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" AME/IIGAt FOLK ART MAGAZINE The Museum of American Folk Art New York City SUMMER 1990, Vol. 15, No. 3 $4.50






YARN SEWN RUG c. 1830 51" x 31"

HOOKED RUG c. 1890 30" x 501/2"



Liberty Enlightening the World or Statue of Liberty Weathervane by J.L. Mott Iron Works, N.Y.C. Last quarter of the 19th Century.

17 East 96th Street, New York, New York 10128 (212) 348-5219 Hours: 2:00 P.M. to 6:00 P.M. Tues. through Sat. & By Appointment 1

101:•:•:•:•:‘,.0: ...vv..741.*:•V. a •(.' ;','.7,;4444V,•F;X: ;,p **


Fine Log Cabin variation quilt embroidered with a different flower in each center square, Midwest,late 19th cent., silk satin.

1050 Second Avenue,Gallery #57, New York,New York 10022 (212)838-2596

New York City's largest, most exciting selection of:•Antique Quilts•Coverlets• Paisley Shawls•Beacon/Pendleton Blankets•Marseilles Spreads•Amish Buggy Shawls • Hooked Rugs• Vintage Decorative Accessories• American Folk Art•

Rare, stencilled Rose Wreath quilt, New England, early 19th century, linen.

For Your Indoor Garden...


New Acquisitions

Shop Display Figure, U ood u'ilh polychrome, c.1930-40, 507I x 19"11

131 / 2"D.

Hours are Tuesday - Friday llam - 6pm, Saturday lpm - 6pm 105 HUDSON STREET/NEW YORK, N.Y. 10013/212.219.2756

Some of America's Greatest Paintings

Route One, Plaza One P.O. Box 337 Kennebunk, Maine 04043 Maine License Number 00281 New Hampshire License Number 2338 Massachusettes License Number 824 FAX (207) 985-7734

Are Great Sculptures Announcing One of the Finest Auctions in Many Years of this Uniquely American Art Form

American Bird Decoys July 28th & 29th 1990 For an illustrated catalogue contact Frank Schmidt at our Gallery (207) 985-3600 or 1-800-992-0047

Furniture by Colorado Folk Carver Dr. Niblack, 1940's

And, showing through mid-July

from KELTERNALCE, New York

Antique Americana — Folk Art — American Indian Pottery

419 Canyon Road • Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 • 505/982-2145

Form Follows




Jimmy Lee Sudduth, Peg Leg Girl, 1989, dirt and house paint on plywood, 54 x 48" Z. B. Armstrong, Georgia Blizzard, Richard Burnside, Raymond Coins, Howard Finster, Ralph Griffin, Joe Hardin, Lonnie Holley, James Harold Jennings, Pappy Kitchens, Jake McCord, R. A. Miller, B. E Perkins, Butch Quinn,Jimmy Lee Sudduth, Willie Tarver, Son Thomas, Mose Tolliver, Fred Webster, Jeff Williams 8

2017 QUE STREET NW, WASHINGTON, DC (202) 332-5652




318 North La Cienega Boulevard Los Angeles, CA 90048 213/652-5990 Gallery Hours: Tuesday — Saturday 12-6 Special Summer Hours Wednesday From 12-8


We will befeaturing the works of "BAD" RAY KOMER and BEN HARRIS from July 27 — September 8, 1990 Opening Friday July 27 7:00 — 10:00 p.m. (Please call for more info on these artists.)


Amish "Bars" pieced quilt. Pennsylvania Early twentieth century 85 x 82 inches

BLANCHE GREENSTEIN THOMAS K. WOODARD 835 Madison Avenue New York, N.Y. 10021 •(212) 988-2906 •

We are always interested in purchasing exceptional quilts Photographs returned promptly. Telephone responses welcome

THE CLARION Ertl 4I AMERICA'S FOLK AU MAGAZINE The Museum of American Folk Art New York City

Volume 15, No. 3


Lynda Roscoe Hartigan



Lois S. Avigad, Stacy C. Hollander Lee Kogan, David ICrashes



Summer 1990

The Studies of Four Folk Art Researchers Bernard A. Kemp,Ph.D.























Cover: From the exhibition "Pictures,Patchwork and Promised Gifts: Recent Additions to the Permanent Collection7 June 28 to September 9, 1990 at the Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square: King of Africa; Thornton Dial, Jr.; Bessemer, AL; 1989; Acrylic carpet on plywood;48 x 72"; Museum of American Folk Art purchase made possible with grants from the National Endowment for the Arts and the Metropolitan Life Foundation. Photo: Bard Wrisley

The Clarion is published four times a year by the Museum of American Folk Art,61 West 62nd Street, NY, NY 10023, 212/977-7170. Telecopier 212/977-8134. Annual subscription rate for members is included in membership dues. Copies are mailed to all members. Single copy $4.50. Published and copyright 1990 by the Museum of American Folk Art,61 West 62nd Street, NY, NY 10023. The cover and contents of The Clarion are fully protected by copyright and may not be reproduced in any manner without written consent. Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the Museum of American Folk Art. Unsolicited manuscripts or photographs should be accompanied by return postage. The Clarion assumes no responsibility for the loss or damage of such materials. Change of Address: please send both old and new addresses and allow five weeks for change. Advertising: The Clarion accepts advertisements only from advertisers whose reputation is recognized in the trade, but despite the care with which the advertising department screens photographs and texts submitted by its advertisers, it cannot guarantee the unquestionable authenticity of objects or quality ofservices advertised in its pages or offered for sale by its advertisers, nor can it accept responsibility for misunderstandings that may arise from the purchase or sale of objects or services advertised in its pages. The Museum is dedicated to the exhibition and interpretation offolk art and feels it is a violation ofits principles to be involved in or to appear to be involved in the sale of works of art. For this reason,the Museum will not knowingly accept advertisements for The Clarion which illustrate or describe objects that have been exhibited at the Museum within one year of the placing of the advertisement.

Summer 1990



Collectors are, and have always been, one ofthe mainstays of the field of American folk art. After all, it was the early collectors — Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, Electra Havemeyer Webb,Henry Francis du Pont, and others — who first shaped the direction of the field. A great deal has changed, however, since those days. The field has broadened to include contemporary self-taught art. Curators and scholars, influenced by the folklore community, are increasingly interested in context and traditions. And ongoing research has made great strides in putting names on works formerly identified by "artist unknown; subject unknown': In this Clarion, we address a number of these issues. Our lead story "Collected with Passion',' is an excerpt from the upcoming book Made with Passion: The Hemphill Folk Art Collection at the National Museum of American Art. To be published in conjunction with an exhibition at the Smithsonian Institution this fall, this catalogue documents the life and collection of Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr. one of the founders of the Museum of American Folk Art and the first curator. Not only has Bert Hemphill, pictured at right, been one of the major collectors in the field, he is also the person credited with broadening the field to include work of the twentieth century. His book, exhibition for the Museum of American Folk Art, and ultimately his own collecting expanded the field and gave it new life. Our second article is a collection of essays by four folk art researchers — a museum curator, two scholars, and a private collector. They share their anecdotes and experiences not only to impart new information, but to inspire the many of you who are immersed in your own research, whether it is a doctoral dissertation or an attempt to find the artist of a favorite family portrait. Our final article is the work of an economistfrom St. John, Virgin Islands. As part of a project to discover the viability of traditional crafts in today's marketplace, he has documented the beautiful baskets of St. John.


THE CLARION Didi Barrett, Editor and Publisher Faye H. Eng, Anthony T. Yee,Art Directors Mel! Cohen, Publications Assistant Marilyn Brechner, Advertising Manager Hildegard 0. Vetter, Production Manager Craftsmen Litho,Printers Nassau Typographers, Typesetters MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART Administration Dr. Robert Bishop, Director Gerard C. Wertkin, Assistant Director Beverly McCarthy,Assistant to the Director Mary Ziegler, Administrative Assistant Sylvia Sinckler, Shop Accountant Maryann Warakomski,Junior Accountant Brent Erdy, Reception Luis Fernandez, Manager, Mailroom and Maintenance Collections & Exhibitions Elizabeth V. Warren, Curator Michael McManus,Director ofExhibitions Ann-Marie Reilly, Registrar Karen S. Schuster, Director ofthe Eva and Morris Feld Gallery Catherine Fukushima, Assistant Gallery Director Stacy C. Hollander, Assistant Curator/Lore Kann Research Fellow Diane Wittner, Assistant Gallery Director Mary Black, Consulting Curator Deborah de Bauemfeind,Exhibitions Coordinator Departments Beth Bergin, Membership Director Marie S. DiManno,Director ofMuseum Shops Susan Flamm,Public Relations Director Alice J. Hoffman, Director ofArt Services/Licensing and Home Furnishings Johleen D. Nester, Director of Development Edith C. Wise,Director ofLibrary Services Egle Victoria ygas, Curator ofEducation Janey Fire, Karla Friedlich, Photographic Services Chris Cappiello, Membership Associate Eileen Jeer, Development Associate Lucille Stiger, Assistant Registrar Programs Barbara W. Cate,Director, Folk Art Institute Lee Kogan, Assistant Director, Folk Art Institute Phyllis A. Tepper, Registrar, Folk ArtInstitute Dr. Marilyn Karp, Director, New York University Master's and Ph.D.Program in Folk Art Studies Dr. Judith Reiter Weissman, Coordinator, New York University Program Cathy Rasmussen,Director ofSpecial Projects Irma J. Shore, Director, Access to Art Eugene P. Sheehy, Museum Bibliographer Mary Linda Zonana, Coordinator, DocentPrograms Howard P. Fertig, Chairman, Friends Committee Museum Shop Staff Dorothy Gargiulo, Caroline Hohenrath, Rita Pollitt, Managers Karen Williams, Mail Order, Vivian Adams, Marie Anderson, Laura Aswad, Judy Baker, Olive Bates, Jennifer Bigelow, Sheila Carlisle, Elizabeth Cassidy, Shirley Chaiken, Ann Coppinger, Annette Ellis, Millie Galdstone, Elli Gordon, Cyndi Gruber, Carol Hauser, Marci Holden, Eleanor Katz, Nan Keenan, Annette Levande, Katie McAuliffe, Nancy Mayer, Nina McLain, Sandra Miller, Theresa Naglack, Pat Pancer, Marie Peluso, Colette Pollitt, Marguerite Raptzian, Mary Rix, Frances Rojack, Phyllis Selnick, Lorraine Seubert, Myra Shaskan, Roslyn Sigel, Kathleen Spear, Maxine Spiegel, Doris Stack, Mary Walker, Mary Walmsly, Gina Westby, George Wolff, Doris Wolfson. Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shops 62 West 50th Street New York, NY 10020 212/247-5611 Two Lincoln Square(Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th) New York, NY 10023 212/496-2966

The Clarion





PREHISTORIC Means "Before There Was Writing" But Not Before There Was Art

1‘11111111VS BM\ I. 1-1" dia.

Mimbres Bowl,9 1/2" dia. Tularosa Duck Effigy, 6" x 10"

Snowllak(. 1)og Effigy, 9 1:2" x 12-

7045 Third Avenue, Scottsdale, Arizona 85251 602 994-0405 225 Canyon Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 505 983-9707 34505 N. Scottsdale #33, Scottsdale,Arizona 85262 602 945-3385



firkittitio“ *mge-cip Primal Portraits: Adam and Eve as seen by self-taught 20th century artists. At the San Francisco Craft & Folk Art Museum, July 7 through Aug. 26, 1990. Dozens of pieces from Colonial times to the present attest to the appeal of this original pair. An astonishing range of interpretations and materials. For inquiries: Tel. 415/7750990. The Golden Age ofthe traveling portrait painter on display at the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, MA. Between the Rivers: Itinerant Painters from the Connecticut to the Hudson focuses on the period of non-academic portraiture between the late 18th and mid-19th century. At the Clark until July 22, 1990. Next stop, the Museum of Fine Arts, Springfield, MA, September 9 through November 4, 1990. Tel. 413/458-9545. Paintbrush Diplomacy: Children's Artfrom the Americas. Seventy paintings by children from 11 countries in the Western Hemisphere honor the quincentenary of the discovery of the Americas by Columbus. From June 23-July 22, 1990 at the Center for Cultural Art, Gadsden, AL; August 11-September 9, 1990, Children's Discovery Museum, San Jose, CA; September 29-October 28, 1990, Denver Children's Museum, Denver, CO. Tel. 202/357-3168. The Doghouse: an outdoor exhibition of 24 imaginative and witty dog domiciles by leading architects and designers. At the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, New 14

Painted to Fancy: 18th and 19th Century Ornamented Furniture. At Fountain Elms, Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica, NY through August 26, 1990. Pieces demonstrate techniques used by amateur and professional cabinetmakers. For information, contact Curator Anna Tobin. Tel. 315/797-0000.

Temptation; Edgar Tolson; Latter part ofthe 20th century; Painted carved wood;14 x 12 x 8";Collection San Francisco Craft & Folk Art Museum.

York City, June 8 through October 14, 1990. A delightful commentary on the nature of dogs, design and our society. The show is accessible to the sight-impaired with tours every Thesday at 5:00 p.m. Tel. 212/860-6868. The Museum of Our National Heritage, Lexington, MA, marks the quincentenary of Columbus' discovery of the New World with Hispanic Weavings of the Rio Grande Valley 1860-1935, May 20 through October 21, 1990. Blankets, serapes and bed and wall hangings made by Hispanic artisans reflect a blending of Mexican, Navajo and Pueblo cultures. Tel. 617/861-6559.

One ofseventy paintingsfrom Paintbrush Diplomacy.

Portable Doghouse

Clay figure by Beatrice Wood.

One-of-a-kind craftsman furniture moves into the 1990s with New American Furniture at the Renwick Gallery of the National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., through September 3, 1990. For inquiries: Tel. 202/357-2247. "Intimate Appeal: The Figurafive Art of Beatrice Wood": 66 works on paper and in clay executed by the 96-year-old Ojai artist, a protege of Marcel Duchamp, between 1917 and 1989. June 20 through October 28, 1990 at the Craft & Art Museum, Los Angeles, CA. For information call 213/937-5544. Private Expressions/Shared Memories: the folk art of marine combat veteran Michael D. Cousino, Sr. will be exhibited through August 3, 1990 at the Vermont Folklife Center, Middlebury, VT.

Rio Grande Saltillo-style serape; Circa 1865.

Yoruba: Nine Centuries of African Art and Thought. One hundred outstanding masterworks from the Yoruba-speaking peoples of West Africa will be on view in a loan exhibition at the National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution through August 26, 1990, Tel. 202/357-2700. The Clarion



-atilt hews boss Att tieo. Iowans emphasize the value of quilts as historical documents in an exhibit of 63 period and appliquĂŠd quilts entitled "The Thread That Remains: Patterns from Iowa's Past'Items of display date from early 1800s to circa 1925. Demonstrations, lectures and identification sessions. At the State Historical Building, Des Moines, Iowa, until September 2, 1990. For schedule, call Lore McManus Solo, 515/281-5111...

Stitching Memories: AfricanAmerican Story Quilts, an exhibition of African-American narrative quilts can be seen at The Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, MD from June 26August 26, 1990. Organized by the Williams College Museum of Art, the traveling exhibition presents more than thirty quilts created by both folk and schooled artists. The quilts record milestones in personal, family, and community histo-

ries; document political events and social movements; and tell stories from the Bible and African-American literature. Tel. 301/316-7170... Forty outstanding quilts documented during the California Heritage Quilt Projects' statewide search will be shown through September 2, 1990, at the Museum of San Diego History, Balboa Park, CA. For inquiries, Tel. 619/753-2715...

i‘ssissetitiise OK 1444ttaket 4salie Sailor's Valentine Gallery director Carolyn Walsh will host a series of one-day symposia on Nantucket Island this summer: Saturday July 21, 1990 on "European Naifs"; Saturday July 28, 1990, "Afro-American Folk Art;" and Saturday, August 4,1990,"20th Century American Folk Art." Among the distinguished roster of panelists and speakers are Didi Barrett of the Museum of American Folk Art; Lynda Hartigan of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American Art; Adrian Swain, curator of the Folk Art Collection of Morehead College in Kentucky; and Russell Bowman, Director of the Milwaukee Museum of Art for the 20th Century American Folk Art Symposium. The AfroAmerican Folk Art speakers will include Dr. Edmund Barry Gaither, Director of the Museum of the National Center of African American Artists in Boston, and Judith McWillie, professor at the University of Georgia. The European Naifs 16

symposium will feature Milo Naeve,curator of American Art at the Chicago Art Institute, and Nancy and William McIlvaine, dealers and specialists in the field. The Saturday series will be held at Nantucket's Jared Coffin House, a restored nineteenth century hotel, beginning at 10 a.m. For information and registration Tel. 508/228-2011.

Walking Sticks; Sailor's Valentine Gallery.

De.iosstt.4UoK The making of Penny/Table Rugs and Willow Furniture will be demontrated at the American Folk Art Show and Sale, August 24-26, 1990, at the Pavilion Convention Center, Virginia Beach, VA, Tel. 804/495-1817.

Penny/Table Rug by Barbara Bond.

A collection of Wedding Ring Quilts on loan from the Museum of American Folk Art will open on June 27, 1990 and run for two years, at the American Adventure Pavilion in the World Showcase Area at EPCOT Center, Walt Disney World, Orlando, Florida... Quilts for Today,Tomorrow,& Always is the theme of a quilt contest sponsored by Eastcoast Quilters Alliance of Massachusetts. Slides and entry forms are due for jurying by September 1, 1990; selected entries will be exhibited at "A Quilters' Gathering," a 4-day event to be held November 1 to 4, 1990, at the Westford Regency Inn, Westford, MA. For further information and application, Tel. 508/256-2672 or 508/692-2857... The Hill Country Arts Foundation is summoning entries for the Second Annual National Juried Quilt Exhibit. The slide deadline for the competition is September 1, 1990. A prospectus may be obtained by sending a SASE to: The Hill Country Arts Foundation, P.O. Box 175 (Highway 39 West), Ingram, TX 78025... Quilt/Surface Design Symposium 1990, the first educational seminar devoted to teaching quiltmaking as an artform in the United States will be held June 24 to 30 and July 1 to 6, 1990, on the campus of the Pontifical College Josephinum, in Columbus, Ohio. Students may choose from 20 classes on varied topics. For additional information, contact Linda Fowler, Tel. 614/297-1585. The Clarion

Robert Reeves O.L. Samuels 35"H x 11"W x 42"L Painted Pine with Antlers

49 South Prado Atlanta, Georgia 30309 404-874-1755 By Appointment List Available

Photo: Ed Symmes


tolit At lea


0 4, CO

Contemporary folk life has demonstrated recent unprecedented growth and vigor in Nova Scotia. Sunday, August 5, 1990 at St. James Parish Hall Grounds, Blockhouse, NS, the Second Annual Nova Scotia Folk Art Festival will take place. In keeping with last year's successful format the event will be held in a large

Artist Eddie Mandaggio poses with Big Horn Sheep.

Summer 1990

grassy field with live musical entertainment and refreshments. Sidney Howard, Joe Norris, Eddie Mandaggio, Buddy Mooers, Wesley Hubley, Lorne Reid, and Leo Naugler are some of the well-known artists expected to attend. For further information contact Chris Huntington, festival organizer, Tel. 902/224-3851.

mom auitt "Pieces of Time" is a thirtyminute video that documents the research of the Arizona Quilt Project. Quilts are the vehicle that relates the story of Arizona from territorial days to the present. Neatly threaded into the text are historical photographs of pioneer women, their families, the homes they created in a new landscape and the work they performed. Quotes from women's diaries, letters, brief interviews with quiltmakers and their descendants provide authenticity, and background music creates an atmosphere of pioneer days in the Southwest. The video retails for $24.50 including postage and handling and may be ordered from the Arizona Quilt

Project, P.O. Box 5062, Mesa, AZ 85211. —Phyllis Tepper


Historical Society of Early American Decoration,Inc. invites the public to an auction conducted by Skinner Inc. of donated items of decorated tin, wood, glass and antique furniture. The auction will be held in the Commodore Ballroom, of the Sheraton Stamford Hotel, in Stamford, CT on Saturday, September 22, 1990, at 1:00 p.m. — viewing 11:00 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. For further information Tel. 914/225-9128. 17




6i4C Gatter




2781 ZELDA ROAD MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA 36106 (205) 270-9010 1(800) 235-6273 IN USA 1(800) 345-0538 IN AL


littitbozeks io ifotytaub As we reported in The Clarion, Winter 1988, Holyland USA was an environment in crisis. In November 1989, the Archdiocese of Hartford ordered bulldozers to wreck most of Holyland,one ofthe largest folk art environments in America, leaving only a scene of the crucifixion, the enormous neon cross at the crest of Pine Hill, and the miniature "Little Jerusalem:' Holyland was built by John Greco, a local attorney, as an educational, and visual aid for better understanding the Bible and the life of Jesus Christ. When Greco died he willed his thirty-year creation of habitats, grottoes, dioramas, and shrines 18

lite Dassokt otkti.fe Castel. to the Archdiocese of Hartford. The church has long been opposed to this environment and pushed to replace it with a more theme park-type pilgrimage site. While hundreds of exhibits were destroyed by bulldozers, others have been damaged by neglect, vandalism, and weather. One source said that a few exhibits that are unharmed are being stored in a building on the site. Presently, fundraising efforts are underway to preserve the remains of Holyland by the Sisters of Fillipini and by the Committee to Preserve Holyland. For further information write: P.O. Box 2577, Waterbury, CT 06723-2577.

The Vermont Folklife Center, established to support and preserve the lifestyles and traditions Vermonters revere, is currently recruiting charter members to support its work. Its current project is a sweeping effort to gather histories from 120 Vermont families, documenting family life, dairy farming, maple sugaring, finances, machinery, mowing, harvesting, medicine and animal husbandry. This vital information is being collected to preserve rapidly disappearing ways of life for our children. For further information, Tel. 802/388-4964 or write the Gamaliel Painter House, Box

442, Middlebury, Vermont 05753.

64t The Summer 1990 edition of the 43rd Annual Guild Fair is scheduled from July 19 to 22, 1990 at the Asheville Civic Center in Asheville, NC. This craft event features over one hundred seventy-five exhibitors. All exhibitors are required to have membership in the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild. Admission $4.00 adults. For information, Tel. 704/298-7928. The Clarion


RAYMOND COINS Examples from an outstanding Collection of Raymond Coins' Stone Sculpture.

Aarne Anton Marianne Sinram

Mon.窶認ri. 10-6 Sat. 11-5 Closed Saturdays in Summer

596 Broadway Suite 205 New York, NY 10012 212.966.1530

Carved wood clock case,1919.





2661 Cedar Street Berkeley, California 94708 415/845-4949 We specialize in exceptional 18th-20th Century handmade objects. Our extensive selection of quilts, carved canes, tramp art, folk paintings and sculpture is available for viewing. Phone for exhibit information, hours or appointment.


The Focus. 20th Century naif and folk art; their evolution, their validity as art, and their regional context. The Participants: Notable authorities, curators, scholars, collectors, an dealers from across the United States. The Place: Nantucket Island, Massachusetts The Hosts: Sailor's Valentine Gallery, Carolyn Walsh, Direct


European Naifs July 28 Afro-American Folk Art August '4

20th Century American Folk Art Attend one or more of the Saturday sessions. For information and registration, call or write the gallery

Folk Art

Fine Art

Sailor's Valentine Gallery 38 & 40 Centre Street, Nantucket, MA 02554 (508) 228-2011


AFRICAN-AMERICAN QUILTS As a quilt researcher particularly interested in quilts made by African-Americans, I read with interest Maude Wahlman's recent articles in The Clarion (Vol. 14, No.2; Vol. 14, No. 3). The recognition of African traditions in the quilts of some African-Americans is truly exciting. It is also such a recent field of inquiry that there is still much to learn, and I look forward to every new article on the subject. Dr. Wahlman's detailed and informative discussion of African aesthetic principles and religious symbolism is fascinating. Unfortunately, however, I find her application of these principles to quilts and her selective interpretation more problematic than enlightening. In her eagerness to find African characteristics in quilts made by Black Americans, she extrapolates boundlessly on the basis of very questionable evidence. Nowhere does Dr. Wahlman define "African-American quilts;' so we must assume that she refers to all quilts made by African-Americans, in all parts of America, at all periods of history. Yet the examples she cites in her text are all from southern states; of the six quilt photos illustrating her first article, she provides dates for only two and provenance for none. The greatest problems with these articles is they are conjectural; her own words attest to this. "Although it cannot be is possible was most likely invented by... one can speculate that ... they could once have been ... might have preferred ..."But conjecture is not evidence, nor presumption proof. Basic questions remain unanswered: When and 22

where were these quilts made? How do they compare visually with quilts made by Euro-American quiltmalcers working in the same places at the same times? Historically and geographically, Wahlman's boundaries are apparently limitless, and the evidence she offers for her speculative interpretations unconvincing. Do African-American women really include squares and triangles in their quilts because of their symbolic significance in African cultures? I doubt it. The square and its divisions, economical and easy to design, occur in all inlay crafts in many cultures, for many centuries. Is the "Wild Goose Chase" pattern really popular" especially among African-American women"? I'd like to know Wahlmait's evidence for this observation. Did Harriet Powers really incorporate sun-forms into her quilts because of a residual memory of the Kongo cosmogram? The sun is a universal experience over time and space, and is an equally universal design motif — a favorite among Euro-American quilters, as well. Particularly alarming is the author's use of two anonymous textiles as evidence of probable African-American traditions. The first is a pair of panels incorporating Bible imagery. I assume Dr. Wahlman has never seen them since she cites only their publication in a 1939 book by Florence Peto, who thought they might have been made by a "creole woman:' Apparently on the basis of this photo and text, Wahlman finds parallels between these and African textiles. The couching techniques described, however, sound remarkably like textiles in the tradition of medieval liturgical

embroidery, as do the Latin inscription and the subject matter. Heather Ruth Palmer (The Southern Quarterly Vol. 27, No. 1, 1963) credits Ursuline nuns and their students in convent schools with producing much of the extant religious needlework in New Orleans, as early as 1772. Wahlman admits that "it cannot be proven that these textiles were made by a black women;" yet four paragraphs later she discusses them not only as definite "creole Bible textiles;' but as initiating a probable "African-American Bible cloth tradition:' whose only other stated examples were made by Harriet Powers over 100 years later and 500 miles away. Is this evidence sufficient to establish a distinctly AfricanAmerican tradition? ' The other anonymous textile is a circa 1850 Virginia quilt incorporating symbols that some see as Masonic and %Milan sees as African. The arborescent motifs, curvilinear vines and quatemity crosses, which she doesn't discuss, have appeared in many textiles in diverse cultures for centuries. The "African symbols — stars (which I read as blossoms) and circles are so abstracted or universal that no conclusions can be drawn as to their source. The only thing that can be said with certainty about this anonymous quilt is that it took vast amounts of time to create. Wahlman's imagination runs most rampant in her interpretation of Pecolia Warner's flag quilt. Arrogantly discounting the quiltmaker's own statement that her quilt was inspired by a dream she had after seeing an American flag, Wahlman informs us that the quilt is really "an African-American version of the protective Haitian Mayo:'

The evidence? It features strips, stars and the colors red, white and blue — all significant symbols in Haitian culture. Wahlman should look at an American flag sometime. Informative articles backed by solid evidence — lots of it — are needed in this developing field. In order for the readers to evaluate such articles intelligently we need a clear focus. Gladys Marie Fry's model article on the Harriet Powers Bible quilt in Boston(Missing Pieces: Georgia Folk Art 1770-1976) analyzes one African-American quilt in specific historical context. Roland Freeman documents quilts made by AfricanAmericans in thirteen counties of southwest Mississippi(Something to Keep You Warm). This kind of concentrated focus, which exists in every other article I've seen in The Clarion, is far more helpful than Dr. Wahlman's wild extrapolation. Ricky Clark Oberlin, Ohio

ELIZABETH QUILTS As you can imagine, we were most interested to read your article on the Elizabeth quilts (Vol. 15, No. 1). We owned the Reinhart quilt for more than thirty years and had done a fair amount of research on it before giving it to the Newark Museum. I'm sorry I didn't know anyone was working on them or I would have gladly shared information — and questions. I had decided that Sarah J. Davis was the mover behind the quilt and am interested that you reached the same conclusion. I did some work on the namps and also tried to divide up the blocks by "makers" — at least which The Clarion




VATAIAVATIVAVATATAVAYAVATA blocks were likely made by the same hand. On a recent visit to your Museum I was delighted to find the Dunn Quilt hanging. It would be great to have all three side-by-side some time. Since the Waterbury quilt is in England, there is probably little chance of closer comparison though. James Tanis Director of Libraries Professor of History Bryn Mawr,PA

SEEING STARS Someone hasn't done their homework. In your article on the Brechner Collection of patriotic quilts (Vol. 15, No. 2), two quilts with forty-eight stars were given the arbitrary date "circa 18907 Forty-eight stars, however, did not appear on flags until 1912 when Arizona was admitted to the union. There's enough misinformation dispersed through decorator magazines. A museum publication needs to guard against that. Mrs. Henry H. Haskell Lac Du Flambeau, WI Editor's Note: We apologize for the inaccuracy. The dates on those two quilts were arrived at, say our sources, based upon the turn—of—the—century fabric. They never thought to count the stars. Thanks to all the eagleeyed readers who wrote in.

FAN MAIL FROM ABROAD Thanks for my first issue of The Clarion! It is really gorgeous and I read it again and again. Summer 1990

Everything, articles and advertising are of such good taste — a joy for the eyes! Maud Thiery Gent, Belgium

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Your little bibliography (Bibliography of American Folk Art for the Year 1987) must be the most handsomely-produced thing of its kind ever to see light of day: it really is a joy. Congratulations!

(.__ •,.--

Dr. Olive Johnson Acquisitions Librarian (Retd.) University of Auckland Library Auckland, New Zealand

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Editor's Note: The Bibliography ofAmerican Folk Artfor the Year 1988 is currently being produced. For further information contact the Museum Library.





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qp, Ceramic Vessels. Oriente, Ecuador.

CORRECTION Barbara Millstein's title was incorrectly stated in the article "Living in a Brooklyn Folk Environment"(Vol. 15, No. 2). She is Associate Curator, Department of American Painting and Sculpture.

ART OF THE RAINFOREST Thursday, September 6-Saturday, October 6

DIA DE LOS MUERTOS The Mexican Day of the Dead Thursday, October 11-Saturday, November 10

NATIVITIES THE CLARION welcomes letters on all issues related to American folk art. Correspondence should be addressed to The Clarion, Museum of American Folk Art,61 West62nd Street, New York, New York 10023. Letters may be edited for length and clarity.

Folk Art of the Season Thursday, November 15-Saturday, January 12 131 SPRING STREET A NEW YORK, NY 10012 A (212) 431-0144 Mir



Representing: David Butler Rev. Howard Finster O.W. "Pappy" Kitchens Rev. McKendree Long Sr. Gertrude Morgan Jimmie Lee Sudduth Willie White and many other important Outsider artists

GASPERI GALLERY "Clementine's Sister, Lily" oil on paper, a 1942; signed, 1985 13" x 10"

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Thomas C. Queen American Antiques

Representative of my inventory is this selection which includes a fine 18th century sawbuck tea table from Massachusetts, a wonderful wrought iron folk art violin from Vermont, and Shaker boxes in original paint.

188 Reinhard Street 24

Columbus,Ohio 43206

By Appointment


Shaker six-board blanket box, origin—Mt. Lebanon, MA. original blue paint, circa 19th c.




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THE AMISH QUILT By Eve Wheatcroft Granick 192 pages, illustrated with 140 color plates Published by Good Books,Intercourse, PA, 1989 $45 hardcover There are lots of pretty picture books of quilts available, and seemingly more are published every day. Thank goodness this is not one of them. The book does, of course, include many color reproductions of eyedazzling Amish quilts. The difference in this volume is that the text is as informative and detailed as the quilts are beautiful — no small feat when it comes to the magnificent textile creations of the Amish. Author Eve Wheatcroft Granick spent many years researching Amish quilts from a variety of different approaches. She has packed the results of that research into this book, providing a solid background for understanding both the quilts and the people who made them. Suitably, she starts with the Amish Church community and its beginnings, first in Europe, and then the migration of the Amish to America in the Colonial period. (This is indeed background, as the first documented Amish quilts were not made until the second half of the nineteenth century.)Both the Gemeinde, the Amish sense of community and spiritual unity, and the Ordnung, the written and understood rules of order that govern the details of daily life among the Amish, are explained, so that one can appreciate their influences on the quiltmakers and, by extension, the quilts. A large portion of the book is spent examining the various fabrics used in Amish textiles from the Colonial period to 1950. The author surveyed historic inventories to determine the use of different fabrics over the years, and explains the ways to identify specific fibers and weaves. She also discusses the textile sources — from traveling salesmen to mail-order concerns — available to the Amish at different periods. The availability of certain fabrics (or, equally important, the shortage) had a great impact on the Amish quilting tradition; such detailed information is useful to scholars and collectors in identifying when and where a quilt might have been made. This section, however, is more comprehensive than most readers will ever need, and should probably be used as a reference guide. 26

The heart of the text discusses the quilts from all the different areas of Amish settlement in America with a significant quiltmaking tradition. These include Lancaster, Somerset, and Mifflin Counties in Pennsylvania; Ohio; Indiana; Illinois; and Iowa; as well as those locations, such as Kansas and Oklahoma, where the quilt output was small or was derived from "mother" communities in the larger settlements. In each region, the quilts are examined in terms ofconstruction details, such as fabric, quilt back or lining, and bindings, as well as the maker's aesthetic choices, including pattern, color, and design. The author also pays careful attention to the religious, social, and economic background of the communities in which the quilts were made, topics that are too often not considered and that go far in explaining why the quilts of certain regions are different from those of others. Quilts made in Indiana, for example, often exhibit quilting and piecing that is of a cruder quality than those made in Pennsylvania or Ohio, a fact that the author traces to a period of harsh frontier conditions. Because of this situation, "the traditions ofelaborate needlework,handed down in Lancaster County in an unbroken chain from mothers to daughters, were simply not present on the Indiana prairie!' If there is a problem with this book, it is that the beautiful illustrations have not been

integrated with the text. The photographs are not referred to in the text(except for one embarrassing place where "figures 00 and 00" are mentioned), nor, in most cases, are the photographs provided with explanatory caption material beyond the basics. In many instances, the reader can guess that a quilt is illustrated because it was made at a certain time or in a certain region, but some insight from the author would have enhanced the pretty pictures and made them more meaningful. Somewhat disappointing, also, is the chapter entitled "Quiltmaking: Its Part in Amish Women's Lives:' What begins as a sociological presentation on the lives of Amish women becomes sidetracked by such topics as "Quilt Construction and Tools" and "Trends in Amish Quiltmakine subjects that interrupt the narrative and properly belong elsewhere in the book. The Amish Quilt stands, however, as the best book currently available on the subject and based on the good research and hard work devoted to it by the author, it is likely to remain so for a long while to come. — Elizabeth V. Warren Elizabeth V. Warren, Curator of the Museum of American Folk Art, frequently writes and lectures about Amish quilts, and has organized two exhibitions of Amish quilts for the Museum. She is a graduate of the New York University/ Museum of American Folk Art Master of Art degree program in Folk Art Studies.

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SOUTHERN CULTURE By Charles Reagan Wilson & William Ferris, coeditors 1989 pages, illustrated Published by The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina $49.95 hardcover As an erstwhile "Buckhead boy" who remembers sitting at table with Margaret Mitchell, shaking hands with Bobby Jones before escorting his daughter to a dance, working in television with Ralph McGill and selling Martha White flour on the Flatt & Scruggs Show — and who can still conjure up the fragrance of magnolias or gardenias, even in a Manhattan subway, I read with excitement and anticipation in The The Clarion



New York Times, about the Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. It had been carefully compiled by two professors at the University of Mississippi. These worthy scholars had apparently been laboring for ten years on what promised to be the book to end all books about the South. The Encyclopedia, having arrived, provided me with new respect for the word "tome"and made me wish I knew somebody used to pumping iron to hold it while I turned the pages. It weighed in at nine pounds on my bathroom scale, which is more than I might lose after two weeks weaned from bourbon. Now, anyone who agrees to review a book is supposed to read it, but confronted with this formidable compendium,I figured I might be able to fudge and merely browse the Encyclopedia by using its index. Starting with familiar subjects, I found "Moon Pies" but no listing for "R.C.:' nor for my own favorite boyhood soft drink, Nehi. Missing also, was my favorite comic strip, Ed Dodd's Mark Trail. I checked out the illustrations; some seemed to be culled from Ag school archives. There were a few old news photos and stills from movies about the South,such as Broderick Crawford as "The Kingfish" and Yvonne De Carlo, staring into a mirror, searching for visible evidence of a touch of the tarbrush. Back to the index, I shouldn't perhaps have expected to find broiler chickens, dipping snuff or horse hockey, but where were sorghum syrup, chenille bedspreads and Minnie Pearl? In a funk, I retreated to the introduction where I learned that the editors had contrived an unusual method of organization. They had divvied everything up into twentyfour sections, each featuring an overview essay supported by shorter works on "those aspects of southern life and thought â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the individuals, places, ideas, rituals, symbols, myths, values and experiences â&#x20AC;&#x201D; which have sustained either the reality or illusion of regional distinctiveness:' These are followed by brief "alphabetically arranged topical-biographical" articles. But why Dizzy Dean and not Man Mountain Dean? Why Mary Ann Mobley, Mississippi's Miss America of 1959 and not Neva Jane Langley, Georgia's Miss America of 1953? Nowhere in the introduction nor anywhere else could I discover the basis for Summer 1990

what seemed to be a capricious selection of subject matter. At this point I realized I was finding out more about what wasn't in this enormous book than what was. There was no way to weasel out. I had to read the whole thing. Not only are there almost 1600 pages oftext, but one is faced with the work of778(count 'em) scholarly contributors, apparently each with his own style. The essays can be simplistic. In "Race Relations;' segregation is referred to as "the American equivalent of South African apartheid:' Others may be pedantic, outlining all the approaches to a particular subject without coming to any conclusions. Meanwhile, the same person who redefined "encyclopedia" to suit his own purposes must have been turned loose on the word "culture!'Several definitions appear in the introduction, including T.S. Eliot's "... all the characteristic activities and interests of a people but none that mention taste, enlightenment or progress. Perhaps this confused a couple of contributors. Why else would the author of an otherwise excellent essay on the Sears Roebuck Catalog skip over the cultural significance of the ladies' underwear pages to every young man who carried away "The Catalog" to "the little house in the back"? And who could mention the statues of Confederate officers lining Richmond's Monument Boulevard without noting that the soldiers who fell in battle are

Encyclopecta of Sounern Cuture


looking South, while those who survived are forever facing North? But more disturbing than omissions in the Encyclopedia, is the pounding repetition. There are enough pages devoted to Appalachia, for example, to make up a book in themselves; but if gathered and edited in normal encyclopedia fashion, they might have been reduced by half. The editors probably increased their chances for repetition by sending proposed contributors a list of authors and thinkers, such as Eudora Welty, Robert Penn Warren, W.J. Cash, etc., as preferred sources for quotation. One also imagines them flinging up the spector of H.L. Mencken, like an inflatable owl over a field of bunnies. The Baltimore Bulldog, ever ready and willing to snap at anyone or anything, tore into the South in "The Sahara of the Bozart"; this essay of 1920 has escaped many Mencken anthologies, but is referred to numerous times in the Encyclopedia. Mencken, of course, would have to be reckoned with in any consideration ofSouthern culture. After all, it was he who coined the term "Bible Belt" in the 1920s. But if his work was of such significance, why overlook the writers who helped shape his style? To mention but two: the Ohioan, Ambrose Bierce, author of The Devil's Dictionary and many fine stories about the War between the States, or Texan, William Cowper Brann, editor of The Iconoclast, a writer whose invective was so much more caustic than Mencken's that a disgruntled reader gunned him down in broad daylight on the streets of Waco. The announced intention of the Encyclopedia is to address "the long range needs and interests of a diverse reading audience!' While several of the overviews, such as the one on myths, and some of the articles, like the one on "geophagy" (dirt eating) might be enough to keep the average reader awake, it is hard to imagine anyone slogging through the entire book. Neither would they want to use the book for reference purposes if getting information always meant sorting through overviews and scattered articles for bits and pieces. Furthermore,few aspects ofregional behaviour are explored systematically enough for a student to be able to assess their significance from state to state, much less beyond the boundaries of the South. This is not to say that this monumental work is not chock-full offacts about doings, 27



past and present, 'neath the Mason-Dixon Line. I, for one, was fascinated to find out that the Alamo got central air conditioning in 1970, that graves in rural cemetaries are almost always aligned along an east-west axis with heads toward the west and feet to the east, and that one-fifth of Mississippi's total revenue for 1866 was required to purchase artificial limbs for Confederate veterans. The editors apparently could not make up their minds whether to create a dictionary of pop culture or a sociology text book,so they wound up with neither. Instead they gave birth to a mouse in the form of a mountain — an impossible dream transmogrified into a coffee table reality. Reluctantly, this reviewer must report that the Encyclopedia of Southern Culture was weighed and found — J. Garrison Stradling wanting. J. Garrison Stradling, formerly Assistant Professor of Journalism at the University of Georgia, an editor ofthe United Nations Review, and Public

Affairs Manager of WNBC Radio, is now an antiques dealer specializing in early American ceramics and glass.

BY SOUTHERN HANDS: A CELEBRATION OF CRAFT TRADITIONS IN THE SOUTH By Jan Arnow 237 pages, color and black-and-white illustrations Published by Roundtable Press and Oxmoor House, Birmingham, AL, 1987 $35.00 hardcover This large and handsomely illustrated volume sprang from a very ambitious undertaking. For four years Jan Arnow traveled over fifty thousand miles throughout the Southeast documenting contemporary traditional craftspeople. Much to her credit, she carried a tape recorder as well as a camera, and came away with information on materials, processes, and lives as well as the

crafts produced. Obviously a work of such scope can offer neither a comprehensive survey of crafts nor an in-depth study of their makers, but it does provide a sound and very colorful introduction to the great variety of crafts produced today in the South. A brief introduction defines traditional crafts and wisely avoids arguing the old art/ craft dichotomy. Nine chapters follow: Basketmaking; Toymaking; Woodworking; Sewing; Woodcarving; Broommaking; Spinning, Dyeing & Weaving; Metalworking & Leathertooling; Pottery & Tilemaking. Each has a general introduction, which provides some historical background, and a series of subsections on specific topics (e.g., Split-Oak Baskets, River-Cane Baskets, Honeysuckle Baskets). There does not appear to be any rationale for the particular order of the chapters. Certainly, Woodworking and Woodcarving should be related, since chairmakers (wood working) often make tool handles(wood carving). In



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MARGARET RAPP Left: Folk Art Clock by M. Coble, Circa 1990. Right: Clock made by Capt. John Scudder, Westfield, NJ, Circa 1790, original label inside.


The Clarion

'An immense contribution to the study and preservation offolk are' Hidden among the ridges and hollows and small towns of the mountains that sprawl from Virginia to Alabama, self-taught artists are producing works of raw power and striking originality. 0, Appalachia opens the door on 20 of these unique artists—sculptors, painters, carvers, and basket weavers—allowing us to watch them work, explore their art, and share their experiences, memories, and feelings. "A celebration of art at its purest and most compelling." —Mid-Atlantic Country "An entertaining, sensitive, and genuinely enlightening perspective on

the people and art of Appalachia." —Better Homes & Gardens Traditional Home "It may become a prototype for books that seek to discover the person behind the art." —*Folk Art Messenger

From 'County Fair by Carleton Garrett

Stewart, Tabori & Chang

More than 150 full-color photographs, 256 pages, 9" x 12". Now at your bookstore, or order directly through the coupon below: "Russell" by Reverend Hayes Mail to Stewart, Tabori & Chang, Publishers 740 Broadway, New York, NY 10003 Attn: Sales Dept. M. Please send me copy(ies) of 0, Appalachia a $50.00. Included in my total is $3.00 shipping / handling for the first book and $1.50 for each additional (NY State and NYC residents add applicable tax). Enclosed is $ Payment: 0 Check enclosed 0 AMEX 0 MC E VISA Account # Expiration Print Name Address City State Zip CLAS90


addition, most of the examples appear to come from Kentucky, Louisiana, North Carolina, and Tennessee (with particular emphasis on Cajuns, mountaineers, and some Native American tribes). In this regard, a map at the beginning of the book would have been useful for readers not familiar with Southern names, regions, and ethnic groups. Although her treatment of each topic is necessarily brief, Arnow gives full attention to specific craftspeople and their methods of construction; this is not the usual objectoriented approach. Some of the individuals featured are well-known: instrument makers Homer Ledford, Marc Savoy, and Othar Turner; embroiderer Ethel Mohammad; decoy maker Madison Mitchell; Cherokee sculptor Goingback Chiltoskey; potter BurIon Craig. But there are many others here who have not been in the public eye, such as Kentucky dollmaker Marla Steitz, who fashions apple-head dolls out of a fresh Red Delicious or Granny Smith. Sometimes the Summer 1990

apple splits, she allows, but then you "just eat your mistake and start from scratch again!' Arnow also occasionally shows how new technologies have infiltrated these crafts. In the section on chairs, she juxtaposes a Doris Ulmann photograph with her own shot of Tennessee chairmaker Ronnie Smith, standing ankle deep in shavings while turning posts and rounds on a modern electric lathe. In like manner, decoy maker Pat Vincenti of Maryland uses patterns, a bandsaw, and a duplicating lathe to roughcut his ducks. As purists, we may not like to see these innovations, but they are inevitable. It is the craftsman who does the hard physical work, and only the most foolish will forego the use of such labor-saving tools merely to satisfy the nostalgia of his customers. In any broad survey such as this, some errors are inevitable; it is impossible for one person to master so many diverse fields. In the chapter on Sewing, for example, Arnow perpetuates the long-held notion that quilt-

ing sprang from a humble salvage craft: "It is believed that the earliest quilts in this country were hurriedly put together, with little or no decoration, to fend off the cold of wilderness winters:' Recent research by quilt scholars suggests quite the opposite. Estate inventories and early quilts (appliqués using expensive materials) reveal that "pioneer" women were creating objects of beauty, not utility, right from the start. Again, in the chapter on Pottery & Tilemaking, much of the ware classified as stoneware is actually earthenware; tobacco spit and frogskin are not alkaline glazes; Albany slip was rarely used on the interiors of vessels; and a number of the photographs are misidentified. But these are minor quibbles. In general, the text provides a solid background for the superb color photographs, which constitute the heart of the book and reveal the sturdy forms and rich textures of these objects. Arnow makes good use of close-ups to explore the herringbone weave of a river29



cane basket, the fine tooling on a saddle, or the mottled bark skin of a snake slithering up a walking cane. Many ofthe photographs also document people at work, gathering honeysuckle for baskets, stoking a forge, or reveling in the tones of a newly made accordion. Finally, the range of topics is noteworthy, including, for example, marbles, boats, Mardi Gras Indian costumes, tool handles, brooms, and nets — items usually ignored, because they lack aesthetic appeal or carry little value in contemporary craft markets. Ultimately, this is not a book for the scholar or the serious collector of crafts, folk art, or folklife. It is an introductory work for a general audience. To further entice the reader, Arnow has added a very well-chosen selected bibliography and an extensive listing of resources (workshops, folklore societies, archives, collections, state folklore programs, journals, museums,films and videotapes, and festivals). All of these features, combined with the balanced emphasis on product and process, make this a much more intelligent work than the usual, glossy, coffee-table production. The book also raises — but does not answer — two interesting questions. First,just what is "Southern" about these crafts? Is it the attachment to the land? The importance of family? The persistence of certain genres (the river-cane basket, the alkaline glaze, Afro-American quilting techniques)? Second, despite the author's occasional pessimism, these craft traditions seem alive and well. What,then, are their new contexts and functions in a society dominated by factorymade, mass-produced goods? Decoy maker Pat Vincenti offers a partial answer. "These ducks are more or less painted to meet the gunner's [collector's] eye, not the duck's eye:' — Charles G.Zug III Charles G. Zug HI is the author of Turners and Burners: The Folk Potters ofNorth Carolina. He is Professor of English and Chairman of Curriculum in Folklore at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

ENGLISH AND AMERICAN TEXTILES FROM 1790 TO THE PRESENT By Mary Schoeser and Celia Rufey 256 pages, color and black-and-white illustrations 30

Published by Thames and Hudson, New York, NY,1989 $55.00 hardcover English and American Textilesfrom 1790 to the Present is a beautifully illustrated and well-written commentary on the subject of textiles and textile designs by Mary Schoeser, archivist at Warner Fabrics PLC and Celia Rufey, journalist and writer on design subjects. Schoeser and Rufey provide a discussion that is of interest not only to the restorer and the social historian but to architects, interior designers, and antique collectors. The authors compare English and American textiles and textile designs from 1790 to the present. Although some attention is given to furniture and drapery styles of French origin, most of the text is dedicated to English taste after 1800 and parallels the design and manufacture of English-made and American-made furnishing textiles. Focusing on the dominant influence of each period from 1790 to the present, the authors highlight manor houses of the wealthy as well as cottages of the poor, and illustrate how different sections of society responded to the "ritual" of decorating their homes. Comments of scholars, past and present, and observations by journalists over the past 200 years add insight into the sense of style popular during each period and the way in which these styles are adapted today and reproduced for contemporary taste. Each of the text's eight chapters, presented chronologically, concentrates on how textiles used in the home reflect influences from fashion, technology and social change during the respective periods. New styles and revivals are discussed in detail. An entire chapter is devoted to "Basic Cloths' textiles that have shown little or no change, and can be found in homes from the 1790s through the 1980s. Chapter titles give a good indication of what influenced the years under discussion. For example, Chapter Two, entitled "Revolution;' covers the period from 1790 to 1825 during which time three revolutions affected the living conditions and design styles found in English and American homes: the American people ratified their constitution, the French Revolution began, and the English cotton industry exploded. Chapter Three,"Exuberance;' covers the period 1825 to 1860 when textile

design reflected bold juxtapositions of color, vigorous outline, overlapping motifs or trompe l'oeil effects. Chapter Four, "Renaissance;' 1860-1890, signals a time of change and rebirth for America after the Civil War, the opening of the Suez Canal, the removal of protective tariff on French silks, and a period of artistic reform. The campaign against ornamentation and clutter in design is described in Chapter Five, "Towards Simplicity," 1890-1920. Finally, in Chapter Eight, "Retrospection7 1980-1990, is a reflection on style fashions of the eighties. As the title infers, it is a period in which both English and American style makers often referred back to the past for ideas and inspiration. Over 300 illustrations of antique fabrics and period and contemporary room settings provide excellent reference material for anyone interested in period restoration or interior design. Captions accompany each illustration providing historical information relating to techniques, dyestuffs and design styles. A comprehensive reading list is provided as is a short appendix offering a brief introduction to the major methods of production. English and American Textiles from 1790 to the Present is a welcome addition to any library or coffee table collection. —Alice J. Hoffman Alice J. Hoffman is Director of Licensing and Home Furnishings for the Museum of American Folk Art. Ms. Hoffman, an attorney, earned a certificate in Folk Art Studies from the Museum of American Folk Art Institute in 1988. THE SPIRIT OF FOLK ART: THE GIRARD COLLECTION AT THE MUSEUM OF INTERNATIONAL FOLK ART By Henry Glassie 276 pages, illustrated Published by Harry N. Abrams Inc, in association with the Museum of New Mexico, New York, NY,1989 $60.00 hardcover In the hands of Dr. Glassie, the Girard Collection has become a metaphor for the world of art. His rhapsodic essay is swept by purer breezes of discourse and philosophical insight than we have seen on the folkloric front in a long time. Indeed, I felt thrilled as I read the essay, thinking perhaps The Clarion



that the way would now be cleared for all the others who think the way!do — that the selftaught, the twentieth century "folk" artist, the outsider, et al, are fine artists in a true continuum of art and that chamber concepts of"mainstream" and "fine" art are ready for consignment to obscurity. The essay is a multi-facetedjoyous paean to both artmaking and to the deep-felt aesthetic appreciation ofsame. Glassie says art communicates, and the intention of his folklorist colleagues should be to explore and investigate that communication. Through that investigation and passionate appreciation, we can watch the artist "roll the collective soul open for contemplation:' The Girard Collection plays a necessary second to Glassie's explorations; but, because of the vast and seemingly wide nature of the collection, this is welcome. There really is no text, short of an encyclopedia, that could put a collection like this in perspective. The work is dramatic, though qualitatively and aesthetically uneven. However, it makes a universal point when viewed as a whole. It is this global approach that Dr. Glassie attends to. The illustrations, supplemented by Dr. Glassie's black and white field photographs from Turkey, the U.S., and Ireland, become vivid slides — images that awaken other images and rhyme and clash with a sonorous roiling of the folklorist's discourse. We have been waiting for someone to have the courage to express on paper that the problem of contemporary folk art can only be given perspective if viewed on a global level. As a matter offact, and Glassie seems to partially acknowledge this when he cautions against our colonial impulses, the problems only seem to arise when we try to limit and prematurely delineate artistic boundaries. A true contextualization reveals the field's incredibly broad spectrum. The clarion call Glassie devises: "our fine art, their folk art:' would seem to say this. He warns in the beginning of the book that, "definitions of folk art have been hard to derive, I believe, mostly because people in the act of definition have glimpsed challenges, not only to their notions of folk art, but to their very way of life, and have abandoned the effort in discomfort and fear." Amen. One ofthe pathways through the war zone is that ofcontextualization. We have heard it from Robert Fan-is Thompson, Henry and Summer 1990


Margaret Drewell, John Nunley, many of the newer researchers in Latin America and Africa. Although the road has been treacherous and mined with the personal agendas of researchers, critics, dealers, and curators, we are watching this art slowly subvert and infiltrate the morass of contemporary art. The more individualistic element of self-taught art still needs its own contextualization. We are caught between two rowboats — that of folklore and that of contemporary art history. The irony is that it is the tension, between the two, not the art, that has come to define the field. Luckily, Dr. Glassie is, ultimately, a truth-seeker. He has laid out a beautiful and flexible framework that will allow us to take artists such as S.L. Jones,Edgar Tolson,Jon Serl, and Martin Ramirez and by openminded fieldwork, allow them their rightful places in the art world at large. Perhaps this is very close to what must be the ultimate truth about the belittling quest for a definition that already exists, despite the frantic efforts of academics to prove otherwise. Define art and you will have defined folk art (as opposed to craft). Then leave it alone and start looking critically at the work itself. All the desired information boils inside the artists' intent and execution. This is what must now be studied. An international collection like the Girard makes a spiritual point, as Dr. Glassie rightfully observes. The self-taught artist reinvents the spirit continually as a statement of cultural survival. Realism is

not necessarily the intent; rather it is the search for and capture of essence. True folk art,like all art, is sensual and transcendental — the "synthesis of materialization and conceptualization:' And like the artists themselves, the researchers who are going to join all the worlds together are those unafraid, like Dr. Glassie, to make statements guaranteed to be unpopular at first but whose subtle truths will slowly unveil themselves as spiritual and basically human — that real art, trained or untrained should never become divorced from the art of making life morally liveable in an unfriendly universe. While it is we(the makers ofagendas)who own and use the word "are,' it is the artmakers who define its essence by creation. Because of the largeness of this essay and of Dr. Glassie's thinking, it is truly impossible to sum this book up in a few paragraphs. What I can feel comfortable saying is that very few issues will emerge in the next 20 years that are not touched upon in this book. It is a spiritual template for charged discourse. Dr. Glassie says it best:"Art is real. Folk art exists only because 'fine' art does. But art exists because we do. We are, all of us,individuals, and all of us are members of societies, and all societies occupy a world rolling beyond control. Those are truths, and art is their simultaneous recognition: it is that which at once pleases us as individuals, situates us among our fellows, and mutters of the enormity that enfolds us. Now judge. Set art against reality and say that it should bear witness to the individual, the society, the world. The best art does that insistently, courageously: think of the Sistine Chapel, the Book of Kells, the Green Mosque at Bursa, the Acoma pot of blossoms and parrots. Such are the best. If 'folk' art stresses the group at the expense of the individual, it is to that degree a failure; call it noble, coercive. If 'fine art' stresses the individual at the expense of the group, it too fails; call it expressive, arrogant. If any 'are should shy away from acknowledgement, whether framed as scientific or religious, of the powers beyond us, it betrays us;call it frivolous, cowardly. "Art is the best that can be done." —RandallSeth Morris Randall Seth Morris is a writer, collector, and coowner of Cavin-Morris, Inc. He is writing a book about outsider art. 31

A Newly Discovered Folk Art Masterpiece. Extraordinary carved and polychromed pine figure of Father Time, bearing the signature of"B. W. Smith," on the pedestal. Kentucky, Circa 1870. 39 x 23 1/2 inches. This figure is believed to have come from a Kentucky fraternal lodge.


EI.t 1 1


and in printed materials — including checklists and educational brochures — related to exhibitions for which the fund is utilized in 1990-1991. Your support of exhibitions, through the new Exhibition Fund for Lincoln Square, would Photo: Susan Einstein

Over the last thirty years, the Museum of American Folk Art has organized some 180 exhibitions. Many of these were presented in New York City, at the Museum, and a fairly substantial number, in recent years, have toured both nationally and internationally. At this very moment, twenty exhibitions are currently being offered either by the Museum at the Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square, or at sister institutions throughout the United States and around the world. During the 1990-1991 period, the following shows are scheduled for introduction at the Lincoln Square Gallery:

make it possible for us to guarantee the quality of presentation for which the Museum has come to be known. Please join us in our efforts to preserve, collect, and exhibit the great folk heritage of the American people. From "The Quilt Encyclopedia". lbmbling Blocks; Mrs.Ed Lantz;Elkhart, Indiana; Circa 1910; Wool and cotton on wool backing;81/ 1 2x 67"; Collection of the Museum ofAmerican Folk Art, New York; Gift ofDavid Pottinger.

June 28 — September 3,1990 "Jacob Maentel in Indiana" June 28 — September 9,1990 "Pictures, Patchwork, and Promised Gifts: Recent Additions to the Permanent Collection" September 13 — November 25,1990 "Five-Star Folk Art" December 6,1990 — March 3,1991 "Painters of Record: William Murray and His School" December 6,1990 — March 6,1991 "The Cutting Edge: Contemporary American Folk Art"

From "Access to Art: All Creatures Great and Small"; Lion; David Alvarez;Santa Fe, New Mexico;1982; Cottonwood, sisal whiskers, mane and tail; 15 x 10 x 27'; Collection ofthe Museum of American Folk Art, New York; Gift ofMrs. Dixon Wecter.

March 14 — June 9,1991 "The Quilt Encyclopedia" March 14 — June 16,1991 "Access to Art: All Creatures Great and Small"

The majority of our exhibitions are made possible through corporate sponsorship. However, there are, each year, several presentations which are funded in part, by grants from government, foundation, or private sources. The Museum of American Folk Art has established the Exhibition Fund for Lincoln Square to provide the necessary additional support for those exhibitions which are only partially funded. I would like to ask you to consider making a gift to the Exhibition Fund for Lincoln Square at this time. Donors making gifts of $1,000 or more will be acknowledged on signage in the gallery Summer 1990

From "Five—Star Folk Art": Yarn Reel; Artist unknown;Possibly Connecticut; Circa 1850; Carved, turned and polychromed wood;39/ 1 4 x 16 x 26/ 1 2"; Collection ofthe Museum ofAmerican Folk Art, New York; Gift ofEva and Morris Feld Folk Art Acquisition Fund. 33

COLLECTED WITH PASSION Sylvia; Calvin and Ruby Black;1953-72; Carved and painted redwood withfabric, cord, and nails; 3078 x 163/8 x 2J/4". Gift of Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr. and museum purchase made possible by Ralph Cross Johnson.


Twenty years ago, the Museum ofAmerican Folk Art mounted the groundbreaking exhibition "TwentiethCentury Folk Art and Artists:' Organized by Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr., then the Museum's curator, the exhibition gave identity to an area of folk art appreciation which has proven to be relentlessly controversial. Even at the time, many Museum trustees disassociated themselvesfrom the exhibition. Nonetheless, the exhibition led to an important book, Twentieth-Century Folk Art and Artists, written by Hemphill and Julia Weissman, and published by E.P. Dutton in 1974. For Hemphill himself however, the exhibition marked a turning point. Prior to it, his collection was focused on the nineteenth century. Following the exhibition, and spurred by research for the book, Hemphill's passion turned The Clarion

ULM Adam and Eve Leave Eden; John William ("Uncle Jack") Dey; 1973; Model-airplane enamel onfiberboard; 23',/s x 47"; Gift ofHerbert Waide Hemphill, Jr. and museum purchase made possible by Ralph Cross Johnson.


to objects â&#x20AC;&#x201D; quirky, powerful, anonymous, or known â&#x20AC;&#x201D; of the twentieth century. Hemphill became guru to a generation of collectors and dealers, and his collection was included in every compendium ofleading art collectors. In 1986, the National Museum of American Art acquired through gift and purchase the Herbert Waide Hemphill Folk Art Collection which now numbers more than 410 pieces. This fall, the catalogue of the collection, Made with Passion: The Hemphill Folk Art Collection in the National Museum of American Art, by Lynda Roscoe Hartigan, will be published by Smithsonian Institution Press in conjunction with an exhibition of the same name. The exhibition runs from September 22, 1990 to January 21,1991. Thefollowing is an excerptfrom Made with Passion:

Summer 1990

Nineteen seventy-four was a benchmark year for folk art. Two exhibitions and four publications defined the field's parameters at that time. In February,the Whitney Museum of American Art opened its nationally touring exhibition,"The Flowering of American Folk Art (1776-1876)" in New York. Organized by Jean Lipman and Alice Winchester, the mammoth survey codified the appreciation of early folk art as an aesthetic statement, not only for those intimately involved with the field but for the larger art world and the general public as well. Indeed, the dramatic increase in the popular audience for folk art stems from this exhibition. Winchester, longtime editor of Antiques magazine, and Lipman, then editor of Art in America, asserted that folk art was "a central contribution to the mainstream of American culture in the formative years of our democracy:" Both organizers juggled a tricky contradiction. They emphasized "art" rather than "folk" to establish the aesthetic merit of the objects presented. They insisted, however, that originality and craftsmanship were virtually the only criteria for evaluating that merit since other standards usually applied to art were not relevant. Indeed the first to survey the entire range of early American folk art, the exhibition and publication brought the field full circle into New York's perception of American art. Exactly fifty years earlier the Whitney's predecessor, the Whitney Studio Club, had presented the country's first public exhibition of folk art. By 1950, however, the Whitney museum had sold the folk art collection of Juliana Force, the curator of that first effort and one of its early directors. Until the Museum of Modern

Art circulated its show ofcontemporary folk painters in 1966, it too had abandoned the field that had been advanced through the pioneering exhibitions of its curator, Holger Cahill, in the 1930s. Although the Museum of American Folk Art conducted an active exhibit and education program after 1961, the struggling institution could not compete with the cachet or resources of a major museum. In many respects, the Whitney accomplished in one fell swoop what the much smaller museum had aspired to over a period of years. Ultimately, the Museum of American Folk Art, under the direction of Robert Bishop after 1976, would reap the benefits of the Whitney's popular exhibition and its accompanying publication. The art world's critical response to the "Flowering of American Folk Art" took folk art well beyond its parochial consideration in antiques columns. Newsweek's Douglas David claimed that the exhibition "heralds much more than a shift in taste or a surge in prices for old paintings and weathervanes hidden in dusty attics. It implies nothing less than the rewriting of American cultural history" and that its contents were "the sum of an alternative culture that is almost lost:" Hilton Kramer, critic for the New York Times, interpreted the effort as "the recovery of the American imagination as it has expressed itself in visual terms" during a turbulent period that, to his mind, paralleled the Depression era's attempt to locate our national identity.' Two other critics, however, departed from this archeological tone. At Time, Robert Hughes reminded readers that folk art was then "an industry with scholarly spinoffs" and that"It is mildly ironic that such unpretentious objects, conceived and made without much more than a fleeting reference to the canons of eighteenth- and nineteenth35

century mainstream art, should now have lost their practical use and migrated to the museums:" Thomas B. Hess delivered the most cogent and timely evaluation in New York Magazine when he noted that the methodologies of cultural anthropology indicate that "folk art does not operate in opposition to savant art, as had been thought, but rather in an intimate, polar relationship, the latter continually feeding and amplifying the folk repertory. And, logically, it becomes evident that the genius of the folk artist does not lie in his creation of new forms from some ideal, uncontaminated source of inspiration, but in how he changes the savant prototype, how he adapts it, simplifying and accentuating its elements to fit new requirements:" Hess called for placing folk art in a social and historical context and criticized the show's organizers for clinging to sentimental nostalgia and "marveling" at folk art's presumed forecasting of modem art. Another landmark show of the mid 1970s opened in Minneapolis in March 1974 at the Walker Art Center, a museum well known for its experimental spirit. Called "Naives and Visionaries:' the show was accompanied by a publication of the same title. Inspired by Gregg Blasdel's research, the Center's director, Martin Friedman, mounted the first full-scale attempt to examine a group of environments in a museum context. The installation relied heavily on photographic documentation since all but one of the nine environments selected were immovable. The physical centerpiece of the exhibition however, was James Hampton's Throne of the Third Heaven ofthe Nations Millenium General Assembly. Dedicated to the Second Coming of Christ, this shimmering complex of 177 foil-wrapped objects is the only major environment capable of being installed in settings other than the garage where it was built in Washington, D.C. Overlapping with "The Flowering of American Folk Art:' Friedman's project provided a radically different view of how far the folk art umbrella could be stretched. Characterizing the site-specific projects as "bizarre:' "chaotic:' "unique:' and "isolated:' Friedman, however, forestalled their consideration as cohesive, 36

deliberate expressions of individuals more attuned to cultural traditions, national life, or local settings than they were perceived as being at that time. Also published in 1974 was Robert Bishop's American Folk Sculpture, a comprehensive pictorial anthology of material that had long been overshadowed by the field's early preference for the two-dimensional. Although Jean Lipman had published the substantial Folk Art in Wood, Metal and Stone in 1948, Bishop's book embraced a much wider range of three-dimensional objects, updated the universe of known examples, and mingled sculpture from the eighteenth to twentieth centuries in his diverse categories. Bert Hemphill's Twentieth-Century Folk Art and Artists, co-authored with Julia Weissman, was long in the making before its publication in 1974. A transplanted Texan, Weissman was an editorial assistant in New York where she regularly visited museums and galleries. Her interest in primitive art led her to the Museum of American Folk Art during the late 1960s, and in 1970 she saw Hemphill's twentieth-century exhibition.6 From this revelatory experience grew her interest in preparing a book, and her search for a coauthor naturally led to Hemphill. Initially, he declined the collaboration since he believed writing was not his forte. To her credit, Weissman persisted until Hemphill agreed, and the pair launched a massive campaign to identify candidates for the book, which was to go well beyond the scope of the original exhibition. Weissman corresponded with museums, galleries, and community centers around the country, while Hemphill tapped into his network of contacts. Together, they compiled copious files. Excerpts from Weissman's letters suggest their intent. To Gustav Klumpp, an elderly painter in Brooklyn, she explained the perception of folk art she shared with Hemphill:"By folk art, we mean work by untaught artists, people like yourself who have never studied art and are not professional artists:'' In a note to Robert Tessmer, director of the Red Hook Senior Center where Klumpp had started painting, Weissman added an illuminating "P.S.: Incidentally, our criteria for folk art are

not limited to the standard media of painting and sculpture, so if something rare turns up â&#x20AC;&#x201D; unusual material, unusual construction, assemblage, or collage â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and you think it interesting, get in touch:" Their inquiries unearthed more than Weissman and Hemphill could ever have imagined. Making sense of material ranging from faces painted on pebbles to the "stop the presses" discovery of"Uncle Jack" Dey's schematic painting of Adam and Eve became the challenge. The coauthors turned to Robert Bishop, Michael and Julie Hall, and Cyril I. Nelson, the book's editor and a folk art collector in his own right, for help in winnowing and shaping the selection. In its final form, Twentieth-Century Folk Art and Artists includes the work of 145 identified and fifty-nine anonymous artists. Opening with a colorplate of Morris Hirshfield's 1945 painting, The Artist and His Model, the book remains true to Hemphill's desire to demonstrate a continuum. Its contents are arranged chronologically as a "broad survey of the wealth and variety of American folk art produced since 190079 The eclecticism that marked Hemphill's exhibition is also very evident in the book's mĂŠlange of paintings, drawings, sculptures, constructions, collages, decoys, neon trade signs, whirligigs, textiles, ceramics, and sitespecific environments. The quality of the works included also varies widely, from crafty felt cutouts to the eerie animated carved dolls in Calvin and Ruby Black's Possum Trot and Fantasy DollShow. Finally;Hemphill stipulated that the book represent a broad spectrum of artists of all ages, occupations, ethnic groups, and geographical locations. Julia Weissman primarily wrote the book's introduction. To reflect upon the individuality of folk art and artists, she relied heavily on the theories of art historian Herbert Read and painter and art educator Henry Schaefer-Simmern. Weissman observed that "the vision of the folk artist is a private one, a personal universe, a world of his own making7 while Hemphill, sounding a democratic tone, added that "the products of the folk art world are truly the art of the people, by the people and for the The Clarion

people!"째 Somewhere between the isolationist and patriotic overtones of their statements is the deeper truth they intended to convey: art can be made by anyone whose sensibility seeks no other alternative but visual expression. These people-oriented statements and photographs set the tone for the rest of the book, a compendium of captioned illustrations. Hemphill and Weissman did not inject their opinions about the works. Instead, the captions emphasize biographical information and whenever possible include statements from the artists. Unlike the publication for The Flowing of American Folk Art, Hemphill's and Weissman's book received little notice in the press beyond one review in


Root Monster; Miles Burkholder Carpenter; 1968; Carved and painted wood and peach pits; 301/8x 12 x 8"; Gift ofHerbert Waide Hemphill,Jr. and museum purchase made possible by Ralph Cross Johnson.

Wedding Dream in Nudist Colony; Gustav Klumpp;1971;Oil on canvas;24x 30"; Gift ofHerbert Waide Hemphill, Jr. and museum purchase made possible by Ralph Cross Johnson.

Summer 1990


the Wall Street Journal. The Journal's reviewer noted that it was the first book about modern folk artists in over thirty years and then waxed poetic about the "folks" as "rare individuals whose visions have stayed pure in the face of mass education, mass media and mass macramĂŠ:" Despite its lack of public attention, the book has persisted in its influence, especially among collectors and dealers, and can still be described as the major pictorial anthology of twentieth-century folk art. Sterling Strauser appears to have coined its designation as contemporary folk art's "bible;' a term he feels describes its universality as a reference book and its power to convert readers to the art it champions.12 Understandably enough, the person most affected by the book was Hemphill himself. By 1974, anyone familiar with his collection over time could tell that it was undergoing tre-

The Circus; Albina Kosiec Felski; 1971; Acrylic on canvas; 48 x 48/ 1 4"; Gift of Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr. and museum purchase made possible by Ralph Cross Johnson.

Country Band with Fiddler, Dobro Player,and Banjoist; Shields Landon ("S.L.") Jones; 1975-76; Pencil and felt-tipped pen on carved, rouletted, and painted hardwood with string and metal; Banjoist 25/ 1 4 x 8/ 1 2 x 8W', Fiddler 23/ 1 4x 77/8 x 75/s", Dobro 25 x 7/ 78 x PA"; Gift ofHerbert Waide Hemphill, Jr. and museum purchase made possible by Ralph Cross Johnson.


The Clarion

mendous changes. Gone was the modern and primitive art. Hemphill divested himself of it around 1967 for personal reasons as well as to finance other acquisitions. Unable to afford the mounting prices for nineteenth-century folk art, Hemphill retreated from that arena, adding early examples intermittently at best. While organizing his various shows for the Museum of American Folk Art, he often collected in tandem with their topics, a pattern most evident after his twentieth-century exhibition in 1970, and certainly reinforced by preparations for the book. His introduction to contemporary folk art during the late 1960s was fortuitous. Stimulated by his interaction with those finding the material, Hemphill also created his own opportunities to collect as he traveled throughout the country. His trips between 1970 and 1974 gleaned material for the book and unleashed his acquisitive appetites. His expeditions after the book's publication fed his commitment to finding twentieth-century material, evidenced by the more than fifteen hundred objects added to the collection during the 1970s and 1980s. By his own admission, Hemphill is a folk art 'addict.'"One does really need the 'fix: You find yourself lethargic or depressed. It's like some people needing to buy a new hat or suit.... The drive to do it makes me vulnerable. It sometimes causes distortions in my perspective but I am a survivor. I can expend love on objects without a fear of loss or rejection.... I would also not discount boredom. It drives you to continually revitalize yourself.... I can't imagine that anyone who could sit in front of the same four pictures for a lifetime could have a very intelligent or inquiring mind....Anyway,I need new things to look at and I go looking for them!"3 Hemphill's search for new things has developed a farflung circuit. Since the early 1970s, trips to Chicago have found him not only at Phyllis Kind's gallery but also in the homes and studios of Roger Brown and Whitney Halstead, as well as the tiny clapboard house of Albina Felski. A painter discovered by Kind, Albina Felski was included in "Contemporary American Summer 1990

'Naive' Works!' the first effort to exhibit newly found self-taught artists at Kind's gallery in March 1972.'4 On the heels of Hemphill's exhibition at the Museum of American Folk Art, Kind was the first dealer to showcase this recent material. Road trips with Kind have taken the pair in different directions: to the Strausers in Pennsylvania, to Miles Carpenter in Virginia, or to Fred Smith's outdoor environment, Concrete Park, in Phillips, Wisconsin. In his desire to widen the geographic scope of both the book and his collection, Hemphill made at least three tours through the Southwest before and after 1974. The collector remembered a visit with the carver George Lopez during a trip in 1972:"He would make souvenir things which he sold in his front room. In the back room were the more elaborate big things. He'd let me in there, and I knew the whole family. That's where I bought the devil under the foot of St. Michael. At that time I saw his father's house, where I saw the screen door that I've just bought!'15 On several later occasions Hemphill went to see one of his favorite carvers, Felipe Archuleta, with Davis Mather, the artist's representative in Santa Fe. Michael Hall vividly recalls the fruits of a southwestern trip when Hemphill set out to find the "inheritors of the santero tradition!' En route from Arizona and New Mexico around 1972, Hemphill and his friend James Spies drove up to Hall's house at the Cranbrook Academy in a "car that was absolutely bristling with stuff picked up along the way, everything from matchstick crucifixes, Lopez carvings, no Archuletas — he didn't have any at the time — but that extraordinary carved complete skeleton, a couple of average bultos, souvenir shop stuff, Navajo pictorials — and Jim Spies and Bert Hemphill barely able to wedge themselves in...... Hemphill also explored the Southeast, a territory familiar to him since childhood when he regularly visited his mother's family in Columbus, Georgia, or accompanied his parents as they drove between Atlantic City and Florida during the winter. In 1972, as James Spies and Hemphill drove through West Virginia, they stopped at Charleston's historical society where Hemphill spotted a display of carvings by Shields

Landon Jones. With the help of Tom Scriven, editor of Golden Seal Magazine, they found Jones's house in Hinton, and Hemphill bought his first carvings by Jones — a group of stark, trophylike heads — from the artist's wife. He returned to visit the couple several times. Although Jones showed his work at local fairs, it was not until Hemphill brought the artist's carvings and drawings to the attention of Phyllis Kind and Jeffrey Camp that Jones enjoyed the attention of the folk art world. If the person who acts after finding someone's work can be described as having discovered it, then Hemphill should be credited with discovering S. L. Jones. Concentrated between 1972 and 1977, Hemphill's southeastern travels inspired significant additions to the collection. As early as 1966 he had acquired his first piece of Georgia's "oatmeal" pottery while visiting Columbus. Actually, he said,"I swore I'd never collect pottery, but I suddenly flipped" and began buying southern pottery in bulk in 1974, while traveling through Kentucky, Alabama, Georgia, and the two Carolinas.''On that one trip alone he bought at least seventy-five pots, pitchers, churns, vases, and face vessels. Bob Bishop recalls that "the first time I ever saw southern pottery... was on the floor in his [Hemphill's] apartment, and we all went by and absolutely marveled at it, but still didn't pay any attention to it because it was just not — well, it just wasn't New England!' The seventies was the decade of serious fieldwork on southern pottery by folklorists Ralph Rinzler, Charles Zug, and John Burrison, as well as the beginning of renewed interest in collecting American crafts. New York's folk art world, however, was not ready for Hemphill's newfound interest. For his part, Hemphill greatly appreciated the time that Lanier Meaders took to demonstrate the firing and glazing techniques for both his functional pottery and face vessels during his first visit with the White County, Georgia, potter in 1974. Hemphill's most productive southern forays, however, have revolved around Jeffrey Camp. Twenty-eight years old in 1972, Camp left the public relations business and established the American 39

Folk Art Company in Richmond, Virginia. After closing the shop in 1976, Camp and his wife Jane continued their efforts privately in Tappahannock and Richmond. Growing up in what he describes as a "light blue collar family!' he had little exposure to art when he opened a business devoted to "things" made by hand in America!' Introduced by Connecticut collector Gary Stass in 1974, Camp and Hemphill immediately became friends. Hemphill had met an enthusiastic newcomer with a sharp eye, addictive acquisitiveness like his own, and territory rich in resources. The younger man found the openness and encouragement of an informal mentor as well as an eager client. From three lengthy trips together and fairly regular contact, Camp helped Hemphill acquire a substantial body of southern work, from pottery, canes, and whirligigs made with muffler parts, to major paintings by Howard Finster and "Uncle Jack" Dey and carvings by Miles Carpenter and Harold Garrison. Today, Hemphill recalls that some of his warmest visits with a folk artist were those spent having barbecue with Miles Carpenter and Camp's family in Waverly, Virginia. The Hemphill collection contains items from nearly all the fifty states. Although his open-door policy has introduced more than three thousand objects to those who have come to his apartment, the works themselves have also attracted a public forum. Approximately twenty-four museums across the country have hosted exhibitions devoted to his collection between 1973 and 1988. In 1976,the American Bicentennial Commission selected his collection for a goodwill tour throughout Japan." Often, collectors do not welcome such widespread exposure. Hemphill, however, has said, "I don't feel that I own the collection. I don't believe that in theory any individual can or should own art. We as collectors are curators and conservators. Art belongs to history. This may sound pretentious, but it is how I think, and it is the reason why my collection has always been available to those who wanted to see it and why I have loaned so many of my things to exhibitions!'" In 1974 the Heritage Plantation of 40

Sandwich, Massachusetts, organized "The Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr., Collection of 18th, 19th, and 20th Century American Folk Art:' Including 270 works, the exhibition was the public debut of Hemphill's twenty-year career as a full-time collector. After selecting the works, the museum gave Hemphill free reign for the installation, which featured sympathetic groupings ofobjects on the side walls and a central island of sculpture. Although staged outside of New York, the show was reviewed by the New York Times's Rita Reif. She wrote "... this is a highly personal, provocative and controversial collection!' noting that it embraced exceptionally crafted as well as crude objects made over such a wide span of time,22 The national tour circulated by the Milwaukee Art Museum between 1981 and 1984 also produced the first major publication on the collection. Michael Hall's probing interview with Hemphill, curator Russell Bowman's essay on the significance of folk art's variety, and critic Donald Kuspit's consideration of contemporary folk art and the modernity of toys provided three very different but complementary perspectives. The show itself focused on 105 works considered the collection's "crown jewels:' At the time, Hemphill stated "I get strong feelings about certain objects in the collection but my feelings alone cannot elevate anything to that designation. Simply stated, the crown jewels are the things that are chosen for exhibitions and books. They are the things that constantly epitomize what everybody thinks great folk art is. These things are crowned over time by a process of consensus which continually ratifies them from the outside. Black Hawk,Stag atEcho Rock, etc.these things have a life in a wider consciousness:'" Lynda Roscoe Hartigan is Associate Curator of Painting and Sculpture at the National Museum of American Art in Washington, D.C. She is curator of the upcoming exhibition "Made with Passion: The Hemphill Folk Art Collection in the National Museum of American Art:'

NOTES 1. Jean Lipman, The Flowering ofAmerican Folk Art (1776-1876)(New York: The Viking Press, 1974), 7. Hemphill was one of seven consultants to the

exhibition, as he was for the Whitney's 1980 exhibition, "Three Hundred Years of American Folk Are: 2. Douglas Davis,"The People's Muse:Newsweek, 11 February 1974, 56. 3. Hilton Kramer, "A Reservoir of Visual Memory: New York Times Magazine, 3 February 1974,60-61 4. Robert Hughes,"Whittling at the Whitney: Time,4 February 1974, 62. 5. Thomas B. Hess,"Muhammad Ali vs. The Whitney Museum: New York Magazine, 25 February 1974, 70-71. 6. Julia Weissman, interview with the author, 27 January 1989. 7. Julia Weissman, letter to Gustave Klumpp, Brooklyn, 28 January 1972. Collection of Julia Weissman. Julia Weissman, letter to Robert Tessmer, Red Hook 8. Senior Center, Brooklyn, 28 January 1972. Collection of Julia Weissman. 9. Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr and Julia Weissman, Twentieth-Century American Folk Art and Artists (New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., Inc., 1974), n.p. prefatory note. 10. Ibid., 9-10. 11. Barry Newman,"Grandma Moses Didn't Do It All:' Wall Street Journal, 16 December 1974. 12. Sterling Strauser, interview with the author, 10 August 1989. 13. See Michael Hall, "The Hemphill Perspective: A View From a Bridge,' in American Folk Art: The Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr. Collection (Milwaukee; Milaulcee Art Museum, 1981), 15-16. 14. Phyllis Kind included "Peter Charlie" Boshegan, Vestie Davis, Minnie Evans, Albina Felski, Gustav Klumpp, Justin McCarthy, B.J. Newton, Jack Savitsky, Pauline Simon, Samuel Sims, Edgar Tolson, and Joseph Yoakum. 15. Hemphill, interview with the author, 13 October 1988. 16. Both of Michael Hall's quotes are taken from his interviews with the author on 17 and 18 August 1989. 17. Hemphill, interview with the author, 13 October 1988. 18. Robert Bishop,interview with the author, 27 January 1989. 19. Quotes in this and the following paragraph are taken from Liza Kirwin's interview with Jeffrey and Jane Camp, 15 January 1988, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., and the author's interviews with the Camps, 27 December 1988. 20. Between 1973 and 1988, exhibitions based on the collection have appeared at the following: Cincinnati Contemporary Art Center, Ohio; Heritage Plantation of Sandwich, Massachusetts; Rich's Downtown Auditorium, Atlanta; Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago; John Michael Kohler Arts Center, Sheboygan, Wisconsin; Oshkosh Public Museum, Wisconsin; Columbus Museum of Arts and Crafts, Georgia; Hudson River Museum, Yonkers, New York; Children's Museum, Indianapolis; Sullivant Gallery, Ohio State University, Columbus; Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Williamsburg; Brainard Art Gallery, State University of New York, Potsdam, New York; Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin; Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, New York; Whitney Museum of American Art, Fairfield County, Connecticut; Santa Barbara Museum of Art, California; Allentown Art Museum, Pennsylvania; Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha, Nebraska; Georgia Museum of Art, Athens; Akron Art Museum, Ohio; Contemporary Art Museum, Houston; Olympia and York, New York; and Noyes Museum Oceanville, New Jersey. 21. Michael Hall,"The Hemphill Perspective,' 12. 22. Rita Reif, "Antiques: Folk Art Show': New York Times, 29 June 1974. 23. Michael Hall,"The Hemphill Perspective,' 13-14.

The Clarion

Made with Passion: The Hemphill Folk Art Collection in the National Museum of American Art by Lynda Roscoe Hartigan will be published in September 1990 by Smithsonian Institution Press. It can be ordered from the Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shop, Two Lincoln Square, New York, NY 10023 ($50.00 hardcover plus $5.00 shipping;$45.00 for Members plus $5.00 shipping), or from Smithsonian Institution Press, 955 L'Enfant Plaza, Suite 2100, Washington, DC 20560 ($50.00 hardcover plus shipping).

Water Gate or Government Machine No. 3; Harold Garrison; December 1974; Pen and ink on carved wood with leather, metal and coated 2"; Gift of Herbert Waide 1 wire; 1334 x 15 x 3/ Hemphill, Jr. and museum purchase made possible by Ralph Cross Johnson.


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Saint Michael the Archangel and the Devil; George Lopez; 1955-56; Carved aspen and pato 2"; Gift 1 dure(mountain mahogany);43 x 33 x 39/ of Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr. and museum purchase made possible by Ralph Cross Johnson.

Summer 1990


Detective Work: The Studiesof Four Folk Art Researchers Research! For some it is the honey which draws them to the field of American folk art. For others, it is a necessary evil, better left for someone else to do. Nonetheless, research â&#x20AC;&#x201D; historical and contemporary â&#x20AC;&#x201D; is the lifeblood of the field. Folk art, little more than a dozen years ago, was a glorious panoply of anonymous works. Today, thanks to pioneer researchers such as Mary Black, Joyce Hill, Nina Fletcher Little, Helen Kellogg, Arthur and Sybil Kern, and their eager students and proteges, most prominent folk paintings are now attributed, and extensive genealogies have been written about many of their subjects. In addition, substantial bodies of work have been recognized as the oeuvre of an increasing number of known artists. Research is not, of course, without its dead-ends, false leads, and frustrations; but, there is little more satisfying than the discovery of, almost, incontrovertible proof of a long-held hunch. The Clarion is pleased to share the following four case studies, not only for the new information they impart to the field, but also as inspiration to researchers everywhere.

Flavel Coolidge,Jr.: Case ofthe"Borrowed"Backboard by Lois S.Avigad "Decisive Work I have come, And I've not come in vain. I have come to sweep The house of the Lord Clean, clean, for I've come And I've not come in vain. With my broom in my hand, With my fan and my flail, This work I will do And I will not fail:" Attributions and identifications are too easily made in the world of unsigned 42

and untitled paintings. While preparing a catalogue raisonne of the portraits of nineteenth century New England pastelist, Ruth Henshaw Bascom (1772-1848), I examined many of their backboard inscriptions. They generally yielded important and useful information, although occasionally inaccuracies were incorporated as their authors became more removed in time from the subject. However, if the backboard was not the original one, it could have provided totally unrelated data, and thereby led to misidentification of the sitter. The following account illus-

trates how genealogical and other pertinent resources rescued one portrait both from anonymity and mistaken identity. I learned about the existence and location of a pastel profile of an adolescent boy by Ruth Henshaw Bascom, thanks to Richard Doud, Keeper of the Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C. Since 1947,the portrait has been a holding of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA)in Boston, where it had been part of a bequest of Miss Annie B. Coolidge.2 Without information from The Clarion

the donor, then deceased, the profile was titled Unidentified Boy and allocated a position in SPNEA's storage facility. Instinctively I wondered about the relationship between the sitter and Miss Coolidge, whose surname was the same as that of Flavel Coolidge, a name on the long list of Ruth Bascom's subjects I had compiled while reading the artist's extensive Diary'. Were their identical family names simply a coincidence? My study of the portrait itself was delayed while SPNEA moved many of its holdings to a new warehouse. However, relevant information from the Society's files' established the following connection between Unidentified Boy and its donor: In the fall of 1941, about seven years prior to the bequest of the Bascom portrait, SPNEA had received the gift of an oil on canvas portrait by an unknown artist, also from Annie B. Coolidge. Its sitter was her father, Flavel Coolidge, Jr., and Miss Coolidge provided an accompanying brief sketch and some background about the family. "My father's name was Ravel Coolidge born in Cambridge August 18165 died in same city February 1891. His father's name was also Flavel, and in the same business the brush business. Flavel Coolidge senior was a deacon of the first Universalist Church of Cambridge for twenty-five years:' Thus it momentarily appeared that one of Ruth Bascom's sitters had been rescued from anonymity. Surely one could safely conclude that the Bascom pastel in question was also a rendition of Flavel Coolidge,Jr., Miss Coolidge's father. Finally I examined' Unidentified Boy. Although no writing appeared on the portrait itself, it was possible to discern on the wood backboard some previously undetected faint penciling' which, surprisingly, read:

Flavel Coolidge, Jr., the donor's father, which Mrs. Bascom noted painting in her Diary for 1830 when Flavel, Jr. was fourteen years old? Further study of the artist's journal, together with genealogical research, yielded plausible answers to these questions. On July 30, 1829, Ruth Bascom wrote about an important encounter with Rev. Calvin Lincoln. After visiting her Henshaw family in Leicester, Massachusetts, the artist and her husband, Rev. Ezekiel L. Bascom, departed for their home in Ashby. She described the morning weather conditions as, "... sultry, warm & very dusty." The Bascoms traveled via Worcester, then,"...rode in severe but calm thunder showers:'After pausing to dry out and have a refreshing meal in Leominster, it, "...rained some nearly all the way to Fitchburg, when another smart thunder shower appearing we left the horse & chaise at tavern at 6 & slept at Revd Lincolns, my first visit there' Thus, by Rev. Calvin Lincoln's hospitality, the Bascoms were able to avoid more inclement weather that day. They left for Ashby the next morning.

Since no mention was made of sketching Rev. Lincoln's profile at that time, it is fortunate that a later Diary entry noted, "Framed Mrs. Miles of Westminster (taken 3 weeks ago) and Revd Lincoln last evening taken 5 weeks ago ..." (September 5, 1829). This substantiated the penciled inscription that a profile of Rev. Calvin Lincoln was made in July 1829. It also illustrated Ruth Bascom's frequent use of her art as barter or to express gratitude, in this instance, to the generous provider of comfortable lodging on a stormy night. However, it was hardly likely that the adolescent boy portrayed in SPNEA's Bascom portrait represented Rev. Calvin Lincoln' in 1829. At that time the minister was three months short of his thirtieth birthday and had already become the father of the oldest of three children born to him and his wife, Elizabeth (Andrews). Calvin Lincoln was born in Hingham,Massachusetts, in 1799, and graduated from Harvard College in 1820. He was ordained over the First Congregational Society in Fitchburg on June 30, 1824, and served in that

"Rev. Calvin Lincoln Fitchburg by Mrs. Bascom July 1829 Ashby" A mystery developed! How had the Coolidge family of Cambridgeport come to own a teenage portrait of another Bascom sitter, supposedly the Rev. Calvin Lincoln of Fitchburg? What had happened to the profile of Summer 1990

Left, Flavel Coolidge, Jr. (formerly Unidentified Boy); Ruth Henshaw Bascom; 1830; Pastel and graphite on paper, cut out in one piece and applied to paper ground;183/i x 143/5x 8"(sight);Societyfor the Preservation ofNew England Antiquities, Boston. Right, Flavel Coolidge,Jr.Artist Unknown;Circa 1855; Oil on canvas;26 x 22"(sight);Societyfor the Preservation ofNew England Antiquities, Boston. 43

position for nearly thirty-one years. In 1855, he returned to his home town where he remained minister of Hingham's First Parish for twenty-six

years until his death in 1881. As more of Rev. Lincoln's relationship to the Bascoms surfaced, so did an explanation. The proximity of

Who was Flavel Coolidge,Jr.? Flavel Coolidge, Jr. was a sixth generation descendant of John' and Mary Coolidge (through Nathaniel", Dea. John', Elishe, and Flavelv),9 among the earliest settlers of Watertown, Massachusetts. The Coolidges distinguished themselves in Watertown variously as selectman, town clerk, legal counsel and church deacon. Ravel, Jr.'s maternal line originated with John' and Sarah (Averhill) Wild' of Topsfield, Massachusetts." A very interesting, if unpleasant, facet of American history concerns Sarah Wild. As the witch-hunts in late seventeenth century New England reached their zenith, Sarah was victimized in a notorious trial, endured imprisonment, and was hanged on July 19, 1692.'2(Nearly two decades later she was absolved of guilt pending no further claims for reparations by her family.)This lineage descended to Flavel, Jr. through Ephraim", Elijah", and Anna"(Wildes). An event which was to have a profound effect on Flavel, Jr.'s life was the arrival in America of "Mother" Ann Lee, founder and spiritual leader of the Shakers. Her proselytizing and "gathering" of Shaker communities in the 1780s attracted Flavel, Jr.'s Coolidge and Wildes grandparents, who with their younger children joined that pious, hardworking, and celibate sect. Notably, Flavel's grandfather, Elijah Wildes, Jr., contributed 250 acres of arable land, meadows and woods to form the core of a Shaker settlement in Shirley, Massachusetts. Ravel, Jr.'s parents became acquainted while living there as children. Although their names are found on a written re-affirmation of Shaker tenets in 1797,' Ravel Coolidge (Sr.) and Anna Wildes, at the time twenty-two and eighteen years old respectively, later left the Shirley commune.In 1806,they married and settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where Flavel soon owned a brush-making factory, a business that epitomized the Shakers' idealistic penchant for cleanliness and order. Ravel Coolidge, Jr., the subject of this profile, was born on August 8, 1816,' the youngest of three children. Ten years later Flavel, Sr. opened a brush factory in Boston,' and when Flavel, Jr. was twenty-one he became the co-owner, with his brother-in-law, Ira Stratton, of the business Stratton, Coolidge & Co. From Flavel, Jr.'s first marriage to Elizabeth E. (Perkins) in 1838' there was one daughter, Mary Elizabeth (or Elizabeth Mary)Coolidge." In 1844, Flavel, Jr. married his second wife, Almira (Peirce), daughter of Amos and Abigail Peirce of Newton, Massachusetts.' The couple moved to Waltham where Flavel, Jr. called himself a brushmaker," then a printer,' and maintained a relatively affluent financial position. When the town of Waltham held a momentous agricultural and industrial fair in September 1857,Flavel, Jr. was on its finance committee;he also won a "first diploma" for the plums he exhibited.' Between 1846 and 1864, three sons and two daughters' were born to Flavel and Almira. By 1870, Flavel, Jr. had retired to his native Cambridge; he continued to support his twin sons' at the Elm Hill School for the Education of Feeble-Minded Youth in Barre, Massachusetts. Ravel Coolidge, Jr. died in Cambridge on February 28, 1891, at age seventy-four. His wife, Almira, died in 1896.25


Fitchburg to Ashby led to ministerial "exchanges" between the Revs. Bascom and Lincoln three or four times a year. Such arrangements were common practice, designed for the mutual refreshment both of ministers and their congregations. Although there is no specific Diary reference to giving Rev. Lincoln his portrait, it is likely that he received it when he and Rev. Bascom exchanged pulpits for a Sunday service, upon which Ruth Bascom briefly elaborated: "Sabbath ... Mr. Lincoln came after 10, went to Mr. Adams at noon & home after tea. His discourses of the highest order ..." (September 27, 1829). There were also occasional convocations of regional pastoral associations which brought neighboring clergymen together. Either of these mechanisms could have afforded Rev. Lincoln the opportunity to also return his portrait to Mrs. Bascom for alteration, which we later learn he did. Such a meeting took place on September 21, 1830."Tuesday — a fine day. The Worcester West Association met here ... Rev' C. Lincoln (Fitchburg) visitor...." Then, following a series of lectures, there were other festivities and evidence of socializing within the ministerial community. "Mrs. Gould presented us with an elegant glass bowl of fruit & flowers and a decanter of Madeira wine. Our dinner roast beef, roast fowl, boiled ditto, tongue & pork & vegetables, apples & custard pies:' Soon afterwards, Ruth Bascom passed a month out of town. Her only two Diary references to Ravel Coolidge, Jr. appear upon her return to Ashby. "Monday, fair & windy — Mr. B. to see Mrs. Holt P.M. — and I called at Mr. Everetts, Kendall store, Mr. Stratton's and Mr. R. Richardsons to see their Cambridge Company. Mrs. Ez. Gates & her Aunt Cooledge [sic] & son.[Ravel Collidge, Jr.] Fine evening "(October 25, 1830). Here we learn that the Coolidge family of Cambridge was visiting with their Ashby relatives and friends. Flavel Coolidge, Sr. was an uncle of the above-mentioned Ezra Gates of Ashby (whose mother was Ravel, St's oldest sister, Catherine (Coolidge) Gates). Also, the host family of R. Richardson had several grown children who lived with their families The Clarion

in the Cambridge vicinity. The Coolidges were probably acquainted with them. In her second entry pertaining to Flavel, Jr., Mrs. Bascom actually mentioned his portrait and something of the circumstances which called for its quick completion. "Tuesday — calmer & cloudy — sprinkling of rain P.M. I finished & framed Flavel Cooledge's picture & received pay of hisfather, on their way from Mr. Gates to Ashburnham. Thence to Cambridge Port their home:'(October 26, 1830) Here an explanation of the mystery became apparent. It was clear that the Coolidges had scheduled a full day and had to leave Ashby early. The artist anticipated a welcome cash payment for her work if it could be finished before their departure. She may have thought that the probability of being reimbursed might dwindle otherwise. Accordingly, Mrs. Bascom decided that the most expedient way to handle the delivery and be paid for Flavel, Jr.'s portrait was to "borrow" a backboard and possibly a frame, as well. In her Diary of February 24, 1831, Mrs. Bascom commented, "... I retouched Revd Lincoln's likeness', proving that the portrait of Rev. Calvin Lincoln had again been in her possession. A genealogical review of these Coolidge and Lincoln families found no marital or professional ties to support a supposition that the backboards

could have been switched by anyone at a later date. Conclusion: Ruth Bascom, the artist herself, must have "borrowed" the backboard from the Lincoln portrait and became the inadvertant perpetrator in this case of near-misidentification. After receiving an M.A. in American Folk Art from New York University, Lois S. Avigad has continued to research Ruth Henshaw Bascom. She is presently preparing a comprehensive catalogue raisonne and is guest curator ofa forthcoming exhibition of Mrs. Bascom's works for the Museum of American Folk Art. NOTES 1. Andrews, Edward D., The Gift to be Simple, J.J. Augustin, New York, 1940, p. 60. — A ritualistic Shaker song. 2. Old-Time New England 39 (July 1948), p. 16, among Director's list of recent gifts to SPNEA. 3. Ruth Henshaw Bascom's Diary spans 57 years of her life, from 1789 to 1846. It is in possession of the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA. Eight years are missing — 1795, 1798, 1804,1811, 1815, 1822, 1838, 1844. 4. Information regarding the oil portrait was provided by Katherine Jones Garmil, Registrar of SPNEA. 5. Vital Records of Cambridge, Massachusetts to the Year 1850, Thomas W. Baldwin, Boston, 1915, Births, Vol. 1, p. 159. "Coolidge, Flavel, s. of Flavel and Nancy [a later adaptation of her given name, Anna], Aug. 8, 1815 (1816, G.R. 3)r The family abides by the 1816 date, G.R. 3 being the Grave Record of Mount Auburn Cemetery in Watertown, MA. 6. SPNEA's Nancy Carlisle, Collections Manager, and Gary Rattigan, Preparator, gave assistance. 7. M.K.J. Garmil kindly carried out my request that the backboard inscription be verified with the aid of an infrared light. It was accomplished at Harvard University's Fogg Museum. 8. History of the Town of Hingham, Massachusetts, Published by the Town, 1893, Vol. J, part 2, Historical; Vol. 2, Geneaological. 9. Coolidge, Emma Downing, Descendants of John

and Mary Coolidge of Watertown. Massachusetts, 1630, Wright & Potter Printing Company, Boston, 1930. 10. spelled 'Wilds' or `Wildes' in subsequent generations. 11. Davis, Walter, Jr., "The Wildes Family of Essex County, Massachusetts" in Historical Collections of the Topsfield HistoricalSociety II, Published by the Society, Topsfield, MA., 1906, pp. 17-77. 12. Dow,George Francis,"Witchcraft Records Relating to Topsfield" in Historical Collections of the Topsfield Historical Society 13, Published by the Society, Topsfield, MA., 1908, pp. 39-137. 13. Bolton, Ethel Stanwood,Shirley Uplands and Intervales: Annals of a Border Town of Old Middlesex, With Some Genealogical Sketches, George Emery Littlefield, Boston, 1914, p. 189. 14. see footnote 5. 15. Boston City Directory, 1826, Frost, John H.A. and Charles Stimpson, Jr, Publishers, Boston, 1826, p. 82. 16. Holbrook, Jay M., Vital Records of Boston, Holbrook Research Institute, Oxford, MA., 1985, Typed Marriage Index of Grooms, 1800-1849. 17. Bartlett, J. Gardner, Gregory Stone Genealogy: Ancestry and Descendants of Gregory Stone of Cambridge, MA., 1320-1917, Published for the Stone Family Association, Boston, 1918, pp. 576-577. 18. Vital Records ofNewton, Massachusetts to the Year 1850, New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, 1905, p. 356. 19. U.S. Seventh Federal Census, 1850, Massachusetts, Middlesex Co., Waltham, p. 283. 20. U.S. Eighth Federal Census, 1860, Massachusetts, Middlesex Co., Waltham, p. 643. 21. Report ofthe Industrial Exhibition Held in the Town of Waltham, Mass., Sept. 24, 1857, Published by Order of the General Committee, John Wilson and Son. Boston, 1857. 22. It was through the bequest of their youngest child, Annie Belle (b. 1864), that this portrait came to SPNEA. 23. U.S. Ninth Federal Census, 1870, Massachusetts, Middlesex Co., Cambridge, p. 245. 24. Will #29632, Flavel Coolidge (1891), Massachusetts, Middlesex Co. Probate, Cambridge. 25. For other biographical examples of Bascom subjects see: Avigad, Lois S., "Ruth Henshaw Bascom: A Youthful Viewpoint" in The Clarion 12 #4, Fall 1987, pp. 35-41.

Discovering Thomas Skynner by Stacy C. Hollander It often seems that folk art research can be a game of"telephone" with information passed through a grapevine of museums, dealers and collectors. A small watercolor painting received by the Museum of American Folk Art in 1989, Portrait ofa Young Boy Holding An Open Book, is an example of how this grapevine can effectively operate to allow these communities to share information with each other and, ultimately, Summer 1990

the public. The Portrait ofa Young Boy Holding An Open Book, was one of the first gifts to a special collection of miniatures dedicated to the memory of the Museum's long-time friend, Joyce Hill. The watercolor was sold in the sale of the Don and Faye Walters Folk Art Collection in October, 1986, at Sotheby's. A very different pair of oil portraits in the same sale was attributed

to the same artist, Thomas Skynner.' When I began the search for more information about the Museum's watercolor, Thomas Skynner's name was new to me and I wondered that the seemingly disparate watercolor and oil paintings were attributed to the same hand. Although the captions accompanying both lots offered several avenues for further investigation, a letter to Don Walters seemed to be the best starting 45

point for validation of the attribution to Thomas Skynner. Walters, former curator of the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Collection, responded that he had spent some time researching Skynner and that they still retained the material he had gathered. He added that a signed watercolor in a private collection was very similar to the Museum's example and was, in fact, the basis for attributions of other watercolors to Thomas Skynner, he closed with the tidbit that yet another signed pair of watercolors had recently been found in Virginia.2 I immediately wrote to Richard Miller, associate curator at the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, who sent me a photocopy of the signed watercolor â&#x20AC;&#x201D; from a private collection â&#x20AC;&#x201D; of L.H. King. I also contacted Sara Cash at the National Gallery of Art, who had researched Skynner as one of the many artists represented in a forthcoming catalogue of the Garbisch Collection. I then sent letters to all the museums mentioned in the Sotheby's catalogue captions: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Whitney Museum of Art, New York; Shelburne Museum, Vermont; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; and Old Sturbridge Village, Massachusetts. Although the reference to Old Sturbridge Village proved fruitless, the others yielded significant results. The Museum's newly acquired watercolor was not an isolated effort by an obscure artist, but part of a body of work so strikingly similar in design and execution that there could be little doubt they had been painted by the same artist. Although little biographical material about Thomas Skynner has been unearthed, some of the artist's activities have been pinpointed through inscriptions and oral traditions that accompanied portraits. The Portrait of L,H, (sic) King Aged 18 years March the 24th, 1840, signed "by Thomas Skynner;' in the lower right corner, is the earliest known painting by the artist. The paintings of John Stone and Eliza Welch Stone were painted circa 1845; they came into the collections of the National Gallery of Art with a tradition of having been painted in Mohawk, New York.' Two portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Moses Pike were executed on the 46

occasion of Mr. Pike's thirty-seventh birthday, in 1846. Research has shown that the Pikes were living in Grafton County, New Hampshire, at the time, indicating Skynner's presence there; he has yet to be found in any census listing, however.' Based on this small sampling of dated and signed paintings, Skynner appears to have worked in New Hampshire and possibly upstate New York sometime between 1840 and 1846. I was still intrigued, though, by Don Walter's mention of other signed and dated watercolors. I contacted dealer Richard Rasso, who was able to tell me that the pair of watercolors, now in an unknown private collection, featured two sisters, Delia and Dianna(?) Grub. Signed and dated, it placed Skynner in Rockingham, Virginia in January, 1852 and was his last known portrait.5 Twelve watercolor portraits, in addition to the signed portraits of the Grub sisters, have now been attributed to Thomas Skynner on the basis of the signed portrait of L.H. King.6 The watercolors are executed in a consistent style that allows these attributions to be made with confidence when compared with the signed example. They are all drawn in profile against an unpainted

background with few props to distract from the minimal rendering of the figures. The portraits are usually bustto three-quarter length and details of the face and costume are painted within the penciled outline. Most of the portraits feature one arm emerging at an acute angle from the torso at waist height and, where visible, the extended hand is drawn with peculiarly elongated fingers and wide fingernails. The use of a scalloped oval to "frame" many of the portraits is especially interesting and is reminiscent of two conventions associated with miniature portraits â&#x20AC;&#x201D; gold jewelry bezels which commonly held painted miniatures on ivory, and the stampedbrass mats with oval windows used to frame daguerreotype portraits. Skynner may have introduced this particular visual device into his small-format paintings to compete with the process of daguerrotype that, by the mid-nineteenth century, was threatening to render the need for portrait artists obsolete. The similarities between the portrait of L.H. King, the Museum of American Folk Art's Young Boy Holding An Open Book, Museum of Fine Arts' Washington Wingate Munsell, and

Left, Portrait of L.H. King; Thomas Skynner;probably New Hampshire;1840; Watercolor and pencil on paper; 734 x 53/4"; Howard and Catherine Feldman Collection. Right, Young Boy in Plaid Suit; 1 2; Attributed to Thomas Skynner;Region unknown; Circa 1840; Watercolor and pencil on paper;3 x 2/ Shelburne Museum, Shelburne, Vermont. The Clarion

GTIN Shelburne's Young Boy in Plaid Suit, are worth examining. Each child stands vertically within the oval frame and holds a book in his hand, the thumb curves over the front of the spine in a "C" form and the fingernail spans the whole surface of the thumb. In the case of L.H. King,the remaining fingers are unnaturally extended to be visible along the outer edge of the book. The children's faces are outlined profiles characterized by broad foreheads, upturned noses with curled nostrils, small mouths and chins, and hair with side parts and dark pates. Variations in the costume include accessories such as collars and ties which are painted in frontal perspective, rather than profile, indicating the artist's difficulty with foreshortening. Unlike the children, who appear to be standing, L.H. King is seated in a chair. His thick sideburns, high stock, pleated shirt front and vest show some distinctiveness, but his face displays the same smooth, dark brow line and simplified eye treatment as the children. Rather than being confined within a scalloped oval, he seems to rise from a horizontal cartouche with scribbled border that contains the handwritten inscription.

At first glance, it is difficult to reconcile these schematic watercolor portraits with the more complex oil portraits, such as those of John and Eliza Welch Stone. The oil paintings are far more decorative than the watercolors and are enlivened by an in-

Portrait ofEliza Welch Stone;Thomas Skynner; Region unknown; Circa 1845; Oil on canvas; 303/16 x 241A"; National Gallery of Art, Washington; Gift of Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch.

creased use of accessories, such as the vase of flowers Mrs. Stone holds in her hand. Upon further comparison, however, it becomes clear that the same Thomas Skynner painted both the watercolor and oil portraits. The subjects of the oil portraits are seated and appear in three-quarter view to almost fullface. The elongated fingers and curved thumb of the King portrait are readily seen in the treatment of the Stones' hands. The straight spines and rigid posture of the pair â&#x20AC;&#x201D; with arms held at impossible angles â&#x20AC;&#x201D; as well as the simplistic curve of the ears, smooth brows, narrow noses and stylized handling of the hair, are also consistent with the watercolors. The quick strokes that defined L.H. King's shirt front are again seen in the portrait of John Stone and each ofthe Stones sits in a chair that is similar to King's. Any lingering doubt is further dispelled by the ball and fan-shaped tassel hanging from the curtain behind Mrs. Stone which is identical to that found in the watercolor portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Lester. The Museum of American Folk Art is very fortunate to be among the few institutions with examples of Thomas Skynner's paintings in its collections. This clearly defined body of work continues to intrigue researchers. Hopefully, one day, the identity of Thomas Skynner will cease to be a source of frustration and will, instead, be yet another folk-art puzzle solved. Stacy C. Hollander is a graduate of New York University Master's Degree program in American Folk Art Studies. She is the recipient of the Lore Kann Research Fellow and is currently Assistant Curator at the Museum of American Folk Art. NOTES I. Portrait ofA Young But Holding An Open Book was

Left, Washington Wingate Munsell; Attributed to Thomas Skynner; Region unknown; Circa 1840; Pencil and watercolor on paper;3/ 1 4x 2/ 1 4"(oval); M.& M.Karolik Collection ofAmerican Watercolors and Drawings 1800-1875; Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Right, Portrait of a Young Boy Holding an Open Book; Attributed to Thomas Skynner; Probably New Hampshire; Circa 1840; Watercolor and pencil on paper;6x 5/ 1 4"; Collection ofMuseum ofAmerican Folk Art; Gift ofElizabeth and Irwin Warren in memory of Joyce Hill.

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sold as lot #33 in Sotheby's auction 5534, October 25,1986,"The American Folk Art Collection of Don and Faye Walters!' A pair of oil portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Moses Pike was sold as lot #I17 in the same sale. 2. Letter received from Don Walters, October, 1989. 3. Telephone conversation with Sara Cash at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 4. Sara Cash was able to locate Moses Pike in the 1850 census. 5. Telephone conversation with Richard Rasso, who has seen photographs of the signed watercolors of the Grub sisters. 6. Besides the watercolor now in the collection of the Museum of American Folk Art, four children of the Munsell family are in the collection ofthe Museum of' Fine Arts, Boston; five members of an unknown family are in the Shelburne Museum collection; and two watercolors of Elonor and J.W. Lester are in the National Gallery of Art.



A Case of Mistaken Identity: The Joseph Churchill Family Portraits by Lee Kogan Art historical research, not unlike a good mystery, can be an intriguing adventure in unraveling facts and subtle nuances. Such was the case with the study of the "Hale" family portraits, a group of paintings donated to the Museum of American Folk Art in 1986 and attributed to the artist Thomas Ware. The portraits present a fascinating case of mistaken identity. At the outset, the five spirited paintings — those of an adult male and female, two female children and a baby — seemed to require only confirmation of the artist and sitter identifications. The paintings arrived at the Museum identified as Hale family portraits by Thomas Ware (1803-1827), but as always in art historical research, there was still room for skepticism. The study of one article on the artist,' other Ware paintings, meager biographical material and resources, and documents from town clerks — especially at Ware's Pomfret, Vermont birthplace — yielded enough evidence to support the artist attribution. But sitter identification turned out to be a different story. Since sitters and their families are frequently part of ownership history, provenance was an appropriate starting place. The Museum of American Folk Art acquired the paintings in 1986 from Mr. and Mrs. Harry Lee, who had purchased them in the 1950s from a "junk" dealer in Elizabethtown, New York. The Lees provided invaluable help, generously sharing a photo of a portrait of a small boy, part of the "Hale"family group that they still owned. The boy was clearly the brother of the three children portrayed in the MAFA paintings. Information from the Lees, Ed Clerk and Bill Frantz of Taconic Art Services2 corroborated Museum data that the portraits were acquired in New York State in the 1950s. Clerk confirmed that 48

Left, Portrait of Joseph Churchill(formerly Hale Husband); Thomas Ware; Woodstock, Vermont;1822 1 2"; Collection ofthe Museum ofAmerican Folk Art, New York; Gift of or 1823; Oil on canvas;360/2x 26/ Harty 0. Lee in memory ofByron Brewster Lee. Right, Portrait of Clara Meecham Eddy Churchill 1 2 x 26/ 1 2"; (formerly Hale Wife); Thomas Ware; Woodstock, Vermont; 1822 or 1823; Oil on canvas; 30/ Collection of the Museum of American Folk Art, New York; Gift of Harry 0. Lee in memory ofByron Brewster Lee.

a local Elizabethtown antiques dealer, now deceased, obtained them from the Hale house in Elizabethtown, New York. The dealer turned out to be John Morris, who ran a small antiques business during the 1950s.3 In 1957, Morris purchased the Water Street, Elizabethtown, residence of Dr. Safford Eddy Hale from a Hale descendant.' There were two prominent Hale families with multiple children in the small town of Elizabethtown during the nineteenth century, one headed by a lawyer, and the other by his brother, a doctor. The family had roots in Vermont, where Ware was born and did most of his work. The 1820 Vermont census records revealed that the Hale family of Elizabethtown originally lived in Chelsea, Vermont; Chelsea is in Orange County which is adjacent to Wind-

sor County, where Ware was born. Census records from Vermont turned up at least twelve Hale families in Windsor County and seven in Orange County, but only two family genealogies matched the gender, ages and birth order of people in the Museum portraits. Ofthese, however,one family was discarded because Ware would have been twelve years old when the portraits were executed. The other, the R.S. Hale family genealogy, was eliminated because the baby in the Museum portrait was clearly a girl, and the youngest child at the appropriate dates in the R.S. Hale family was a boy. The problem seemed unsolvable. All clues led to dead ends. But frustration fueled obsession and, one day, inspiration occurred. There seemed to be a distinct possibility that the portraits were not of the The Clarion

Uttl Hale family at all. Perhaps the Hale name was assigned to the portraits simply because they were found in the Hale house. Once again, meticulous scrutiny of the Hale family genealogy was undertaken, with special attention paid to

Portrait of Laura Meecham Churchill (formerly Hale Daughter); Thomas Ware; Woodstock, Vermont; 1822 or 1823; Oil on canvas; 30i/2 x 26'/2"; Collection of the Museum of American Folk Art, New York; Gift of Harry 0. Lee in memory ofByron Brewster Lee.

families that married into the Hale family. The search ultimately led to Elizabeth Palmer Churchill Hale, the wife of Dr. Safford Eddy Hale. She was born in Woodstock, Vermont, home of Ware's closest friend, the artist Benjamin Franklin Mason,and where Ware painted several subjects. The Joseph Churchill genealogical data' corresponded perfectly with Ware's biographical data and the five Museum portraits. Elizabeth Palmer Churchill was the daughter of Joseph Churchill. Her sister, Sarah Churchill, had been born in 1822. The Museum's baby, identified as Sarah, was clearly around one year old. That, as a reference point, became a key to dating all the paintings. Information rapidly fell into place. A forgotten detail, which at the time seemed unimportant, was recognized through hindsight as an important clue. Early in the study, Ed Clerk had recalled that the portraits were found rolled up, possibly in the eaves of the attic of the Hale house.' It was not surprising that the portraits â&#x20AC;&#x201D; shelved and forgotten for many years â&#x20AC;&#x201D; were not treasured by the Hales. The Ware portraits were not of direct Hale ancestors, but rather ancestral in-laws, the Chuchill family. Indeed, the will of

Joseph Churchill lists, along with a general inventory of furniture and carpets, a "clock, a stove and pictures:" a possible reference to the Ware portraits. While all evidence suggests these portraits are of members of the Joseph Churchill family, one unanswered

Portrait of Mary Eddy Churchill or Elizabeth Palmer Churchill (formerly Hale Daughter): Thomas Ware: Woodstock, Vermont: 1822 or 1 2 x 26/ 1 2"; Collection of 1823; Oil on canvas; 30/ the Museum ofAmerican Folk Art, New York;Gift of Harry 0. Lee in memory of Byron Brewster Lee.

Who were the Churchills? Joseph Churchill, the adult male subject in the Museum group, was a house painter by trade' who apprenticed in Windsor County.' He lived near the center of town in Woodstock, a mile or two from the Ware house in Pomfret,'" and had a paint shop nearby." Ware may have acquired paint supplies from Churchill, or had some professional relationship with him. House painters often did fancy painting, graining, trade signs and other fine decorative work, as well. Churchill was for years the Windsor County Sheriff' and surely knew the artist's father, Dr. Frederic Ware, a Pomfret physician, who for eighteen years was also Pomfret Town Clerk." As Dr. Ware was important in establishing the Pomfret Congregational Church, Joseph Churchill's father, also named Joseph, was an early supporter of Woodstock's United Baptist Society.' The elder Churchill helped to complete the Baptist meetinghouse' and in 1788, became a selectman.' Not until 1886, was the Churchill house sold and did the last of the family move to Elizabethtown, New York.' The Elizabethtown census records of 1900, show Sarah Churchill living with her niece, Clara Lucinda Hale, a daughter of Elizabeth Palmer Churchill Hale.

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Portrait of Sarah Churchill (formerly Hale Baby); Thomas Ware; Woodstock, Vermont;1822 1 2"; Collection or 1823; Oil on canvas; 301/2 x 26/ of the Museum of American Folk Art, New York; Gift of Harry 0. Lee in memory of Byron Brewster Lee. 49

G91 question still remains. According to the Churchill genealogy, the family consisted of four girls and a boy at the time the portraits were executed. The Museum paintings depict three girls and the Lees own the portrait of the boy. Did Ware neglect to paint the fourth girl or is the painting lost? Is it possible that a missing portrait may be tucked away somewhere, waiting to be discovered?

research for a forthcoming book on twentieth century folk artists. NOTES I. Dr. Arthur and Sybil B. Kern "Thomas Ware: Vermont Portrait Painter7 The Clarion, Museum of American Folk Art, New York: Winter, 1983-84, pp. 36-45. 2. Ed Clerk and Bill Frantz from Taconic Art Services advertised the five "Hale" paintings attributed to Ware in The Magazine Antiques, November, 1982, p. 943. 3. James A. Kinley, Director of the Essex County Historical Society, Elizabethtown, New York provided John Morris' name and date as a 1950's antiques dealer in a letter dated August 18, 1987. 4. Telephone conversation with Mrs. John Morris, February 5, 1988. 5. Rev. George M. Bodge, The Churchill Family in America, Gardner Asaph Churchill, Nathaniel Wiley Churchill, Editor and Associate Compiler,

Lee Kogan is Senior Research Fellow and Assistant Director of the Folk Art Institute at the Museum of American Folk Art. A fellow of the Folk Art Institute, she is currently coordinating

1904, pp. 97-98. 6. In a letter dated. March 17, 1988, Georgia Lee, daughter of the Lees, remembered that the paintings were in a "sealed parlor" "wrapped in paper and rolled up" and kept "in the bottom drawer of a chippendale chest!' 7. Woodstock Probate Records, Vol. 31, p. 550. 8. Henry Swan Dana, History of Woodstock, 1761-1886 (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin and Company, 1889) p. 45. 9. Ibid. p.45. 10. Dana Emmons, Woodstock Historical Society supplied details and sent pictures of the Ware House in Pomfret. Summer, 1987. 11. Dana, p. 162 12. [bid, p. 45. 13. Henry Hobart Vail, Pomfret, Vermont, Vol. 1 (Boston: 1, Cockayne, 1930) pp. 15, 132. 14. Dana, p.373. 15. Ibid. p. 379. 16. Ibid. p. 582. 17. Ibid., p. 162.

Pick a Peck:Attributing a Painting by David Krashes


"away" side of the nose, curves at the tip of the nose, shape of the chin, lightened area under the nose and around the mouth, shape of the face,

inthrop Photographer, West Boylston, MA

So much has been published on folk painters of the nineteenth century that attributing paintings to individual artists has become more feasible. Attribution is not difficult when a painting is done in a known style. But, what can you do when the style is not obvious? You keep looking at paintings; hope for a stroke of luck; consult professionals; and, eventually, make a decision. We hope this case history is instructive. Found originally in southern Maine, the primitive painting A Young Girl with a Dog, has been in our home for over twenty years. Three years ago, while viewing the collection of a well-known folk art dealer, we saw Sheldon Peck's masterpiece, Anna Gould Crane and Granddaughter Jennette. Surprisingly, Jennette's face reminded us of the face of our girl. At home, we studied pictures of paintings by Sheldon Peck. The resemblance was incredible. Unfortunately, the reduction of size from an actual painting to printed pictures in books and catalogues allowed little evaluation of details. With our painting, we returned to the folk art dealer who kindly allowed us to compare the paintings and offered his comments. Similarities included the highlight along the nose,shadow on the

The author is attributing this painting in his collection, A Young Girl with a Dog,to Sheldon Peck; Oil on panel;31/ 3 4x23/ 3 4".

and shadow line around it, and shadow line on the skin at the top of the bodice. On the other hand, well-known Peck features were missing, particularly the trefoil design ("rabbit's feet") on the dress. Also,the structure ofthe ear with an opening in the front was different. The dealer's opinion on attribution to Peck: "Possibly:' The artists' perspectives are different; Jennette is seen "straight on" and the unknown girl is viewed from top front, which vertically shortens her head and neck. In both, however, light enters from the side. There were four more "chapters" over a two-year period in this investigation. First, a well-known expert examined our painting in a restoration laboratory without Jennette. She compared the painting with photographs from the literature and was troubled by the ear structure. Gradually, she changed her opinion from "no way" to "possibly!' Incidentally, our viewing of many photographs of Peck paintings, as well as the two paintings by Peck of the Prestons at the NY State Historical Society, indicates that Peck's children did not always have the trefoil, nor did he paint all ears alike. At the IBM Gallery in New York City (Jennette was part of the Museum The Clarion


Anna Gould Crane and Granddaughter Jennette; Sheldon Peck; Circa 1845; Oil on canvas; 351/2 x 451h"; Private collection.

Left, detail ofSheldon Peck's Anna Gould Crane and Granddaughter Jennette compared with, right, detail ofA Young Girl with a Dog,printed backwards, shows a distinct similarity between the two girls. Summer 1990

of American Folk Art's "Young America" exhibition), we compared a samesize photographic enlargement of our girl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; printed backward to have the heads facing the same way â&#x20AC;&#x201D; with Jennette. A gallery guard insisted, "It's the same girl!" We had learned two things through this process: First, you must compare like sizes to understand details and second, the paintings you'd like to compare with are usually in difficult places. We also learned that paintings of children should be compared with other paintings of children. At the Historical Museum in Aurora, Illinois, the painting of the John J. Wagner Family shows a number of children. There are no closed ears, plenty of rabbit's feet and numerous similarities to the unknown girl: Nose highlights, chin shape, shadow line above bodice. Later, a Peck expert told us this painting had been restored to the extent that it was unreliable for attribution purposes! Acknowledging the limitations of photographs, Richard Miller, curator of the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center at Williamsburg, Virginia, offered some observations. His conclusions were mainly negative: dissimilar ears; inadequate attention to the girl's costume and chair; lace on girl's dress made by dots, not translucent with the trefoil design. In some ways, we were virtually back at the beginning of the investigation. There was a difference, though. We had learned a great deal not only about Sheldon Peck, but also about the Vermont artists Aaron Dean Fletcher and Zedekiah Belknap. While we followed leads on these other two artists, comparisons of children in their paintings eliminated them as possibilities. So, who painted "A Young Girl with a Dog"? My wife and I think Sheldon Peck, because the differences do not seem incontrovertible. The most important lesson we've learned, however, is that collectors who buy folk art, particularly paintings, should buy on the basis oflove, not who they think created the art. David 1Crashes is an entrepreneur metallurgist whose engineering and testing business extends along the Eastern border of the United States. He and his wife have been collecting folk paintings and antique furniture for 35 years. 51

St. John market basket in process; Herman Prince;1988;15/ 1 2x 12".

St. John market basket; Herman Prince;1988, rim-to-rim 17/ 1 2x 13/ 1 4" handle diameter.

Basketmaking on the Island of St.John by Bernard A. Kemp, Ph.D The Island of St. John is renowned for its fine baskets and basketry. In basketry, as in any other art or craft, the work is an extension of the individual artist, and the individual is a product of the culture. This is especially true in small, relatively isolated island cultures, such as St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Thus the baskets and other woven items produced there over 52

generations provide us with a window to better understand the St. Johnian people, their culture, and their way of life. There are two kinds of St. Johnian basketry: the baskets made from the stout and sturdy hoop vine (Trichostigma octandrum), and those objects made from the more delicate wist reed (Serjania polyphylla). Both plants grow on St. John. Hoop vine was used to make a long

oval basket that was known throughout the islands as the St. John market basket, as well as a rounder variant that takes its name from its shape,the melon basket. The strong, well-produced baskets made from it lasted for years, even generations. Wist reed while also strong, is thin and delicate. It was used to make fine functional-decorative articles for the home. The St. John market basket is what is The Clarion

Melon basket with cover;Herman Prince;1988;14" diameter x 13" high.

called a rib or frame basket. In some locations, similar baskets are called fanny baskets because of their distinctive shape. It has a round handle and an oval rim which are essentially perpendicular and held together by a diamond or God's eye motif on either side. The ribs, which form the skeleton of the basket, emanate from the diamond. After the frame is built, the splits are used to weave the basket. The weaving goes from rim to rim in concentric semi-circles with the diamonds in the center forming two symmetric globes on either side of the handle.' The St. John market basket differs from frame baskets made elsewhere. Outside the Caribbean these baskets are usually made from split oak,split ash or willow. Because of the inherent flexibility of hoop vine,the narrow ribs, and Summer 1990

Place mat mode from wist; Craftsperson unknown; Before 1975; 8/ 1 2" diameter; Collection ofElaine I. Sprauve Museum, St. John, USVI;Donated by Mrs. Helen Smith, St. John, USV1.

additional ribs which are added as the weaving progresses, the St. John basket is very tight, with a smooth, even, gently-rounded surface. The additional ribs also make the basket stronger and more durable. Another distinctive feature is the twisted handle. Though it appears to be made with three strands, it is actually one strand wrapped around itself three times. Unlike most other frame baskets, the St. John basket has a slight upward slope of the rim. A really fine example will have a flattened bottom so that it won't tip. The shape and balance make it ideal for carrying on the arm. Its frequent appearance in the pictures that have come down to us over the years attest to its usefulness.' Its cousin, the melon basket, which is said to have originated on St. John,

has broader and flatter ribs.' This makes it easier and faster to weave. Either style can be made with covers and occasionally the splits are dyed. Wist, in contrast, was used to make placemats, sewing baskets, bread baskets, lampshades, and hats. A 1930s brochure from the Virgin Islands CoOperative also mentions 25-piece luncheon sets, coasters, nut cups and candy dishes, work baskets and fishpot baskets.' Older people fondly mention the distinctive flower pots that were made by fine crafts people. Some of them had a friendly competition among themselves to see who could produce the best work.' Few examples are still around, so it is hard to know the full variety of wist work. However, from those pieces that remain, it is evident the work was tight, smooth,even weav53

Basket tnaterials: Hoop, ribs and splits.

Basketmaking class; Coral Bay, St. John, VI; 1906.

ing — outstanding in quality and design. Most of the surviving examples of wist work were made using typical wickerware techniques: A star modified to an odd number of ribs on a wooden base. The ribs are not much thicker than the strands themselves. The designs depend on the imagination and ability of the basketmaker, who sometimes dyes the strands. Basketmaking begins with a trip to the bush — the West Indian term for forest — to collect the hoop or wist. Both materials are difficult to get, especially today. A major concern, once good materials are found, is harvesting them in a way that ensures future availability. All hoop is not "good hoop" and knowing which is good for ribs and which for splits is part 54

of the basketmaker's skill. Either material must be lugged from the bush to where the baskets are to be made, and then stripped and prepared for weaving. The knowledge needed for gathering and preparing quality materials is an essential part of the basketmaker's skill. Ralph Prince, the youngest active basketmaker on St. John, takes pride in knowing every hoopstand on the 191 / 2 square miles of the island. A sizable basket — 151 / 2inches rim to rim — takes about two days to weave once the materials have been collected and prepared. Preparing the wist is particularly tedious and painstaking. It was frequently relegated to the novices or children "to keep them busy and out of trouble."' The difficulties in preparing this thin, fine material turn some poten-

tial basketmakers away from wist work; many older folks still cringe when they think of it.' Baskets are, perhaps, the oldest craft tradition known.' Every culture has them. How these particular styles got to the island of St. John, and where they came from, is obscured in history. While it is possible that the baskets were "invented" or "reinvented" on the island, it seems more likely that what we today call "technology transfer" occurred. Either someone who came to the island had basketmaking skills, or since baskets by their very nature are mobile, someone on the island copied the style from baskets that came in. Little is known about wist reed basketry. The 1913 Moravian Missions Periodical Accounts reports, "Our people living at East End, a populous The Clarion

:d from postcard, Bjerregaard Collection of St. Croix Landmark Society.

Basketmaking family; Bordeaux Mountain, St. John, VI;1906.

community very much by itself, depend a great deal on fishing, boat-building, and the making of small baskets, the latter industry giving employment principally to the women and young girls. This year there has been more than usual of work [sic]...and a large order from our German Agency was a great help to the people here' The only baskets produced in the East End were made from wist.9 The St. John market basket, on the other hand, was produced on the island at least as far back as 1906, based on a picture of a basket class showing a teacher and nine adults and teenagers in Coral Bay. Another 1906 photo shows a basketmaking family on Bordeaux Mountain. An 1868 lithograph shows a child holding the same shaped basket on St. Thomas,'° and in 1895, others Summer 1990

were in the marketplace on St. Croix." These baskets could have come from St. John, as we know they did in later years. Because the technique for making rib or frame baskets is more sophisticated than that for most other types of basketry, it seems likely that the style was brought to St. John. Figuring out the origins involves detective work and speculation. Although the shape and materials differ, frame baskets are found throughout Europe â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Yugoslavia, Italy, the Pyrenees in Spain, France, England, Scotland, Denmark, and Poland,' as well as Germany in the 1880s." The baskets made there had twisted handles and a raised rim like the St. John market basket, and they were made from willow which is similar to hoop vine. In

contrast, the baskets from England were made of split oak, a more rigid material, and usually had solid handles and a flat rim. Split oak, ash and hickory frame baskets were also popular throughout the eastern United States from Maine through Pennsylvania and Appalachia to Missouri." Baskets with a shape similar to the St. John basket are currently found in the Caribbean in Nevis, St.Kitts, Antigua, Haiti, and elsewhere. They have been documented in Jamaica and Cuba since 1922." Although Santa Domingo, Dominica and St. Lucia (which has hoop vine) are known for their baskets, there is no evidence that any frame baskets were produced there. Many fine, beautiful baskets were produced throughout the rest of the world. However, there is no indication 55

n of St. Croix Landmark Society

that frame baskets originated from African, South American, Native American, or Asian peoples. From this point on things get more speculative. The "best guess" is that one of the Moravian missionaries — they were on St. John from 1741 on — brought the basketry from Germany. These missionaries, both men and women, were craftspeople in their own right, and they lived off the land. Perhaps one of them was a skilled basketmaket He or she may have recognized that hoop vine was similar to basket willow and used it to make what we now call the St. John market basket. Even though the basket design and the skills may have come from elsewhere, significant innovations were made on St. John. These include discovery and adaptation of hoop vine; 56

modifications, such as the melon basket; and other refinements. More important, however, was the integration of these baskets into the culture. These fine quality baskets became an important part of the island's economy and life over a number of generations. The central role of basketry was a result of the unique history and culture of St. John. Following Emancipation in 1848, hurricanes, earthquakes and decades of hardship, the island population dropped from 2,400 to about 900 and stayed at that level until 1917. After the United States took over, the population fell to 700, where it remained until the 1950s. The people on the eastern sector were isolated from the western half of the island by a rugged mountainous trail, from the rest of the world by water, and from their past by hardship

which required them to focus on the present and to understand their island for what it had to offer.'6"7•18 They formed an independent selfsufficient community. Each family had land, a house, usually a boat, provision ground and livestock. Everyone had food and shoes for church. Fish, whelk, lobster and fruit were available for the harvesting. To get other things, they sold or traded the products of their industries: charcoal, sand and gravel, livestock, fish, Carolina Bay Oil, and baskets. Older folks who recall those times characterize basketmaking as "one of the major industries' their "cash crop:' and, for some, a way to "provide extra cash:" Both men and women were basketmakers. Aside from their many practical uses — field work, storage, and carrying The Clarion

Gerda Marsh, Virgin Islands representative to the American Fair in Atlantic City, NJ; Government House, St. Thomas, USVI;1931.

Left: Baskets stacked on the wharf; Charlotte Amalie harbor, St. Thomas, USVI;1931.

everything from fish to babies — baskets have long been used in trade by St. Johnians. They were sold on St. Thomas and St. Croix. Boats laden with baskets, with more hung from the rigging, would sail from Coral Bay to the sister islands.' In Christiansted harbor on St. Croix, the market baskets were sold directly from the decks of the schooners for cash, not traded for produce or rum.' In the 1930s St. John baskets were marketed on St. Thomas through the Virgin Islands Native-Craft Co-Operative — known on St. John as the "Cooperation" — as well as a number of other retail outlets." The colorful baskets were also sold to passengers of cruise ships that came into the Charlotte Amalie harbor.' The Co-Operative also marketed the Summer 1990

baskets in the United States. Coral Bay's Greda Marsh, age 84, recalls her trip to the American Fair in Atlantic City and the Grand Central Palace in New York in 1931 as the Virgin Islands' representative. The Co-Operative sold them at its Connecticut Avenue store in Washington,D.C. and at the Century of Progress in Chicago. In the 1930s St. John baskets were sold at Macy's in New York and displayed at Gimbel's in Philadelphia." In addition, they were sold in Germany in 1913 and exhibited at the Paris Exhibition in 1932. One of the most remarkable aspects of this "industry" — with its international distribution — is that it came out of the eastern part of St. John, with a population of less than 500 people, more than 120 of whom were basketmakers."

The skills and values were passed down from one generation to the next at home and in schools. At home children contributed to the family income while learning valuable skills. At school, the boys were taught to make hoop baskets and the girls to work with wist. Their teachers were the leading basketmakers, including Mrs. Vitelia Boynes who taught the girls, and Ernest "Buddy Mingo" Sewer who generally taught boys. Some of the students made extra money for themselves and the school by selling the baskets they made.'The Moravian Church,through its ministers at Emmaus, actively promoted crafts, including basketry, into the 1930s." Ernest Sewer, who died in 1939 at the age of 77, was a premier basketmaker who is credited with developing the 57

Basketmaker's hands: Herman Prince pointing a rib; Coral Bay, St. John, USV1.

Herman Prince, premier basketmaker, crafting a basket; CoralBay, St.John, USVI;1990.

melon basket. All the older basketmakers, and others who learned from him, still talk about what a fine basketmaker he was. One of his students, Herman Prince, has become today's premier basketmaker. He taught basketry in the school system from 1946-76 and still teaches a basket class once a week for the National Park Service. At the age of 76 he is still active and making baskets. Unfortunately, there are only three other active basketmakers. All are over 70, except Ralph Prince, Herman Prince's son. There are four "retired" basketmakers, as well. It is one thing for a fine basketmaker to come to an island, adapt to the indigenous materials, and produce high quality baskets during his or her lifetime. It is something different, how58

ever, for high quality baskets to be produced by many artisans over several generations. For that to happen, skills must be passed from one generation to the next; craftspeople must learn to work with the environment so it continues to provide the materials; economic conditions must support the time and energy the people spend making baskets and the cultural values must acknowledge the importance of the baskets and the basketmakers. The people who elected to remain on St. John from the 1860s to the 1950s created and carried on a culture that valued independence, self-sufficiency, community, hard work, creativity and concern for others and nature. Each fine St. Johnian basket is a manifestation of the craftsperson. It is also a testament

to the values and qualities of the society. Basketmaking not only contributed to the well-being of the people on eastern St. John, but also helped transmit their values through generations. Children learned to select and use materials with care and to value their work and themselves. The St. John market basket, with its beauty, utility and durability reflects this culture. And as the craftspeople who are still around today will tell you, they were happy. Bernard A. Kemp is an economist who specializes in the economics ofart and craft. He lives on St. John where his primary research focuses on the Living History of the Caribbean, a project which documents living crafts traditions and seeks to determine their viability in current markets. In the process of studying the St. John market basket he discovered the independent, self-suffiThe Clarion


Felicia Martin preparing ribs and splits; Estate Annaberg, St. John, USVI;1988.

cient community in the eastern part of St. John. It is the focus of his current research. The research is partly funded by a grant from the Virgin Islands Humanities Council through the University of the Virgin Islands.

NOTES 1. Ann Guth,Baskets ofSt. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. St. John: Ann Guth, 1982. 2. Based on historic postcards and photographs available through the U.S., Dept. of Agriculture, Farm Security Administration, Library of Congress FSA collection, and other sources. Informants cited in notes and Mrs. Felicia Martin, Basketmaker, Bordeaux, St. John, USVI. 3. Informant: Mr. Herman Prince, Coral Bay, St. John, USVI. 4. The Co-Operatives ofthe Virgin Islands: Marketing Native Products. St. Thomas: Virgin Islands NativeCraft Co-Operative, c. 1932-34. U.S., National Archives collection. 5. Informant: Mr. Guy H. Benjamin, Coral Bay, St. John, USVI. 6. Informant: Mrs. Jennie Marsh, Coral Bay, St. John, USVI. 7. Informants: Mr. Guy H. Benjamin and Mrs. Lucy Smith, Coral Bay, St. John, USVI.

Summer 1990

8. Ed Rossbach, "Thinking About Historical Baskets, Fiberarts, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan./Feb. 1984: p. 32. 9. Periodicals Accounts relating to the Foreign Missions of the Church of the United Brethren ("Moravians"). London: 1914. Second Century, Vol. IX,June, 1914; pp. 59-61. 10. The Danish West Indies in Old Pictures, 1967. The Pharmacy at Charlotte Amalie, 1868. Lithograph from a drawing by Fred. Visby KB. 11. Chas. Edwin Taylor, M.D., F.R.G.S., An Island of the Sea: Descriptive of the Past and Present of St. Thomas,Danish WestIndies. St. Thomas, 1896: p. 7 Picture: Market Place, Frederiksted, St. Croix, D.W.I.(with baskets). 12. Various books on basketry including all those in the U.S., Library of Congress collection. Contact author for individual citations. 13. Informant: Dr. Luthar Madeheim, Historian and Assistant Archivist, Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, PA. 14. Allen H. Eaton, Handicrafts ofthe Southern Highlands. New York: Dover Publications, 1973: pp. 166-178. 15. Nell Ray Clarke, "The Haunts of the Caribbean Corsairs:' The National Geographic Magazine, Vol. XLI, #2, Feb. 1922. Picture: "A Market Scene in Guantanamo: Cuba: p. 149. "Going to Market in Jamaica": P. 183. 16. Karen Fogg Olwig, Cultural Adaptation and Re-

sistance on St. John: Three Centuries of Afro. Caribbean Life. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1985. 17. Informant: Mr. Lito Valls, Historian, U.S., National Park Service, St. John, USVI. 18. Population data compiled by George Tyson, historian, Thomas, USVI,for his monograph,Land Use on St. John, USVI. 19. Informants: Mr. James Dalmida, Sr., Mrs. Ina George, and Mr. Guy H. Benjamin, respectively. 20. Informant: Mr. James Dahnida, Sr., Coral Bay, St. John, USVI. 21. Informant: Mr. Paul Gibbs, St. Croix, USVI. 22. Informant: Mr. Guy H. Benjamin, Coral Bay, St. John, USVI. 23. DuBose Heyward and Daisy Reck,"The American Virgins: and E.L. Wisherd, C.W. Herbert, "Island Treasures of the Caribbean': The National Geographic Magazine, Vol. LXXVIII, #3, Sep. 1940: pp. 273-308. Picture: "Hoping for Big Sales, They Watch Their Ship Come In',' p. 297. 24. The Virgin Islands Daily News, Apt-Sep., 1931. For specific citations contact the author. 25. Compiled by author. 26. Informant: Mr. Guy H. Benjamin. 27. Theodoor De Booy and John T. Faris, The Virgin Islands: Our New Possessions and the British Islands. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1918: p. 146.




ENDOWMENT FUND FOR THE EVA AND MORRIS FELD GALLERY AT LINCOLN SQUARE The Museum of American Folk Art/ Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square opened in April 1989 and since then, more than 100,000 visitors have viewed exhibitions which included objects ranging from highlights of the permanent collection to textiles created by slaves in the ante-bellum South to spearfishing decoys. Educational programs such as lectures, demonstrations, tours for school children, and workshops have been offered. And, through Access to Art, handicapped individuals have participated in programming which included braille and large-print labelling and gallery guides, specially-developed audio tours for visually impaired visitors, and sign language tours of the gallery. During the past year, I have reported in this column many of the various grants and gifts which were made specifically to support these programs. I have also acknowledged the generosity of a number of donors to the Endowment Fund for Lincoln Square. The establishment of this fund guarantees the future operation of the gallery; the continued growth of the fund will help to ensure the maintenance of a full schedule of quality folk art programming at the Lincoln Square gallery in the future. In December 1989, a special request was sent to the Museum membership asking for contributions to the Endowment Fund. A number of donors were added to the long list offriends who had already made gifts. I would like to take this opportunity to gratefully acknowledge the generous support of the many individuals, corporations, and foundations which have contributed to the Endowment Rind for Lincoln Square which now totals more than $1.1 million. 60

Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream Estate of Thomas M. Conway Joseph Martinson Memorial Fund Ames Gallery of American Folk Art Asahi Shimbun, Kodansha Ltd., Chinon Industries Inc., and Taiji Harada Marilyn and Milton Brechner William Randolph Hearst Foundation Howard and Jean Lipman Dorothy and Leo Rabkin Amicus Foundation, Inc. Lily Cates Daniel and Jessie Lie Farber Walter and Josephine Ford Fund Shirley and Theodore Kesselman Masco Corporation Kathleen S. Nester Mrs. Gertrude Schweitzer and Family The David and Dorothy Carpenter Foundation Barbara and Tracy Cate Daniel and Joyce Cowin David L. Davies Jacqueline L. Fowler Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Klein Myra and George Shaskan Doris and Stanley Tananbaum John D. Weeden The American Folk Art Society Didi and David Barrett Marian and Don DeWitt Cordelia Hamilton Wendy and Mel Levitt Christopher and Linda Mayer Willa and Joseph Rosenberg Zelma and Austin Super Mr. and Mrs. Robert N. Wilson Gerard C. Wertkin William Arnett Robert Bishop Edward Vermont Blanchard and M. Anne Hill Barbara and Edwin Braman Edward J. Brown Janice and Mickey Cartin Gerald and Marie DiManno The Marion and Ben Duffy Foundation Alvin and Joan Einbender Ellin F. Ente Janey Fire and John Kalymnios Andrew S. Flamm and Douglas G. Flamm Selma and Sam Goldwitz Terry and Simca Heled Alice and Ronald Hoffman David and Ellen Howe Mr. and Mrs. Yee Roy Jear

Barbara Johnson, Esq. Joan and Victor L. Johnson Isobel and Harvey Kahn Ed and Lee Kogan James and Frances Lieu Mrs. Marjorie W. McConnell Mr. Michael and The Honorable Marilyn Mennello Benson Motechin, C.P.A., P.C. Cathy Rasmussen Ann-Marie and Ed Reilly Mr. and Mrs. Bernard K. Schaefer Dick and Debbie Sears Ronald and June Shelp Susan and Joel Simon Stephanie, Michael and Gregg Simon Mr. and Mrs. Sanford L. Smith Phyllis and Irving Tepper Anne D. Utescher Elizabeth and Irwin Warren Mrs. Dixon Wecter Mr. and Mrs. John H. Winkler Paul and Helen Anbinder Arthur and Mary Barrett R. Sylvia Barton Irwin and Linda Berman Estate of Abraham P. Bersohn Iris Carmel Edward Lee Cave Florence Cohen Eugene and Bernice Cummings Mr. and Mrs. James A. Edmonds, Jr. Ross and Glady Faires Stephen and Anne Friedland Iris and Bob Goodkind Norma E. Helwege Dr. and Mrs. Leonard Hochman Joseph and Lesley Hoopes Mr. and Mrs. Albert L. Hunecke, Jr. James and Elaine Jacobson Eckert and Gwen Kade Louise and George Kaminow Gerald and Carol Klaben Janet Langlois The Betty and Robert Marcus Foundation C. F. Martin IV Mrs. Myron L. Mayer Sophie Minkoff Robert J. and Janet W. Misch Jenny Mlawsiv Leonard and Marjorie Nezin Paul L. Oppenheimer Samuel and Eleanor Rosenfeld Mr. and Mrs. Richard L. Solar Eileen Stevens Kathleen Stockhausen James and Beverly Voytko Bobbie K. Weinstein Julia Weissman Mr. and Mrs. John Wezmar

The Clarion

American Folk Art Sidng Gaker 226 West 21st Street New York, N.Y 10011

(212)929-8769 Appointment suggested


Pair of portraits of a gentleman and a lady. In fine original condition, with eglomaise glass mattes. Circa 1840. Frame size,51 / 2x 434 inches. (subject to prior sale)

The Family of Reverand Albert Case. In original frame and condition. Painted in Massachusetts. Circa 1840. Frame size, 14 x 13 inches. (subject to prior sale) 61

MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART BOARD OF TRUSTEES Executive Committee Ralph Esmerian President Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq. Executive Vice President Lucy C. Danziger Vice President George E Shaskan, Jr. Treasurer Mrs. Dixon Wecter Secretary Karen D. Cohen Judith A. Jedlicka Theodore L. Kesselman Susan Klein Kathryn Steinberg

Members Florence Brody Peter M. Ciccone Daniel Cowin David L. Davies Barbara Johnson, Esq. Joan M. Johnson William I. Leffler George H. Meyer Cyril I. Nelson Cynthia V.A. Schaffner William Schneck Ronald K. Shelp Bonnie Strauss

Maureen Taylor Robert N. Wilson Honorary 'frustee Eva Feld Trustees Emeriti Adele Earnest Cordelia Hamilton Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr. Louis C. Jones Margery G. Kahn Alice M. Kaplan Jean Lipman

DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE Judith A. Jedlicka Theodore L. Kesselman Co-Chairmen Lewis Alpaugh Hoechst Celanese Corporation Gordon Bowman Corporate Creative Programs

Frank Brenner Hartmarx Corporation John Mack Carter Good Housekeeping Jerry Kaplan Better Homes and Gardens Allan Kaufman Long Distance North

Francine Lynch Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A. Rachel Newman Country Living Thomas Troland Country Home Barbara Wright New York Telephone

INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq. Mrs. Dixon Wecter Co-Chairmen Paul Anbinder William Arnett Frank & June Barsalona Mary Black Susan Blumstein Judi Boisson Gray Boone Robert & Katherine Booth Barbara & Edwin Braman Milton Brechner Raymond Brousseau Edward J. Brown Charles Burden Tracy Cate Margaret Cavigga Edward Lee Cave Joyce Cowin Richard & Peggy Danziger Marian DeWitt Davida Deutsch Charlotte Dinger Raymond & Susan Egan Margo Ernst Helaine & Burton Fendelman 62

Howard Fertig Ted & Joanne Foullc Jacqueline Fowler Ken & Brenda Fritz Ronald Gard Robert S. Gelbard Dr. Kurt A. Gitter Merle & Barbara Glick Baron & Ellin Gordon Howard M. Graff Bonnie Grossman Michael & Julie Hall Lewis I. Haber Elaine Heifetz Terry Heled Josef & Vera Jelinek Eloise Julius Isobel & Harvey Kahn Allen Katz Mark Kennedy Arthur & Sybil Kern William Ketchum Susan Kraus Wendy Lavitt Mimi Livingston Marilyn Lubetkin Robert & Betty Marcus Paul Martinson

Michael & Marilyn Mennello Steven Michaan Alan Moss Kathleen S. Nester Helen Neufeld Henry Niemann Paul Oppenheimer Ann Frederick & William Oppenhimer Dr. Burton W.Pearl Patricia Penn Dorothy & Leo Rabkin Harriet Polier Robbins Charles & Jan Rosenak Joseph J. Rosenberg Le Rowell Randy Siegel Sibyl Simon Susan Simon Ann Marie Slaughter Sanford L. Smith R. Scudder Smith Richard Solar Hume Steyer Jane Supino Edward Tishelman Tony & Anne Vanderwarker John Weeden G. Marc Whitehead The Clarion


The Museum of American Folk Art greatly appreciates the generous support of the following friends: $20,000 and above Asahi Shimbun Ames Gallery of American Folk Art Bear, Stearns & Co.,Inc. Ben & Jerry's, Inc. Better Homes & Gardens Judi Boisson Marilyn & Milton Brechner Chinon Industries Inc. Estate of Thomas M.Conway Country Home Mr. & Mrs. Frederick M.Danziger Mrs. Eva Feld Estate of Morris Feld The Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation Hartmarx Corporation William Randolph Hearst Foundation James River Corporation Kodansha Ltd. Jean & Howard Lipman Joseph Martinson Memorial Fund Steven Michaan National Endowment for the Arts New York State Council on the Arts Paine Webber Group Inc. Philip Morris Companies Dorothy & Leo Rabkin Restaurant Associates Industries, Inc. Herbert and Nell Singer Foundation, Inc. Two Lincoln Square Associates United Technologies Corporation Mrs. Dixon Wecter The Xerox Foundation $10,000-$19,999 Absolut Vodka Estate of Mary Allis Amicus Foundation Lily Cates Mr.& Mrs. Peter Cohen The Joyce & Daniel Cowin Foundation Inc. Culbro Corporation Mr. & Mrs. Alvin Deutsch Adele Earnest Fairfield Processing Corporation/Poly-fil Daniel and Jessie Lie Farber Walter and Josephine Ford Fund Taiji Harada Shirley and Theodore L. Kesselman Masco Corporation George H. Meyer Kathleen S. Nester New York Telephone Sallie Mae/Student Loan Marketing Association Schlumberger Foundation, Inc. Samuel Schwartz Mrs. Gertrude Schweitzer and Family Mr. & Mrs. George F. Shaskan, Jr. Summer 1990

Peter and Linda Solomon Foundation Springs Industries Mr. & Mrs. Robert Steinberg Barbara and Thomas W. Strauss Fund $4,000-$9,999 American Stock Exchange The Bernhill Fund Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Mr. & Mrs. Martin Brody The David and Dorothy Carpenter Foundation Tracy Roy & Barbara Wahl Cate Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A. Mr. & Mrs. Edgar M. Cullman Mr. & Mrs. Richard Danziger David Davies Jacqueline Fowler Colonel Alexander W. Gentleman Richard Goodyear Hoechst Celanese Corporation Barbara Johnson, Esq. Margery and Harry Kahn Philanthropic Fund Lore Kann Foundation Mr. & Mrs. Robert Klein Wendy & Mel Lavitt Metropolitan Life Foundation George H. Meyer The Salomon Foundation The William P. and Gertrude Schweitzer Foundation, Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Stanley Tananbaum John Weeden The H.W. Wilson Foundation Robert N.& Anne Wright Wilson Norman & Rosita Winston Foundation $2,000-$3,999 American Folk Art Society American Savings Bank Estate of Abraham P. Bersohn The Mary Duke Biddle Foundation Capital Cities/ABC The Coach Dairy Goat Farm Country Living Mr. & Mrs. Joseph F. Cullman 3rd Exxon Corporation Mr. & Mrs. Alvin Einbender Cordelia Hamilton Justus Heijmans Foundation Johnson & Johnson Manufacturers Hanover Trust Marsh & McLennan Companies Christopher & Linda Mayer McGraw-Hill, Inc. Montefiore Medical Center Morgan Stanley & Co., Incorporated The New York Times Company Foundation, Inc. Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation The Reader's Digest Association, Inc. Betsey Schaefer Robert T. & Cynthia V.A. Schaffner S.H. & Helen R. Scheuer Family Foundation

Mr. & Mrs. Derek V. Schuster Joel & Susan Simon Mr. & Mrs. Austin Super Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Taylor Time Warner Inc. David & Jane Walentas $1,000-$1,999 William Arnett The Bachmann Foundation Didi & David Barrett Mr. & Mrs. Frank Barsalona Michael Belknap Edward Vermont Blanchard & M. Anne Hill Bloomingdale's Bozell Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Edwin Braman Mabel H. Brandon Edward J. Brown Ian G.M.& Marian M. Brownlie Morris B. and Edith S. Cartin Family Foundation Edward Lee Cave CBS Inc. Liz Claiborne Foundation Conde Nast Publications Inc. Consolidated Edison Company of New York The Cowles Charitable Trust Crane Co. Susan Cullman Mr. & Mrs. Donald DeWitt Gerald & Marie DiManno The Marion and Ben Duffy Foundation Echo Foundation Ellin F. Ente Virginia S. Esmerian John & Margo Ernst Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Ferguson Janey Fire & John Kalymnios Louis R. and Nettie Fisher Foundation Susan & Eugene Flamm The Flower Service Emanuel Gerard The Howard Gilman Foundation Dr. & Mrs. Kurt A. Gitter Selma & Sam Goldwitz Renee Graubert Terry & Simca Heled Alice & Ronald Hoffman Mr. & Mrs. David S. Howe IBM Corporation Mr. & Mrs. Yee Roy Jear Judith A. Jedlicka Joan & Victor L. Johnson Isobel & Harvey Kahn Kallir, Philips, Ross,Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Leslie Kaplan Lee & Ed Kogan Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Lauder Estate of Mary B. Ledwith William & Susan Leffler Dorothy & John Levy 63

EPSTEIN/POWELL 22 Wooster St., New York,N.Y. 10013 By Appointment(212)226-7316 Jesse Aaron Rifka Angel David Butler William Dawson Charlie Dieter Mr. Eddy Antonio F,steves Howard Fluster Victor Joseph Gatto(Estate) S.L.Jones Lawrence Lebduska Justin McCarthy Emma Lee Moss Inez Nathaniel Joe Polinski Old Ironsides Pry Nellie Mae Rowe Jack Savitsky Clarence Stringfield Mose Tolliver Floretta Warfel George Williams Luster Willis and others



Victor Joseph Gatto (Pencil,9" x 12") c. 1960


James & Frances Lieu Macmillan, Inc. R.H. Macy & Co., Inc. Robert & Betty Marcus Foundation, Inc. Marstrand Foundation C.F. Martin IV Helen R. Mayer & Harold C. Mayer Foundation Marjorie W. McConnell Meryl & Robert Meltzer Michael & Marilyn Mennello Benson Motechin, C.P.A., P.C. National Westminster Bank USA New York Mariott Marquis Mattie Lou O'Kelley Paul Oppenheimer Cathy Rasmussen Ann-Marie Reilly Paige Rense Marguerite Riordan Mrs. John D. Rockefeller III Willa & Joseph Rosenberg Mr. & Mrs. Jon Rotenstreich Schlaifer Nance Foundation Mr. & Mrs. William Schneck


Mr.& Mrs. Richard Sears Randy Siegel Rev. & Mrs. Alfred R. Shands Ill Mr. & Mrs. Ronald K. Shelp Mrs. Vera W. Simmons Philip & Mildred Simon Mrs. A. Simone Mr. & Mrs. Richard L. Solar Sotheby's Mr. & Mrs. Elie Soussa Mr. & Mrs. Sanford L. Smith Sterling Drug Inc. Phyllis & Irving Tepper Anne D. Utescher H. van Ameringen Foundation Tony & Anne Vanderwarker Elizabeth & Irwin Warren Weil, Gotshal & Manges Foundation Wertheim Schroder & Co. Mrs. & Mrs. John H. Winkler $5004999 Helen & Paul Anbinder Louis Bachman

Arthur and Mary Barrett David C. Batten Roger S. Berlind Best Health Soda Robert & Katherine Booth Michael 0. Braun Iris Cannel Edward & Nancy CopIon Judy Angelo Cowen Edgar M. Cullman, Jr. Allan L. Daniel The Danunann Fund, Inc. Andre & Sarah de Coizart Mr. & Mrs. James DeSilva, Jr. Deborah Dunn Ross N.& Glady A. Faires Helaine & Burton Fendelman Richard C. & Susan B. Ernst Foundation Mr. & Mrs. Howard Fertig Timothy C. Forbes Estelle E. Friedman Ronald Gard General Foods Mr. & Mrs. William L. Gladstone The Clarion

LYNNE INGRAM Contern po vta vty 7-71 Soke ,.vA



Mose Tolliver, born 1920

Rev. -1-lowarcl Finster Brother B. F. Perkins James -Harold 3ennin9s jimmy Lee StAcIclixfh

Fred Webste.,Webb 1--- cAmily Dolls Leroy Almon Chaolie LIACCIS ofhees •

Redwood carving, 33" tall Painted in oils, 1990 Delicately carved boots, laced in brass

SANDRA BERRY Box 169 Knoll Crest Almond, NY 14804 607-276.6661 Summer 1990

Most artwork has been obtained directly from the artists. Photos available upon request. 174 Rick Road • Milford, NJ 08848 201-996-4786

Southern Folk Art... the essence ofa culture.


AUTHENTIC DESIGNS 17 The Mill Road, West Rupert, Vermont 05776 (802) 394-7713

8g,S & 'TURA/. 4.

ANTIQUES SHOWS July 21st, COVENTRY,CONNECTICUT The 23rd Annual Nathan Hale Antiques Festival Nathan Hale Homestead, South Street Benefit: The Antiquarian and Landmarks Society, Inc. August 4th, GLASTONBURY,CONNECTICUT The 17th Annual Glastonbury Antiques Festival Village Green, Corner of Main and Hubbard Streets Benefit: The Historical Society of Glastonbury, Inc. August 18th, NEW LONDON,CONNECTICUT The 17th Annual New London Antiques Festival Connecticut College Campus, Mohegan Avenue Benefit: The Lyman Allyn Art Museum August 25th, WETHERSFIELD,CONNECTICUT The 13th Annual Old Wethersfield Antiques Festival The Solomon Wells House Grounds, Hartford Avenue Benefit: The Wethersfield Historical Society, Inc. September 15-16, SOUTH PORTLAND, MAINE The 4th Annual Portland Symphony Orchestra Women's Committee Antiques Show South Portland Armory, 680 Broadway Benefit: The Portland Symphony Orchestra Women's Committee

Catalogue $3.00

October 5-7, HARTFORD,CONNECTICUT The 24th Connecticut Antiques Show The State Armory, Broad Street and Capitol Avenue Benefit: The Antiquarian and Landmarks Society, Inc. Betty Forbes and Linda Turner Antiques Shows, Inc. 45 Larchwood Rd., So. Portland, Maine 04106 (207) 767-3967


Irene and Bob Goodkind Mr. & Mrs. Baron J. Gordon Robert M. Greenberg Dr. & Mrs. Stanley Greenberg Grey Advertising, Inc. Connie Guglielmo Cathy M. Kaplan The Charles U. Harris Living Trust Denison H. Hatch Stephen Hill Holiday Inn of Auburn Mr. & Mrs. Albert L. Hunecke, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Thomas C. Israel Guy Johnson Mary Kettenah Janet Langlois Mr. & Mrs. Richard M. Livingston Hermine Mariaux Robin & William Mayer Mr. & Mrs. D. Eric McKechnie Gertrude Meister Gael Mendelsohn Pierson K. Miller Mr. & Mrs. Arthur O'Day


Geraldine M. Parker Dr. Burton W. Pearl Mr. & Mrs. Stanley M. Riker Betty Ring Mr. & Mrs. David Ritter Trevor C. Roberts Joanna S. Rose Chuck & Jan Rosenak Richard Sabino Mary Frances Saunders Sheraton Inn, Norwich Skidmore Owings & Merrill Smith Gallery Smithwick Dillon Jerry I. Speyer David E Stein Robert C. & Patricia A. Stempel Texaco Philanthropic Foundation, Inc. Edward I. Tishelman Marco P. Walker Washburn Gallery Anne G. Wesson G. Marc Whitehead Mr. & Mrs. John R. Young

Marcia & John Zweig

The Museum is grateful to the CoChairwomen of its Special Events Committee for the significant support received through the Museum's major fund raising events chaired by them. Karen D. Cohen Cynthia V. A. Schaffner

The Museum also thanks the following donors for their recent gifts to the Permanent Collection, Library and Education Collection: Howard Finster Norma Greenwood Hacker Books Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr. Gene and Linda Kangas and Nicholas H. Kondon Eleanor A. Mason Cyril I. Nelson

The Clarion

*.001% 44"


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30th Annual


Berkshire Garden Center ANTIQUES SHOW July 14 & 15,1990 Saturday, 10-5 & Sunday,10-5 Berkshire Performing Arts Center Kemble Street, Rt. 7A LENOX,MASSACHUSETTS

600 EXHIBITORS - many under tenting Sept. 1 - 2

Admission $4.50, with card $4.00 Early Buying & Continental Breakfast

Saturday,8:30-10:00 AM Admission $12.50 65 outstanding exhibitors from 10 states showing country and formal furniture, appropriate decorative accessories, folk and fine art,jewelry and textiles, indoors and in-room settings Managed by Marilyn Gould For information (203)762-3525 (413)298-3926

c:nNcY) ,24 cOD 0 C` CV

Sat. 10 am - 6 pm Sun.9 am - 4 pm Free parking Admission: $3.00

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HANCOCK SHAKER VILLAGE ANTIQUES SHOW August 25 & 26 Saturday & Sunday 10:00 a.m.-5 p.m. Junction of Routes 20 and 41 5 miles west of Pittsfield, MA $5 admission, $11 to both Show and Village This distinguished and comprehensive show features American country and period formal furniture of the 18th and 19th centuries, appropriate decorative accessories, textiles, ceramics,fine art, folk art, prints, early maps,silver, jewelry and architectural elements, and fine Shaker furniture & accessories. Visit 20 restored buildings with the largest collection of Shaker furniture and artifacts on 1200 beautiful Berkshire acres.


A national antiques event with leading dealersoffering folk art,china,quilts,baskets, glass, clocks, dolls, primitives, advertising, jewelry,silver, Americana,vintage clothing, paintings, Orientalia, lighting, tools, toys, a great variety of reasonably priced country and formal furniture, and 1000's of fine collectibles. Early Admission Saturday at 7:00 am -$20.00 Farmington(CT)Polo Grounds Exit 39 off 1-84,9 miles west of Hartford Revival Promotions, Inc.

For information:(413)443-0188 Managed by Marilyn Gould (203) 762-3525 Summer 1990

1).0. Box. 388,(iiiiton, \B\

--,1c) 7 67



4:00 to 5:30 p.m., at the Museum of American Folk Art Administrative Offices,61 East 62nd Street, 3rd floor, New York City. For information call Education Curator, Tel. 212/977-7170. Also showing at the Museum is Pictures, Patchwork, and Promised Gifts; Recent Additions to the Permanent Collection. This exhibit highlights many of the Museum's new acquisitions: Works from the pioneering collection of Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr.; carvings given by Dorothy and Leo Rabkin; a selection of American coverlets donated by Margo Ernst; quilts, woven blankets, and coverlets contributed by Cy Nelson; and recent works by members of the Dial family of Bessemer, Alabama.

Jacob Maentel In Indiana opens Thursday, June 28, and runs through September 9, 1990 at the Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square, Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th Streets, New York City. The approximately 30 paintings, mostly portraits set in elaborately detailed interiors, depict rural life during the mid-1800s. Through her extensive research and remarkable scholarship, guest curator Mary Black was instrumental in resolving many of the mysteries surrounding the attribution of Maentel's work. This exhibit provides fresh information about the artist and expands our knowledge of Maentel and the nineteenth-century America that he pictured. In conjunction with this exhibition, Mary Black and collector Ralph 0. Esmerian, will join in a discussion of Maentel, Tuesday, July 10, 1990, from


Elizabeth Ferguson Cooper and her daughter Elizabeth Mary Cooper; Jacob Maentel; New Harmony, Indiana; Circa 1842; Watercolor, pen, and pencil on paper; 141 / 2 x 19/ 1 2;" Mr. and Mrs. Hugh B. Lee Collection.



Registration is now open for the Fall 1990 semester of the Museum's Folk Art Institute which begins September 17, 1990. Among the courses being offered are: Understanding Folk Art/A Seminar; 20th Century Folk Art; American Art; A Day with Robert Bishop; and Antique Tools with Jim Clokey. For further information, call or write the Folk Art Institute, 61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023-7015; Tel. 212/977-7170.

A year has passed since the opening of the Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square. The unsung heroes and heroines of this first year are the Museum's many volunteers and docents. Although volunteers are required to provide only four hours per week, many give much more time. While most live in New York City, others commute from Pennsylvania, Connecticut, New Jersey, and far points in New York State. No other museum in the city is open seven days a week(9 a.m. to 9 p.m. daily) and relies as strongly on its corps of dedicated volunteers and docents as we do. Hats off to these fabulous folks! Dominick Basile, Mercedes Bierman, Barbara Black, Joan Bloom, Sheila Carlisle, Therese Ciesinski, Jean Crawford, Debbie Dunn, Joyce Eppler, Deborah Carpenter Feld, Anne Fenton, Minnie Finkelstein, Nancy Fischer, Anita Folkerth, Carol Freidus, Irwin Gittleman, Mildred Gladstone, John Hayward, Diane Hill, Arlene Hochman, Lisa Holland, Helen Hornedo, Maridean Hutton, Annette

Jackson, Mary Jacobs, Elaine Jacobson, Marylou Kavler, Carl Kerr, Barbara Klinger, Sharon Koota, Ada Lyttle, Karen Munroe, Miriam Nadel, Susan Oostdyk, Joan Oury, Marvin Parker, Carol Phillips, Gertrude Quinn, Jeanne Riger, Judith Rothstein, Ruth Saken, Marilyn Schwartz, Hamilton Shippee, Linda Siebert, William Skillman, Meg Smeal, Sara Snook, Katie Sobel, Lynn Steuer, Frank Tosto, Betty Van Zandt, Arlene Walzer, Georges Wolff and Ann Wrenn. In exchange for the dedication of our volunteers, the Museum provides the following benefits: Advance notice and discounts for selected Museum events; free tuition for one course per semester at the Folk Art Institute; a 15% discount on purchases in the Museum's Book and Gift Shop; private training prior to each exhibition; an annual banquet, and special receptions throughout the year. Individuals who are interested in joining this special group may contact Mary Linda Zonana, Docent Coordinator, Tel. 212/595-9533.

The Clarion



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"Girl with a Pink Doll or Little Sister" 1970, acrylic on canvas, 40"x30"

Inquiries invited


1987 Maurice Sullins, the 80-year-old self-taught artist, was discovered. 1988 Maurice Sullins had his first major retrospective museum exhibition in Chicago.


1989 Maurice Sullins' first international solo museum exhibition was shown in Paris, France, Additional Information and Photographs of Maurice Sullins' Paintings are Available upon Request.

834 B WESTMOUNT DRIVE _OS ANGELES CA 90069 213.657.6369



Specializing In American Outsider Art 631 OAKVIEW AVENUEâ&#x20AC;˘JOLIET, ILLINOIS 60433


Summer 1990

815.727.9865 9


JAY JOHNSON 1951-1990

Four hundred Museum members and invited guests were treated to a festive opening reception at the Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square for the exhibition Documents of Education: Samplers and Silk Embroideries from the Collection of Betty Ring. This assemblage of 156 exquisitely stitched textiles is the first major exhibition to salute the artistry of talented teachers who guided the needles of American schoolgirls during the colonial and Federal periods. Also on view was Photographic Visions: A Personal Look at Folk Art Environments, color photographs of intriguing details of folk and outsider environments by Valorie Fisher.

Jay Johnson, age 39, a long-time Museum friend and a leading dealer in the field of twentieth-century American folk art,died of AIDS,April12,in his home in Piermont, New York. He was the founder of Jay Johnson America's Folk Heritage Gallery in New York City and the co-author, with William Ketchum,of American Folk Art ofthe Twentieth Century. Jay Johnson was an early active member of the Museum Friends Committee, and a generous supporter of the Museum through numerous donations. A regular advertiser in The Clarion, he never missed an issue. With the death of Jay Johnson, the world of folk art lost a major presence.

Photo: Noel Allum


MUSEUM'S TRAVELING EXHIBITIONS Mark your calendars for the following Museum of American Folk Art exhibitions when they travel to your area during the coming months: June 25-August 20, 1990 Access To Art: Bringing Folk Art Closer Museum Of Arts And Sciences Daytona Beach, Florida 904/255-0285

Photo: DDB

From left, Cyril I. Nelson, Museum Trustee, and editor of American Needlework Treasures, congratulating Betty Ring, Guest Curator at the "Documents of Education" reception. Friends Mary Jaene and James Edmonds look on.

Photographer Valorie Fisher, beside her photographs Wolk art environments.


August 20-October 15, 1990 Beneath The Ice: The Art Of The Fish Decoy Midland County Historical Society Midland, Michigan 517/835-7401 August 28-October 14, 1990 Documents Of Education: Samplers And Silk Embroideries From The Betty Ring Collection The Baltimore Museum Of Art Baltimore, Maryland 301/396-6309

September 18-November 11, 1990 Access To Art: Bringing Folk Art Closer The Baltimore Museum Of Art Baltimore, Maryland 301/396-6309

July 8-September 2, 1990 Life In The New World: Selections From The Permanent Collection Of The Museum Of American Folk Art Huntsville Museum Of Art Huntsville, Alabama 205/535-4350

June 10-August 4, 1990 American Wildfowl Decoys: An Art Of Deception Museum Of Arts And Sciences Macon, Georgia 912/477-3232

June 21-November 1, 1990 Memories Of Childhood: The Great American Quilt Festival 2 Japan Tour

September 2-October 27, 1990 American Wildfowl Decoys: An Art Of Deception Conner Prairie Noblesville, Indiana 317/776-6000

May 28-September 3, 1990 The Pennsylvania German Hex Sign: A Photo Panel Exhibition Hershey Museum of American Life Hershey, Pennsylvania 717/534-3439

July 29-September 23, 1990 Amish Quilts From The Collection 01 The Museum Of American Folk Art Montgomery Museum Of Fine Arts Montgomery, Alabama 205/244-5700

For further information contact Michael McManus, Director of Exhibitions. Museum of American Folk Art, 61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023, Tel. 212/977-7170.

The Clarion



Santa Fe II The Folk Art Explorers' Club's second trip to Santa Fe took place April 4 to 8, 1990. Forty explorers visited museums, galleries, two local craftsmen and four wonderful private collections. This group of members came from many different areas, including California, New York, Mississippi, Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, Washington and Canada. Folk Art on the Hudson On March 15, 1990 a busload ofFolk Art Explorers enjoyed a day trip to New York's Westchester and Putnam counties. The group visited the home of Burton and Helaine Fendelman and then traveled to Rhinebeck for lunch at the Beekman Arms.The last stop on the tour was the Edith C. Blum Art Institute at Bard College to view the exhibition,

Summer 1990

Photo: Beth Bergin

"The Fine Art of American Folk Are; from the collection of Raymond Saroff and the late Howard Rose. Mr. Saroff was present to greet the group and talk about the collection.

At Ford Ruthling's Santa Fe home, bottom row, left to right: Phyllis Smith and Priscilla Johnson. Top row, left to right, Lorna Prowse, Bill Kent, Bernice Cohen, and Loretta Greif Photo: Chris Cappiello

Future Trips The Fall Folk Art Explorers' Club schedule will be mailed out to members during the summer. A special Manhattan House Tour for Patron Members is being planned for late September. Members upgrading to the Patron level($100& up) by September 1, 1990 will be invited.

Collector Raymond Sarojf, center, talks to Folk Art Explorers at Bard College.

At the Sante Fe home ofDavis and Christine Mather are, left to right, Bernice Cohen, Harold and Ronnie McDonnell.



This summer, Museum docents will present free, informal tours of current exhibitions at the Eva and Morris Feld Gallery, every day (except Sunday), commencing at 12:30 p.m. and at 3:00 p.m. at the information desk. Scheduled group tours may be arranged through Mary Linda Zonana, Docent Coordinator, Tel. 212/595-9533. School groups receive free tours, other organizations are charged a modestfee. Tours last approximately thirty minutes.

Thanks to the efforts of Alice Hoffman, Director of Art Services/Licensing and Home Furnishings, the second Library Book and Gift Sale was a huge success. Special thanks go to Trustee Cy Nelson,an editor at E.P. Dutton, for his generous contribution of five cartons of out-ofprint books and to Hacker Art Books for their support. The staff showed a true spirit of cooperation by donating books, gifts, and baked goods. Almost $3,000 was raised to benefit the Museum of American Folk Art Library Acquisition Fund. The Library, under Edith Wise's outstanding direction, now includes over 9,000 volumes.



Contemporary American Folk Art Specializing in contemporary folk paintings, carvings, pottery and fine American furniture

Jerry Farrell Jessica Farrell Trinidad R. Gilmore Edwin Johnson Bob Mahalick Charles Munro Janet Munro Helen Smagorinsky Barbara Strawser Rosebee

63 Pioneer St. Cooperstown. NY 13326 607 547-2144 350 Broadway Saratoga Springs, NY 12866 518 583-0149 Winter at the Red Barn by Edwin Johnson 47"x26", Acrylic on masonde


Pioneer Photo

or et-Me-Not Rul (Dar-), 44 x 24", $25


the vibrance of color and the warmth of home." NANTUCKET COLLECTION "Claire Murray's art is beauty. Hand hooked rugs, kits and P.O. Box 1089, Dept. C It is a reflection of memories, hand appliqued quilts. North Charlestown, NH 03603 the blend ofthe traditional Call or write for our catalog, and the contemporary, $5, refundable on first purchase. 1-800-323-9276 â&#x20AC;˘ Info: 603-543-0137 The Art of Claire Murray


Over 200 Individually Numbered Pieces

Outstanding Works By J.B. Murry, Mose T., Nellie Mae Rowe, James Harold Jennings; R.A. Miller


20 Main Street, Hiawassee, GA 30546 (404)896-4863 or FAX (404)896-1212 73


We wish to thank the following members for their increased membership contributions and for their expression of confidence in the Museum:

Barbara Ackerman, New York, NY Katharine Almirall, Hemlock, MI Aame Anton, New York, NY Richard S. Axtell Antiques, Deposit, NY Eliot H. Bank, Bexley,OH Mrs. Joseph Beck, Topeka, KS Mrs. Percy E. Boas, New York, NY Sheldon & Jill Bonovitz, Philadelphia, PA Robert E. Booth MD,Haddonfield, NJ Mr. & Mrs. Edwin C. Braman,St. Paul, MN Mr. & Mrs. Bernard J. Brennan IV, Scarsdale, NY Muriel S. Cassidy, Westfield, NJ Margaret Cavigga, Los Angeles, CA Ellen Checota, Milwaukee, WI Mr. & Mrs. Lewis G. Cole, New York, NY Mrs. Ridgely W. Cook, Winnetka, IL Gary Davenport, New York, NY Lenahan & Sylvio deRouin, New York, NY Mrs. George W. Devoe, Bridgewater, CT

Ralph H. Donnell, Park Ridge, NJ Robert Elman, Westmount, Quebec, Canada Glady A. Faires, Knoxville, TN Burton & Helaine Fendelman, Scarsdale, NY Nancy Gingrich, Cleona, PA R.J. & Karen Goldberger, Pittsburgh, PA G. Grant, New York, NY Theodore S. Green, Chappaqua, NY James Hager, Rockford, IL Lee Judd,SW Harbor, ME Mrs. Eckart Kade, New York, NY Charlotte B. Kennedy, New York, NY Mr. & Mrs. David Krashes,Princeton, MA Lucia Woods Lindley, Evanston, IL Joanne & James Love,Summit, NJ Alden R. Ludlow III, New 'York, NY Marjorie & Frank Madigan, Chesterfield, MO Mrs. Harris McCarthy, Buffalo, NY James J. McGuire, Ionia, NY Ralph K. Merrill, Fremont, MI Conrad C. Miller, Jr., Hilton Head,SC Jerome W. Ohlsten, New York, NY Joan M. Oury, New York, NY Jacque Parsley, Louisville, KY Mr. & Mrs. Howard Phillips, New York, NY Gertrude A. Quinn, New York, NY

L. Rheubar, Canfield, OH Jeanne S. Riger, Whitestone, NY Mrs. Harriet Robbins, Lancaster, PA Robert A. Roth, Chicago, IL Jean Sage, Rochester, NY Mr. & Mrs. Stewart Seidman, New York, NY Phyllis Selnick, New York, NY Alison Seymour, Seattle, WA Dr. Donald A. Shelley, Boyertown,PA Robert Sincerbeaux, Woodstock, VT Ray & Anne Marie Sipherd, Newtown,CT Nancy Spencer, Cuttingsville, VT Sandra Spillane, Stamford, CT Anne D. Utescher, Alassio, Italy Mark & Mary Ann Van Vallcenburgh, Larchmont, NY L.J. Batchelor & G. Warnke, Brooklyn, NY Ann & Bernard Wechsler, New York, NY Mr. & Mrs. Bennett Weinstock, Philadelphia, PA Joseph M. Williams, Chicago,IL Mr. & Mrs. Richard Witmer, Katonah, NY Carol Wolfe, Cincinnati, OH Jane Wulf, New York, NY Florence Zipkin, Ossining, NY Mr. & Mrs. Howard Zipser, New York, NY

835 Bonita Drive, Fripp Island, SC 29920, (803) 838-4761

DICK McINTYRE Broker Call or write for listing

Collectable Old Decoys





The Clarion



The Museum trustees and staff extend a special welcome to these new members:

Robert Adams, San Rafael, CA Francine Adelman, Menick, NY Pamela Akre, San Bruno, CA Sandra Aldrich, Rowayton, CT Linda Alexander, Doraville, GA James Allen, Atlanta, GA Robin B. Anderson, Washington, DC Cornelia Andre, Westwood Hills, KS Jean N. Andrews, Huntington, NY Elliot Avons, New York, NY Mary Bagley, Columbus, OH Steve Ball, Roeland Park, KS Debora Bartlett, Rochester, NY Sheila D. Barton, Key Largo, FL Susan Bates, Needham, MA Wilson Beamer, Knoxville, TN Barbara Beckmann, San Francisco, CA Christine Kealy Beres, New York, NY Charon Berg, New York, NY Dori Ann Berinstein, Los Angeles, CA Barbara & Peter Bernstein, New York, NY Karin Blake Interiors, Malibu, CA Joan S. Bloom, New York, NY Portia Bock, New York, NY Paul F. Bolinger, Mt. View, CA Judith Bonderman, Washington, DC Frank H. Boos Gallery, Bloomfield Hills, MI Kathleen M. Bourgeois, St. Louis, MO Lindsey E. Bowman, Astoria, NY Dianne Bray, Canon City, CO Kyle Britt, Houston, TX Stephen Brois, Yonkers, NY Mrs. Miriam Bross, Ramsey, NJ Barbara A. Brown, New York, NY Valerie S. Brown, New York, NY Leo H. Bryant, Santa Rosa, CA Sheri Hummel & Mike Burch, Alexandria, VA Dr. Alvin Cameron, Kars, Ont. Canada Howard Campbell, Elk Park, NC Ron Carver, New Bedford, MA Carole Castagnoli, Northport, NY J. Randolph Castille, San Francisco,CA James Faulkner Channing, Newsoms, VA Diane E. Colasurdo, New York, NY Laurel Cole, Washingtonville, NY Virginia Coleman, Jeffersontown, KY Esther Colliflower, Miami, FL Karen Collins, Sonoma, CA Eileen Cook,Pacific Palisades, CA Carole H. Cook, New York, NY Mary C. Culp, Huntington,IN Marjorie L. Currey, Dallas, TX Miss E Dakers, New York, NY Mr. & Mrs. Terry Daniel, Newville, PA Summer 1990

Sean Daniel, Los Angeles, CA Mrs. Richard Dapra, Ridgefield, CT Renee Darvin, Brooklyn, NY Gretchen C. Davis, Mahopac, NY Mary Ann Deane, Richmond, VA John C. DeDeyn, Niagara Falls, NY Robert Dell, Tappan, NY Judith Dem,San Francisco, CA Henry P. Deyerle, Harrisonburg, VA Jillayne DeYoung, New York, NY Mr. & Mrs. Terence J. Dinneen, Greenville, DE Herman Dixon, Portage, WI Mary Jo Doming, Midfield, AL Mr. & Mrs. Jim Dougherty, Carmel, CA Rene L. Douglas, Sandwich, MA Mr. John W. Dreyer, Ridgewood, NJ Dan Dubovsky, Philadelphia, PA Mr. Alan Duddle, New York, NY I. Milton Duke, New York, NY Tom Dunn, Fairfax, VA Patty Green & Robert Eisen, New York, NY Bruce Ellsweig, Zionsville, PA Elizabeth M. Endrom, Briarwood, NY Janet L. Ennis, Akron, OH Jane Epstein, New York, NY William A. Epstein, New York, NY Nancy Eubanks, Brownsville, TN Sherry Faber, Fort Lauderdale, FL Richard Falk, New York, NY Gloria Faretra MD,Whitestone, NY Blanche T. Farley, Roy, NY Carolyn Felder, New York, NY Carole Finger, Brooklyn, NY Marcia D. Finks, Fenton, MI Kerry Kennedy Flynn, New York, NY Seanan Forbes, New York, NY Christine Ford, Centreville, VA Marie E. Fox, Boston, MA Linda C. Franklin, Charlottesville, VA Melanie Freeman, Weymouth, MA Mary B. French, Arlington, VA Mrs. Shoshana Friedman, Highland Park,IL W. Robert Friedman, New York, NY Rosa M. Fuentes, Union City, NJ Donald & Claudia Gahr, Springbrook, WI Harriet Gales, Detroit, MI Cynthia Suzanne Gerlach, Oxford, MS Jill Gill, New York, NY Waverely Gill, Tinton Falls, NJ Gretchen L. GilMilan, Kensington, CA Deborah Ginsburg, New York, NY Irwin & Anne Gittleman, New York, NY Glaeve Art & Books, Madison, WI Phyllis Goedeke, Doylestown,PA Ms. Anne Golub, Larchmont, NY Sally Good, Gwynedd,PA Adam I. Gordon, New York, NY Natalie Bodanva Gorman, New York, NY

Zoe A. Graves, Winterthur, DE Barbara T. Green, Timonium, MD Drs. Green & Kinney, New York, NY Philip Greenvall, Stony Creek, CT Herman Greitzer, New York, NY Gail R. Gremse, New York, NY Helen J. Greslunan, Pleasantville, NY Carol L. Grose, New York, NY Judith M. Guerino, Castro Valley, CA Steven & Judy Guttman, Washington, DC Barbara Haigh, Howell, MI Marjorie Hamilton, Coral Springs, FL Bruce Harper, New York, NY G. Anne Harris, New York, NY Stephen W. Hayes, New York, NY Linda J. Heinl, Miami, FL Kathleen Hepler, Washington, DC Mary Jane Hershey, Harleysville, PA Roberta J. Hershey, Roosevelt Island, NY Arlene Heyman, New York, NY Candy Hill, Dallas, TX Bob & Wanda Hoelscher, Redmond, WA Manuela Hoelterhoff, New York, NY Patricia Horgan, Northboro, MA Helen Hornedo, New York, NY Barbara Newman & David Horowitz, New York, NY Kiyoshi Hoshino, New York, NY Annie Houle, Gardenville, PA Richard C. Hume,Point Pleasant, NJ Mary Hutcherson, McPherson, KS Mark Indursky, Riverdale, NY Robin A. James, New Rochelle, NY Len Jenkin, New York, NY Edwin A. Johnson, Fly Creek, NY Mrs. J.H. Johnston, Jackson, MS Martin S. Johnston, New York, NY Ann Reiley Jones, Clinton, LA Marilyn Simon & Carlos Justinian째, New York, NY Sally Kane, Morganville, NJ Leon Kaplan, Bayside, NY Edward B. Kattel, Miami, FL Ira H. Kemp, New York, NY Tom Kennaugh, Columbus,OH Beth T. Kennedy, Austin, TX Barbara Kenworthy, Brooklyn, NY Fred W. ICins, Forest Kholls, CA Mr. Andrew C. Klasel, Baton Rouge,LA Gordon John Klopf, New York, NY Barry M. Knudsen, New York, NY Helen L. Kohen, Miami,FL Jill & John Kois, New York, NY Judith Korostoff, Cedarhurst, NY Mrs. Janet Kramer, Findlay, OH Bill Labonte, Carlisle, MA 75



Joann LaMire, Green Lake, WI Mary Lance, Brooklyn, NY Mary L. Leach, Wichita Falls, TX Michael Leaf, Atlanta, GA Robin Julie Lennon, New York, NY Brenda Levin, New York, NY Richard Levy, Albuquerque, NM Natalie Levy, Brooklyn, NY Bryan Lewis, McLean, VA Litchfield Auction Gallery, Litchfield, CT David Lloyd, New York, NY Donald Lucker, Eden Prairie, MN Mr. & Mrs. Lee R. Lyon, Aspen,CO Daniel J. Lyons, Spring, TX Richard S. Machmer, Hamburg,PA John R. MacNeille, Montclair, NJ James Mahon, New Canaan, CT Barbara R. Manning, Miami, FL Bruce & Kathleen Marquardt, Venice, CA Mr. & Mrs. Richard Marx, Philadelphia, PA Joan R. Masterson, New York, NY Dennis McCaffrey, Burlingame, CA Ron Bozman & Kyle McCarthy, New York, NY Diana McClun, Walnut Creek, CA William McMaster, Costa Mesa,CA Karen & Mac McNeel, Chicago, IL Dwight McNeill, Washington, DC Lee G. Mestres, Church Creek, MD Sonia A. Meyers, Scottsdale, AZ Marie R. Mickus, Nilford, CT Mill Village Antiques, Francestown, NH Dolores Parker Miller, New York, NY Carla B. Miller, Alfred, NY Erica Miller, Alpine, NJ Cohn C. Mills, New York, NY Robert Milner, Brooklyn, NY David A. Mintz, Livingston, NJ Montgomery Antiques, Deltona, FL Mr. John Morelli, New York, NY Vanessa Moss, Chicago,IL Erik Murkoff, New York, NY Dennis R. Newman, Jackson, NJ Barbara J. Newman, New York, NY William R. Noble, Ludlow,IL Mr. Thomas E. Norton, New York, NY Suzan B. O'Neill, Phoenix, AZ Betty Pang, New York, NY Anthony J. Petullo, Milwaukee, WI Joanne Popovitch, W. Islip, NY Joyce Porcelli, Cleveland, OH Dr. & Mrs. Leonard Posey, Jackson, MS Posh Pineapple, Bellcair Bluffs, FL Judith G. Pott, New York, NY Jean F. Price, Jonesboro, AR Annette Proimos, Jamaica Estates, NY Michael C. Quadland, New York, NY 76

Paula H. Rawlins, Hartsdale, NY John Rawn, North Bay, Ont. Canada Ms. Maura Jean Regan, New York, NY Valerie Redler, Suffern, NY Don Redlich, New York, NY Margaret J. Reno, New York, NY Sandi Wickersham Resnick, Purcellville, VA Mary Ann C. Reynolds, Union, NJ Chris Ripnalc, Pottstown,PA Mr. Joseph Ripple, New York, NY Katherine Robertson, Dallas, TX Mary Robertson, Dallas, TX Brigitte Rochereau, Annapolis, MD Mrs. Kim Rogers, Celina, TX Kathlyn Ronsheimer, Novato, CA Davida R. Rosenblum, New York, NY Daisy Rosner, New York, NY Gunilla E. Ross, New York, NY William S. Rothermel, Lancaster, PA Judith Rothstein, New York, NY Elaine Rush, New York, NY Temi J. Sacks, New York, NY Keith Sadler, Chicago, IL Marilyn Sahner, New York, NY Alan R. Samuels, New York, NY James A. Sanders, New Harmony,IN Barbara Sanders, Fort Meyers, FL Sydne Sannito, Franklin Square, NY Ruth L. Saunders, New York, NY Claire Savitt, Coral Gables, FL Linda Schapiro, New York, NY Allen Schevch, New York, NY Lynne Schiele, New York, NY Janet Schilling, Dallas, TX Mr. & Mrs. Carl J. Schmitt, Menlo Park, CA Zachary Schulman, Yonkers, NY Jonathan H. Schwartz, So. Dartmouth, MA John Scofield, N. Tarrytown, NY Seymour Library, Auburn, NY Mr.& Mrs. Isaac Shapiro, New York, NY David Sharpe, New York, NY Joseph J. Sherwood, Los Angeles, CA Janet Shore, El Cerrito, CA Cathy Shull, Hacienda Heights, CA Mr. & Mrs. M.B. Shure, Highland Park, IL John G. Sickle, Highland Park, IL Patrick Sierchio, New York, NY Lloyd Singer, Kings Point, NY Denise C. Siracusa, Scotch Plains, NJ Mrs. Doris Sleight, Grand Rapids, MI Ruth B. Smalley, Houston,TX Latina Smith, Douglas, GA Michael E. Smith, Greensboro, NC Smithwick Dillon Co., New York, NY Mrs. Karen J. Sobotka, Summit, NJ Armand Sokolowski, Detroit, MI Linda Solano, Columbia, MD Judith Block Solomon, New Preston, CT Janet Solomon, York, ME Jerry Speyer, New York, NY

Kathleen Spaulding, Schenectady, NY St. Paul Public Library, St. Paul, MN Joel Stander, Guilford, CT Emily Stein, New York, NY Gerry Stein, Green Pond, NJ Linda Stern, Albany, NY Jane B. Stewart, Hoboken, NJ Mr. & Mrs. Albert L. Stipe, E. Northport, NY John H. Stoltenberg, Schuyler Lake, NY Ann E. Stratton, New York, NY. Robert L. Strauss, Ypsilanti, MI Noreen B.K. Swan, West Point, NY Dr. & Mrs. L. Delmar Swan, Wilmington, DE Ms. Karen Swick, New York, NY Dr. & Mrs. Arnold L. Tanis, Hollywood,FL Florence E. Teicher, New York, NY Kathy Telgard, Leland, MI Bea Thompson, Munster,IN Addison Thompson, New York, NY Bill K. Tomassi, Atlanta, GA Tina Toomey, Hollis Ctr., ME Maureen Tsuchiya, New York, NY Yuri Tsuzuki, New York, NY Lois'Ricker, North Berwick, ME Tracy L.'limner, New York, NY U. of Florida Library, Gainesville, FL Antonio Valdes-Rodriguez, Kingsport, TN Betty Van Zandt, New York, NY Robert Vegele, Western Springs,IL Melinda Ventre, Lititz, PA Victoria %man,New York, NY Ellen Waichman, New York, NY C. Walbroel, Longwood,FL Harold R. Walker, Madison, VA Janet Wallach, Chevy Chase, MD Bridget Hughes Walsh, Anchorage, AK Mrs. William C. Warrick, Camp Hill, PA Philip Wayne, New York, NY Ellen M. Weiss, New York, NY Paula Weiss, Piermont, NY Mr. David Wells, Mendocino,CA Whimseys, Frederick, MD Wendla Wilbert, New York, NY Ava Wilenski, Atlanta, GA Christine Williams, Atlanta, GA Patricia Williams, Peekskill, NY Willimantic Public Library, Willimantic, CT Mary Wilson, Los Gatos, CA Tricia Woo, St. Louis, MO Jane Workman, Stuart, FL Claudia P. Wright, Setauket, NY Alison Wylegala, New York, NY Pam Wyne,Ridgewood, NJ Peter D. Zaglio, New York, NY Elaine Zinn, Kaneohe, HI Kathleen R. Zutler, Briarcliff Manor, NY The Clarion

"A Salute to America' An original, painted box by Marie Colette,from a special collection of distinguished American artisans.

ELDRED WHEELER OF HOUSTON 3941 San Felipe Houston,Texas 77027 (713)622-6225

MAIN STREET ANTIQUES and ART Colleen and Louis Picek

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On Interstate 80

Send a self-addressed stamped envelope for our monthly Folk-Art and Americana price list

Summer 1990

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Folk Art and Country Americana (319) 643-2065 110 West Main, Box 340 West Branch, Iowa 52358

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MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLKART BOOK AND GIFT SHOP 62 West 50th Street 247-5611 Monday-Saturday 10:30 a.m.-5:30 pm.


OVER 400 pre-1935 QUILTS Contemporary folk carvings-paintings, hooked rugs, collector teddy bears, scherenschnitte, Sioux Indian art.

Across from Radio City Music Hall

7 days/week

(415) 346-0346

Since 1967













************ TI IE MARSTON HOUSE



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Center of Wiscasset, Maine Route One at Middle Street 207-882-6010 Daily 10 to 5



These limestone boundary posts are handcarved from 4" x 4/ 1 4" columns of Indiana gray limestone. Heights vary from 33"to 53". Each post is a one-of-a-kind and adaptable to interior or exterior use. Further information is available upon request.

760 Warehouse Rd., Suite E Toledo, OH 43615 (419)382-7790 & 878-8643

Robert Cargo

FOLK ART GALLERY Southern, Folk, and African-American Quilts Antiquesâ&#x20AC;˘Folk Art

JOHN C. HILL AMERICAN INDIAN ART AMERICAN FOLK ART 6990 E. MAIN ST.,Second Floor SCOTTSDALE,AZ 85251 (602)946-2910 Kachinas, 19th Century to present

M. C. "Five-Cents" Jones, Baptising, 11" x 14", mixed media on poster board, 1990.

Robert Cargo FOLK ART GALLERY 2314 Sixth Street, downtown Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35401 Open weekends only and by appointment

205/758-8884 Home phone

Saturday 10:00-5:00, Sunday 1:00-5:00



America's Folk Heritage Gallery 1044 Madison Avenue, N.Y., N.V. 10021

Tues.-Sun. 11-6 Closed Mon. 628-7280



JAY JOHNSON IOUNTRID=' 492 Piermont Avenue, Piermont, N.Y. 10968 (914) 359-6216 Hours: Thurs.-Sun. 12-5

View of The Centerville Station byJanet Munro Š1990 16"x 20" Mixed media on masonite


Inside Front Cover America Hurrah 19 American Primitive Gallery 28 Americana by the Seashore 20 Ames Gallery of American Folk Art 66 Authentic Design 15 Joshua Baer & Company 74 Barrister's Gallery 65 Sandra Berry 79 Robert Cargo Folk Art Gallery 79 Carruth Studio Inc. 29 Stewart, Tabori & Chang 74 Collectable Old Decoys 73 John Denton 9 Double K Gallery 64 Epstein/Powell 2 Laura Fisher 66 Forbes & Turner Antiques Shows


13 Gallery 10 24 Gasperi Folk Art Gallery 61 Sidney Gecker American Folk Art 20 Gilley's Gallery 67 Marilyn Gould Antiques Shows 23 Grass Roots Gallery 25 Greenwald & Mann Inc. 79 John C. Hill Inside Back Cover Hirschl & Adler Folk 65 Lynne Ingram 80 Jay Johnson 77 Main Street Antiques 78 The Marston House 1 Steve Miller 73 The Nantucket Collection 6 Robert F. Nichols Gallery 68 Timothy O'Keefe 4, 5,7 Richard W. Oliver, Inc.

Outside-in Thomas C. Queen Robert Reeves Revival Promotions Ricco/Maresca John Keith Russell Sailor's Valentine Gallery David A. Schorsch Linda Nelson Stocks Studio Sweetgum Galleries/ Leon Loard Gallery The Tarn Gallery Toad Hall Webb & Parsons Eldred Wheeler of Houston Thos. K. Woodard Yankee Doodle Dandy

68 24 17 67 3 Back Cover 21 32 72 18 8 72 78 77 10 78

The Clarion

Hirschl & Adler Folk 851 Madison Ave, NY 10021 (212) 988-3655



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The Clarion (Summer 1990)  

Collected with Passion • Flavel Coolidge Jr.: Case of the “Borrowed” Backboard • Discovering Thomas Skynner • A Case of Mistaken Identity: T...