Page 1


FOLK ART MAGAZINE The Museum of American Folk Art New York City FALL 1990, Vol. 15, No. 4


ERICA*HURRAH 766 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK, N.Y. 10021.212-535-1930

William Mathew Prior 1806-1873(attributed), pair of portraits c. 1840. Oil on academy board 10" x 14" Said to be Hopkins Choice and his sister. Found in Massachusetts. Country Fair appliqued and embroidered table rug. English or Welsh c. 1820. 27" x 551/2"


Superb and exceptionally rare Leaping Stag Weathervane by an unknown 19th Century maker. A related group of Stag Weathervanes is pictured in Art of the Weathervane, Miller, pp.128 and 147. These two are obviously by the same maker.

17 East 96th Street, New York, New York 10128(212) 348-5219 Hours: 2:00 P.M. to 6:00 P.M. Tues. through Sat. & By Appointment





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Original drawings of children, animals,furniture, buildings, decorative objects and plants, finely embroidered in an enchanting blockwork quilt; wool, c. 1890

or by appointment(212)866-6033

1050 Second Avenue,Gallery #57,New York,New York 10022 (212)838-2596

New York City's largest, most exciting selection of:•Antique Quilts•Coverlets• Paisley Shawls•Beacon/Pendleton Blankets•Marseilles Spreads•Amish Buggy Shawls•Hooked Rugs• Vintage Decorative Accessories • American Folk Art•

Extremely rare cyanotype quilt pieced of photographic souvenir kerchiefs showing the historic sites of Nantucket, Massachusetts; cotton; c. 1895

Picture this...

Within just three years of being discovered by a museum, Maurice Sullins' paintings represented the United States at the 1989 centennial celebration for the Eiffel Tower in a solo museum exhibition in Paris, France. The explosive painting reproduced above is from Sullins' Eiffel Tower series and was featured in the exhibition that traveled to Paris. "Gay Paree", 1970, acrylic on canvas panel, 30"x 24"

MAURICE SULLINS A Most Remarkable Discovery Becomes An Exceptional Opportunity for Collectors of Art Art historians, museum directors, art critics, and prominent collectors believe that Maurice Sullins will be one of the more important American Outsider artists of the 20th century. Maurice Sullins, who is now 80 years of age, began painting 20 years ago as the result of a powerful and inspirational dream. Sullins, an entirely self-taught artist, became obsessed with his art and worked feverishly until his house was packed ceiling-high with paintings. The Illinois artist was driven by a need to create images and was not concerned with showing or selling his work until his wife of 51 years passed away in 1986. In early 1987, after being alerted as to the existence of Sullins and his paintings, the Director for Art from the Illinois State Museum and two of his fine arts curators traveled to Joliet. They were startled to find an art historian's dream — an intact body of spectacular work by an unknown artist. Maurice Sullins' work was then documented and a major retrospective exhibition of his work was organized. Beginning in 1988, the exhibition traveled to museum locations in the Midwestern United States receiving excellent reviews.

Then, something really extraordinary happened! Maurice Sullins' remarkable paintings were chosen by the director at the prestigious SEITA Museum in Paris, France, to be shown in a solo exhibition during the centennial celebration for the Eiffel Tower in 1989. The French media and public also responded to Sullins' work with great enthusiasm. What is it about Maurice Sullins' art work that merits this kind of attention? People respond to the uniqueness of his images, his sophisticated compositions, his bold use of color and the exuberance of his visionary expression. Sullins'paintings reflect the highest order of creativity - a fact immediately recognized by experts in the field of art. Now, Sullins' paintings are becoming available to art collectors all across the country at $1,000 to $5,000 a piece. Additional information and photographs are available through his exclusive representative: TIMOTHY


Specializing In American Outsider Art




AMERICANA Saturday, October 27,1990 at 10:00 Bolton,Massachusetts

Polychrome Decorated Box probably Pennsylvaniafirst quarter,19th century.

Exhibition:October 24th,2to 5 p.m. October 25th,2to 8 p.m. October 26th,2to 8 p.m. October 27th,8 to 9:30 a.m. Illustrated catalogue #1350 availablefor $20/$23.00 by mailpost auction price list included.

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William Edmondson c 1883-1951

Schoolteacher c. 1940 carved limestone, 12 1/4" x 4 1/4" x 7 3/4"

The Janet Fleisher Gallery continues to exhibit works of art by major twentieth century self-taught artists including William Edmondson, Frank Jones, Horace Pippen, Martin Ramirez, Bill Traylor and Joseph Yoakum

Janet Fleisher GALLERY 211 South 17th Street PHILADELPHIA 1 9 1 0 3 (215)545.7562/7589 FAX(215)545.6140


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/ 2x 19. American Banjo Clock, original Ross County, Ohio Fancy Sheraton Settee, illustrated volume one, Ohio Furniture Makers, page 73, 511 / 2. 1 2x 191 eglomise panels. Hudson River Valley oil on canvas in original frame and condition, painting 29/

1608 20th Street, Dupont Circle, Washington, DC 20009 (202) 785-4087

Photo: Ellen Page Wilson

"La Exotica", Chelo Amezcua; Texas; ca. 1970; ink on paper, 28 x 22".

CAVIN-MORRIS INC. 100 Hudson Street, New York, N.Y. 10013 212 226-3768

Prior, please These endearing likenesses, meticulously painted by one of the most popular portraitists of his day, William Matthew Prior, capture all the charm of the children's individual personalities. They will be included in Sotheby's October sale of Important American Furniture and Folk Art.

Auction: Saturday, October 20 at 10:15 am and 2 pm. Exhibition: Opens Saturday, October 13. Illustrated catalogue: $36, sale code 6075. To order with a credit card, please call (800) 447-6843. Inquiries: Nancy Druckman, (212) 606-7225, Sotheby's, 1334 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021.

William Matthew Prior, A Pair ofDouble Portraits, circa 1845, oil on canvas. Laura Ann, aged 9 years and Mary Ellen 7 years; George Albert aged 4 'A years and William Wood 2 'A years inscribed on the verso in the artist's hand. 29 by 36 in. (74 by 91.5 cm.). Auction estimate: $60,000-80,000 for the pair.




SOTHEBY'S FOUNDED 1744 111) Sotheby's, Inc. 1990 John L. Marion, principal auctioneer, #524728



William L.Hawkins 1895-1990

October 11th-November 10th Color catalogue available for $25.00, postage included

"Yellow Dinosaur", enamel on plywood, 48"H x 48"W

Hours are Tuesday-Saturday Hanz-6pm 105 HUDSON STREET/NEW YORK, N.Y. 10013/ 212.219.2756


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Railroad Crossing. Midwestern Amish quilt. Circa 1920. 82 x 58 inches. BLANCHE GREENSTEIN THOMAS K. WOODARD 835 Madison Avenue New York, N.Y. 10021 •(212)988-2906 •

We are always interested in purchasing exceptional quilts Photographs returned promptly, Telephone responses welcome

THE CLARION UM.. I AMERICA'S FOLK ART MAGAZINE The Museum of American Folk Art New York City

Volume 15, No. 4


Susie Mee


Fall 1990


George and Benny Andrews Jean Lipman



Mostly about old-time prices Davida Tenenbaum Deutsch



An Artist for the Needleworker Frank j. Miele



The Collection of Barry Cohen DEPARTMENTS EDITOR'S COLUMN


















Cover: From the exhibition "Five-Star Folk Art;' September 13 to December 2, 1990 at the Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square,New York City: Detail of Husbands and Wives Going to a Dance; Unidentified Kiowa artist; Oklahoma; Circa 1880; Pencil and colored pencil on lined paper;7/ 1 2x 12/ 1 2"; Courtesy of Morning Star Gallery, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

The Clarion is published four times a year by the Museum of American Folk Art,61 West62nd Street, NY,NY 10023, 212/977-7170. Telecopier 212/977-8134. Annual subscription rate for members is included in membership dues. Copies are mailed to all members. Single copy $4.50. Published and copyright 1990 by the Museum of American Folk Art,61 West 62nd Street, NY, NY 10023. The cover and contents of The Clarion are fully protected by copyright and may not be reproduced in any manner without written consent. Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the Museum of American Folk Art. Unsolicited manuscripts or photographs should be accompanied by return postage. The Clarion assumes no responsibility for the loss or damage of such materials. Change of Address: please send both old and new addresses and allow five weeks for change. Advertising: The Clarion accepts advertisements only from advertisers whose reputation is recognized in the trade, but despite the care with which the advertising department screens photographs and texts submitted by its advertisers, it cannot guarantee the unquestionable authenticity of objects or quality ofservices advertised in its pages or offered for sale by its advertisers, nor can it accept responsibility for misunderstandings that may arise from the purchase or sale of objects or services advertised in its pages. The Museum is dedicated to the exhibition and interpretation offolk art and feels it is a violation ofits principles to be involved in or to appear to be involved in the sale of works ofart. For this reason,the Museum will not knowingly accept advertisements for The Clarion which illustrate or describe objects that have been exhibited at the Museum within one year of the placing ofthe advertisement.

Fall 1990



In this Fall issue of The Clarion, we both break new ground and revisit some old friends. This issue's cover, for example: It is a detail from a Kiowa ledger drawing — a traditional Plains Indian drawing depicted on the page of a commercial ledger book. Ledger drawings are part of a newly identified form of American folk art and this piece is being included with many fine old favorites as part of the Museum's Fall exhibition "Five-Star Folk Art!' As a complement,long-time Museum friend and Trustee Emeritus Jean Lipman, who conceived the "Five-Star" exhibition and accompanying book, has written an amusing reminiscence of her own collecting activities. Another "old friend" in traditional folk art circles is the painter John Brewster, Jr. who shows up here, in a groundbreaking article by Davida Deutsch, as a designer of needleworks. She makes her case with some very convincing illustrations. Frank Miele remembers his old friend Barry Cohen, who died in January, in an article that looks at Cohen's work as an assemblage artist as well as a folk art collector. The way collectors choose to display their collections at home is inevitably an extension of themselves. The way Barry Cohen presented his art and his folk art collection was very much, says Miele, a mirror on the man. Many articles have been written about the influence offolk artists on mainstream or trained artists. But rarely does a situation come up like the one Susie Mee writes about in "Folk and Family!' The well-known contemporary artist Benny Andrews is, in fact, the son of a folk artist, George "G" Andrews, and father and son are the subject of a twoman exhibition organized by the Memphis Brooks Museum of Art which will travel around the country this Fall. Beginning with the next issue, The Clarion will begin a new production schedule which will bring the magazine out a month earlier than in the past. The Winter issue, therefore, will be mailed at the beginning of December. Delivery can be expected within a few weeks, though the post office may deliver up to six weeks after the magazine is mailed. Spring will be mailed March 1; Summer,June 1; and Fall, September 1. See you in December!

THE CLARION Didi Barrett, Editor and Publisher Faye H. Eng, Anthony T. Yee, Art Directors Mell Cohen,Publications Assistant Marilyn Brechner, Advertising Manager Hildegard 0. Vetter, Production Manager Craftsmen Litho,Printers Nassau Typographers, Typesetters

MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART Administration Dr. Robert Bishop, Director Gerard C. Wertkin, Assistant Director Luanne Cantor, Controller Beverly McCarthy,Assistant to the Director Mary Ziegler, Administrative Assistant Sylvia Sinckler, Shop Accountant Maryann Waralcomski, Junior Accountant Brent Erdy, Reception Luis Fernandez, Manager, Mailroom and Maintenance Collections & Exhibitions Elizabeth V. Warren, Curator Alice J. Hoffman,Director ofExhibitions Ann-Marie Reilly, Registrar Karen S. Schuster, Director ofthe Eva and Morris Feld Gallery Catherine Fukushima, Assistant Gallery Director Stacy C. Hollander, Assistant Curator/Lore Kann Research Fellow Mary Black, Consulting Curator Departments Beth Bergin, Membership Director Marie S. DiMaimo,Director ofMuseum Shops Susan Flamm,Public Relations Director Johleen D. Nester, Director ofDevelopment Edith C. Wise, Director ofLibrary Services Janey Fire, Karla Friedlich,Photographic Services Chris Cappiello, Membership Associate Eileen Jear, Development Associate Lucille Stiger, Assistant Registrar Programs Barbara W. Cate,Director, Folk Art Institute Lee Kogan, Assistant Director, Folk Art Institute/Senior Research Fellow Phyllis A. Tepper, Registrar, Folk Art Institute Dr. Marilyn Karp, Director, New York University Master's and Ph.D.Program in Folk Art Studies Dr. Judith Reiter Weissman, Coordinator, New York University Program Cathy Rasmussen,Director ofSpecial Projects Irma J. Shore, Director, Access to Art Eugene P. Sheehy,Museum Bibliographer Mary Linda Zonana, Coordinator, DocentPrograms Howard P. Fertig, Chairman, Friends Committee Museum Shop Staff Dorothy Gargiulo, Caroline Hohenrath, Rita Pollitt, Managers; Karen Williams, Mail Order; Vivian Adams, Marie Anderson, Laura Aswad, Judy Baker, Olive Bates, Jennifer Bigelow, Sheila Carlisle, Elizabeth Cassidy, Shirley Chaiken, Ann Coppinger, Sally Elfant, Annette Ellis, Millie Galdstone, Elli Gordon, Cyndi Gruber, Edith Gusoff, Carol Hauser, Carole Kaplan, Eleanor Katz, Nan Keenan, Barbara Kojak, Annette Levande, Katie McAuliffe, Nancy Mayer, Sandra Miller, Theresa Naglack, Pat Pancer, Marie Peluso, Colette Pollitt, Marguerite Raptzian, Mary Rix, Diana Robertson, Frances Rojack, Phyllis Selnick, Lorraine Seubert, Myra Shaskan, Roslyn Sigal, Maxine Spiegel, Doris Stack, Mary Walker, Mary Wamsley,Gina Westby, Marion Whitley, Doris Wolfson. Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shops 62 West 50th Street New York, NY 10012 212/247-5611 Two Lincoln Square(Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th) New York, NY 10023 212/496-2966


The Clarion

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MAIDU FEAST BOWL, 12" h x 26" dia. C. 1900.

PIMA TRAY, 23 1/2" dia. c. 1940.

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THE BEST OF BRITISH AND AMERICAN FOLK ART A Rare Exhibition Comparing 19th Century Folk Art From Both Sides Of The Atlantic In Association With The Hirsch! & Adler Gallery, New York

View of Gallery Interior


ON YOUR NEXT TRIP TO ENGLAND TRY TO VISIT THE: MUSEUM OF ENGLISH NAIVE ART (1750-1900) Countess of Huntingdon Chapel, The Vineyard/Paragon, Bath, Avon. Telephone 0225.446020 Crane Kalman Collection (Opening 1ST April until 1ST November, 1991) 14

CRANE GALLERY 171a Sloane Street London SW1X 9QG Telephone: 071-235 2464/9128 Fax: 071-584-3843



6909 MELROSE AVENUE LOS ANGELES CA 90038 213.657. 6369



Ikichard Burni.e

Outsider Art From The Rural South NOVEMBER 1990 A major exhibition of the travelling museum show with selected additions. Featuring Willie Massey, Richard Burnside, Ralph Griffin, James Harold Jennings, Reuben Millet; Rev. Benjamin Franklin Perkins, Oscar L. Spencer, Jeffrey C.Williams and Raymond Coins. In association with Howard and Anne Smith. Catalogue available $12 postpaid. 596 Broadway, #205 New Nork, NY 10012 NIon窶認ri 10-6; Sat 12-6

Aartle Anton Marianne Sinram 212.966.1530

Fine American Furniture, Silver, Folk Art and Decorative Arts Auction to be held Friday, October 19, 1990 in our galleries at 502 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10022. Viewing begins October 12. For further information contact Dean Failey or John Hays (Furniture and Decorative Arts) at 212/546-1181 or Jeanne Sloane (Silver) at 212/546-1154. For catalogues telephone 718/784-1480. An extremely rare and important molded copper and zinc horse and rider weathervane, J. Howard & Company, West Bridgewater, Massachusetts, circa 1860.



Things That Turn

tler Vanes & Whirligigs

November 23 - December 22


ARBOR ARCHWAY by a shipcarver New Hampshire, 1850 - 60 height 10', width 8'

HILL FOLK PETER HILL, INC. Maplewood Manor, East Lempster, NH 03605 Telephone and Fax: 603-863-3656 (by appointment)



'Woos hocoAgp A feast for the eyes — literally— is the exhibition Art What Thou Eat: The Image of Food in American Art, which runs till November 18, 1990 at the Edith C. Blum Art Institute at Bard College, Annandale-onHudson, NY. This 80 piece exhibit explores the way America's most notable nineteenth and twentieth century artists

portrayed the subject of food. The exhibition will then travel to The New-York Historical Society from December 17, 1990 to March 22, 1991. Local Visions: Folk Art from Northeastern Kentucky. At the University Art Museum, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, October 19 through

December 16, 1990. The work of seventeen artists from the region will be exhibited; the accompanying catalogue includes an essay by curator Adrian Swain. For information Tel. 414/229-5070. Nearly 100 examples of nontraditional Navajo Folk Art will be exhibited at the Museum

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"Made with Passion: The Hemphill Folk Art Collection of the National Museum of American Art" opens in Washington, D.C.,on September 22 and will be on view through January 21, 1991. This encyclopedic exhibition includes "tin men" trade signs, visionary and political paintings, whirligigs, tattoo designs, fraternal objects, bottlecap animals, carvings, canes and face jugs, representing 199 of the 427 nineteenth and twentieth century folk art objects acquired by gift or purchase from Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr. In conjunction with the exhibition, a one day symposium, Cult, Culture and Consumer: Collecting Self-Taught Art in Twentieth Century America, will be held on Friday, October 26, 1990,from 9:30 am to 4 pm at the Marion and Gustave Ring Auditorium, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden,7th Street and Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. Organized by the National Museum of American Art and the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, the symposium will include the following speakers: Art critic and 20

writer Avis Berman; Folklorist Susan L.F. Isaacs; Kinshasa Holman Conwill, Director, Studio Museum of Harlem; Kenneth Ames, Chief of the Historical Survey, NY State Museum Schenectady; Sculptor Richard Nonas; Donald Kuspit, Art Critic and Professor of Art History and Philosophy, State University of New York at Stony Brook; Judy McWillie, Associate Professor of Painting and Drawing, University of Geor-

Marla; Irving Dominick; 1982; Cut, bent, soldered, and riveted galvanized iron;59x 38/ 1 2x 14/ 3 4".

gia, Athens; and Wanda Corn, Professor of Art History, Stanford University. Admission is free. For further information call 202/357-1381.

j1f New York University, School of Continuing Education, will hold its first Conference on Fine and Decorative Arts: 300 Years of American Furniture, October 25 to 27, 1990, at New York University's Washington Square campus. Leading dealers, auction house staff, curators, and other experts will survey the history offine American furniture in illustrated lectures and field trips to several of the city's major collections. Topics explored: Collecting trends,

A paint-decorated, New England chest; Circa 1820; Collection Shelburne Museum, Shelburne, VT.

quality, condition valuation, fakes, restoration ... and more. The conference fee of $325 includes all scheduled events. To register Tel. 212/998-7130.

of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff, through December 9, 1990. Pieces come from private as well as Museum collections. The Southern Highland Handicraft Guild, Asheville, NC, celebrates its sixtieth anniversary with Then and Now — Sixty Years of Excellence on Display, an extraordinary exhibit of current, as well as historic, works. The show will run through November 29, 1990. For further information, Tel. 704/298-7928. Hojolateria: Tinwork in New Mexico. At the Hispanic Heritage Wing, Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe, through January 6, 1991. Religious, artistic and utilitarian objects crafted from tin by Hispanic artisan families, some now fifth generation. Organized originally by the Museum of American Folk Art, and now traveling, the exhibition The Road to Heaven is Paved by Good Works: Art by the Rev. Howard Finster, will be on view at the Blaffer Gallery in Houston, Texas through October 14, 1990. Featured are 45 objects — paintings, sculpture and cut-outs — as well as exempts from the artist's archival records. Thornton Dial: Strategy of the World will open at The Roy Wilkins Family Center, Merrick Boulevard and 119th Avenue, Jamaica, NY,on September 27, 1990 and will run for at least 30 days. Sponsored by the Southern Queens Park Association, Inc., the exhibition is open seven days a week from 10 am to 9 pm Tel. 718/276-4630. The Clarion


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Third Phase Chief's Blanket with Steer Pictorials, Navajo, circa 1895. 79 by 63 inches. All reproduction rights reserved byJoshua Baer& Company.

JOSHUA BAER & COMPANY Classic American Indian Art ii6V2. EAST PALACE AVENUE 505

Fall 1990



988 — 8944




The California Heritage Quilt Project's statewide search resulted in an exhibit of 40 outstanding quilts along with photographs and letters documenting the history of quilting women from 1840 to 1945. October 9 to December 15, 1990, at the Mills College Art Center, 5000 MacArthur Blvd., Oakland, CA. For inquiries Tel. 415/430-2164. An exhibition of American Quilts and Coverlets, ranging in date from 1803 to 1930, will be on view at The Metropolitan Museum of Art from October 16, 1990 to January 20, 1991. The exhibition highlighting 15 ofthe finest examples of Amen -

Ralph Fasanella, one of America's best-known twentieth century urban self-taught artists, was honored by Mayor David N. Dinkins on June 7 at a reception at Gracie Mansion, New York City. The occasion marked the inception of the newly formed Immigrant Family Labor Heritage Project, a civic group composed of labor leaders, businessmen,and patrons of the arts who are committed to purchasing the Fasanella painting, Family Supper, for the Ellis Island Immigration Museum. The Left to right:Sandra Feldman, President of UFT, Eva and Ralph Fasanella, Mayor David Dinkins, and Jay Mazur, President ofthe ILGWU.


Detail, The Trade and Commerce Quilt

can bed coverings in the Museum's collection, coincides with the publication of the catalogue of the Museum's collection of 119 American bed coverings. For more information contact John Ross, Tel. 212/879-5500. Wrapped in Glory: Figurative Quilts and Bedcovers 1700-1900 will be shown at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art from October 18, 1990

painting is owned by Ronald A. Ferrara, a private collector. The group hopes to raise $130,000 for the painting by the end of the summer. The idea of purchasing and placing Fasanella paintings in public institutions and museums was conceived in 1988 by Ron Carver, a New Bedford, Massachusetts union organizer. Civic groups have purchased paintings for Lowell and Lawrence, Massachusetts; Flint, Michigan and Lewiston, Maine.

through January 13, 1991. Featured are 30 rare American textiles that feature the human figure, emphasize such themes as family,faith and patriotism, and are notable for the detailed costuming which documents 18th and 19th century fashions. The quilts are drawn from private, as well as, museum collections. For further information Tel. 213/857-6522. Illustrated with whimsical quilt patterns, sayings and patches,A Quilter's Notebook makes a handy notebook for the quitter who wants to log new ideas, take notes or keep a journal. Published by Good Books, it sells for $5.95, softcover.

Diamond in the Squarefrom AMISH: The Art of the Quilt.

Visitors may create their own quilt designs with the aid of a special computer during the "Design-a-Quilt" display part of the exhibition Quilts: A Selection from the National Collection at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History, Washington, D.C. Approximately 30 quilts are on display including a quilt top sewn by Martha Washington. Through December. Taking coffee table books to new weights is the stunning AMISH: The Art of the Quilt with a brief essay by Robert Hughes and commentary by Julie Silber. The quilts, photographed in glorious color by Sharon Risedorph and Lynn Kellner, San Francisco, are all from the Esprit de Corp collection and are presented here each on its own 14 inch square page. Published in October by Alfred A. Knopf, in association with Callaway Editions, the tome retails for $100.

F.' While it hasn't won any awards for its performance,the piano in August Wilson's Pulitzer Prizewinning play The Piano Lesson — currently on Broadway — is clearly a standout. Richly carved in an African style, the Disklavier (a high-tech player piano that runs on fiber optic sensors instead of punched paper rolls) looks like a glorious example of African-American folk art. In fact, it is the work of the play's set designer David Cosier who made sketches after researching African sculpture

Disklavier used in the prize-winning play The Piano Lesson.

styles at the Schomburg Library in Harlem and the Hudson Scenic Shop which executed the panels and applied them to the Yamaha piano which is on loan to the production. That's show business! The Clarion



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WILLIAM R.DAWSON 1901-1990 William R. Dawson, 88, the prominent self-taught wood sculptor and painter, died July 1, 1990 at Grant Hospital, Chicago of pneumonia which followed a recent stroke. Dawson was one of the few self-taught artists to achieve national recognition in his lifetime: first in 1982 in the exhibition "Black Folk Art in America: 1930-1980" mounted by the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. and recently, in a major retrospective,"The Artworks of William Dawson" at the Chicago Public Library Cultural Center earlier this year. Born October 20, 1901, in Madison, Alabama, near Huntsville, Dawson came to Chicago in 1923. He began sculpting after his retirement from the wholesale produce market. Finding lessons at a YMCA art class too regimented, he whittled at home with scrap wood found in the neighborhood. He later added chicken bones and driftwood. Many ofhis carvings are totem-like heads characterized by strongly outlined facial features, especially eyes and teeth. Dawson's paintings depict similar subjects. Seeing a banner bearing his name outside the Chicago Public Library Cultural Center during the recent exhibition gave the artist his greatest thrill, and the elated Dawson remarked to his grandson, "Never in my day did I think I would ever see my name, 'William Dawson: on a building in the Loop of Chicago!' Survivors include a daughter, Nettie McNorton and a grandson, Lowell Bell, of Chicago. Fall 1990

William R. Dawson

Mt Dawson was buried July 8 in Madison, Alabama.

INEZ NATHANIEL WALKER CIRCA 1911-1990 The noted black self-taught artist Inez Nathaniel Walker died May 23, 1990 of pancreatic cancer at the Willard Psychiatric Center in upstate New York where she had been a patient intermittently since 1986. Born to poverty, Walker spent most of her life as a migrant farm worker. Incarcerated for a time at the Bedford Hills Correctional Facility in New York, she began to draw "to protect Inez Nathaniel Walker

herself from the bad girls!' Heads and full figures in pencil and pen, her drawings — at first executed on the back of prison newspapers — were noteworthy for their patterned lines and often bizarre narrative qualities. These tentative early efforts later developed into large 30 x 40" drawings marked by heavy and varied patterning. Walker disappeared from public view in the early eighties and was recently rediscovered at Willard Psychiatric Center where she drew occasionally but, due to her age and illness, rarely completed a picture.

The popular Festival of Masks returns on Sunday, October 28, 1990, with a variety of activities celebrating the mask and the many faces ofLos Angeles. The Festival takes place at Hancock County Park, located on the southwest corner of Wilshire Blvd. and Curson Avenue in Los Angeles. The masked merriment begins at 11:00 am with a special opening ceremony and procession. The day-long event is free to the public. The Festival of Masks is produced by the Craft & Folk Art Museum. For further information call Teri Knoll, Festival Director at 213/937-5544.

NAN PHELPS 1904-1990 Nan Phelps, a self-taught artist discovered by Dr. Otto Kallir, died this past winter in Hamilton, Ohio where she had lived. Phelps was one of eleven children born to a poor family near London,Kentucky. She fled her first cruel husband and after a two-year correspondence course in design began painting seriously. Her first painting was rejected for exhibition by the Cincinnati Art Museum because they doubted its authenticity. Her early paintings showed a feeling for form and pattern, similar to that of the nineteenth century limner images. In later years, working in a totally different vein, she created strong, original paintings with contemporary subject matter. Phelps paintings were selected in 1989 for the Japanese International exhibit Masters of Native Art and her work is now in the permanent collection ofthe Cincinnati Art Museum.

Balinese masked dance

The Folklife Annual 88-89 has been published by the Library of Congress. Edited by James Hardin and Alan Jabbour, it includes eleven articles on topics covering fralctur, glass painting by Indiana Amish and Mennonite, Burlon Craig's pottery, sea grass basketry, ethnic tourism in New Mexico, and fox hunting in New Jersey's Pine Barrens. Copies of the illustrated, 168-page book are available for $11, including postage and handling,from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 23




318 North La Cienega Boulevard Los Angeles, CA 90048 213/652-5990

Gallery Hours: Tuesday — Saturday 12-6

We Specialize In American Folk Art and Vintage Design

"CHURCH" BIRDHOUSE Model of Church from Alton, Illinois c. 1890. Tubular Glass, Wire.






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IMPWR, 7G1Wilt

The exhibition Portraits from the Outside, Figurative Expression in Outsider Art will be held at the Parsons School of Design Gallery at 2 West 13th Street, NYC from November 7 to 30, 1990. An opening will be held November7,from6to8 pm. Michel Nedjar, Pascal Verbena, Bessie Harvey, J.B. Murry, Albert Louden, Rosemarie Koozy, Johann Hauser, Philipp Schopke and Oswald Tschirtner are some of the artists included in the exhibit; a full catalogue is Avenue, at 13th Street, New available. In conjunction with this exhi- York City. Papers will be prebition, Parsons will also host a sented by Roger Cardinal, auone day symposium Outsider thor of Outsider Art, and Dr. Art on November 10, 1990, at John MacGregor, author of the the Parsons Cinema, 66 Fifth recent Discovery of the Art of 24

Watercolor by outsider artist Gaetano Menna to be shown in the HAI exhibit.

the Insane. A roundtable of distinguished panelists will participate. On December 6, 1990, Hospital Audiences,Inc.(HAI)will open an exhibit of the work of

six outsider artists at the Parsons School of Design Special Focus Gallery. This work is part of HAI's collection of over 5,000 examples of outsider art, created by individuals with no formal training, which emphasizes the art of the mentally ill. The artists participate in the HAI Workshop Program under the auspices of the New York City Department of Mental Health, Mental Retardation and Alcoholism Services. For more information contact Elizabeth Marks or Thomas Klocke, Tel. 212/575-7696. A catalogue of the HA! Collection is available for $20 from HAI, 220 West 42nd Street, 13th Floor, N.Y., NY 10036. The Clarion

Black Mammy Quilt, Circa 1950, Stillwell, Oklahoma-78"x 65"


390 BLEECKER ST, NEW YORK CITY, NEW YORK 10014 (212) 645-5020 Fall 1990




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An outstanding Shaker worktable from Enfield, N.H., circa 1840, in untouched original red paint.

188 Reinhard Street

Columbus, Ohio 43206

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2661 Cedar Street Berkeley, California 94708 415/845-4949

• We specialize in exceptional 18th-20th Century handmade objects. Our extensive selection of quilts, carved canes, tramp art, folk paintings and sculpture are available for viewing. Phone for exhibit information, hours or appointment.


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Calvin Livingston B.F. Perkins Juanita Rogers Jimmy Lee Sudduth Mose Tolliver Inez Walker and others

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Representing: David Butler Clementine Hunter Rev. Howard Finster O.W."Pappy" Kitchens Rev. McKendree Long Sr. Gertrude Morgan Jimmie Lee Sudduth Willie White and many other important Outsider artists


"Amazing Electric Eel" oil on canvas, c. 1960 8' x 10'

320 JULIA STREET • NEW ORLEANS, LA 70130 (504) 524-9373

Johnson exhibition in cooperation with Ohio Gallery, Columbus, Ohio














(formerly Arctic Art)





















MARTHAJACKSON Specializing in 19th and Early 20th Century Quilts Exhibiting In: H.P. McLane's Antique Show

Greenwich Civic Center Old Greenwich,CT October 20 & 21, 1990 Wendy's Christmas Antique Show 7th Regiment Armory Park Ave. at 67th, New York City December 14, 15 & 16, 1990 By Appointment Riverside, Connecticut 06878 (203)637-2152

"Mariner's Compass" Mennonite, late 19th century Holmes County, Ohio 66/ 1 2 " X 83"

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Wisconsin. c.1940. W.311/4"H.19" Harvey Antiques 1231 Chicago Avenue

Evanston,IL 60202 Telephone 708.866.6766 31

THE BARRY COHEN COT IAECTION PART THREE: PAINTINGS,WATERCOLORS AND TRADE SIGNS At the booth ofDavid A. Schorsch,Inc. at the Fall Antiques Show at the Pier, October 17-21, 1990.

EDWARD HICKS(1780-1849) The Peaceable Kingdom c. 1838-1840, Bucks County,Pennsylvania; oil on canvas, 17 1/2 x 23 1/2 inches.

Catalogue ofthe Barry Cohen Collection featuring in its entirety, one ofthe great collections of American folk art, handsomely illustrated and carefully researched in thisjoint publication ofAmerica Hurrah and David A.Schorsch,Inc. 102 pages, 70full-color illustrations. 101/2 x 81/2inches.Softcover,$32.00.Limited edition cloth-covered hardbound book with boxed slipcase,$100.00.


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The Museum of American Folk Art continues to develop exhibitions, educational programs and publications that promote the issue of quality in folk expression. In many ways, our pursuit of artistic excellence has been bolstered by the efforts of Trustee Emeritus, Jean Lipman. In her introduction to the book, Five-Star Folk Art, published by Harry N. Abrams,Inc., in conjunction with our exhibit at Lincoln Square from September 13 to December 2, 1990, Lipman writes, "The characteristics and importance of quality, one might assume, are obvious today. Not so. In fact, the primary values of art seem to be in a strange new danger zone. The interest in and demand for art is booming as never before, and as a direct result of the over-inflated art market there has developed a widespread tendency among art dealers, magazines, museums, and collectors to avoid fixing a firm definition of quality for works of art and acting according to its implied dictates. Moreover, this negligence has recently been endorsed in a positive way by a group of"revisionist" art historians and "folklorists" who are promoting their opinion that the social history, not the aesthetic quality of art objects is their only true significance. It is most important now for collectors to think both positively and negatively about the art they are offered and the critical writing they find in the press, in order to arrive at independent evaluations based on what they believe to be valid criteria!' Jean Lipman's concern for quality in all art and quality in folk art has been a driving force throughout her distinguished career. The Museum strives for quality in its educational programming as well. Over the years, several of the students in our graduate program have substantially influenced the American art world. They have found employment as museum directors, museum curators, registrars, editors, writers, and consultants to corporate collections. During the Fall 1990

month of July, a handsome exhibit, mounted at the 80 Washington Square East Gallery of New York University,

Girl in Red Dress with Cat and Dog by Amni Phillips will be exhibited in the "Five-Star Folk Art" exhibition.

The subject ofa recent exhibition, Russian-born metalsmith, Serge S. Nekrassoff at work in his shop; Darien, CT; Circa 1939; Courtesy of Michael A. DeMasi.

featured the work of Russian born metalsmith, Serge Nekrassoff. The artist came to the United States in 1925. Ingela Semels, curator of the show, will receive graduate credit for this final project. The idea of the Museum of American Folk Art participating with sister institutions, like New York University, in this important way is not a new one. Janice Vanderpoel organized an exhibition of the paintings of "The Chief' Philo Willey, in 1982. Henry Niemann assembled an exhibition of the work of Earl Cunningham in 1986 and Malcha Zeldis in 1988. An exhibit of Double Wedding Ring Quilts was presented in 1989. These visible examples of the Museum's programming always reach new audiences and broaden our constituency. In yet another area, the Museum has been singled out for excellence. The catalogue of the Museum's permanent collection Expressions ofa New Spirit, made possible through a generous grant from United Technologies, has been granted an Award of Merit by the American Association of Museums' Publication Competition for 1990. Those of you who have had the opportunity to visit the museum during the summer months must have shared our enthusiasm for the many new works of art recently acquired by the Museum from generous donors to the Permanent Collection. The summer exhibit, "Pictures, Patchwork, and Promised Gifts: Recent Additions to the Permanent Collection:' featured remarkable works. Accompanying the presentation was "Jacob Maentel In Indiana' organized by the Evansville Museum of Arts & Science, and highlighted in the Garden Court, was the presentation, "Shall We Dance;'curated by long-time friend and supporter, Dorothy Rabkin. Quality in collecting, publishing and education: Our staff attempts to make each project "the best:' I know you share my gratitude to our professionals for a great job well done. 33

Left to right, Benny and George C. Andrews; 1989.

The folk artist George ("G") Andrews lives in a complex of stucco-block projects, two miles from the Madison, Georgia town square. Even before reaching the front door, a visitor is aware of his decorative obsessions. Several flowerpots on the porch are covered with blue, red and yellow dots, an effusion that will be repeated inside the small apartment. Here, tables hold an assortment of painted bottles and dishes; colorful flowers sprout from the stereo; bright turtles, lizards, fish, and birds crawl up the walls. The rocks, cups, plates, spoons, plaques, dolls, shoes, irons, umbrellas, boxes, trays, vases that have been touched by George's brush take on new life. This concern for reusing, recycling, and conserving is a desire that George, 79, shares with his son, Benny Andrews, the internationally recognized New York-based artist whose paintings are part of the permanent collections of The Museum of Modern Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Brooklyn Museum, the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, and the Hirshhorn Museum of Painting and Sculpture in Washington, D.C. among others. There are great differences, of course, between the two men, as well. Benny's knowledge of the outside world is as wide-ranging as his father's is self-restricted. He has held teaching and curatorial positions at Queens College, the New School for Social Research, The Studio Museum in Harlem and The Drawing Center of New York. In the 1980s, he served as the director for the National Endowment for the Arts' Visual Arts Program, an important outreach role that took him all over the country. George, on the other hand, has re34


Below; Go Ahead Everyone Else Does; George C.Andrews;1987;Oil on board;14 x10". Bottom; George C. Andrews arranging his work at the Madison-Morgan Cultural Center, February 18, 1990.

mained in Georgia's Morgan County. According to his family, he's only been outside the county four times — and these trips were merely to Atlanta and back. "He doesn't have any firsthand experience of the outside world;' Benny, 59, says, "although he does have a fantasy about it, and this is reflected in his work:' "Ijust sit here in my chair and look at the things I'm doing and get ideas;' he says. "Sometimes late at night an idea hits me and Ijump up and do it...Since people been seeing the rocks I paint in houses of folks all over town, more and more people ask me about my work. I go down to the post office to pick up my mail and they don't call me 'G' anymore. They call me Mr. Andrews. Folks sure are funny about you when they think you're an artist:'


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Recently, George has become even more of a celebrity in Madison(population 3,500). This past February, the Madison-Morgan Cultural Center and the Morgan County Library, under the supervision of Tamela Thomas, combined forces to present a week-long celebration called "The Andrews Family of Morgan County." The celebration featured an exhibition of the work of George and Benny Andrews, several panels on local art and literature, a concert of music from the Plainview Baptist Church (the Andrews family church), and readings by Raymond Andrews, Benny's younger brother and an award-winning novelist in his own right. Ironically, the art exhibition was held at the Cultural Center, formerly a public grammar school which — under the strict segregation laws of the first half of this century — neither Benny, Raymond, nor their eight brothers and sisters, were allowed to attend. Madison, Georgia is a paradigm of rigid antebellum society. In the nineteenth century, it billed itself as "the most cultured and aristocratic town on the stage coach route from Charleston to New Orleans:' Later, during his notorious "March to the Sea;' in 1864, General Sherman bypassed Madison, leaving its more than 30 antebellum houses largely intact. Now it calls itself,"the town that Sherman spared;'a slogan that draws visitors from all over the world who are interested in its semiannual tours of pre-Civil War architecture. The success of the Morgan County show heralds an even larger exhibition, "FOLK: The Art of Benny and George Andrews;' which will be presented at the Memphis Brooks Museum of Art from September 23 to November 18, 35


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Self portrait: This is George Andrews Boy 0 Boy;1989; Oil on canvas;50 x 44".

1990, and will travel for two years to other museums around the country. The exhibit will comprise thirty-eight paintings and drawings from Benny Andrews'"Southland Series" and over one hundred paintings and painted objects by George Andrews. Benny's rugged collaged portraits and powerful drawings will be shown alongside a room installation modeled after a corner in his father's small home, giving the public a chance to see, firsthand, resonances between fine art and folk art, past and present, memory and imagination. The centerpiece of George Andrews' work is "The Little Bow Doll and Her Little Bow Bed;' a multimedia display that brings echoes of European-American fairytales — such as "Little Red Riding Hood" or Goldilocks and the Three Bears" — into an African-American pop-culture context. A large number of George's paintings are humorous plays-on-words. For example, one entitled "A Sock in the Mouth" shows exactly that: a sock hanging out of a man's mouth. The artifacts without words are more ambiguous in content. A ferociously decorated plaque with three ferns sticking out of the top seems (to some)to resemble an African mask, while to others, it is simply a striking juxtaposition of natural and artificial forms. Also intriguing is a self-portrait surrounded by flower shapes spiraling like pinwheels — an image that seems particularly wistful when compared with Benny's starker portraits of his father. As a result of father-son cross-pollination, George's flowers, dots, and other decorative symbols sometimes reappear in Benny's later canvases, but as carefully selected background details rather than part of the main design. 36

While George paints over objects, thus imbuing them with a new "skin Benny recycles old canvases and pieces of clothing, which he layers onto the canvas and then paints, creating a surface of multiple planes and edges. This kind of surface complexity allows his characters to "break out" of the flatness of the picture, thereby narrow-

ing the distance that separates viewer and canvas. His portraits also contain an emotional veracity charged with nostalgia. "You know, we are all very individual;' Benny explains. "Yet the problem is that in order to exist in a civilized society we have to cover up so much of this individuality just to enable us to get across the street. Well, that The Clarion


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George Andrews the artist; Benny Andrews; 1989;Oil and collage on canvas;44 x 24".

individuality is what I try to hold on to. I come from an area where people were very open and exposed, because in a lot of ways they could not afford the veneer that a more affluent environment allows. I wanted to retain the sense of viewing or witnessing the human being in a more exposed form, and at the same time let the image benefit from the sophistication of art, of my experiences:' Included in the show are a number of his elegant illustrations for Raymond Andrews' three published novels — "Appalachee Red;' "Rosiebelle Lee Wildcat Tennessee;' and "Baby Sweet" — all fictionalized accounts of the Andrews' family history.' This family history dates back to a "high yellow gal" — Rosiebelle Lee Wildcat Tennessee ("Jessie" for short) — who, from all reports, had acorn skin, glossy black hair that streamed down her back, and a regal bearing. (Her father had been half-white, half Creek Indian.) Though black men in the county stumbled over themselves in their rush to admire her, she eventually married Eddie Andrews, a field hand on the Orr plantation, a large estate that lay three miles south of Madison. The young heir to the Orr property was known as "Mister Jim;' and as Raymond Andrews tells it,"Mister Jim was out in the yard talking to his hired hand, Eddie, when up the road to the On Place came walking Eddie's wife. She was seven years older than Mister Jim, but that didn't stop him from falling heels over head in love with her. A possessive, quick-tempered individual, Mister Jim made it known to all concerned, including Eddie, that Jessie was his:" Soon the two were "seeing" one Fall 1990


Interior with Cat;Benny Andrews;1988; Oil and collage on canvas;515/8x 4334".

another, though not openly since serious relationships between blacks and whites were strictly taboo. In fact, when Jim On built a house for Jessie not far from the big house, he included a cubbyhole large enough to serve as hiding place in case the Ku Klux Klan paid a visit. And they did — several times — though, alerted by the neighbors, Jim was never discovered on the premises. Instead, the white-sheeted figures apparently turned around and left — no doubt grumbling about the resemblance of Jessie's three little children to the On Family. Nothing could be proved, however, since they took the Andrews name. Benny Andrews recalls his father's embarrassment about looking white. "Dad was very much ashamed of his light skin, particularly his blond hair. As far back as I remember, he kept his head shaved and constantly wore a cap. In that society, anyone with mixed blood was ridiculed; no one accepted you. You were forced to be black, no matter what, but the black people also made fun of you. At one time he was doing public work on the WPA — the kind of work black people did, with a white overseer — and he would work three or four times harder than anybody else, as if he was trying to be blacker than black. The more whites tried to show him favoritism, the harder he drove himself. He was obsessed by that:' George sought release from such tensions in his art. He had begun painting when he was around five or six years old, using whatever materials were at hand, including dyes made by his mother from different plants. If he ran out of these, he would take a nail and draw faces and figures on the 38

ground. As he grew older, one of his favorite subjects became airplanes. Working mostly at night, he would dip a corncob into a bucket of whitewash and paint huge twin-engined planes on the sides of barns. Since these even-

tually washed off, people in the area were more amused than angry when they woke up and discovered that their barn had been mysteriously decorated. One man gave George an old brush and some house paint. He then began paintThe Clarion

Painted Chair with Vase; George C. Andrews; Mixed media;1986.

ing everything in sight. Though Jim Orr made plans for his children's education, Jessie was more casual about such matters and allowed George to quit school after finishing the third grade. He worked around the house, did odd jobs for local families, and always painted. He didn't think about making "art!' he says,"it was just something I had to do:' During the Depression, the On family lost most of their money and land, except for 60 acres on which Jim built three little houses. One was for Jessie, one for himself, and one for George, who by that time had married Viola Perryman, the daughter of a middleclass black family from Plainview, a small community near Madison. Soon Viola, an independent-minded woman, began to feel the constraints of living in such close proximity to the strongwilled Jessie. Often mother and wife clashed, with George caught in the middle. Some of these clashes had to do with the children, who had begun arriving in the late 1920s. While Viola desperately wanted them to get an education, Jessie never saw the purpose of such ambitions. In spite of her mother-in-law, Viola encouraged them to read and write, but also left them alone to invent their own imaginary games. One of her favorite stories concerns Benny as a two-year-old."We couldn't afford toys — toys were what wealthy people had — so I gave him two bottles about three inches high, one filled with water. He sat there for an hour or more simply pouring water from one bottle into the other. And he never lost a drop!'(Raymond still insists that his brother missed his calling. "With this pouring skill, Benny would have made a great moonFall 1990

shiner," he says.) The children's major pastime was drawing. Viola recalls, "Whenever we could spare a few dimes, we bought one or two pencils, a 5-cent package of paper and a 10-cent box of colored crayons:'They drew comic strips, illustrated stories, and (following their father's example) sometimes decorated objects around the house. When tablet

paper ran out, they used brown paper bags that had been brought back from the store. They also collected things: comic books, bottles, buttons, pictures cut from magazines. The latter especially excited Benny."As far back as I can remember, I wanted to do art work. But back then, I visualized it as being an illustrator. Illustrations were the only thing I saw. I didn't want to be a cartoonist, I wanted to do things that were much more representational:' Another family talent was telling stories. Of the two parents, the preferred storyteller was George. With him, even the familiar stories never turned out the same way twice; he invariably gave them a new twist. In contrast, Viola's stories were more predictable, and often included some religious element, which grew stronger over the years. Church was very important to her, as it was to most black people in the South. The only place where blacks could come together as a community, it embodied a mysterious power. Many religious or semi-religious figures — preachers, evangelists, Sunday Schoolteachers, people on the "mourner's bench!' undertakers — would later resurface in Benny Andrews' work. In 1943, after much urging, Viola finally got her husband to consent to move off the family compound and into a sharecropper's shack a few miles away. According to Benny, it "was like jumping out of the frying pan, into the fire. Before that we'd had chores, but when we moved to the sharecropping farm, everybody worked. It was like servitude. We were given 60 acres of land to plant cotton on, plus an acre to have for our own garden. But we were always obligated to do day labor for the 39




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2 Hogs Skis Jumping 0 Boy; George C. Andrews; Oil on canvas;16 x20".

landowner. Under that system, we were constantly in debt. In the first place, we had to borrow money from him all year to live on. Then in fall, when the crop came in, this would be deducted from the amount we earned. And of course he got half of it. We children went to school only five months a year." Viola did her best to teach grammar and arithmetic when the children returned from the fields for lunch. "I believed that my children could excel if they were given the chance;' she says, looking back on that time. "My one hope was that they would finish seventh grade. Later my prayer was for them to finish the tenth grade!' By the time her prayers were answered, she and George had gone their separate ways. Wanting more for her family than the futile life of a sharecropper, in the summer of 1948 she started talking about moving to Atlanta and begged George to go with her. But he refused to leave Madison. It was his home, he said, and he couldn't give it up. George never believed that she would go through with the move, until one night he came home to find everything gone but a few scraps of furniture and a meal that Viola had left for him on the kitchen table. "It was the saddest time of my life;' he says. He blamed Benny, since it was Benny's Air Force salary that enabled Viola to rent a house. After that, he cut Benny's picture out of every family portrait. In actuality, the separation allowed both George and his wife to concentrate on the things they loved best. For Viola, it was religion. She began writing religous columns for a local newspaper and became more actively involved in the church. For George, it was painting. Instead of using one room, he took 40

over the whole house and created "an environment!' About the same time, he also started painting rocks. When people admired them, he would give them out. Soon they were all over town. Because many of the rocks were decorated with multicolored dots, George became known around Madison as "the dot man:" After Benny completed his military service in 1954, he entered the prestigious Art Institute of Chicago. It was here that he learned the difference between fine art and illustration. It was also here that he first became exposed to the works of artists who enabled him to expand his artistic vision: the Im-

pressionists (particularly Monet and Van Gogh); Francis Bacon and Marcel Duchamp; Franz Kline and Willem deKooning. After graduation, he ventured into the New York art world, which at that time — the late 1950s — was exploding with new ideas: the assemblages of Robert Rauschenberg, the icons of Jasper Johns, the "happenings" of Red Grooms and Claus Oldenberg. Abstract expressionism was on its way out, and a gritty representationalism, compacted and turned on its head by the conceptualists, was in. It was not easy for a black boy from rural Georgia to make his way in such sophisticated goings-on. The Clarion

The Walking Bridge from Space; George C. Andrews;1970-1989; Oil on canvas;16x 20".

But within two years, Benny's work began to be shown in smaller galleries. Then the black awareness movement hit America, and he became passionately involved. He marched and picketed for civil rights, as well as for opportunities for the black artist to be exhibited in such venerable institutions as the Whitney Museum and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In addition, he spoke out against the subtle racism that was endemic to certain art criticism. All the time, he kept working at his paintings and collages. He married and had three children, two of whom, Christopher (an architect) and Thomas (a glass-blower), are involved in the


arts. He credits them with making him more aware of family influences, particularly those related to his painting."I put together an exhibition at the State University of New York at Purchase, which included some of Thomas's glass works. He was using dots, though he didn't know anything about my father. So I started looking closer at my parents — at my mother's religion, and my father's art work. In retrospect, it seems the most natural thing in the world!' After an estrangement of over twenty years, father and son were reunited in the 1970s. Benny encouraged his dad to "paint more:' and by the mid-1980s, was arranging joint exhibitions. Now

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Benny visits his dad often, usually bringing along a new load of canvases and paints. It was Benny who began urging George to paint on canvas, so he would not be confined by the contours of an object. Since then, George has produced a number of works which, like his son's, have an implied narrative content. The opportunity of exhibiting his own works in conjunction with his father's gives Benny Andrews exceptional pleasure."When you reach some measure of success;' he says, "it becomes almost a luxury to be able to place credit where it belongs. Some artists mention teachers, schools, movements; these things are important but they are the means rather than the source. For me, the source was my family. It transcended all the racism, the hardship, the poverty, the lack of exposure to cultural things. My family created a 'covered wagon' effect: we were circled to protect ourselves from an outside world that was mostly hostile. But within this circle was enough love, enough belief, and enough faith that we were okay, and could do important things:' NOTES I. All published by Dial Press, New York, and recently reissued in paperback by the University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia. 2. From The Last Radio Baby, an autobiography published by Peachtree Publishing Ltd, Atlanta, Georgia, 1990. 3. Art historians, such as Donald Keyes, Curator of American Painting at the Georgia Museum of Art, citing the research of artist Harmony Hammond,refer to these as "spirit dots7 part of a religious tradition originating in Africa.

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Susie Mee is a poet and fiction writer originally from Georgia, now living in New York City.


Author Jean Lipman,left, with Beatrix T. Rumford, Vice-President, Museums, Colonial Williamsburg, at the opening reception last year for "Treasures ofAmerican Folk Artfrom the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center7

Reedeedeo#14 71100,4 alwa eed-teme pieced, 4PeaaZefuitao I never kept a journal, but I seem to have total recall, over a period of fifty years, for many things that specially interested me. However, I did record everything I knew about the folk art my husband and I bought from 1938 to 1950, when we sold our first collection to Stephen C. Clark for the New York State Historical Association in Cooperstown, New York. My numbered and dated records of our annual purchases were kept in a 42

little black notebook in which I listed details for each piece: name of artist, if known, approximate or recorded date, where found, name of dealer, size, medium — and price paid. This is now known as Jean Lipman's "Little Black Book' and it resides in the Library of the Museum of American Folk Art. If it wasn't for these lists, even I wouldn't believe some of the miniprices which were asked in the early years when folk art was considered a

rather dubious, unclassified variety of American antiques. When Stephen Clark asked to buy our collection of paintings, drawings, and sculptural objects for Cooperstown, I made up the price list for him — I thought very daringly — by doubling what we had paid for each piece. (Incidentally, we had weeded out and sold well over 100 purchases we later decided were below our quality standards.) Our most dramatic low price has been 50 cents which we paid for the now well-known Winter Sunday in Norway, Maine that was much later reproduced for a national Christmas stamp, as well as in many books.(It was sold to Mr. Clark for one dollar.) We had paid $5 for the three-foot carved and painted wood and wire Indian archer weathervane that, in my opinion, is a more wonderful example offolk art than the metal horse and rider weathervane from the Barenholtz collection recently sold by Sotheby's for $770,000.(Ours sold for $10.00.) At the other extreme, we borrowed money (shortly before 1950) from my mother to buy, from the distinguished Knoedler gallery in New York, two great Peaceable Kingdoms by Edward Hicks. We paid $3,500 for one ofthem, and worried a good deal about what we had done; that one was later reproduced on the jacket of a book on Hicks. He had inscribed, in huge letters on the back of the canvas: "Edw Hicks To his adopted Sister Mary Leedom & her daughter didicates this humble piece of his art of Painting': Based on recent folk-art sales, a safe estimated price today would certainly be well over a million. Our collection of 334 pieces, sold to Stephen Clark for $75,000 (which seemed fine then) included not only the two Peaceable Kingdoms but also a Declaration ofIndependence by Hicks. I should add that a good many years earlier — when we first started collecting — we had turned down what I now consider the very greatest Hicks The Clarion

?Mats Sufacut uc 71.0444tf. 21tetaie; Artist unknown;Found in Norway, ME;Circa 1860; Oil on canvas;21/ 1 4x 27W;Courtesy of the New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, NY

9g4:44c Aciat IlIateiltotaame; Artist unknown;Found in Coatsville, PA;Late nineteenth century;Painted wood and wire;3 feet high; Courtesy New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, NY.

painting, now in the collection of the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center in Williamsburg. When the dealer asked $500 for this Peaceable Kingdom, we literally thought he was mad and left his shop in a hurry. About that time, we began to furnish our eighteenth-century Connecticut house with New England and Pennsylvania antiques. Our vacations were all antiquing trips, with overnight stops at "tourist homes:' usually $2 including breakfast. Among our first purchases that I then thought not unusually priced was a nice grain-painted bed for $1. In those days painted furniture was not at all appreciated, and most painted pieces had large scrapes so that the dealer could explain to his customers what the refinished pine or maple would look like. Cleaning down and varnishing was a laborious process — wherefore the low price for the painted bed "in the rough:' Another bargain was a unique tavern Fall 1990

table that had double the usual overhang of top over stretcher. When we saw it in an antiques barn, the table-top was a nicely weathered old door, but the $35 price was much too high for this hybrid we really wouldn't want. But we asked about the missing top, and the dealer said casually that he knew he had it somewhere and if we'd want the table and could give him a little time he'd look for it. We browsed among ironstone plates and hooked rugs — and then he came back with the long table top. We left with two parts of a great table, missing only a few pegs to fasten top to stretcher. The Wilhelm Wagoner dower chest, now in the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Barsalona, was a later purchase at the large price of several hundred dollars. This chest became the subject of an article in Woman's Day in 1951. I had just done a book titled American Folk Decoration, which was why the editor asked me and my co-author, Eve 43

74 Putexa

Ztufdeutt; Edward Hicks;Newtown,PA;1844;Oil on canvas;24 x34'//'; Courtesy Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center at Colonial Williamsburg, Williamsburg, VA.

Meulendyke, to decorate a chest as a replica of the original, for one of their "how-to" articles. We chose that chest because its decoration seemed relatively easy. We came to know how wrong we were. Eve had written the text descriptions for the decorating sections of the book, but we had asked a professional instructor to outline for her the exact practical instructions. Neither Eve nor I had ever tested these, and I had only done some minor restoring of painted furniture. But we decided exactly how the chest had been decorated, practiced on boards for a few sessions, and thought we were ready for the job. But we hadn't realized we'd be photographed at each stage of work, and the procedure was a near disaster. We ruined the photographer's schedule when we insisted that various parts had to dry before overpainting; the floodlights dried paint too quickly for the two-color background; we were nervous and spilled some paint remover 44

on the office's newly varnished floor. The photographer included only our hands in the pictures, and we had had our hair done but hadn't thought of a manicure. However, the new chest was decorated quite decently in two sessions, convincingly antiqued in a third, and the how-to-do-it text completed on schedule. The "startling prices" that I recall from long ago are not limited to folk art and antiques. Going back to the year before I entered college: My parents had taken me on a supposedly educational "grand tour" abroad, and in Paris I ventured into a few small art and print galleries on the Left Bank. I found a small ink drawing of a Paris street that I thought would be a nice reminder of the trip (it was signed "Pissarro") and two very large watercolors that I thought would look wonderful in my pastelcolored bedroom at home. I was told they were by a woman artist named Marie Laurencin. Six years later, after!

was married and had lost interest in these three acquisitions (but knew who the artists were by then), I was elated when I sold all three to the prestigious Weyhe Gallery in New York for $75 each. I don't remember what I had paid for them, but my guess is that, like the later folk-art sale to Stephen Clark, I might have doubled the price I had paid for each of them. Incidentally, my interest in art — before the folk-art collecting days — was quite limited. I remember painting a picturesque clump of birch trees on a large strip of birch bark one summer in Maine, when I was about twelve. My parents thought! had "talent" and had it framed. (Since 1950, I've had seven solo exhibitions of my paintings and collages in Connecticut, New York, and Arizona.) I took only a survey course in the history of art my senior year at Wellesley College. However, my teacher wrote on a final paper, "Why don't you go on and take courses The Clarion

Peoullesetala damn dog. Artist unknown;Lehigh County;Painted wood;52" wide;Inscribed on scroll "Wilhelm Wagoner"for the owner; Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Barsalona, Courtesy of Sotheby's, Inc., NY.

for a master's degree in fine arts?" I was extremely flattered. I never thought it over, so pleased was I at the prospect of having my career settled. I registered that fall for history of art courses at New York University. I went on to edit Art in America for thirty years, write twentysix art books, and my husband and I collected folk art and contemporary sculpture. Back to prices. Shortly after we were married — this was 1933— we made one extravagant purchase for our new apartment — a large pastel landscape with some interestingly stylized cows, signed "Kurt Roesch:' We paid $45 for it and had it framed in a very expensive, broad, hand-carved frame specially designed for it. A few years later, when we had moved to Connecticut and bought our first folk art(then called "primitive painting"), we no longer cared for this. We arranged for its sale in a ParkeBernet auction, and asked my mother to attend as we were to be away on one of Fall 1990

our antiques-hunting trips. She called us when we got back and said, "Your picture sold for five-fifty." We were thrilled, could scarcely believe it — more than the crazy price of that Hicks Peaceable Kingdom — till we learned in the rest of the conversation that the big framed painting had gone for $5.50 — barely the cost of the glass today. (A sale hard to believe these days at a distinguished auction house — but true.) Years later, we learned that one of Roesch's paintings had been acquired by The Metropolitan Museum, and we met him at a cocktail party at Edward Barnes' in Connecticut. I started to tell him the amusing story of his early painting when my husband glared at me and kicked my ankle hard. I got the point. End of that price story. Just one more: My husband greatly admired Stuart Davis's paintings; they were represented by Edith Halpert's Downtown Gallery which we frequented because it was also the pioneer

gallery for American folk art. Howard had seen a wonderfully bold Davis there — about three feet long — painted in the early 1930s, as he remembers it now. He brought me in to see it and asked the price: $100. When he seemed seriously interested but hesitant, Edith said, "Howard, if you want this, you can pay me $10 a month for it, but don't let it go — it's one of his best:' At which point! said,"No way. We just can't do this kind of thing while we're buying folk art for our house:' That was it! No Stuart Davis for Howard. He expects to read one day about that very painting being sold at auction (by telephone to an unidentified Japanese collector, of course) for many, many millions of dollars. Jean Lipman was Editor of Art in America for thirty years. She has authored twenty-six books and more than a hundred articles on various aspects of American art, the majority about folk art and artists.



JOHN BREWSTER,JR. AN ARTIST FOR THE NEEDLEWORKER BY DAVIDA TENENBAUM DEUTSCH The artist John Brewster(1766-1854) is already widely recognized as a leading painter of portraits and miniatures. The intent of this article is to add Brewster's name to the growing list of artists who also designed and painted patterns for silk embroideries in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The identification of such work by Brewster is here based on a comparison of portraits by him to the faces in an

embroidery worked by a young woman named Lucretia Carew (born 1778). Like many other artists, Brewster appears to have augmented his income from portrait and miniature painting by also painting needlework patterns, a type of work not unrelated inasmuch as such compositions often included people. These figures appear to have been both actual portraits, as well as stock. Although Brewster often advertised

portrait and miniature painting: it is yet to be determined if he also advertised painting patterns. Many artists, including William Birch, Nathaniel Hancock, Frederick Kenunelmeyer, and Archibald and Alexander Robertson, among others, did advertise "Designs of Figures, Landscapes, Shipping, Flowers, Fruit &c. painted or outlined on silk, satin &c.for young Ladies to work:" as well as "Faces, &c. of needle-work painted:" To date, the work of two such pattern painters — Samuel FolwelP(1764-1813) and his son Godfrey'(1799-1855)— has been identified and published Folwell, Sr. advertised "Drawings on silk and satin for young Ladies, done agreeably to the newest fashions in the first schools of Philadelphia, and all other capital towns in America, upon the

This Mourning Picture was embroidered in 1800 by Lucretia Carew, but thefaces, arms andfeet ofthefigures and the background ofthe town ofNorwich, CT are here attributed to John Brewster, Jr. The subjects are,from left to right, members ofthe Carewfamily: Daniel Jr., Lucretia, Lucy Perkins Carew, and Daniel Sr. The clothes have remarkable detailing not usuallyfound in embroidered compositions: Lucretia's dress has a corded belt and Mrs. Carew wears lace gloves and holds an actual hemmed handerchiefmarked with her initials, "L.C:' Silk and chenille threads, silk appliqued clothes, linen handkerchief applied painted 3 4x287/5"; The Museums at Stony Brook;Museums Collection, Stony Brook, NY paper cutoutsfor shoes and arms, and watercolor and ink on silk; 21/ 46

The Clarion

utmost reasonable terms!" His patterns with stock figures, like those of Godfrey, included compositions for memorials as well as historical, bucolic, mythological, religious, and literary vignettes. One group of Samuel Folwell's patterns, in fact, included actual portraits in miniature on silk. These conversation-like compositions depicted family members'— often several generations — in landscape settings. Often the family portraits for needlework, which artists other than Folwell painted, were memorial in nature. That is, they were the figures in silk embroidered memorials, most often the more elaborate needlework compositions worked by young ladies while attending female seminaries. Late in the year 1800, Lucretia Carew of Norwich, Connecticut, com-

pleted a silk embroidery which memorialized her sister and nephew who had died that summer. This embroidery appears to be both a snapshot of the town of Norwich and a family portrait. In addition to depicting the Old Burying Ground, which undoubtedly entails some artistic license', the composition depicts Norwich's Chelsea Parade in the background!' Notable along the parade is the three-storied Teel House" with its hip roof and balustrade built in 1789; it became William Woodbridge's' day and boarding school the year the needlework was stitched. The faces in this work are so distinctive that they could hardly be an artist's formula for a memorial. They are, undoubtedly, portraits in miniature of Lucretia" herself and the other surviving members of the family — her parents, Daniel and

Lucy Perkins Carew, and her brother, Daniel — visiting the grave of her sister Lucy and nephew Joseph Elisha in the Old Burying Ground!' By comparing' the portraits in this embroidery with portraits by John Brewster — the double portraits of Dr. and Mrs. John Brewster and Deacon and Mrs. Eliphaz Thayer; the individual likenesses of Daniel Tyler, Hanna Voss, and Francis 0. Watts; and the miniature of an unknown gentleman — it becomes clear that Brewster painted the Carew family miniatures and the unstitched background of the composition. Brewster, who was born and reared in Hampton, Connecticut, near Norwich, was in the area in 1800!' During this time he was painting miniatures on ivory, as well as double and single

Clockwisefrom upper left, Deacon Eliphaz Thayer and his wife, Deliverance; Attributed to John Brewster, Jr.; Circa 1800; Oil on canvas;30x 40";Courtesy ofthe New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, NY. Dr. and Mrs.John Brewster;John Brewster, Jr.; Circa 1795;Oil on canvas;495/8x 40/ 1 2";Old Sturbridge Village collection, Sturbridge, MA.Detail ofDaniel and Lucy Perkins Carewfrom the Carew Mourning Picture. The placement ofthe Carews not only mirrors the way Brewster often positionedfigures in his double portraits, as in those above and right, but it also makesfor an excellent comparison ofhis techniques in depictingfacial characteristics. Fall 1990


portraits on canvas. In the latter his sitters were often full length, either in landscapes or indoors in front of windows with outside vistas. In the embroidery, Brewster has positioned the four figures as if they were two double portraits in a landscape. His placement, for example, of Mr. and Mrs. Carew is so much like that of the Thayers and the Brewsters that it is easy to ascertain a sameness in the execution, for example, of the facial elements. In fact, the portraits of the Carews embody the essence of Brewster's work: His distinctive manner of depicting hair, eyes, chins and noses, is quite pervasive. Brewster's manner of defining short hair, as in Francis 0. Watts and Dr. Brewster, is quite evident in both Carew men. Brewster often portrayed women with corkscrew curls, such as Mrs. Voss: The same characteristic is apparent in the hair treatment of Mrs. Carew and Lucretia. In addition, these three ladies, as well as Mrs. Brewster, share other distinctive Brewster characteristics including the manner in which their eyebrows join the bridges of their noses, and the way their eyes are set. Brewster often gave his sitters almond-shaped eyes; some, such as Francis 0. Watts, Mrs. Voss, and Mrs. Carew are more exaggerated than others. In these likenesses, the almond shape is heightened by a line extending from the corner of the eye. Brewster's portraits of middle-aged persons show distinctive double chins, bags or circles under their eyes,and age lines emanating from the nose down to the lip. Dr. Brewster, Mrs. Voss, and Daniel Tyler have typical double chins; so does Mrs. Carew. Dr. and Mrs. Brewster and Mrs. Voss have Brewster's distinctive bags under their eyes;so does Mrs. Carew. The age lines are evident in most of Brewster's older sitters, including Mr. and Mrs. Carew in the embroidery. Brewster often depicted noses with flaring nostrils somewhat similar to a hook as in the portraits of the Brewsters, Mrs. Voss, and Daniel Tyler; the same is true of Mr. Carew and the two Carew women. To compare Brewster's ears is not as easy a task. They are often covered by hair or vaguely delineated. However, sometimes an ear is fully defined as in 48

Clockwise from upper left, details from the Carew Mourning Picture; Lucretia Carew, the needleworker, and Lucy Perkins Carew, her mother. Detail ofHanna Voss;John Brewster, Jr.; Circa 2x25";Courtesy ofChristie's. DetailofMrs.John Brewsterfrom the double 1 1795;Oil on canvas;32/ portrait ofDr. and Mrs. John Brewster.

The Clarion

THE BREWSTER TOUCH The painter's hand in the mourning needlework by Lucretia Carew is evident when details of the Carew family members(top row)are compared with details from oil paintings on canvas by John Brewster, Jr. (bottom row). Among the distinctive Brewster characteristics evident in many of these faces are the almond shaped eyes, the manner in which the eyebrows join the bridges of the noses, the taut lips, the corkscrew curls on the women, and the age lines on the older subjects.

Clockwisefrom upper left, detailsfrom the Carew Mourning Picture;Daniel Carew, thefather, andDaniel Carew, the son.Detail ofDr.John Brewsterfrom the double portrait ofDr.and Mrs.John Brewster. Detail ofCaptain Daniel Tyler;John Brewster, Jr.;1801;Oil on canvas;36x28";Museum ofFine Arts, Boston. Detail of Francis 0. Watts with Bird; John Brewster, Jr.; Circa 1805; Oil on canvas; 35/ 1 2x 26/ 1 2"; Courtesy of the New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, NY.

Fall 1990


the likenesses of Francis 0. Watts and Lucretia Carew and her brother; and these are similar. Brewster's lips are rather consistently delineated. In all of the likenesses discussed here, they are taut with an exaggerated thinness in the corners. From that point, a line extends downward and, to a degree, defines the chin area. This line is quite extensive in the more mature faces. There are two other comparisons between the embroidery and the portraits on canvas which substantiate this attribution to Brewster, as well. The Carew portraits and the background are of the delicate palette'Brewster used in his early portraits on canvas. And the simple outbuildings behind Mrs. Carew are defined as the outbuilding in Brewster's portrait of Mrs. James Eldredge' — the walls, windows, and doors are outlined in a contrasting color. As final evidence one need only compare Brewster's miniature on ivory of an unknown gentleman'9 to the likeness of Lucretia Carew. They are unquestionably from the exact same mold.

Davida Tenenbaum Deutsch is currently writing a book, The Polite Lady: Or, A Course of Female Education, which deals with the type of education afforded young women in America from the seventeenth through the early nineteenth century. She is also organizing a related exhibit for the

Museum of American Folk Art scheduled for 1992. NOTES 1. His advertisements for such work were included in Boston's Columbian Centinel, December 29, 1802 and the Boston Gazette, October 22, 1804. 2. J. Williams, Norfolk The Norfolk Herald, October 15, 1799. MESDA Research Files. 3. Anonymous miniature painter, District of Columbia Daily Federal Republican, January 7, 1814. MESDA Research Files. 4. Davida Deutsch, "Samuel Folwell of Philadelphia: an artist for the needleworker:' The Magazine ANTIQUES(February 1981), pp. 420-423;"Collectors' Notes: Ibid.,(September 1985), pp. 526-527; Ibid.,(March 1989), pp. 616,620, and 624. 5. Ibid.,(October 1986), pp. 646-647. 6. This writer identified the hands of Brewster, John Johnston (circa 1753-1818), and Raphaelle Peale (1774-1825) in needlework compositions in a lecture at the Williamsburg Forum (February 1990). The attribution to Johnston includes the faces and backgrounds of a very large group of Boston silk embroideries. Johnston's family portraits include those in a memorial embroidered by Anne Kuhn which probably depicts the needleworker, her brother, and her father (Penny J. Sander, "Collections of the Society [SPNEA]," The Magazine ANTIQUES[March 1986], p.600, PI.X). However, some of Johnston's compositions, including his memorials to Washington, have an allegorical figure or figures,such as Columbia or Minerva,along with an actual portrait, for example of Washington. (For two examples, see Betty Ring, American Needlework Treasures: Samplers and Silk Embroideries from the Collection of Betty Ring [New York: ER Dutton 1987], p.62, fig. 100 and Clearing House Auction Galleries advertisement, Art and Antiques Weekly [September 19, 1986], p.130.) The attribution to Peale includes three compositions, two of which are Washington related. (See Davida Tenenbaum Deutsch and Betty Ring,"Homage to Washington in needlework and prints' The Magazine ANTIQUES[February 1981), p.405,fig.4 and Ring, Ibid., p.100, fig.161.) 7. Charleston Times April 24 through August 5, 1805 8. Folwell designed and painted a number of these family portraits on silk, finished with embroidery, including an 1806 one of the Hutchinson family (Allentown Art Museum Newsletter[Autumn 1987],

Left to right, New England Gentleman: Attributed to John Brewster, Jr.; Circa 1805; Watercolor on ivory; 2 x 15/8"; Private Collection. Detail of Lucretia Carew from the Carew Mourning Picture. Although both portraits are on different grounds their size makes them good vehiclesfor comparison. Both evince Brewster's characteristic traits.


p.5); the Barnard family, stitched around 1800 (Sotheby Parke Bernet Inc. Sale 4211. Fine Americana [February 2, 1979] lot 681); and the GreerWray family stitched around 1802 (Sotheby Parke Bernet Inc. Sale 4785Y. The American Heritage Auction ofAmericana [January 30, 1982], lot 942). 9. Because the graveyard in this composition has some of the same design elements — the tulip and circle motif used on both the base and upper portion of the gazebo and the obelisk, monument,and urn — which would be employed in compositions stitched at Mary Balch's school in Providence, it seems logical that Brewster or Ms. Carew were privy to prints with these designs. (For Balch examples using the same designs, see Betty Ring, Let Virtue Be A Guide to Thee: Needlework in the Education ofRhode Island Women, 1730-1830 [Providence: The Rhode Island Historical Society 1983], pp. 193, 175, 176, and 189.) Brewster also appears to have foreshortened the distance between the Chelsea Parade and the Old Burying Ground according to Diane Norman, Norwich's Otis Library. 10. Sarah Lester Tyler (Norwich: Early Homes and History [Norwich: Faith Trumbull Chapter, D.A.R. 1906], p.15) pointed out that this area which was dubbed the Chelsea Parade in 1793 was a green used specifically for militia parades and the like. North of it is the actual green of Norwich in which the Old Burying Ground is situated. II. Marian K. O'Keefe and Catherine Smith Doroshevich Norwich Historic Homes & Families (Stonington: The Pequot Press, 1967), p.63. 12. Ibid. Mr. Woodbridge and Miss Woodbridge together had taught young ladies in Medford. Massachusetts from 1792 until 1794. Mr. Woodbridge was teaching alone in 1795 (Columbian Centinel April 4, 1792; April 24, 1793; April 16, 1794; March 28 and May 13, 1795). 13. Vital Records ofConnecticut. Series!, Vital Records ofNorwich 1659-1848. Part II(Hartford: Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut 1913), p.604 and George S. Porter, Inscriptions From Gravestones in the Old Burying Ground Norwich Town, Connecticut (Norwich: The Society of the Founders of Norwich Connecticut, 1933), p. 14. Ibid. Porter did not quote an inscription for Lucy's son, but cited that for her which reads "Lucy Carew Died ... Aug. 27, 1800/aged 177 Vital Records, Ibid., gives her birth date as "July 11, 1783;" the inscription on the embroidery reads "July II, I781:' 15. The comparison is primarily made with Brewster's portraits on canvas because only a handful of miniatures by him have been identified, and of those, two date to the next decade when some changes had occurred in his style. Joyce Hill, "Miniatures by John Brewster, Jr.: The Clarion (Spring/Summer 1983), p.49-50. However, this writer attributes to Brewster the faces in another silk embroidery based only on a comparison to miniatures — those identified by Joyce Hill and one of Prentiss Mellen (Laura Fecych Sprague Agreeable Situations: Society, Commerce,and Art in Southern Maine, 1780-1830 [Kennebunk: The Brick Store Museum 1987], p.91). The embroidery, "Hector Bidding Andromache Goodby: which is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art was worked in 1810 by Lucretia's cousin, Lucy Coit Huntington (1794-1818), also of Norwich. 16. Nina Fletcher Little, "John Brewster, Jr., 1766-18547 Connecticut Historical Society Bulletin (October 1960), Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 99. 17. Charlotte Emans in a conversation with this writer, pointed out that"Mrs. Carew has the blue undertone which is often found in Brewster's work!'(For Ms. Emans work on Brewster, see Paul S. D'Ambrosio and Charlotte M. Emans Folk Art's Many Faces: Portraits in the New York State Historical Association [Cooperstown: New York State Historical Association 19871, pp. 41-49.) 18. Little, Ibid., p.114 19. Hill, Ibid., p.50

The Clarion



PUA ialaj cq smotid IIV


Behind a table topped with rare redware pottery, is an early nineteenth century grained and painted wainscoting Barry Cohen retrievedfrom an Ohio tavern.

BY FRANK J. MIELE Throughout our lives, from our earliest childhood memories, boxes of all kinds — incubator, camera,toy chest, Cracker Jacks, crayon box, Jack-in-a-box, gift box, television, suitcase, ballot box, box seat, box office, hope chest, safe deposit box — have held a special kind of magic. Barry Cohen assembled his art in a box. He assembled his art collection in a box, too — his home. And he infused both with a very special kind of magic. By education, training, and profession, Barry Cohen, who died earlier this year at the age of 54, was an artist. Fall 1990

In the tradition of Marcel Duchamp, Joseph Cornell and Louise Nevelson, among others, Barry created his art in boxes. The artist who makes his art in a box, unlike the artist who works on the flat surface of canvas or paper, must cope with the additional dimension of depth. He must, as a consequence,decide how to approach the limitations of area and space in which his composition will be confined. Barry took those limitations of area and space and transformed them, lovingly and with great artistic sensitivity, into nostalgic vignettes of a

more innocent and more peaceful past. By selecting antique objects, removing them from their traditional surroundings and placing them with other objects in a totally new environment, Barry stirred an emotional response in the viewer. He also gave these objects new visual impact. If space and area are limitations with which a box artist must cope, Barry chose to cope with those limitations on a very small scale. In his work, he was attracted to the playful possibilities of small boxes. Similarly, his home — the box in which he created an assemblage 51

$., 6)

Courtesy H.G. Cooyriaht C 1982 by the Conde Nast Publication


Room in which Barry Cohen created his most stunning assemblage. Despite the large number ofpieces on display, the individual objects complement, rather than compete with, one another.

of his art collection — was also small. Consequently, in both his work and home, he was drawn to small objects and miniatures. Intimacy, environment, atmosphere — those are the hallmarks of Barry's art. Barry's boxes recreate the spirit of another era: the aura of unaffected beauty and simplicity of rural America in the nineteenth century. In the tradition of Marcel Duchamp, Barry took familiar, "ready-made" objects, and positioned them in relationship to one another to resound with echos from the past. Barry's great love of America and the art of its people thus provided the artistic key with which his boxes and their objects are fused together. Assemblage was at the heart of Barry's view of the world. His art was assemblage. The groupings of objects from his art collection were assemblages. And his home became an 52

Collection of Pennsylvania-German miniature bandboxes on a scalloped shelf, Cohen acquired this nearly complete, but he embellished it with fabric, painted birds and miniature boxes.

assemblage of the art collection itself. The recent catalogue of The Barry Cohen Collection, published by America Hurrah and David A. Schorsch, Inc., in discussing one of Barry's own works, describes his "ability both to select and carefully arrange antique objects within a thematic composition': Similarly, in speaking of a group of pieces in Barry's collection, the catalogue notes, "although this extraordinary grouping of miniature bandboxes, paper-appliqued candy dishes, and curley maple shelf was acquired by Barry Cohen as a nearly complete collection, he embellished it by adding fabric and painted wood birds and a handful of carefully placed miniature boxes': Indeed, the catalogue concludes,"His true legacy was his unique ability to arrange and compose objects into extraordinary assemblages'? Historical validity, texture, color, The Clarion

Courtesy 1-1.G. Copyright © 1982 by the Conde Nast Publican

Among the treasures in the living room ofthe Cohen house are the stylized carving ofthefigure Seated Man with Bowler Hat, above mantel an early nineteenth century pair offruit compote carvings and a "State House" Comb-back Windsor armchair.

size, shape, depth, scale and dramatic impact are the vital ingredients to the success in Barry's assemblages. It is the combination of these ingredients which evoke the spirit of America's youth. By these standards, however, Barry's most successful assemblage, unquestionably, was his home. A house or an apartment — the space in which we live — resembles a box. It was his home — a single room in his home, in fact, the living room — in which Barry created his most stunning assemblage. He took that room, assembled works of art of great breadth, quality, and diversity, and placed them in such unexpected juxtaposition, that he transformed the room into a totally different environment. That room had a magical mysticism which evoked warm deep feelings for the amenities and simple virtues of times past. The objects with which Barry creFall 1990

ated this remarkably beautiful assemblage at home were by no means "found" in the usual way, like the pillars, posts, balusters, finials, newels and spools discovered by Nevelson while walking the streets of New York. 1 Nor were they "mere" objects in the ordinary sense, like the coffee cups, bar stools, and bicycle wheels of Duchamp. Instead, these were works of art sought out with dogged diligence and per,60 sistent perseverance, and then acquired 0, only if they satisfied Barry's uncompromising standards of aesthetic merit. The truly amazing thing about that box he called home, is that so many extraordinary masterpieces — The Peaceable Kingdom by Edward Hicks and the Presentation Punchbowl attributed to John Crolius, Jr., for examConstruction; Barry Cohen;New York City;Pine ple — lived in such happy harmony with painted, with antique objects of wood, metal, so many other, different, forms of art. fabric, and paper;29/ 1 2x 18/ 1 2x11";Barry Cohen gave new meaning to the term "found object' Pottery, paintings, furniture, whirli0.



Another view of living room of Cohen house contains choice folk art sculpture, including rooster weathervane at center right, facing a gilded nineteenth century peacock vanefrom New England. On coffee table, tall Civil War Soldier whirligigfrom Pennsylvania towers above Ohio Shaker carving ofa man, circa 1850. The Barry Cohen collection was acquired by America Hurrah and David A. Schorsch, Inc. and it is being offered to the public throughfour sales.

gigs, velvet fruit, dolls, weathervanes, trade signs, bandboxes, gameboards, tinware, fraktur, theorems, stoneware, bookplates, boxes, silhouettes, sconces: It is as if they all yielded up their separate identities, and gave unselfishly to the creation of an assemblage which was geometrically greater than the sum of its parts. And,it was the artistic genius of Barry Cohen which created this kingdom of peace, repose and beauty. Unrelated objects, assembled in a box, reflect the personality of an artist. This is especially true when the box in which those objects have been assembled is the home of the artist, thus evoking the image that the artist, consciously or unconsciously, wants to project. The assemblage that was Barry Cohen's home conveyed a spirit that was both naive and sophisticated at the same time. It conveyed beauty — of 54

form, surface, design, color and composition. It conveyed openness, accessibility and warmth. It conveyed authenticity and sincerity. It conveyed humor, wit and whimsy. And it conveyed a love of country, its peoples and its indigenous art. It conveyed, in sum, all of the qualities which Barry so admired in American folk art and those which he aspired to achieve in art of his own creation. Most importantly, it conveyed all of the qualities which Barry possessed as a human being. Barry's art in a box,consequently,conveyed a very real sense of the man who both made art, and who lived with art.

Tenth Wedding Anniversary Basket with Collection of Assembled Velvet Fruit and Vegetables, and Fabric Birds; United States; This piece served as thefocusfor Barry Cohen's expression as both an artist and a collector.

Frank Miele, a friend of Barry Cohen, a founder and the former director of Hirschl & Adler Folk, is now a private art dealer in New York. He frequently writes and lectures about American folk art. The Clarion


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SHAKER FURNITURE MAKERS By Jerry V. Grant and Douglas R. Allen 180 pages, 165 black-and-white photographs Published for Hancock Shaker Village, Inc., Pittsfield, MA by University Press of New England, Hanover, NH, 1989 $39.95 hardcover "We want a good plain substantial Shaker article, yes, one that bears credit to our profession and tells who and what we are, true and honest before the world, without hypocrisy or any false covering!' So wrote Orren Haskins in 1887 at Mt. Lebanon, New York. In fact, Shaker furniture is admired for its purity of line, its creditable workmanship and, by many, for that illusive quality which signifies that something is "Shake: While the Shakers are widely known as a celibate religious group which crafted fine furniture, there is little knowledge about the individuals who made up this sect. So it is with a round of applause that Shaker Furniture Makers is greeted. Finally, the men whose creative talents are responsible for some of the finest Shaker cabinetwork emerge as actual people. Jerry Grant, assistant director of collections at the Shaker Museum in Old Chatham, New York and Douglas Allen, a freelance writer living in Old Chatham, discuss 28 Shaker furniture makers. Through exhaustive research into daybooks,journals, Shaker family records and publications, Grant and Allen have uncovered a rare glimpse into the personal lives of these men. The portraits are presented chronologically, beginning in the eighteenth century and ending in the mid twentieth century. This results in a visual and written history of the evolution of Shaker furniture. Importantly, a condensed history ofthe sect and its decline emerges as well. In January, 1837, Brother N. Youngs wrote: "I'm overrun with work and chores Upon the farm or within doors Which ever way I turn my eyes; Enough to fill me with surprise. Of tayl'ring, Join'ring, farming too, Almost all kinds that are to do, Blacksmithing, Tinkering, mason work, When could I find time to shirk? Clock work, Jenny work, keeping school 58

Brother Delmer Charles Wilson pictured in his shop in 1923finishing his tally ofthe oval carriers he had made that winter — an astonishing total of 1,083. From the Collection ofThe United Society ofShakers, Sabbathday Lake, ME. Enough to puzzle any fool. An endless list of chores and notions, To keep me in perpetual motion': Nearly twenty-two years later, in December of 1858 Brother Alfred Collier of the Harvard, Massachusetts community wrote:"So now 1858 Farewell & while I set writing these few lines my Soul is pained with the awful stillness in this shop. Not one breath of mortals Song is heard nor yet the sound of mortal footstep is heard. All, all have gone to seek their fortune over the Worlds vast domain'? Shaker Furniture Makers is full of such passages, some of joy and hope, but many of confusion and sorrow. Grant and Allen have uncovered an amazing amount of information. At times, reading the journal quotes may not seem to supply compelling news ..."December 8: I put a lot of spring ketches on to cupboard doors... December 11: Work at repairing an old bed stead and a drawer cupboard ..." However this knowledge digested as a whole provides a comprehensive picture of these multi-talented individuals whose creative energies left a lasting legacy in wood. The authors presume a degree of previous scholarship or interest in things Shaker on the part of the reader. It is a refreshing change that Shaker Furniture Makers does not include a capsule history of the Shaker movement in America. As the title indicates this book is about the men who make the furniture more even than about the fur-

niture. For some, this book may fall a bit short of its mark because of this. Much of the furniture pictured is secondary in importance and has been previously published. Some construction details and techniques are discussed, especially in the portraits of Grove Wright and Abner Allen, but this is not the main focus of the book, either. In other words, do not expect to be able to attribute a particular Shaker piece to one of the makers profiled. Makers are not discussed in terms of their distinctive style, perhaps because few unique traits have surfaced. Remember a relatively small number of signed pieces exist. As a result of this book, however, more authentically signed examples may become known thus providing additional clues to this complex puzzle. What becomes very clear after reading Shaker Furniture Makers is that establishing a provenance for Shaker furniture is more difficult than previously thought. The journals of these men reveal that they traveled freely and frequently between Shaker villages. They took ideas with them and returned with new influences. Contact with the world, especially in the later years, was not uncommon. Journals relate visits to health spas,family and friends and business contacts. "On June 23, 1857, he [Brother Alfred Collier] went to Concord, where he had a very enjoyable visit with Henry (a blood relative who had left the faith a few months earlier) and met other "kindred spirits and old friends': Three days later Brother Alfred's journal reads,"I feel very much discontented in my social position in these days. I have fought against people or place, but!want to step out into freedom!!!" Furthermore, there are a significant number of references to the Shakers commissioning outside craftsmen to make furniture for the sect. Shaker Furniture Makers includes comprehensive notes and a complete bibliography. However the absence of a listing of all known Shaker cabinetmakers (Joseph Myrick, Benjamin H. Smith, Andrew Barrett to name only a few) is regrettable. A glossary of cabinetmaker's terms, although occasionally explained in the text, would be a welcome addition. Grant and Allen have taken on an ambitious project with this book. Shaker Furniture Makers deserves high praise and we can hope that this is only the beginning of their noteworthy research. — Paula Laverty The Clarion





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Paula Laverty is an advanced student at the Museum's Folk Art Institute. She and her husband collect Shaker material.


CLUES IN THE CALICO: A GUIDE TO IDENTIFYING AND DATING ANTIQUE QUILTS By Barbara Brackman 200 pages, illustrated Published by EPM Publications McLean, Virginia, 1989 $39.95 softcover Barbara Brackman continues to demonstrate her abilities as a quilt historian in her latest endeavor, Clues in the Calico: A Guide to Identifying and Dating Antique Quilts. Using her training in art education with particular emphasis on human perception and memory — how we name, classify, and recall things in our universe — the author has devised a comprehensive system to identify and date antique quilts. Clues in the Calico thus becomes the first reference book of invaluable assistance to the state quilt documentation projects now in progress. As Director of the New York Quilt Project for the Museum of American Folk Art, I am particularly enthusiastic about Clues since it validates the questionnaire we constructed for oral interviews and physical examination of quilts brought in for documentation. This book also opens up this field of quilt research for further investigation. With the aid of a computer and a D Base III program, Bradman entered data about 885 quilts. She included quilt date inscriptions seen in museums, private collections, exhibits, antique shops, and in her class. Added to quilts actually viewed, were quilts pictured in women's magazines and data supplied from three state quilt projects. She used the categories of color, fabric, technique, style and patterns because of their relevancy to dating. The resulting database with its categories, made it possible to do comparative dating of the quilts in question. She set up the following thirteen classifications for analysis of each quilt: function, technique, format, style, pattern, scale of print fabrics, fiber, shape, color scheme, border,edge treatment,quilting and how the date was inscribed on the quilt. Brackman admits that there are certain limitations to this approach since many times information is incomplete or inaccurate. Certain types of 60


quilts, for example, album quilts, are more likely to be dated than others. A major problem for the quilt historian is the mobility of American society and lack of, or inaccessible, written records. Chapter One, The Quilt Detective, sets the blueprint for the book; Bradman perceives any undated quilt as an unsolved mystery. It is followed by an historical overview of American quiltmaldng divided into six time periods: Before 1880, 1880-1840, 1840-1865, 1865-1900, 1900-1925, and 1925-1950. These dates coincide with important changes in quilt styles and are helpful as boundaries for dating. The author corrects some of the mythology which has been written by quilt historians in the past, such as the statement, "No Colonial home was complete without one or more of the geometric arrangement of scraps" in Carrie Hall's The Romance of the Patchwork Quilt in America or Ruth Finley's assertion in Old Patchwork Quilts and the Women Who Made Them that "The art of quiltmaking in America was as highly developed in 1750 as it was in 18501'Chapter Two is a bird's-eye view of style, pattern name, availability of fabric, and regionalism and sets the stage for the comprehensive chapters which follow on fiber and fabric, color and dyes, cotton prints, techniques of assembly, style and patterns. In the chapter on fiber and fabric, Brackman describes all the clues to look for: the characteristics of certain weaves, how to

decide if a fabric is natural or synthetic, and how to determine the date by the type of cotton thread used. On color and dyes, she distinguishes between the natural and synthetic dyes and the clues to look for in classifying the six colors: green, red, blue, yellow, orange and purple, and three neutrals: brown, black and white. She acquaints us with the technology which produced certain prints and teaches us to recognize various cotton prints such as chintz, calico, cretonne, robe prints, and more. The clues to examining the techniques of making a quilt run the gamut from template design to fancy edges. Too often edges conflict with other clues and we can be misled by too hasty a judgment whether the edge is original or a repair. Brackman helps us with tips for thoughtful analysis. Over the years quilt styles have changed as dramatically as fashion in clothing. The chapter on style explains how quilt patterns, color schemes, and borders can help us date old quilts. Especially helpful are the brief summaries at the conclusion of each style description that list the characteristics, date, range, related styles, cross references to other chapters, collector's tips, and reference books for further information. In the final chapter on patterns, she provides a guide to the common pieced and appliquéd patterns with a one-paragraph explanation and a drawing of each pattern. Clues in the Calico citations combine bibliography and footnotes arranged by chapter. There are three appendices (1) Building a Case: A Worksheet for Dating Quilts,(2) Notes on the Database of Dated Quilts, and (3) Chronological List of Stars on the U.S. Flag, and an Index. The text is enlivened by full color and half-tone illustrations of quilts, details of quilts, details of fabrics, advertisements, trade cards, and other descriptive visual material so necessary to this type of text. Her writing is fast paced, in clear prose, which should appeal to the seasoned quilt researcher as well as the novice quilt collector. Much of this material has appeared before in articles that Brackman has written for Uncoverings and Quilter's Newsletter over the years. Having it all in one cover is a boon. If I have adverse criticism, it is not with the content, but rather with the high cost of this paperback book at $39.95. Its great The Clarion


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(London: Batsford, 1987), the chapter on "The Americas" devotes less than three full pages to hand-knitting in the United States. In discussing hand-knitting in this country in the nineteenth century, he notes: "I have seen no evidence of handknitting industry. Indeed, the export of stockings from the Yorkshire Dales to America suggests that Americans were not doing their own knitting. Perhaps there was something in American society that inhibited knitting on a large scale' Anne L. Macdonald, in No Idle Hands, makes a strong case against Rutt's view and shows that, in fact, American women from the Colonial period on, spent a great deal of their time knitting, an activity that, compared to some of their other tasks, was a pleasant respite. No Idle Hands, with its apt title, shows how integral to their lives women's knitting was in the seventeenth century and how important, in different ways, it continues to be in the twentieth. What was originally

popularity should make it a heavily handled book and although it is printed on quality paper, softcover books still have a more limited shelf life. At $39.95, it may be difficult to keep in circulation or to replace.

Hand Knitting

—Phyllis A. Tepper Phyllis A. Tepper is Registrar of the Folk Art Institute ofthe Museum of American Folk Art and Director of the New York Quilt Project. She is also a Fellow of the Museum of American Folk Art.

NO IDLE HANDS: THE SOCIAL HISTORY OF AMERICAN KNITTING By Anne L. Macdonald 484 pages Published by Ballantine Books New York, NY,1988 $19.95 hardcover, $12.95 softcover In Richard Rutt's recent book, A History of

done from necessity, has come to be done by choice: To have high fashion, original clothing today many women are knitting it themselves. Macdonald shows that through westward travel; wars; repressive periods and liberating ones; good times and bad; women have chosen to knit. Wherever they were, in whatever circumstances they found themselves(even so poor they had to unravel old clothing for the yam to knit with) women in America (and a few men) could not do without their knitting. In tracing the social history of American knitting from the Colonial Period through the 1980s, Macdonald sets herself a very large time span to cover, and in so doing could not possibly deal with her subject in great depth. While she does quote liberally from diaries, letters and quotations — the work lacks the richness this material might yield. Where sources are cited,only afew of the quotations have page references, making it impossible for the reader to go to the

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Sunday, Saturday, NOVEMBER 11 NOVEMBER 10 10:00 a.m. — 5:00 p.m.11:00a.m. — 5:00 p.m.

American Craftsmanship Sh0W

Admission $ 4.50—With Ad:$4.00

Admission $ 4.50—With Ad: $ 4.00

Wilton High School Field House — Route 7, Wilton,CT This uncommonlyfine show is planned, presented and executed with the same care, skill and attention given to the acclaimed Wilton Historical Society Antiques Show. 120 carefully chosen artisans,from 16 states, will exhibit their work in semi-room settings. These traditionalfolk crafts, created by talented hand-craftsmen, will likely be the heirlooms oftomorrow ...and complement antiquefurnishings in both the country and contemporary home. FOR THE HOME — Primitive, country and period reproduction furniture, including windsor chairs and Shaker furniture and accessories 0 * * grain-painted and decorated furniture and accessories 0 is 0 traditional and contemporary hand woven rugs and stencilled floor cloths. Ceramics including porcelains and pottery, salt glazed stoneware. slip decorated redware in both the New England and Pennsylvania traditions. Framed antique prints, landscape watercolors, and original oil paintings in the primitive style* 0 0 quilts and handwoven coverlets a * * iron and tin accessories,sconces and chandeliers, FOLK ART — Handcarved decoys, shorebirds * a * handcrafted santas and belsnickels. dummy boards. Pennsylvania-German chests and boxes a 0 0 Shaker

boxes 0 0 0 hand carved rocking horses, folk-art i* SPECIAL EVENTS* figures 0 0 0 country accessories 0 0 0 reproduction 0 Weaving A Shaker Stool, Saturday 3:00-4:30, Paul Rung. $50.00 fee includes stool frame and porcelain. cornhusk and rag dolls * 0 * theorems, materials. scherenschnitte and silhouettes is 0 is weathervanes, I:00-3:30. whirligigs. wooden and tin toys * 0 0 baskets 0 is 0 0 Counted Crosstitch Workshop.Sunday Diane Evans. $2001 fee includes materials. tolework. pewter and tinware. 0 Grain Painting Workshop,Sunday 1:00-2:30, Petra PLUS — Fashionable clothing. leatherwork. blown Haas. $35.15)fee includes materials. glass. children's goods and toys, fine jewelry, dried 0 Indiana Amish women will make a quilt which will herbs and floral decorations and Christmas be raffled. 0 -Amish Life," a slide lecture by Susan Harris, specialties. medical researcher.Sunday,2:(X) P.M. has work whose — ARTISANS BY FAMED 0 Demons:radon'of traditional handcrafts appeared in Early American Life. Colonial Homes show. and Country Living and is seen in the Museum of_ throughout the P Re•ervalionsfor workshops(class size limitec1). call American Folk Art. The Smithsonian, the White the Museum (203)762-7257. House and major collections.

The Wilton Historical Society,249 Danbury Road, Wilton,Connecticut (203)762-7257


The Clarion


original works for further study. Despite this limitation, however, if one reads the book for the wealth of information it gives about knitters and knitting, there is much to enjoy here. The work traces the different types of knitted garments women made as fashions changed and women had fewer restrictions in dress. For example, the author notes the confining nature of the ubiquitous shawl that women wore well into the nineteenth century, and cites the critic Abba Woolson who hated shawls "for impeding [women's] movement in walking, rendering the arms useless and cutting off circulation': It was Woolson, Macdonald notes, who urged women to substitute the "simple,sleeved garment"that later came to be known as a sweater. One of the strongest themes to emerge, by the end of this book, is that knitting has always conveyed, and continues to convey, caring and emotional warmth. Mittens, caps, and sweaters, while often made for loved ones, have also been made for strang-

ers, especially in times of need or crisis, and the warmth they give is not limited to their physical properties. A mid-twentieth century seaman, writing to thank the knitter — a stranger — for her gift, best sums up this idea: "I would like to kiss the hands of the one who knitted the beautiful pullover. This gift gives me not only material warmth, but also spiritual comfort': No Idle Hands makes the point strongly that knitting has been an important experience in the lives of many American women. As the first book to treat the subject of knitting at length, it opens up the study of this long-neglected area of the needle arts. The book's basic bibliography, which includes a section on nineteenth century instruction books, manuals, and leaflets will be useful to anyone interested in learning more about this little explored but highly popular craft. — Judith Reiter Weissman Judith Reiter Weissman is Associate Professor of

Art and Coordinator of the Masters & Ph.D. Programs in Folk Art Studies at New York University.

BALTIMORE BEAUTIES AND BEYOND,VOL.I By Elly Sienlciewicz 176 pages, illustrated with 51 color plates Published by C.&T. Publishing Lafayette, CA, 1989 $23.95 softcover, $39.93 hardcover The skyrocketing auction records of Baltimore Album quilts attest to a steadily growing interest and appreciation for this particular textile style. The album quilts made between 1848 and 1852 in Baltimore, like album quilts made elsewhere, commemorated and memorialized people and special events. Baltimore Album Quilts transcended their function as social and cultural documents and may also be viewed as material cultural objects of great beauty.


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Since there are a limited number of these spectacular textiles available in the marketplace and prices are out of the range of the general population, it would seem that a "How To" book for reproducing modern attractive examples based on traditional designs motifs, techniques, and color choices would have wide popular appeal among experienced craftspeople and adventurous newcomers. Elly Sienkiewicz is well qualified to write such a crafts book. An accomplished crafts person, she has for years successfully conducted popular quilting workshops. She devoted many years to the study of the Baltimore Album quilt style and is the author of a book, Spoken Without a Word — a Lexicon of symbols based on images from blocks on Baltimore Album quilts. This volume is the first of three books on classic album quilt appliqué. At first glance, Baltimore Beauties and Beyond appears to be a sequel to the 1981



2elezek9ze,te ez/ize


scholarly exhibition catalogue Baltimore Album Quilts by Dena Katzenberg. While the attractive book by Sienkiewicz has many commendable features, among them excellent color photographs, the book does have flaws. In her preface, the author laudibly sets the stage for her technical instructions by providing a historical context for her material. Sienkiewicz aims to introduce readers to historical information about the quilts and provide directions for reproduction and development of designs. However, her excellent intentions are marred by language that seems precious and patronizing as she asks her readers to "take a journey to the mecca of classic appliqué" to "sew with our needlesisters of yore.' The continuity of the tradition might have been stated without the annoying trite metaphorical "journey" theme which she carries throughout the entire preface. On the other hand, the text is filled with

An Invitation to Join the Folk Art Society of America The Folk Art Society of America is a non-profit, tax-exempt organization formed to discover, study, promote, preserve, exhibit and document folk art,folk artists and folk art environments. Membership includes a subscription to the quarterly publication, Folk Art Messenger, and all other privileges of membership.

Categories of Membership: Patron Membership General Membership Student Membership Foreign Membership Gift Membership Back issues, when available

Name $50 $20 $10,I.D. copy required $30 U.S. $20,include message or card

Address Zip Telephone


Contributions are tax deductible to the extent allowed by law.

Please make check payable to Folk Art Society and send to:. FOLK ART SOCIETY OF AMERICA P.O. BOX 17041 RICHMOND,VIRGINIA 23226-7041


The Clarion



useful information. The first part, "Getting Started:' deals with basics: fabric, size of blocks, yardage requirements, appropriate background and appliqué material for the "Classic" look, other equipment and supplies. The author describes several methods for pattern transfer and explains two versions for transferring patterns from a paper template. Basic techniques for perfect corners, handling curves, and invisible stitching are outlined. Block preparation and completion are also discussed. The bulk of the book centers around a series of twelve lessons, each one focusing on several sewing techniques from simple to more complex taught through the construction of a specific design block. In each lesson, the author painstakingly identifies her patterns, where known, from historical models, using photographs and footnotes. The third section of the book pays homage to a group of quiltmakers who participated in a contest Sienkiewicz in-

cluded in her previous book Spoken Without aWord. Winners of that contest inspired the present book. Many pages of the text are devoted to block patterns presented for easy tracing. The author is to be praised for carefully identifying each pattern as "Classic Baltimore" — style or "Beyond': Finally, a valuable bibliography and appendix of sources and courses are included. One of the book's greatest stumbling blocks, for all its positive features, is the confusing, misleading and sometimes erroneous figure drawings which appear to have been created by someone not familiar with sewing techniques. Also the complexity of figure numbers, photo numbers, pattern numbers, footnote numbers, and block numbers in various parts ofthe book does not make this a handy guide. Photo numbers in the lesson section do not correspond to the colored photographs in the center section. A few color blocks relate to material in other books

which creates confusion. In spite of its problems, this comprehensive book should be a"must"on the shelf of every serious quilt enthusiast-researcher as well as crafts person. If one has the patience to wade through the volume's complicated organization, the book's technical analysis of a historical style is excellent. Sienkiewicz' instructions offer the intelligent serious beginner, as well as the experienced needle artist, an excellent opportunity to learn hand appliqué in the classic Baltimore album quilt style. In a continuing tradition, she offers models for the use of the style as a springboard for modem creative expression. — Lee Kogan Lee Kogan is Senior Research Fellow and Assistant Director of the Folk Art Institute at the Museum of American Folk Art. She is a Fellow of the Folk Art Institute and completing the Museum's graduate program in Folk Art Studies at New York University.

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"An immense contribution to the study and preservation offolk are?* Hidden among the ridges and hollows and small towns of the mountains that sprawl from Virginia to Alabama, self-taught artists are producing works of raw power and striking originality. 0, Appalachia opens the door on 20 of these unique artists—sculptors, painters, carvers, and basket weavers—allowing us to watch them work, explore their art, and share their experiences, memories, and feelings. "A celebration of art at its purest and most compelling." —Mid-Atlantic Country "An entertaining, sensitive, and genuinely enlightening perspective on From "County Fair by Carleton Garrett

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the people and art of Appalachia." —Better Homes & Gardens Traditional Home "It may become a prototype for books that seek to discover the person behind the art." —*Folk Art Messenger More than 150 full-color photographs, 256 pages, 9" x 12". Now at your bookstore, or order directly through the coupon below: "Russell" by Reverend Hayes Mail to Stewart, Tabori & Chang, Publishers 740 Broadway, New York, NY 10003 Attn: Sales Dept. M. Please send me copy(ies) of 0, Appalachia e=. $50.00. Included in my total is $3.00 shipping/ handling for the first book and $1.50 for each additional(NY State and NYC residents add applicable tax). Enclosed is $ Payment: E Check enclosed E AMEX VISA MC Account # -Expiration Print Name I Address I City State Zip CLAS90

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Los Angeles Tribal and Folk Art Show One Hundred Dealers of Folk and Tribal Arts Worldwide (pre-1940)

Saturday, November 10 11:00 a.m.-7:00 p.m. Sunday, November 11 11:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. Santa Monica Civic Auditorium Santa Monica, California General admission $6.00

Preview Opening Saturday, November 10 9:30 a.m.-11:00 a.m. Preview admission $25.00

American hooked rug, courtesy Blanche Moss, Los Angeles, California

The Preview Opening will benefit The Craft & Folk Art Museum, Los Angeles.

For further information, please contact: Caskey-Lees P.O. Box 1637, Topanga, California 90290, 213-455-2886

New Discoveries; Old Friends

10th Annual Exhibition of Folk and Outsider Art

Anton Gallery 2108 R Street NW Washington, DC 20008 202 • 328 • 0828


Leroy Lewis, Yellow Horse, 1988, Wood and paint, 20H \ 36W \8D''

September 14October 6

OCTOBER 18-21,1990 Thursday-Saturday 11AM-9PM • Sunday 11AM-6PM Benefit Preview: The Museum of American Folk Art October 17,1990 Information: (212)595-9533 The most important American Antiques Show in the country,featuring 106 distinguished dealers from 19 states. Exhibiting a complete range of American Antiques,Folk Art and Fine Art.

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OHIOANA AlVANTIQUES CELEBRATION SHOWandSALE Nov.3&4,1990 • Sat11-9,Sun.11-5 in Downtown Columbus, at The Ohio Center at The Hyatt Regency Battelle Hall One Hundred Distinguished Exhibitors featuring country to formal furniture and accessories, including; paintings,folk art, jewelry, early glass, toys and textiles. PREVIEW PARTY — Friday, November 2, "Sweet Desserts", 7:00-10:00 p.m. Hosted by Dr. George Knepper, Professor of History at Akron University. BENEFIT — The Ohio Historical Foundation in support of the Ohio Historical Society. Donation $30.00 per person. RESERVATIONS —To make reservations, please call 513-932-4809 or 412-767-4598. HOURS — Saturday 11:00 a.m.-9:00 p.m., Sunday 11:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. GENERAL ADMISSION —$5.00 will include the following lectures, make reservations at the door for lectures. Admission is good both days. LECTURES — McMorrls and Crow will present "Folk Art in Corporate Spaces." Dr. Robert J.Fryman,Ph.D.,of the East Liverpool, Ohio Museum of Ceramics will speak on "The History of Ohio Pottery." Jane Sykes Hageman,author of two books on Ohio furniture will be featured in the booth of Mad Anthony Books. Debra Darnall,itinerant limner, of Columbus, will paint examples of her Rufus Porter style art during show. The show will also feature a display of "Made in Ohio"guilts from the collection of Sandra Mitchell of Columbus.

A MajorAntiqueEvent Featuring ProminentAntiqueDealers


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AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AA HOLIDAY ANTIQUES MARKETPLACE Sunday, December 2 Wilton High School Field House Route 7, Wilton, CT 10:00 a.m. — 5:00 p.m. Admission, $4.50 Early Buying, 8:30 a.m. — 10:00 a.m. Admission $15.00

More than 100 exhibitors, from a dozen states IN FULL ROOM SETTINGS American country and period formal furniture of the 18th 8c 19th centuries• Appropriate decorative accessories • Textiles • Folk Art• Fine Art• Prints • Rare Maps • Early Glass• Silver • Jewelry • Architectural Elements.

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TOAD ITALL 63 Pioneer St. Cooperstown. NY 13326 607 547-2144

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Contemporary American Folk Art Specializing in contemporary folk paintings, carvings, pottery and fine American furniture Toni Bernhard Diane Byrne Jerry Farrell Jessica Farrell Trinidad R Gilmore Joe Graham Ray Horan Sarah Horan Edwin Johnson


Bob Mahalick Sam Manno Nancy McGuire Charles Munro Janet Munro Jim Parker Helen Smagorinsky Barbara Strawser Judd Weisberg

enke American Folk Art 21/46vyrapSs signedandnumSeredSy /Se arils/ $7.5 eac includes s4pin9 .2vailaSle gOP _WaifOrCler .71'0M.'

Henke Studios 3606 Frost Rd. Shrub Oak, NY 10588 (914)245-2134

Cc/Ilion of1,00o 70

22" x 24"

._?lease allow 4-6 evisfor delivery

'11"H x 1'1/4" at widest point. Carved wood, painted & drawn metal s.rin:s


‘44 1 1—





4404 MAIN STREET, MANAYUNK, PA 19127 (215) 487-1377

2633 Connecticut Avenue N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008 202• 483.334

•' • .•

. 6 4



lintitled Cotton Pickers




Detailfrom Doll Making; Taiji Harada;Fukushima Prefecture, Japan; 1983;Acrylic on board;12.2 x 13.8"; Collection ofthe artist.

FALL MUSEUM EXHIBITIONS Five-Star Folk Art, the major exhibition opening the Fall season will be on view at the Museum of American Folk Art/ Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square,Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th Street, from September 13 through December 2,1990. Star-studded folk paintings, sculpture and decorative arts address the issue of quality in this important exhibition. The more than 60 outstanding works of folk art from the eighteenth to the twentieth century which are included in the show were selected because they exemplify the very best available in public and private collections throughout the country. Jean Lipman, doyenne of American folk art, conceived the idea for the exhibition based on a book of the same title published by Harry N. Abrams. The exhibition has been made possible by a generous grant from the Schlumberger Foundation. The World of Taiji Harada: Folk Art and Life in Japan is on view at the PaineWebber Art Gallery, 1281 Avenue of the Americas, New York City, from October 11, 1990 through January 4, 1991. One of Japan's most popular naive painters, Taiji Harada is known for richly detailed genre scenes of traditional Japanese life. To complement the show, craft objects de-


picted in the paintings, such as kites, dolls and baskets, will also be on display. Five of Harada's paintings of views of America will be shown at the Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square. The exhibition has been organized by the Museum of American Folk Art and Asahi Shimbun, sponsored by Paine Webber Group, Inc., and supported by Chinon Industries Inc. and Japan Air Lines. The Cutting Edge: Contemporary American Folk Art is scheduled to open at the Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square, Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th Streets, on Thursday, December 6, 1990 and run through March 6, 1991. This exhibition is as diverse as America, a melting pot of twentieth century folk art, created by rural and urban artists from widely different backgrounds. For the first time in an exhibition of contemporary folk art, the works of self-trained Native American artists who break with tradition are included. A book entitled An Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Folk Artists by Charles Rosenak, published by Abbeville Press, accompanies the show.

Get your festive dress ready and plan to attend the Opening Night of the Fall Antiques Show at the Pier which benefits the Museum of American Folk Art. Jean and Howard Lipman will be the honorary chairman at this gala event on Wednesday, October 17, 1990, 6 to 9 pm, at Passenger Pier 92, Berths 5 & 6, the Hudson River and West 52nd Street, New York City. Chairmen are Museum Trustee Lucy Danziger and Mike Danziger, Member of the Finance Committee. CoChairmen are Trustee Cynthia V.A. Schaffner and Karen S. Schuster, Director of the Eva and Morris Feld Gallery. The Museum offers tickets at a number of levels of support: Five-Star Donor tickets at $750 per person, Benefactor Collector at $500,Patron Collector at $250, Supporter at $150, and Junior Committee tickets (for those under 30) at $100. David Ziff Cooking Inc. will cater. The twelfth annual Fall Antiques Show at the Pier, the most prestigious American antiques event, runs from October 18 to 21, 1990. Included are 106 exhibitors from 18 states selling a range of American antiques and fine art. Guided walking tours will be conducted by Pat Ross, author of "Collecting Formal Country;' Ellssa Cullman, partner, Cullman & Kravis Inc., and Martha Stewart, internationally recognized authority on home entertaining, food and lifestyle. Tour tickets at $40 include entrance to the show, a catalogue, and refreshments. The Fall Antiques Show at the Pier is produced and managed by Sanford L. Smith, Associates. Free shuttle buses will leave from the Museum of American Folk Art, Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square, Columbus Avenue at 66th Street on the half hour opening night and throughout the show. Tel. 212/595-9533. k•-tit Fall Antiques Show

The Clarion


FOLK ART EXPLORERS' CLUB NEWS A Folk Art Explorers' Club day trip to Westchester County will be held on Tuesday, November 13, 1990. The trip will include two private collections and a visit to the home of folk artist, Ralph Fasanella. The $60.00 fee will include lunch at a restaurant in the area. Patron members($100.00 and up) are invited to attend a Manhattan House Tour to be held in early December. Members upgrading to the patron level prior to November will be eligible to join the tour A $25.00 fee will be charged to cover bus transportation for the day. Dates to keep in mind: March 19 to 24, 1991 — Tour: "San Francisco Collections'? Full itinerary will be available in late October. September 1991 — Tour to Switzerland, to celebrate the opening of the Museum's exhibition,"Swiss Folk Art: Celebrating America's Roots!' Full itinerary will be available in December. For information call the Membership Department, 212/977-7170.

NEW BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AMERICAN FOLK ART The Museum of American Folk Art is pleased to announce publication of the second volume of its Bibliography of American Folk Art, this issue listing publications of the year 1988. Inaugurated last year, the series has been welcomed by collectors, scholars and students of folk art as a useful record of relevant books appearing during the year of coverage and, through its listings of exhibition and auction catalogues, as an indication of the widespread interest and activity in the field of folk art. Published with the generous support ofthe H. W. Wilson Foundation,the new volume lists more than 300 items — a substantial increase over the 239 in the 1987 issue. Like the earlier issue, it follows a topical arrangement and includes a detailed index. The Bibliography is the work of two former Columbia University reference librarians, Eugene P. Sheehy and Rita G. Keckeissen, both of whom are volunteers at the Museum Library.

Dr. Don Yoder, Professor of Folklife Studies at the University of Pennsylvania, has written of the 1987 Bibliography:"I have found it extremely useful in my own work and have shared it with my many students working in various aspects of the folk arts of North America:' Citing the "impeccable" credentials of the compilers, the reviewer in Choice magazine (a book review medium for college librarians) recommends the Bibliography "for any institution with an interest in folk art:' Copies of the Bibliography ofAmerican Folk Artfor the Year 1988 may be purchased at $5.95 at the Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shop, Two Lincoln Square, New York, NY 10023. Mail orders (prepaid only) should be directed to the Book and Gift Shop's Mail Order Department; check or money must include a $2.50 charge for mailing and handling, plus any applicable state and local sales taxes.

MUSEUM COMES TO FIFTH AVENUE If you are on Fifth Avenue, look for the Museum of American Folk Art — in windows on the east side of the street between 54th and 55th Streets. Takashimaya Company, Ltd., the Museum's exclusive licensee in Japan, has made is possible for the Museum to take the "Fifth" — Avenue, that is, from now through October 1990. The Museum's Alice Hoffman has created a window display featuring the America Collection family of licensees, information regarding Museum exhibitions and membership, and objects from the Museum Book and Gift Shops. Bloomingdale's of Manhattan provided furniture from The America Collection produced by The Lane Company in both the new trellis white and traditional natural pine finish for the display. Public response has been

Fall 1990

overwhelming as hundreds of Fifth Avenue strollers stop to view the window display.

Talcashimaya Company, Ltd. made it possiblefor the Museum ofAmerican Folk Art to have a presence on Manhattan's Fifth Avenue for several months this Summer and Fall.






Major discounts are being offered to members on two new books!

Plan to visit the following Museum of

Five-Star Folk Art: One Hundred American Masterpieces by Jean Lipman, Robert Bishop, Elizabeth V. Warren, and Sharon L. Eisenstat. Five stars...the ultimate accolade... are here applied to one hundred magnificent works of American folk art from the past three hundred years. Selected by four experts in the field, these furnishings, paintings, quilts and objects in wood, metal, and stone — each shown in a full-color plate — exemplify the very best work from the hands and hearts of self-taught American people. In her foreword, Jean Lipman comments, "This book, primarily about quality in the field of American folk art, has broader applications: not only does it show how to judge folk art, it offers guidelines for looking at any art today and tomorrow!' Museum members may purchase this 176-page hardcover edition for the "stellar" price of $27.95 — a discount of 30% off the $39.95 retail price.


American Folk Art exhibitions when they travel to your area during the coming months: September18-November 11, 1990 Access to Art: Bringing Folk Art Closer The Baltimore Museum of Art Baltimore, Maryland 301/396-6309 September 2-October 27, 1990 American Wildfowl Decoys: An Art of Deception Conner Prairie Nobelsville, Indiana 317/776-6000 November 25, 1990-January 19, 1991 American Wildfowl Decoys: An Art of Deception Kamloops Art Gallery Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada 604/828-3543

.(7111 Ttir F9t )

October 21, 1990-January 1,1991 Amish Quilts from the Collection of the Museum of American Folk Art Huntsville Museum of Art Huntsville, Alabama 205/535-4350 August 20-October 15,1990 Beneath the ice: The Art of the Fish Decoy Midland County Historical Society Midland, Michigan 517/835-7401

The Picture Bible of Ludwig Denig: A Pennsylvania Dutch Emblem Book by Don Yoder

for $24.50 (30% off the $35.00 retail price.)

Ludwig Denig was a Pennsylvania Dutch shoemaker who created a unique fraktur manuscript book, his Picture Bible,in the years following the Revolutionary War. He illustrated this book with sixty watercolor paintings of Bible scenes and allegories, using everyday objects and scenes to teach spiritual values. With its vivid folk images and moving text the book is a fascinating work. Denig's Picture Bible is reproduced in its entirety, with every one of its more than 250 pages in full color. Its companion volume translates Denig's German original into modern English and includes an extensive essay examining Denig's life and times. We offer the two volume softcover slipcased edition to Museum members

Ordering Information • List books you wish to purchase at their discounted prices and then total your order. • Next, add 8.25% sales tax if mailed to New York City. Add local sales tax if mailed elsewhere in New York State. • Add shipping and handling charges of $4.50 for first book; $1.50 each additional book. • Send check or money order to: Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shop, Two Lincoln Square, New York, NY 10023, Attention: Mail Order Dept. CR. • Include your name, street address, and daytime telephone number. • Allow four weeks for delivery. • Sorry, no telephone orders or CODs.

November 5,-December 31,1990 Beneath the Ice: The Art of the Fish Decoy Cleveland Museum of Natural History Cleveland, Ohio 216/231-4600 August 28-October 14,1990 Documents of Education: Samplers and Silk Embroideries from the Collection of Betty Ring The Baltimore Museum of Art Baltimore, Maryland 301/396-7101 June 22, 1990-June 22, 1992 Double Wedding Ring Quilts American Adventure Pavilion World Showcase Area EPCOT Center, Walt Disney World Orlando, Florida 407/824-4321 November 22, 1990-January 17, 1991 The Great American Quilt Festival 2: Memories Of Childhood Anderson County Arts Center Anderson, South Carolina 803/224-8811

The Clarion


Mose Tolliver,Jesus Taming the Animals, 1990, house paint on plywood, 47/ 1 2x 44" Leroy Almon, Z. B. Armstrong, Gene Beecher, Georgia Blizzard, Buzz Busby, Raymond Coins, Abe Criss, Howard Finster, Caroline Goe, Ralph Griffin, Joe Hardin, Lonnie Holley, James Harold Jennings, Pappy Kitchens, Glass Man,Justin McCarthy, R. A. Miller, B. E Perkins, Butch Quinn, Charles Rabin, Marcus J. Staples, Jr., Jimmy Lee Sudduth, Mose Tolliver 2017 Que Street NW

Washington, DC



AMERICAN FLAG GATES American flags are showing up everywhere these days: On bathing suits, hats, even bed linen. So, we thought our readers would enjoy seeing some other samples of flag-waving, in this case inspired by the Museum's own Jefferson County, NY flag gate. TWO examples have come to our attention. Mary Anne Stets and her husband Les Maxwell have a 3 x 13-foot flag painting gate in front of their property in Stonington, Connecticut. Based on the gate which the couple saw many years ago at the Museum of American Folk Art in New York City. The wooden gate with the same 37 stars was built in 1989 by Jeff Pearson and Clint Wright, craftsmen at Mystic Sea-

Long may they wave: At top, the Museum of American Folk Art's own Flag Gate which inspired Wes Maxwelland Mary Anne Stets' woodenflag gate, below right, in Stonington, CT, as well as antiques dealer Judi Boisson's star-struck pair in Southampton, NY

port. Lil Maxwell (Maxwell's mother,) of Noank, painted the stars by hand. Another owner of star-struck gates is Judi Boisson, a folk collector and quilt dealer who divides her time between New York City and Southampton, New York. It's in Southampton at the entrance to her restored Victorian home that Boisson built her pair of 4 x 8 foot flag gates in 1984. They are also based on the Museum's original gate. We'd love to learn of other gates inspired by our Museum piece. Please send information to The Clarion, Museum of American Folk Art, 61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023.


QUILT CONNECTION NEWS The Quilt Connection is a special branch of membership for quilters and quilt enthusiasts. "Discover America;' a special program for Quilt Connection members, features a series of quilt tours and related programs presented several times a year around the country. The "Discover America — San Francisco Tour" was held from May 30 to June 3, 1990. Award-winning California


Beverly Alexanderfrom Onowa,IA showing a quilt.

quilter, Moneca Calvert, taught a fullday workshop on design techniques for her unique hearts quilt. In addition to the workshop, members of the group enjoyed a busy tour which included visits to quilters, private quilt collections, and some local sightseeing. For more information on Quilt Connection Programs call the Membership Department, 212/977-7170.

The Clarion


SPONSORSHIP OF EXHIBITIONS AT THE MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART In 1990/91, the Museum of American Folk Art will present nine exhibitions at the Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square. The Development Office secures support for these presentations from a variety of donors which includes corporations, individuals, foundations, and government agencies. I am delighted to report several recent grants and gifts which have been made specifically to support exhibitions during the current fiscal year.

turies has created an ideal opportunity for Schlumberger to further its support of the Museum of American Folk Art:' This grant represents a significant commitment by Schlumberger to supporting folk art programs and the Museum is extremely grateful for the continued interest, generous support and valued friendship of the Foundation.


"JACOB MAENTEL IN INDIANA" Members of the Museum's International Advisory Council provide support ranging from financial and in-kind gifts to advice and suggestions about programs, collection development, and membership cultivation. Raymond Egan, President of Bristol-Myers Squibb Company,U.S. Pharmaceutical and Mead Johnson Nutritional Group and Squibb Diagnostics, a member of the Council since its inception in 1988, arranged for a generous grant from the corporation to sponsor the New York City presentation of "Jacob Maentel in Indiana' a traveling exhibition which was organized by the Evansville (Indiana) Museum of Arts & Science. The company also supported the members' opening reception for the exhibition which was held on June 28. Both Bristol-Myers Company and Squibb Corporation were supporters of the Museum for many years before the two merged. The Museum greatly appreciates the commitment of Mr. Egan and Bristol-Myers Squibb Company and looks forward to the continuation of this rewarding relationship in the future. Fall 1990

1 se1111bli ton i• 1,.o-oloI 1geovnNo Of1 dmor. th..M000m of 000 'olio,' ha 1.0 bah NI, J E 11.1. F111111 ron and 1,11m 1;onlon.1)1 oil,o John ktdooivo,.toil .• 1,1.41 and Isti rt A

"FIVE-STAR FOLK ART" The Schlumberger Foundation, a longstanding friend of the Museum, generously made a grant to sponsor the presentation of "Five-Star Folk Art" from September 13 through December 2, 1990 at the Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square. The exhibition includes more than sixty outstanding paintings, sculpture and decorative arts objects which have been selected based upon the highest standards of quality. Schlumberger has been a corporate supporter of the Museum since 1980, however, this gift marks the first time the company has sponsored a major exhibition. Arthur W. Alexander, Executive Secretary of the Schlumberger Foundation, explained the reasoning for the grant:"The appeal of an exhibition combining uniformity of quality and diversity of media over two cen-

MUSEUM EXHIBITION FUND The Museum of American Folk Art recently established an Exhibition Fund to provide support for presentations which are only partially sponsored by a corporation or government agency. Since the establishment of the fund in April 1990, close to $30,000 has been committed by the following donors: Amicus Foundation New York Telephone Dorothy & Leo Rabkin Alice Yelen and Kurt Gitter Dr. and Mrs. J.E. Jelinek Baron & Ellin Gordon John Weeden The Cowles Charitable Trust Mr. and Mrs. Edward J. Brown The Museum Fund was utilized for the first time to support the installation of "Pictures, Patchwork and Promised Gifts: Recent Additions to the Permanent Collection" which was on view from June 28 through September 3, 1990. The generosity of donors to the Exhibition Fund is acknowledged on signage, invitations, brochures, and educational materials relating to those exhibitions for which the fund is utilized. Additional support is necessary for several exhibitions which will be presented in 1991. Inquiries regarding gifts to the Fund are encouraged and welcome. 77

David Butler (1898- )

7520 Perkins Road Baton Rouge, LA 70808 504-767-0526

Nativity 24x34

Collection includes: Clementine Hunter, Howard Finster, Raymond Coins, Bessie Harvey, Willie White, Mary T. Smith, Jimmy Sudduth, James "Son" Thomas - and others.

Man With Flag 30-1/2 x 17


C4DJ 19th Century Wooden House Bank.

AUTHENTIC DESIGNS 17 The Mill Road, West Rupert, Vermont 05776 (802) 394-7713 Catalogue $3.00

sIA POPE, (802)867-5945 Box 537 Dorset, Vermont 05251 (802)867-4480


' 4ND NILY,S A Limited Collection of 18th, 19th, and 20th Century Americana and Appropriate Accessories

American Folk Art Sidney Gecker

We offer an extremely varied selection offine American folk art. We specialize in fine,decorated slipware, particularly from Pennsylvania and the Shenandoah Valley. Also weathervanes,eighteenth and nineteenth century oil paintings, watercolors and miniatures.Tole,chalkware, woodcarvings and painted furniture.

By Appointment Only


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. r ro. rm.1 r".11 trl P71. • firm ral re-

Come and visit us. You will be pleased with the quality ofour collection.

rni 1 r°5pre,,,V1

226 West 21st Street New York, N. Y 10011

(212)929-8769 Appointment suggested


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MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART BOARD OF TRUSTEES Executive Committee Ralph Esmerian President Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq. Executive Vice President Lucy C. Danziger Vice President George F. Shaskan, Jr. Treasurer Mrs. Dixon Wecter Secretary Karen D. Cohen Judith A. Jedlicka Theodore L. Kesselman Susan Klein Kathryn Steinberg

Members Florence Brody Peter M. Ciccone Daniel Cowin David L. Davies Barbara Johnson, Esq. Joan M. Johnson William I. Leffler George H. Meyer Cyril I. Nelson Cynthia V.A. Schaffner William Schneck Ronald K. Shelp Bonnie Strauss

Maureen Taylor Robert N. Wilson Honorary Trustee Eva Feld Trustees Emeriti Adele Earnest Cordelia Hamilton Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr. Louis C. Jones Margery G. Kahn Alice M. Kaplan Jean Lipman

DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE Judith A. Jedlicka Theodore L. Kesselman Co-Chairmen Lewis Alpaugh Hoechst Celanese Corporation Gordon Bowman Corporate Creative Programs

Frank Brenner Hartmarx Corporation John Mack Carter Good Housekeeping Jerry Kaplan Better Homes and Gardens Allan Kaufman Long Distance North

Francine Lynch Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A. Rachel Newman Country Living Thomas aoland Country Home Barbara Wright New York Telephone

INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq. Mrs. Dixon Wecter Co-Chairmen Paul Anbinder William Arnett Frank & June Barsalona Mary Black Susan Blumstein Judi Boisson Gray Boone Robert & Katherine Booth Barbara & Edwin Braman Milton Brechner Raymond Brousseau Edward J. Brown Charles Burden Tracy Cate Margaret Cavigga Joyce Cowin Richard & Peggy Danziger David Davies Marian DeWitt Davida Deutsch Charlotte Dinger Nancy Drucicman Raymond & Susan Egan Margot Paul Ernst 80

Helaine & Burton Fendelman Howard Fertig Ted & Joanne Fouflc Jacqueline Fowler Ken & Brenda Fritz Ronald Gard Robert S. Gelbard Dr. Kurt A. Gitter Merle & Barbara Glick Howard M. Graff Bonnie Grossman Michael & Julie Hall Lewis I. Haber Elaine Heifetz Terry Heled Josef & Vera Jelinek Joan Johnson Eloise Julius Isobel & Harvey Kahn Allen Katz Mark Kennedy Arthur & Sybil Kern William Ketchum Susan Kraus Wendy Lavitt Marilyn Lubetkin Robert & Betty Marcus Paul Martinson

Michael & Marilyn Mennello Steven Michaan Alan Moss Kathleen S. Nester Helen Neufeld Henry Niemann Paul Oppenheimer Ann Frederick & William Oppenhimer Dr. Burton W.Pearl Patricia Penn Dorothy & Leo Rabkin Harriet Polier Robbins Charles & Jan Rosenak Joseph J. Rosenberg Le Rowell Randy Siegel Sibyl Simon Susan Simon Ann Marie Slaughter Sanford L. Smith R. Scudder Smith Richard Solar Hume Steyer Jane Supino Edward Tishelman Tony & Anne Vanderwarker John Weeden G. Marc Whitehead The Clarion

exhiBitind at the ameRican caafts museum's "toymakeps: a family AFFAIR" fpiday, noyemsea 23Rd thRough sunday, OecemBeR 2nd,1990 at 40 west 5312d StI2Eet, new yoRk city.

ReOwoo0 catzvinq, painteb in oils, 1990 18" tall x 15" wibe x 10" beep


Sanbiza Beppy - Wooe Cavep Box 169 knoll CPESt . almonO, fly 14804 607 . 276 . 6661 81


The Museum of American Folk Art greatly appreciates the generous support of the following friends: $20,000 and above Asahi Shimbun Ben & Jerry's Homemade,Inc. Better Homes & Gardens Judi Boisson Marilyn & Milton Brechner Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Chinon, Ltd. Estate of Thomas M.Conway Country Home The Joyce and Daniel Cowin Foundation Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Frederick M. Danziger Mrs. Eva Feld Estate of Morris Feld The Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation Hartmarx Corporation William Randolph Hearst Foundation James River Corporation Kodansha, Ltd. Jean & Howard Lipman Joseph Martinson Memorial Rind Steven Michaan National Endowment for the Arts New York State Council on the Arts PaineWebber Group Inc. Philip Morris Companies Dorothy & Leo Rablcin Restaurant Associates Industries, Inc. Schlumberger Foundation Herbert and Nell Singer Foundation, Inc. Two Lincoln Square Associates United Technologies Corporation Mrs. Dixon Wecter The Xerox Foundation $10,000-$19,999 ABSOLUT Vodka Estate of Mary Allis Amiens Foundation Bear, Stearns & Co., Inc. Lily Cates Mr. & Mrs. Peter Cohen Culbro Corporation David L. Davies ME & Mrs. Alvin Deutsch Adele Earnest Fairfield Processing Corporation/Poly-fil Daniel and Jessie Lie Farber Walter and Josephine Ford Rind Taiji Harada Joan and Victor L. Johnson Shirley and Theodore L. Kesselman Masco Corporation George H. Meyer Kathleen S. Nester New York Telephone Sallie Mae/Student Loan Marketing Association Samuel Schwartz 82

Mrs. Gertrude Schweitzer and Family Mr. & Mrs. George E Shaskan, Jr. Peter and Linda Solomon Foundation Springs Industries Mt & Mrs. Robert Steinberg Barbara and Thomas W. Strauss Rind $4,000-$9,999 American Stock Exchange The Bernhill Rind Mr. & Mrs. Martin Brody The David and Dorothy Carpenter Foundation Tracy Roy & Barbara Wahl Cate Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A. Mr. & Mrs. Edgar M.Cullman Mr. & Mrs. Richard Danziger Jacqueline Fowler Colonel Alexander W. Gentleman Richard Goodyear Hoechst Celanese Corporation Barbara Johnson, Esq. Margery and Harry Kahn Philanthropic Rind Lore Kann Foundation Mr. & Mrs. Robert Klein Wendy & Mel Lavitt Metropolitan Life Foundation George H. Meyer Annette Reed Arthur Ross Foundation The Salomon Foundation S.H. and Helen R. Scheuer Family Foundation The William P. and Gertrude Schweitzer Foundation, Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Stanley Tananbaum John Weeden The H.W. Wilson Foundation Robert N. & Anne Wright Wilson Norman & Rosita Winston Foundation $2,000-$3,999 American Folk Art Society American Savings Bank Estate of Abraham P. Bersohn The Mary Duke Biddle Foundation Capital Cities/ABC The Coach Dairy Goat Farm Country Living Mr. & Mrs. Joseph E Cullman 3rd Exxon Corporation Mr. & Mrs. Alvin Einbender Cordelia Hamilton Justus Heijmans Foundation Johnson & Johnson Manufacturers Hanover Trust Marsh & McLennan Companies Christopher and Linda Mayer McGraw-Hill, Inc. Montefiore Medical Center Morgan Stanley & Co.,Incorporated The New York Times Company Foundation, Inc. Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation The Reader's Digest Association, Inc.

Betsey Schaeffer Robert T. & Cynthia V.A. Schaffner Mt & Mrs. Derek V. Schuster Joel & Susan Simon Mr. & Mrs. Austin Super Mt & Mrs. Richard T. Taylor Time Warner Inc. Alice Yelen & Kurt A. Gitter $1,000-$1,999 American Savings Bank William Arnett The Bachmann Foundation Didi & David Barrett Mt & Mrs. Frank Barsalona Michael Belknap Edward Vermont Blanchard & M. Anne Hill Bloomingdale's Bozell Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Edwin Braman Mabel H. Brandon Edward J. Brown Ian G.M.& Marian M. Brownlie Morris B. and Edith S. Cartin Family Foundation Edward Lee Cave CBS Inc. Liz Claiborne Foundation Conde Nast Publications Inc. Consolidated Edison Company of New York The Cowles Charitable Trust Crane Co. Susan Cullman Mr. & Mrs. Donald DeWitt Gerald & Marie DiManno The Marion and Ben Duffy Foundation Echo Foundation Ellin E Ente Virginia S. Esmerian Margot & John Ernst Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Ferguson Janey Fire & John Kalymnios Louis R. and Nettie Fisher Foundation M. Anthony Fisher Susan & Eugene Flanun The Flower Service Emanuel Gerard The Howard Gilman Foundation Selma & Sam Goldwitz Renee Graubert Terry & Simca Heled Alice & Ronald Hoffman Mr. & Mrs. David S. Howe IBM Corporation Mr. & Mrs. Yee Roy Jear Judith A. Jedlicka Dr. and Mrs. J.E. Jelinek Isobel & Harvey Kahn Kallir, Philips, Ross,Inc. Mr.& Mrs. Leslie Kaplan Lee & Ed Kogan Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Lauder The Clarion

Robert Cargo



FOLK ART GALLERY Southern, Folk, and Afro-American Quilts Antiques•Folk Art

: •

Tim Reed Leroy Almon Roger Rice Jerry Brown Sybil Gibson Sandra Rice Titus and Euple Riley Joseph Hardin Juanita Rogers Lonnie Holley Inez Shell James Harold Jennings Mary Tillman Smith ME."5-cent" Jones S.L. Jones Georgia Speller Henry Speller Charlie Lucas Jimmie Lee Sudduth Sam Martin Son Ford Thomas Tim Martin Mose Tolliver Thomas May Emma Lee Moss Inez Nathaniel Walker Fred Webster Benjamin F. Perkins Yvonne Wells, picture quilts

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In addition to works by these Southern artists, the gallery carries a large, carefully-selected stock of contemporary Afro-American quilts that is constantly changing.

Robert Cargo FOLK ART GALLERY 2314 Sixth Street, downtown Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35401 Open weekends only 205/758-8884 and by appointment Home phone

. ..4, -

301 523 1507

608 Reservoir Street Baltimore, Maryland 21217

Saturday 10:00-5:00, Sunday 1:00-500


Estate of Mary B. Ledwith William & Susan Leffler Dorothy & John Levy James & Frances Lieu Macmillan, Inc. R.H. Macy & Co., Inc. Robert & Betty Marcus Foundation, Inc. Marstrand Foundation C.E Martin IV Helen R. Mayer & Harold C. Mayer Foundation Marjorie W. McConnell Meryl & Robert Meltzer Michael & Marilyn Mennello Benson Motechin, C.P.A., P.C. National Westminster Bank USA New York Mariott Marquis Mattie Lou O'Kelley Paul Oppenheimer Cathy Rasmussen Ann-Marie Reilly Paige Rense Marguerite Riordan Mrs. John D. Rockefeller III Joanna S. Rose Willa & Joseph Rosenberg Fall 1990

Mr. & Mrs. Jon Rotenstreich Mr. & Mrs. William Schneck Mr.& Mrs. Richard Sears Randy Siegel Rev. & Mrs. Alfred R. Shands III Mr. & Mrs. Ronald K. Shelp Mrs. Vera W. Simmons Philip & Mildred Simon Mrs. A. Simone Mr. & Mrs. Richard L. Solar Sotheby's Mr. & Mrs. Elie Soussa Mr. & Mrs. Sanford L. Smith Sterling Drug Inc. Phyllis & Irving Tepper Anne D. Utescher H. van Ameringen Foundation Tony & Anne Vanderwarker Elizabeth & Irwin Warren Weil, Gotshal & Manges Foundation Wertheim Schroder & Co. Mr. & Mrs. John H. Winkler $500-$999 Helen & Paul Anbinder

Louis Bachman Arthur and Mary Barrett David C. Batten Roger S. Berlind Best Health Soda Robert & Katherine Booth Michael 0. Braun Iris Carmel Mickey & Janice Cartin Edward & Nancy Coplon Judy Angelo Cowen Edgar M.Cullman, Jr. Allan L. Daniel The Dammann Fund,Inc. Andre & Sarah de Coizart Mr. & Mrs. James DeSilva, Jr. Deborah Dunn Entenmann's Richard C. & Susan B. Ernst Foundation Ross N.& Glady A. Faires Helaine & Burton Fendelman Mr. & Mrs. Howard Fertig Timothy C. Forbes Estelle E. Friedman Ronald Gard 83


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The Art of Claire Murray

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the vibrance of color and the warmth of home." NANTUCKET COLLECTION "Claire Murray's art is beauty. Hand hooked rugs, kits and It is a reflection of memories, hand appliqued quilts. P.O. Box 1089, Dept. C the blend of the traditional Call or write for our catalog, North Charlestown, NH 03603 and the contemporary, $5, refundable on first purchase. 1-800-323-9276 • Info: 603-543-0137



General Foods Mr. & Mrs. William L. Gladstone Irene and Bob Goodkind Mr. & Mrs. Baron J. Gordon Robert M. Greenberg Dr. & Mrs. Stanley Greenberg Grey Advertising, Inc. Clifford Grod Connie Guglielmo Cathy M. Kaplan The Charles U. Harris Living Trust Denison H. Hatch Stephen Hill Holiday Inn of Auburn Mr. 8z Mrs. Albert L. Hunecke, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Thomas C. Israel Guy Johnson Mary Kettaneh Janet Langlois Peter M. Lehrer Mr. & Mrs. Richard M. Livingston Hermine Mariaux Robin & William Mayer Mr. & Mrs. D. Eric McKechnie Gertrude Meister


Gael Mendelsohn Pierson K. Miller Mr. & Mrs. Arthur O'Day Geraldine M. Parker Dr. Burton W. Pearl Mr. & Mrs. Stanley M. Riker Betty Ring Mr. & Mrs. David Ritter Trevor C. Roberts Chuck & Jan Rosenak Richard Sabino Mary Frances Saunders Schlaifer Nance Foundation Sheraton Inn, Norwich Skidmore Owings & Merrill Smith Gallery Smithwick Dillon Jerry I. Speyer David E Stein Robert C. & Patricia A. Stempel Texaco Philanthropic Foundation, Inc. Edward I. Tishelman David & Jane Walentas Marco P. Walker Washburn Gallery

Anne G. Wesson G. Marc Whitehead Mr. & Mrs. John R. Young Marcia & John Zweig

The Museum is grateful to the Co-Chairwomen of its Special Events Committee for the significant support received through the Museum's major fund raising events chaired by them. Karen D. Cohen Cynthia V.A. Schaffner

The Museum also thanks the following donors for their recent gifts to the Permanent Collection, Library and Education Collection: Mel Aaserude William A. Arnett Alex Maulson Cyril I. Nelson Mattie Lou O'Kelley Judith and Harold Weissman

The Clarion

"Hildegarde" by David Wise From a special collection of distinguished American artisans.

ELDRED WHEELER OF HOUSTON 3941 San Felipe Houston, Texas 77027 (713)622-6225 Monday Through Saturday 10 to 5 pm.

Photo: Scot Roberge

Sarah Rakes A rural influence, a narrative style, a vibrant palette, and painted, handcarved frames distinguish Sarah Rakes as a unique primitive painter. Organic and sexual images merge with color and pattern to create a dramatic statement of the artist's vision.

Main Street gallery

"Musk Melons and Midnight Light" 35" x 45" Fall 1990

Conterrporcry Crafts and Folk Art Main Street•P.O. Box 641 Clayton, Georgia 30525 ... 404-782-2440




We wish to thank the following members for their increased membership contributions and for their expression of confidence in the Museum:

Andrew A. Anspach, New York, NY Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Beatus, New York, NY Mrs. Anthony Berns, New York, NY Patricia D. Bethke, Hackettstown, NJ Anna & Melvin Brown, San Mateo, CA

Dr. Felicia R. Cochran, Montclair, NJ Jacqueline Fowler, Stamford, CT Jeffrey L. Fried, Highland Park,IL Alma H. Gates, Washington, DC Harriet Griffin, New York, NY Clifford Grodd, New York, NY Ann Marie Hollis, Lake Bluff, IL Ann & Earl Hughes, Woodstock,IL Millicent K. Jones, New York, NY Eloise & Richard Julius, White Plains, NY Sheila Kles, New York, NY Gloria Kurek, Woodbridge, Cr

Bruce Lisman, Bangall, NY Drs. Tom & Pat Loeb, Roslyn, NY Chris Martin, Nazareth, PA Ruth K. Nelson, Tulsa, OK Joanne Rainey, Naples, FL Susan Roe, Poughkeepsie, NY Phyllis Smith, Bronxville, NY Sandy Stephenson, Orange, CA E.A. Sutherland, Quebec, Canada Mr. & Mrs. Steven Vagnino, St. Louis, MO Jane H. Willis, Tenafly, NJ Fred Bartizal, Nennah, WI


The Museum trustees and staff extend a special welcome to these new members: Phyllis B. Aboaf, Riverdale, NY Kate Adams, Pt. Reyes, CA Joe C. Adams, Hilton Head,SC Karen E Albert, Tallahassee, FL Jeanne Anderson, Richmond, VA Roland E. Anderson, Madison, CT Mrs. Christine M. Anderson, San Francisco, CA Audrey K. Anderson, St. Paul, MN Mrs. Joanne Annis, Ottawa, Canada

Barbara Bachman, Mt. Lebanon, PA Mrs. S. Baillie, Chatswood, Australia Shepard Barbash, Brightwaters, NY Sandra L. Barford, New Hope,PA Beverly M. Baross, Cape Elizabeth, ME Sharon Beardsley, Minnetonka, MN Kristina Becker, Pleasanton, CA Nadya Belins, Atlanta, GA Ms. Cuesta Benberry, St. Louis, MO Ms. Dorothy D. Bennett, Riverdale, NY Ms. Jamie Bennett, Toronto, Canada Katherine Berenson, Washington, DC Aaron Berger, Jamaica Estates, NY Mark Bernstein, Atlanta, GA Ms. Mary Berry, Hendersonville, NC Dr. Robert D. Bethke, Elkton, MD Janet Blank, Columbus, OH Mr. & Mrs. John L. Booth II, Grosse Pte Shores, MI Elayne N. Boros, Sands Point, NY Diane Bourdo, Belvedere, CA


Dawn Bradford, Huntersville, NC Kathleen Brady, New York, NY Wendy M. Brainerd, New York, NY Nancy V. Brancart, Alexandria, VA Nora Braverman, New York, NY Carole Breed, Westfield, NJ Ms. Lois P. Broder, W. Long Branch, NJ Julia Lukas Brown, New York, NY Nancy Bruggeman, Westport, CT Miss Muriel Bruning, Brooklyn, NY Ms. Arene Burgess, Bethalto, IL Christine Burke, Elberon, NJ

Ms. Sophie T. Campbell, Paris, France Carousel Antiques, Long Beach, CA Rea Clark, Larchmont, NY Jane M. Cole, Watchung, NJ Georgiana S. Coles, Holicong,PA Kathleen A. Connors,Ph.D., Atlanta, GA The Cowles Charitable Trust, New York, NY Carol Cross, Chicago,IL Judith E. Crosan, Montvale, NJ Craig Currie, Middleton, WI

Sally G. Dale, Greensboro, NC Dallas Public Library, Dallas, TX Joyce E. Dalzell, Maple Glen,PA Julie M. Davis, Astoria, NY Lewis Davis, New York, NY Susan Day, Milwaukee, WI Barbara Deaton, Huntersville, NC E.S. DePalma, Oak Park,IL Lina P. Dereckton, Katonah, NY

Margaret DiSalvi, Newark, NJ Devta Doolan, Portland, ME Ms. Anita Dukich Favaro, New York, NY Marietta Dunn, Lansdowne,PA

Richard Edgeworth, Chicago, IL Karen Eifert, New York, NY Elizabeth Enfield, Rockport, MA Ms. Virginia Enright, Montmorency, Australia Nancy S. Erickson, Brooklyn, NY

Laura Fandino, Brooklyn, NY Ms. Rosemary Fitzsimmons, Allentown, PA E. Michael Flanagan, Milwaukee, WI Henry A. Fleckenstein, Jr., Cambridge, MD Katherine Fleming, Bedford, TX Patty Frascatore, Brooklyn, NY Ms. A.S. Fream, Norman, OK Gretchen Freeman, Phoenix, AZ Carol Froehlig, Glen Head, NY Alyce Fuller, Evanston, IL

Jeanne M. Giebe, Drexel Hill, PA David C. Gleason, West Groton, MA Barbara Goldburg, Littleton, CO Abby Goldman, New York, NY Albertus Gorman, Cincinnati, OH Deborah Grabfield, Glenview,IL Carroll Greene, Savannah,GA Joyce Gritton, Reno, NV Shareen Z. Groce, Stevensville, MD Jeannette Gubler, Kilchberg, Switzerland The Clarion


Larry G. Hackley, N. Middletown, KY Kendra A. Haines, Columbus, OH Lisa Halm, Charlestown, MA Kevin & Betsy Hannon, Brooklyn, NY Susan Hanrahan-Rosen, Merrick, NY Elizabeth Hansen, Mystic, CT Mr. Wynn Harmon, New York, NY Mrs. Margaret Hager Hart, New York, NY Steve Havens, Chicago,IL Paul Haverkamp, New Orleans, LA Victoria Hawley, New York, NY Ms. Melody Gordon Healy, Baltimore, MD Carolyn Heath, Palo Alto, CA Ms. Gilda Joan Hecht, Great Neck, NY Abner Hecht, White Plains, NY Kristin Heiberg, Silver Spring, MD Dorothy S. Henry, Van Nuys, CA Audrey K. Himebaugh, Brookfield, CT James B. Hoey, Newtown, CT B.L. Homsy, Stanford, CA Gordon M. Howell, San Francisco, CA Sylvia Hughes, New York, NY

Zeena Maclean, Croton-on-Hudson, NY Troy J. Maier, New Haven, CT Brian Marlroo, Cocoa Beach, FL Julia M. Martin, Westport, CT Lee!. Mayman, New York, NY Katherine McAndrews, Boalsburg,PA Ms. Cynthia Ann McCauley, Ann Arbor, MI Lisa McComsey, New York, NY Pam McCorkle, Plainsboro, NJ Michael McCue, Bryn Athyn,PA Vicky McLane, Colorado Springs, CO Regina Kane McNamara, New York, NY Linda L. Mears, Canoga Park, CA Sandra Medura, Dundalk, MD Carmen Mercadal, New York, NY Alice C. Merritt, Nashville, TN Patricia A. Miller, Cannel,IN Jeanne H. Millin, Winnetka, IL Bonnie Montgomery, Silver Spring, MD Joanna J. Moore, Adams, NY Jane Munson, Manhattan Beach, CA

Mrs. P.J. Nelson, W. Palm Beach, FL Ken Indermark, Chicago, IL Arline Stem Ingber, New York, NY Judith Insel, New York, NY Anita Iodice, Madison, WI Ayuko Isshiki, New York, NY

Ms. Verdenal H. Johnson, Madison, NJ Marilyn Jones, Memphis,TN Jill Joseloff, New York, NY Kathleen S. June, New York, NY

Nancy Modlin Katz, Staten Island, NY Sunny Sue Kaynor, Woodinville, WA Ms. Elaine M. Kearney, Nutley, NJ Janet B. Kellock, Pleasantville, NY Kathryn Kim, New York, NY Mary Anne Kinsella, Brooklyn, NY Nancy B. Kirby, Wayne,PA Mrs. Donald J. Knapp, Hayward,CA Charleen Knieriew, Fair Oaks, CA Linda Korsen, Ramsey, NJ Lynn Kranz, Bay Village, OH Jacqueline D. Kuehnle, Chicago, IL Jo Ann Kulsa, New York, NY

Ms. Barbara LaGrave, Schenectady, NY Linda Laing, Waitsfield, VT Hal Lander, Hampstead, NC Beth Lauren, New York, NY Charles Layman, Blacksburg, VA Mr. & Mrs. Nolan Leake, Atlanta, GA Sandra Lewis, Boston, MA Janet Lindstrom, New Canaan, CT Bruce P. Linn, Louisville, KY Sandra Long, Covina, CA Fall 1990

Kenneth & Bette Olsen, Madison, NJ

Debra L. Packard, New York, NY Karen Pantel, Thompsonville, NY Mrs. Dominique Patel, New York, NY Peggy Peabody, Louisville, KY David Phelps, Beaumaris, Australia Barbara Phillippi, Centerville, NY Cynthia Phillips, Sewickley,PA Ms. Katherine J. Pitchford, Philadelphia, PA Lawrence Platt, Hermosa Beach, CA Harriet Prentiss, Evanston,IL

Lisa Reed, New York, NY Lesly Reiss, Brooklyn, NY Mary Rebecca Rhodes, Dallas, TX R.H. Richardson, Cambridge, MD Mrs. Carol Riva, Winnipeg, Canada Trevor C. Roberts, Burlingame,CA Marcia Romashko, Mequon, WI Mr. & Mrs. Gerard M. Rooney, White Plains, NY Nikki Rosenbaum, Rockville Centre, NY Joan Day Ross, Lebanon, NJ Joan Roth, Goldens Bridge, NY Ban= Rubinow, New York, NY R. Rudich, MD,Bridgeport, CT

Anne Salerno, Genesco, NY C. Sarfati, New York, NY Richard A. Sauber, Washington, DC Dr. Zeborah Schachtel, New York, NY Ms. Carla Schechner, Morristown, NJ

Peter C. Schneirla, New York, NY Shelley Seldin-Bautista, Hardy, DE Jean W. Shelton, Milford, CT Ed Sherman, Sacramento, CA Betty Jo Shiell, Tallahassee, FL Beatrice Shube, New York, NY Barbara B. Sill, Wayzata, MN Mr. Monty Silver, New York, NY Eleanor Silverstein, Brooklyn, NY Pamela Bisbee Simonds, Branford, CT Dr. Maria Simpson, New York, NY Lawrence Singer, Brooklyn, NY Beth Sinnenberg, Richmond, VA Ms. Marilyn Smith, New Canaan, CT Suzanne Snow, Schaumburg,IL Patricia C. Solomon, Macon,GA Nancy Reed Spencer, Hightstown, NJ Mr. & Mrs. James S. Spero, Ithaca, NY Robyn E Spizman, Atlanta, GA Lionel Sterling, Stamford, CT G. Stern, Brooklyn, NY Bonnie K. Stocker, Millington, NJ Marlene Straus, Albany, NY Patricia McGoni Stuart, Berkley, MI

Ryoko Talcaki, New York, NY Georgene Taylor, Flourtown, PA Ms. Sheryl Tepper, Simpsonville, SC Terracotta, Inc., New York, NY Lynne Cusack Tosone, Washington Twsp., NJ

U. of Conn. Library, Storrs, CT

Joseph Van Jura, Trucksville, PA Sheila Van Zandt, Schenectady, NY Mary Alice Veghte, New York, NY J. Vogeney, Campbell Hall, NY Maureen L. Voorhees, Ann Arbor, MI

Suzanne Wajda, Rochester, NY Mrs. J.A. Wansbrough, Canterbury, Australia Bruce Weber, New York, NY Bill Weber, Brookline, MA Stephen W. Welch, Wakefield, RI Sandra Welles, San Diego,CA Western Reserve Antiques, Burton, OH Deborah White, Warwick, NY Elizabeth Wilson, Enfield, CT Mrs. Valerie Wilson, Ballyclare, No. Ireland Cathie Windon, Northbridge, Australia Mike Windsor, Irving, TX Deborah Winograd, Branford, CT Thomas K. Woodard, New York, NY

Mika Yagi, Englewood, NJ Kathryn Zervos, Magnolia, NJ Ms. Sheila Zuhusky, Southampton, NY 87


America's Folk Heritage Gallery

1044 Madison Avenue,N.Y., N.Y. 10021 Tues.-Sun. 11-6 Closed Mon. 628-7280



JAY JOHNSON OUNTRt 492 Piermont Avenue, Piermont, N.Y. 10968 (914)359-6216 Hours: Thurs.-Sun. 12-5 "Pig"byJohn Cisney Carved and painted wood 23" high x 39"long.


Inside Front Cover America Hurrah 16 American Primitive Gallery 27 Ames Gallery of American Folk Art 67 Anton Gallery 71 Appalachiana 79 Authentic Designs 21 Joshua Baer 63 Barrister's Gallery 81 Sandra Berry 83 Robert Cargo 57 Carruth Studio, Inc. 67 Caskey-Lees Shows 7 Cavin-Morris, Inc. 6 Cherishables 17 Christie's 83 Cognoscenti, Inc. 65 Collectable Old Decoys 14 Crane Gallery 26 John Denton 24 Double K Gallery 57 Epstein/Powell 2 Laura Fisher 64 Folk Art Society of America 5 Janet Fleisher Gallery 13 Gallery 10,Inc. 29 Gasperi Gallery 88

79 Sidney Gecker American Folk Art 78 Gilley's Gallery 69 Marilyn Gould Antiques Shows 78 George Grant/Meadon Construction, Inc. 59 Grass Roots Gallery 59 Grove Decoys 28 Anton Haardt Studio/Gallery 31 Harvey Antiques 70 Henke Studios 61 John C. Hill 19 Peter Hill Inside Back Cover Hirschl & Adler Folk 28 Lynne Ingram 31 Martha Jackson 88 Jay Johnson 56 Main Street Antiques 85 Main Street Gallery 61 Main Street USA 1 Steve Miller 84 The Nantucket Collection 65 New Stone Age 69 Ohio Magazine 3 Timothy O'Keefe 15 Outside-in 25 Susan Parrish

79 Virginia Pope,Inc./Cave and Niles, Ltd. 56 Francis J. Purcell H 27 Thomas C. Queen 29 The Quilt Gallery 18 James Reid, Ltd. 9 Ricco/Maresca 59 Luise Ross Gallery 26 Stella Rubin John Keith Russell Antiques, Inc. Back Cover 66 Larry Schlachter 30 Brigitte Schluger Gallery 32 David A. Schorsch 4 Skinner, Inc. 68 Sanford L. Smith & Assoc. 8 Sotheby's 66 Stewart, Tabori & Chang 55 Sweetgum/Leon Loard Gallery 75 The Tartt Gallery 70 Toad Hall 71 Views Gallery 30 Vicki and Bruce Waasdorp 85 Eldred Wheeler of Houston 62 Wilton Historical Society 10 Thos. K. Woodard 61 Yankee Doodle Dandy 63 Shelly Zegart Quilts The Clarion

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Hirschl & Adler Folk 851 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10021 (212)988-3655


Magnificent Shaker Painted Sewing Desk, Butternut And Pine, Retaining An Original Red/Orange Painted Case. Attributed To The Hand Of Elder Henry Green. Alfred, Maine,Circa 1870.


The Clarion (Fall 1990)  

Folk and Family: George and Benny Andrews • Recollections: Mostly About Old-Time Prices • John Brewster Jr.: An Artist for the Needleworker...

The Clarion (Fall 1990)  

Folk and Family: George and Benny Andrews • Recollections: Mostly About Old-Time Prices • John Brewster Jr.: An Artist for the Needleworker...