures stand in rigid, symmetrical attention, arms extending forward. The surfaces are generally smooth and painted with a minimum of decorative detail. The variety of rich and lively colors used by this artist give the finished work a warm and pleasing appearance.

Arecibo Arecibo is a relatively large county located on the north coast, about 60 miles from San Juan. It was here that the Arce brothers, Juan and Pedro, settled after leaving their native Lares, around 1918. Juan, the elder of the two, was born around 1854 and died in 1932. Pedro (c. 1857-1951), known as "Pedrito el Santero," outlived his brother by some twenty years, thus producing a much larger body of work. The figures of Juan and Pedro share many similarities. Their attire is generally worked in soft folds. The hands, carved separately and attached to the body with unusually long dowels, are set into deep, hollowed-out sleeves. Juan's facility with the medium is evident in the Crucifix (Fig. 38) where he achieves a realistic expression of anatomy and weight. The elongation of the arms of Christ is especially effective in this case. The remarkable length of Pedro Arce's career allowed for considerable development of his craft. Works by this 69

artist are often categorized by period. Our Lady of Sorrows (Fig. 39) is a good example from the middle of Pedro Arce's career. This rather tall piece is carved entirely en bloc. The figure of the Virgin is squat and round with a somewhat oversized head, tilted to one side. The height of the overall piece is achieved by the decorated ground on which the Virgin stands. Pedro carved with considerable skill and care, concentrating on details of apparel and expression. He adorned his figures, sometimes in gold or silver, with painted flowers, stars and borders.

Fig. 39 OUR LADY OF SORROWS; Pedro Arce Sotomayor, C. 1857-1951; 161/2 x 6/ 1 4 x 61/4


Morovis, Orocovis, Corozal and Barranquitas High in the mountainous region of central Puerto Rico an extended family of santeros crafted images for the communities of four counties: Morovis, Orocovis, Corozal and Barranquitas. The Rivera family, as these santeros are referred to collectively, encompasses two full generations of four prominent image makers: Francisco Rivera; his son, Genaro Rivera Aviles; Francisco's first cousin, Tomas Rivera Diaz; and, finally, Juan Cartagena Martinez, cousin of Genaro Rivera. According to family tradition Francisco Rivera was born in the Canary Islands around 1840 and died at barrio Caracol of Orocovis around 1910. Whether he received any formal training as an artist is undocumented. He is certainly one of Puerto Rico's most skilled santeros. The Immaculate Conception (Fig. 20) attests to his success in representing form and movement. The draping of the Virgin's garments, the sweeping folds of her mantle and her gentle expression are all the results of a refined command of the medium. A rare signed and dated piece is the St. Barbara (Fig. 30). The year 1879 and the initials FR are inscribed on the back of the tower. The base, which bears the name of the saint, is also signed Orocovis — Francisco Rivera. Although slightly less rapturous than the Immaculate Conception, this saint and her attributes are beautifully crafted. The emergence of the "Rivera" style is notable in the thick gauge of her forearms and the detailed trim of her smock. St. Raymond Nonnatus (Fig. 29) is another image carved by Francisco Rivera. Genaro Rivera Aviles (1861-1941) also displays considerable skill as a carver, although his santos are less formal, less aloof, in appearance. The pieces shown (Figs. 21 and 23) are good examples of this artist's consistent, easily recognized style. Genaro santos tend to be small, well-proportioned figures. The head is slightly oversized with the round, sweetly smiling face that is the focus of his santos' charm. Usually, Genaro has the Virgin hold

the Child in the left arm while her right arm is outstretched. Our Lady of Mt. Carmel (Fig. 21) is carved en bloc with the exception of her right hand and the lower portion of the pedestal. The scapula (front panel) over the Virgin's tunic is painted in imitation of punched lace, a feature common in European prints produced from the latter part of the nineteenth century." "El Cabo Tomas" is the popular appellation of Francisco Rivera's first cousin, Tomas Rivera Diaz (c. 18311911). The Christ Child (Fig. 40) is less indicative of formal training than the examples by Francisco. Notice the narrow arms, the rigid stance and the attempt to drape the tunic over the left knee. The face is contoured to emphasize his rounded cheeks, large eyes and reassuring smile. Juan Cartagena Martinez (c. 18911956) learned the art of carving santos from his cousin, Genaro Rivera. The tunic of St. John the Baptist(Fig. 28)is painted in the rich salmon color that Cartagena favored in the early years of his career. The same color is used on trim and the lower portion of the garment of Archangel Raphael (Fig. 24). The influence of Genaro Rivera — the posture of the saint, the "chunky" arms and the endearing facial expression — is beautifully revealed here.

Maunabo Maunabo, which lies between Patillas and Yabucoa in the southeast, is exceptional to this part of the island as a source of santos. The most prominent of this region's artists — Hipolito Marte Martinez (1866-1926) — has also been called "El Maestro Polo" and "Juan el Maestro."2 Figures 6 and 7 show two depictions of the Three Kings on horseback. The first is a carved relief panel of the kings en route to Bethlehem. The horses, executed in corresponding form, are differentiated by color. Peculiar to this case, the kings are dressed in soldier uniforms with European-style jackets and epaulets. The painted background and details in this carving indicate Hipelito Marte's tendency toward painting. The painted linen panel in Figure 7 shows the freedom that painting afforded the THE CLARION

robes. They are attached in strict formation to a single board.

Identification of Puerto Rican Santos

Fig. 40 CHRIST-CHILD; Tomas Rivera Diaz(Cabo Tomas), c. 1831-1911; 10/ 3 4 x 4 x 33/4

artist. Here, the three figures are placed at various levels in the landscape for a more realistic picture.

Tao Alta, Toa Baja and Dorado The area of these three counties extends from the foothills of the island's central mountain range to the northern coast, not far from San Juan. The majority of santos found in this region belong to the twentieth century when artists such as Francisco Claudio, Nicomedes Perez, and Norberto Cedefio were active. Francisco Claudio, whose aliases include "Don Pacheco," "Pacheco," and "Claudio Pacheco" produced santos during the first half of the twentieth century and died in the late 1940s. Many of Claudio's santos are flat and almost two-dimensional. It is probable that this santero made use of milled lumber in his work, further restricting the size and variety of forms. The Eleven Thousand Virgins (Fig. 32) are severely angular in form with painted facial features and partially painted Winter 1991-1992

The art of the Puerto Rican santero represents a rich and varied legacy of imagery and artistic expression. In spite of the fact that the santero adhered to the traditional features of his subject, instances of individual interpretation are so varied that it is difficult to define what common features unite the Puerto Rican santos. It is fair to say that, with few exceptions, the santos of Puerto Rico are small in size (about 8" high on average) and that they bear the simplicity — although in varying degrees — of having been crafted by artists who had no formal training. Any stylistic analysis of Puerto Rican santos is made problematic by the fact that many of the carvings have been repainted. Repairs and repainting were often performed by itinerant santeros who carried the tools of their trade in a caja de repintar, a box used especially for that purpose. In more recent times, additional layers of paint were sometimes applied by the devotee himself. It is almost impossible to identify or categorize these works when many of the saints' attributes and features of the original santero's style have been concealed. Although the repainting of santos has caused considerable frustration among scholars and collectors, it has also performed a vital function — that of preserving the work of the santero by protecting the original paint from wear and fading. In such cases, careful removal of these added layers with the appropriate materials reveals "lost" attributes and stylistic virtues of the original work. A poem by Florencio Caban Hernandez'3 is the clearest expression we have of the attitude of the santero towards his craft which, to him, is a calling — a vocation — not a trade. He realizes that he must earn a living to support his family by providing the community's members with images of their choice. Yet, he recognizes that people might perceive a conflict in selling the images of holy figures. He defends his craft and his faith in the verses, following Notes.

Acknowledgments: Alan Moss Reveron would like to thank the following people for their support in making this project possible: Maria Teresa Arraras de Colon, Dona Sella Cabin, Dofia Saro Monserrate, Peh Yoek Kee, Norman Brosterman, Dr. Robert Bishop and the staff ofthe Museum of American Folk Art, Eva Ferraro, Esperanza Nieves de ReveMon, Dona Virginia Cajigas, Jaime Abraham Ocasio, Emilio Olavarria, Mr. & Mrs. Juan Bennazar, Angel Botello Family, Miguel Seiieriz de la Luz, Luis Perez, Ricardo Roman, Rafael Hernandez, David Phelps, Peter Hooten,James Merrill,Teodoro Vidal Santoni,Dr. Yvonne Lange, and Liz O'Brien. ALAN MOSS REVERON has been collecting Puerto Rican santos for more than 25 years. He has given many lectures on his collection at museums and universities, both in the U.S. and Puerto Rico, and is considered an expert in this area.

Liz O'BRIEN graduated from Mount Holyoke College in 1983. She is a writer, who lives and works in New York City. NOTES: I. Yvonne Lange, Santos: The Household Wooden Saints ofPuerto Rico. Unpublished dissertation for Ph.D.. University of Pennsylvania, 1975, pp. 727. 2. Teodoro Vidal,Santeros Puertorriquenos,San Juan de Puerto Rico: Ediciones Alba, 1979. The authors acknowledge their reliance on this publication for much ofthe biographical data on the santeros in this study. 3. Teodoro Vidal. Santeros Puertorriquerios, p. 47, note 52. 4. Yvonne Lange, p. 839. 5. Ricardo E. Alegria, (film) El Santero de Aguada. Color, 26 min. Amilcar Tirado, Director; Rene Marques, Script writer. (Based on the life of Santero Zoilo Cajigas y Sotomayor from Barrio Guaniquilla, Aguada, P.R.) 1952. 6. Ricardo E. Alegria,(film)La Vida de Cristosegan el santeroD.Florencio Cabdn,Color,33 mm,45 min. Amilcar Tirado, Director. (Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Puerto Rico y ,e1 Caribe, San Juan, P.R.) 1979. 7. Ricardo E. Alegria, La Vida de Jesucristo segan el Santero Puertorriqueno Florencio Cabdn,San Juan de Puerto Rico: Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Puerto Rico y el Caribe, 1983. 8. Jose Ramos, The Falling of the Saints: The Life of Christ by the Santero Cabdn as a Symbol ofPuertorrican Transculturation. Unpublished dissertation for Ph.D., Theological Seminary, University of California at Berkeley, 1979. 9. Biographical information furnished by Juan Francisco Rosario, the artist's son, to Alan Moss Reveron, during interview in June 1991. 10. Irene Curbelo de Dfaz, Notes to Tercera Exposicidn del Museo de Santos. "El Grupo Arce."6 de agosto — 4 de noviembre de 1971. 11. Yvonne Lange supplied the information that is based on her personal collection of prints. 12. Conversation with Jaime Abraham Ocasio, August, 1991. 13. Pablo Garrido, "La gloria Ananima de un Santero Puertorriquelio: Florencio Caban,Hernandez y algo sobre el alma del pueblo," Puerto Rico Ilustrado, September 23, 1950, p. 60.


A poem by Florencio Caban Hernandez, Santero Translatedfrom the Spanish by Reynalda Ortiz de Dinkel


Yo soy un santero humarw que me bautiz6 un ministro; es cierto que vendo a Cristo, pero, lo vendo de palo.

I am a man, a maker of holy images, Who was baptized by a man of the cloth. It is true that I sell Christ, But the Christ that I sell is made of wood.

Hizo Dios el Paraiso, y a todos nos redimi6 y a cada urzo le def.() la mantencion por su oficio. A unos para dar perjuicio, a otros para buen cristiano; a otros, baraja en la mano para poderse mantener; y yo puedo agradecer que soy un santero humano.

God made Paradise; He redeemed us all. And to each He gave The capacity to earn his livelihood. Some work in ways that harm others; Some choose to be good Christians; Others, playing-cards in hand, By this mode seek their subsistence. And I . . . I am grateful That I am a man, a maker of saints.

A todos nos hizo Dios. Hizo al grande, hizo al chico. A cada uno le di6 su oficio, y esefue el que a ml me di6; de ese me mantengo yo y a nadie le cloy perjuicio; mcis de lo justo no quito, y a nadie le pido un pan; pues yo soy Info de Ackin, que me bautiz6 un ministro.

God made us all. He made the great and He made the small. To each, He gave his occupation; To me, He gave the santero's vocation. From that work, I support myself â&#x20AC;˘ And I harm no man. More than is fair, I do not take, And I beg my daily bread from no man. Because I am the son of Adam And was baptized by a man of the cloth.

Hay carpinteros y sastres, zapateros y albarliles; otros que hacen barriles, toneleros, calafates. Como esta probado y visto, pues, cada cual con su oficio, se debe de remediar, y de ml no ponerse a hablar, porque vendo a Jesucristo.

There are carpenters and tailors, Shoemakers and masons. Others are barrelmakers, coopers, Hoopers and calkers. As it is proven and as it is seen, Each with his chosen work His livelihood must earn. As to my vocation, let no man speak ill of me Because I sell figures of Christ.

Cuando Dios quisoformar a todas las criaturas, le concedio en su ternura el oficio a cada can!. Nos debenws de conformar, pues Cristo naci6 humanada y sin mancha de pecado; y le hago saber primero que vendo a Cristo en madero, pero lo vendo de palo.

When God wanted to make All his creatures, In His love He bequeathed A function to every individual Who must now be content to fill it. Because Christ was born a man, Without the stain of sin, I leave no doubt in anyone's mind That, while I sell Christ on the Cross, The Christ that I sell is made of wood. THE CLARION

Shun' mertn . g and Brilliant American Victorian Tinsel Paintings Marilyn G. Karmason

fter almost one hundred years of obscurity, literally hundreds of American Victorian tinsel pictures and paintings have found their way into the consciousness of the folk-art public, making us aware of, and enchanted by, a fragile and delightful slice of American Victoriana. In 1975, Mr. and Mrs. Day Krolik contributed 70 examples of nineteenthcentury American tinsel paintings to the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan and the Museum of American Folk Art in New York City. Edward Leight exhibited selections from his collection of American tinsel paintings in December, 1975 to January, 1976 at Guild Hall, East Hampton, New York. In the 1980s, the Museum of American Folk Art received more than 30 tinsel paintings from Mrs. Barbara Johnson, another enthusiastic collector. In 1983, Leight dispersed his entire collection of over two hundred and fifty examples at an auction at Sotheby's. And in the spring of 1991, shimmering and brilliant examples of floral tinsel paintings arrived in New York, as part of the important collection of American folk art assembled by the late Esther Stevens Brazen The collection, formerly held by the Historical Society of Early American Decoration was given to the Museum of American Folk Art. Tinsel painting, or reverse painting on glass with foil, is an example of American folk art that was popular from the mid-1830s to the 1890s. Tinsels followed in the tradition of many forms of folk and popular art, in that


MR. COLLINS AS PAUL CLIFFORD; English; "penny plain, twopence colored" tinsel picture; 81/16 x 6/ 1 2 "



BIRDS IN A NEST; American; tinsel / 2 " painting based on stencil; 151/2 x 111

GEORGE WASHINGTON ON HORSEBACK; American; tinsel painting; 10/ 1 4 x 73/4"

they were inspired by earlier, more technically demanding examples of the same genre. The nineteenth-century naive images of tinseled flowers, birds, and butterflies, created anonymously for the most part by women and school girls, appeared six centuries after the more elaborate thirteenth-century Italian tinsel paintings. These medieval Italian artisans, influenced by the gold engraved glass of the fourth and fifth centuries, created reverse painting on glass, enhanced by gilt. Religious images were drawn by the artist etching designs through gold leaf attached to the back of the glass, in the technique known as sgraffito (scratch.) From the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries, colored pigments became prevalent over the use of gold leaf. Reverse paintings on glass 74

from this period are now known as verre eglomise. The term, an unfortunate anacronism, was derived from the name of a Parisian framemaker and designer, Jean-Baptise Glomy (d. 1786). Glomy applied designs of gilt and color to the reverse side of glass that was used to protect prints and watercolors. Mildred Lee Ward, a scholar and connoisseur of reverse paintings on glass, reports that in 1852, the term eglomises was retroactively and incorrectly, applied to the fourteenth- and fifteenth-century Italian gilt and colored reverse glass paintings on exhibition at the Cluny Museum in Paris, and the name continues to the present day.' By the seventeenth century, the dominant center for the production of reverse paintings on glass was in Augsburg, Germany. Here the efficient nomenclature was the succinct Hinterglasmalerei. By the middle of the eighteenth century, central and eastern European countries produced reverse paintings on glass, many of which portrayed religious themes. By the nineteenth century, French and English examples of reverse painting on glass were produced with more secular designs, some of which were based on German and Chinese patterns. The designs were painted in translucent colors and backed with gold leaf or silver foil. French subjects were ships, landscapes, historical landmarks, and familiar scenes of country life. In England, the most popular subjects were flower paintings and portraits of historic and royal figures. Although most reverse paintings were executed by amateur artists, Thomas Gainsborough (1728-1788), for example, did paintings on glass. His pieces, now at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, were to be viewed in front ofcandlelight, with the glass facing the viewer. English tinsel pictures, depicting theatrical figures and stages, were a subset of the predecessors of tinsel painting. Appropriately named "penny plain, twopence coloured," "dressed engravings" or gravures decoupees, these caricatures of leading theatrical or royal figures first appeared in France in the eighteenth century and in England through the first half of the nineteenth century. A print of a celebrity was purchased for a penny, or more, then colored by hand (if in black and

white) and decorated according to the aesthetic whim of the amateur artist. Decorations included copper or silver foil, used for "jewels," a hero's armor or a horse's trappings. Silk, satin, or brocade fabrics were attached to the elaborate costumes of the characters. Mounted on paper or cardboard surfaces and framed, the tinsel pictures were prized for their originality and for being, in many cases, the only surviving likenesses of nineteenth century actors. Historically, these creations were referred to as tinsel pictures because the images were indeed based on prints or pictures; the reverse glass paintings with foil are more correctly termed tinsel paintings. In France, two precursors of tinsel painting were valued for their colorful, luminous decoration. One was Potichomanie, a craft whose name was derived from potiche, or porcelaine vase. This involved pasting paper cut-outs of pleasing design to the interior of a glass vessel, and then coating the surrounding area with an opaque paint. The second, Diaphanie, applied foil in combination with colored or painted glass to resemble stained glass, and used as architectural details in homes, churches, and public buildings. American reverse glass paintings flourished between 1800 and 1900. They were produced by amateurs and artisans, rather than professional artists. Nina Fletcher Little writes that the earliest examples of American reverse glass painting production are from 1787. In that year a Philadephia art instructor opened a drawing school and included in its curriculum the teaching of painting on glass "with or without mezzotint prints."2 Mildred Ward interprets that to refer to reverse painting on glass by its basic technique, rather than by transfer painting with colored mezzotints.3 Early American reverse glass painting incorporated the popular motifs of the Revolutionary period. Although many pieces were the work of itinerant painters and amateurs, such artists as William Matthew Prior (1806-1873) executed handsome portraits of George and Martha Washington and Mr. Lincoln. Other patriotic symbols included the American eagle, the White House, portaits of American soldiers, and Liberty â&#x20AC;&#x201D; not as she is envisioned today, THE CLARION

but as Hebe, the goddess of youth. Formal instruction in American tinsel paintings was offered at young womens' seminaries and boarding schools. One of the first of many schools to offer the quintessential education appropriate to young ladies of middle- and upper-class homes was established in 1834 by a Mrs. Smith of West Chester, Pennsylvania.4 The curriculum included various academic subjects and many forms of needlework, drawing, and painting. It was considered appropriate for a young woman of breeding to be well-versed in the arts so that her time was gracefully occupied. Tinsel paintings originated together with other Victorian folk art "paintings without paint," such as designs constructed of fabrics, feathers, hair, sand, leaves, pressed flowers, or shells. Other forms included pyrographic designs on wood, and papers displaying pinprick, cutwork or scherenschnitt patterns. Tinsel paintings appeared at their most decorative in the dimly lit Victorian sitting rooms, sending off sparkles of color as they were illuminated by parlor firelight. Other light-reflecting materials, such as mother-of-pearl, were also used in their decoration, and tinsels were therefore alternatively called Oriental, Crystal or Pearl paintings. Two examples of reverse paintings incorporating mother-of-pearl were the New York Crystal Palace of 1853 (in the Museum of the City of New York), and The Capitol, the first signed by, and the second attributed to WS. Parkes. Some tinsel paintings were constructed to have a shadow-box effect and some rare examples combined tinsel painting with needlepoint. By the 1860s, the art of tinsel paintings became a popular pastime, and mothers and daughters(and occasionally the male members of the family) worked together to create them. Also, as a form of therapy, hospitalized Civil War soldiers worked on tinsels to improve their dexterity and to attempt to banish the horrors of war. The need for do-it-yourself instructions for the general population was met by articles in ladies' magazines, such as Godey's, and in publications on handicraft instruction. In 1859, Art Recreations, a complete guide to thirtynine forms of ornamental craftwork (including the well-known Theorem Winter 1991-1992

Painting and the obscure Diaphanie) was written by Mme. Levina Buoncuore Urbino, Professor Henry Day and others (sic). Although Mme. Urbino was a celebrated writer and teacher, it is Professor Day's name that is best remembered. A peripatetic instructor, Day taught in Europe and the best seminaries in New England. His book of instructions was published by J.E. Tilton & Co., Boston. Tilton's, a business engaged in the sale of ornamental prints and artists' materials, also provided stencils of designi suitable for Oriental painting. The book advertises "a handsome wreath, with fountain, birds, etc.; the other, an elegant vase of flowers, with birds' nests, birds, butterflies, etc.; price, one dollar the pair, post-paid, on a roller, to any address."5 and "a fine copy for chess-tables has just been added to the list, the design of which is very beautiful; price, eighty cents."6 Stencil kits were soon sold by artists' supply firms in New York and other large eastern cities to those who wished to paint at home. As many stencils of the same design were sold to the aspiring artists, a diligent collector today can find several tinsel paintings of the

same design, differing only in the colors used and the skill of the artist. One of the most charming stencils presents a wreath of flowers surrounding a nest sheltering baby birds, guarded by their parents. The majority of tinsel paintings, however, were of original design varying, as one might suspect, from elemental to elegant. The language of Professor Day's text was as flowery as his designs: "Oriental painting on glass, is so called from its capability of producing effects of coloring equal to the colors of Oriental flowers, and the plumage of Oriental birds. This beautiful, showy, and gorgeous style of painting never fails to attract admirers wherever it has been introduced. No style of painting has yet been invented that shows transparent colors to such advantage as this, when properly and carefully done. If the purest transparent colors are to be used, and mixed with the lightest varnish, and the lights and shades of the flowers carefully attended to,

FLOWERS IN TRELLIS-STYLED URN; American; tinsel painting; diameter: 20"


/ 2 x 8/ 1 2 " FLOWERS IN STIPPLED URN; American; early tinsel painting; 111

and any light body (even paper) put at the back of the glass, the painting will show with good effect; but when the brilliancy of the color is reflected back by means of the brightly planished silver foil, every shade of tone is made to yield its otherwise concealed beauty, making this style of painting well adapted to reflect the many splendid colors nature has in store for the admirer of flowers and showy plumage of birds."' For his audience of amateur artists, Professor Day meticulously described the process of tinsel painting production: Equipment included a paint stand consisting of "ten thimbles, large size and long; ten buttons to fit on the top; a piece of wood ten inches long, two wide, one thick; bore ten holes in it in which to fit the thimbles"; a ground glass slab on which to mix the colors; a 76

rather stiff palette knife; a bottle of copal varnish (made from the resinous exudation from tropical trees) and one of turpentine; a set of mixing colors, "all of which may be had from the publishers of this work," and brushes of various sizes.8 "To commence a picture, procure a glass the size you wish, then get a clear outline drawing on white paper (or stencil), and fit it to your glass; next prepare a little lampblack (lampblack is not down in the list of colors, because it is readily procured) by mixing it on your glass slab with copal varnish, using sufficient varnish to make a semi-transparent or neutral color, thinning it a little with turpentine if necessary, and put it into one of the thimbles."9 Most of the tinsels are on this lamp-

black background. Others were painted with white grounds; there are some rare examples where the background is pale blue. A white background was achieved with fine white picture varnish; pale tints were created by the addition of dry or oil pigments. The most unusual examples were those, conversely, with tinsel backgrounds and painted designs. Colored paints were carefully created by mixing colored powders with enough varnish to absorb the color and dissolve the particles. Turpentine was added to dilute the paint further to allow it to flow freely. With a crow quill brush that had hairs about five eighths of an inch long, the design was traced in neutral lamp black color from the pattern onto the glass. "Next, all the little stems, and fine tracery of weeds, etc., that is sometimes introduced to take off the crowded appearance of a group of flowers" were penciled in with opaque green or bronze "for variety"10 When this outline was dry, and the glass was cleaned of finger marks, the lampblack ground cover was applied with care, avoiding the enclosed design spaces. The artist next held the glass up to the light to discover any spaces that needed to be retouched, to create the opaque background. The artist then used transparent oil paints, sometimes diluted with clear varnish, to achieve desired tints. Not one to leave anything to chance or to the independence of his students, Professor Day provided exact paint mixing recipes for specific flowers, stamens and leaves." Influenced by the London exhibition of 1862, with its great interest in Oriental art and design, the shimmering Oriental effect of mother-of-pearl was much admired and imitated. The flowers in tinsel paintings were highlighted in this manner: ". .. if you wish to introduce any pearl, select the white flowers, because there is a portion of the glass left clear, and the pearl shows to advantage. The [mother-of-] pearl must be cut pretty near the shape of the flower, and two or three dots of clear varnish put on; then it is to be fitted to the flower,(weighted down)and left for a few hours to dry"2 When all was painted, cleaned, and dry, the foil was added. The silver, gold THE CLARION

or copper-colored foil, salvaged from a box of imported tea or cigars, was either left smooth or crumpled. It was attached behind the transparent design, fastened and held in place with putty or lampblack and sometimes (serendipitously) by newspapers or cloth. A dated newspaper was almost certain to give the year and possibly the town in which the tinsel painting was made. Behind these materials, a backboard made of wood was clamped to the glass, and the secured painting was placed in a frame. An article by Edith Huntington in Peterson's Magazine, November, 1860, entitled "Oriental, or Crystal Painting," was illustrated by a sketch of an elegant Victorian bouquet, replete with roses, lilies, fuchsias, and butterflies with "paint-by-number" instructions on each leaf and flower." Many tinsel paintings were framed by simple gilt frames, wooden frames with inner gilt surfaces, or flat pine frames. More elegant frames were

those of walnut, curly or tiger maple, or chestnut. Carvings of leaves, vines, and flowers embellished the larger frames. A special effect of a shadow box was created if the depth of the frame allowed a space of some inches from the foil to the transparent design. Because some owners might have wanted to upgrade a painting with a more costly frame, it may not be possible to date a tinsel painting by its frame. Occasionally, the age of the glass of a tinsel painting may be estimated by the presence of "bubbles" in the older glass. One may consider 1860 as the midpoint of the life-cycle of the Victorian tinsel painting. Characteristics of the design may help to date the tinsel painting. Earliest examples have flat, twodimensional looking flowers, the urns are less elegant in form and decoration than later pieces, and the colors are more primary. The technique of "stippling" with white dots is occasionally part of the details in these early designs, and birds and butterflies are less

than gracefully formed. In later examples, details of the designs are clearly outlined in black ink; bouquets are more luxurious, urns may be adorned with birds, flowers, or family portraits, or constructed with a trellis design brightened by foil. The size of a tinsel painting is not an indication of age: the largest example seen (3 by 5 feet) is from an early period and the smallest (4 by 6 inches) has the black ink outlines of the later years. An article in the Ladies' Manual ofArt/or Profit and Pastime, a Self Teacher in All Branches ofDecorative Art, published in 1887, is the latest evidence to date of tinsel painting activity. Throughout the half century of tinsel painting's popularity, Victorian symbols of family and home, religion, patriotism, and horticulture were preeminent, but flowers were the dominant theme. As their designs became more lifelike, flowers escaped from the early, simple urns. They were woven into wreaths, giving sanctuary to birds and


Winter 1991-1992


butterflies. Flowers were placed in hospitable bowls of fruit, thereby resembling their contemporaries, the velvetbased theorems. Flowers also decorated tinseled harps and lyres and overflowed from cornucopias. Blossoms were used to soften the grief symbolized by crucifixes on monuments. Leaves and vines framed gardening tools, items rarely seen, but most appropriate in tinsel paintings. Trees themselves, in tree-oflife designs, traced out family roots. Tree-of-life geneological designs featured portraits of family members appropriately spaced along the tree's branches. With the advent of photography in France in the 1830s, tinsel painters incorporated photographers' daguerreotypes (and the later Ambrotypes and tintypes) to commemorate events. Family members, betrothals, wedding celebrations, mourning commemorations, Civil War soldiers, and Abraham Lincoln himself, were surrounded by tinsel floral wreaths. Sketches of historical scenes, unnamed maritime captians and their fleets, all appeared in tinsel literature. Animals are rarely seen in tinsel paintings. An early example of two kittens playing together is charming but awkward, and it is this awkwardness URN WITH PARROT; Lizzie Stryker; American; 1867; tinsel paintIng;101h x 1r


that might indicate the tinsel artist's limitations with the free-hand drawing of animate subjects. A later example, however, of President George Washington on his horse, is beautifully proportioned. This design might have been created about 1876, with the aid of a stencil, and inspired by the ubiquitous patriotic themes of the Philadelphia Centennial. Identification of the area from which any tinsel came is not always possible, although one might suspect that if the subject were a soldier of the Confederacy, the tinsel painting came from below the Mason-Dixon line. One hint of site of origin, was suggested by Dr. Robert Bishop, Director of the Museum of American Folk Art. Tinsel paintings, decorated with birds or small floral arrangements in each of the four corners, may have originated in Pennsylvania because of the similarity of this motif in Pennsylvania frakturs and watercolor drawings.'4 Identification of the artist is even more difficult. Except for a monogram and date on the base of an early "stippled" floral urn (S.E.S./ 1870), and a bold, capital-lettered ETTA, near a cornucopia, only "Lizzie Stryker, 1867;' is identified as the creator of a large urn and flowers. Very few signed and dated pieces exist today. A handwritten label on the back of a tinsel painting of a spray of flowers at the Wenham Museum (Wenham, MA) verifies "This picture was done by Sarah J. (Philbrick) Dodge 1855." Further information that the artist, of Seabrook, N.H., married Francis M. Dodge, of Wenham, on August 27, 1862, may indicate that she was indeed a schoolgirl when she did the painting. As amateurs became more proficient, and manufacturers recognized the public interest in tinsel painting decoration, articles for the home were produced that incorporated, or could accommodate, tinsel inserts. Checker boards, mirrors, jewel boxes, trays, mantle clocks and banjo clocks were illuminated by inserts of colorful tinsel miniatures of animals, birds, and bouquets. Tilt tables, often with a pie-crust border and a lyre-and-heart pedestal, served tea upon tinsel-painted floral surfaces. The most impressive example of a tilt-table, 3/ 1 2feet in diameter, was created in 1860 by a seventeen year old

girl, Emma Kratz. She was a student at the Excelsior Normal Institute in Carversville, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, a school whose curriculum included such ornamental arts as crystal painting. Her instructor, Lizzie Hunsicker, was the niece of the principal, the Rev. Dr. E R. S. Hunsicker. In Victorian tradition, Miss Hunsicker had studied art abroad with a Madame Sunderland, before joining the faculty. Emma Kratz married John Weinberger, a professor at Ursinus College, in Collegeville, Pennsylvania. The tinsel-painted table remained with them, was passed on to the couple's daughter, and in 1917 was bequeathed to the Montgomery County Historic Society Museum in Norristown, Pennsylvania. On a larger scale, tinsel paintings with religious messages embellished with leaves and ivy vines were used in churches to simulate the more costly stained glass windows, a process akin to that of Diaphanie. The most romantic example of high Victorian reverse painting on glass with foil is a fireplace mantelpiece of black cast iron. It was patented in 1860 for the process of combining cast iron with glass panel inserts, by H. Tucker of Boston and produced by the M.M. Company. It measures 54 x 58" with an opening of 31 x 21". The glass spaces between the swirling American Rococo lines are luminous with brilliant designs of peacocks, small birds, and floral sprays. It, and others like it, were frequently found in the Newport, Rhode Island mansions. When one reads about the reflection of firelight from Victorian tinsel paintings, the writer must have had a mantelpiece such as this in mind! Considering how many tinsel paintings must have been created, and how few are left, one realizes that the penalty of breakage on these fragile glass objects is high. Others may have been perceived as worthless, and destroyed for the "greater" value of the frame. As in other fields of antiques, one questions the value of modern day reproduction of tinsel paintings. The quality of early twentieth century tinsels appear less personal, less imbued with the individual charm of the earlier pieces. Many examples, especially those of the Art Deco period, are commercial interpretations and may, however, be an engaging "foil" to their THE CLARION

authentic Victorian counterparts. Echoes of the Victorian era's passion for the ornamental art of tinsel painting were heard in the 1970s at meetings of The Association of Museum Tinsel Painters, in the township of Wayne, New Jersey. A charter member, Madeline Holden, taught classes on tinsel painting in areas of northern New Jersey, and later continued her research in tinsel history in Chalfont, Pennsylvania. She is the author of Tinsel Painting: Authentic Antique Techniques. Her modern tinsel painting is on view at the Van Riper Hopper House Museum (a seventeenth-century Dutch Colonial house) in Wayne, New Jersey. Through the generosity of collectors' contributions of Victorian tinsel paintings to museums, and the persistent scholarship of students of the decorative arts, tinsel paintings have become a more recognized part of the history of American folk art. Edward Leight wrote in 1975, in the brochure accompanying his exhibition in East Hampton, "The paintings are a delight to look at. . . . there is a personal quality to the majority of them, along with an individuality and charm . . . museums are at last acknowledging the fact that tinsel painting is indeed a form of folk art and are becoming more and more interested in the medium." a Clinical Associate Professor of Psychiatry at the Cornell University Medical College. She is the author (with Joan Stacke) of Majolica: A Complete History and Illustrated Survey. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1989.

CHECKERBOARD; American; tinsel painting; 13/ 1 2 "square


NOTES: 1. Mildred Lee Ward, Reverse Painting on Glass, p. 14. 2. Nina Fletcher Little, The Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Collection catalogue, p. 259. 3. Ward,Ibid, p. 40. 4. Jean Lipman and Alice Winchester. The Flowering ofAmerican Folk Art 1776-1876, p. 93. 5. Urbino and Day,Art Recreations, p. 167. 6. Ibid, p. 167. 7. Ibid, pp. 167-168. 8. Ibid, pp. 168-169. 9. Ibid, p. 169. 10. Ibid, p. 169. I 1. Ibid, p. 170. 12. Ibid, p. 171. 13. Edith Huntington, "Oriental, or Crystal Painting," p. 390. 14. Robert Bishop and Judith Reiter Weissman, p. 91. 15. Edward Leight, Tinsel Paintings exhibition catalogue, p. 2.

Winter 1991-1992

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Bishop, Dr Robert and Judith Reiter Weissman. 'The Knopf Collectors' Guides to American Antiques: Folk Art." New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1983. Carlisle, Lillian Baker. "'Oriental Painting' and Tinsel Pictures." Antiques, August 1966. Davidson, Ruth. "In the Museums." Antiques, . May 1943. Hirschfeld, Mary. "A Collection of Tinseled Prints." Antiques, July 1932. Hoke, Elizabeth S. Pennsylvania German Reverse Painting On Glass Home Craft Course. Pennsylvania: Published by Mrs. C.N. Keyser,The Kutztown Publishing Company, 1946. Holden, Madeline. Tinsel Painting: Authentic Antique Techniques. New Hampshire: E. & S. Robinson Associates, 1947. Howe, Bea. Antiques from the Victorian Home. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 1973. Huntington, Edith. "Oriental or Crystal Painting." Peterson's Magazine, November, 1860. Krolik, Jean B. "Tinsel Pictures Fascinating Study" Antique Monthly, May 1975. Krolik, Jean B. "Tinsel Pictures." The Clarion, Summer 1977. Lambert,Margaretand Enid Marx.English Popular Art. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 1951. Second edition. London: The Merlin Press Ltd., 1989. Leight, Edward. Exhibition catalogue, "Tinsel Paintings," New York: Guild Hall, East Hampton, December 5, 1975-January 24, 1976. Leight, Edward. Excerpts in Exhibition catalogue,

"Tinsel Paintings: The Edward Leight Collection," New York: Washburn Gallery, March 3-April 2, 1983. Lichten, Frances. Decorative Art of Victoria's Era. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1950. Lipman,Jean and Alice Winchester. The Flowering of American Folk Art, 1776-1876. Philadelphia: Courage Books,Running Press Book Publishers, in cooperation with The Whitney Museum of American Art, 1987. Little, Nina Fletcher. The Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Collection(catalogue.)Williamsburg, Virginia: Colonial Williamsburg, 1957. Boston: Distributed by Little, Brown and Company, 1957. Murray, Maria D. "Reverse-Painted and Gilded Glass Through the Ages." Connoisseur, July 1972. Rivera, Betty. 'Affordable Folk Art." Country Living, February 1990. Roe,F. Gordon."OfClowns and Tinsel: A Study in Motley." Connoisseur, March 1944. Roe,E Gordon. "Prints and Tinsel." Connoisseur, April 1932. Roe, E Gordon. "Tinsel Terror: A Study in Skeltery." Connoisseur, July, 1943. Shaw, Charles G. "Some Stars That Shone." Antiques, April 1946. Slayton, Mariette Paine. Early American Decorating Techniques. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1972. Smith, Jerome Irving. "Dressed Pictures." Antiques, December 1963. Urbino, Mrs. LB., and Prof. Henry Day and others. Art Recreations. Boston: J.D. Tilton & Company, 1859.


MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART BOARD OF TRUSTEES Executive Committee Ralph Esmerian President Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq. Executive Vice President and Chairman, Executive Committee Lucy C. Danziger Executive Vice President Bonnie Strauss Vice President Peter M. Ciccone Treasurer Mrs. Dixon Wecter Secretary Karen D. Cohen Judith A. Jedlicka Joan M. Johnson Theodore L. Kesselman Susan Klein

Cynthia V.A. Schaffner George E Shaskan, Jr.

Honorary Trustee Eva Feld

Members Florence Brody Daniel Cowin David L. Davies Barbara Johnson, Esq. George H. Meyer, Esq. Cyril I. Nelson Kathryn Steinberg Maureen Taylor Robert N. Wilson

Trustees Emeriti Adele Earnest Cordelia Hamilton Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr. Margery G. Kahn Alice M. Kaplan Jean Lipman

DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE Judith A. Jedlicka Theodore L. Kesselman Co-Chairmen Lewis Alpaugh Hoechst Celanese Corporation Gordon Bowman Corporate Creative Programs

Frank Brenner Hartmarx Corporation John Mack Carter Good Housekeeping Jerry Kaplan Better Homes and Gardens Allan Kaufman Francine Lynch

Rachel Newman Country Living Thomas Troland Country Home Barbara Wright NYNEX Worldwide Services

INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq. Mrs. Dixon Wecter Co-Chairmen Paul Anbinder William Arnett Didi Barrett Frank & June Barsalona Mary Black Susan Blumstein Judi Boisson Gray Boone Robert & Katherine Booth Barbara & Edwin Braman Milton Brechner Raymond Brousseau Edward J. Brown Charles Burden Tracy Cate Margaret Cavigga Joyce Cowin Richard & Peggy Danziger Marian DeWitt Davida Deutsch Charlotte Dinger Raymond & Susan Egan Margot Paul Ernst Helaine & Burton Fendelman Howard Fertig 80

Joanne Foulk Jacqueline Fowler Ken & Brenda Fritz Ronald J. Gard Robert S. Gelbard Dr. Kurt A. Gitter Merle & Barbara Glick Baron & Ellin Gordon Howard M. Graff Bonnie Grossman Michael & Julie Hall Lewis I. Haber Elaine Heifetz Terry Heled Anne Sue Hirshorn Josef & Vera Jelinek Eloise Julius Isobel & Harvey Kahn Allen Katz Mark Kennedy Arthur & Sybil Kern William Ketchum Susan Kraus Wendy Lavitt Mimi Livingston Marilyn Lubetkin Robert & Betty Marcus Paul Martinson Michael & Marilyn Mennello

Steven Michaan Alan Moss Kathleen S. Nester Helen Neufeld Henry Niemann Donald T. Oakes Paul Oppenheimer Ann Frederick & William Oppenhimer Dr. Burton W. Pearl Dorothy & Leo Rabkin Harriet Polier Robbins Charles & Jan Rosenak Joseph J. Rosenberg Le Rowell Randy Siegel Sibyl Simon Susan Simon Ann Marie Slaughter Sanford L. Smith R. Scudder Smith Richard Solar Hume Steyer Jane Supino Edward Tishelman Tony & Anne Vanderwarker Clune Walsh John Weeden G. Marc Whitehead


"A Gallery of Country Americana"


atnck Bell Edwin Hild

Att. to J.G. Chandler , 1813-1884) Iii on Canvas, I 1 2"x261/2". 38/ Maine, c.1840 6465 Route 202 New Hope, Pennsylvania 18938 215-862-5055 Open 10-4, Monday Thru Saturday or by Appointment


Representing: David Butler Rev. Howard Finster Clementine Hunter 0.W."Pappy" Kitchens Rev. McKendree Long Sr. Gertrude Morgan Jimmie Lee Sudduth Willie White

"Porpoises Leapin9/Mon in the Moon" 1983; enamel on fin cut-out; 27" x 60"

David Butler (1898-


and many other important Outsider artists

GASPER! GALLERY 320 JULIA STREET • NEW ORLEANS, LA 70130 •(504) 524-9373 81


CURRENT MAJOR DONORS The Museum of American Folk Art greatly appreciates the generous support of the following friends: $20,000 and above Anheuser-Busch Companies, Inc. Asahi Shimbun Balair Ltd. Air Charter Company of Switzerland Ben & Jerry's Homemade, Inc. Better Homes & Gardens Judi Boisson Marilyn and Milton Brechner Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Chinon, Ltd. Estate of Thomas M. Conway Country Home The Joyce and Daniel Cowin Foundation Inc. Mr. and Mrs. Frederick M. Danziger Mrs. Eva Feld Estate of Morris Feld Ford Motor Company Foundation Krikor The Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation William Randolph Hearst Foundation James River Corporation/Northern Bathroom Tissue Kodansha, Ltd. Jean and Howard Lipman Joseph Martinson Memorial Fund Steven Michaan National Endowment for the Arts New York State Council on the Arts New York Telephone Paine Webber Group Inc. Philip Morris Companies Inc. Pro Helvetia, Arts Council of Switzerland Dorothy and Leo Rabkin Restaurant Associates Industries, Inc. Schlumberger Foundation Samuel Schwartz Two Lincoln Square Associates United States Information Agency Mrs. Dixon Wecter $10,000-$19,999 ABSOLUT Vodka Estate of Mary Allis Amiens Foundation Bear, Stearns & Co., Inc. Mr. and Mrs. Martin Brody Lily Cates Country Living Culbro Corporation David L. Davies Mr. and Mrs. Alvin Deutsch Adele Earnest Fairfield Processing Corporation/Poly-f0 Daniel and Jessie Lie Farber Walter and Josephine Ford Fund Taiji Harada Barbara Johnson, Esq. Joan and Victor L. Johnson Shirley and Theodore L. Kesselman Masco Corporation George H. Meyer Kathleen S. Nester Mrs. Gertrude Schweitzer and Family Mr. and Mrs. George E Shaskan, Jr. Peter and Linda Soloman Foundation Springs Industries


Mr. and Mrs. Robert Steinberg Barbara and Thomas W. Strauss Fund Robert N. and Anne Wright Wilson Wood Magazine

Mr. and Mrs. Austin Super Mr. and Mrs. Richard T. Taylor Time Warner Inc. Alice Yelen and Kurt A. Gitter

$4,000-$9,999 The Bernhill Fund The David and Dorothy Carpenter Foundation Tracy and Barbara Cate Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A. Mr. and Mrs. Edgar M. Cullman Mr. and Mrs. Richard Danziger Department of Cultural Affairs, City of New York Jacqueline Fowler Richard Goodyear Hoechst Celanese Corporation Margery and Harry Kahn Philanthropic Fund Mr. and Mrs. Robert Klein Wendy and Mel Lavitt George H. Meyer The Reader's Digest Association, Inc. Sallie Mae/Student Loan Marketing Association The Salomon Foundation S.H. and Helen R. Scheuer Family Foundation The William P. and Gertrude Schweitzer Foundation, Inc. Herbert and Nell Singer Foundation, Inc. Sotheby's Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Tananbaum Tiffany & Co. John Weeden The H.W. Wilson Foundation Norman and Rosita Winston Foundation The Xerox Foundation

$1,000-$1,999 American Savings Bank William Arnett The Bachmann Foundation Didi and David Barrett Michael Belknap Adele Bishop Edward Vermont Blanchard and M. Anne Hill Bloomingdale's Bozell Inc. Mabel H. Brandon Sandra Breakstone Ian G.M. and Marian M. Brownlie Morris B. and Edith S. Cartin Family Foundation Edward Lee Cave CBS Inc. Liz Claiborne Foundation Conde Nast Publications Inc. Consolidated Edison Company of New York Judy Angelo Cowen The Cowles Charitable Trust Crane Co. Susan Cullman Gerald and Marie DiManno The Marion and Ben Duffy Foundation Mr. and Mrs. Arnold Dunn Echo Foundation Ellin E Ente Virginia S. Esmerian Mr & Mrs. Thomas Ferguson Evelyn W. Frank Janey Fire and John Kalymnios Louis R. and Nettie Fisher Foundation M. Anthony Fisher Susan and Eugene Flamm The Flower Service Emanuel Gerard The Howard Gilman Foundation Kurt A. Gitter Selma and Sam Goldwitz Mr. and Mrs. Baron Gordon Renee Graubart Doris Stack Greene Terry and Simca Heled Alice and Ronald Hoffman Mr. and Mrs. David S. Howe IBM Corporation Inn on the Alameda Mr. and Mrs. Yee Roy Jear Judith A. Jedlicka Dr. and Mrs. J.E. Jelinek Isobel and Harvey Kahn Kallir, Philips, Ross, Inc. Lore Kann Foundation Mr. and Mrs. Leslie Kaplan Lee and Ed Kogan Kyowa Hakko U.S.A. Inc. Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Lauder Estate of Mary B. Ledwith William and Susan Leffler Dorothy and John Levy James and Frances Lieu R.H. Macy & Co., Inc. Robert and Betty Marcus Foundation, Inc. Marstrand Foundation

$2,000-$3,999 American Folk Art Society Estate of Abraham P. Bersohn The Mary Duke Biddle Foundation Mr. and Mrs. Edwin M. Braman Mr. and Mrs. Edward J. Brown Capital Cities/ABC The Coach Dairy Goat Farm Mr. and Mrs. Peter Cohen Mr. and Mrs. Joseph F. Cullman 3rd Mr. and Mrs. Donald DeWitt Mr. and Mrs. Alvin Einbender Margot and John Ernst Richard C. and Susan B. Ernst Foundation Exxon Corporation Colonel Alexander W. Gentleman Cordelia Hamilton Justus Heijmans Foundation Johnson & Johnson Manufacturers Hanover Trust Marsh & McLennan Companies Christopher and Linda Mayer McGraw-Hill, Inc. Metropolitan Life Foundation Morgan Stanley & Co., Incorporated The New York Times Company Foundation, Inc. Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation Betsey Schaeffer Robert T. and Cynthia V.A. Schaffner Mr. and Mrs. Derek V. Schuster Mr. and Mrs. Ronald K. Shelp Randy Siegel Joel and Susan Simon L.J. Skaggs and Mary C. Skaggs Foundation


T EST JE HOWARD Alternative Art Source Representing; Howard Finster Michael Finster R. A. Miller Hugo Sperger Jr. Lewis The Coopers Michael Crocker Heivell Family and others

1-3 Charles Street, NYC 10014 212-989-3801.

THE GREY SMIRREL 4 ad• 06` 41 • VP •*•

Celebrating the Spirit of American Craftsmanship

Quality Country & Formal Furniture, in Old Paint, Tiger Maple & Cherry Windsor Chairs & Settees An ever changing Treasure Trove of Folk Art, Quilts, Theorems, Tole, Handmade Textiles, Sweaters, Blankets & Beguiling Antique Accessories & Gifts The Grey Squirrel, 5 Main St., New Preston, CI,is only a 40 minute drive North of Danbury, CT. Take Rte. 684N to Rte. 84E to Rte. 7N; From New Milford follow Rte. 202 7 miles to Rte. 45. Turn toward Lake Waramaug & you are in the charming village of New Preston. Antique shops, Art Galleries, Bookstores & Inns. Call Wally Thiel for more infomation. 203-868-9750 Thurs. through Mon. 11 am - 5 pm. Winter 1991-1992

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111111 111111







MARCH 14 & 159 1992 SATURDAY 10 to 5— SUNDAY 11 to 5 Admission $6.00 — with card/ad $5.50 EARLY BUYING AND CONTINENTAL BREAKFAST

Saturday 8:30 to 10:00 a.m. Admission $25.00

Wilton High School Field House Route 7, Wilton, CT

101 EXHIBITORS This distinguished and comprehensive event features American country (including Shaker) and period formal furniture of the 18th and 19th centuries shown by some of America's finest dealers. In addition, it offers appropriate period decorative accessories, with an emphasis on fine ceramics, textiles, fine art, a strong representation of folk art; also, prints, rare maps, early glass, silver of the American Arts & Crafts Movement, jewelry and architectural elements. One of the most highly regarded shows in New England, it offers quality and variety at a range of prices. It has been planned to appeal to both the advanced collector and to novices in the field and is extremely popular with dealers. It is easy to reach and offers ample parking and food service. The ambiance is friendly and exciting, the material offered is both authentic and diverse and the opportunity to buy well is extraordinary. For additional information about the show or overnight accommodations, call the museum. MANAGED BY MARILYN GOULD Rt. 7 5 'A mi. north of Exit 40, Merritt Parkway 8 mi. north of Exit 15,1-95 12 mi. south of 1-84

1-84 al '


Wilton Historical Society 249 Danbury Rd., Wilton, CT 06897 (203)762-7257



„, • .:• .•


1-. •


Max Romain Simon Sparrow Justin McCarthy Ionel'Palpazan J.H. Jennings Lavern Kelley Andy Kane Jack Savitsky J.L. Sudduth Mose Iblliver S.L. Jones and more

SARAH RAKES, A Change in the Weather. Acrylic on canvas 31" x 25".

jacob Eby

Other artists include... Artist Chuckle Chuck Crosby Clementine Hunter James Harold Jennings M. C. "5¢"Jones Calvin Livingston Woodie Long Annie & Charlie Lucas Rev. B. F. Perkins Sarah Rakes Juanita Rogers Bernice Sims Jimmie Lee Sudduth Annie & Charles Tolliver Mose Tolliver Bill Traylor and others...




3218 LEXINGTON ROAD • MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA 36106 205/262.5349



Rare and important early Federal Tallcase Clock with date hand and sweep second hand on center post offered by •



CHRISTIAN EARL EABY 717-355-0066 The 1727 Eby House 405 Peter's Rd. New Holland, PA 17557

Eldred Wheeler ofHouston • 3941SanFelipe • Houston,T exas77027 • (7.13)622-6225


«,rfie Beaver ROBYN BEVERLAND (b. 1957 - House Paint on Plywood)


Wanda's Quilts Robyn was born with a very rare syndrome called "Wolfrand Syndrome.' There are less than 70 known cases in the U.S. Robyn is totally blind in one eye and has 40% vision in the other. But, the whole world is beautiful to him. And he loves what he does see. Robyn is a diabetic and has a mild case of cerebral palsy. But he will tell you that he has no problems because God and people love him. Robyn enjoys making people happy by painting pictures. He paints totally from his own mind's experience.

QUILTS — FOLK ART P.O. Box 1764 Oldsmar,Florida 34677 Phone: (813)855-1521



Ev.-M CURREN'T MAJOR DONORS C.F. Martin IV Helen R. Mayer and Harold C. Mayer Foundation Marjorie W. McConnell Meryl and Robert Meltzer Brian and Pam McIver Michael and Marilyn Mennello The Mitsui USA Foundation Benson Motechin, C.P.A., P.C. National Westminister Bank USA New York Marriott Marquis Mattie Lou O'Kelley Paul Oppenheimer Dr. and Mrs. R.L. Polak Helen Popkin Random House, Inc. Cathy Rasmussen Ann-Marie Reilly Paige Rense Marguerite Riordan Mrs. John D. Rockefeller III Daniel and Joanna S. Rose Willa and Joseph Rosenberg Mr. and Mrs. Jon Rotenstreich Mr. and Mrs. William Schneck Mr. and Mrs. Richard Sears Rev. and Mrs. Alfred R. Shands III Mrs. Vera W. Simmons Philip and Mildred Simon Mrs. A. Simone Mr. and Mrs. Sanford L. Smith Smithwick Dillon Mr and Mrs. Richard L. Solar Mr. and Mrs. Elie Soussa Robert C. and Patricia A. Stempel Sterling Drug Inc. Swiss National Tourist Office Swissair Phyllis and Irving Tepper H. van Ameringen Foundation Tony and Anne Vanderwarker Elizabeth and Irwin Warren Weil, Gotshal & Manges Foundation Wertheim Schroder & Co. Mr. and Mrs. John H. Winkler

$500-$999 A&P Helen and Paul Anbinder Anthony Annese Louis Bachman Baileys Original Irish Cream Liqueur Arthur and Mary Barrett


Mr. and Mrs. Frank Barsalona David C. Batten Robert Baum Roger S. Berlind Mrs. Anthony Berns Best Health Soda Peter and Helen Bing Robert and Katherine Booth Michael 0. Braun Iris Carmel Classic Coffee Systems Limited Edward and Nancy CopIon Edgar M. Cullman, Jr. D'Agostino's Allan L. Daniel The Dammann Fund, Inc. Days Inn窶年ew York City Andre and Sarah de Coizart Mr. and Mrs. James DeSilva, Jr. Ross N. and Glady A. Faires Helaine and Burton Fendelman Mr. and Mrs. Howard Fertig John Fletcher Timothy C. Forbes Estelle E. Friedman Daniel M. Gantt Ronald J. Gard General Foods Barbara & Edmond Genest Mrs. and Mrs. William L. Gladstone Irene and Bob Goodkind Great Performances Caterers Dr. and Mrs. Stanley Greenberg Grey Advertising, Inc. Connie Guglielmo The Charles U. Harris Living Trust Denison H. Hatch Hedderson Lumber Yard Stephen Hill Arlene Hochman Holiday Inn of Auburn Mr. and Mrs. Albert L. Hunecke, Jr. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas C. Israel Guy Johnson Cathy M. Kaplan Louise Kaminow Mary Kettaneh Barbara Klinger Janet Langlois Peter M. Lehrer Mr. & Mrs. Richard M. Livingston Adrian B. and Marcie Lopez Lynn M. Lorwin

Hermine Mariaux Michael T. Martin Robin and William Mayer Mr. and Mrs. D. Eric McKechnie Gertrude Meister Gael Mendelsohn Pearson K. Miller New York Hilton and Towers at Rockefeller Plaza Mrs. and Mrs. Arthur O'Day Geraldine M. Parker Dr. Burton W. Pearl Mr. and Mrs. Stanley M. Riker Betty Ring Mr. and Mrs. David Ritter Trevor C. Roberts Richard & Carmen Rogers Toni Ross Richard Sabino Mary Frances Saunders Schlaifer Nance Foundation Sheraton Inn, Norwich Skidmore Owings & Merrill Smith Gallery Karen Sobotka Amy Sommer Jerry I. Speyer David E Stein Edward I. Tishelman Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Tuft Mrs. Anne Utescher David & Jane Walentas Clune J. Walsh Jr. Marco P. Walker Maryann & Ray Warakomski Washburn Gallery Frank and Barbara Wendt Anne G. Wesson G. Marc Whitehead Mr. & Mrs. John R. Young Marcia & John Zweig

The Museum is grateful to the CoChairwomen of its Special Events Committee for the significant support received through the Museum's major fund raising events chaired by them. Karen D. Cohen Cynthia V.A. Schaffner


MAIN STREET ANTIQUES and ART Colleen and Louis Picek Folk Art and Country Americana

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A late 19th C. Folk carving found in southern Minnesota. 12"x10"x8".


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Jerry Brown Richard Burnside William Edmondson Howard Finster Homer Green Bessie Harvey Joe Light Rosie Lee Light Annie Lucas Charlie Lucas Woodie Long W.T. McLennon Frank Pickle Earl Simmons Bernice Sims Jimmie Lee Suddeth Sarah Mary Taylor Son Ford Thomas Annie Tolliver Charles Tolliver Mose Tolliver Fred Webster and others

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RARE FOLK WATERCOLOR OF THE CAMP OF VARNERS BATTALION AT ALGIERS, LA. 2". 1 By R. Kleist, ca.1868. Watercolor and ink on paper, in an old, possibly original, carved frame; 10" x 16/ Signed lower right. Lt. Sampson E. Varner was an officer of the 56th regiment. The regiment moved to New Orleans to guard the city in late 1864. Varner was the commanding officer of the battalion stationed at Algiers, La., which was directly across the Mississippi River from New Orleans. 89

OUR INCREASED MEMBERSHIP CONTRIBUTIONS JUNE-AUGUST, 1991 M7e wish to thank the following members for their increased membership contributions and for their expression of confidence in the Museum: Sonya Lee Barrington, San Francisco, CA Lissa A. Barry, Vienna, VA Carol F. Beitcher, Santa Monica, CA Susan Berman, New York, NY Ruth Bigel, New York, NY Priscilla Blakemore, New York, NY Diane Brehmer, Brooklyn, NY Barbara Bullard, Highland Park, IL Emilia Carulli, Wayne, NJ Rachel D.K. Clark, Watsonville, CA Rachel B. Cochran, Montclair, NJ Marjorie L. Currey, Dallas TX Barbara Deaton, Huntersville, NC Cheryl Dempsey, Weston, MA Mrs. David A. Doern, Greenwich, CT Ms. Marilyn Drennan, West Orange, NJ Ms. Joanne M. Flora, Jersey City, NJ Carl Ned Foltz, Reinholds, PA

K.C. Foung, Scarsdale, NY Jennifer Fowell, Ottawa, Ont., Canada Susan L. Fricke, Salt Lake City, UT Mrs. Shosana Friedman, Highland Park, IL Mr. & Mrs. Lee Gartrell, New York, NY Shirley & William Greenwald, New York, NY Susan Halpern, New York, NY Ms. Virginia Hartnell. Mercedes, TX Robert F. Hinely, Jr., Atlanta, GA Miriam D. Hinnant, Hohokus, NJ Dr. Geraldine N. Johnson, Washington, DC Barbara Kenworthy, Brooklyn, NY Ms. Frances Klein, New York, NY Jo Ann Kulsa, New York, NY Sandra Ladd, Durham, NC' Linda & Lawrence Laing, Waistfield, VT Judith Lawler, Nyack, NY Mr. & Mrs. Nolan Leake, Atlanta, GA Ada Leinwand, Valley Stream, NY Mr. & Mrs. John Levin, New York, NY Mildred Levinstone, West Orange, NJ Warren C. Lowe, Lafayette, LA Mrs. Patrick J. McAward Jr., Bedford Hills, NY Miwako McDonough, Pleasant Hill, CA

Carmen Mercadal, New York, NY Ms. Kathy Mullins, Croton On Hudson, NY Riitia M. Narhi, Helsinki. Finland Mr. & Mrs. Peterson Nelson, Englewood, CO Penelope Perryman, Bayshore, NY Ms. Irene Reichert, Chapel Hill, NC Patricia Reilly, Brooklyn, NY Marilyn Rogers, Signal Mountain, TN Mrs. Marion Rogovin, Whitestone, NY Anne Salerno, Geneseo, NY Anne P. Schelling, Charlotte, NC Louise Sencer, Hewlett Harbor, NY Mrs. Ellyn Sheidlower, Great Neck, NY Pat Haynes Sislen, Wood Ridge, NJ Walter & Bruce Smith, Augusta, GA Nadine Thompson, Plesanton, CA Susan Warf, New York, NY Nina Williams, Denver, CO Dr. Eve K. Winer, Flushing, NY Patty Weiner, Sands Point, NY Deborah Winograd, Branford, CT Ms. Rosalie L. Wong. Port Jefferson, NY Thomas K. Woodard, New York, NY John S. Woods, Detroit, MI

OUR GROWING MEMBERSHIP JUNE-AUGUST, 1991 Ms. Rubi Abrams, Piedmont. CA Ms. Joan M. Adams, Toms River, NJ Ms. Susan Adler, Randolph, NJ Mr. Bob Alexander, Rogers, AR Ms. Barbara Drell Allen, Metairie, LA Mr. Richard Aloisio, New York, NY Ms. Diane Alter, Nyack, NY C. Althoff, Summit, NJ Ms. Ruth Andres, Dallas, TX Ms. Tammy Andries, Brooklyn, NY Ms. Sharon Ashcraft, Salt Lake City, UT Ms. Margaret Balitas, Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, PA Ms. Jill H. Ball, Glen Arbor, MI Mr. & Mrs. Bruce Beal, Washington, DC Ms. Roberta Beiser, Vancouver, Canada Ms. Nancy H. Bekemeier, Northampton, MA Ms. Barbara Benjamin, White Plains, NY Ms. Katherine Besser, La Jolla. CA Christiane Billard, Chatenay-Malabey, France Isabel Biller, Lynchburg, VA Ms. Joan M. Blankinship, Peacham, VT Ms. Lois M. Bliss, Rochester, NY Shirley M. Bombard, St. Albans, VT Ms. Barbara A. Bond, Nebraska City, NE Mr. & Mrs. William Boyle. Brooklyn, NY Mrs. H.J. Bradford, Ocean City, NJ Mrs. Howard E. Brand, West Dennis, MA Ms. Susan Brewer, Pike Rd., AL Ms. Carol Brown, Sebring, FL Ms. Marianne Buchanan, Wilton, CT Ms. Sharon W. Buckland, New York, NY Mr. Kerry Burt, Los Angeles, CA Ms. Ann A. Bush, Colorado City, CO Mr. Robert L. Byers, Chalfont, PA Ms. Emilia Carulli, Wayne, NJ Bobbie R. Champaigne, Waynesboro. VA Francis Chmielewski & Nancy Ryan, Philadelphia, PA


Ms. Elizabeth Christofori, Plymouth, MA Ms. Lucille F. Clark, Philadelphia, PA Ms. Lisa Clark, Centerville, MA Mrs. Majorie B. Clarke, Ossipee, NH Ms. Dawn M. Close, New York, NY Miri Cook, Holland, PA Ms. Barbara J. Cooke, New Rochelle, NY Ms. Deborah Cooperman, New York, NY Ms. Nancy E. Corcoran, Scituate, MA Ms. Mollie Cornell, Mumford, NY Ms. Doris A. Corroll, Candia, NH Ms. Helen D. Courcy, Haverhill, MA Ms. Claire Joan Cowdery, New York, NY Ms. Jennifer W. Darger, Scarsdale, NY Ms. Erika Sleazak Davies, Plandome, NY Jim C. Davis, Hot Springs, AR Mrs. V. Dell'Amico, Ridgewood, NJ Mr. Steve DeMedicis, Birmingham, AL Mr. John Denton, Hiawassee, GA J.P. Dismuke, Petaluma, CA Ms. Annette Doerfler, New York, NY Ms. Jane Domke, Glastonbury, CT Ms. Claire M. Donahue, New York, NY Ms. Marie W. Donahue, Wilton, CT Ms Maureen D. Donovan, New York, NY Ms Charlotte R. Dotter, Lebanbon, NJ Ms. Dorothy E. Doyle, New Bedford, MA Ms. Frances V. Dunn, Franklin Square, NY Kamran Elghanayan, New York, NY Ms. Margaret J. Emery, Averill Park, NY Ms. Carla Emil. Mill Valley, CA Gloria Ezorsky, Teaneck, NJ Ms. Judith Figiel, Kansas City, MO Ms. Doris Fishbein, Long Island City, NY Ms. Diane Floren, Beaverton, OR Ms. Helen Flynn, Broxbourne Enio, England Ms. Alanna Downey Fontanella, Trumansburg, NY Ms. Barbara Ford, Mendam. NJ

Mr. Jerold Fox, Whitefish Bay, WI Mr. Richard Franklin, Washington, DC Ms. Ramona W. French, Wenham, MA Ms. Susan L. Fricke, Salt Lake City, UT Suzanne Frye, New York, NY Mr. Richard Gachdt, Old Westbury, NY Mrs. Ann H. Gaesser, Rochester, NY Bobbie J. Gallagher, Brick, NJ Ms. Anne T. Gallant, Ramsey, NJ Ms Denise A. Gallo, Staten Island. NY Ms. Joan D. Galloway, Kennett Sq., PA Ms Mary Jeanne Gearin, Alexandria, VA Ms. Nona G. Gehman, Lancaster, PA Ms. Jane E. Gensler, Washington, DC Ms. Kathye Giesler, New York, NY Ms. Sandra A. Gill, Reinholds, PA Gimcracks, Evanston, IL Susan Goldberg, White Plains. NY Ms. Nancy Golob, Malibu, CA Ms. Bea Goodman, Scarsdale, NY Ms. Deborah Grabner, No. Falmworth, MA Ms. Audrey Green, New York, NY Ms. Polly Greene, Wethersfield, CT Bunny Greenman, Miami, FL Ms. Jacqueline S. Gregory, Yarmouthport, MA Mrs. Betty B. Hahle, Riverton, NJ Ms. Dorothea Hahn, Port Washington, NY Ms. Elspeth Ham, Manakin-Sabot, VA Ms. Sarah Hare-Lidman, Wharton, NJ Ms. Jane Hartlein-Leef, Neshanic Station. NJ Mr. Harry B. Hartman, Marietta, PA Ms. Helen Hass, Eagle River, WI Ms. Miriam F. Hayes, W. Hartford, CT Ms. Carol A. Heinz, Anandale, VA Ms. Margaret Helms, Ventura, CA Ms. Myrna Herniter, Lexington, VA Ms. Christine Hess, Short Hills, NJ Kenneth E. Hill, Rancho Santa Fe, CA Renate & Nicole Nixon, Ponte Vedra Beach, FL THE CLARION

RAWvv Alien Art • Alternative Art • Anti Art • Anonymous Art Art and Unconscious • Art and Vision • Art Apart Art Beyond the Pail • Art Brut • Art Extraordinary Art Fantastic • Art for Joy • Art in the Wings Art of Inner Necessity • Art of the Artless Art of the Mentally Handicapped • Art of Madness Art Round the Bend • Art Spirit • Art Therapy • Art Up the Pole Art Within • Art Without • Art Without Precedent or Tradition Autistic Art • Autodidact Art • Automatic Art • Batty Art Bonkers Art • Borderline Art • Boundless Art • Breakaway Art Bricolage • Child Art • Contemporary Folk Art • Compulsive Art Crazy Art • Dotty Art • Down to Earth Art • Dream Builders Dream Spaces • Dreamer's Art • Elemental Art • Environmental Art Essential Art • Estranged Art • Fantastic Architecture Fantastic Art • Fantasy Art • Folk Art • Folk Art Environments Folk Bricolage Landscapes • Found Art • Fringe Art Gardens of Vision • Grassroots Art • Grassroots Environments Habitants-Paysagistes • Home Made Art • Idiosyncratic Art Islands of Artistic Innocence • Innate Art • Inner Vision Innocent Art • Insane Art • Inside/Outside • Insitic Art Inspired Art • Instinctive Art • Intuitive Art Irrepressible Art • Isolate Art • Junk Sculpture • Landscape Art Lay Painting • Lesser Art • Loony Art • Lunatic Art • Mad Art Maladjusted Art • Marginal Art • Maverick Art • Mediumistic Art Mind Art • Modern Primitives • Monumental Art • Naive Art Nameless Art • Natural Art • Neoprimitive Art • Non Commercial Art Non Cultural Art • Non Establishment Art • Non Mainstream Art Non Traditional Art • Not Really Art • Obsessive Art Obsessive Vision • Original Art • Outsider Art Out of the Mainstream • Painters of the Sacred Heart Patient Art • People's Art • Poor Man's Art • Popular Art Potty Art • Primal Art • Primary Creation • Primitive Art Primitives of the Twentieth Century • Prisoner Art Psychotic Art • Raving Artist • Raving Sanity • Raw Art Raw Creation • Raw Sculpture • Raw Vision • Real Art • Savage Art Schizophrenic Art • Screwy Art • Self Taught Art Art • Singular Art • Spiritual Art • Spontaneous Art Trained Self Stark Raving Vision • Sub Art • Super Art • Supercreativity Superphrenia • The Real Thing • Tribal Art • Unconventional Art Unconscious Art • Unfettered Art • Unfine Art • Unmediated Art Unpretentious Art • Unsophisticated Art • Unspeakable Art Untrained Art • Untutored Art • Vernacular Art • Visionary Art Raw Vision is published in English with a French-language supplement. 1 year subscription (2 issues) $19, individuals; $33, institutions 2 year subscription (4 issues) $38, individuals; $60, institutions Raw Vision: Dept 193, 1202 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10028 Raw Vision: 42 Llanvanor Road, London NW2 2AP, England telephone enquiries: 212 714 8381 / 011 44 923 856644



OUR GROWING MEMBERSHIP JUNE-AUGUST, 1991 Mr. & Mrs. Theodore S. Hochstim, Dallas, TX Ms. Esther Hoffman, Fairfield, CT Mr. Charles A. Hoffman, Wilson, NC Ms. Dianne Homsher, Los Angeles, CA Mrs. Juliana Hooper, Melbourne, Victoria, Canada The John Hoover Family, Wycoff, NJ Mr. Jay Horowitz, Great Barrington, MA Ms. Elizabeth Houghteliog, New York, NY Mrs. Seth E. Hoyt, New York. NY Mrs. Alfred L. Huff, Fleetwood, PA Ms. Lyna Hulkower, York, PA Mr. & Mrs. Albert L. Hunecke, Atlanta, GA Tad Hyde, New York, NY Ms. Babette Jackson, Sunnyvale, CA Ms. Helena Jacobson, Evanston, IL Ms. Helen J. Jegtic, Wadsworth, OH Ms. Katherine Jewell, New York, NY Mrs. Harry E. Johnson, Berkeley Heights, NJ Mr. John C. Johnson, Lakeland, FL Mr. Joseph P. JoneIli, Spring Valley, IL Ms. Margaret Jones, Youngstown, OH Mr. Tom W. Jones. Lexington, KY Ms. Miriam Jordan, Lake Jackson, TX Mr. Ed Jorgensen, Huntington, NY Mr. Walter F. Judd, Kaneohe, HI Ms. Susan R. Kafitz, Philadelphia, PA Mrs. Edward J. Kahn, Dallas, TX Mr. Gene Kangas, Painesville, OH Mr. Jonas Karvelis & Cathleen Griffen, Milwaukee, WI Mr. Jonas Karvelis, Milwaukee, WI Fran Kaufman & Robert Rosenberg, New York, NY Mrs. Ben Keam, Ft. Mitchell, KY Mr. Mark Kennedy, Montgomery, AL Ms. M. Patricia Keogh. New York, NY Ms. Linda K. Kirk, Port Jefferson, NY David & Anita Klein, Baltimore, MD Ms. Rosalie Knox, New York, NY Mr. Kurt W. Knudsen, Provo, UT Mrs. Susan Koestler, New York, NY Ms Mary Beth Kuhn, New York, NY Mr. Matthew Laine, Dix Hills, NY Ms. Deborah Lambeth. Schenectady, NY Ms. Diane Lankford, Rocky River, OH Ms. Dorcas M. Layport, Mattapoisett, MA Ms. Christine E. Ledin, Northboro, MA Ms. June G. LeLonet, New York, NY Ms. Ann Lemon, New York, NY Joan G. Levine, New York, NY Ms. Grisel Levine. Peterborough, NH Joan B. Levine, New York, NY Karen Levine, Newton. MA Mrs. Beatrice Lewis, Lawrenceville, NJ Mr. Clinton Lindley, Hillsborough, NC Ms. Lina Lisenbarth, Islip, NY Ms. Kathryn Liston, Lafayette, CA Ms. Liza Prior Lucy, New Hope, PA Ms. Sandra MacCormack, New York, NY Ms Mildred A. Macdonald, Melrose, MA Ms. Susan Mains, Los Angeles, CA Catherine Malcolm, New York, NY Mr. John A. Mariani, Bronx, NY Nanei Markasson, Evergreen, CO Ms. Beth K. Martin, Charlotte, NC Ms. Lynda Martin, Dekalb, IL Janet W. Mason, Merion Station, PA Lindsay McAuliffe, Washington. DC Ms. Agnes W. McCloskey, Malvern, PA Ms. Lisa McComsey, New York, NY Ms. Eileen Mesharer, Wilkes-Barre, PA Ms. Tracy Kayser Messing, Bronxville, NY Mr. Elliott Metcalfe, Sarasota, FL Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas J. Watson


Library, New York, NY Mrs. Mary E. Miller, N. Andover, MA Mrs. Kenneth W. Miller, Lunenburg, MA Ms.. Jane Milner, Wynnewood, PA Ms. Marilyn Mitchell, Waterford, CT Joy Moos, Bay Harbor Island, FL Ms. MaryJo Morgan. Mirror Lake, NH Ms. Katherine Morrow, Harleysville, PA George S. & Barbara Moskowitz, Carmel, NY Ms. Mary Muench, Bear Creek, PA Ms. Alice Murz, New Port Richey, FL Joni Lysett Nelson, New York, NY Mrs. Jane E. Newman, Lyons, NY Ms. Emily C. Nixon, Riegelsville, PA Ms. Barbro Nyberg, Arkelstorp, Sweden Ms. Erica H. O'Brien, N. Syracuse, NY Mrs. Sally Ochs, New York, NY Ms. Patricia Olson, Lyons, NY Ms. Carol Oswald, Penn Yan, NY Mrs. Jackie Pamenter, South Salem, NY Ms. Jane Parish, E. Dennis, MA Ms. Jacqueline Paton, Merrimack, NH Ms. Bunny Pavia, Staten Island, NY Ms. Dolly A. Peress, New York, NY Ms. Lucinda M. Perrin, Canadaigua, NY Mrs. Kevin Perrot, Malvern, PA Ms. Sherry Phillips, Knoxville, TN Ms. June K. Pierce, Poughkeepise, NY A.M. Pietropinto, New Hope, PA Ronald & Patricia E. Pilling, Baltimore, MD Mrs. P.A. Pi!linger, Victoria, Australia Mr. Robert Pinals, Princeton, NJ Ms. Barbara Poissant, Jackson Hts., NY Mrs. Sylvester L. Poor, Augusta, ME Mr. & Mrs. William Priest, New York, NY Ms. Marie L. Proeller, Staten Island, NY Ms. Margaret Prokop, Grosse Pointe Farms. MI Jan Raber & Noel Crespo, Tampa, FL Ms. Nora Raggio, San Francisco, CA E Rauch, New York, NY Mrs. Edward L. Rea, McLean, VA Ms. Annabelle L. Redway, Washington, DC Mrs. Arlene Reiskind, New York, NY Dr. John R. Ribic, Dayton, OH Ms. Mary Richardson, Wernersville, PA Mr. Michael Rigsby, Pebble Beach, CA Lenard Rioth family, Colorado Springs, CO Carl W. & Susan Robertson, Los Angeles, CA Mrs. Anne Robinson, Palo Alto, CA Ms. Evelyn Roces, Brooklyn, NY Mr. William H. Rose, New Orleans, LA Ms. Lisa Clerc Rosenberg, New York, NY Mrs. Edward Roston, Hewlett. NY Ms. Leslie Roth, Brooklyn, NY Hedl D. Roulette, Yardley, PA J. Rubenstein, Houston, TX Ms. Connie Ruk, Huntington Station, NY Mrs. Nita P. Rydell, Forest Hills, NJ Alice Sabatini, Topeka, KS Linda R. Safran, New York, NY Mrs. John A. Samsell, Warren, NJ Ms. Libby Samuel, Bay Village, OH Ms. Babara Sandler, Princeton, NJ Ms. Lois Savage, Phoenix, AZ Ms. Linda C. Scalfani, New York, NY Mrs. April Schielke, Naperville, IL Ms. Barbara Schloss, Montreal, Canada Ms. Joanne Schoefer, Carmichael, CA Ms. Toni Schulman, New York, NY Ms. Helga Schulz, Des Plaines, IL Linda & Barbara Schulz, Nyack, NY Ms. Mary Ann Scott, Poughkeepsie, NY Ms. Daniela B. Scott, New York. NY

Miss Frederica M. Sedgwick, Los Angeles, CA Ms. Beatrice H. Schwortzman, Washington, DC Ms. Mary Ellen Seitz, Philadelphia, PA Mr. Brian C. Shaffer, Brooklyn, NY Mr. & Mrs. George Shear, New York, NY Sachi Shimizu, New York, NY Mrs. Nancy Silverman, Roselyn, NY Mr. Charles Silverstein, New York, NY Ms. Bea Simpkins, Lynbrook, NY Ms. Caroline Simpson, Geneva, IL Mr. & Mrs. Matthew Slobin, Costa Mesa, CA Ms. Dorothy J. Snedeker, Highland Park, NJ Ms. Nancy B. Sokal, Durham, NC Ms. Evelyn Sorenson, Onekama, MI Mr. Bennett Spelce, Austin, TX Ms. Laura Spence-Ash, Hoboken, NJ Santina Stafford, Oxford, MA Ms. Dawn Steel, Beverly Hills. CA Ms. Karen Stein, Gainesville, FL Ms. Penelope A. Strockbine, Port Jefferson, NY Mr. William Swislow, Chicago, IL Miya Takano, Chiba City, Japan Ms. Elizabeth R. Tanner, Auburndale, FL Ms. Cynthia Taves, Sasusalito, CA Ms. Martien Taylor, New York. NY Mrs. Floyd Taylor, Dallas, TX Jamie Teal, Nashville, TN Ms. Harriet P. Teweles, Princeton, NJ Mr. Thomas M. Thompson, Tilton, NH C L Tolbert, Gary, IN Ms. Leona Trinin, Norwalk, CT Maro Tsagaris, Scarsdale, NY University of Minnesota Libraries, Minneapolis, MN Ms. Patricia Urban, Wayne, PA Ms. Susan G. Valletta, Warwick, RI Ms. Rozemaryn Van Der Horst, Captain Cook, HI Ms. Susan K. Van Strien, Middletown, NY Ms. K. Van Tassell, St. Paul, MN Ms. Shelia Van Zandt, Schenectady, NY Ms. Lorraine L. Vanderwende, Newtown, CT Mrs. T.A. Ventrone, Belle Meade, NJ Mrs. Marie A. Vigeant, Putnam, CT Ms. Theresa D. Violette, Waterville, ME Mr. Michael Watts, Charleston. IL Ms. Geri Weiss, Teaneck, NJ Jeri Weiss, Los Angeles, CA Mr. John West, Rockrose, New York, NY Ms. Janis Wetsman, Birmingham, MI Ms. Louise M. Whalen, Windsor, CT Ms. Virginia M. Wheelock, Uxbridge, MA Mrs. R. K. White, Ololyne, CT Ms. Cathy White, West Hempstead, NY Ms. Mary Whitehuast, Brooklyn, NY Mrs. Alma H. Whittemore, N. Canton, OH Mrs. Mary Whitworth, Brooklyn, NY Mr. James E. Williams, Nashville, TN Mrs. John Williams, Fairfield. CT Ms. Lise J. Williams, Brooklyn, NY Ms. Mary Wojeck, Marietta, SC George W. Wolfe, Wyomissing, PA Ms. Elaine R. Wolfson, Coral Gables, FL Mrs. Christine Wood, Cheltenham N.S.W. 2119, Australia Ms. Eleanor Wooters, Rumford, ME Mrs. Kathleen S. Wright, Moultonboro, NH Shoji Yamaguchi. New York, NY Ms. Nancy C Yates, LaGrange, GA L. Myr] Young, Dallas, PA Wu Yu, Columbia MO Ms. Laura W. Zinn, New York, NY


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00K REVIEWS Images of Penance, Images of Mercy: Southwestern Santos in the Late Nineteenth Century

images ofPenance,Images ofMerry

BY WILLIAM WROTH 144 color and black and white illustrations Published for the Taylor Museum for Southwestern Studies/Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center by the University of Oklahoma Press Norman, Oklahoma, 1991 $45.00 hardcover, $24.95 softcover. Images of Penance, Images of Mercy is an instant required text whether you are studying Southwestern Art, Religious Art in America, Folk Sculpture in America, or Penitential Imagery in Art History. This book is scholarly, stylishly written, and absolutely fascinating; even the footnotes are interesting. There are some minor flaws and I become peevish about them later, but the book is a major entry in the field. Images of Penance, Images of Mercy (hereafter simply called Images) is the companion volume of a set of books written by William Wroth for the Taylor Museum of Colorado Springs. The first volume, Christian Images in Hispanic New Mexico, catalogues the santos (paintings or sculptures of religious images) from 1700 to 1860, but also has a substantive text, a glossary of holy personages, and other useful information. Images, covers the period from 1860 to 1910, dates that are significant in themselves, for they mark the waning of the Hispanic Catholic tradition, a culture which was eroded by the 1846 American occupation of New Mexico and the new Catholic clergy. However, in isolated areas and small communities, a powerful lay confraternity, the Brotherhood of Our Father Jesus Nazarene, generally called the Penitentes, kept alive the need for the traditional religious images. It is to these passion figures and to the Penitentes that this book is devoted. Dr. Wroth goes far beyond writing a mere catalogue of holy personages, he 94

gives us a scholarly explication of the role of suffering and mortification in practices of the Christian church, beginning in early Christian times. For the contemporary collector and/or admirer of these New Mexican santos to look upon these figures without an understanding of their deep religious implications is fatuous. Dr. Wroth performs a vital service to his readers through his interpretation of the changing nature of Christ's role from early Christian times, when Christ was perceived as more divine than human, to the flowering of an image of a more human Christ in the Middle Ages, to a deeply personal Christ who suffered and died for mankind. This emphasis on the physical suffering of Christ is the key to understanding penetential practices and religious imagery from the thirteenth century in Europe to the nineteenth century in New Mexico. In the thirteenth century, lay orders were established in Italy (such as the Third Order of the Franciscans) which set the rules for simple living, daily prayer, and physical re-enactment of the passion of Christ. These medieval practices eventually found their way to New Spain (Mexico) and then to New Mexico, where they were performed by the Brotherhood of Our Father Jesus

Nazarene (originally called the Brotherhood of the Sangre de Cristo). It is no wonder that the people in isolated communities in northern New Mexico were attracted to the Brotherhood, which not only attended to their spiritual needs, but took care of their welfare, conducted services in chapels (moradas), and saw to it that the dead were properly and respectfully buried. Marta Weigle, Professor of American Studies and Anthropology at the University of New Mexico, devotes herself to the rituals and functions of the Penitentes in the introduction to Part 2 of the book. She adds to our understanding of the Penitentes and, therefore, to our appreciation of their religious images. My quarrel with the book is not in the text, it is in the captions that accompany the illustrations. If the primary purpose of this project is to catalogue the great collection of the Taylor Museum, than surely the accuracy of the captions is essential. Here are examples of inconsistencies: 1) Why indicate that one figure is made of pine, another of cottonwood, and yet another is simply wood? In a project that boasts of its dendrological dating, couldn't these "wood" figures be analyzed and identified? 2)For further inconsistency, some bultos are called painted wood and some polychromed wood ... what is the difference? What is the difference between oil paint and oil-based paint, terms that are freely interchanged? 3) Why is it that in naming the materials used in making an object, a rope belt for example, the rope is sometimes listed and at other times it is arbitrarily omitted? Worst of all some objects have no listing of the materials used at all. In view of the excellence of Images, I was tempted to say nothing about the cavalier attitude with which the captions were treated. And yet, if such errors are left uncriticized it will encourage those who assembled the book to believe that readers do not notice such things. We do, and it makes us suspicious of the accuracy of the whole work which, in view of the excellence of the text, is quite unfair. THE CLARION

00K REVIEWS I personally have gained valuable insights from Images, and my own teaching of santos will be far better for having read the book. —Barbara Cate BARBARA CATE is Professor of Art History at Seton Hall University and Director of the Folk Art Institute of the Museum of American Folk Art.

Just For Nice: Carving and Whittling Magic of Southeastern Pennsylvania BY RICHARD S. AND ROSEMARIE B. MACHMER 275 color illustrations Published for the Historical Society of Berks County, Reading, Pennsylvania, 1991 $35.00 hardcover Just for Nice: Carving and Whittling Magic of Southeastern Pennsylvania, an exhibition and book catalogue was organized and written by Richard and Rosemarie Machmer for the Historical Society of Berks County in Reading, Pennsylvania. This delightful volume is an essential and refreshing reminder of what the fundamentals of folk art are all


about. It is an "archaeological dig," a record of the discovery of folk artists and their works, which invites us to view over 250 woodcarvings in full color and to discover, in over thirty biographical sketches, some insights into the lives of native Pennsylvania-Germans working at the foundations of their heritage. From Abelt to Zwilcl, the book encompasses the work of carvers and whittlers who translated their rural surroundings into objects of wood sculpture, not for any utilitarian purpose, but simply for one's pleasure or "just for nice." The information recorded by the Machmers includes names, dates, locals and professions of these artists — a rare treat of scholarship in a field where the art is usually appreciated long after vital

information can be gathered. With an introduction by Charles E Hummel, Deputy Director for the Winterthur Museum, this book is the most comprehensive survey of the subject to date and many of the objects shown are recorded here for the first time. Folk Art scholars, collectors, and amateur or professional carvers are indebted to the Machmers and the Historical Society of Berks County for presenting this pathfinding work. —Ralph Esmerian RALPH ESMERIAN IS President of the Board of Trustees of the Museum of American Folk Art.

Other Books of Interest The Afro-American Tradition in Decorative Arts. By John Michael Vlach. The University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia. 176 pages, 100 b&w photographs. $50.00 cloth, $19.95 softcover. Antique Houses: Their Construction and Restoration. By Edward P. Friedland. Dutton Studio Books, Penguin USA, New York, 1991. 186 pages, illustrated. $29.95 cloth, $19.95 softcover.

Write: Gallery, P.O. Box 3075, Hilton Head Island, SC 29928

MARKETPLACE JUST FOR NICE, Carving and Whittling Magic of Southeastern Pennsylvania. The major work on this important folk art subject. 275 color illustrations. Hardcover. Available for Christmas, $39.00 post paid. Historical Society of Berks County, 940 Centre Avenue, Reading, PA. 19601 CHESTNUT SPECIALISTS — Remilled flooring and paneling from recycled antique lumber. Antique original finish flooring. Antique floors installed/restored. Hand hewn beams — weathered barnboard, chestnut oak and pine. Dave Wasley 203-2834209 SANTOS, RETABLOS, EX-VOTOS, MASKS from Mexico, Guatemala. Folk Art by Oaxaca artists Aguilar, Porvas, Hernandez, A. Jimenez. Haitian art by Gerard, Gregoire, Jolimeau, Bien-Aime. Indigo Gallery, 1102 Pine St., Philadelphia, PA 19107, 215-4400202 FOLK ART GALLERY FOR SALE in historic building on sea island in South Carolina. Inventory also includes antiques, etc.


BRAZILIAN FOLK ART & AMAZONIAN INDIAN ART. Several hundred items on display. Carved wooden votive sculptures (exvotos), Macumba Candomble altar icons (ferramentos), Carrancas, and various Indian art of fifteen tribes. Tribe Gallery, 196 7th Avenue, Brooklyn N.Y. 11215, 718-499-8200 THE RICHARD M. EDSON COLLECTION is deaccessioning works by the following artists: Minnie Evans, Ulysses Davis, Elijah Pierce, Frank Jones and others. For info, please call 1-800-7350311. P.O. Box 4759 Baltimore, MD 21211 (Serious inquiries only). THE JOSEPH FUREY FOLK ART ENVIRONMENT (See Clarion, Spring 1990) will be showing a collection of American Folk Art and Crafts for sale. Featured will be Naive Paintings, HandPainted Photographs and Eccentric Furniture. Phone (718) 8321332 for an Appointment. VISIONS OF AMERICA announces an exclusive line of folk art inspired T-shirts. $20.00 retail — wholesale prices available on request. 202 High Street. #7 Chattanooga, TN 37403 (615) 2652760 95

JAY JOHNSON America's Folk Heritage Gallery 1044 Madison Avenue, N.Y., N.Y. 10021 Tuesday thru Sunday 11-6 Closed Monday. 212-628-7280 Painted and Decorated 20th Century Desk by Rubens Teles Commissions Welcome



America Hurrah American Masterpieces American Primitive Gallery Ames Gallery of American Folk Art ANB International Art Inside Axtell Antiques Barrister's Gallery Joshua Baer & Co. The Brooks Collection Steven L. Buckley Robert Cargo Folk Art Gallery Cotton Belt Double K Gallery Eby Clock Company Epstein Powell Laura Fisher Galerie de l'Heritage Gasperi Gallery Sidney Gecker American Folk Art Gilley's Gallery Grass Roots Gallery The Grey Squirrel 96

2 9 27 16 89 26 26 21 13 88 22 10 21 15 84 28 21 32 81 89 17 23 83


Grove Decoys 34 Anton Haardt Gallery 20 John C. Hill American Indian Art 29 Leslie Howard 83 Lynne Ingram 29 Martha Jackson 4 Jay Johnson Gallery 96 Kentucky Quilt Project 93 ICnoke Galleries 87 Jim Linderman 84 Leon Loard Gallery 32 Main Street Antiques 87 Marketplace 95 Frank J. Miele Gallery Inside Front Cover Steve Miller 1 Leslie Muth Gallery 15 Old Hope Antiques 81 Barbara Olsen 28 Outside-in 20 Susan Parrish Inside Back Cover J.E. Porcelli 34 The Quilt Gallery 17 Rathbun Gallery 5

Raw Vision Roger Ricco/Frank Maresca Luise Ross Stella Rubin John Keith Russell Antiques, Inc. Jack Savitt Gallery Brigitte Schluger Gallery David A. Schorsch Sheepscot Stenciling Sotheby's The lartt Gallery Triangle Gallery G.H. Vander Elst Viking Press Wanda's Quilts Marica Weber Eldred Wheeler of Houston David Wheatcroft Wilton Historical Society Thos. K. Woodard Shelley Zegart Quilts

91 3 29 88 Back Cover 23 11 24 23 14 11 26 16 93 85 84 85 8 83 6 93


Alphabet Quilt, "March 12th 1917, Geo. & Addie M. Heipler, Allen. Pa."-76"x 90"


390 BLEECKER ST., NEW YORK CITY, NEW YORK 10014 (212) 645-5020

SPRING STREET,SOUTH SALEM, WESTCHESTER COUNTY, Y. 10590 TUESDAY-SUNDAY 10:00-5:30 (914)763-8144• FAX:(914)763-3553

The Clarion (Winter 1991/1992)  

Dr. Robert Bishop (1938–1991): A Personal Memoir • Santos de Palo: The Household Saints of Puerto Rico • The Saint Makers of Puerto Rico • S...