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THE CLARION AMERICA'S FOLK ART MAGAZINE The Museum of American Folk Art New York City





766 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK, N.Y. 10021 • 212-535-1930




"Ranger" Setter weathervane by L.W. Cushing & Co., Waltham, Mass. Last quarter of the 19th Century.

17 East 96th Street, New York, New York 10128(212) 348-5219 Hours: 2:00 P.M. to 6:00 P.M. Tues. through Sat. & By Appointment

Album Quilt, Baltimore, Maryland, ca. 1850. Provenance available.


Nation's Largest and Finest Antiques Center 104 International Galleries. Distinctive Antique Furniture, Continental Silver, Jewelry, Exquisite Oriental & Other Objets d'Art. Convenient Parking. Brochure Available. 1050 Second Avenue, bet. 55-56th Street, New York, NY Tel: 212355.4400.Open Mon.- Sat. 10:30-6, Sunday 12-6


Located at New York's Fabulous

Gallery #57

New York City's largest, most exciting selection of • Antique Quilts • Coverlets • Paisley Shawls • Beacon/Pendleton Blankets • Marseilles Spreads • Amish Buggy Shawls• Hooked Rugs• Vintage Decorative Accessories•American Folk Art




Impressive in size as well as in the magnificence of the subject, this image was removed from a barn in Maine.The horse was known to be painted c. 1910. The natural weathering of the planks around the paint-protected image has caused the horse to have a low relief. The individual planks each measure 12" wide and have been mounted in a white laquer frame. Hours are Tuesday-Saturday,11 am-6 pm. 105 HUDSON STREET/NEW YORK, N.Y.10013'212.219.2756

Painting ofa Horse on a Barnside, 77" x 73"


::# AA A



AAAA AAA A AA AAA kierldtAilwAlkA 416A Albsi

Stone Proof Devil House c. 1967

color pencil on paper 19" x 25"

An exhibition of the work of Frank Jones will be on view at the Janet Fleisher Gallery from January 9 through February 2, 1991. The Janet Fleisher Gallery continues to exhibit works of art by major twentieth century self-taught artists including William Edmondson, Horace Pippin, Martin Ramirez, Bill Traylor and Joseph Yoakum. 4

Janet Fleisher GALLERY 21 1 South 17th Street PHILADELPHIA 1 9 1 0 3 (215)545.7562/7589 FAX(215)545.6140

Photo: Ellen Page Wilson

"Amos 2;v:10", Anthony Joseph Salvatore, Ohio, 1989; oil stick, acrylic on paper, 36x 24".

CAVIN-MORRIS INC. 100 Hudson Street, New York, N.Y. 10013

212 226-3768 5

BeingIn Total Control ofHerself, 711/2 x 811/2,cottons, cotton blends, and found objects, 1990. An exciting, powerful, and provocative new quilt by Yvonne Wells, whose work was introduced to a national audience in 1989 through the Williams College exhibition, "Stitching Memories: African-American Story Quilts."

Robert Cargo

FOLK ART GALLERY Southern, Folk, and African-American Quilts Antiques•Folk Art Open weekends only and by appointment

2314 Sixth Street, downtown Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35401 Saturday 10:00-5:00, Sunday 1:00-5:00


205/758-8884 Home phone

December: Southern Outsider Art January: Unexpected Folk Art February: The Black Folk Experience

Photo: Lucille Khornak


Pair of life-size black figures, early twentieth century. Ht. 62 in.

Mon.-Fri. 10-6; Sat. 12-6 596 Broadway, Suite 205 New York, NTY 10012

Aarne Anton Marianne Sinrarn (212)966-1530


Pieced and appliqué quilt. "Baskets of Flowers" with "Swag and 'lassie" border. Third quarter nineteenth cent t try. 86 x 92 inches:

BLANCHE GREENSTEIN THOMAS K. WOODARD 835 Madison Avenue New York, N.Y. 10021 •(212) 988-2906 •

We are always interested in purchasing exceptional quilts Photographs returned promptly. Telephone responses welcome

THE CLARION EIT11,47. A AMERICA'S FOLK ART MAGAZINE The Museum of American Folk Art New York City

Volume 15, No. 5


Mimi Sherman


Winter 1990-1991


Fashions of the Times Lynne Adele



And the Art of Frank Jones Mark Esping



They Are Still in Kansas Lee Kogan





















Cover: Detail of Saint Matthew; John W. Perates; Portland, ME;Circa 1930; Carved, polychromed and varnished wood;49 x 273/8 x 6"; Promised gift of Robert Bishop. This work, along with several others in the Museum's collection will be included in the Museum ofAmerican Folk Art Encyclopedia ofTwentiethCentury American Folk Art and Artists by Chuck and Jan Rosenalc, to be published this Winter in conjunction with the Museum exhibition "The Cutting Edge: Contemporary American Folk Art:' December6 to March 10, 1991. The Clarion is normally published four times a year(a change in publishing dates has resulted in five issues in 1990)by the Museum of American Folk Art,61 West62nd Street, NY,NY 10023, 212/977-7170. Telecopier 212/977-8134. Annual subscription rate for members is included in membership dues. Copies are mailed to all members. Single copy $4.50. Published and copyright 1990 by the Museum of American Folk Art,61 West 62nd Street, NY, NY 10023. The cover and contents of The Clarion are fully protected by copyright and may not be reproduced in any manner without written consent. Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the Museum of American Folk Art. Unsolicited manuscripts or photographs should be accompanied by return postage. The Clarion assumes no responsibility for the loss or damage of such materials. Change of Address: please send both old and new addresses and allow five weeks for change. Advertising: The Clarion accepts advertisements only from advertisers whose reputation is recognized in the trade, but despite the care with which the advertising department screens photographs and texts submitted by its advertisers, it cannot guarantee the unquestionable authenticity of objects or quality ofservices advertised in its pages or offered for sale by its advertisers, nor can it accept responsibility for misunderstandings that may arise from the purchase or sale ofobjects or services advertised in its pages. The Museum is dedicated to the exhibition and interpretation of folk art and feels it is a violation of its principles to be involved in or to appear to be involved in the sale of works of art. For this reason,the Museum will not knowingly accept advertisements for The Clarion which illustrate or describe objects that have been exhibited at the Museum within one year of the placing of the advertisement. 9

EDITOR'S COLUMN DIDI BARRETT This is my last issue as Editor of The Clarion. As I move on to other ventures in and outside the field of American folk art, it seems fitting to reflect on the past five and a half years. During this time, The Clarion has grown considerably, evolving into a highly respected magazine — the only national publication devoted to all aspects of American folk art. Articles by such diverse writers as renowned folklorist Roger Abrahams of the University of Pennsylvania and playwright Lanford Wilson, an enthusiastic new collector, as well as scholars and students in the field, have reflected the expanding nature of folk art study. Major new books have been excerpted and reviewed, new features launched,including the popular Miniatures, which highlights exhibitions and news from around the country, a Letters section, and this Editor's Column. We have introduced a series of special issues, notably the first edition devoted exclusively to twentieth century folk art and another on folk environments. A timeline of the history of the Museum of American Folk Art was produced last Spring; and our special Quilt Issues have become a biennial tradition. Thanks to the enthusiastic efforts of Advertising Manager Marilyn Brechner, aided more recently by Hildegard Vetter, Production Manager, advertising in the magazine has become more national, more beautiful and, not incidentally, more plentiful over the last five years. In addition, the fine design work of Art Directors Faye Eng and Tony Yee continues to win praise and awards. Life here has been made exceptionally efficient, as well as enjoyable, thanks to the energy and good spirits of my colleague Me11 Cohen. Our most significant accomplishment at the magazine, however, has been the leading role The Clarion has taken in championing the field of twentieth century folk art. Once highly controversial among traditional folk art scholars, the work of twentieth century self-taught artists is finally assuming its rightful place in museums around the country. Mainstream art museums like the National Museum of American Art, the Milwaukee Art Museum, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and others, have made serious commitments to twentieth century self-taught art by acquiring important collections and planning thoughtful exhibitions. If the folk art museums fail to recognize this powerful work they will, sadly, be left behind. In the decorator magazines and the market place, American folk art has truly come of age over the last decade. What remains, however, is for folk art to be understood as art. That is the work which still lies ahead. 10

THE CLARION Didi Barrett, Editor and Publisher Faye H. Eng, Anthony T. Yee,Art Directors Mell Cohen,Publications Assistant Marilyn Brechner, Advertising Manager Hildegard 0. Vetter, Production Manager Craftsmen Litho,Printers Nassau Typographers, Typesetters

MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART Administration Dr. Robert Bishop, Director Gerard C. Wertkin, Assistant Director Luanne Cantor, Controller Beverly McCarthy, Assistant to the Director Mary Ziegler, Administrative Assistant Sylvia Sinckler, Shop Accountant Maryann Warakomski, Accountant Brent Erdy, Reception Luis Fernandez, Manager, Mailroom and Maintenance Collections & Exhibitions Elizabeth V. Warren, Curator Alice J. Hoffman, Director ofExhibitions Ann-Marie Reilly, Registrar Karen S. Schuster, Director ofthe Eva and Morris Feld Gallery Catherine Fukushima,Assistant Gallery Director Stacy C. Hollander, Assistant Curator/Lore Kann Research Fellow Lucille Stiger, Assistant Registrar Regina A. Weichert, Assistant Gallery Director/Education Coordinator Mary Black, Consulting Curator Howard Lanser, Consulting Exhibition Designer Departments Beth Bergin, Membership Director Marie S. DiManno,Director ofMuseum Shops Susan Flamm,Public Relations Director Johleen D. Nester, Director ofDevelopment Edith C. Wise,Director ofLibrary Services Janey Fire, Karla Friedlich, Photographic Services Chris Cappiello, Membership Associate Eileen Jear, Development Associate Programs Barbara W. Cate, Director, Folk Art Institute Lee Kogan, Assistant Director, Folk ArtInstitute/Senior Research Fellow Phyllis A. Tepper, Registrar, Folk ArtInstitute Dr. Marilyn Karp, Director, New York University Master's and Ph.D. Program in Folk Art Studies Dr. Judith Reiter Weissman, Coordinator, New York University Program Cathy Rasmussen,Director ofSpecial Projects Irma J. Shore, Director, Access to Art Eugene P. Sheehy, Museum Bibliographer Mary Linda Zonana, Coordinator, DocentPrograms Howard P. Fertig, Chairman, Friends Committee Museum Shop Staff Managers: Dorothy Gargiulo, Caroline Hohenrath, Rita Pollitt; Mail Order: Vivian Adams, Volunteers: Carol Ann Amend, Marie Anderson, Laura Aswad, Judy Baker, Olive Bates, Jennifer Bigelow, Sheila Carlisle, Elizabeth Cassidy, Shirley Chaiken, Ann Coppinger, Sheila Coppinger, Sally Elfant, Annette Ertman, Millie Gladstone, Elli Gordon, Cyndi Gruber, Edith Gusoff, Carol Hauser, Bonnie Hunt, Carole Kaplan, Eleanor Katz, Nan Keenan, Barbara Kojak, Annette Levande, Katie McAuliffe, Nancy Mayer, Sandra Miller. Theresa Naglack, Pat Pancer, Marie Peluso, Robin Rickenaker, Mary Rix, Diana Robertson, Frances Rojack, Phyllis Selnick, Lorraine Seubert, Myra Shaskan, Roslyn Sigal, Denise Siracusa, Maxine Spiegel, Doris Stack, Sonya Stern, Mary Wamsley, Marian Whitley, Doris Wolfson. Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shops 62 West 50th Street New York, NY 10012 212/247-5611 Two Lincoln Square(Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th) New York, NY 10023 212/496-2966 The Clarion

Richard Zane Smith, Dorothy Torivio, Grace Medicine Flower




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Photo: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, VA

Aoseueati foNitoe OK Etkitait A new exhibition, Virginia Furniture, 1680-1820, at Colonial Williarnshurg's DeWitt Wallace Decorative Arts Gallery, located on Francis Street near Merchants Square in- Williamsburg, VA will remain on view through the end of 1993. Furniture and paintings in the exhibition offer evidence that superior style and craftsmanship were available in rural eighteenth-century Virginia despite the lack of major population centers. For more information Tel. 804/220-7724.

American Kasten: The Dutchstyle Cupboards of New York and New Jersey 1650-1800 will be exhibited through April 7, 1993 at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 82nd Street and Fifth Avenue, New York, NY. This is the first study of 18 examples of this imposing furniture form, which was made exclusively in the New YorkNew Jersey area. Accompanied by an illustrated catalogue. For further information Tel. 212/879-5500.

Desk and bookcase, attributed to Anthony Hay shop in Williamsburg, is representative ofthe city's best eighteenth century case fiirniture.

13talts Cocusty us Vietaials Come discover the charm of the Victorian Era at the Mercer Museum's new exhibit,Pic Nic and Promenades: Victorian Social Life in Bucks County — an age of romantic sentimentality, prosperity, comfort, and technological change that affected

every aspect of life from sewing machines to railroads. This exhibit runs through May, 1991 in the Changing Exhibit Gallery located on the fifth level of the Mercer Museum, Doylestown, PA. For further information, Tel. 215/345-0210. Oak kast with early and possibly original marbleized surface; New York;1650-1710; The Metropolitan Museum ofArt, Gift ofMillia Davenport, 1988.

A Cekttay of Coftectisil The Daughters of the American Revolution Museum in Washington, D.C. is celebrating its centennial by presenting A Century of Collection: The DAR Museum at 100 years, through April 22, 1991. Highlighting representative examples of eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century textiles, ceramics, furniture, glass metals, paintings, dolls and toys the exhibition will focus on the objects in the context ofthe time in which they were collected. For public inquiries Tel. 202/879-3254. 12

Exisitaitioiss at *sows of Om hatiossat ilaitage

Pieced quilt with glazed wool star, surrounded by glazed wool border; Possibly Pennsylvania;1775-1825.

Sleds and Sleighs through January 27, 1991. Nineteenth-century prints, paintings, sleighs, and sleds show winter transportation and sport in New England before the automobile. Fraternally Yours: Selections from the Collection through June 1991. Major pieces from the permanent collections — many with fraternal symbols — represent 15 years of collecting ob-

jects as documents of American culture. A Penny Saved: Toy Banks From the Withington Collection through April 1991. American life reflected in whimsical toy banks taught children how to save, while providing entertainment. For information call Museum of Our National Heritage in Lexington, MA,Tel. 617/861-6559.

The Clarion

Germantown Maki Serape with Green and Purple Stripes, Navajo, circa 188s. 56 by 69 inches. All reproduction rights reserved by Joshua Baer & Company.

JOSHUA BAER & COMPANY ClassicAmerican Indian Art 116/ 1 2 EAST PALACE AVENUE



505 988 — 8944



hewielt 4411e4leitowisio Susan L.F. Isaacs, doctoral candidate in the Folklore and Folklife Department at the University of Pennsylvania, has been awarded one of two of the James Renwick third annual fellowships for scholarly research in the modern American craft movement. During her year in Washington, Isaacs' research topic is "Authenticity and Tradition: The Meaning of Handmade Objects in Contemporary Society'?

James Renwick fourth annual fellowship program for beginning or advanced scholars. Research proposals are sought from candidates knowledgeable in the history of twentieth-century American art, craft or design. The deadline for applications is January 15, 1991 with appointments to begin on or after June 1, 1991. For further information and application forms, write the Office of Fellowships and Grants, Smithsonian Institution, Suite 7300 L'Enfant Plaza, Washington D.C. 20560. For telephone inquiries, call Tel. 202/287-3271.

Presently, The Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art announces the

pito 734iktet) Ilteoe 7aichoes1 These wedding portraits of Peter Hotaling and his wife, Harriet Buckbee Hotaling, who were married in Albany, NY on May 22, 1828, are unsigned. Peter was the captain of Hudson River sloops, became a steamboat captain on the Great Lakes, and in 1843 took his family to Fond du Lac, WI,to open an all-water route between Portage on the Wisconsin River and Green Bay. Anyone with information which might lead to the identification of this artist should contact Marcus A. McCorison, American Antiquarian Society, 185 Salisbury Street, Worcester, MA 01609-1634; Tel. 508/755-5221.

litetropolitms littoesths Cloisto$4$ Liu The Metropolitan Museum of Art's annual Christmas tree and Baroque creche display has become, during the past 27 years, a firmly established holiday tradition for New Yorkers and out-of-town visitors. From Thursday, November 29, 1990 through Sunday, January 13,

1991 the brightly lit twenty-foot blue spruce decorated with angels and cherubs — with a lively assortment of crèche figures at its base — will delight holiday visitors in the Museum's Medieval Sculpture Hall. A lighting ceremony is repeated every Friday and Saturday evening at 7 pm.

While the subjects ofthese portraits have been identified the artist still remains unknown.


The Clarion




Bill Traylor had the natural ability to discover the primal core of things and translate his vision to paper. Consequently, his works embodied the spirit of folk art. Man with Umbrella and Bag will be a highlight in Sotheby's upcoming auctions ofImportant Americana Including Furniture, Folk Art, Quilts, Paintings and Prints.

Auctions:January 30, 31, February 1, 2, 1991 at 10:15 am and 2 pm each day Exhibition: OpensJanuary 26, 1991 Illustrated catalogue: $36, sale code 6075. To order with a credit card, call (800) 447-6843. Outside the continental U.S., call (203) 847-0465. Please include sale code with your order. Inquiries: Nancy Druckman,(212) 606-7225. Sotheby's, 1334 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021. co Bill Traylor (1854-1947), Man with Umbrella and Bag, gouache on cardboard, 13 by 7 in.(33 by 17.8 cm.). Auction estimate: $9,000-12,000. .ce .c 0 .

C 0








Wooden Clockcases c. 1970 with recent paintings on furniture veneer panel.



10931 MAIN STREET CLARENCE, NEW YORK 14031 (716) 759-2361



Early Nineteenth Century American Trade Figure Original Paint and Condition 61"H x 20"W x 15"D



TEL: 313 540-9288 FAX:313 540-6965

MARTHAJACKSON Specializing in 19th and Early 20th Century Quilts Exhibiting In: Wendy's Christmas Antique Show 7th Regiment Armory Park Ave. at 67th, New York City December 14, 15 & 16, 1990 Wendy's Convent of the Sacred Heart Antique Show 1 East 91st St., New York City January 25, 26 & 27, 1991 By Appointment Riverside, Connecticut 06878 (203)637-2152

"Philadelphia Pavement" Mennonite, c. 1880 Pennsylvania, 74/ 1 2 " X 84"

Main Street Cellar, 120 Main Street New Canaan, CT 06840 (203)966-8348—Mon.-Sat. 10-5





(former/ti Antic Art )




















2661 Cedar Street Berkeley, California 94708 415/845-4949 • We specialize in exceptional 18th-20th Century handmade objects. Our extensive selection of quilts, carved canes, tramp art, folk paintings and sculpture are available for viewing. Phone for exhibit information, hours or information. A few members of our large family of Bottle-Cap People.

Photo: Ben Blackwell

',inky.( Hidd


)4l San Felipe Houston

\ 7702.7

71 022-022',



Mother, oil on canvas, 30/ 1 4 x 24Y16"

Supreme Sacrifice, oil on canvas, 283 / 4x 401 / 2"

ALEXANDER BOGARDY Mr. Bogardy is a Hungarian gypsy who has lived his adult life in Washington, D.C. He has been a featherweight boxer, a violinist, a hair dresser, a quiet, unschooled painter and a devout Catholic. He is now ninety years old.










1111•110 41111,

Important American Furniture, Silver, Folk Art and Decorative Arts Auction to be held Saturday,January 26, 1991 in our galleries at 502 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10022. Viewing begins January 19. For further information contactJohn Hays or Meghan Hughes at 212/546-1181. For catalogues telephone 718/784-1480. A fine appliqued and stuffed cotton album quilt, attributed to Mary Evans, Baltimore, Maryland,circa 1850.


Carolyn Mae Lassiter

by appointment

Galeria Lara 1031 Hickox Santa Fe, New Mexico 505-983-1942 Untitled, Mixed Media, 1990,38'x 25"

Thomas C Oueen American Antiques

Shaker blanket chest in original brick-red paint with room-number labels. Canterbury, N.H., circa 1820.

188 Reinhard Street 22

Columbus,Ohio 43206

By Appointment


Ruth Bigel Antiques We have moved to 927 Madison Avenue New York, N.Y. 10021 Telephone: 212/734-3262 Specializing in American Furniture, Quilts, Decorative Objects and Canton Porcelain. Monday through Saturday, 11 am to 3 pm


ii. ..,

—old and rare works— LEON LOAM)GALLERY 2781 Zelda Road Montgomery, Alabama 36106

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(205) 270-9010 1-800-345-0538 In Alabama 1-800-235-6273 in USA MARKETING


32" x 34 1/2" •"School House"• 1980 • BY MOSE TOLLIVER FOR








Notable Examples from the Collection of the Late Edward Deming Andrews and Faith Andrews 0 LECY\

A Shaker masterpiece, this box parallels aflawless gemstone: Perfectly cut, and intensified by a brilliance ofcolor. New Lebanon, New York, Circa 1840-1860. Original blue paint; length 11 inches.

A full color illustrated catalogue "Notable Examples from the Collection of the Late Edward Deming Andrews and Faith Andrews" is available for $15.00, postage paid. New York residents are required to add appropriate sales tax.


30 EAST 76TH STREET, NEW YORK, NY 10021 212-439-6100



Chuck and Jan Rosenak, the collectors whose works of art are presented in the exhibition The Cutting Edge: Contemporary American Folk Art, have spent nearly two decades in their pursuit of twentieth-century American folk art and artists. With intelligence and diligence, they have assembled a remarkable collection of pieces by the very best of the contemporary folk painters, sculptors, quiltmakers, potters, and other self-taught artists of this century. Many of the artists are included in the new Museum book Museum of American Folk Art Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century American Folk Art and Artists, written by Chuck and Jan Rosenak and published in conjunction with Abbeville Press. Of greatest importance to the serious collector and student of folk art, is the Rosenaks' pursuit of first-hand documentation about these artists, including those who are considered as folk isolates and outsiders. Many taped personal interviews have preserved the voices of the artists and their ideas about the world they live in and how their art relates to it. In addition, the Rosenaks have photographed nearly all of the artists they have interviewed. They have recently given their tapes, photographs, personal letters to and from artists, and other relevant primary documents to the library ofthe Museum of American Folk Art, establishing a record of American creativity in the twentieth century that is unique. In this encyclopedic work, the Rosenaks have challenged the traditions of the art world; they have created an extensive body of new information that for the first time is being presented for serious consideration in print. They have gone far beyond the parameters of their own collection — as extensive as it is — to review the work of many other artists, ones who worked at the beginning of the century as well as ones Winter 1990

\ It

m of \merican Folk Art Encyclopedia of rv \rnerical and ARTISTS

Bear with a Fish in His Mouth; Felipe Benito Archuleta; Tesuque, NM;1987; Latexfiat house paint on cottonwood with marbles; 27/ 1 2 x 55/ 1 2 x 28"; Collection ofChuck and Jan Rosenak.

working as recently as today. From this immense creative pool, they have selected 257 artists working in various media to represent whatfolk art is today and has been throughout this period. Yet there is no question that this selection, large as it is, is noninclusive, and it is inevitable that many artists worthy of attention must be left out. The confines oftime and space always force an arbitrary line to be drawn, but this only provides a starting point for the next work to be done in this area. This book should be viewed as a signpost along the road to discovery, not as its end. When the Rosenaks first began to

collect in this area, one of the difficult tasks they — like anyone who decides to build a collection — faced was to define their field or area of interest and to undertake a defmitive assessment ofthe artistic, social, and economic implications of the endeavor. There were very few guidelines to help them. Only a handful of museum exhibitions of works by self-taught twentieth-century artists had been mounted, and there were almost no reference books or articles to guide the novice. However, because the Rosenaks had viewed extensively and collected important examples of modem art, their esthetic sensibilities were finely honed, a good preparation for their role as trailblazers, among the very first art collectors to discover and pursue what is now recognized as twentieth-century folk art. One of the first books on the subject was Twentieth-Century American Folk Art and Artists, by Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr. and Julia Weissman, published in 1974. This book, controversial for its time, served to polarize the field of folk art. Some traditionalists who had collected eighteenth- and nineteenth-century folk art feared that appreciation of twentieth-century works would lessen attention accorded to older works in the marketplace as well as the museums. Others believed that the earlier pieces were rooted in the traditional crafts of the country and displayed a degree of craftsmanship that was missing from the newer works by self-taught artists — and in many instances this is true, although it does not detract from the innate creative impulse that is shown. Little did the field realize, however, that a new and parallel understanding of modem art was emerging in the most sophisticated galleries and museum presentations. Suddenly the rawness, expressiveness, and celebration of individual style and vision were acceptable to — even sought 25


out by — an art world that had once been content with the predictable. As more people became aware of and comfortable with this new look in art, museum exhibitions, articles in art journals, and finally magazines devoted exclusively to the field of twentieth-century folk art began to proliferate. Florence Laffal, in her monthly journal Folk Art Finder, was among the first to define and categorize the efforts of American naives working today. Ann F. Oppenhimer and the Folk Art Society of America have created a nationwide organization that publishes an

impressive monthly newsletter,the Folk Art Messenger, and the Museum of American Folk Art through its quarterly, The Clarion: America's Folk Art Magazine, under the editorship of Didi Barrett has done much to present twentieth-century folk art in a positive light to a larger audience. The Museum has also helped lead the way by mounting several major exhibitions of works by the most outstanding of these contemporary artists as well. Have the Rosenaks been successful in their endeavor to increase the appreciation of twentieth-century folk art?

Even those who profess not to understand the art that Chuck and Jan have collected or the pieces that have been chosen to be included here would have to reply yes. The Rosenaks have labored tirelessly to prepare this text, document its accuracy, and find the best examples of the artists' works. Their research will — and should — challenge in many ways what every informed collector has come to believe as true. I salute the generosity of their time and effort and their commitment to a goal. They have produced a noble book, and it will make a difference.


from abstract to expressionism

to geometric abstraction

November 10 to January 18


sally cook

to naive


the Clarion

American Federal sofa, mahogany with bird's eye maple and crotch mahogany veneer 79", American Federal five-legged card table, mahogany 36" x 171 / 2"x 291 / 2".


Specializing in 18th and 19th Century American Furniture and Decorative Arts

1608 20th Street, Dupont Circle, Washington, DC 20009 (202) 785-4087

Reds and Blacks, Mary T. Smith, 64"x21"


Cl) cy

Three Women, Jimmy Lee Sudduth, 2


Old Woman Casting the Spirit, Lonnie Holly, 21"x12"

David Butler Thornton Dial Sam Doyle Minnie Evans Howard Finster

Lonnie Holly Clementine Hunter Calvin Livingston R.A. Miller B.F. Perkins

Royal Robertson Juanita Rogers Mary T. Smith Henry Speller Jimmy Lee Sudduth Son Thomas Mose Tolliver Inez Walker Shocked, Calvin Livingston, 32"x20"












"Fly Away" Mixed Media 32" x 32 1990

t tin


4404 MAIN STREET, MANAYUNK, PA 19127 (215)487-1377


"Cosmic Child and The Language Barrier" Acrylic on Paper 1990 30" x 22 1/2"

iv•vATAvATATATATAvAvAlr•v4 A• •A A •A•••A•AA

ST. EOM (1908-1986)



74 /1444 R0014 geittely Alle4,Peri...444(4 LATIN AMERICAN & HAITIAN FOLK ART ._ . .,







' '.:4Boota. 40= -0,—. . • ,ozo.... ,.•,..,:....,w, ----,-,---


incised and painted cement, c. 1979 22"(dia.) x 4,signed





_. ,


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* ,-

Representing: David Butler

The Virgin of Guadalupe, Patroness of Mexico Religious works in celebration of her Saint's Day, December 12

Rev. Howard Finster Clementine Hunter 0.W. "Pappy" Kitchens Rev. McKendree Long Sr. Gertrude Morgan


Jimmie Lee Sudduth

Folk Art of the Season Thursday, November 15-Saturday, January 5

Willie White and many other important Outsider artists

HAITIAN VOUDOU FLAGS by Antoine Oleyant Thursday, January 10-Saturday, February 16


131 SPRING ST A NEW YORK, NY 10012 A (212) 431-0144 WNW


(504) 524-9373


Cote Exhibition York Institute Museum Saco, Maine Wood Carving Adelard Cote (1889-1974)

FOLK ART GALLERY 1187 Lexington Avenue (Between 80th & 81st Sts.)

New York, N.Y. 10028 (212) 628-5454

Robert Reeves Raymond Coins

O.L. Samuels

Sam Doyle

Mary T. Smith

Howard Finster

Jimmy Lee Sudduth

Columbus McGriff

Mose Tolliver

J.B. Murry

Derek Webster

Nellie Mae Rowe

and others Atlanta, Georgia 404-874-1755








1 Harold Jennings, born 1931


Rev. +-lowarcl Fkster Brother B. F. Perkks Jimmy Lee SincicliAth Charlie Lucas Oscar Spencer

Tolliver -R. A. miller ...others



Photos available upon request. Appointment only. 174 Rick Road • Milford, NJ 08848 201-996-4786

Redwood Carving, 30" tall Pointed in oils, 1990 Delicately carved boots, laced in brass Box 169 Knoll Crest

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Southern Folk Art... the essence ofa culture. 607-276-6661 3

EPSTEIN/POWELL 22 Wooster St., New York, N.Y. 10013 By Appointment(212)226-7316

Rifka Angel

Jesse Aaron

William Dawson

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Mr. Eddy

David Butler Howard Finster

Victor Joseph Gatto(Estate) S.L.Jones

Lawrence Lebduska

Justin McCarthy

Sister Gertrude Morgan Emma Lee Moss Inez Nathaniel Joe Polinski Jack Savitsky

Old Ironsides Pry Nellie Mae Rowe Clarence Stringfield

Mose Tolliver

Floretta Warfel George Williams Luster Willis & others

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(718) 979-6820 Staten Island, N.Y.

Elizabeth Edvy, c. 1930



Over 200 Individually Numbered Pieces


Outstanding Works By J.B. Murry, Mose T., Nellie Mae Rowe, James Harold Jennings, lt.A. Miller, St. EOM


A ,*


15i a



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Three early 20th C. folk carved walnut animals.

MAIN STREET ANTIQUES and ART Folk Art and Country Americana • Colleen and Louis Picek (319) 643-2065 110 West Main, P.O. Box 340, West Branch, Iowa 52358 On Interstate 80 Send a self-addressed stamped envelope for our monthly Folk Art and Americana price list. 13

John and Elizabeth Freake: "Lambs in a large place" was the characterization given by historian James Flexner in speaking of the seventeenth Century Puritan immigrants to North America. Some of those lambs grew to enough prominence in their own flock that their worldly success was recorded in portraits which continue to fascinate us today. Two such portraits are those ofElizabeth and John Freake. Elizabeth holds the couple's infant daughter, Mary, in a manner so clearly evoking the mother-child relationship that the portrait has become an icon of American art. While these wonderful portraits have become favorites largely based upon their look, they also prove to be significant sources of information about the sitters, the Boston of 300 years ago and the history of our ancestors and their arts. The portraits of the Freakes hang today in the Worcester Art Museum in Massachusetts. The pendant pair has been dated to 1674 on the strength of the "Aetatis Suae 6 mo th" which appears near the child's shoulder and the family history which has always held that the child was Mary, born May 6, 1674, the eighth child of Elizabeth and John. It was via Mary's descendants that the paintings survived until they came into the collection of the Worcester Art Museum in 1963. Though attributed to an unknown artist who has been called the "Freake Limner," it was not known until 1981 that the paintings had been partially repainted and updated. In the updating John acquired a new collar, buttons, a brooch and a signet ring. Elizabeth, who had originally been alone on the canvas not only received a green dress (instead of the original black), new chemise sleeves and a lace collar, but had the baby placed in her hands. Who were they, these seventeenth century citizens of Boston? They surely do not have the look of the grim Puritans of text book American history, nor do they seem like the people to whom we have been introduced by 34

John Freake;Artist unknown;Boston, MA;1671-74;Oil on canvas;42/ 1 2x36/ 3 4";Courtesy Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, MA.

Nathaniel Hawthorne. Why are they so giddily dressed and who ever heard of Puritans having — or even wanting — their portraits painted? A great deal has already been written about these paintings and their artistic heritage by Jonathan Fairbanks of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston' and by the late Louisa Dresser who was for many years Curator of American Paintings at the Worcester Art Museumi Artistically their style places them at

the final stages of the decorative, but sophisticated English illuminator tradition which is well documented through the centuries and "did not die in the back country until after 1670" Most of that "back country" is East Anglia, a region north and east of London and for various reasons almost as isolated from the English mainstream as Appalachia has been in the United States. Moreover, East Anglia was the center of Puritanism in England and some twoThe Clarion

Fashions o the Times

3 4"; Elizabeth Freake and Baby Mary; Artist unknown; Boston; 1671-74; Oil on canvas; 421/2 x 36/ Courtesy Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, MA.

thirds of the early settlers to Massachusetts were originally from that region. It is worth noting that the counties next to Boston, Massachusetts are Norfolk and Suffolk, the same names as those of the counties of East Anglia. Those English counties provided both leaders and followers for the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The leading figures of the exodus were wealthy merchants, churchmen, lawyers and Winter 1990

physicians. When transplanting to the new land they brought along large support staffs of like-thinking artisans, farmers and servants. "Puritan New England was a noble experiment in applied theology," says Daniel Boorstin; and this made them a practical, not a speculative people. Though almost all of New England's Puritans were drawn from the middle classes and a very high percentage of them were literate, only a very small

by Mimi Sherman

percentage were landholders or professionals. The others were indentured servants, soldiers, adventurous types and farmers who had been encouraged to better themselves spiritually and perhaps temporally as well. The arriving numbers are staggering. Five boatloads arrived in 1629 and seventeen more followed in 1630. Every year the numbers grew, and in those early years they may truly be said to have shared a vision. All had signed the Act of Supremacy to King Charles I, for their quarrel was originally less political than theological. "During the classic age of the first generation, at least, Massachusetts Bay was a community of self-selected conformists,"5 who agreed with Nathaniel Ward's Simple Cobbler ofAggawan(1647)that "all Familists, Antinomians, Anabaptists and other Enthusiasts shall have free liberty to keep away from us, and such as will come to be gone, as fast as they can, the sooner the better.' The settlers in Massachusetts Bay Colony had come to New England to create an opportunity to practice a purified theology. From the first, led by wealthy and committed souls, they sought to create their "City Upon a Hill!' Outrageously intolerant, all they wanted was to be left to their project. But they still saw themselves as Englishman — more self-righteous, perhaps, than others — and expected to continue following social patterns of their mother country. This was the setting into which, in about 1635, Thomas Clarke, a wealthy, East Anglian Puritan merchant, brought his family, and likely a fairsized support entourage. They settled in Dorchester, on the Massachusetts coast just three miles south of Boston, and proceeded to emulate their friends and neighbors in building houses like those they had known back across the ocean.(Some of these seventeenth century homes survive in New England today and their progenitive models can still be seen in East Anglia.) 35

Drawing by David Findley; Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, MA.

John's Portrait 1671 Coat — Cassock silhouette, stylishly unbuttoned below the waist. Collar — Apparently there remains no evidence of just what the original collar looked like. It seems to have had the rabat shape. but may have been an entirely different lace. Sleeves — These seem too long to fit conveniently with the length ofthe gloves, and the stance, with each hand gripping one glove is unique.

Hair — Appears to be his own and not to have been altered in the 1674 update.

Line drawing ofthe initial composition ofJohn Freake, Circa 1671;traced from a radiograph ofthe painting. Dotted lines indicate probable outline of the figure and position of the gloves. One of the great curiosities is John's stance, with one glove in each clenched hand. Probably ofa soft leather, John's gloves lack the extra embroidered decoration to befound in other portraits ofthe era.

On May 22, 1642 Mary Clarke presented Thomas with their latest child, a daughter whom they called Elizabeth. Surely Elizabeth Clarke was just another baby; but, born into a wealthy family, her experiences would be predictably different from those of the nurse who held her or the servants on her father's lands. As all of the other youngsters in the community, she grew up knowing the thundering sermons of the Mathers and other preachers. She knew the relative quiet in New England while the Civil War raged in England. She realized, as she reached adulthood, the advantages of her father's wealth and social position. What no one could have predicted was the niche Elizabeth would come to fill in the history of the new and still frightening land of North America. In the 1660s, at the same time that the Puritan political cause was lost in England and Charles II assumed the 36

English throne, bringing with him the gay clothes and attitudes of the French court, the economic fortunes of the Massachusetts Bay Colony were finally beginning to realize dividends. Wealthy Puritans in the colony began to find ways (beyond land accumulation) to enjoy the wealth which they saw as God's positive judgment upon them. Portraiture had been a tradition in East Anglia and suited the aspirations of the colonists. In 1658, John Freake, a well-to-do young English merchant and attorney came to Boston. By 1661 he had courted and married the fair Elizabeth Clarke,and they settled in the north end of Boston with some 1500 other families. John served as constable and as juryman in addition to running a busy shipping business. He and Elizabeth had eight children,seven of whom lived to adulthood. He was one of a growing group of gentlemen with the oppor-

tunity of accumulating wealth. By 1671, he was the owner of at least half a dozen ships and seems to have decided that his status should be permanently recorded. One may assume that it was to this end that his portrait, and that of his wife, were painted. Between 1671 and 1674, business must have been especially good for John. The Puritan commitment of the first settlers was beginning to spring a few leaks as the older generation died off and new arrivals to the community did not share the same degree of enthusiasm for perfection. Also, John had probably had the opportunity to get back to England and observe first hand changes in clothing styles. In any event, the portraits were updated in 1674 with substantive costume changes'. What better way, if portraits are a status statement, to re-emphasize your social standing! Elizabeth's new baby of 1674, Mary, was added at that The Clarion

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Tracing of the final composition of John Freake, Circa 1674; In the updated portrait John's hands are opened. Newly added are the jewel he fingers, his signet ring andfunctional buttons and buttonholes. The look is far less stiff.

Lace collar — A Spanish variant of Venetian lace in the rabat style, is a holdover from the 1660s. The collar was completely repainted in 1674, when the neck of the coat was raised. Apparently John was pleased with the look no matter the date. Breeches — Are unseen in this 3/4 length portrait, but can reasonably be supposed to have been full but not beribboned. Sensible wool hose and heeled leather shoes would have completed the outfit. Jewelry — The large and elaborate brooch would seem to be a sort of late descendant of the great jewels of a century before. It is obviously of great significance to John who shows it off proudly. His signet ring and a coat with silver buttons close in description to those pictured here are listed in the 1675 inventory.(The paintings, it should be noted, were not.)

John's Portrait 1674

Gloves — Clearly of fashionable soft leather and long enough to cover the lower ann. He may well simply have carried these.

Hair — Probably, though not certainly, his own, worn to his shoulder, a little out of date. Charles II had already begun to wear a wig, but at 35 Join may have seen no necessity, and it might have been imprudent in Boston at that date. Moustache — Small,fme, and definitely of the 1670 period. Coat — The cgssock or Persian coat was still basically in style, though John's is more full than the height of fashion. The 3/4 length sleeves were quite up to date.

time along with the "Aetatis suae, 6

mo th:' Mary's birth is recorded as May 6, 1674, and so that dating has served for 300 years. John Freake died unexpectedly as the result of an explosion aboard one of his ships in Boston harbor on December 4,1674. Two years later Elizabeth married Elisha Hutchinson, brother ,of the religious reformer Winter 1990

Chemise — Was probably of fine linen. The sleeves are well padded below the sleeves of his coat, and there is some suggestion of lace or embroidery in the ruffle at his right wrist. Buttons — Silver, and with silver braid at both functional and decorative buttonholes. They are also seen over the right side-vent which would have had a mate on the left for a sword. Silver buttons decorate the pocket flaps. These buttons or similar ones were in the inventory.

Anne Hutchinson, and with him had five more children, all of whom survived to adulthood. Until 1981, the only date attached to the two portraits was 1674. But, in preparation for the exhibit, "New England Begins:. The Seventeenth Century" at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in 1982, Ms. Susan Strickler,

Curator of American Paintings at Worcester Art Museum arranged for non-intrusive surface radiography of the two paintings. This revealed surprisingly, much repainting and, on Elizabeth's portrait, a second date, inscribed,"Aetatis suae 29, Ano Dom, 16717 Elizabeth was 29 in 1671. Moreover, it was clear that in the original 37

Elizabeth's Portrait 1671 Collar — This is definitely out of date, more like that of 25 years earlier. It is in two pieces and somewhat peculiar in the look of the stiff, rounded undercollar which extends well beyond the shoulder line. Bodice — The sleeves are slashed as seen in the proper left sleeve above the stiff bow. Arms across the waist hide the waistline and contribute to a"dumpy"look in the line drawing, but actually the right and left sides of the bodice are indicated and remain unchanged in the updated version. This can be seen by holding the two line drawings over one another with a strong light behind them. Color — That the 1671 dress was black was determined by analysis in 1981. In the 1671 version all ribbons may have been red. Jewelry — All jewelry appears to have been added in 1674. Line drawing ofthe initial composition ofMrs. Freake; Circa 1671; This drawing was also tracedfrom the radiographic study. Notice the opening (slash)in the left dress sleeve above the bow, the voluminous sleeves ofthe chemise and the double collar, morefashionablefor the 1650s. The stiff bows lend a static air.

version of the painting Elizabeth was alone with her hands in her lap and that her costume was quite different. While much information has come to light in the last thirty years concerning the artistic tradition of the portraits, and even some suggestions as to names of possible artists, little thought has been directed to the costumes in which John and Elizabeth wished to be immortalized. The costumes are, in fact, similar to those seen in a number of other portraits from Boston between 1665 and 1680. All of these share the flat, linear style of painting and exuberant costuming seen in the Freake portraits. It is not really clear whether the Puritan colonists truly adhered to sumptuary laws or merely clung vaguely to a general principle. Social practice is difficult to legislate. What is certain is that the group in New England 38

represented the middle class with wealthy merchants, less well-off farmers and artisans and essentially no aristocrats or extreme poverty. We can be fairly sure that the members of the community shared an intense and common awareness of the statement of status made by one's apparel. This perception had been important for over 100 years and had been reflected in English portraiture during that time. So we come to the crux of the matter. Can more be learned from the costumes? Do they relate to European styles? If they do not match in date with the styles of Europe can a plausible explanation be constructed as to what they do reflect and why? Also, if 1674 is the terminus ante quem, just how much earlier could they have been painted? Could they possibly have been wedding portraits originally?

Short of the miraculous discovery of diaries or inventories with the portraits listed, information in support of such research must be culled from contemporaneous literary sources and comparisons with similar works, seeking the clues upon which to build a case. Also necessary, of course is a close study of the work itself and comparison of information gleaned with available securely dated and documented work. Ultimately, the information so gathered must be packaged in support or refutation of a thesis. In this case, an explanation is sought for the costumes worn in the portraits of John and Elizabeth Freake, dated from Boston, 1671-1674. The subjects are well-documented Puritan settlers and the portraits remained in family hands until their accession by the Worcester Art Museum in 1963. The portraits had The Clarion

Line drawing of the final composition of Mrs. Freake and Baby Mal), Circa 1674. Here, Elizabeth's sleeves are more compact and her multiple bows hang loosely, creating a feeling of movement. This animation is amplified by the baby's gestures. Even the turkey-work chair has been elaborated withfringe.

Pearls — were an important status symbol. She wears three strands which seem to be matched. These must be seen as a major statement of both fashion and status. Lace and linen collar or falling band — is Flemish bobbin lace in the silhouette of the 1660s. Neckline — Paintings are not created in the same manner as one dresses, so we cannot be sure just what Elizabeth was wearing. However, the flesh tones under the pearls suggest that the neckline of the bodice may not be very high. At this date a neckline can be quite decollete when not at the throat.

Elizabeth and Mary 1674 Coif — is typical of those seen on both English and Dutch middle class ladies in the seventeenth century. They were becoming more fashionable as ladies used curling irons to create bunches of side curls and needed head coverings which did not disarrange the hairdos they were so carefully creating.

Bodice — corseted, but not severely. The red lacing down to the pointed center front appears to be non-functional,suggesting back lacing. Apparently the shallow point was Elizabeth's choice, because a deeper and more fashionable bodice point was known in Boston at the time. Skirt — It seems that both the round overskirt or petticoat and the pulled back overskirt are of the same green silk. Apron — Though an affectation for some in the seventeenth century, aprons were typically used among the middle class, and large, functional aprons are associated with Puritan ladies.

Hair — Elizabeth's is pulled straight up and back above her forehead, but was probably in small bunches ofcurls at the sides of her head. The bulk would have been drawn into a bun at the back of her head.

Red underpetticoat — A handsome and saucy piece, this. The color was the rage for 25 years, and Elizabeth's lights up her portrait.

Face — Color photography makes it seem as if Elizabeth is trying out the lip color which wasjust coming into fashion, but the actual portrait suggests no such thing. She may,however,have tried some plumpers in her cheeks to make them seem younger and rounder. She was only about 30, but eight children must have taken some toll.

Sleeves — Bodice sleeves in the 1671 version show the slashes fashionable in the 1640s and 50s, with great, floppy chemise sleeves showing below them. In the 1674 version, however, the slashed sleeves are gone and ribbons hang instead of looking as if they had been wired into place. The chemise itself is less puffy (though padded)and has acquired some lovely lace.

39 Winter I 990



b, Tgr2g7A Tracing ofthe original inscription on the painting ofMrs.Freake indicating date and Mrs.Freake's age. This inscription, affixed in 1671 and hidden for300years, is in accord with Elizabeth's date of birth, May 22, 1642. Mary Freake's date ofbirth is recorded as May 6,1674. This, suggests, then, that the painting was updated in November 1674.

Charles' wardrobe on October 18, 1666 may put to rest the theory that the portraits were painted in 1661 at the time of the Freakes' marriage. That they were painted in 1671 and updated in 1674 is more likely and is also consistent with the Freakes' rising economic status. It is fairly easy to demonstrate that the changes in costume style from 1671 to 1674 are reflections of changes in style, though not necessarily direct interpretations from English costume, for those years. In 1660, returning from his years of exile in France, Charles II had brought back with him the costume style of the early years of the court of Louis XIV, with short jackets, chemise shirts blousing out, petticoat breeches and ribbons galore. This was the style Charles had known at Versailles in the 1650s. But by the early 1660s the court of France was already turning to an adaptation of the military cassock in the "Persian mode:' and by the 1670s had slimmed the silhouette and adopted the softly tied cravat instead of the wider falling band collars or whisks. John Freake, however, still wears the older wide cassock falling straightfrom the shoulders. His collar is of the rabat or falling band variety, with the round corners which had been the height of fashion in France in the early 1660s and

in England in the late 1660s. Sometimes half lace and half linen, these collars are rarely pictured in the flat, unpleated manner of John's. Partial explanation may be found in the generally more conservative Puritan inclination of Boston. Even with lace, puffed and padded sleeves, gloves and jewelry, John presents a relatively sober if not somber appearance. He wears no ribbons though they were still stylish; Elizabeth, however, sports a few. The fact that fripperies were seen in the Massachusetts Bay Colony was leading Cotton Mather and others to decry this evidence of Satan's inroads in the community. The other side of that issue, of course, is that practical Puritanism was apt to interpret earthly success as evidence of God's favor and probable reason to be considered as numbered among the "Saints'? Ministerial threats about the sins of pride always seem to have more impact among the have-nots than among the haves. The 1671 version of Elizabeth's outfit was more seriously out of date than was John's. She wore the double linen collar seen in Wenceslaus Hollar's depictions of English women of the 1650e The sleeves of her bodice were slashed in the fashion of the 40s and 50s. The white linen apron is basically unchanged from version one to version two, but is typical of middle class practice and especially of the style chosen by Puritan ladies. Puffed out behind her is what should be Elizabeth's overskirt. Overskirts had been fashionably pulled back and puffed out for several decades. Perhaps some of the confusion here stems from the change ofcolor ofdress(black to green) in the updating. Usually the overskirts were of a contrasting color to the round petticoat which would then show in the front. Here, however, all is of the same green silk. Elizabeth's striking underpetticoat, in a saucy red with guipure embroidery in gold and silver could have been of silk or of wool, but the manner in which the cloth is painted The Clarion

Drawing by David Findley;Courtesrof the Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, MA.

been on permanent loan there since 1914. They have always been together, and their care — they have been relined and reframed — is also documented! The child in the portrait with Elizabeth is believed to be Mary Freake and the paintings reached the twentieth century through her descendants. Such extrafamilial attention as has been given to the portraits has come in the twentieth century and has been directed toward them as paintings, with little consideration of the costumes. Since children were dressed as miniature adults during this period of the seventeenth century, concentration here is on the clothing of the parents. In her article about these paintings' Susan E. Strickler, Curator of American Paintings at the Worcester Art Museum, carefully enunciates the two current theories on the dating of the portraits. The first is that they were, perhaps, wedding portraits (1661) and the second is that they were originally painted in 1671 and updated in 1674. Discovery of the actual 1671 date, plus the deduction of 1674 from the baby's date of birth, would seem to support the second theory. More significant perhaps is the fact that John's coat is cut in a style variously referred to as the "Persian" or "Eastern" mode. Samuel Pepys describes this as,"a long cassocke, close to the body. ... and a coat over it:' The first such long, loose surcoats appeared at the French court of Louis XIV in about 1660,and had quite short sleeves. The likelihood of direct influence of such a French aristocratic garment upon the wearing apparel of a New England Puritan seems remote at any date, and in 1661, unlikely in the extreme. By 1671, however, the long, wide silhouette had been adopted in England. Charles II had changed his look in October, 1666, as is recorded by several chroniclers. English gentlemen of both the aristocracy and the middle class quickly followed suit. The well-documented change in

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back to England, she made excellent use of the information available to her. A careful examination of her portrait shows wisps of blond curls escaping at the sides of her modest linen coif, three rows of matched pearls, enough ribbons to show that she knew how to use them and her baby dressed in a most stylish manner. Elizabeth seems to have known how to enjoy the best of what was available, and her quiet smile may be telling us just that. There is every reason to believe that she was one of the best dressed ladies in Boston in 1674, even if she would have seemed a bit provincial in London. In recognizing the fashionable qualities of the Freakes, the chair in which Elizabeth is seated should not be ignored. Its high back and turkeywork covering make it a statement of stylishness. Fourteen of such chairs were listed in John's inventory in 1674. A most fashionable household must have complemented the Freakes' stylish costumes.


s 1656 Silhouettesfashionablefor middle class Englishwomen in the 1650s were stillseen in Boston in the 1660s and 70s. The bodice ofgreen silk under Elizabeth's beautiful collar probably laced down the back as seen above and there is reason to believe that its neckline would have had a similar shape.

suggests wool. If the child in her hands is Mary that would make the month of the portraits November of 1674, and wool in November on the coast of Massachusetts would seem a sensible choice. In any event, the underpetticoat seems to have remained unchanged. It is almost impossible to guess at the bodice shape of the 1671 version. In the 1674 painting the bodice shows some corseting with only a shallow point in the center front. The red "laces" were probably nonfunctional, with the real lacing going down the center back. The beautiful Brussels lace collar which we Winter 1990

see would have been more fashionable in the 1660s, and probably hid a round decolletage. Elizabeth's costume falls short of high style for 1674, but then she most likely would not have had the opportunity to see the highest styles. The only chance to see new European fashion in those days, before fashion dolls or fashion plates, would have been on a fashionable lady just over from London,and very few of those were yet making such journeys. Whether Elizabeth relied on descriptions from female friends or perhaps on attractive items secured by John on trips

Mimi Sherman is a Fellow of the Museum of American Folk Art and a candidate for Master of Arts Degree in Museum Studies, Costume and Textile, at Fashion Institute in New York City. Her earlier research on the Frealce portraits addressed their position in art history. NOTES 1. Jonathan Fairbanks, "Portrait Painting in Seventeenth Century Boston: Its History, Methods and Materials':in New England Begins: The Seventeenth Century. Eds. J. Fairbanks and R. Trent, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, 1982. 2. Louisa Dresser, "Portraits in Boston, 1630-17207 Journal ofthe Archives ofAmerican Art, July/Oct., 1966, Vol. 3,4. Archives of American Art, Detroit, MI, 1966. 3. John Rothenstein, An Introduction to English Painting. Cassell & Co. Ltd., London, 1953. 4. Daniel J. Boorstin, The Americans: The Colonial Experience. Random House, New York, 1958. 5. Ibid. 6. As quoted in Boorstin. 7. Fairbanks. 8. Object File, Worcester Art Museum. 9. Susan L. Strickler, "Recent Findings on the Freake Portraits: Journal of the Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, MA, 1982. 10. Katherine S. Van Eerde, Wenceslaus!foliar: Delineator ofhis time. Charlottesville, VA: Published for the Folger Shakespeare Library, University Press of Virginia, 1970.


AfricanAmerican Visionary Traditions and the Art of Frank Jones by Lynne Adele

It is difficult to imagine an environment less nurturing to the creative spirit than a Texas prison. Yet inside the walls of the Texas Department of Corrections, an elderly inmate produced a fascinating group of drawings that represent a unique blend of African-American traditions and his own vision. Frank Jones (Circa 1900-1969) had a brief artistic career, covering only the last five years of his life. Jones received no formal art training but worked intuitively, formulating an original and fluent visual language to express his beliefs and experiences. His powerful drawings serve as important documents of African-American aesthetic and cultural traditions, and they are a strong testament to the significance of the visionary experience as a source for Black folk artists. While the visionary impulse in works by self-taught artists has been the 42

Frank Jones, the artist, at work; Huntsville Unit, Texas Department of Corrections;1965.

subject of a growing number of exhibitions and publications: some questions remain about what exactly constitutes visionary art. In the exhibition catalogue for Black History/Black Vision: The Visionary Image in Texas, I described visionaries as self-taught artists whose works portray "things unseen or seen only by the artist. The visionary artist relies on dreams, visions, or religious revelations as his or her inspiration for making art, or he or she may be compelled or commanded by an outside force — usually God — to produce art. The resulting images represent religious and folk beliefs, depict events associated with them,and sometimes, reinterpret history from the artist's distinctive cultural viewpoint. Often the works of art contain mysterious imagery associated with religious or mystical themes. To understand them the viewer must be able to look

beyond the surface and have at least a basic knowledge of the cultural traditions they represent!" The importance of the visionary impulse in African-American folk art has not gone unnoticed. In 1980, the seminal exhibition Black Folk Art in America, 1930-1980 recognized the high incidence of visionary expressions among the twenty artists in the show. Jane Livingston noted in the exhibition catalogue that "virtually every artist in this exhibition claims to have been commanded by an inner voice or by God to make art:" and co-curator John Beardsley concurred that numerous Black artists shared a "reliance, even insistence, upon visions as the principal force behind the creation of their art. Visions recur as a theme in the countless variations in subject matter and style that characterize black folk art!' Beardsley surmised that Black visionThe Clarion

Utl Photo: George Holmes, Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery. Austin, DC

Jap Devil House; Frank Jones; Huntsville prison, 7X;1964;Red and blue pencil on paper;24 x 22106"; Collection ofChapman and Joan Kelley.

ary art often was inspired by the need for a spiritual deliverance from the physical constraints of life. He found that "occasionally, the vision reinterprets history or reveals the supernatural. But most often, it promises redemption, describing a more perfect world!" Although the visionary tendency in African-American folk art has been acknowledged for some time, a notion persists that visionaries are isolated, eccentric individuals whose art springs up arbitrarily as if from within a cultural vacuum. In some instances the works of art contain iconographies so personal that they are accessible only to the artist. Often, when an artist's visual vocabulary is difficult to decode, or when the artist appears to be working outside the confines of a tradition, he or she is referred to as an "isolate" or "outsider" artist. But these terms deny Winter 1990

the importance of the artist's connection to ethnic or regional oral and visual traditions. Artists like Frank Jones who create their art while confined to institutions are especially subject to the outsider label. While acknowledging the extraordinary and unique inner vision of these artists, to understand fully their art we also must be aware of the external sources that informed their artistic expressions. Recently there has been an increasing awareness of cultural tendencies toward visionary experiences. In 1987, the exhibition Baking in the Sun: Visionary Images from the South recognized the predominance of Black artists in the exhibition. Maude Wahlman explained in the exhibition catalogue that African influences on African-American artists have been largely overlooked,resulting in a misunderstanding of Black visionaries and of the cultural

references in their art. In many instances, artists have been mislabled "idiosyncratic" because they "could not always articulate the African traditions that shaped their visions, dreams, and arts!' More recently, the exhibition Another Face of the Diamond: Pathways Through the Black Atlantic South examined the international continuity of African expressions. Iconographical elements, oral traditions, and spiritual beliefs from both sides of the Atlantic were studied and compared, revealing African-American visionary art as a New World manifestation of African spiritual ideas? And currently, the exhibition Black Art-Ancestral Legacy: The African Impulse in African-American Art juxtaposes African objects with those created by both self-taught and academically-trained artists on this side of the 43

Atlantic. One of the issues explored by the exhibition is the act of artmaking as a visual extension of spiritual beliefs — a tradition rooted deeply in the AfricanAmerican community and linked to sacred African practices! The widespread visionary phenomenon can be found in works of art as diverse as the individuals who create them, driven by forces ranging from inspiration to obsession. But whatever his or her motivation, the artist's belief in the vision is essential to the production of authentic visionary art. Andy Nasisse wrote in Baking in the Sun that, "Whether they come from dreams, delusions or from trance-like visions, the images... reveal a rich fantasy life whose visions are believed because we know that for the artist it is real. The visionary may be caught up in a dynamic process that can be as terrifying as it is enlightening. The psychic intensity is not something that can be left behind when they leave the studio. It is not a job. In some cases their art becomes the slender thread which ties them to the reality of the material world. Their art can be a device for structuring the chaotic realm of the subconscious, the world of dreams and visions:" Some visionaries are compelled by an outside entity to produce art, often through a mystical revelation, including William Edmonson of Tennessee, who began sculpting after he saw a vision of a tombstone in the sky and heard the voice ofGod command him to carve!' And the Louisiana artist Sister Gertrude Morgan began producing her religiously inspired, often autobiographical, paintings after she experienced a divine vision in which the Lord commanded her to express her faith through art!' For others, making art is an act of transmittance, with the artist becoming the conduit through which divine messages are relayed. Georgia artist J.B. Murry assumed the role of a spiritual medium through which God relayed messages written in unknown languages — the visual equivalent to speaking in tongues. These codes were deciphered through a divination process that involved the artist viewing the 44

Prison yard at the Walls" unit ofthe Texas Department ofCorrections;1968.

pictures through a glass of water drawn from a well outside his home after asking "the Lord to witness this work for me in His water!' James Hampton of Washington, D.C., also received artistic direction from his religious visions and transmitted divine messages. During the fourteen years he worked on his great construction, The Throne of the Third Heaven of the Nations' Millennium General Assembly, God gave him specific instructions each night on how to proceed. The 180 objects that comprise The Throne are accompanied by a text written in a mysterious undeciphered language!' Often visionaries describe a physical

force that actually moves their hand to make art. J.B. Murry spoke of the pencil moving itself as he drew;'4 and artist Minnie Evans of North Carolina began making art when, she claimed, "something spoke to me like this,'Why don't you draw or die?' Something had my hand:' Evans attributed her art to dreams and "sometimes day visions' stating, "I have no imagination.... They just happen. In a dream it was shown to me what I have to do of paintings:"5 Quite commonly, visionaries have the ability to see anthropomorphic forms in roots, limbs, and driftwood — materials held sacred by African artists The Clarion

Photo: George Holmes, Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery

Watching Devil House;Frank Jones; Huntsville prison, 7X;1965-66; Colored pencil on paper;19 x 25"; Collection ofChapman and Joan Kelley.

for their great spiritual powers. Artists Bessie Harvey, Jesse Aaron, Sam Doyle, and Willard "The Texas Kid" Watson are among many who echo the belief that their role is to develop into a work of art a form created by nature or by God. At another point along the visionary continuum was artist Frank Jones. Jones remained in control of his artmaking, but like William Edmonson he depicted images that appeared to him in supernatural visions. And, like Minnie Evans, Jones reported dreaming about pictures at night. But the genesis of Jones's artmaking related to an African-American spiritual belief Winter 1990

that formed an important part of the artist's personal identity!' Frank Albert Jones was born around the year 1900 in Clarksville, the county seat of Red River County, Texas. Approximately twenty miles to the north of the small town (with a population of 2,069 in 1900), the course of the Red River determines the border between Texas and Oklahoma. Eighty miles to the southeast lies the point where Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana meet. The area proved ideal for cotton cultivation, and it became one of the state's major plantation districts. After emancipation, rural isolation and continuing racial segregation nurtured the old Af-

rican-American traditions which flourished with the crops in the fertile East Texas river bottoms. In this environment Frank Jones's belief system was formed. His drawings both reflected and played a vital role in his spiritual beliefs. When Jones was a small child, his mother told him that he was born "with a veil over his left eye:'and that this veil would enable him to see spirits!' The spirit veil is a well-documented and widespread African-American folk belief. Babies born with the veil or caul (part of the fetal membrane) over their eyes were believed to have the power to see and to communicate with spirits. 45


Photos: George Holmes, Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery

Such people were called "doublesighted!' Numerous stories appear in Southern Black folklore regarding double-sighted individuals and their extraordinary experiences. Beliefs connecting events of childbirth to future powers belong to the myriad of African traditions which permeated AfroAmerica!' Jones was around nine years old at the time of his first spirit sighting. He described his double-sightedness as "looking through a hole" into the spirit world. Throughout his life he continued to see the supernatural creatures, which he called interchangeably "haints" (haunts), "devils;' or "haintdevils!' They appeared in various forms including male and female devils of many nationalities, animals, and inanimate objects. Jones believed the haints were everywhere but that they remained invisible to those who did not possess the veil!' We have little information on Frank Jones's early years. Like many Black Texans of his generation, he never attended school or learned to read or write. He worked as a farm laborer and as a yard man,and "hoboed"from town to town on trains, picking up odd jobs. Beginning in 1941, Jones spent some twenty years in and out of Texas prisons. Some time after 1960, while serving a life sentence on a murder charge in the Huntsville prison known as"the Walls': Jones began salvaging discarded paper and stubs of red and blue colored pencils, and he began to draw pictures of the haints he saw as the result of his veil. Jones called his drawings "devil houses!' In July 1964 the Texas Department of Corrections organized its first annual inmate art exhibition. A correctional officer entered one of Jones's drawings in the show in jest, for Jones and his unusual pictures had become a source of amusement for guards and inmates alike around the prison. Much to everyone's surprise, Jones's small drawing captured the interest of the art world. In November 1964, Jones's first solo exhibition was held at the Atelier Chapman Kelley in Dallas. With the continued support of the gallery, soon his

Gambling Boat; Frank Jones; Huntsville prison, TX;1965-66; Colored pencil on paper;22/ 1 4x 22/ 1 4"; Collection ofChapman and Joan Kelley.

work began appearing in and receiving awards at juried exhibitions throughout the country. For the next five years Jones continued to make art, producing a cohesive body of work estimated at several hundred drawings. Jones's devil houses contain an iconography reflecting the artist's special vision and personal experiences combined with broader, culturally-based elements of his African-American belief system. Jones began by drawing horizontal and vertical lines that form architectural structures viewed in crosssection. He divided the structures into cell-like rooms surrounded by barbedwire shapes which he called "devils' horns!' Within the rooms of the houses, grinning devil figures were at once both confined and sheltered. The act of making art as symbolic

protection from evil forces is an ancient African practice that persists today in African-American visionary art. By providing spirits with a dwelling place as Jones did in his devil houses, they can be controlled and worshipped simultaneously. Jones neutralized the haints's powers and limited their activity by capturing them on paper and containing them within cells. Through his drawings, Frank Jones imposed order on a world over which he had little control. Yet even confined in the drawings,evil energy remains powerful and occasionally it threatens to emerge. The vibrating edges of Jones's devil houses leave a potential for escape, and in some drawings the barriers begin to collapse as fluttering haints break away from the houses, defying restraint. Jones believed in haints and although The Clarion


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French House;Frank Jones;Huntsville prison, 1X;1965-66;Red and blue pencil on paper;24 x 22na;Collection ofChapman and Joan Kelley.

in his drawings they appeared harmless, they posed a real and constant threat. Although Jones depicted the haint figures smiling, they were anything but benign. He explained that the haints smile "to get you to come closer.., to drag you down and make you do bad things. They laugh when they do that!' And at another time, Jones said they smile because "they're happy, waiting for your sour" Jones's devil houses achieve a sense of balance based on the tension of opposing forces. By alternating the colors red and blue and the direction of the devils' horns, Jones created the surface pattern and the internal rhythm of his drawings. At the beginning, the drawings were red and blue due to the artist's access to found materials; later this color scheme became a conscious Winter 1990

aesthetic decision. By late 1964 the Atelier Chapman Kelley was providing Jones with pencils and paper and he began to experiment, adding violet, brown, acid green, and other colors to the drawings. But Jones "did not like" the other colors, and soon he returned to blue and red, which he said represented smoke and fire The colors red and blue are imbued with spiritual significance in both African and African-American lore. The combination of blue, the favorite color of the Yoruba people of Africa (suggesting the qualities of gentleness and submission), and red (identified with power and spiritual command), allude to the co-existence of dual, opposing forces" These colors, which continue to hold symbolic spiritual power in the New World, are found repeatedly and

in diverse locations. For example, red and blue are important protective colors in the Vodun religion; and they appear as a favorite color scheme in Georgia Sea Island quilts, where they suggest "the binary opposites hot/cool, good/ bad, safe/dangerous:' Red signifies "danger, fire, conflict, and passion;" and blue is "a good color used... to keep away bad spirits!'" The structures of devil houses were evidently inspired by the prison, and other iconographical elements in Jones's works are traceable to his material environment. The clock, an icon of time and its passage on one level, is symbolic ofimprisonment on another — prison slang for incarceration is "doing time:' The image also relates to a specific clock in the prison yard which Jones believed was "hainter Jones included clocks in nearly half of his drawings. In the early works time seems to stand still, but in later works appendages to the hands of the clocks spin uncontrollably, an apparent reference to the artist's increasing awareness of his mortality. The circle bisected by a cross is a protective device found throughout African-American visionary art. This motif, which derives from Kongo cosmic symbols related to the spirit world,' appears repeatedly throughout Jones's drawings — often at the center of a pinwheel that suggests the motion of time or perhaps the orbiting of a celestial body. Another common motif in Jones's work is the pair of dice. Emblems of gambling (which Jones considered an evil activity), the dice also relate to the artist's conflict with a world of random forces — often a sizzling, electric energy radiates from the dice as a signal of these forces. Jones's early works were rigidly drawn,small-scale depictions of simple structures populated only by minimal figures. As his career rapidly developed, his style flourished along with his growing confidence. By 1965-66 Jones had hit his stride as an artist. The compositions became elegant and flowing as the devils' horn shapes began to curve inward and outward, interacting gracefully with each other. A variety of haint species fluttered and gyrated 47


tl Photo: George Holmes, Archer M. Huntington An Gallery

1 4x Moon Devils; Frank Jones; Huntsville prison, TX; 1965-66; Colored pencil on paper; 22/ 22/ 1 4"; Collection ofChapman and Joan Kelley.

within the houses, but the internal movement was always anchored by the strength of the structures. As Jones's style continued to develop, the drawings became increasingly detailed until, in the years 1966-68, they reached a crescendo of pattern and decoration and became "catalogs" of haint types. During the five years that comprised his art career, Jones captured his haints and imposed order on his world through his drawings. He also continued to dream of the day when he would be released from prison and return to the free world. Tragically, Frank Jones died on February 15, 1969 in the prison hospital in Huntsville without realizing his desire for freedom. But during the final years of his life, he created a body of art that reflected his perception of the spiritual energies and powers of the universe and of his own place among 48

them. In his art, if not his life, Frank Jones created at least a temporary balance of these forces. Jones's drawings provide us with a rare view into his process of achieving that balance, while serving as important documents of African-American folk traditions. Lynne Adele received B.F.A and M.A. degrees in art history from The University of Texas at Austin. Her master's thesis, completed in 1987, was titled "Frank Jones: The Psychology and Belief System of a Black Folk Artist:' Adele is employed by the Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery at The University of Texas at Austin, where she recently organized the exhibition Black History/Black Vision: The Visionary Image in Texas.

NOTES 1. See, for example, Baking in the Sun: Visionary Imagesfrom the South (University of Southwestern Louisiana Art Museum, 1987); Black History/Black Vision: The Visionary Image in Texas(University of

Texas Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery, 1989); Another Face ofthe Diamond:Pathways through the Black Atlantic South (Intar Gallery, New York, 1989);and Black Art-Ancestral Legacy:The African Impulse in African-American Art (Dallas Museum of Art, 1989). 2. Lynne Adele, Black History/Black Vision: The Visionary Image in Texas. Austin, Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery, 1989, p. 13. 3. Jane Livingston, "What ills:' in Black Folk Art in America, 1930-1980. Washington, D.C.: Corcoran Gallery, 1982, p. 11. 4. John Beardsley, "Spiritual Epics: The Voyage and the Vision in Black Folk Art:' in Black Folk Art in America, p. 40. 5. Ibid., p. 44. 6. Maude Southwell Wahlman,"Africanisms in AfroAmerican Visionary Arts',' in Baking in the Sun: Visionary Imagesfrom the South. Lafayette: University of Southwestern Louisiana Art Museum, pp. 28-29. 7. John Mason, Judith McWillie, and Robert Farris Thompson,Another Face ofthe Diamond:Pathways Through the Black Atlantic South. New York, Intar Gallery, 1989. 8. Alvia Wardlaw, ed., Black Art-Ancestral Legacy: The African Impulse in African American Art, Dallas Museum of Art, 1989. 9. Andy Nasisse,"Aspects of Visionary Art','in Baking in the Sun, p. 16. 10. John Beardsley, "Spiritual Epics' pp. 39-40. 11. Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr., and Julia Weissman, Twentieth-Century American Folk Art and Artists, New York, E.P. Dutton and Co., 1974, p. 1989; and Regenia Perry, What It Is: Black American Folk Art from the Collection of Regenia Peny, Richmond: Anderson Gallery, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1982, unpaginated. See also Livingston and Beardsley, Black Folk Art in America. 12. Robert Farris Thompson, Writings Through the Waters: Remarks on the Work of J.B. Murry. New York: Rosa Esman Gallery, 1987, unpaginated; and Andy Nasisse, "Aspects of Visionary Are,' pp. 11, 17. 13. Martin Friedman,ed., Naives and Visionaries, New York, E.P. Dutton and Co., 1974, p. 15; and Lynda Roscoe Hartigan, James Hampton: The Throne of the Third Heaven of the Nation's Millennium General Assembly, Washington, D.C., National Museum of American Art, originally published by Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1976, unpaginated. 14. Robert Farris Thompson, Writings Through the Waters. 15. Oto Bihalji-Merin and Nebjosa-Bato Tomasevic, eds., World Encyclopedia ofNaive Art, Scala/Philip Wilson, 1985, p. 226;and Regenia Perry, WhatItIs. 16. Frank Jones, interviewed by John Mahoney, Huntsville, 1968. Portions of this interview, which includes sound tape and footage from an unfinished film, have been reproduced in the Black History! Black Vision video documentary, Huntington Art Gallery, The University of Texas at Austin, 1989. 17. Ibid. 18. Newbell Niles Puckett, Folk Beliefs ofthe Southern Negro. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1926, pp. 137, 336. 19. Frank Jones, interviewed by John Mahoney, Huntsville, November 1968. 29. Dee Steed, "The Devil in Contemporary Primitive Are,' unpublished paper, Houston, 1968. 21. Frank Jones, interviewed by John Mahoney. 22. Dee Steed. 23. Robert Farris Thompson, Flash of the Spirit, New York, Random House, Inc., 1983, pp. 5-12. 24. Maude Southwell Wahlman, pp. 41-42. 25. See Robert Farris Thompson, "The Circle and the Branch: Renascent Kongo-American Art:' Another Face ofthe Diamond, pp. 23-56.

The Clarion

Kansas is the state most people fly over, or drive through at night — when it's cooler. It's home to 2.5 million people, most of whom live in rural settings. These are predominately the descendants of European immigrants who settled the Midwest looking for good farm land. Kansas is also the home of 86 Ljuskronor. These Ljuskronor, meaning "light crown" or candle holder, were all made by Swedish immigrant families celebrating Christmas on the Great Plains. Public information on the Ljuskrona is sparse. Even in Sweden where the tradition originated, only nine museums have Ljuskronor in their collections. Only one of the museums documented the tradition, claiming it "has fallen into oblivion:" A 1988 National Endowment for the Arts folk art grant has contributed to the acquisition and dissemination of information about this little known SwedishAmerican tradition. The grant provided funds for research, photographic documentation,interviews with owners,and preparation of a traveling exhibition. The lack of written material about the Ljuskrona required that the staff members of the National Endowment be convinced such an object existed and that it was a "living" tradition. The consultant on this project, Dr. Greta Swenson, a University of Indiana trained folklorist, provided the necessary validation. At the inception of the project 20 objects were known to exist. After one year, 160 objects had been documented. The majority of Ljuskronor were found in Kansas with others located in Iowa, Illinois, Nebraska, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Virginia. Only one was brought from Sweden. The others were made in America by Swedish immigrants. What are these little known objects? Why have they been so elusive? What traditions surround the 140 years' usage of these objects in America? All these Winter 1990


Group of Ljuskronor; Swedish-American; Kansas; 1873 to 1951; Wood, wire, and cut paper; Tallest: 5feet, others average 30 x 20"; Owned by privatefamilies, descendants ofmakers. 49


questions and more were asked and answered as a result of the documentation done during and following the grant period. The Swedish language defines Ljuskrona as any "light crown" or candled chandelier made of glass, metal or wood. The Swedish-American usage of the word Ljuskrona (plural is Ljuskronor) describes a candle holder wrapped with cut paper. Two other words are also used to identify the paper wrapped candle holder: Ljusstaken, "light stake:' a candle holder with a base; and Jultrad, "yule tree:' The words differ, but the object is always a handmade candle holder wrapped with cut paper. These candle holders are made for use during the Christmas season. Swedes celebrate Christmas for one month beginning December 13, St. Lucia's Day. St. Lucia visits each household early on this morning with coffee and cookies, wearing on her head a crown with lighted candles. St. Lucia's Day each year is when the Ljuskrona reappears. Minor repairs are made from last year or perhaps cutting and rewrapping will be necessary. Usually this is a family affair. The appearance of the Ljuskrona has become a signal that preparations for Christmas will now start in earnest. The house cleaning, baking and general festive preparations are a major concern. Midwest Swedes have "kalas:' a party or feast, a series of reciprocal gatherings at neighboring homes for games, visiting, and consuming the traditional Christmas foods. One of the few times a person might see a Ljuskrona other than the one decorated within one's own family is at a "kalas:' Probably the only other time early immigrants might have seen a Ljuskrona would be at church. The traditional "Julotta;' a midnight service still held today, finds the SwedishAmerican churches decorated with candles. One early account of a church's 50

first Christmas service mentions a "paper wrapped candle holder."2 Even today the only chance most people have to see a Ljuskrona is in a church. Research in midwestern states located several churches which have continued the tradition, but the Ljuskrona was and is generally a private family custom. Interviews revealed that Ljuskronor owners living in the same village block did not know the existence of the other family's Ljuskrona. This practice of privacy made it difficult to locate Ljuskronor owners and caused many apprehensive moments."Who told you I have one?" "How did you find out about my mother's Ljuskrona?" were typical questions encountered during research. The midwestern Swede was, and still is, a private sort. Most makers of these objects were

Loop cut paper Ljuskrona; Possibly tinsmith "Tinner John";Kansas;1888;Sheet metal, wire, cast metal, wood and paper;25 x 18"; Originally made to hang, a farm implement is now used to hold it on a base of wood. Given as a wedding present, it is now owned by descendants of the bride and groom.

originally from the southern provinces of Sweden. Ljuskronor are not generally known north of Stockholm. Thus not all Swedes knew of the object and, with immigration, many forgot or turned their backs on this custom in an attempt to become American. Documentation in Sweden recounts the use of Ljuskronor in the 1700s. They actually predate the use of evergreen "Christmas trees:" The Ljuskrona's structural nature puts it in the realm of an ephemeral object. The substructure is essentially junk. Bits of wire, wagon spokes, and snuff can lids, among other scrounged objects, were ingeniously combined to construct a framework that would hold several candles erect and allow the structure to be wrapped with cut paper. During the time when immigrants were making their Ljuskronor, there weren't junk yards on the Great Plains as a source for materials. People relied on their own frugality and ingenuity. The rotting and rusting of cast-off wood and metal in the substructure, coupled with discoloration and deterioration of the paper decoration often results in a formerly elegant object turned into junk if neglected in an attic or storage shed. These stained and distorted fragments are often all that's left of a once handsome,festive centerpiece. It might have been set aside with the intention of making another one next year or it was forgotten when the family dispersed or moved away from the home place. The value of a Ljuskrona exists totally in its ability to add elegance or nostalgia to a family gathering. If it is no longer in use, the pieces revert to their homely, humble beginnings. Thus they rarely find their way into museums or private collections. One Ljuskrona stripped to its bare essence, in preparation for the addition of new cut paper, revealed a substructure constructed of wire, no piece of which was over six inches in length. No The Clarion

solder was used to hold the pieces together, only successive twisting of the wire. Finally, a layer of cloth strips wrapped and sewed over the wire gave the structure the rigidity to hold ten candles straight and erect. This particular Ljuskrona has been used for at least 80 years and shows only one visible repair. A metal garden hose end was added when the original candle cup fell off. This repair was made sometime during World War II. One of the Ljuskronor's most interesting features is the many different methods used to hold a candle upright on the end of a piece of wood or wire. Innovation allowed even the most primitive substructure to hold candles straight to prevent them from leaning over and catching the paper on fire. Sixteen different methods of holding a candle have been documented to date. Some unanswered questions remain regarding the paper cutting methods used to decorate Ljuskronor. Five variations of paper cutting have been found: a straight fringe cut, an oblique fringe cut, a loop cut, an oblique loop cut, and a curled fringe cut. The paper cutting method does not seem to be identifiable with a particular type of structure. The decision to use a particular paper cut seems to be a creative decision on the part ofthe individual maker as is the use of color. Are all of these paper cutting methods traditional? Is one paper cutting method original and the others variations? Perhaps further research in Sweden will provide an answer. The paper used for Ljuskronor today is predominately tissue paper. Informants have also mentioned the use of newspapers. Newspapers were used before they began including photographs and thus provided a variegated lace effect from the black and white strips that were fringed and wrapped on the frame. One family spoke of trading at a certain mercantile store because the proprietor wrapped packages in a red and white striped paper. This paper Winter 1990


Paper loops are made by cutting along the folded edge of paper. The closer the cuts, the finer the loops will appear on the wrapped ljuskrona.

Some families cut their fringe with a single thickness of paper, others with double thickness.

Cutting along the folded edge at an angle will give the paper a stiffer appearance when wrapped around the ljuskrona.

Paper fringe cut at an angle along the loose edges of the paper will give the appearance of pointed fringe when the paper is wrapped around the ljuskrona. trlairtir-T-,_ \ \ 1 1

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Some families cut paper fringe then curl the individual fringe pieces with the edge of a knife or scissors



provided a very attractive speckled effect when cut and wrapped. Two families used cloth that was dyed green and fringed. At present the majority of Ljuslcronor documented are wrapped with white paper. Interviews, however, indicate that colored paper is a part of the tradition. Green, red, blue, yellow, pink, magenta, and turquoise are used. Some owners have wrapped two colors of paper at the same time producing an variegated effect. Fire, of course, is a concern. Memorable occasions when the Ljuskrona caught fire were recounted with excitement in the interviews. One non-Swedish informant whose in-laws have always celebrated Christmas with the Ljuskrona stated: "I don't know why those Swedes didn't burn up everything they ownecr4 In most cases, apparently, a fire was not a particularly alarming event. One woman remembered the eight foot tall Ljuskrona in the church she attended catching fire twice when she was a child. In both cases several men sitting in the front of the church got up and carried the flaming Ljuskrona out a side door,throwing it in the snow. She remembers: "No one seemed to miss a word in the hymn being sung:" A group of mischievous girls, now all over 65 years of age, recounted playing with the lit candles on the Ljuskrona. After the Christmas meal was finished and dishes were cleared away the Ljusrkona was left burning on the dining room table. A slight jostle caused a candle to touch the paper and it instantly flamed. The girls screamed. Their mother came form the kitchen, pulled a lap robe offthe divan and laid it over the flaming light crown. The lap robe smothered the fire. The mother reprimanded the girls but seemed quite nonplussed by the incident. The fact that the Ljuskrona tradition has existed in the United States for over 140 years without documentation or 52

Below, top: Ljuskrona; Swedish-American; Kansas;1890-1920; Wood, wire and paper;29 x 22"; An example of tradition kept by some families, two candle arms were removed upon the deaths of two relatives. Owned by private family, descendant of maker. Below, bottom: Ljuskrona;Swedish immigrant; Kansas; Circa 1875; All wood frame, wrapped in fringe cut paper; 25 x 18"; Owned byfamily ofmaker.

publicity places it in a special category. It has survived in obscurity and has survived despite social pressures on the owners to become American and reject foreign origins. It has maintained its appeal regardless of interrupted usage due to family upheaval. It has maintained its position and value in families in spite of its poor materials and flimsy construction. It is an object which reiterates the power of tradition over intrinsic worth. It has not been preserved by experts, museum curators, antique dealers, or folk art collectors. Rather, its survival has depended on a social group's yearly need to share the process of renewing its wrappings and the enjoyment of its glowing light. It is an object which depends on the memory of Swedish immigrants who value family lineage. The symbolism ofthe Ljuskrona was made very clear in a story told in an interview about a young boy living in a dugout his first Christmas in America. When the family Ljuskrona caughtfur, the young boy screamed, "MM jul brinner, min jul brinner" (My Christmas is burning, my Christmas is burning).6 The Ljuskrona actually was his Christmas — the object that brightened his life as a child on the midwest plains. Mark Esping is currently documenting the woodworking traditions in a small central Kansas village, photographing handmade cemetery markers, and trying to locate more Ljuslcronot to be included in a forthcoming publication on this tradition. He is assistant director of the Folklife Institute of Central Kansas. He and his wife manage SVEN & ME,an art sales gallery. NOTES 1. Ejwertz, Arne. Del hallandskajultradet liar hamnat i skymundan. Sartryck Ur Halland 1980, Stifelsen Hallands lansmuseer, Halstad och Varber, Sweden, PP 64. 2. Argangen, Nionde. Prarieblomman Kalender far 1909. Augustana Book Concem Rock Island, IL 1908. pp 211. 3. Ejwertz, Arne. Del hallandskajultradet liar hamnat i skymundan. Sartryck Ur Halland 1980, Stifelsen Hallands liinsmuseer, Halstad och Varber, Sweden, PP 64. 4. Personal interview, August 13,1988,Iowa. 5. Personal interview, August 12,1988,Iowa. 6. Personal interview, October 22,1988, Kansas.

The Clarion

The research to prepare 257 biographies of important twentieth century American folk artists for the upcoming Museum of American Folk Art Encyclopedia of 20th Century American Folk Art and Artists, by Chuck and Jan Rosenak, has yielded extensive new material on painters, sculptors, potters, textile artists and creators of environments. The artists included represent a broad spectrum of age, occupation, religion, ethnic origin, education and locale. New and revised biographical information aids the understanding of any artist's work, and often dispels previously accepted myths. It also affords the rare opportunity to tap into the lives of living artists to "capture" primary source material regarding their motivations, methods and materials of creation, artistic vision, and relationship with their family and community. Art historians, in their zeal to focus on and study objects, have all too often paid too little attention to the origins and lives of the artists. As a result, contextual sources may be lost or overlooked, and misinformation may be perpetuated. A perfect example of this was the case of Peter "Charlie,' Bochero (sic), the visionary painter of interplanetary and religious subject matter, whose name and supposed Armenian roots did not seem to jibe. The discovery of new biographical information about Besharo(his actual name)amplifies our understanding of his work. Previous authors have written that "Peter Charlie" as he was sometimes called, whose bold, imaginative paintings were found in a garage in Leechburg, Pennsylvania, was Armenian and that he fought in a war against the lbrks. The small conservative town of Leechburg was a starting point for research on this artist for the new encyclopedia. Contact with the artist's physician turned into an odyssey sparking great interest among the many townfolk who remember him well, and elicited memories from a cousin in New Hampshire. Besharo was recalled as one of many town "characters!' Dr. H.W. Fraley, Besharo's physician, helped to make available the patient's hospital records, Winter 1990

death certificate, cemetery record, church affiliation, funeral notice, application for life insurance and a snapshot of the artist. Fraley also provided a tape of seven short interviews with townsfolk who knew him, and photos of the garage where he worked on his art and of the now decaying Penn-Lee Hotel,just around the corner from the garage, where Besharo lived for the last ten years of his life. A New

Hampshire relative sent a formal photograph of Besharo. The artist, variously called "Charlie; "Peter Charlie" and "Charlie Peter" was actually born Peter Attie Besharo. He came to America in 1912 and was Syrian, possibly coming from the city or region of Kafargzina, where his mother, Waide, was living in 1921, when he applied for life insurance. Although he said, on at least one


Peter Besharo (18994960) andfriend Joe Zana on the corner across from Penn Lee Hotel, Leechburg, PA:Late 1930s. 53

occasion, that he was Armenian and that he had fought the Turks, no evidence supports this. More than one person remembered that in the early years, Peter was a peddler, traveling with a backpack selling dry goods, yard goods and men's apparel in the coal mining camps within a fifty-mile radius of Leechburg. Besharo's knowledge of Arabic is significant in deciphering what appear to be design squiggles in some of his paintings. In one, the Arabic word for EGYPTIAN appears on the apron of one of the figures, and on a painting of a strongman, religious concepts are suggested with the Arabic words for HEAVEN and SPIRITS on the trunks of the main figure. Besharo was a devout Roman Catholic and regular churchgoer, and that might explain some of his religious subject matter and serve as a springboard for the study of his work. Besharo's obsession with outer space was recalled by the present owner of the local restaurant, Tony's Lunch, where

Besharo always took his evening meal. He usually brought a roll of butcher paper along with him and spent the evenings making calculations — plotting distances of the planets and the moon and trying to determine when the earth was "going to run out of oxygen!' A cousin vividly remembered the artist's scientific interests during two visits to her house. Says his physician, Dr Fraley,"I always believed that he was a man ahead of his time!' Though a private person, Besharo was not a recluse. All who remembered him described him as pleasant, a man with friends in town, and a loving, generous "uncle" to his relative's children. Besharo was a sign and house painter, and possibly because English was not his native language, his signs had frequent misspellings. Of his housepainting career, people recalled him not as meticulous or energetic, but again, always as relaxed and goodnatured. Although everyone in town knew

Above, Father Time with Adam and Eve in Bell Jars; Peter Besharo;Oil on canvas;33 x 18". Below, third stall on right in IF. McGeary's garage was the rented space Besharo occupiedfor ten years. The "Free Parking" sign on the left side of the garage was probably painted by the artist. Right, Penn Lee Hotel, corner Market Street and Bridge Alley where Besharo rented a second .floor side roomfor the last ten years ofhis life.

The Clarion

Besharo, very few knew that he painted pictures. Fraley owned two of his paintings, but had no idea how intensely Besharo pursued his art-making. While unable to locate the paintings that the artist gave him, Fraley recalled that they were of space-related subjects, and expressed regret that he did not think they had special value. Besharo's New Hampshire cousin recalled that he once sent her a small landscape, but she, too, neither treasured that artwork nor knew its current whereabouts. After the artist died, the Leechburg man who owned the garage which stored Peter's equipment contacted the cousin to discuss the disposal of his property. Believing that the garage contained nothing but old ladders, brushes, drop cloths and cans of paint, she declined to pay shipping costs. She had no idea that among the contents were sixty nine of his paintings. The diligence ofthis author, Museum researcher Ann Wrenn, artist Bennett Bean and the interest and support of

Museum of American Folk Art Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century American Folk Artists by Chuck and Jan Rosenalc will be published in February 1991 by Abbeville Press. The Encyclopedia is a cloth-bound book of 416 pages, 301 color plates and 79 black and white photographs. 255 artists are included with vital statistics, biographical data, and discussion of artists' techniques and materials. It can be ordered from the Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shop, Two Lincoln Square, New York, NY 10023 ($75.00 hardcover plus $5.00 shipping; Special Members price $59.95 plus $5.00 shipping. Add local sales tax if you live in New York State).

James Crane erected this "wing-flapping flying machine" from plans he envisioned in a dream several decades earlier.

Hale G. Joy of the local historical society led to another important discovery for the Encyclopedia: The formerly unknown but fascinating life story of the New England artist James Crane was uncovered. Crane's interest in the sea — and its disasters — can be traced to his early years in Bath, Maine where he worked as a fisherman, as well as to, Ellsworth, Maine, a seacoast town where he lived during the latter part of his life. Crane also undoubtedly suffered all his life with the memory of the death of his fisherman father when the boy was 14. Crane demonstrated a creative side while working in Pittsburgh as a machinist-mechanic, designing and manufacturing a lockwasher. The business he organized in 1917 to produce the ingenious washer had marketing potential but failed during the Depression. This persistent creative urge expressed itself also in a lifelong dream to create an airship powered by "birdmotion flight:' This dream started years before with a heavenly vision.

James Crane And His Flying Machine

was wondering if his lockwash- his attorney had retained er would be successful. They partner's control in the sale sat, he recalls, halfway back in the patent or the sale of its us James Augustus Crane is the inventor of "bird - motion the audience of five hundred. Mr. Crane, not dismaye( flight", a term he uses to describe the wing-flapping machine The curtains parted. Mine. for- proceeded to manufacture II he has built according to plans given him in a dream fifty- don stood up, smacked the table lockwasher himself in a pin tine years ago. with her hand, and said, "Yo. in Bristol, Conn., selling tl Most people scoff at his invention and his dream. Others ung man, you want to talk to finished article to the auto i By JOHN R. WIGGINS

Winter 1990


When he was eighty-five, and back in Maine, the airship dream reached fruition. Crane became the supervisor of a salvage yard which gave him space and materials to build his plane, the Eagle Airship. It sat in his yard, untested. Fortunate for the folk art world, Crane began to paint in his later years, mostly sea portraits and townscapes. His motivation for painting was to raise money to continue his efforts to com-

plete and test his plane. His final two years were spent at a local nursing home which would explain his absence from his property and a previously published erroneous death date. It is curious that while some oldtimers remember Crane, none knew anything about his paintings or the small rough ship model thought to be the Titanic that he made. That seems surprising because the works were sold from the front yard of his property

James Crane (1877-1974) and an unidentified woman in front of his house on Route 1, Ellsworth, MA

The Titanic; James Crane; Ellsworth, MA; Circa 1968; Oil on cloth with paper collage; 20 x 28"; Collection ofMuseum ofAmerican Folk Art, gift ofRobert Bishop. 56

on Highway 1 which runs through Ellsworth. Throughout research for the Encyclopedia, personal interviews with living artists were invaluable, offering new information and rare insights into motivations, the creative process, and some artists' unusual dedication and consistency of purpose. Vignettes too numerous to detail in full include painter Rev. Maceptaw Bogun's self-criticism of his masterpiece Self-Portrait with the comment that the mouth "came out too wide;" Carver Dan Pressley's dying wish to a close friend for a two-inch obituary in The New York Times to assure public recognition; Ernest "Popeye" Reed's use of an encyclopedia both for its illustrations as well as to rest his knees upon when he carved; and Joseph Furey's sentimental reminiscences of Lillian, his wife, whose death provided the impetus for his seven-year apartment interior assemblage. For many years, Chuck and Jan Rosenak traveled throughout the country to find self-taught artists and documented them through interviews and photographs. Augmenting their research, for the past two years, a team from the Museum of American Folk Art, with the support and cooperation of family and friends of the artists, as well as outside scholars, collectors and dealers, diligently verified and supplemented their findings. The extensive material which could not be included in the Encyclopedia will enhance the Museum of American Folk Art's developing Archives of Twentieth Century American Folk Artists. Tapes of artists interviews, birth certificates, valuable newspaper clippings, original letters and photographs were added to this important new Museum resource. Research is an ongoing process. Some information still remains obscure, to be clarified in the future.

Lee Kogan is Senior Research Fellow and Assistant Director of the Folk Art Institute at the Museum of American Folk Art. She is a Fellow of the Folk Art Institute and completing the Museum's graduate program in Folk Art Studies at New York University.

Antiques Show From Pilgrim to Pop January 24-27, 1991 Sheraton Centre Hotel & Towers 52nd Street & Seventh Avenue New York, New York Early Buyer's Preview Thursday, January 24,6-10pm, $25 per person Friday & Saturday, January 25-26, 10am-9pm Sunday, January 27, 10am-5pm Daily admission,$8

Seventy-five exhibitors in room settings--offering a full spectrum of art,antiques,and artifacts that reflect the American experiencefrom Pilgrim to Pop— folk art, quilts,formal & country furniture, American Indian art, paintings, toys, rugs,jewelry, pottery, clocks & more. Jacqueline Sideli Antiques Shows

Chatham, NY 12037 518-392-6711



JUST IN TIME FOR HOLIDAY GIFT GIVING A TREASURY OF NEW PUBLICATIONS AT SPECIAL PRICES Amish: The Art of the Quilt by Julie Silber. 82 masterpieces of American quiltmaldng in full color, from the Esprit Collection, one of the finest collections of classic Amish quilts. $100.00 hardcover with slipcase(Members $89.95). 111111114 1111 4,11

Animals in American Folk Art by Wendy Lavitt. The first book to celebrate American animal folk painting, sculpture and utilitarian art from the eighteenth century to the present. More than 350 photographs. $75.00 hardcover(Members $67.50).


At Home: The American Family 1750-1870 by Elisabeth Donaghy Garrett. Step over the threshold into the early American middle-class home. Diaries, letters and household inventories provide a richly documented analysis of home life in this era. 195 reproductions of period paintings, drawings and prints. $49.50 hardcover (Members $44.55). Five-Star Folk Art: One Hundred American Masterpieces by Jean Lipman, Robert Bishop, Elizabeth V. Warren, and Sharon L. Eisenstat. Five stars — the ultimate accolade — are here applied to one hundred magnificent works of American folk art, each shown in a full-color plate. $39.95 hardcover (Special Discount! Members $27.95).

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Folk Treasures of Mexico: The Nelson A. Rockefeller Collection by Marion Oettinger, Jr. Highlights from the finest collection of Mexican folk art assembled in the U.S., including the remarkable story of Rockefeller, the collector. $49.50 hardcover(Members $44.55). Great Little Quilts: 45 Antique Crib and Doll-size Quilts with Patterns and Directions by Eleanor Levie. Historical references, anecdotal information, patterns and instructions for the experienced quiltmaker or novice. Color photos show.the antique quilts as they are used and displayed in the home. $29.95 hardcover (Members $26.95).


Holiday Ornaments and Antiques by William C. Ketchum, Jr. The definitive book on holiday objects, from blown-glass Christmas tree ornaments and Art Deco valentines to Thanksgiving doorstops and Fourth of July paraphernalia. 112 full-color photos. $50.00 hardcover (Members $44.95). Larger Than Life: The American 'PallTale Postcard,1905-1915 by Cynthia Elyce Rubin and Morgan Williams. FUR-BEARING TROUT CAUGHT IN MONTANA! MEN CHASE DOWN GIANT RABBIT WITH LASSOES AND AUTOMOBILES! These witty photographic postcards originated as a visual format for the timehonored "tall-tale" in the Midwest, where farmers were expert in straight-faced boasting. $24.95 hardcover(Members $22.45).

Made with Passion: The Hemphill Folk Art Collection in the National Museum of American Art by Lynda Roscoe Hartigan. The efforts of Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr. as a collector, curator, and author have influenced not only the interpretation offolk art but that of American art as well. This stunning volume traces his evolution as a collector and delineates the cast of characters, events,objects,and issues that affected him as well as those he subsequently influenced. $50.00 hardcover (Members $44.95).

Me ',dam A. R.witekller(Abodes

WILLIAM C. KETCHUM,JR. with phattyrniphr by Scherter Lee

Winter 1990




Mary Emmerling's American Country Classics: The New American Country Look. A visit to 22 houses ranging from an historic New England saltbox to a rustic cabin in Utah to an airy beach house in California. This book celebrates the diversity of American Country style and demonstrates that it is at home in any kind of architecture. $40.00 hardcover (Members $35.95).

Museum of American Folk Art Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century American Folk Art and Artists by Chuck and Jan Rosenak. The most complete resource on twentieth-century American folk art and artists, this stunning reference work presents a diverse panorama of painters, sculptors, potters and creators of environments. 255 lively and informative biographies illustrated by full-color examples of each artist's work. $75.00 hardcover (Special Discount! Members $59.95). Available February, 1991.

New Mexican Tinwork, 1840-1940 by Lane Coulter and Maurice Dixon, Jr. This pioneering book, based on exhaustive research, describes the tools, materials, and processes of a unique American folk art developed in the nineteenth century by devoutly Catholic Hispanics. Includes frames for holy pictures, candelabras, crosses and other religious objects. $35.00 hardcover(Members $31.50). The Picture Bible of Ludwig Denig: A Pennsylvania German Emblem Book by Don Yoder. Ludwig Denig was a Pennsylvania German shoemaker who created a unique fraktur manuscript book in the years following the Revolutionary War. Illustrated with 60 watercolor paintings of Bible scenes and allegories, the book is a fascinating work of early American art. $35.00 twovolume, softcover, slipcased edition. (Special Discount! Members $24.50).

r .;S:VoNtliA


Polfat -EMI11.1:P4 *(Uik

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The Quilt Engagement Calendar 1991. This perennial favorite presents 58 stunning examples of contemporary and antique quilts to enjoy each day of the year. $9.95 softcover(Members $8.95). Stitched from the Soul: Slave Quilts from the Ante-Bellum South by Gladys-Marie Fry. Research in diaries, family records, plantation records and account books provides new insights into the lives and creativity of slave women in America. A national search located slave-made textiles to visually augment this deeply moving chapter in the history of American quiltmaking. $18.95 softcover (Members $17.05).

The Story of American Toys from the Puritans to the Present by Richard O'Brien. A book to be treasured by anyone who was ever a child ... A fascinating history and invaluable reference for collectors and lovers of toys and Americana. Lavishly produced with 300 illustrations, 200 in full color. $49.95 hardcover(Members $44.95). The World of Taiji Harada Depicting the Four Seasons of Japan. Colorful moments of everyday Japanese life as seen through the eyes of Taiji Harada, one of Japan's leading naive painters. Over 100 lyrical pictures from the American tour of Harada's work. $15.00 softcover(Members $13.50).

ORDERING INFORMATION •List each book and the price, then total your order. • Next,add local sales tax if you live in New York State. •Last, add shipping and handling charges of $4.50 for first book; $1.00 each additional book. •Send check, money order, or credit card number with expiration date($25.00 minimum for MasterCard/VISA/American Express) to: Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shop, Two Lincoln Square, New York, NY 10023, Attention: Mail Order, Dept. CR. •Include your name, street address, and daytime telephone number. •Allow three weeks for delivery. •We will ship your gifts directly to the recipient. Include gift instructions.


Winter 1990





A symposium entitled The Cutting Edge: Twentieth Century American Folk Art, will be presented in conjunction with the exhibition of the same name organized by the Museum of American Folk Art on Friday, December 7, and Saturday, December 8, 1990. Among the panelists and speakers are Barbara Cate, Exhibition Curator and Director ofthe Folk Art Institute; Dr. Trudy Thomas, Curator of Fine Arts, Museum of Northern Arizona; Jack Beasley, Indian trader, Farmington, New Mexico;Dr. Robert Bishop, Director, Museum of American Folk Art; Florence Laffal, Publisher and Editor of The Folk Art Finder; Ann Oppenhimer,President, Folk Art Society of America; Chuck Rosenak, collector and co-author of the Museum of American Folk Art: Encyclopedia of TwentiethCentury Folk Art and Artists; Sterling Strauser, artist and patron of American folk artists; Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr., collector and author. Fee for Symposium: $30 for members, $35 for nonmembers. For reservations and location of events call 212/977-7170.

Kennetha R. Stewart, 59, former Cochairman of the Friends Committee of the Museum of American Folk Art, died of lung cancer on July 18, 1990 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. A commercial artist, she owned a studio in Manhattan since 1959. She was remembered by Howard Fertig, current President of the Friends Committee, as a devoted, persevering, and loyal worker for the Committee which helps the Museum in special fund raising projects. Born on September 2, 1930, Stewart was a graduate of Southwest Missouri College, and received her art training at Washington University in St. Louis.

FOLK ART EXPLORERS' CLUB NEWS The Folk Art Explorers' Club has planned some exciting tours for the coming year. Listed below are trips to San Francisco, New York City, and Switzerland. Details and registration information for these tours will be mailed to members in December 1990. Recent tours have filled up quickly, so mark your calendars and reserve your place soon. For more information, call the Membership Department at 212/977-7170. San Francisco Collections (March 19-24,1991) This tour will go to the San Francisco area from March 19-24, 1991, and will include visits to many outstanding private collections of both contemporary and traditional American folk art. We will be treated to receptions at local art galleries, including the Ames Gallery in Berkeley, as well as tours of museums, visits to artists' workplaces, and meals in some of the Bay Area's most highly acclaimed restaurants.

New York Lady; Leslie J. Payne; Northern Neck, VA: Circa 1970; Painted tin, copper, costume jewelry, and reflector; 263/4 x 13/ 3 4x 73/tr"; Collection ofChuck and Jan Rosenak.


Kennetha Stewart shown holding quilt she designed for the Friends Committee which was donated to the Museum at the occasion of thefirst Great American Quilt Festival.

New York City (April 12-14,1991) This will be the third annual Explorers' Club weekend in New York City. Like

the first two, this tour will include visits to impressive private collections and galleries, as well as a special tour of the Museum, meals in some wonderful restaurants, and a performance of a hit Broadway show. Switzerland (September 26-October 8,1991) Planned in conjunction with the Museum's Fall 1991 exhibition of Swiss folk art, this tour will take members to artfilled Switzerland. The group will meet in New York for the Members' Preview of the Swiss folk art exhibition on September 26, 1991, and leave for Switzerland the following day. The itinerary will include stops in each of the four distinct cultural regions ofthe country, French, German, Italian, and Romansch. The group will visit many wonderful museums and private collections in Zurich, Basel, and Berne, the country's capital, in addition to exploring some of the "living folk art" villages of decorated homes in the outer regions of the country such as the Engadine and Stein-am-Rhein. The tour will be centered in Zurich, and the group will spend two nights in St. Moritz.

The Clarion


FIRST PRIZE FOR MUSEUM SHOPS The Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shops, under the Direction of Marie DiManno, won first prize at the Twelfth Annual New York Book Country Street Fair for the booth display and promotion of the book Five-Star Folk Art: One Hundred Masterpieces. On

Sunday, September 16, 1990 over 180 kiosks representing publishers, bookstores, small presses and antiquarian booksellers transformed Fifth Avenue into a global marketplace of ideas and entertainment. It was the first time the Museum participated in the Fair.

FOLK ART INSTITUTE The Spring session of the Museum's Folk Art Institute which begins January 22, 1991, is now open for registration. The Folk Art Institute offers a 36-credit program which leads to a Certificate in Folk Art Studies. For fully matriculated students of the Institute, the tuition is $85.00 a credit. Auditor's tuition is $120 per course. Auditors are welcome to attend classes on a space-available basis. The Institute offers hands-on Craft and Heritage courses in Marbleizing, Graining, Rug Hooking, Painting, and Stencilling. Descriptions of courses and a detailed list of lectures are available. Classes will be held at the Folk Art Institute, Museum of American Folk Art, 61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023; Telephone 212/977-7170. Please direct inquiries to that address. The following program is subject to minor changes:

Mondays: 10:30 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. First Class: Monday from January 28, 1991

FA 23


Presented in conjunction with the exhibition "The Cutting Edge: December 7, 1990-March 10,1991



Wednesdays: 6:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. First Class: Wednesday from January 30, 1991

Mimi Sherman

Tuesdays: 10 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. First Class: Tuesday, January 22, 1991

FA 64



3 credits

Henry Niemann

FA 106


AMERICAN ART Instructor:

Saturday, May 4, 1991

Barbara Cate


Winter 1990

Gerard C. Wertkin

Dr. Robert Bishop

3 credits

Spend the day with the Director of the Museum of American Folk Art, touring galleries which specialize in quilts. 1 credit possible with further assignment. Presented in conjunction with The Great American Quilt Festival, May 1-May 5, 1991.

Wednesdays: 12:30 to 3:00 p.m. First Class: Wednesday, January 23, 1991

FA 27

1-3 credits

Lee Kogan

Time to be announced

Tuesdays: 6:30 to 8:30 p.m. First Class: Tuesday, January 22, 1991

FA 02

1 credit

Alice Hoffman

Five evenings with designers, editors of national home furnishing magazines, tastemakers.

Presented in conjunction with The Great American Quilt Festival, May 1-May 5, 1991

FA 12




3 credits

Lee Kogan

Mondays: 6:30 p.m. to 8:30 p.m. First Class: Monday, January 28, 1991

FA 87 FA 26


3 credits

Fee: $100(Lunch is provided; transportation is not. Reservation must be accompanied by your check)



WINTER LECTURE SERIES Registration is now open for the Winter lecture series of the Museum's Folk Art Institute. The following lectures are free to the public. For further information call 212/595-9533. Museum of American Folk Art Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th Streets New York City


GRAVESTONE ART GIVEN TO MUSEUM An outstanding collection of materials relating to early American gravestone art has been presented to the Museum of American Folk Art by Ivan B. Rigby, professor emeritus of industrial design at Brooklyn's Pratt Institute in New York in memory of his late friend Francis Y. Duval, a freelance photographer and designer. Included in the gift are approximately 20,000 photographic slides and prints, some 500 casts of individual tombstones, and about 100 books and articles relating to gravestone art. Duval and Rigby not only did their own photography, but developed a

The Cutting Edge: Contemporary American Folk Art Curatorial Lecture by Barbara Cate Wednesday, December 12, 1990 4:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. Eyeopeners: New Discoveries about Twentieth-Century Folk Artists Lecture by Lee Kogan, Senior Research Consultant, Museum of American Folk Art Wednesday, January 23, 1991 6:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. Film Festival: Films on Twentieth-Century Folk Artists Wednesday, February 20, 1991 9 a.m. to 9 p.m.(Continuous Showing

EXHIBITION: PAINTERS OF RECORD: WILLIAM MURRAY AND HIS SCHOOL Painters oi Record: William Murray and His School Curatorial lecture by Arthur B. Kern Monday, December 10, 1990 6:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m.

EXHIBITION: THE QUILT ENCYCLOPEDIA The Quilt Encyclopedia Curatorial Lecture by Carter Houck Friday, March 15, 1991 6:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m.


CI ay etone site

Windsor, CT;Circa 1760.

method for making plaster casts of the tombstones. Sites represented range from New York City's Trinity Churchyard to graveyards of the Bogomil sect in the Balkans,though the great concentration of the collection is on early cemeteries of the Eastern seaboard of the United States. The collection provided the basis for Duval and Rigby's book, Early American Gravestone Art in Photographs (N.Y., Dover, 1978), and for their numerous periodical articles and contributions to the publications of the Association for Gravestone Studies. The collection has also been featured in a number of gallery exhibitions. With the Museum's Daniel and Jessie Lie Farber collection of gravestone photographs and the Farbers' promised bequest ofthe original glass plate negatives ofHarriette Merrifield Forbes, the Duval/Rigby collection makes the Museum of American Folk Art one of the nation's richest repositories of materials for this fascinating field of study.

MUSEUM DONATES TO LOCAL MUSEUMS Over the years Museum collecting policies and guidelines for exhibitions and education often change. Sometimes objects which were once thought to be wonderful additions to a collection are put in reserve and then outgrow their function. So many Museums are affected by this occurrence that these objects have acquired their own vocabulary — they have become known as "orphan collections:' This past summer, the Museum of American Folk Art curatorial staff, with the help of Mimi Sherman, a candidate for MA at Fashion Institute of Technology in New York, assessed our own "orphan collections" and the decision was made to de-accession some wonderful farm implements. livo mortars, one with pestle, a tin tub and a table top cotton gin were accepted at the New Jersey Agricultural Museum in New

Brunswick. The Queens Farm Museum in New York City is overjoyed to have a nineteenth century rake, split branch pitchfork, and Farrier's Box. A walking or (wool) spinning wheel and a small four harness loom will be put to use in the Education Program at Richmondtown Restoration on Staten Island, New York. In addition, a number ofdolls have now joined expanding collections at the Brooklyn Children's Museum and the Staten Island Children's Museum. This successful "adoption" project has been responsible for building lines of communication and awareness among the Museums involved. The objects will now begin to fulfill the purpose for which they were collected. Visitors to their new homes will see, enjoy and learn from them. —Ann-Marie Reilly Registrar

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THE SILVERMAN COLLECTION'" A Unique Collection of Textile Art Prints

"Navajo Germantown Chief Blanket" circa 1880 JS-6A

An original signed silkscreen print by Jack Silverman. 30" x 41" ed. of 100 Arches paper $950. "Great collections are often the result of one man's inspiration and determination. Such is the collection of nineteenth century textiles brought together by artist-collector Jack Silverman. Silverman's goal has been simple: to assemble the finest examples of early Pueblo and Navajo textiles that he could find. By traveling throughout the country searching for and carefully buying and trading textiles, Silverman has developed a collection that is stunningly impressive. Accompanying the weavings are serigraphs created by Silverman. Employing a multiple layer technique of silkscreening, he achieves the illusion of woven texture. Through his serigraphs, Silverman seeks to document and disseminate the beauty of his collection." Robert Breunig, Chief Curator, The Heard Museum

Posters also available. Archival posters measure 24" x 36" and are produced on acid-free museum quality paper and printed with the finest fade-resistant inks. $35. MC/Visa

Catalogue $3.

Š 1990 Jack Silverman

The Silverman Collection PO Box 2610, Santa Fe, NM 87504-2610 505/982-6722 FAX: 505/982-6755 65




Gordon Bunshaft, 81, the noted modernist architect of skyscrapers, libraries and museums, died August 6 in Manhattan of cardiovascular arrest. A longtime partner at the architecture firm of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Bunshaft's importance as a designer will be remembered in landmark corporate buildings such as Lever House, One Chase Manhattan Plaza, and 9 West 57th Street in Manhattan; the Banque Lambert in Brussels; and the National Commercial Bank building in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; he also designed the Beinecke Library at Yale University in New Haven and the Hirshhorn Museum in Washington, D.C. Bunshaft and his wife Nina Wayler, who survives him, were avid collectors of contemporary art and assembled a large number of major works. Bunshaft also owned Musician with Lute by folk artist Clark Coe which is a promised gift to the Museum of American Folk Art. The work was exhibited in 1989 at the Museum in the exhibition "Always in Tune:' This sculpture was

The Museum offers a bi-monthly storytelling hour as part of its Children's Education Program. Storytellers will read and perform a wide range of folk tales including stories related to objects on exhibition. Free to the public. For reservations and information, call the Education Office at 212/595-9533. Musician with Lute; Clark Coe; Killingsworth, CT: Early twentieth century; Wood figure, metal and wood lute: Promised gift of Gordon Bunshaft.

originally part of an animated environment of approximately 40 articulated life-size figures created around the turn of the century in Killingworth, CT. Called the Killingworth Images, these figures, powered by a small water wheel, were constructed of barrel staves, slats, driftwood and tree stumps. Other known Coe pieces are A Man on a Hog, in the Hemphill Collection at the National Museum of American Art, and a Preacher! Conductor.

The World of Taiji Harada: Folk Art and Life in Japan Through January 4, 1991 Paine Webber Art Gallery 1285 Avenue of the Americas 212/713-2885 This exhibition has been organized by the Museum of American Folk Art and Asahi Shimbun, sponsored by Paine Webber Group Inc. and supported by Chinon Industries Inc. and Japan Air Lines. The Cutting Edge: Contemporary American Folk Art December 6,1990 to March 10, 1991 Museum of American Folk Art Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th Streets 212/595-9533 This exhibition has been made possible with a generous grant from Country Home Magazine.


Saturday, December 15, 1990 2:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. Ages 3-5 Saturday, December 29, 1990 2:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. Ages 5-7 Saturday, January 5, 1991 2:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. Ages 3-5 Saturday, January 19, 1991 2:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. Ages 5-7

WINTER EXHIBITION CALENDAR Schedule of current New York City Museum of American Folk Art Exhibitions

Museum of American Folk Art Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th Streets New York City

Painters of Record: William Murray and His School December 6, 1990 to March 3,1991 Museum of American Folk Art Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th Streets 212/595-9533 Crafted for Joy: Childrens' Wooden Toys December 6,1990 to January 6, 1991 Museum of American Folk Art Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square Columbus Avenue Between 65th and 66th Streets 212/595-9533

Saturday, March 2, 1991 2:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. Ages 3-5 Saturday, March 16, 1991 2:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. Ages 5-7

Crafted for Joy: Childrens' Wooden Toys Through March 10, 1991 American Festival Cafe Rockefeller Center 20 West 50th Street 212/246-6699 These displays have been presented by the Museum of American Folk Art and Wood Magazine in association with Toys-for-Tots and the Marine Corps Reserve.

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We offer an extremely varied selection offine American folk art. We specialize in fine, decorated slipware, particularly from Pennsylvania and the Shenandoah Valley. Also weathervanes,eighteenth and nineteenth century oil paintings, watercolors and miniatures.Tole,chalkware, woodcarvings and painted furniture. Come and visit us. You will be pleased with the quality ofour collection.



• *

226 West 21st Street New York, N. Y 10011


(212) 929-8769 Appointment suggested


MUSEUM'S TRAVELING EXHIBITIONS Mark your calendars for the following Museum of American Folk Art exhibitions when they travel to your area during the coming months:

October 21, 1990-January 1, 1991 Amish Quilts From The Collection of The Museum of American Folk Art Huntsville Museum of Art Huntsville, Alabama 205/535-4350

November 22, 1990-January 17, 1991 Memories of Childhood: The Great American Quilt Festival 2 Anderson County Arts Center Anderson, South Carolina 803/224-8811

December 10, 1990-February 4,1991 Access to Art: Bringing Folk Art Closer Oregon Art Institute Portland Art Museum Portland, Oregon 503/226-2811

November 5-December 31, 1990 Beneath The Ice: The Art of the Fish Decoy Cleveland Museum of Natural History Cleveland, Ohio 216/231-4600

February 7-April 4, 1991 Memories of Childhood: The Great American Quilt Festival 2 Jackson Country Historical Museum Maquoketa, Iowa 319/652-4895

March 4-May 9, 1991 Access to Art: Bringing Folk Art Closer Conner Prairie Noblesville, Indiana 317/776-6000 November 30, 1990-January 20, 1991 American Wildfowl Decoys: An Art of Deception Kamloops Art Gallery Kamloops British Columbia, Canada 604/828-3543

Winter 1990

January 21-March 18,1991 Beneath The Ice: The Art of the Fish Decoy Milwaukee Public Museum Milwaukee, Wisconsin 414/278-2702 June 22, 1990-June 27, 1992 Double Wedding Ring Quilts American Adventure Pavilion Epcot Center Walt Disney World Orlando, Florida 407/824-4321

For further information contact Alice J. Hoffman, Director of Exhibitions, Museum of American Folk Art, Administrative Offices, 61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023, Tel. 212/977-7170



RATES $95.00 per insertion. Box and phone numbers count as two words. Abbreviations and zip codes count as one word. Area codes must accompany phone numbers. Maximum is 40 words (including headline, address, etc.).

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PAYMENT Check or money order must accompany copy and be received prior to closing date. Make check payable to MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART, The Clarion Classified Ad Department, 61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023



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By Shaker Hands JUNE SPRIGG "Occasionally a book comes along that is so beautiful and full of meaning that we decide to keep it for a long, long time. Such a book is this. It 'celebrates' in praise, understanding, and appreciation the art and life of the Shak— Christian Science Monitor ers." "The finely executed drawings are both a joy to look at and a practical guide to craftspeople who are interested in the finest examples of quiet American folk art." — New York Times Book Review


237pp.243 illus. Reissue of1975 book. $19.95 paper

Shaker Village Views Illustrated Maps and Landscape Drawings by Shaker Artists of the Nineteenth Century ROBERT P.EMLEN "Exquisite color reproductions will ensure Shaker Village Views a valued place alongside existing studies of Shaker hymnody, furniture, architecture, and religious drawings. — Clarion Superbly researched and well written." 208 pp. 120 illus. 16 color plates(28 illus.). Now in paper, $24.95

Mother Ann Lee, Morning Star of the Shakers NARDI REEDER CAMPION June Sprigg,foreword "Campion has illumined Ann Lee as a formative figure in the women's movement as well [as] evoked a strong, estimable character whose personality overcame the eccentricities of her religion in the eyes of many."—New York Times Previously published as Ann the Word. 128 pp. $10.95 paper

By Good Hands New Hampshire Folk Art

Claire Runner (Dark), 25" x 116'; $655

The Art of Claire Murray "Claire Murray's art is beauty. It is a reflection of memories, the blend of the traditional and the contemporary, the vibrance of color and the warmth of home.-

ROBERT M.DOTY An inspiring collection of paintings, drawings, wall murals, calligraphy, and signs depicts two and a half centuries of New Hampshire folk art. From The Currier Gallery of Art and University of New Hampshire Art Galleries. 134 pp. 110 illus.(8 in color). $17.95 paper

New England University Press of New England • Hanover, NH 03755 • 800-421-1561

Hand hooked rugs, kits, needlepoint kits and hand stitched quilts. Call or write for our catalog, $5 refundable on first purchase.

CLAIRE MURRAY, INC. P.O. BOX 1089, DEPT. C, NORTH CHARLESTOWN 03603 1-800-323-9276 • For info: 603-543-0137 LONDON • NANTUCKET • MONTREAL


MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART BOARD OF TRUSTEES Ralph Esmerian President Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq. Executive Vice President and Chairman, Executive Committee Lucy C. Danziger Executive Vice President Peter M. Ciccone Treasurer Mrs. Dixon Wecter Secretary Florence Brody Karen D. Cohen Daniel Cowin David L. Davies Judith A. Jedlicka Barbara Johnson, Esq.

Joan M. Johnson Theodore L. Kesselman Susan Klein William I. Leffler George H. Meyer, Esq. Cyril I. Nelson Cynthia V.A. Schaffner William Schneck George F. Shaskan, Jr. Kathryn Steinberg Bonnie Strauss Maureen Taylor Robert N. Wilson

Honorary Trustee Eva Feld Trustees Emeriti Adele Earnest Cordelia Hamilton Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr. Louis C. Jones Margery G. Kahn Alice M. Kaplan Jean Lipman

DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE Judith A. Jedlicka Theodore L. Kesselman Co-Chairmen Lewis Alpaugh Hoechst Celanese Corporation Gordon Bowman Corporate Creative Programs

Frank Brenner Hartmarx Corporation John Mack Carter Good Housekeeping Jerry Kaplan Better Homes and Gardens Allan Kaufman Long Distance North

Francine Lynch Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A. Rachel Newman Country Living Thomas Troland Country Home Barbara Wright New York Telephone

INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq. Mrs. Dixon Wecter Co-Chairmen Paul Anbinder William Arnett Frank & June Barsalona Mary Black Susan Blumstein Judi Boisson Gray Boone Robert & Katherine Booth Barbara & Edwin Braman Milton Brechner Raymond Brousseau Edward J. Brown Charles Burden Tracy Cate Margaret Cavigga Joyce Cowin Richard & Peggy Danziger Marian DeWitt Davida Deutsch Charlotte Dinger Raymond & Susan Egan Margot Paul Ernst Helaine & Burton Fendelman Howard Fertig 70

Ted & Joanne Foulk Jacqueline Fowler Ken & Brenda Fritz Ronald Gard Robert S. Gelbard Dr. Kurt A. Gitter Merle & Barbara Glick Baron & Ellin Gordon Howard M. Graff Bonnie Grossman Michael & Julie Hall Lewis I. Haber Elaine Heifetz Terry Heled Josef & Vera Jelinek Eloise Julius Isobel & Harvey Kahn Allen Katz Mark Kennedy Arthur & Sybil Kern William Ketchum Susan Kraus Wendy Lavitt Mimi Livingston Marilyn Lubetkin Robert & Betty Marcus Paul Martinson Michael & Marilyn Mennello

Steven Michaan Alan Moss Kathleen S. Nester Helen Neufeld Henry Niemann Paul Oppenheimer Ann Frederick & William Oppenhimer Dr. Burton W. Pearl Patricia Penn Dorothy & Leo Rabkin Harriet Polier Robbins Charles & Jan Rosenak Joseph J. Rosenberg Le Rowell Randy Siegel Sibyl Simon Susan Simon Ann Marie Slaughter Sanford L. Smith R. Scudder Smith Richard Solar Hume Steyer Jane Supino Edward Tishelman Tony & Anne Vanderwarker Clune Walsh John Weeden G. Marc Whitehead The Clarion


The Museum of American Folk Art greatly appreciates the generous support of the following friends: $20,000 and above Asahi Shimbun Ben & Jerry's Homemade,Inc. Better Homes & Gardens Judi Boisson Marilyn & Milton Brechner Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Chinon, Ltd. Estate of Thomas M.Conway Country Home The Joyce and Daniel Cowin Foundation Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Frederick M.Danziger Mrs. Eva Feld Estate of Morris Feld Foundation Krikor The Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation Hartmarx Corporation William Randolph Hearst Foundation James River Corporation Kodansha, Ltd. Jean & Howard Lipman Joseph Martinson Memorial Fund Steven Michaan National Endowment for the Arts New York State Council on the Arts PaineWebber Group Inc. Philip Morris Companies Dorothy & Leo Rabkin Restaurant Associates Industries, Inc. Schlumberger Foundation Herbert and Nell Singer Foundation, Inc. Two Lincoln Square Associates United States Information Agency United Technologies Corporation Mrs. Dixon Wecter The Xerox Foundation $10,000-$19,999 ABSOLUT Vodka Estate of Mary Allis Amicus Foundation Bear, Stearns & Co., Inc. Lily Cates Mr. & Mrs. Peter Cohen Culbro Corporation David L. Davies Mr. & Mrs. Alvin Deutsch Adele Earnest Fairfield Processing Corporation/Poly-fil Daniel and Jessie Lie Farber Walter and Josephine Ford Fund Taiji Harada Joan and Victor L. Johnson Shirley and Theodore L. Kesselman Masco Corporation George H. Meyer Kathleen S. Nester New York Telephone Winter 1990

Sallie Mae/Student Loan Marketing Association Samuel Schwartz Mrs. Gertrude Schweitzer and Family Mr. & Mrs. George F. Shaskan, Jr. Peter and Linda Solomon Foundation Springs Industries Mr. & Mrs. Robert Steinberg Barbara and Thomas W. Strauss Fund $4,000-$9,999 The Bernhill Fund Mr. & Mrs. Martin Brody The David and Dorothy Carpenter Foundation Tracy Roy & Barbara Wahl Cate Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A. Country Living Mr. & Mrs. Edgar M. Cullman Mr. & Mrs. Richard Danziger Jacqueline Fowler Colonel Alexander W. Gentleman Richard Goodyear Hoechst Celanese Corporation Barbara Johnson, Esq. Margery and Harry Kahn Philanthropic Fund Lore Kann Foundation Mr. & Mrs. Robert Klein Wendy & Mel Lavitt Metropolitan Life Foundation George H. Meyer Annette Reed Arthur Ross Foundation The Salomon Foundation S.H. and Helen R. Scheuer Family Foundation The William P. and Gertrude Schweitzer Foundation, Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Stanley Tananbaum John Weeden The H.W. Wilson Foundation Robert N. & Anne Wright Wilson Norman & Rosita Winston Foundation Wood Magazine $2,000-$3,999 American Folk Art Society American Savings Bank Estate of Abraham P. Bersohn The Mary Duke Biddle Foundation Mr. and Mrs. Edward J. Brown Capital Cities/ABC The Coach Dairy Goat Farm Mr. & Mrs. Joseph F. Cullman 3rd Exxon Corporation Mr. & Mrs. Alvin Einbender Cordelia Hamilton Justus Heijmans Foundation Johnson & Johnson Manufacturers Hanover Trust Marsh & McLennan Companies Christopher and Linda Mayer McGraw-Hill, Inc. Montefiore Medical Center Morgan Stanley & Co.,Incorporated

The New York Times Company Foundation, Inc. Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation The Reader's Digest Association, Inc. Betsey Schaeffer Robert T. & Cynthia V.A. Schaffner Mr. & Mrs. Derek V. Schuster Mr. & Mrs. Ronald K. Shelp Joel & Susan Simon Mr. & Mrs. Austin Super Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Taylor Time Warner Inc. Alice Yelen & Kurt A. Gitter $1,000-$1,999 American Savings Bank William Arnett The Bachmann Foundation Didi & David Barrett Mr. & Mrs. Frank Barsalona Michael Belknap Edward Vermont Blanchard & M. Anne Hill Bloomingdale's Bozell Inc. Mr.& Mrs. Edwin Braman Mabel H. Brandon Ian G.M.& Marian M.Brownlie Morris B. and Edith S. Cartin Family Foundation Edward Lee Cave CBS Inc. Liz Claiborne Foundation Conde Nast Publications Inc. Consolidated Edison Company of New York The Cowles Charitable Trust Crane Co. Susan Cullman Mr. & Mrs. Donald DeWitt Gerald & Marie DiManno The Marion and Ben Duffy Foundation Echo Foundation Ellin E Ente Margot & John Ernst Virginia S. Esmerian Mr.& Mrs. Thomas Ferguson Janey Fire & John Kalymnios Louis R. and Nettie Fisher Foundation M. Anthony Fisher Susan & Eugene Flanun The Flower Service Emanuel Gerard The Howard Gilman Foundation Selma & Sam Goldwitz Mr. & Mrs. Baron J. Gordon Renee Graubert Terry & Simca Heled Alice & Ronald Hoffman Mr. & Mrs. David S. Howe IBM Corporation Inn on the Alameda Mr. & Mrs. Yee Roy Jear Judith A. Jedlicka Dr. and Mrs. J.E. Jelinek 71

TOAD HALL 63 Pioneer St. Cooperstown, NY 13326 607 547-2144

350 Broadway Saratoga Springs, NY 12866 518 583-0149

Contemporary American Folk Art Specializing in contemporary folk paintings,carvings, pottery and fine American furniture. Jean Armstrong Toni Bernhard Lester Breiminer Jerry Farrell Jessica Farrell Ned Foltz Trinidad R.Gilmore David Gottshall Joe Graham Terry Graham Ray Horan Sarah Horan Edwin Johnson

Calm Before The Storm by Trinidad R. Gilmore 46"x60" Acrylic on masonite.

Bob Mahalick Sam Manno Nancy McGuire Charles Munro Janet Munro Jim Parker David Robinson Ron Sanborn Helen Smagorinsky Barbara Strawser Nancy Thomas Judd Weisberg




908/295-4040 517 Main Avenue Bay Head, NJ 08742


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by ROSEBEE 0 1989


11:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. and By Appointment

Closed Tues. & Wed.

ACRYLIC ON MASONITE - 271 / 2 / 2 x 471


The Clarion

Richard Edson

Rev. Howard Finster

Cognoscenti Oollay Contemporary Folk & Outsider Art

Early Paintings November 2- December 24,1990

Urban Artware Gallery 207 W. Sixth St. Winston-Salem, NC 27101 (919) 722-2345 Special Reading Performance by Tom Patterson on November 9th at 8:00 pm (author of Howard Finster: Stranger From Another World, Man of Visions Now on this Earth)

608 Reservoir Street P.O. Box 4759 Baltimore, Maryland 21211 (301)523-1507 By Appointment 1-800-735-0311


Isobel & Harvey Kahn Kallir, Philips, Ross, Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Leslie Kaplan Lee & Ed Kogan Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Lauder Estate of Mary B. Ledwith William & Susan Leffler Dorothy & John Levy James & Frances Lieu Macmillan, Inc. R.H. Macy & Co., Inc. Robert & Betty Marcus Foundation, Inc. Marstrand Foundation C.F. Martin IV Helen R. Mayer & Harold C. Mayer Foundation Marjorie W. McConnell Brian & Pam McIver Meryl & Robert Meltzer Michael & Marilyn Mennello Benson Motechin, C.P.A., P.C. National Westminster Bank USA New York Marriott Marquis Mattie Lou O'Kelley Paul Oppenheimer Cathy Rasmussen Ann-Marie Reilly Paige Rense Winter 1990

Marguerite Riordan Mrs. John D. Rockefeller III Joanna S. Rose Willa & Joseph Rosenberg Mr. & Mrs. Jon Rotenstreich Schlaifer Nance Foundation Mr. & Mrs. William Schneck Mr. & Mrs. Richard Sears Randy Siegel Rev. & Mrs. Alfred R. Shands III Mrs. Vera W. Simmons Philip & Mildred Simon Mrs. A. Simone Mr. & Mrs. Sanford L. Smith Mr. & Mrs. Richard L. Solar Sotheby's Mr. & Mrs. Elie Soussa Sterling Drug Inc. Phyllis & Irving Tepper Anne D. Utescher H. van Ameringen Foundation Tony & Anne Vanderwarker Elizabeth & Irwin Warren Wayside Fumiture Weil, Gotshal & Manges Foundation Wertheim Schroder & Co. Mr. & Mrs. John H. Winkler

$500-$999 Helen & Paul Anbinder Louis Bachman Arthur and Mary Barrett David C. Batten Roger S. Berlind Best Health Soda Robert & Katherine Booth Michael 0. Braun Iris Carmel Edward & Nancy Coplon Judy Angelo Cowen Edgar M. Cullman, Jr. Allan L. Daniel The Danunann Fund, Inc. Andre & Sarah de Coizart Mr. & Mrs. James DeSilva, Jr. Deborah Dunn Entenmann's Richard C. & Susan B. Ernst Foundation Ross N. & Glady A. Faires Helaine & Burton Fendelman Mr. & Mrs. Howard Fertig Timothy C. Forbes Estelle E. Friedman Ronald Gard General Foods 73




HANDCARVED WOOD SCULPTURE 50 N. PLEASANT ST. MIDDLEBURY, VT. 05753 (802) 388-4520 Rocking Pig. 30" X 19

x 12'

elm wood

First Phase Navajo Concha Belt 19th Century


Mr. & Mrs. William L. Gladstone Irene and Bob Goodkind Great Performances Caterers Robert M.Greenberg Dr. & Mrs. Stanley Greenberg Grey Advertising, Inc. Connie Guglielmo Hedderson Lumber Yard Cathy M. Kaplan The Charles U. Harris Living Trust Denison H. Hatch Stephen Hill Holiday Inn of Auburn Mr. & Mrs. Albert L. Hunecke, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Thomas C. Israel Guy Johnson Mary Kettaneh Barbara Klinger Janet Langlois Peter M.Lehrer Mr. & Mrs. Richard M. Livingston Hennine Mariaux Michael T. Martin Robin & William Mayer Mr. & Mrs. D. Eric McKechnie Gertrude Meister Gad Mendelsohn 74

Pierson K. Miller New York Hilton and Towers at Rockefeller Plaza Mr. & Mrs. Arthur O'Day Geraldine M. Parker Dr. Burton W. Pearl Mr. & Mrs. Stanley M. Riker Betty Ring Mr.& Mrs. David Ritter Revor C. Roberts Charles & Jan Rosenak Richard Sabino Mary Frances Saunders Sheraton Inn, Norwich Skidmore Owings & Merrill Smith Gallery Smithwick Dillon Jerry I. Speyer David F. Stein Robert C. & Patricia A. Stempel Texaco Philanthropic Foundation, Inc. Edward I. Tishelman David & Jane Walentas Marco P. Walker Washburn Gallery Anne G. Wesson G. Marc Whitehead

Mr. & Mrs. John R. Young Marcia & John Zweig

The Museum is grateful to the Co-Chairwomen ofits Special Events Committee for the significant support received through the Museum's major fund raising events chaired by them. Karen D. Cohen Cynthia V. A. Schaffner

The Museum also thanks the following donors for their recent gifts to the Permanent Collection, Library and Education Collection: Mr. Lelyn Branin Robert Bishop Valerie Fisher Bumice Healen Mary Lehman Family of Emma K. Lentz Alan and Marilyn Loesberg Alan Milton Charles & Jan Rosenak The Clarion


COUNTRY HOME MAGAZINE Once again, Country Home Magazine proved to be an innovative and extremely generous friend to the Museum of American Folk Art. The magazine named the Museum as the beneficiary of proceeds from ticket sales at its 1990 Showcase House which is located in North Haven Point, Long Island. The home was open to visitors on August 31 and September 1. A special program of seminars was held during both days and included lectures by Robert Bishop; Jean LemMon, Editor of Country Home; Joseph Boehm, Interior Design Editor of Country Home; And noted stencil artist Adele Bishop. During the two-day period, more than 600 individuals visited the home. Proceeds from ticket sales support the presentation of"The Cutting Edge: Contemporary American Folk Art" which is on view at the Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square through March 6, 1991. As sponsor of the exhibition, Country Home also provided in-kind support through the design and printing of the invitations to the members' opening reception. The 1990 Showcase House will be featured in the February 1991 issue of Country Home. WOOD MAGAZINE HOLIDAY DISPLAY Children of all ages will delight in the 1990 holiday display at the Museum entitled "Crafted for Joy: Wood Toys Created for Children" which includes wooden trucks, trains, boats, planes and puzzles created for the Wood Magazine Build-a-Toy contest. The magazine developed the contest to further the public's understanding and appreciation of woodworking and craftsmanship. The toys, which were created by the magazine's readership, are presented to children nationwide through Toys-for-Tots and the United States Marine Corps Reserve. The holiday display is on view in the Garden Court Winter 1990

Jean LemMon, Editor-inchief, and Terry McIntyre, Publisher of Country Home Magazine, presenting a check to Dr. Robert Bishop, Director, Museum ofAmerican Folk Art, from the 1990 Country Home Showcase House, Sag Harbor, New York.

at the Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square from December 6,1990 through January 6, 1991 and is made possible with the generous support of Wood Magazine. The Museum will participate in the Toys-for-Tots program by placing toy donation boxes in the Garden Court; toys will be distributed by the United States Marine Corps Reserve. IN-KIND GIFTS In-kind gifts are essential to the operation of the Museum. When the value of this support is totalled at the end ofeach year, the importance of these gifts is apparent. Recent in-kind commitments for a variety of projects at the Museum include the following: • Entenmann's has agreed to donate baked goods for all of the walking tours at The Great American Quilt Festival III in May 1991. • The Inn on the Alameda donated accommodations for the Registrar and Curator during their visit to Santa Fe, New Mexico in August to organize the objects which are currently on view in "The Cutting Edge: Contemporary American Folk Art!' •The New York Hilton donated accommodations for an art courier who was needed to bring objects to New York for "Five-Star Folk Art!' •A&P contributed several gift certificates which will be used to purchase

refreshments for upcoming membership events. • Great Performances Caterers will donate baked goods for walking tours at the Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square during The Great American Quilt Festival III. • Hedderson Lumber Yard has agreed to donate lumber which will be used for the installations of the prize-winning quilts at The Great American Quilt Festival III. •Ben & Jerry's will donate ice cream for a special party which will be held by the Museum and Wood Magazine to celebrate the holiday display. Children from day-care centers around the city will be invited; editors at Wood Magazine have crafted wooden toys which will also be given to partygoers. In the past, companies such as Xerox Corporation, International Paper Company, Holiday Inn, Marriott, Sheraton, General Foods and Best Health Soda have made in-kind contributions. Proposals are currently pending which request in-kind gifts such as paint and hardware for exhibition installations, additional hotel accommodations for various projects, paper products for the offices and computer software. If you are interested in learning more about the needs of the Museum and the benefits to donors making in-kind gifts, please contact the Development Office at 212/977-7170. 75


WASHINGTON, DC February 9, 10, 11, 1991 American Crafts by Traditional Folk Artists

Sheraton Washington Hotel 2660 Woodley Rd. at Connecticut Ave., NW Washington, DC (Two Blocks from the National Zoo)

tryteritage NIARKETS

FOLK ARTIST: Marlene Coble D.R. Coble & Co.

D.J. Malczewski

6' stration and Information: P.O. Box 389 • Carlisle, PA 17013 (717) 249-9404 Call for Market Times • Open to the Trade Only.

Suite 223 • 1900 Empire Blvd. • Webster, NY 14580 (716) 671-1258

Left to right:

Poplar & Brass 27" x 30" x 6"

Tiger Maple w/toy wheels 21" x 19" x 7"

Butternut w/Black finish 26" x 19" x 5"


"The Dog Walker" by Stephen Huneck Polychromed sand cast aluminum, lifesize from the wood carving, edition of 6 Individual dogs available upon request. Please call or write for information on artist.

R.F.D. 1 ST. JOHNSBURY, VT. 05819 802-748-5593 BY APPOINTMENT



We wish to thank the following members for their increased membership contributions and for their expression of confidence in the Museum:

Barbara E. Bernstein, Los Angeles, CA Janice & Mickey Cartin, W. Hartford, CT Deborah Dunn, New York, NY Dean Lucker, St. Paul, MN Lawrence & Marcia Lusk, San Francisco, CA Harris May, Greenwich, CT

Dr. & Mrs. Ed Okun,St. Louis, MO Mr. & Mrs. Richard S. Paul, Fairfield, CT Dr. & Mrs. Roger Rose, New York, NY Toni Ross,E. Hampton,NY Karen & David Sobotka, Summit, NJ Ann Z. Wrenn, Briarcliff, NY


The Museum trustees and staff extend a special welcome to these new members: Lynne Adele, Austin, TX Mr. & Mrs. R. Amato, New York, NY Barbara Ardizone, Philadelphia, PA Art Mecca, Chicago, IL Whitney Ashcourt, State College, PA Agnes Atwood, New York, NY Boimi C. Backe, E. Elmhurst, NY Sonya Lee Barrington, San Francisco, CA Margaret J. Bassett, Richmond, VA Suzi Batchelor, Augusta, GA Donald B. Bender, Livingston, NJ Sara Berman, Larclunont, NY Thomas R. Bettag, New York, NY Catherine Bidos, N. Babylon, NY Ms. Priscilla Blakemore, New York, NY Nancy Jane Bolton, Charlottesville, VA Stacey Tappan Borders, Plant City, FL Ms. Shirley Boulanger, Gray, ME Woodward S. Bousquet, Swarmanoa, NC Diane Brehmer, Brooklyn, NY Brenda Brinuner, New York, NY Debra Brindis, Milwaukee, WI Thomas M. Britt III, New York, NY Lindsay Brown, Milford, PA Eileen Burk, New York, NY Victoria Burke, New York, NY Buttercup Antiques & Folk Art, Merrill, WI Nancy M. Carlson, Atlanta, GA Caropreso Gallery, Lee, MA Joseph D. Cassidy, Hoboken, NJ Juliet Cassone, New York, NY J. Chatellier, Basking Ridge, NJ Linda Cheverton, New York, NY Mrs. Barbara Childs, Stahlstown,PA Elizabeth Christophe, Chasselay, France 78

Rachel D.K. Clark, Watsonville, CA Joel Claymont, New York, NY Alexandra Cohn, New York, NY Dr. & Mrs. W. Colaiace, Providence, RI Lezlie Colburn, Stoughton, MA Bernieda Conlan, West Haven,CT Robert A. Conn, Huntingdon Valley, PA Leonard E. Cox, New York, NY Greg Cross, New York, NY Dorothe B. Curtis, Kaunalcakai, HI David M. Davis, Birmingham, AL Barbara DeGeorge, New York, NY Martha Jo Dennison, West Haven, CF Paulette Doggett, Mobile, AL Eileen M. Drennen, Atlanta, GA Virginia Duncan, New York, NY Allie Eilers, Pepper Pike, OH Mr. & Mrs. Michael Erlanger, Athens, GA Mrs. Beatrice Esplin, Miami,FL Anne W. Fenner, New York, NY Jack W. Field, Princeton, NJ Anne E. Fontaine, Brooklyn, NY David J. Franer, Washington, DC Susan L. Fricke, Salt Lake City, UT Edward E Gallenstein, Cincinnati, OH Barbara Gates, New York, NY Norma & Sydney Gelbwaks, Newark, NJ Wendie Gerber, Fremont, MI Jeanne E. Glenfield, Westford, MA Renee Gold, Fly Creek, NY Eileen Goldfeder, Hastings, NY Harriet Goldman, ParIcton, MD Andrea Graham,Dedham, MA Cheryl A. Groesbeck, Shelton, CT Glenn C. Hall, Hatboro,PA

Butler & Lisa Hancock, Denver, CO Lynn Ann Harris, Yonkers, NY Emily Harris, Simsbury, CT Peter D. Hartman, Richmond, VA Ms. Virginia Hartnell, Mercedes,TX Yvonne Haskell, Boothwyn,PA Mary Kay Hitchner, Haverford,PA Sylvia Hoffstein, Haverford,PA Kime Holman, Coral Bay, St. John Evie Holtzman, New York, NY P.J. Homberger, Sweeny, TX Pat House, Tarboro, NC Anne C. Howerton, Morehead, KY Bonnie Wolters Hunt, New York, NY Sam Johnson, Murfreesboro, AR Mrs. Marsha Kaplan, Westport, CT Irene Kapner, Forest Hills, NY Ms. Marcia Kapps,Philadelphia, PA Francis J. Kazeroid, Brooklyn, NY Joan F. Kellerhals, Brooklyn, NY J. Kersten Kraft, Cupertino, CA Mr. & Mrs. A. Krasnoff, New York, NY Elizabeth H. Krist, New York, NY Rita Lee, Phoenix, AZ Gail Lettick, New York, NY Carol Levy, Cresskill, NJ James C. Litz, Depew, NY Carole Rose Livingston, New York, NY Mary Lyons, Charlottesville, VA Janie Machiz, Ghent, NY Paul Maggio, New York, NY Irving J. Maitin, Meadowbrook,PA Virginia Marshall, New York, NY Susan Maurer, New York, NY C. McCall, New York, NY Kristina McCormack, Atlantic Highlands, NJ The Clarion



Victoria McNeil, Mohegan Lake, NY Eric Keneth Meiners, Columbus, OH Miss Barbara A. Millar, New York, NY Ethel Wright Mohamed, Belzoni, MS Gad Marie Mooney, New York, NY Ms. Kathy Mullins, Hartford, VT Ann Bodle Nash, La Conner, WA Mrs. Robin Nolen, Grand Praire, TX Margaret Olivares, New York, NY Nancy & Gary Penman, Easthampton, MA Dr. Regina Perry, Richmond, VA Marge Piper, Bath,IN Sharon Pittman, Chicago, IL Lia Polsky, Los Angeles, CA Carter Prescott, New York, NY Laura Qualcenbush, Leland, MI R.I. School of Design Library, Providence, RI Michelle Rack, Sherman Oaks, CA Mr. & Mrs. Charles Randau, Royal Oak, MI Carolyn Y. Richards, Horseheads, NY Mrs. Marion Rogovin, Whitestone, NY Jeanette Ryan, Bridgeport, CT Carol P. Saul, New York, NY Robert H. Schaffer, Stamford, CT Mary Beth Scheid, Sandy Hook,CT Patricia Schilbe, New York, NY Martin Schwartz, Port Washington, NY Elida Scola, Oakland, CA Louise Sencer, Hewlett Harbor, NY Judy Severson, Inc., San Rafael, CA Mrs. Jennie Seymour, New York, NY Mary Shelley, Ithaca, NY Lisa Shulman,llickahoe, NY Pat Haynes Sislen, Woodridge, NJ Mary L. Smith, Augusta,GA Lana Smith, Orlando, FL Susan Male Smith, Madison, NJ Mary Ann Switzer, River Hills, WI Texas Tech University Library, Lubbock, TX Katherine S. Thomas, New York, NY Sandra M. Todaro, Shreveport, LA John P. Tynan, Seaford, NY Ellen Vainas, Astoria, NY Thomas D. Vance, Minneapolis, MN Veranda Antiques, Boucicville, NY Sarah S. Veronis, Litchfield, CT Ted Watts, Silver Spring, MD Wayside Furniture, Milford, CT Sidney & Hilda Weinberg, Boca Raton, FL M. Joyce Wheat, Fenton, MI Ms. Rosalie L. Wong,Pt. Jefferson, NY Jim Wright, San Francisco, CA


`1-t\de ih AMERICAN FOLK AND OUTSIDER ART TUE â&#x20AC;&#x201D; SAT . 11-6 6909 MELROSE AVENUE LOS ANGELES CA 90038 213 . 657 . 6369

Keiko Yarnakawa, Tokyo, Japan Winter 1990



America's Folk Heritage Gallery

1044 Madison Avenue, N.Y., N.Y. 10021 Tues.-Sun. 11-6 Closed Mon. 628-7280



JAY JOHNSON 'fTOUNTRD=1 492 Piermont Avenue, Piermont, N.Y. 10968 (914)359-6216 Hours: Thurs.-Sun. 12-5 "My Town"by Marie Keegan 01990 Oil on canvas 30"x 40"

E7L1 1


America Hurrah Inside Front Cover American Primitive Gallery 7 Ames Gallery of American Folk Art 19 Joshua Baer & Company 13 Barrister's Gallery 67 Sandra Berry 31 Ruth Bigel 23 Robert Cargo Folk Art Gallery 6 Cavin-Morris, Inc. 5 Cherishables Antiques 27 Christie's 21 Cognoscenti, Inc. 73 Country Heritage Markets 76 John Denton 33 Leslie Eisenberg Folk Art Gallery 30 Epstein/Powell 32 Laura Fisher 2 Timothy Fisher 74 Janet Fleisher Gallery 4 Galeria Lara 22 80

Gallery 10, Inc. 11 Gasperi Gallery 29 Sidney Gecker American Folk Art 67 Gilley's Gallery 68 Grass Roots Gallery 29 Anton Haardt Gallery 28 Hill Gallery 17 John C. Hill American Indian Art 74 Hirschl & Adler Folk Inside Back Cover Stephen Huneck 77 Lynne Ingram 31 Martha Jackson 18 Jay Johnson 80 M. Thompson Kravetz Gallery 72 Leon Loard Gallery 23 Main Street Antiques 33 D.J. Malczewski 76 Frank J. Miele 26 Steve Miller 1 The Nantucket Collection 69

Outside-in Thomas C. Queen Robert Reeves Ricco/Maresca John Keith Russell Larry Schlachter Brigitte Schluger Gallery David A. Schorsch Jacqueline Sideli Antique Shows The Silverman Collection Sotheby's The Tartt Gallery Toad Hall University Press of New England Urban Artwear Gallery Views Gallery Vicki and Bruce Waasdorp Eldred Wheeler of Houston Brian Windsor Thos. K. Woodard

79 22 30 3 Back Cover 16 18 24 57 65 15 20 72 69 73 28 16 19 32 8 The Clarion

Hirsch!& Adler Folk 851 Madison Ave, NY 10021 (212)988-3655


SPRING STREET,SOUTH SALEM, WESTCHESTER COUNTY,1‘4Y. 10590 (914)763-8144• FAX:(914)763-3553 TUESDAY-SUNDAY 10:00-5;30

The Clarion (Winter 1990/1991)  

John and Elizabeth Freake: Fashions of the Times • African American Visionary Traditions and the Art of Frank Jones • Ljuskroner: They Are S...

The Clarion (Winter 1990/1991)  

John and Elizabeth Freake: Fashions of the Times • African American Visionary Traditions and the Art of Frank Jones • Ljuskroner: They Are S...