Page 1

AMERICA'S FOLK ART MAGAZINE The Museum of American Folk Art New York City

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KELTER-MALCE A•N•T•I•Q•U•E• S 361 Bleecker St / New York City 10014 / 212-989-6760

These ladies will accompany us to the Fall Antiques Show at the Pier, October 19th through 22nd, 1989.


"Tulpehocken Indian" Weathervane by Peter Derr (1793-1868). Sheet Iron with polychrome decoration, 32"in height. Derr was a noted metal worker in Berks County, Pennsylvania. Peter Derr made a variety of metal objects, from buttons to rifles, including this weathervane which was a replica of the one on his own home. The Vane represents the "versetzte Indianer': the "displaced indians" who had originally lived on the land along Tulpehocken Creek where the Derrs settled. Provenance: Edmund Fuller, Woodstock, N.Y. Kennedy Galleries, N.Y.C.

17 East 96th Street, New York, New York 10128.(212) 348-5219 Hours: 2 pm to 6 pm daily plus by appointment

Lynda D.Peters,Inc.

(401)934-1472 by appointment

N. Scituate, Rhode Island

SKINNER Americana in two sessions

Friday, October 27, 1989 at 7:00 p.m.; Saturday, October 28, 1989 at 10:00 a.m. Bolton, Massachusetts

Including American furniture and decorative arts from pioneer collector Hugh Williamson Kelly of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Barbara and Gregory Reynolds, and others. Illustrated catalogue #1274 available for $20/$23 by mail, price list included Exhibition: October 25, 2 to 5 p.m.; October 26, 2 to 8 p.m.; October 27, 2 to 6:30 p.m.; October 28,8 to 9:30 a.m. Early viewing by appointment only.

SKINNER,INC. 357 Main Street Bolton, MA 01740 (508) 779-6241

Auctioneers and Appraisal ofAntiques and Fine Art

2 Newbury Street Boston, MA 02116 (617) 236-1700

Germantown Eyedazzler Serape with Train Pictorials, Navajo, circa 1885, 75 by 5+ inches.

JOSHUA BAER & COMPANY ClassicAmerican Indian Art 2 EAST PALACE AVENUE 1 116/


505 988 - 8944 4


12 East 86th St., New York, N.Y. 10028 Telephone: (212) 737-9051 Wednesday to Saturday 10-6, or by appointment.






oldrift 4


Ito ft.. ump

PI &Wang;


Sioux Child's Oress with fully-


e and skirt,c. 1890

Exhibiting at the Fall Antiques Show at the Pier, October 19-22



513 CANYON ROAD SANTA FE, NEW MEXICO 87501 TEL 505 982-8187 6




390 BLEECKER ST., NEW YORK CITY, NEW YORK 10014 (212) 645-5020



Watercolor on paper Circa 1830-1840. 14½ x 21%2 inches.


New York, N.Y. 10021 •(212) 988-2906 •

We are always interested in purchasing exceptional quilts. Photographs returned promptly.

THE I CLARION Er111,7 „.I I AMERICA'S FOLK ART MAGAZINE The Museum of American Folk Art New York City

Volume 14, No. 4


J.F. Rimer


Fall 1989


Man of Visions Barbara Bradman



Jean Afton



Plains Indian Ledger Drawings William Woys Weaver



A Distinctively American Art Form DEPARTMENTS EDITOR'S COLUMN






















Cover; George Washington and his Friends; Howard Finster; Enamel on wood cutout; 48 x 32/ 1 2"; Collection of Jamestown-Yorktown Educational Trust, Yorktown, Virginia.

The Clarion is published four times a year by the Museum of American Folk Art,61 West62nd Sreet, NY,NY 10023,212/977-7170. Telecopier 212/977-8134. Annual subscription rate for members is included in membership dues. Copies are mailed to all members. Single copy $4.50. Published and copyright 1989 by the Museum of American Folk Art,61 West62nd Street, NY,NY 10023. The cover and contents of The Clarion are fully protected by copyright and may not be reproduced in any manner without written consent. Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those ofthe Museum of American Folk Art. Unsolicited manuscripts or photographs should be accompanied by return postage. The Clarion assumes no responsibility for the loss or damage ofsuch materials. Change of Address: please send both old and new addresses and allow five weeks for change. Advertising: The Clarion accepts advertisements only from advertisers whose reputation is recognized in the trade, but despite the care with which the advertising department screens photographs and texts submitted by its advertisers, it cannot guarantee the unquestionable authenticity of objects or quality of services advertised in its pages or offered for sale by its advertisers, nor can it accept responsiblity for misunderstandings that may arise from the purchase or sale of objects or services advertised in its pages. The Museum is dedicated to the exhibition and interpretation of folk art and feels it is a violation of its principles to be involved in or to appear to be involved in the sale of works of art. For this reason, the Museum will not knowingly accept advertisements for The Clarion which illustrate or describe objects that have been exhibited at the Museum within one year of the placing of the advertisement. Fall 1989


THE CLARION Royal Robertson (1930PO.


chtiogRisaiAt/-2N/3 CII;ZASI

Didi Barrett, Editor and Publisher Willa S. Rosenberg, Acting Editor and Publisher Faye H. Eng, Anthony T. Yee,Art Directors Marilyn Breclmer, Advertising Manager Hildegard 0. Vetter, Production Manager Craftsmen Litho,Printers Nassau Typographers, Typesetters

MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART Administration Dr. Robert Bishop, Director Gerard C. Wertkin, Assistant Director Cheryl Hoenemeyer, Controller Deborah de Bauernfeind, Assistant to the Director Mary Ziegler, Administrative Assistant Jeff Sassoon, Junior Accountant Barry Gallo, Reception Luis Fernandez, Manager, Mailroom and Maintenance Collections & Exhibitions Elizabeth V. Warren, Curator Michael McManus,Director ofExhibitions Ann-Marie Reilly, Registrar Karen S. Schuster, Director ofthe Eva and Morris Feld Gallery Catherine Fulcushima, Assistant Gallery Director Stacy C. Hollander, Assistant Curator ofCollections Diane Wittner, Assistant Gallery Director Mary Black, Consulting Curator Lee Kogan, Senior Research Fellow

"Warlock," mixed media on poster paper, 28" x 22"

CONTEMPORARY SOUTHERN FOLK ART Representing: David Butler Rev. Howard Finster Clementine Hunter Rev. McKendree Long Sr. Gertrude Morgan Jimmie Lee Sudduth and many other important Southern artists

GASPERI GALLERY 320 JULIA STREET • NEW ORLEANS, LA 70130 (504) 524-9373 10

Departments Didi Barrett, Director ofPublications Beth Bergin, Membership Director Marie S. DiMatmo,Director ofMuseum Shops Susan Flamm,Public Relations Director Alice J. Hoffman,Director ofArt Services/Licensing and Home Furnishings Johleen D. Nester, Director ofDevelopment Willa S. Rosenberg, Acting Director ofPublications Edith C. Wise,Director ofLibrary Services Egle Victoria Zygas, Curator ofEducation Janey Fire, Karla Friedlich, Photographic Services Chris Cappiello, Membership Associate Eileen Jear, Development Associate Programs Barbara W. Cate, Director, Folk ArtInstitute Phyllis A. Tepper,Registrar, Folk ArtInstitute Dr. Marilyn Karp, Director, New York University Master's and Ph.D. Program in Folk Art Studies Dr. Judith Reiter Weissman, Coordinator, New York University Program Cathy Rasmussen,Director ofSpecial Projects Irma J. Shore, Director, Access to Art Eugene P. Sheehy, Museum Bibliographer Mary Linda Zonana, Coordinator, DocentPrograms Museum Shop Staff Dorothy Gargiulo, Caroline Hohenrath, Sally O'Day, Rita Pollitt, Managers Karen Williams Johnson, Mail Order, Laura Aswad, Judy Baker, Sheila Carlisle, Elizabeth Cassidy, Muriel Chusid, Sally Elfant, Annette Ellis, Millie Gladstone, Elli Gordon, Carol Hauser, Marci Holden, Sunday Holm-Powell, Eleanor Katz, Annette Levande, Dorothy Lichtman, Katie McAuliffe, Nancy Mayer, Sandra Miller, Theresa Naglack, Pat Pancer, Marie Peluso, Colette Pollitt, Frances Rojack, Erika Sanders, Phyllis Selnick, Myra Shaskan, Rose Silece, Kathleen Spear, Maxine Spiegel, Doris Stack, Karen Taber, Mary Walmsly, Gina Westby, Doris Wolfson. Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shops 62 West 50th Street New York, NY 10012 212/247-5611 Two Lincoln Square(Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th) New York, NY 10023 212/496-2966 The Clarion

EDITOR'S COLUMN DIDI BARRETT The Museum of American Folk Art enters the 1989 Fall season with an abundant array of educational programs, Folk Art Institute classes, Explorers' Club trips and special events. See Museum News, on page 86 for a full rundown of these activities. Equally rich is the Museum's exhibition schedule for the Fall. In the Museum's new Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square, two significant exhibitions open to the public on Thursday, September 21, 1989. "Access to Art: Bringing Folk Art Closer" is the first exhibition developed under the Museum's groundbreaking program, Access to Arts,committed to making art accessible to the visually impaired visitor. Featuring major loans from Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC; National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution; National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution; The Philadelphia Museum of Art; The

Phillips Collection, Washington, DC; and The Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, "Always in 'Rifle: Music in American Folk Art" highlights music and musical instruments as depicted in American folk art from the eighteenth century to the present. In addition to these two exhibitions, the Museum opens a major retrospective of the work of Reverend Howard Finster at the PaineWebber Art Gallery, in New York City, on September 21, 1989. Finster, perhaps the best known living American folk artist, is, in fact, a self-taught performance artist — part preacher, teacher, musician, and part raconteur, his art is an engaging but serious vehicle for his messages. An excerpt appears in this issue from the upcoming book Howard Finster: Man of Visions, by author and Guest Curator John'Rimer. Another article, "The New Year's Cake Print:' is also tied to an upcoming Museum exhibition. It has been written by William Woys Weaver, a prominent

food historian, and Guest Curator of "America Eats: Folk Art and Food" scheduled to open at the Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square on December 7, 1989. Also in this issue are two important articles on new areas of research in American folk art. Denver-based Jean Afton has spent many years studying the Dog Soldier Ledger Book now on display at the Colorado History Museum in Denver. Her research is leading to new understanding of the remarkable Plains Indian ledger book drawings, more examples of which are being discovered all the time. In an article which complements work on African-American quilt traditions by Dr. Maude Wahlman, recently published in The Clarion, quilt scholar Barbara Brackman reports her findings that strip quilts have a European-American history as well. Also of note in this issue is a salute to the late Esther Ipp Schwartz, a special Museum friend.

New York City's largest and most exciting selection of antique quilts for collectors, corporations and country-philes. Coverlets, paisleys, marseilles spreads, Beacon and Pendleton blankets, hooked rugs, Amish shawls,vintage decorative accessories and American folk art,too. Make it a stop on your next New York visit. Unique African-American "strip" quilt, pieced of trouser cuffs; made by Viola Daniels, McDade Plantation, Bossier Parrish, Louisiana, c. 1940.

Fall 1989

1050 Second Avenue, Gallery 57, New York, NY 10022 (212)838-2596 or by appointment(212)866-6033 Monday-Saturday 11-30-5:30 II

•h " bright efame,lei, Cookie, ef the, e, ' • Around thy splendid Car, the smiling Hour, truirun"idlin, aenutl—and reillome the face ofNature with thy refulgent beliiii;,& hafil thcArch offluven banish night.

Fine American Furniture, Silver, Folk Art and Decorative Arts Auction to be held Saturday, October 21 at 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. in our galleries at 502 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10022. Viewing begins October 14. For further information please contact Dean Failey, Jeanne Sloane or John Hays (212/546-1181). For catalogues telephone 718/784-1480. American School, probably Massachusetts, 1818-1822, Aurora, / 2in. watercolor and gold collage on silk with paper label, 21 x 241 Sold at Christie's New York, June 3, 1989 for $374,000.







NYC•NY• 10 013 • • ts',

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111111r:.11rilltilla We are pleased to announce a one-man show, the work of William L. Hawkins, September 16 to October 21, 1989 in collaboration with Edward Thorp Gallery, 103 Prince Street, NYC. Appointments are suggested 212.505.1463 Please note above the new gallery address

William L. Hawkins. "Huntington Bank" Enamel on masonite. 1989. 72"H x 48"W.

at West Townsend &Joslin Tavern Antique Associates at West Townsend

Antique Associates atJoslin Tavern

473 Main Street West Townsend, Massachusetts 01474 (508) 597-8084 In Massachusetts 1-800-828-SALE Out Of State

519 Main Street West Townsend, Massachusetts 01474 (508) 597-2330 In Massachusetts 1-800-562-SOLD Out Of State

Early American Riding Toy Fine original paint and striping, circa 1820-1840. 33" long by 24" high.

in merchandise. in dealers, in service. Americas' Finest Multiple Dealer ShopsIntense

competition has a way ofbringing out the best...



388 BLEECKER ST., NYC 10014, 212 645-5037


Attributed to William Jennys (fl. ca. 1795-1805)and/or RichardJennys(fl. ca. 1783-1799),John Noble Cumming and Sarah Hedden Cumming and their Children:a Pair ofPOrtraits, oil on canvas,32 by 24114 inches. Auction estimate:$25,000-40,000.

Important American Furniture and Folk Art including Hudson River Paintings from the Collection of Maitland Lee Griggs Auction:Friday, October 13 at 2 pm and Saturday, October 14 at 10:15 am and 2 pm. Exhibition: Opens Saturday,October 7 at 1 pm. Illustrated catalogues: Sale code 5905.To order with a credit card, please call (800)752-5686.In New York State, call(212)628-4604/4616. Inquiries:Folk Art, Nancy Druckman,(212)606-7225;Furniture, Leslie Keno or William W.Stahl,Jr.,(212)606-7130. Sotheby's,1334 York Avenue,New York, NY 10021.



FOUNDED 1744 C Sotheby's,Inc., 1989 John L.. Marion, principal auctioneer, #524728


ERICA*HURRAH 766 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK N.Y.10021 • 212-535-1930


Designed and drawn by Ralph Wright of Wenona,Illinois, and embroidered and quilted by Belle and Irma Wright in 1910. The detail on the right gives a feeling of the extraordinary quality of the embroidery and the accuracy of the Indian costume details. The yellow background and sashwork are filled with pictorial quilting. 102" x 84"



H .



766 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK, N.Y. 10021 • 212-535-1930

Unique Amish Abstract Quilt. Sommerset Co., Pennsylvania, made by Annie Yoder, c. 1918. 78" x 72':


Hooked Rug on burlap dated "Jan. 10,19117 40" x 29'.'



766 MADISON AVENUE • NEW YORK, N.Y 10021 • 212-535-1930




/ 11 -"IM111 71\111111111111111111111111, 7 Navajo Third Phase Chief Blanket c. 1885. 48" x 70'.'



idr_dr dr

30 EAST 76TH STREET, NEW YORK, NY 10021 212-439-6100



Winthrop Chandler(1747-1790). A double porthole portrait of Maly and Lucy Gay ofSuffield, Connecticut, 1776. 271 / 2 x 44 inches.

An exhibition of eighteenth and early nineteenth century folk paintings by Winthrop Chandler Rufus Hathaway,John Brewster,Jr., Reuben Moulthrop, Samuel Broadbent, Ammi Phillips and others.

September 14-November 4

Color-illustrated catalogue is available .$25.00 postage paid.



Edith C. Wise, the Museum librarian, with remarkable skill, patience, and diligence, is finally totally unpacked from our recent move to 61 West 62nd Street. One of the best folk art libraries in the world is now available for your use. Our gracious, comfortable facility is a substantial pride to everyone at the Museum. Eugene P. Sheehy, who produced the Bibliograpy of American Folk Art for the Year 1987, is actively working on a similar publication for 1988. Should you know of material that might be too obscure for us to have discovered and that would enhance the project, please write Gene at the Library. Some months ago I began to look at the work of J. Cooper, a well-known artist who produced a substantial body of portraits either in America or in England for the American market during the early eighteenth century. It was at this time that I realized Mary Black, former Director of the Museum of American Folk Art and since 1982 our Consulting Curator, in addition to producing a substantial number of books, has penned a remarkable body of articles, many of which provide the basic information for Colonial paintings and especially Hudson Valley paintings of the first half of the eighteenth century. I would like to call your attention to these articles below for they provide a source of information which is simply not available elsewhere. Most of these articles are available in the Museum Library.

Folk Art, edited by Jean Lipman, New York: McGrawHill, 1963 "Ammi Phillips, 'The Country Painter's Method: The Clarion (Winter 1986) "At Home in Brooklyn째 catalogue of an exhibition of photographs by Dinanda Nooney at the Brooklyn Historical Society, 1985 "At the Sign of Gabriel, Flag, or Indian Chief: Curator, Vol. IX, No. 2(1966) Beyond the Golden Door, A Brief History ofJewish Life in New York, 1654-1977, Tel Aviv, Israel: Beth Hatefutsoth, 1978 "The Case Reviewed; Arts in Virginia, Vol X, No. 1 (Fall 1969) City ofPromise, Aspects ofJewish Life in New York, 1654-1970, an exhibition at the N-YHS, sponsored by Central Synagogue, New York: Harry Abrams, 1971 "Collectors: Edgar and Bernice Garbisch; Art in America, Vol. LVII, No. 3(May-June 1969) and reprinted in The Collector in America, edited by Jean Lipman, New York: Viking Press, 1970 "Contributions Toward a History of Early Eighteenth-Century New York Portraiture: The Identification of the Aetatis Suae and Wendell Limners; American Art Journal, Vol. XII, No. 4(Autumn 1980)(Winner of American Art Journal Award for best article of that year) "Edward Hicks, 1780-1849, A Special Exhibition Devoted to His Life and Work:(Introduction by Alice Ford), Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Collection, 1963 "Erastus Salisbury Field; Art in America, Vol. LIV, No. 2 (1963) "Erastus Salisbury Field, 1805-1900, A Special Exhibition Devoted to His Life and Work: Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Collection, 1963 "Folk Art in the City: Status, Vol. XIV, No. 9 "A Folk Art Whodunit: Art in America, Vol LIII, No. 3 (1965) "Four Children's Portraits by Ammi Phillips: The Clarion (Winter 1985)

"American Folk Sculpture: Craft Horizons, Vol. XXVI, No. 4(July-August 1966)

"'John Bradley From Great Britton:" (with Stuart Feld) Antiques, Vol. XC, No. 4(October 1966) "Tracking Down John Watson: American Arts and Antiques, Vol. II, No. 2(September/October 1979) "A Little Child Shall Lead Them;Arts in Virginia, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Fall, 1960) "A Museum for American Folk Art: Curator, Vol. II, No. 4 (1959) "The Painting Collection at Boscobel: in Federal Furniture and Decorative Arts at Boscobel, by Berry Tracy. New York: Harry Abrams, 1981 "Phrenological Associations, Notes to the Biographies of Two Folk Artists; The Clarion,(Autumn 1984) "Pieter Vanderlyn and Other Limners of the Upper Hudson: in American Painting to 1776: A Reappraisal, edited by Ian Quimby, Winterthur Museum,1971 째A Quinquennial Report; Curator, Vol. XII, No. 2(1969) "Remembrance of Patria: exhibition leaflet, Albany Institute of History and Art, 1986 "Remembrances of the Dutch Homeland in Early New York Provincial Painting: in New World Dutch Studies, Dutch Arts and Culture in Colonial America, 1609-1776, edited by Roderic Blackburn and Nancy Kelley, Albany: Albany Institute of History and Art, 1987 "Shaker Inspirational Drawings; Renwick Gallary, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1974 "Two Painters: Itinerants in New York and New England; in Itinerancy in New England and New York, edited by Peter Benes. Boston: Boston University, 1986 "Virginia Folk Painting: Arts in Virginia, Vol. XII, No. 1 (Fall 1971) "The Voice of the Folk Artist; in The Folk Artist in America, compiled by the editors and published by Art in America, 1967 "A Wooden Parade; American Heritage, Vol XXI, No. 1 (December 1969) Several Introductions to books by other authors

"American Naive Painting from the Collection of Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch: Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1985

Four Essays: "Erastus Salisbury Field; "Jacob Maentel: "Ammi Phillips; "Pieter Vanderlyn; in American Folk Painters of Three Centuries, edited by Tom Armstrong and Jean Lipman, New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1980

"American Primitive Watercolors: Art in America, Vol. LI, No. 4(1963) and in What is American in American

"The Gansevoort Limner째 Antiques, Vol. XCVI, No. 5 (November 1969)

Fall 1989

"Traces of Jacob Maentel; biographical essay, in Jacob Maentel in Indiana, Evansville Museum of Science and Art, Evansville, Indiana, 1989

From time to time in future issues of The Clarion,I will be singling out other well-known scholars in the field and offering a similar presentation for your reference.




Ltlubstiou ItotasOtt .p An American Sampler: Folk Art from the Shelburne Museum, a traveling exhibition featuring 120 pieces from this outstanding collection, stops in New York City. Plans include lectures, workshops, performances of traditional New York tales, music and an evening of wine tasting. October 3 to January 7, 1990. New York Historical Society, tel. 212/873-3400 ext. 246... Unto The Hills, an exhibition of folk art made by rural Kentucky artists sponsored by the University of Richmond and the Folk Art Society of America, includes work of those "with nothing but an imaginative mind

and a drive to create!' November 1-22. Marsh Gallery, University of Richmond. Tel. Curators Ann Oppenhimer, John Morgan 804/355-6709... Exhibition curators Holly Metz and Robert Foster have researched and documented existing and dismantled outdoor folk art environments in New Jersey and present their material through photographs, documents and artifacts. An all-day Symposium, Grassroots Art: Past, Present and Future, is planned for October 21. "Two Arks, A Palace,Some Robots, and Mr. Freedom's Fabulous Fifty Acres: Grassroots Art in Twelve New Jersey Commu-

nities" is on view through November 25 at the Jersey City Museum, tel. 201/547-4514... The American Craft Museum will host two exhibitions this fall relating to containers — The Tactile Vessel: New Basket Forms organized by the Erie Art Museum, Erie, PA, includes 32 contemporary artists' baskets from their collection and runs through November 12; George Ohr: Portrait of an American Potter is a retrospective exhibition of 75-100 clay vessels created by the artist between 1885 and 1907 and runs through January 7, 1990. American Craft Museum, New York, NY,tel. 212/956-3535...

4ftitt hews kis Att Ovel. The American Quilter's Society has developed an Appraiser Certification Program qualifying graduates to evaluate

quilts and quilted textiles in response to the needs of quiltmakers and collectors for valid insurance appraisals. For a

list of certified appraisers, and information on how to become certified, send a self-addressed stamped envelope to AQS Appraiser Program, Box 3290, Paducah, KY 42002... The Manhattan Quilters' Guild will exhibit recent works by members who were inspired by their urban landscape. October 11 to November 3. The Arsenal Gallery,64th Street and Fifth Avenue, New York City, tel. 212/799-3321...

Regatta Day; Karen Berkenftld; New York;1989;44 x This quilt depicting afavorite New York scene will be exhibited at the Arsenal Gallery.


The second annual Sunbonnet Family Quilt Block Contest is under way and will be accepting entries until September 15, 1990. For more information contact Groves Publishing Company, Attn: Dorothymae, Box 5370, Kansas City, MO 64131, tel. 800/373-1528.

Boy with Finch; Attributed to John Brewster, Jr.; New England or New York State; Circa 1800; Oil on canvas;39x 24" unframed; Courtesy ofAbby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Williamsburg, Virginia.

The National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, plans to exhibit Men and Women: A History of Costume, Gender and Power, which will examine standards of appearance established for males and females in American culture, through December 31, 1990. Plains Indian Arts: Continuity and Change, will explore the relationships between nineteenth-century and contemporary examples of Plains Indian arts — showing old next to new. Organized by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Services and the National Museum of Natural History, the exhibition will be at The Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH,October 14-December 10. The National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, will exhibit Treasures of American Folk Art from the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center from November 22 through February 18, 1990. Organized by the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center in The Clarion



Williamsburg, VA, this major presentation includes American folk art objects created during the last three centuries. The catalogue accompanying this exhibition is reviewed on page 68 in this issue of The Clarion. The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, tel. 202/357-2627... Building the City Beautiful: The Benjamin Franklin Parkway and the Philadelphia Museum of Art, an exhibition that documents Philadelphia's ambitious contribution to city planning, runs through November 6. The annual Park House Christmas Tours, whose theme is "A Quilter's Christmas;' will view seven historic Fairmount Park houses from December 1-10. Philadelphia Museum of Art, tel. 215/763-8100...

enable visitors to view early American Christmas customs in period room surroundings. Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts, Winston-Salem, NC,tel. 919/721-7360... Cape May New Jersey's annual Victorian Week Celebration will present historic house tours, shows of fashion, antiques and crafts, and many other festive events from October6-15. Mid-Atlantic Centerfor the Arts, tel. 609/884-5404... Commemorating the anniversaries of the two New York World's Fairs, Remembering the Future: The New York World's Fairs from 1939 to 1964 will focus on the history, art and architecture of the Fairs by recreating key exhibits. Through December 31, 1990. The Queens Museum, Flushing, NY,tel. 718/592-2405...

Yuletide in the Early South, running December 9-17, will

Rare pair of pictorial American Samplers, mid 19th century. Executed in wool and silk on linen. Original frames. 12" x 12"



Americana Period Furniture -Fine Quilts• Folk Art 936 Pine Street Philadelphia Pennsylvania 19107 215627-7797 The Free Library of Philadelphia; Courtesy ofthe Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Fall 1989


Cookset *tows Opeiss The recent popularity of carousel art prompted the opening of the New England Carousel Museum at 95 Riverside Avenue, Bristol, CT, on May 20. Open Monday through Friday 1-5 p.m. and Saturday and Sun-

day 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., it features over 300 examples of carousel art and memorabilia dating from 1880 displayed in a spacious renovated Victorian textile mill. Tel. 203/585-5411.

I Iifl,V STP

THE QUILT GALLERY 1611 montana ave. santa monica, ca 90403 213 393 1148 antique quilts, hooked rugs, folk and primitive art, american paintings Lead Horse; Carved by M.C.Illions of Coney Island, New York;1910;Restored by Bill Finkenstein.

Pistoy Towes Piebissiea Colonial Williamsburg's third annual history forum is scheduled November 2-4 and will examine the social and economic problems confronting the United States in the first half century following its indepen-

dence from Great Britain. Special tours of the Historic Area and evening programs are included. Colonial Williamsburg, Williamsburg, VA, tel. 804/220-7255.

emit attb fotk othit lituseuitt 71440 hew facility The Craft & Folk Art Museum closed its doors on Wilshire Boulevard in Los Angeles, CA, on June 30 and announced plans to construct a new mixed-use building on this site to house the museum and its growing collection of folk art, contemporary 24

crafts, design and architecture. The project is scheduled for completion in 1992. In the interim, the Museum's temporary home will be in the landmark Wilshire/Fairfax store of the May Company of California. Tel. 213/937-5544. The



Estimate Upon Request

Former Collection of Robert Laurent Exhibited: Masterpieces of American Folk Art at the Monmouth Museum, Lincroft, New Jersey September 30th - November 29th, 1975

This Painting Will be Featured on November 4th, 1989, in a Major Auction of Fine Paintings and Sculpture. Consignments still being accepted Call or write for an illustrated brochure Illustrated catalog $20($30 Outside USA) Oliver's PO Box 337, US Route 1, Plaza 1 Kennebunlc, ME 04043

TEL: 207-985-3600 FAX:207-985-7734



1 2


4 1

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For details, or a complete list of 100 investment quality decoys: Russ Goldberger P.O. Box 13410 Pittsburgh, PA 15243 412-341-6391 Left to right: Great horned owl and clutched crow by Herter's; Mason Challenge Grade blackduck; black-bellied plover by A. Elmer Crowell, Cape Cod; eider by Augustus Wilson (one of a pair), Maine; and a redbreasted merganser drake, also by Wilson. All are in exceptional original condition.


uilts & Country Antiques

12300 Glen Road Potomac, MD 20854 (Near Wash!



Detail of quilt made for a minister by members of his congregation. kYhtbitine at Sanford Smith'., Antiques at the Pier. New York City. October 19-22

Important American Fireboard Eighteenth century. 34 x 48 inches


ne Pratt 25, Forest SHNIO, Marlboro, Mass.01752 (508)481-2917 40 minutes from Boston AMERICAN ANTIQUES




2661 Cedar Street Berkeley, California 94708 415/845-4949


We specialize in exceptional 18th-20th Century handmade objects. Our extensive selection of quilts, carved canes, tramp art, folk paintings and sculpture are available for viewing. Phone for exhibit information, hours or appointment.

Eddie Arning. LEOPARD




2017 QUE ST. N.W. WASHINGTON D.C. 20009 202-332-5652 JAKE McCORD, WOMAN AND DOG, 1989, HOUSE PAINT ON PLYWOOD, 48x60"

Peacock on the pump house is this traditional scene of cotton and wool rag on burlap, circa 1900, 73" x 25".

Ikt-june Cdinaet rkIt P.O. Box 1653 • Alexandria, Virginia 22313 •(703) 329-8612 28

EPSTEIN/POWELL 22 Wooster St., New York, N.Y. 10013 By Appointment(212)226-7316 Jesse Aaron Rifka Angel David Butler William Dawson Charlie Dieter Mr. Eddy Antonio Esteves Howard Finster Victor Joseph Gatto(Estate) S.L.Jones Lawrence Lebduska Justin McCarthy Emma Lee Moss Inez Nathaniel Joe Polinski Old Ironsides Pry Nellie Mae Rowe Jack Savitsky Clarence Stringfield Mose Tolliver Floretta Warfel George Williams Luster Willis and others

Soldiers Training, Miami Beach, WWII

Victor Joseph Gatto

(Oil on Canvas,24"s 30")

MARTHAJACKSON Specializing in 19th and Early 20th Century Quilts Exhibiting In: McLane's Old Greenwich Civic Center Old Greenwich, CT October 21, 22, 1989 Wendy's Italian American Center Stamford, CT December 1,2& 3, 1989

By Appointment Riverside, Connecticut 06878 (203)637-2152

Log Cabin "Straight Furrow" Ohio, Circa 1900-1920

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Pennsylvania, circa 1870. Wool and cotton on burlap. 58 x 32".



THE RAINBOW MAN Bob and Marianne Kapoun 107 E. Palace Avenue Sante Fe, New Mexico 87501 505/982-8706


Guard and the Angel Jon Serl, 1987 Oil on panel 54 X 30"

Focus on Alabama Folk Art We feature fine works by: Mose T., Jimmie Lee Sudduth, Lonnie Holley, Charlie & Annie Lucas, the late Juanita Rogers, and Rev. B.F Perkins Gallery inquiries welcome Photographs of art available


Jimmie Lee Sudduth, Women in Door, 1987, Mud,Sugar and Acrylic on Wood, 24" by 32"






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he Allan Herschel' Polar Bear. The singular landmark piece f that brought to the attention of serious collectors of fine American carvings the significance of the carousel figure. Just one of the 150 vintage figures included in the premiere auction in the carousel field to be conducted in New York's Pier 88 on December 16.


To learn more about the bear, other menagerie animals and grand, grand horses by Dentzel, Carmel, 'Mons, Muller and significant others, please contact Guernsey's at 212-794-2280, FAX 212744-3638 or 136 East 73rd Street, New York, NY 10021. The comprehensive catalogue ($28) will also include a fine selection of cigar store Indians and other interesting American carvings to be sold during this auction.


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November 13,1989-January 6,1990

Grandma Moses The Last in a Series of Exhibitions Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Galerie St. Etienne Tuesday-Saturday 11-5

Galerie St.Etienne 24 West 57th Street New York, New York 10019 (212) 245-6734 Grandma Moses. Sugaring Off. 1940. Oil on pressed wood. Copyright0 1989, Grandma Moses Properties Co., New York.



Figural folk sculpture with elongated abstracted form. Ht. 25 inches

596 BROADWAY NY NY 10012 AARNE ANTON 212 窶「 966 窶「 1530 Mon窶認ri 10-6 Sat 10-5 Early American and Outsider Art

Sandstone woman Ohio. Ht. 17 inches Photos: Steven Tucker

. 4° ' 1676 4 6 w:Atiatat

Important Applique Quilt Southern Tier, New York State, circa 1850. Literature: Somewhere in Between: Quilts and Quilters ofIllinois; Rita Barber.

The Clokeys *


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"Branching Out", 1989, matchsticks and natural dyes.

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E. "Popeye" Reed untitled, 1982 grey sandstone 11" X 81 / 2" X 8"

Sale of Hats Contemporary Folk Art by appointment 143 West 21st Street #5 New York, New York 10011 212-727-9578

The only gallery in New York featuring rare decoys, and some "not so rare."

Rare white wing scoter by Civil War Medal of Honor winner Albert Terry, circa 1850-70. In 1970, twenty-three of his decoys were found under his home in Riverhead, Long Island. The initials "A.T." are carved in the bottom.

-10 0

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All major credit cards accepted. 37

Above, "This is me goingfrom city to city preaching in 1937. I was also pastoring three churches at this time and preaching on WGTA Radio.' Below, "Baptizing every other one with my preacherfriend Floyd Crow. These were thefirst members ofthe Moon Lake Baptist Church in Little Rock at Mentone, Alabama, in the early 1940s."


The Clarion


HOWARD FINSTER In 1976, at the age of sixty, Howard Finster was divinely inspired to pick up a paintbrush and can of tractor enamel to "paint sacred art:' Painting passages from the Bible on masonite from the backs of old television sets, the Reverend made primitive renderings which reflected the fire and brimstone sermons he gave as a revivalist, when he traveled the South on a mission to save as many souls as possible. These "sermons in paint" became ornaments and "signposts to salvation:' wired to the fence, trees and display buildings in his "Paradise Garden" (a three-acre environment in the backyard of his home in Summerville, Georgia). The Garden, started in 1961, as a combination roadside attraction and Bible park, was built by Finster to lure in the sinners and the saved alike to audience the hourly sermons of salvation by the "painting preacher!' As if inspired by the Sherwin Williams paint slogan "cover the earth;' Finster painted obsessively roundthe-clock to get his messages out — completing two and three paintings a day. Fearlessly, he worked in as many materials as he could salvage, using wood, metal and plastic to create astounding sculpture and found-object assemblage. Although Finster says "I started as a baby in art;' his vocabulary as an artist grew rapidly. From the early Bible paintings, he expanded his subjects to include cultural icons like Henry Ford, Elvis Presley and George Washington. Finster's paintings have a direct quality, touched with humor, which caught the eye of a young and ever-growing audience. His paintings, which now number in the ten thousands, have found their way into countless newspapers and magazines like Life, The New York Times and Rolling Stone. Finster's paintings have been exhibited at the Venice Biennale, the National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, the White House and Fall 1989


Self Portrait — My Brain is Like a Wirehouse; 1980;Ink on paper;Collection ofMarion Boulton Stroud.

numerous university and gallery shows throughout the country. His position as the best-known twentieth-century selftaught artist was assured after an appearance on the Johnny Carson Show in 1983 and a painting, commissioned by the Talking Heads, that was used as the cover art for their album, "Little Creatures;' released in 1985. Following are excerpts from the forthcoming book Howard Finster: Man of Visions by LE Turner;copyright © 1989 by J.F. limner; to be published by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. "My name, Howard, is a rare name.

You don't find it in the Bible.I was born December 2nd in Valley Head, Alabama, about twelve miles north of Fort Payne. My Mother told me I was born in 1916, but maybe it was 1915. There was thirteen of us children. I was the last child home. My Dady (Samuel) was a lumberjack and owned a steampower sawmill. He cut timber and built our own colonial home. My Mother made our bed quilts and I only had flour-sack diapers when I was a baby. I remember just about everything since I was about a year old. The only thing I can't remember is when I first nursed. They didn't have bottles back in them days. Babies nursed their Mothers. I can remember when I was kinda being weaned off the breast but I can't remember when I started on the breast. "My Mother (Lulu) was a Christian but my father was a sinner. He would not even go to church, and when good people would come to our house from the church, Dady would dart out the back door and and go to the woods. One night my Dady took the old truck and loaded us all up and drove us to Lee's Chapel Baptist Church to a big revival, but he would not go in the church. And that night Preacher Harrison, a young preacher, was there from Rome, and I looked and Richard Phillips, my schoolteacher, was in the quire and I made my way to the quire and sat down by the teacher. He was the first one I told about my calling. I said, 'Brother Philips, I have been called to preach: After the service began, they heard a voice sound out. It was my schoolteacher. He said 'Folks, I have an announcement to make. Tonight, Howard Finster is called to preach: No one there laughed about it. In fact, they took it seriously, and he said, 'Howard will confess his calling tonight: and then I stood up behind that sacred desk and began to speak. From then on I felt like I was a preacher. I felt like I had begun and also finished my preaching because such a big load was gone. But I 39


was really beginning the most greatest calling there was. "I love all people. I communicate with people. Sinners are my favorite people because they are the people I would like to win for God. I wasn't called to the righteous. I was called to the sinners. I like to preach to the sinners world. Since I don't condemn no kind of religion, I have all kinds of people to talk to. "The Riegel Mill, where I worked (1942), told me I would have to work on Sundays. I told them I had two community appointments on Sunday at Chapel Hill and Sunday nights at Hanson Church and that the young people depended on me to speak regular so that I couldn't work in the plant on Sunday. They said ifI didn't come in on Sunday not to come in on Monday. So I didn't go in on Sunday. I served my churches and the mill fired me and put on my seperation papers, 'This employee would not work on Sundays: That's all they had against me. I went home and set up a woodshop in my yard and began to build screen windows and doors. Before long I was making more money than I did in the mill and still preaching. So God took care of me. "In 1944, Floyd Crow, we were halfer and halfers(partners), and I ran a revival. He was a Methodist and I was a Baptist. We both worked in the plant in the daytime and did revivals in the evenings after getting off work. We went all around Georgia with our portable tent and portable chairs. Some nights we got two hundred and fifty to one thousand and five hundred people. One night we got forty converts. We made handbills to get exposure for our revivals. We had special singers, quartets, and duets, and I played the piano and the organ. We'd start the service at seven and go till midnight and at one old mill town we started a second service at midnight when they came off shift. "I was called to a city church as 40

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Above, An inventive and inexpensive press Finster used to "get the messages out"; Ink on scrap paper; 4 x 3"; Collection of J.F. Turner. Below, First Book of Poems;1945;5 x 8". Over the years, Finster has self-published several books and pamphlets ofhis work.

pastor which paid a fair salary. I organized a midweek Bible class for the children and taught them myself. I used to teach on a blackboard. I called it 'chalkwork: If I was telling a story on faith, I would draw a little wheat seed and stalk and maybe a little grave. I had to teach the kids about the Bible and this is how I did it. I'd draw different things like maybe I'd draw a cross and put a fence around it saying 'You can't get to Hell without getting over this cross: Or I'd write, 'No way to get to Hell without going over Mother's prayers: I would write the word 'prayer' on the blackboard and then draw somebody stepping over Mothers prayers. My chalk art was just images and discussions!' The genesis of Howard Finster's art is this chalkwork. He may also have been influenced by earlier exposure to Baptist "preaching diagrams!' Artist Eleanor Dickinson has documented rural southern preachers, including Howard Finster, for over twenty years.

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Jest,. our Savior, en CalvarYs Eodored His suffering for you and me.

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' Fur a minute of time, may we think just t • • How Jesus was. at thirst on Calvary's tiro, Tito' sPrings of water throughout this ear, . But none wall 'FiWeil to quench His thirst Instead of water, the vinegar wa.s placed. Upon a hyssop before His face.


Not only for thirst did He have to bear: Just think of those spikes that held Hint up three. Through His dear feet and His precious hands. May you think just now how He suffered for man. Not only His thirst and the nails that went through Just think of the crown that He had to wear, too. The the: crown of thorns were pushed down on Hen head Net an angry word front Him was said. Net only His thirst. the nails. and the crown: Just think of the spear that was pushed from the Tito' a man on the ground, with a spear in his lee. Did not he thrust it in to the son of man" rho' He suffered the cross, the Lamb wit hum Upon His venture they did east lots.

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They spit in His face and mocked Him, too Oh, may you see clearly how He suffered for y If you are lost, be honest to Christ. lie suffered for you, a chance in thislift




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The Clarion

Falls of Eternal Despair (Teaching Diagram); Martin Welk Knapp; Lithograph; 1898; 26 x 32"; Collection ofEleanor Dickinson.

"This lithograph from 1898 is very much the Pilgrim's Progress of the path of the soul through earth to end up in Heaven or Hell. It's a pathway-tosalvation diagram. It's didactic,entirely for teaching, and not meant as some Fall 1989

work of art. I've seen earlier ones that are more ornate. I've seen them in the South in tent revivals and churches. They're not common, but they are not unknown. Most ofthem are done by the preacher. They use materials that don't

last too long, such as chalk, enamel, or colored pencils. Most are cruder, but have the same themes. They usually make them bigger, brighter, and they'll do it to scream to the people, to attract their attention. They might put it on the side of the tent as the theme for the revival and use a different topic every night:' Finster continues, "I was pastoring churches and I couldn't reach very many people. There was only about fifty to seventy-five people that I could reach, unless I was in a revival. The same people came every Sunday. One night when I was pastoring, I asked the congregation what I had preached on that morning. They had forgot what I had preached on that morning from one service to another. I figured ifI done my art enamel and put it out on paintings, if they forgot today, they could remember it tomorrow. Like the Bible says, 'Without a vision the people perish: When they read a line they forget it, but when they see a line and see a picture, that reminds them of it. It presses it deeper into the brain cells. "The Bible has everything in it. There ain't nothing that isn't in the Bible. I may have to hunt for it, but when I find it, I write about it. There's really no big difference in what I paint and what I used to preach. See, I paint my sermons now. Now my art is my church:""When I get a vision, I see the picture first and then I paint it. Jacob, when he had his vision, he wrote it; when I have my visions, I draw them. I have a subject I want to discuss and maybe I'll have a vision of a message. When Jesus tried to get sayings over to people, he used things that people were familiar with. Jesus used that wheat seed that every fool was familiar with. He used that wheat seed because it was familiar to people, and then he brought the Resurrection story out of it. When he used the mustard seed, he brought out the faith story. I use George Washington because he is a familiar aspect in 41

the world. Everybody in the world knows Abe Lincoln and I use him and Washington because the people are familiar with them and when they are looking at them they are getting my vision-message painting. So that is practically like Jesus done!' When Howard paints Washington, he believes he is keeping Washington alive. This is true with many of the heroes he has repeatedly drawn, such as Elvis, Henry Ford, Lindbergh, Uncle Sam, Santa Claus, and Jesus. He has a special affinity for inventors because he feels that they were sent to fulfill God's prophecy, as Edison did when he lit up the world, and as Henry Ford did when he invented the horseless chariot. Howard has always drawn from illustrations or photographs. "It bothers me to look at any living thing and try to draw it. You get a picture of a person and it's not all that much trouble to paint from it!' Once he selects an image (sometimes as small as the face on a postage stamp, or as large as a life-size photograph on a record album), he begins to draw, using a drafting system he designed — placing dots equal distances from the nose, mouth and ears. He then adjusts them to make the image bigger or smaller. Howard feels he can draw just about anybody."You can take a fellow's hairstyle and his nose, mouth and chin, and you pretty well got it. It's the same for a women. The most important is the hairstyle, it shows up more:' Getting a correct rendering could take Howard many attempts and several hours. Once the image is completed to his satisfaction, he creates, in effect, a template, which he calls a "dimension!' from which he can trace as many copies as he chooses. These "dimensions" allow him to juxtapose whatever images suit his purpose for a particular painting, sometimes with astonishing results. Always a practical man, Howard greatly admired the efficiency of Henry Ford's assembly line and applied it to 42



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Christ and the Birds;1977;Enamel on masonite;18 x 24"; Collection ofJ.F. Turner

his own work. His manipulation of his "dimensions!' Bible verses, and original poetry permits him to create thousands of pieces of original art. Howard admits that"I just tried every shortcut I could to try to turn out production, because everything I made sold. When I got going on art, I stayed ninety-five percent behind all the time. I could sell ninety-five percent more of what I sell

Howard Finster: Man of Visions by J.F. Turner is being published by Alfred A. Knopf Inc. in late November. The 256-page book, including 125 color and 78 black-andwhite illustrations, can be ordered from the Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shop, Two Lincoln Square, New York, NY 10023, Attention: Mail Order, Dept. CR,for $40(hardcover) plus $4.50 shipping and handling.

if I had it. Actually I hardly ever get anything to where I think it's finished. I get it where it looks normal as it possibly can and turn it loose as soon as I can. "I start painting, long about ten o'clock in the cool ofthe evening, when everything is quiet, no children running and things is closed up. I drink me a large cup of coffee and can paint for hours sometimes. It's quiet and I meditate. Painting is sorta like preaching. You have to have spiritual inspiration. I paint till just a little before daylight (4:00 a.m.) the next morning. I then sleep six or seven hours and take a few naps during the day, just like Tom Edison. I don't like to sleep. I think it is a waste of time. "I'm constantly doing things nobody else has ever done in the world. Why? Because I have visions from other worlds. I have visions from God. God knows what people want. God knows what people will buy. God knows what The Clarion

will make a hit. I call on God for wisdom and strength, that's all I ask for. I say 'Give me all the divine wisdom you've got, the heck with money: I don't go by ideas or books, I go by visions. I am sure about myself and my work. I am sure about God and Jesus and the Bible. My responsibility is to get the messages out all over the world. "Everything I look at is art. I can look at mountains on TV and I can see great faces that nobody else probably don't notice. I often lay here in my studio and go all over the world on TV to see what people are doing, what they are saying, and what their religion is. I never turn the TV set off in the night time. I like a good wrestling match, historical presentations, and that program on the educational station called "Georgia Geographic!' I learn about everything from TV. I have to look at the TV to see what's going on in the world, and then I have to look at my

visions and see if my visions compare with what's going on in the world. Afterwards, I write messages on the painting about predictions in the Bible that I've seen on TV. "The artists think they have to follow somebody else, but they need to do their own thing, and if they have visions like I do, do their visions. These young artists haven't sacrificed themselves to their art. They haven't dedicated themselves to it, and a lot of artists just make two or three pieces of art and just hang on to it and show it to everybody and never reproduce it. They think they have to have the very best stuff to paint on. I can walk into a junkyard a pauper and paint my way out as a rich man!' As of July 1987, Finster reports, "I've done six thousand, nine hundred and eight works of art and I think two or three hundred of them would be pretty perfect. Eighty-five percent of the paintings are okay and the rest of them

sells as third-class art. First, second, and third. Third is pretty bum up, got crooked buildings on it and the animals aren't too accurate. Most second-class paintings are pretty good paintings. They don't have too much on them and what's on them is scattered. "In 1976 I begin folk art painting and I don't think I will ever quit because I find no end to folk art painting and I don't think no artist on earth found the end of art. I'm an independent individual. I teach my visions and let people look at my visions. My work is for all people. It's not how you get it out there, whether it's a church, a gallery, or whatever it is. A gallery can carry my message out. I haven't painted enough paintings. I doubt I will ever stop. The paintings will get thinner and scarcer. If I have a new vision, it will bring new art. I've got a lot of visions of art that I've never drawn yet:' IF. Turner is a researcher, collector and writer in the field of contemporary folk art. He is Quest Curator for the exhibition"The Road to Heaven is Paved by Good Works: The Art of Reverend Howard Finster',' to be presented by the Museum of American Folk Art and sponsored by Paine Webber Group Inc., which will open September 21, 1989 and run through January 5, 1990 at the PaineWebber Art Gallery, 1285 Avenue of the Americas, New York City. The author is Curator of American Folk Art at the San Francisco Craft and Folk Art Museum. He also works for ABC TV News in San Francisco.

A Stack of Cut-outs in Howard Finster's Studio;January 1988;Collection ofthe Archives ofAmerican Art, Smithsonian Institution. Because ofthe demandfor Finster's work, he often traces "popular hits" from a pattern onto plywood, which he cuts out on ajigsaw before painting. Fall 1989

NOTES 1. "Artist from Another World'? Atlanta Weekly, March 25, 1984, pp 12-17. 2. The sources used for this book include interviews with Howard Finster conducted over a period of thirteen years, as well as Howard's journals, poems, songs, notes, and "thought-cards'? Other sources include his tapes, his self-published book, Howard Finster: Vision of 1982, his newspaper columns, and LP recordings ofhis sermons and stories. Howard will tell his many stories to anyone within earshot who has five minutes or five hours. The stories, like sermons, are well rehearsed. As in the oral tradition of good storytelling, these stories have changed and evolved over years of countless retelling. In some cases, up to four variations of the same story were documented by listening to Howard on tape from 1976 through 1988 and by reading countless articles. For this book I took the earliest versions of each story, and combined it with whatever remained, consistently, throughout the other versions.



The Strip Tradition in European-American Quilts (pinguor :optid

by Barbara Brackman

Original Graphic Strip Quilt(Detail);1890-1920; Collection ofJoyce Whittier. At the end ofthe nineteenth century, when the price ofcotton declined, quiltmakers began to incorporate a wide variety ofprintfabrics into their designs. 44

Like clothing, hairstyles and architecture, quilts follow fashion. Style in quilts has changed over the centuries and from region to region. "Set;' the design structure of a quilt, is an aspect of style that differentiates eighteenthcentury quilts from twentieth-century quilts. Differences in set can also distinguish the quilts made by members of certain communities. The form a quiltmaker uses to structure the patches in her quilt is a matter of individual choice shaped by shared cultural experiences. Over the past 150 years, mainstream American quiltmakers have shown a decided preference for the block set, a grid of square design units, while the Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, the Lakota and the Hawaiians have been more likely, at certain times, to use a medallion set with a central design focus. Pennsylvanians and quilters in some African-American communities have been observed to use a strip set(a repeat organized into long, rectangular units) more often than the mainstream quilters working at the same time. There has been little discussion of the American strip quilt, its popularity, characteristics, and design origins, possibly due to the current dominance of the block set, which is generally seen as "the core of the Euro-American quilt tradition:' as John Michael Vlach wrote in his insightful work on AfricanAmerican strip quilts.' A view of the block quilt as the single standard European-American style ignores the evolutionary character of the American quilt and the centuries-old tradition of a European-American strip quilt. Vlach, like others, passes over mainstream quilts constructed in other formats, mentioning only the nineteenth-century strip quilts of the Amish and Mennonites.' Maude Southwell Wahlman, writing about the strip format among African-American quilters, characterizes the strip set as the oldest style of piecing quilts but only a minor design element in the European-American tradition.' Historians discussing mainstream European-American traditions have also neglected the strip quilt. With the exception of Jonathan Holstein, who called attention to the simThe Clarion

ilarities between Pennsylvania Amish and English strip quilts, the only attention to design sources has been a focus on the relationship of contemporary African-American strip quilts to traditional African textiles, especially to the strip woven cloth of West Africa. The general view is that the strip format and several other design characteristics found in the work of some present-day African-American quilters represent an adaptation of the American block quilt to African-based aesthetics. Vlach noted the analogues between contemporary African-American quilts and African textile traditions, speculating that the quilts exemplify African modifications of European artifacts.' Robert Farris Thompson suggested that the similarities between Mande textiles with their multistrip construction and the rhythmized African-American quilts may represent "resistance to the closures of the Western technocratic way:" Wahlman viewed the AfricanAmerican quilts as New World adaptations of African traditions, a creolization or fusion of international traditions.' Eli Leon has suggested that rather than combining two traditions, African-American quilters may have developed the so-called EuropeanAmerican traditional quilt. Its block format and repeat patterning may be an outgrowth of earlier African aesthetics.' Such theories contrasting the African strip aesthetic and the European-American block aesthetic deny a EuropeanAmerican strip tradition. However, an examination of setting characteristics in American quilts makes the case for a traditional American strip quilt that predated the rise of the block quilt and endured as an alternative design structure in the mainstream quiltmaking culture and in smaller communities. There is no doubt that the block quilt is the paramount American set. Since the mid-nineteenth century when it emerged as the standard, the block format has been a primary characteristic differentiating North American quilts from the traditional quilts of other countries, such as England, Ireland, Wales, and Australia where the framed medallion,the wholecloth quilt, the allover set, and the strip quilt are more Fall 1989

Above, Chained Square; 1825-1850; Collection of Helen F. Spencer Museum of Art, the University of Kansas, The William Bridges Thayer Memorial. Many of the fabrics in this patchwork strip quilt appear to be salvagedfrom clothing orfurnishings. Below, Split Bars; Attributed to a Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Amish maker;1925-1950; Collection ofEsprit. Amish quiltmakers oftenframed theirplain strip quilts with wide borders embellished with quilted designs. 45

common.' Today block patterns make up the majority of the designs in the American quilter's repertoire. In an index of over 4,000 published pieced quilt patterns, most printed between 1880 and 1980, and most designed to be repeated as square blocks, only 16 patterns require a strip set.9 Before the rise of the block style, strip and block sets coexisted as minor styles, secondary to the dominant medallion format. By analyzing surviving quilts and tracking the evolution of quilt design characteristics with a computer file of information drawn from quilts with dates actually inscribed on them it is possible to determine how styles in sets changed. Nine hundred quilts dated between 1750 and 1950 were classified on 14 design characteristics such as color scheme, fabrics, pattern and set. The computer could sort the quilts made in any one style category and print them in chronological order. Patterns of popularity are easily seen in style characteristics like stuffed-work quilting and fringed edges, found on the early quilts in the database but rare after the Civil War (see box). A change in preference for set was also apparent. Set was classified in five ways: block, medallion, allover, strip and other. Block quilts were made up of square design units, usually of the same size, and often of identical pattern, although a sampler of patterns has also been popular at various times. Medallions feature a single large design framed by borders or a large central block surrounded by fields of smaller block-style patchwork. Allover designs are much like tile mosaics with interlocking pieces (hexagons and diamond-shaped units are popular shapes) that are not organized into square units. In the strip set the patchwork is organized into horizontal, vertical or diagonal strips. The simplest form consists of long rectangles of fabric pieced into a striped quilt. Patchwork mosaics or blocks can also be confined in strips that run horizontally, vertically or diagonally. The patchwork strips are often alternated with unpieced strips. In theory any block pattern or all-over pattern can be adapted to a strip format. The category "other" includes idiosyncratic 46

Medallion Set

•• • ••••••••••• ••••••••••• ••••••••••• ••••••••••• ••••••••••• ••••••••••• 0•••••••••• ••••••••••• ••••••••••• ••••••••••• ••••••••••• ••••••••••• ••••••••••• 0•••••••••• ••••••••••• Allover Set

Block Set

Plain Strip Set

Patchwork Strip Set

Fence Rail Set

designs without conventional organization or designs transferred directly from other forms, such as quilts that look like flags or paintings. As might be expected, the literature reveals few surviving American quilts with eighteenth-century dates on them. Of the 16 dated between 1746 and 1799, 13 were classified as medallions,two as block and one as other. Only 13% of the quilts were block style. There were no strip or mosaic sets in the dated eighteenth-century examples. The preference for the medallion set continued through the first thirty years of the nineteenth century. Of 35 quilts dated between 1800 and 1829, 23 medallions, 10 block-style (29%), and one example each of the allover and the strip sets were found. Over the next thirty years the number of surviving, date-inscribed quilts increased significantly as the preference for medallion sets waned. Of 303 quilts made between 1830 and 1859, 250 (83%) were constructed in the block set. Only 46 were made using the medallion set, four in the all-over set and two in the strip set. The preference for block set continues through the decades into the 1940s. If the statistics are broken down decade by decade from 1860 to 1949, the percentage of block style quilts ranges from 64% to 82%,and averages 77%. The year 1840 appears to mark a significant change in quilt styles. In the 1830s, 50% of the quilts were blockstyle; in the 1840s, the percentage jumped to 85%. The shift to a preference for block quilts coincides with a new fashion for friendship or album quilts in which individuals contributed signed blocks for a group quilt. From a historical perspective it is difficult to discern the cause and effect. Did a growing interest in the grid quilt encourage quiltmakers to view each block as a page in an autograph album? Or did the album quilt craze cause quiltmakers to shift to the block format and abandon interest in the medallion construction? The preference for the block set certainly survived the end of the album quilt fad, which faded in intensity around the beginning of the Civil War. Analyzing quilt style using only date-inscribed examples has some limitations. Fewer than 10% of quilts are The Clarion

dated;'' we could assume the 10% also represents the undated quilts were not quilters more likely to put a date on certain types such as friendship and crazy quilts. The most elaborate quilts are apt to be dated; the everyday utility quilts rarely are. Therefore, the database is skewed in favor ofthe fancy quilts, those the quiltmakers meant to survive as keepsakes. Taking into account this limitation, the data indicates that quilters working before 1840 used more setting options than those working after that date. One of their options was the strip set. Although it appeared too infrequently in the database(8 examples — less than 1%) to be useful for drawing conclusions about its popularity at any particular point, the data on date-inscribed examples can be used to support information on the uninscribed examples that survive from the decades before the block quilt became the dominant style. The earliest dated example, featuring nine patches pieced into chintz strips, is inscribed 1817," a date consistent with several examples attributed to the first quarter of the nineteenth century or the last quarter of the eighteenth. Using information from surviving quilts, we can conclude that the style developed around the turn of that century. Pre-Civil War strip quilts, dated and undated, share a number of characteristics. They are usually pieced, rather than appliquÊd; often composed of a variety of multi-colored fabrics rather than of a limited supply of purchased yardage in controlled color schemes. They often contain chintz fabrics (large-scale prints) in either the plain strips or the patchwork. The patchwork is simple; blocks such as nine patches and four patches are turned on point and pieced into stripes. The quilting that holds together the layers of patchwork, batting and backing also tends to be simple rather than elaborate. When compared to most surviving medallion quilts from the era, strip quilts look to have little time and care invested in the patchwork and quilting. It may be that the strip quilts were utility quilts, made of scraps and intended for function, reasons why few survived and why few of those that did were dated. The description is echoed Fall 1989

Above, Chintz Strip Quilt; 1800-1850; Collection of Helen F. Spencer Museum of Art, the University ofKansas, The William Bridges Thayer Memorial. Chintzes alternate with dressprints in a basic strip quilt pattern. Below, Strip Quilt Top; 1900-1925; Collection of Barbara Blackman. Plain strip quilts such as this were not often made ofthe inexpensive calicoes ofthe early twentieth century. 47


Identifying and Dating Antique Quilts

Too few quiltmakers had foresight enough to sign and date their quilts, thus most antique quilts must be dated by an educated guess. To improve the accuracy of such guesses, a computerized analysis of style in date-inscribed quilts was conducted to yield statistical information. Using a hard disk computer with a Database 3 program, data was entered concerning 900 dateinscribed quilts found pictured in twentieth-century literature and seen in museum and private collections. Also included was data on quilts registered in each of three state quilt projects — Quilts of Tennessee, the North Carolina Quilt Project and the Kansas Quilt Project. Each quilt was then analyzed according to four maker characteristics — name, age, city and state — and 14 style characteristics — technique, format, set, style, pattern, function, scale of print fabric, fiber, corners, color scheme, border, edge treatment, quilting and how the date was inscribed on the quilt. Several style characteristics showed clear cutoff points, indicating the beginning of a fashion or its demise. Crazy quilts are an excellent example of a style trend that sprang up rather suddenly. In this sample group, there were 97 dated between 1882 and 1940. Thus, an undated Crazy quilt can be assumed to be from this period after 1880. Signature friendship quilts appeared around 1840 as did all types of quilts in the classic red, green and white color scheme. The wholecloth wool quilt disappeared around 1840; the wholecloth white quilt around 1865, the cut-out chintz appliqué(Broderie Perse) at the same time,replaced by appliquéd designs constructed of plain and calico fabrics, a technique that became fashionable around 1840. The tied patchwork comforter is rare before 1880; the chintz quilt rare after 1865. Patterns also show dates of origin. The Log Cabin appeared in the 1860s; the Wedding Ring in the 1920s;the Fan in the 1880s. It's important to keep in mind that some women continued to make quilts in old-fashioned styles and a few anticipated new trends so there are exceptions, but such statistical information promises to increase the accuracy of quilt dating. To further formulate computerized statistical analysis of style, the following categories were established for Database on quilts with known dates: Date: Second date (some quilts have two dates): Maker's full name: Age when made quilt: City, State: Technique: a: pieced, b: cut-out chintz appliqué, c: conventional appliqué, d: both types of appliqué, e: pieced and cut-out chintz appliqué,f: pieced and conventional applique, g: pieced and both


types of appliqué, h: embroidered,i: foundation pieced,j: pieced and embroidered, k: conventional appliqué and embroidered, 1: cut-out chintz and embroidered, m: stenciled, n: whole cloth, o: other, p: English template piecing; Format: b: block, m: medallion, s: strip, z: mosaic all over, o: other; Set: a: wholecloth, b: alternate plain,c:sashing between,d: set edge to edge,e: four large blocks, f: central vase, g: central tree, h: pictorial, i: different size blocks, h:embroidered in alternate blocks,i: pieced and appliquéd in alternate blocks,z: mosaic all-over set, o: other Function: a: single pattern album, b: album sampler, c: sampler, d:fundraiser, e:charm,f: commemorative,g:show quilt, h: baby quilt, o: other Scale of Fabric: c: calico, h: chintz, b: combination of both, p: plain Fiber: a: silk & wool, b: cotton and wool, c: cotton, d: silk and linen, e: silk and cotton,f: cotton and linen, g: linen and wool, h: linen, silk and cotton, i: cotton, linen, silk and wool,j: rayon & silk, 1: linen, r: rayon, s: silk, w: wool Corners: c: scallop, s: square, t: cut out in a T-shape, o: other Color Scheme: a: red, green & white only, b:red, green & white primarily, c: red and white, d: blue and white,e: pastel,f: black as a color, w: white only, o: other Pattern Name: Date Inscription: a: appliqué, b: stenciled, c: cross stitch, d: painted, e: embroidered (if stitch is unknown), h: chain stitch, i: ink, m:stamped, o: other, p: pieced, q: quilted, r: running stitch, s: satin stitch Border: a: appliquéd swags, b: appliquéd floral vines, c: appliquéd trees, d: appliquéd urns or vases, e: other applique, f: single strip of plain or calico fabric, g: embroidered, h: appliqued and embroidered, i: plain strip of chintz, j: pieced sawtooth, k: appliquéd dog tooth, 1: pieced dog tooth, m: cut-out chintz appliqué, n: none, p: other pieced, r: sashing continued as border, s: two or more strips Edge: b: bound but cannot determine method, e: both back and front turned in, f: fringe, g: rope, h: piping, i: bound with bias strip, k: back over front, p: prairie point, r: ruffle, s: bound with straight grain strip, t: top with no batting or edging, v: front over back, z: tape Quilting: b: double lines, d: tied, f: fancy motifs rather than just utility quilting, h: fan quilting, i: stuffed, 1: triple lines, o: other, p: utility quilting, s: summer spread (unquilted but bound), t: top with no batting or edging Source for information: Quilt owner:

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in one of the few nineteenth-century written references to strip quilts. In 1856, Hannah Anderson Ropes, a Kansas settler from Massachusetts, wrote to her mother of the pleasure she found in unpacking from her immigrant trunk "two quilts of stripped up dresses, done by your hand:"2 Ropes' quilts of salvaged clothing may have been plain strip quilts cut from the yardage in the skirts of worn dresses. During the two decades before the Civil War, when block quilts became the dominant style, quiltmakers tired of chintz, favoring calicoes and plain fabrics for their increasingly complex patchwork. Post Civil War strip quilts, like the block quilts of the day, were made of smaller scale fabrics, smaller pieces and new designs. Popular new patterns — Crazy Quilts and String Quilts — were foundation patchwork, that is seamed to a foundation of fabric or paper. String quilts were frequently organized into strips. At the end of the nineteenth century, the strip set evolved a variation that dispensed with the alternate plain stripe, offsetting adjacent strips of patchwork blocks. Needlework columns in farm and women's magazines sometimes advised readers to join the pictured block designs in any of three ways: with sashing, with alternate plain blocks or "with plain half squares to give the fence rail effect:' The quiltmaking audience was quick to adopt the new block designs, but inclined to use the sash or alternate plain block sets. Like earlier strip formats, the fence-rail set was not a favorite with the majority of the quiltmaking community, but many individuals opted to use it. Strip quilts appear to have been a more popular option with three particular groups: The Amish working between 1875 and 1940, Pennsylvanians during the same years, and AfricanAmericans working in this century. Amish quiltmakers throughout the country often used the strip format for their patchwork designs, such as the Nine Patch, Wild Goose Chase, Chinese Coins and String Quilts. The plain strip quilt was a favorite of Pennsylvania quilters, Amish and otherwise. The Amish of Lancaster and Mifflin CounFall 1989


gni ma




Above, String Quilt with Crazy Center Panel; Pennsylvania; 1875-1900. The stripformat was popularfor string quilts like this silk example. Below, Chinese Coins; Attributed to an Amish woman from Holmes County, Ohio; 1900-1925. Mainstream publications called this design Roman Stripe. During the Victorian age in America, women often pieced this pattern in silks; Amish quilters used wools and cottonsfor their work. 49


ss,•, ti


Above, Joseph's Coat; Attributed to a Mennonite quiltmaker; 1900-1925; Collection ofEsprit. For their strip quilts, Pennsylvania Mennonites typically used narrowed strips and hotter colors than their Amish neighbors. Below, Wild Goose Chase Quilt Top;1825-1850;Collection ofPam Johnson. This pattern, one ofthe oldest designs in patchwork, remains popular as a strip quilt pattern today.


ties adapted it to their unique fabric and color choices and called it "Stripes;"4 "Bars7 or "Stramma" (strip).16 variations alternated wide and narrow strips, and most were bordered, but the basic format differed little from the earlier strip quilts of chintz. Lancaster County's Mennonite quilters also maintained their version, called Joseph's Coat or Rainbow,' which included a spectrum of plain or calico stripes. And Pennsylvanians of religions other than the plain sects appear to have made many turn-of-thecentury plain strip quilts. Collectors recognize calico strips, whether on the reverse side or the quilt's face, as circumstantial evidence of a Pennsylvania origin. Contemporary African-American quiltmakers, especially those working in the rural Southern tradition, often choose the strip format for their functional quilts, reserving the block quilt for fancy quilts, a dichotomy apparent in Roland Freeman's interviews with African-American quitters. Rosie Lee Baker told him that the strip quilt he admired on her line, the one that caught his eye, presumably because it was not a block quilt, was made from recycled pants because of economic necessity.' Annie Dennis, who made both fancy (block) and strip quilts, explained a strip quilt she was making for a friend, "He doesn't want anything fancy, he just wants something to keep him warm:"9 The design correlates between African weavings and African-American strip quilts are provocative but the functional aspects of the strip format may be the major reason for its popularity as an everyday bedcovering. Strip quilts — quick to put together, made of ends of fabric not practical for much else — may have held strong appeal to African-Americans and others making quilts primarily for warmth. There are a number of possible design sources for the strip quilt. Early examples, both plain strip and patchwork, appear related to a fashion for striped chintzes, large-scale prints imported to America in the first half of the nineteenth century. As textile printing mechanization lowered the price of European goods, fabric with wide The Clarion

G92 stripes of massed flowers alternating with architectural pillars or cascading ribbons and lace was popular for home furnishings, such as drapery, bedhangings and wholecloth quilts." Pre-Civil War strip quilts imitated the taste for these cluttered floral stripes, in some cases so closely that it takes a second look to determine if a chintz quilt is striped fabric or pieced of separate prints. Patchwork strip quilts may have grown out of the eighteenth-century medallion quilt style. The pieced designs, such as Wild Goose Chase (pieced of right triangles) and Chained Square (squares on point), that are found in early strip quilts were also common borders for earlier medallion quilts. The sequence suggests that seamstresses reorganized the long patchwork rectangles with which they had been framing medallion quilts into strip sets to complement their stylish striped chintzes. In considering design sources for any aspect of American quilts, one looks to Great Britain and finds striking parallels between English and American strip quilts. The question of which came first is difficult to answer. The oldest pictured British strip quilt is a patchwork example attributed circa 1780 by Averil Colby.' Such attributions can be unreliable and American examples are attributed to the same decade, so no conclusions about an English or American origin can yet be drawn. Most British patchwork in the strip format is from the Victorian era; the style remained popular into the twentieth century only in a small area in north central England.22 The plain strip ("strippy quilt") is seen more often in Britain than America, probably because the block patchwork quilt never achieved a widespread popularity in Britain. Their oldest strippy quilt is circa 1840, made on the Isle of Man." It may be that plain strip quilts originated in the United States as did appliquĂŠd block designs, or it may be that earlier British strippy quilts have not survived. According to British quilt historian Dorothy Osler, the strippy quilts, composed of unpieced strips of cotton, were enormously popular between 1860 and 1930 in northeast EngFall 1989

land and were common in Wales. The strip format was also used for the reverse side of a quilt. She characterizes British strip quilts as everyday, utilitarian quilts, usually made of inexpensive cottons," a description that applies to most American strip quilts, except for those of the Amish. The major difference between the British strippy and the American version is in the quilting; the British generally favored fancy motifs and dense quilting; Americans, again with the exception of the Amish, quilted rather sparsely and plainly. The parallels between Pennsylvania's strip quilts and the British strippy quilts of Wales and northeast England may be explained by the significant Welsh immigration to Pennsylvania. Seventeenth-century Welsh immigration was heaviest north and west of Philadelphia, in areas near Lancaster County. Welsh identity remained strong in parts of Pennsylvania; in the 1980 census, the area around Scranton and Wilkes-Barre contained three ofthe five United States counties with the highest percentage of Welsh ancestry." Although it is doubtful that the first Welsh immigrants arriving in the 1680s brought the strip quilt tradition with them, a continuing pattern of immigration and interaction may have contributed to the popularity of the strip quilt among Pennsylvanians from many backgrounds. The British strippy quilts also resemble plain strip quilts still made by African-American quilters, called Lazy Gal or Rainbow." Similarities are linguistic as well as visual. Southern African-Americans interviewed by Wahlman spoke of "stripping a quilt!'" using a verb unfamiliar to today's mainstream American quilters, but one that an English woman interviewed by Osler would recognize. She recalled sleeping under a quilt "stripped red, green and purple!'" It is evident that the strip quilt links a number of cultures. African-American quilters who strip quilts today may be echoing African aesthetics but they also draw from a strong European-American tradition. Barbara Brackman has recently published a book on dating and identifying antique quilts. Clues in

the Calico,(E.P.M.Publications) is based on her computer analysis of date-inscribed quilts. She is a board member of the Kansas Quilt Project and has been a consultant to other state quilt projects.

NOTES I. John Michael Vlach, The Afro-American Tradition in the Decorative Arts. Cleveland: The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1978: p. 55. 2. Ibid: p. 67. 3. Maude Southwell Wahlman, "African-American Quilts: Tracing the Design Principles:' The Clarion, vol. 14, no. 2, 1989: pp. 46-47. 4. Vlach, page 44. 5. Robert Farris Thompson, Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy. New York: Random House, 1983: p. 222. 6. Wahlman, pp. 44 & 54. 7. Eli Leon, Who'd A Thought It: Improvisation in African-American Quiltmaking. San Francisco: San Francisco Craft and Folk Art Museum, 1987: p. 59. 8. See Dorothy Osier, Traditional British Quilts. London: B.T. Batsford, 1987: Chapter 2 and Annette Gero, "Quilts and Their Makers in NineteenthCentury Australia: Quilt Digest 5. San Francisco: The Quilt Digest Press, 1987: p. 62. 9. Barbara Brackman, An Encyclopedia of Pieced Quilt Patterns. Lawrence, Kansas: Prairie Flower Publishing, 1979-1987: pp. 54-55. 10. My experience with museum collections and state quilt project files supports similar statistics cited in Bettina Havig, "Missouri: Crossroads to Quilting',' Uncoverings 1985, Mill Valley, California: The American Quilt Study Group, 1986: p. 52. 11. The quilt is American, in the collection of the American Museum in Britain, illustrated in Shiela Betterton, Quilts and Coverletsfrom the American Museum in Britain. Bath, England: The American Museum in Britain, 1978: p. 27. 12. Hannah Anderson Ropes,Six Months in Kansas, by a Lady. Baltimore: John P. Jewett and Co., 1856: p. 262. 13. Letter to The American Woman from Mrs. I. Morland, April, 1910. 14. Phyllis Haders, Sunshine and Shadow: The Amish and Their Quilts. Clinton, New Jersey: The Main Street Press, 1976: P. 38. 15. Rachel T. Pellman and Joanne Ranck, Quilts Among the Plain People. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Good Books, 1981: p. 30. 16. Daniel McCauley and Kathryn McCauley, Decorative Arts of the Amish of Lancaster County. Intercourse,Pennsylvania:Good Books,1988:p.60. 17. Holstein, plate 9; Patricia T. Herr, "What Distinguishes A Pennsylvania Quilt?" In the Heart of Pennsylvania Symposium Papers. Lewisburg, Penn.: Oral Traditions Project, 1986, p. 35. 18. Roland Freeman, Something to Keep You Warm. Jackson, Mississippi, Mississippi Department of Archives and History, 1981: p. 22. 19. Ibid. p. 2. 20. Jane Nylander,Fabricfor Historic Buildings. Washington, DC:The Preservation Press, 1983: p. 53. 21. Averil Colby, Patchwork. Newton Center, Massachusetts: Charles T. Branford, 1958: p. 97. 22. Osier, p. 33. 23. Ibid, p. 26. 24. 'bid, pp. 27-28. 25. James Paul Allen and Eugene James Milner. We the People: An Atlas ofAmerica's Diversity. New York: MacMillan. 1980: p. 45. 26. Lazy Gal is a name used by Pearlie Posey, in Wahlman, p. 46. Rainbow. A similar quilt made by Suttie Nelson is called Rainbow in Freeman, p. 21. 27. Wahlman, p. 47. 28. Osier, p. 27.


THE DOG SOLDIER ARTISTS PLAINS INDIAN LEDGER DRAWINGS BY JEAN AFTON In the latter days of the Indian Wars, Tall Bull, the recalcitrant leader of the Cheyenne Dog Soldiers decided to make a dash for the South Platte River in northeastern Colorado and seek safety among the friendly Lakota Sioux of the North Plains. In May of 1869, Major A. E. Carr, with eight companies of the Fifth Cavalry and 150 Pawnee scouts under Major Frank North, relentlessly pursued the Dog Men. In order to confuse the soldiers, Tall Bull's followers scattered in small bands to meet at predetermined places and times. In early July, the band came together at White Buttes

in northeast Colorado — called Summit Springs by the whites. The Pawnee scouts discovered the camp on July 10, 1869, and launched a full-scale attack the following day. A few women, children and old men escaped on those horses picketed in the camp. Tall Bull and about twenty others perished in a deep ravine where they had sought safety. Wolf-with-Plenty-of-Hair, one of the Cheyenne warriors, died defending his people, wearing the no-retreat dog rope. The battle lasted only a few hours. After drawing lots for the horses and looting the lodges, the soldiers burned

the village. Surviving the flames was a notebook of Indian drawings. A Fifth Cavalry trooper wrote across one page: "This book was captured by the Fifth U.S. Cavalry on their charge through the Indian Village July 10th 69. 60 Indians killed and many wounded. 400 head of stock also captured. Immense destruction of Indian property:" Ira W. La Munyon was a deputy United States surveyor for the Union Pacific Railroad at the time ofthe battle. He lived with his family at North Platte, Nebraska, and was acquainted with the cavalry personnel at nearby Fort McPherson. Following the engagement

PISTOL His own mount wounded, Pistol rides off on a stolen horse. The drawings are X-ray style and Pistol sometimes has to correct his first attempt.


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at Summit Springs, he acquired the book of drawings, and in 1903 donated it to the Colorado State Historical and Natural History Society. It became known as the Summit Springs Sketchbook, or Dog Soldier Ledger Book, and is now on display at the Colorado History Museum in Denver. For many years this and other books of Plains Indian drawings have been regarded as rich sources of ethnohistoric and biographic information when "read" correctly. The popularity of ledgerbook art has escalated in the art world within the last decade. But it is only recently that their place in the field offolk art studies has been considered valid, in part, because ofinterest in the cross-cultural relationship which resulted in this unique art form. Ledgerbook art originated among the Indians of the Great Plains and coincided with rising contact and increased hostility between the native and white cultures. This heightened conflict de-

manded an economy of baggage for greater mobility as hit-and-run tactics became the way of life for the Indian bands. Thus through gift, trade or seizure, small notebooks and colored pencils gradually replaced the bison hide as the medium for portraying the acts of honor and bravery for the Plains warrior. As historian Karen Petersen so vividly states,"The impediments of Indian life perished in the flames of so many of the villages. In the decade before 1875 alone, no less than twenty Cheyenne camps or villages were systematically burned — and sometimes plundered first — by attacking United States troops. It may well be that in these fires the era ofthe cumbersome painted robe was finally consumed, and that from the ashes rose the phoenix of a rejuvenated art — the war drawing book. Its form was well adapted to the perilous new way oflife72 Extant examples of pre-reservation

WHITE WOLF Leaving his wounded mount, White Wolf holds off mounted riflemen and scouts. Note the two lower horse figures are almost identical.

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ledger art are still rare although references to these books of drawings appeared in government documents and literature of the mid-1800s. Most of those referred to were Cheyenne in origin, but their current locations are unknown. The Dog Soldier Ledger Book, measuring 8 x 13 inches originally contained 140 ruled and numbered pages. Twenty-three of these pages are now missing, including the first eight. The remaining pages include 108 completed or partially-completed drawings in lead and colored pencil, depicting scenes of raid, rescue and conflict, as well as the act of "counting coup" — the symbolic touching rather than killing ofan enemy as evidence of the victor's bravery. They represent the work of several artists. The artists referred to in this article were identified in the following manner: The drawings were first sorted according to name glyph — the small

WARRIOR X Astride a stolen horse, Warrior X counts coup on a pair of farmers. The human figures show the classic frontal torso mode.


identifying figure drawn over the head of the warrior — and names derived from these glyphs were then assigned to the warriors. Eighteen prominent and several minor and unnamed Dog Men were identified: Red Lance, Bear Paw, Buffalo Robe, Tomahawk, White Horse, Black Bear, Two Birds, Pistol, Wolf-with-Plenty-of-Hair, White Wolf, Black Bird, Bear-with-Feathers, White Elk, Lean Bear, White Bird, Man Bear, Little Man and Tall Bull. The identification of Wolf-with-Plenty-of-Hair and Tall Bull, two important Cheyenne warriors pictured in the book, was a major discovery among these drawings. History and the date of the sketchbook support the following scenario: At any one time the book was in the protective custody of one warrior, but available to every man in the band. There appear to have been four major artists who recorded not only their own exploits, but those of many other Dog

Soldiers. These major artists may have been the custodians of the book and rendered the biographical drawings when they had possession of the art materials. However, several warriors drew autobiographical feats only. In many cases the drawings represent the collaborative efforts of two artists. A second sorting was based on horse identification. The criteria included size and shape of the head, configuration of the rump and chest, and shape and attitude of the legs. In general, the classic rocking horse stance was the rule but a modified stance was also used. It often happened that several animals drawn by the same artist were so similar that it looked as if a template or pattern had been used. There is also much evidence which indicates that there existed "specialists" or "experts" within the band whose artistic ability fulfilled the aesthetic and traditional standards set by the community, and whose skill was sought by individual

TOMAHAWK Tomahawk is pursued by Pawnees in a hail of bullets. He usually shows horses in true profile.


warriors to record their deeds of honor and bravery. Line drawing was the technique used by the Indian artists. Usually beginning with the head or neck of the horse, as shown in some incomplete drawings, the warrior drew the entire profile without lifting the pencil. He then added ears and legs as needed to complete the figures. Often the artist included all four legs and two ears in the original outline drawing. Bridles, horse blankets and ornaments were added along with tails, manes and eyes as desired. The warrior appears astride the mount often with the horse outline showing X-ray fashion through his body. All of the war accoutrements such as shields, breastplates, headdresses, hair plates, weapons and clothing were added and colored later. In some cases an overlap appears, indicating the progression of the drawing. It is also interesting to note that

WHITE HORSE White Horse counts coup on a Pawnee enemy. Note the experimental deviation in drawing the secondary figures.

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some artists broke the outline of the horse where overlay occurred while others drew through the existing figure. In one drawing of a horse raid, twelve horses are shown being driven from a compound. Three complete horse figures appear; the remaining are indicated by heads — or, in one case, ears only — superimposed on the other figures. Human figures, on the other hand, are generally in the classic mid-century Plains style. The head and legs are in profile while the torso is turned 90 degrees. The arms are usually flung out on either side of the body. Other than by overlay, there is little attempt to show depth of field, foreshortening or modelling. In general, backgrounds are ignored. The ground of the drawing is the bound portion of the ledger. If two pages are used to portray the action as indicated by the continuance of hoofprints or footprints, the book is turned 180 degrees and the

drawing is completed, again oriented to the binding. Action is almost exclusively from right to left, a holdover from pictorial hide painting. However, as Barbara LaMort states in her thesis paper on the Schield Ledger Book, "The small multisurfaced ledger book necessitated the separation of scenes, and each unit received its own page. Freed of the complexities of a large surface and many scenes, the artist began to reconceive composition in relation to the size of the page and the unity of the single scene!' The identity of the individual artists has been determined by assigning a name to the warrior with the most autobiographical drawings in a particular horse style. This procedure revealed four major and five minor artists plus several one-page unknown craftsmen.' MAJOR ARTISTS An Unidentified Artist — probably either Two Birds or Black Bear —

BLACK BEAR Wearing an upright style headdress, Black Bear accosts a cavalryman. Notice the almost identical rendition of the horses.

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contributed ten pages to the book. Black Bear wears an imposing upright headdress decorated with ermine tails. Two Birds is shown with a distinctive red shield with full eagle feather fall, while White Elk carries a similar shield with a green cover. Red Lance contributed sixteen pages. Six are autobiographical, three are of White Horse, two of Buffalo Robe, and the remaining are of various warriors. Two identical actions drawn by Red Lance depicted his own coup on a military wagon and team, and also that of Buffalo Robe. Red Lance often drew his horses in true profile showing only two legs and in full rocking horse stance. He attached the name glyph identifying the brave by a wavy line rather than the dotted line used by other artists. One drawing of Buffalo Robe appears to have been a collaboration with Bear-with-Feathers who drew the mount in the picture. White Bird drew a total of seventeen

RED LANCE Carrying a ceremonial bow lance, Red Lance shoots at a trooper. This artist often draws horses in true profile.

pages; all but three were autobiographical. He alone drew the warrior figures with a featureless full face and unusually wide thighs. He often identified himself with a line of face paint along his cheek bone. Thirteen of the seventeen pages picture warriors counting coup, but one dramatic encounter with a cavalry officer shows stumbling horses and flying brave and trooper. However, there is still some question regarding the author of the horses in White Bird's drawings. Indeed, they may have been drawn by Bear-with-Feathers. Until this can definitely be determined, White Bird will be assumed to be the artist. Bear-with-Feathers was responsible for twenty-five pages of the book. It appears, however,that he had not drawn the horses, even though he had executed all the human figures. So a third category of identification had to be devised based on the variations of these forms. The main criteria were the shape

of the head in profile and the style of drawing hands. MINOR ARTISTS Pistol drew three autobiographical drawings. His horses demonstrate the X-ray technique sometimes used. Notable are his name glyph and the Colt revolver he always carries. A fourth page shows Bear-with-Feathers counting coup with a saber. White Wolf displays outstanding ability to convey action and attention to detail. He pictures Tall Bull's rescue from pursuing Pawnees by Wolf-withPlenty-of-Hair drawn on two consecutive pages. He has three autobiographical pages, including a confrontation with a group of Crow Indians. Warrior X (unnamed) drew three autobiographical pages telling of his encounter with a stage coach, counting coup on the driver and passengers and departing atop one of the team.

WHITE BIRD Using a bow, White Bird counts coup on a trooper. Note the facial markings and thick thighs.


Tomahawk was very graphic in drawing his exploits, although it could be argued that his skill was somewhat less than many of his colleagues. Of the four pages he drew, one shows him counting coup on a group of women. White Horse drew three pages of coup counting. He also used the X-ray technique. Again, it was discovered that the traditional method was a line drawing usually begun at the bottom of the tunic or hips. The entire upper portion of the body was drawn without lifting the pencil then legs and hands were added. If an overlay of figures occurred, the line was then interrupted. All identifying clothing, accoutrements,arms and name glyphs were then drawn and colored. To determine the creator of the warrior figures, the pages were again sorted by name glyph. It was determined that Bear-with-Feathers was responsible for seven autobiographical drawings and five of Lean Bear's. The

BEAR-WITH-FEATHERS Warrior and mount painted with protective medicine. Bear-With-Feathers pursues a supply wagon. Note the sharp features and triangular hands.

The Clarion


human profile drawn by Bear-withFeathers had a sharp nose and hands made in the form of a triangle. Even though Bear-with-Feathers drew the horses in the six pages of Man Bear's and five of Black Bird's deeds, the rugged profiles and representation of hands indicate another artist. He may even have added eyes to some of the horses. In addition, another five pages with horses all drawn by Bear-with-Feathers represent unknown warriors and secondary artists. The evidence shows that there existed a traditionally defined form for the representation of both warrior and mount which began in the era of the painted robe and continued into ledgerbooks. Deviation from this tradition was unusual and was generally confined to experimentation with secondary figures and occasionally some backgrounds. Among scholars of ledgerbook art, it

has generally been the accepted thesis that the name glyph identifying the warrior also identified the artist. As we have seen, this is not necessarily the case. While some warriors did, indeed, draw their own exploits, it often happened that a "specialist" whose skill was acknowledged, was sought to record the brave deeds of others. The research reveals that, at times, two artists worked on the same page of drawings. In some instances neither of these artists was the warrior pictured. The study discloses that there existed an aesthetically and traditionally accepted manner of producing these drawings by mid-nineteenth-century plains warriors, and that many of these self-taught warrior-artists were recognized as experts in their craft. (These criteria argue further for acceptance of this material as folk art.) As the demand for these drawings of American Indian folk art increases, and as more of the ledgerbooks surface, the

need becomes more and more important for scholars to be given the opportunity to study them in depth while they remain intact and available to the academic community. Jean Afton of Denver, Colorado, has an advanced degree in Anthropology from the University of Colorado in Boulder. She has studied the Summit Springs Sketch Book in the Colorado History Museum for several years. Recent papers include "Visual Communication of the Plains Indians in the 19th Century" (High Plains Applied Anthropologist, Spring 1988 Vol. 8, Number 1), "Lessons Learned from a Cheyenne Sketchbook' and "Ledger Book Artists — Amateurs or Professionals:'

NOTES 1. Summit Springs Sketch Book, MSS 722. Stephen H. Hart Library, Colorado Historical Society, Denver, 1869. 2. Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Artfrom Fort Marion, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971. 3. "Minor" here signifies not the ability of the artist, but rather the small number of examples of his works compared to the major artists. A total of ten or more pages places the artist in the "major" category.

MAN BEAR Man Bear counts coup on a civilian who has sought refuge on a spit of land. Notice Man Bears rugged features and the shape of the white man's hands.

Fall 1989


M,EMT WM MI'U A DISTINCTIVELY AMERICAN ART FORM by William Woys Weaver Collectors have known about American cake prints for some time, but until recently, there has been no systematic study of their fascinating history or the craftsmen who created them. The rediscovery of the American cake print can be pinpointed to October 1941, when plaster casts of two "celebrative cake molds" were illustrated on the cover of The Magazine Antiques. The pictures were accompanied by commentary about possible dates of carving based on the thematic subjects of the molds — the Freedom of Greece and Lafayette at Yorktown.'This resulted in an exchange of letters from readers — later summarized in the November 1941 issue of the magazine — an exchange that piqued the interest of several important collectors of Americana.' For this reason, there are now considerable collections of cake prints at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Old Sturbridge Village in Massachusetts, the New-York Historical Society, and the Henry Francis DuPont Winterthur Museum in Delaware. However, most of the cake prints — and many of the best — remain in private hands and are 58

unavailable for scholarly study. As a result, it is only now possible to present an overview of what is known about the cake prints and their somewhat disordered history.

"America Eats: Folk Art and Food" an exhibition that will present traditional American cookery as a folk art form, will open December 7, 1989 and run through February 4, 1990 at the Museum of American Folk Art/ Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square. Additional information is contained in Museum News on page 90. America Eats: Forms ofEdible Folk Art by William Woys Weaver is being published in November by Harper & Row Publishers. It can be ordered from the Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shop, Two Lincoln Square, New York, NY 10023, Attention: Mail Order, Dept. CR,for $16.95 (softcover) plus $4.50 shipping and handling.

Professional American baking literature of the nineteenth century invariably refers to New Year's cake carvings as "prints;' just as butter molds were also called "butter prints!' This terminology may have been reinforced by the New Netherlands Dutch term prenten, which is used in connection with both the wooden cake molds and printed pictorial woodcuts.' The New Year's cake tradition comes from the New Netherlands Dutch who settled in the Hudson Valley. The process of stamping the New Year's cake dough is very similar to that used to make a woodcut picture. The baker imprints pictures into dough rather than onto paper. In terms of baking technique, it is probably more accurate to call the molds "stamps" since, in cookery,"molds" are utensils that are filled up — forms for cast food, as in pudding or ice cream molds. To print the large New Year's cakes, professional bakers would chill the dough to near freezing, then place it in a press with the picture side down against the dough. Pressure was exerted and the dough was literally printed. For home The Clarion

cookery, this was done by laying the cake prints face down on the dough and gently rolling them with a rolling pin or pressing down with the palm of the hand. Needless to say, both museums and private collectors have concentrated their attention on the carving aspect of the cake prints, the quality of detail and the pictorial content. For example, fire engine motifs seem to be valued more highly than portraits, even though portraits, such as the John Adams piece mentioned later, are far more scarce. The quality of the carving is less important to the food historian than date of execution and theme. Dates permit us to place the cake prints in historical sequence, and the changing themes allow us to associate the molds with broader shifts in social custom or current events. In the case of the two molds discussed in 1941, John D. Hatch, then of the Albany Institute of History and Art, suggested a date of 1827 or 1828 for the Freedom of Greece cake print, based on widespread fundraising in the Albany area at that time on behalf of Greece and its recent independence from Tbrkey. Given the other motifs on the cake print, especially the figures of Liberty as a warrior goddess and an appallingly amorphous Britannia, a date of 1821 is much more likely, since it is closer to the known working dates of the anonymous carver, circa 1815 to 1825, and is the actual date of Greek independence. This particular carver used Liberty, Britannia, a distinctive spread eagle and other patriotic details on all of his molds. As far as dating is concerned, many motifs are copied directly from popular prints and thus have a life of their own far beyond the known dates of a given carver or workshop. It is important to remember that the molds are only mirror images of the cakes made from them. The more elaborate molds do not necessarily produce the most beautiful cakes. It is on Fall 1989

Small New Year's cake print depicting John Quincy Adams; Circa 1825;From the workshop of William Farrow, New York City. Courtesy of the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Williamsburg, Virginia.


Year's cake prints and how to use them. Carl W. Drepperd of New York, a well-known art historian before World War H, responded to the article in The Magazine Antiques with the suggestion that these elaborate molds were intended for marzipan.4 He had written an article for The Magazine Antiques in 1932 about marzipan molds, and based his conjecture on this work.5 He did not seem to have a clear idea — at least in his article — as to what precisely went into marzipan or how it was prepared. In any case, Drepperd's marzipan theory remained a common one among collectors for many, many years. Drepperd did point out, however,that the Lafayette cake print, bearing the inscription "Yorktown 1781;' was

Timm •g Al11214 :mom

the plain or undecorated surfaces that the baker uses his or her discretionary creative talents as, for example, with gilding or colored icings. The art of the New Year's cake is the craft of converting the carved images into ornamental pastry. Interestingly enough, there is extraordinary confusion in the art world as to how these molds were used and to what purpose. This situation is not new. It is clear from the 1941 article in The Magazine Antiques that both the editors and the readers who submitted letters were fully unaware of the real purpose of the molds. In hindsight, it was an ironic dilemma,since there were craftsmen and bakers still living in the 1940s who were intimately familiar with New

Square New Year's cake print depicting several Scottish themes: thistles, wild roses. Highland dancers, barley sheaves and hops; Touchmark ofJohn Conger; Circa 1835. Courtesy ofOld Sturbridge Village. 60

doubtless commemorative and dated not from 1781, but from 1824 when Lafayette returned to the United States for his triumphal tour. Furthermore, that cake print also bore the name of William Farrow — the craftsman who produced marzipan — whom Drepperd assumed to be a sugar baker or confectioner. Farrow was certainly a baker, but not of sugar. He baked breads and pastries off and on in New York City from 1815 to 1835, according to city directories. We know today that the production of cake prints was a subsidiary occupation of many New York bakeries, although — in terms of quantity — production centered on a certain few workshops. William Farrow's workshop is one of the earliest documented in New York City. Although hand carved, the cake prints were to a large extent massproduced, with thousands of examples sold into circulation, both to professional bakers and to private individuals. The most elaborate cake prints, especially the large ones (sometimes reaching 25 inches in length), were used exclusively by professional bakers, restaurants and hotels. Large New Year's cakes required large, professional bake ovens — ovens with enough room to hold many cakes at once. It is safe to assume that the molds that have survived into the 1980s are the ones that for one reason or another were used the least. The nineteenth century cookbook writer, Eliza Leslie, was one of the first to include recipes for New Year's cakes in her books. In the 1838 edition of her bestseller Seventy-Five Receipts, she writes:"You may stamp each cake with a wooden print, by way of ornamenting the surface' In her Directions for Cookery, published in Philadelphia in 1848, in a recipe for "New York Cookies' Miss Leslie instructs the reader to cut the cakes into small squares with a jagging iron, then The Clarion

"stamp the surface of each with a cake print:" She notes further that her cookies "are similar to what are called New Year's Cakes:' Although a native of Philadelphia, Miss Leslie lived for a period in the early 1820s at West Point, where her brother was serving as an instructor. Through this connection, she became familiar with old Hudson Valley social customs and New Year's entertaining in particular. Another early term for New Year's cake was New York potash cake, a recipe for which appeared in the 1821 edition of the Domestic Encyclopedia.' All of these small, decorated cakes were served during open house on New Year's Day in early New York. The New York Dutch called the little cakes koekje, from which word Americans created the term cookie. Potash, or pearlash, its more refined alternative, was crucial to the success of a proper New Year's cake recipe. The alkalides, when brought into contact with the milk and other acid-bearing ingredients in the cake, caused carbon dioxide to form and give the dough its "spring" when baking. The test of the baker came in controlling this reaction so that the elaborate picture would not crack or puff out of shape. Today, baking soda may be used instead of potash. Most New Year's cake recipes call for caraway seeds as a flavoring ingredient, although this may also be read to mean anise. As English food historian Elizabeth David has often pointed out, there was considerable confusion, both in England and colonial America, over the difference between caraway and aniseed. Many people called anise white caraway. When aniseeds are used instead ofcaraway, it becomes immediately clear that there are similarities in taste and texture between German Springerle cookies and American New Year's cakes. The origin of both cookies may be traced to the seventeenth century. In fact, they share a common ancestry in Fall 1989

the so called "water marzipan" and "egg marzipan" recipes developed as a poor man's substitute for real almond marzipan.9 The New Year's cake and the Springerle may be viewed as versions of the same thing that developed along divergent cultural lines. Carl Drepperd's presumption that the New York cake boards were connected with the manufacture of marzipan was not altogether incorrect. Any of the New Year's cake prints can also be used for stamping marzipan. The difficulty in formulating a history of the New Year's cake in America stems from the fact that there are few, if any, documented eighteenthcentury cake prints in major museum collections. Many dealers have attributed cake prints in their stock to this early period but, in fact, the prints have consistently come from the mid to late nineteenth century. It is possible that prior to 1800, New Year's cakes were generally made small in koekje form. After the appearance of William Farrow in 1815, there is a definite trend toward larger professional molds, although Farrow is not known to have introduced the idea. This trend toward large molds culminates with the work of John Conger, active between 1827 and 1835, in New York City. Stylistically, the Conger cake prints evolved out of earlier Farrow models; the careers of these two craftsmen are connected. Where the Farrow models are stiff and cartoonish, Conger's are highly controlled, with flowing lines and great attention to fine detail. The development of large, showpiece New Year's cakes tied to specific commemorative events or banquets appears to be a peculiarly American, if not New York, phenomenon. Furthermore, none of the known cake print carvers have documented New Netherlands Dutch ancestry, so there appears to be a shift in the craft away from the New York Dutch community into what we might call mainstream

American culture of the period. By the mid-1790s, New Year's cake recipes begin to appear in manuscript cookbooks in many parts of the country, evidence in itself that the cakes had been transformed into something fashionable on the national level. Amelia Simmons, in her American Cookery, published in Hartford in 1796, included two recipes for cookies, one flavored with powdered coriander, the other stamped "into shape'Both are forms of New Year's cakes, although the stamped one is specifically called a "Christmas Cookey" and may therefore relate more closely to the Springerle. It is quite possible that during the administration of President Washington, particularly when he was living in New York City, that some kind of commemorative New Year's cake was served in connection with a state event. Through this, the cake became associated not only with New Year's open house hospitality, but with fashionable entertaining in general and patriotism in particular. Many of the themes depicted on the large cake prints are definitely political and patriotic and mark a further secularization of the social context for which the cakes were made. Aside from William Farrow and John Conger, the only other cake print producer documented with any certainty is William Hart, a Quaker from Philadelphia. Hart's advertisement for cake prints in the December 1876 Confectioner's Journal is illustrated with an example of his work, a design based on arabesque icing ornaments used on Rich Bride's Cake, a type of fruit cake!' Of the three cake print producers, only Conger is listed in the New York directories as both a baker and carver, but there is no guarantee that his hand alone was involved in cake print production. All of these workshops produced wares in large batches with the help of apprentice carvers. When several Con61


Square New Year's cake print depicting General William Henry Harrison; Touchmark ofJohn Conger; 1 4x 10/ 1 2x 15/16'.' Madefor the 1840Presidential election, the banner reads: New York;1840;Mahogany;11/ "Tippecanoe Fort Meeig Thames:' Courtesy ofThe Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum.

ger molds are placed side by side, it is possible to see how many identical motifs were used interchangeably and laid out — more often than not — with a compass and template. Several of the pictures were traced directly from popular prints and engravings. Since the quality of the carving from the Conger shop is consistently high and the pieces are usually executed in mahogany, a tight-grained wood not easily damaged by the dough or subsequent washings, many dealers have recently taken liberties in attributing their cake prints to Conger. The Conger workshop generally stamped its productions with a touchmark, although even this is now being counterfeited. Other shops that hired former Conger craftsmen and 62

made similar cake prints, or pirated Conger designs, generally did not mark their pieces. Widespread imitation in the 1820s and 1830s certainly implies that Conger was considered one of the leaders in this area of craftsmanship, but it makes identification today a very tricky science. This is further complicated by the fact that the firm of James Y. Watkins succeeded to the Conger cake print business and became a major supplier to professional bakers well into this century. After 1876, with the growing interest in Colonial Revival, Watkins produced a line of cake prints based on Conger originals. Many of these cake prints were machine carved and may have been done on commission in

Germany by a Springerle board manufacturer. Some Watkins cake prints, however, are executed in American chestnut and were probably produced here. Like cake prints bearing the touchmark of William Hart, there is no guarantee that Watkins cake prints were made at the firm's Catharine Street headquarters in New York. They can only be treated as a wholesaler/retailer mark. It is known, from an 1899 advertisement in the Confectioner's Journal, that Watkins published a check-list or catalogue of its New Year's cake print stock.'This catalogue doubtless correlates with the numbers often found stamped on the back of Watkins' pieces. Unfortunately, the full scope of the Watkins designs will never be known until a copy of this list comes to light. Illustrated in the 1899 Watkins advertisement was one of the cake prints depicting a cavalryman on horseback. This figure was often altered from year to year to allude to current events. Thus, General Custer became Teddy Roosevelt in 1896, and he in turn, in a different hat, became Kitchener before Khartoum in 1898. The model for all of these figures was General William Henry Harrison in a cake print that Conger produced for the 1840 Presidental election. Yet it might be fairer to say that Conger himself based his Harrison on the Lafayette mold that Farrow brought out in 1824, and even that is derived from an earlier equestrian view of George Washington. While this may seem like shifting sands to an art historian, it illustrates how closely connected the New Year's cake was with popular culture. Both the Conger and Farrow pictorial subjects are generally framed with round or pointed oval borders. Often,in the case of the large cake prints, several pictures and borders are incorporated in one design. These pictures were also available individually on small cake boards. The pointed oval is a particuThe Clarion


larly intriguing shape because it is also the most common shape for shortbread in this period. Since Conger borrowed a great many of his decorative themes from Scottish folldore — in particular from Robert Burns — it is possible to detect a blend of decorative treatments in his work. It may very well be that many of his cake prints were also used for shortbread recipes. Because of the way they are carved, often with intricate interlocking borders, the prints do not always work well with traditional honey cake or gingerbread doughs. This has come to light through direct experimentation with several original cake boards, and further reinforces the shortbread connection. The decline of cake print carving in the 1850s, the mechanization of the baking craft during the 1860s, and the limited uses to which many of the old cake prints could be put, doubtless conspired to encourage the development of more stylized designs and materials that made the baking process less complicated and less craft-oriented. For this reason, many smaller Farrow and Conger-type cake prints were translated into pewter. When cooled, pewter does not readily stick to dough, even when the dough is tacky. Furthermore, pewter molds are easier to clean than the wooden ones, which often required several hours of tedious work with a pick and small brush. By the 1880s, a growing number of these smaller cake prints came into use both in bakeries and private homes. A very fine and well-documented example from this period is now in the collection of Wyck,a museum house in Philadelphia. The print has been purchased by the Haines family and used for over 70 years for making New Year's cakes. Most of the pewter cake prints are unmarked, but it is known that George Endriss, a manufacturing confectioner in Philadelphia, was a major supplier of pewter New Year's cake prints and pewter Springerle Fall 1989

boards between 1880 and 1915. Other centers of production were in Baltimore; Columbus, Ohio;and Chicago. The evolution ofthe New Year's cake print is both complex and fascinating. It may be some time before a definitive study can be published to sort out all the identifying marks and major workshops involved. Yet it should be evident that this genre of carving is certainly one of the major crafts to have evolved and spread from New York City. While it is a sidelight to furniture carving, it is nonetheless directly related, especially since Conger, for one, is believed to have done work for Duncan Phyfe. As an expression of folk art, this is a uniquely American form closely tuned to popular culture. It is perhaps equalled only by the master gingerbread mold carvers of Continental Europe. William Woys Weaver is a food historian. He is Guest Curator of the exhibition America Eats: Folk Art and Food which will be presented at

the Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square from December 7, 1989 to February 4, 1990. NOTES 1. "The Coyer:' The Magazine Antiques, 40:4 (Oct. 1941), page 209. 2. "Placing Those Celebrative Cake Molds:' The Magazine Antiques, 40:5(Nov. 1941), page 281. 3. See for example, Li. Schilstra's Prenten in Hout (Lochem: De Tijdstroom by, 1985). 4. "Placing Those Celebrative Cake Molds:'Antiques, p. 281. 5. Carl William Drepperd,"Oh, das Marzipan!;' The Magazine Antiques, 22:6 (Dec. 1932), page 218-220. 6. Eliza Leslie, Seventy-Five Receipts (Boston: Munroe & Frances, 1838), page 52. 7. Eliza Leslie, Directionsfor Cookery (Philadelphia: Carey & Hart, 1848), page 360. 8. See "Potash-Cake:' The Domestic Encyclopedia (Philadelphia: Abraham Small, 1821), vol. 3, page 133. 9. Edith Horandner, Model: Geschnitzte Formen fur Lebkuchen, Spekulatius und Springerle (Munich: Callwey, 1982), pages 50-53. 10. Amelia Simmons, American Cookery (Hartford: Hudson & Goodwin, 1796), page 35. 11. See "New Year Cake Prints, Rollers, Springier Forms, Jelly Moulds, Copper Pans, Furnaces, etc.' The Confectioners' Journal, 2:24 (Dec. 1876), page 27. 12. The Confectioners' Journal, 35:288 (Jan. 1899), page 110.

Small New Year's cake print traditionally used for shortbread; Touchmark of John Conger and his successor, James Y. Watkins; New York; 1830-1835; Mahogany; Ns x 4/ 1 2x 15/ 16'.' Courtesy ofThe Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum.



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REMEMBRANCE OF PATRIA DUTCH ARTS AND CULTURE IN COLONIAL AMERICA 1609-1776 by Roderic H. Blackburn and Ruth Piwonka with an essay on paintings by Mary Black and additional contributions by Charlotte Wilcoxen, Joyce Volk, and Nancy Kelley 318 pages, illustrated Produced by the Publishing Center for Cultural Resources for the Albany Institute of History and Art, 1988 $65.00 hardcover In 1886, the Albany Bicentennial Loan Exhibition presented a comprehensive assembly of "curious relics and precious memorials of many ages:' among them many of the landmarks of the Dutch presence in New York such as the original manuscript charter ofthe city of Albany and the portrait ofPeter Schuyler,its first mayor. According to Norman S. Rice, Director Emeritus of the Albany Institute of History and Art, this exhibition provided the future direction of the Albany Institute. Indeed, the Albany Institute's 1986 exhibition, "Remembrance of Patria;' celebrating the three-hundredth anniversary of the charter, highlighted many of the same pieces, no longer as "curious relics" but as telling documents of an identifiable transplanted cultural community. In his foreword to Remembrance of Patrio, the book based on the 1986 exhibition, Rice invites us into a private world comprised of New York's oldest families and we feel privileged to be there. Author Roderic Blackburn quickly democratizes the text, though, with his no-nonsense approach to the material and the families it represents. Blackburn very clearly explains the formidable goals ofthe book and the exhibition and the methodology used to reach those goals,including trips to the Netherlands and voluminous communications with various authorities in the Netherlands. The task he has set for himself is nothing short of a systematic consideration of Dutch material culture as an entity and a way of understanding all aspects of colonial Dutch life and its Netherlands antecedents. The settlement of New Netherland under the auspices of the Dutch West India Company, chartered in 1621, is discussed in the opening chapters. After an initial period of 66

Portrait of Abraham Wendell; Attributed to John Heaten;Albany, New York; Circa 1737; Oil 1 2"; Collection of Albany on ticking; 295/8 x 35/ Institute ofHistory and Art, gift ofGovernor and Mrs. Averill Harriman and three anonymous donors included in Remembrance of Patria. indifference to the success ofthe colony,the Company subsequently instituted a policy of incentives under the Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions of 1629 to spur colonization in the New World. The authors discuss the patroonships and later manorial systems of land ownership and the impact on the lives of both the patroons and tenant farmers. The importance of the Dutch Reformed Church both as a religious influence and as a force binding the colonists to Dutch culture is also explored. When the English took New Netherland in 1664, the role of the Church,as well as the conservative nature of the Dutch colonials themselves, became increasingly vital to the retention of Dutch characteristics and culture. The generation following the English takeover ofthe colony is exemplified by the remarkable Peter Schuyler, whose talents as leader, intermediary and emissary were largely responsible for the congenial and beneficial relationship enjoyed by the Dutch, the English and the Iroquois. Further chapters are concerned with the daily routines of business and home among the urban populations, the wealthy landed populations and the rural tenants and in-

cludes a substantial discussion of Dutch architecture. The book also looks at early maps and drawings of the Dutch settlements, furniture, interiors, decorative arts, ceramics, silver, textiles and the roles of women and children. A lucid chapter on early colonial painting of New York is contributed by Mary C. Black, Consulting Curator of the Museum of American Folk Art, who has spent many years analyzing the complex relationships among these icons ofearly American painting and identifying the artists who executed them. All this is augmented by the contemporary comments of European observers with different biases. What emerges from these quotations is a picture of the Dutch as an industrious, highly materialistic, isolationist society — tolerant in its daily interactions with people of many cultures, accepting of people who accepted them,and offering greater equality between the sexes and more affection and leniency towards its children than was exhibited in the New England colonies. What also emerges, amusingly,from these quotations are the diverse attitudes of those quoted from the bellicose Warren Johnson to the rational and observant Peter Kalm. Familiar pieces remain some of the most important and informative documents of Dutch life and culture. Of the Van Bergen Ovennantel, Mary Black writes,"[the overmantel] conveys more information about Dutch life in America than any other surviving object of the period:' In the portrait of Abraham Wendell we find the only contemporary representation of a colonial-period Dutch water mill in New York or New Jersey, which alone makes it of interest. Roderic Blackburn further points out the structure ofthe mill and its power source, as well as a gem of trivia: That the three holes on the pediment over the doors probably correspond to those found in Netherlands' barns to allow owls to enter and nest thereby reducing the population of mice and rats that fed on the stored grain. With over three hundred objects pictured and discussed,Remembrance ofPatria must become a basic textbook of Dutch material culture. The addition of a genealogy of the most important families and an unparalleled bibliography of primary and secondary source material insures its use as a scholarly tool for further study of questions still unanswered, some of which are posed by The Clarion

American Decorative Wall Painting 1700-1850

THE PIONEERING WORK ON PAINTED DECORATION IN THE HOME First published in 1952, Nina Fletcher Little's beautiful and fascinating investigation of painted decoration on early woodwork, walls and floors remains one of the most important contributions ever made to the field of American decorative arts. This new enlarged paperback edition not only contains all of the original text and illustrations of the 1952 classic, but also a lavish additional chapter with twenty-nine black-and-white illustrations and twelve color plates on fresh new discoveries in the field. With interest in the architectural use of paint greater than ever before, this standard authority on the subject is an important addition to the libraries of all who love and are students of early American decorative arts. AMERICAN DECORATIVE WALL PAINTING 1700-1850 by Nina Fletcher Little $19.95, paper 12 color plates, 172 black-and-white plates E.P. Dutton • Two Park Avenue • New York, New York 10016

Fall 1989



Blackburn in his introduction. The sheer scope of this book, however, carries its own problems. The actual mechanics of the layout result in a loss of continuity that often makes the already complex material difficult to follow. This is not helped by the frequent instances of captions that apply to pictures many pages removed. The text that introduces each section tends to be just a few pages long while the captions, printed in small type, occupy the greatest portion of the book. In addition,the quotes,in italicized type, often bear little relation to the specific caption discussion and interrupt the reader's concentration. The vast majority of the illustrations are small black-and-white pictures, a grave disappointment after the lushness of the cover, and the difficulty of expecting the reader to be able to discern details pointed out in the text quickly becomes apparent. One is left with the feeling that the authors simply learned so much about the Dutch families and their lives that they needed to relate all the information, whether applicable to an understanding of an object and its reflection of Dutch society or not. And in some cases, where one might wish for more information, it is not forthcoming. For example, in the discussion of a silver teapot Blackburn writes,"A rare glimpse of the craft training of a silversmith survives in several letters of family correspondence. No other early first-hand account of a young apprentice from New York is known:'When we look eagerly for this "rare glimpse" we are referred to a footnoted source. The land-poor Netherland population developed as a largely urban one with a great emphasis placed on material goods, house and garden. The forms which evolved were brought undiluted to New Netherland where they were reinterpreted to meet the challenges of life in the New World with the available materials. The establishment of the material comforts of the Old World in the New and the abundance of food, land and trade led Nicasius de Sille to comment "... in fine, one can live here and forget Patria!' Remembrance ofPatria is a synthesis of the wealth of research material that has come before as well as the source ofthe new research of the last ten years. It is also a celebration and examination of the richly textured culture of Dutch life that was not 68

forgotten in the New World, but reaffirmed. —Stacy C. Hollander Stacy C. Hollander, Assistant Curator at the Museum of American Folk Art, is a graduate of the Museum of American Folk Art/New York University Master's Degree program in American Folk Art. She has recently completed a two-year cataloguing projectfor the Museum funded by the National Endowment for the Arts.

TREASURES OF AMERICAN FOLK ART:FROM THE ABBY ALDRICH ROCKEFELLER FOLK ART CENTER By Beatrix T. Rumford and Carolyn J. Weekley 240 pages, 185 color illustrations Published by Little, Brown and Company, Bulfinch Press, Boston, in association with The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1989 $35.00 hardcover; $22.95 softcover Treasures of American Folk Art is the accompanying catalogue to the traveling exhibition of the same title. The treasures that are on view at scheduled venues across the United States, while the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation enlarges the Folk Art Center building in which the objects are

Appliquéd Quilt, Baltimore and Somerset County, Maryland; Circa 1850; Various cottons with inked details and silver metallic thread;84 x 99"; Gift ofMarsha C. Scott pictured in Treasures of American Folk Art from the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center.

normally housed, are the real attraction. If possible, see the exhibition to appreciate firsthand the objects and through some of them, the persona of Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, who collected them. The preface to the catalogue outlines the formation of Mrs. Rockefeller's collection and traces its evolution, additions, and various installations at Colonial Williamsburg. Images in catalogues cannot compete with the objects "in the flesh;' although the catalogue does serve as a valuable and permanent record of an exhibition once the objects have safely returned to their respective collections. Beatrix T. Rumford, as general editor of both American Folk Portraits and American Folk Paintings, which document the respective collections at the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, has set the standard for a complete, concise, and scholarly format for the entries of objects in the Center's collection. A catalogue documenting an exhibition, however, is inevitably very different, because the parameters set for the inclusion of objects in that particular exhibition may vary. Many of the objects in Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center's latest exhibition are masterpieces — certainly all are treasures. The difficulty in this catalogue lies in organizing the material and grouping or categorizing the pieces. This problem is inherent in any exhibition without a precise thematic content or intent. Despite the artificiality in nomenclature of the chapter headings and the fact that objects in these categories overlap, these classifications serve to organize the catalogue. The descriptive explanation does flow smoothly within each chapter if not from chapter to chapter. The information within each chapter cannot be faulted; it includes historical fact, social commentary, art criticism, and the role of folk art in both the society for which it was created and today's world. In addition, the text itself is presented in a comprehensible style. The staff at Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center is known for careful research; however, their very conservative approach can lead to obfuscation. There is undoubtedly a differentiating degree of certitude between the terms "probably" and "possibly': Despite the descriptive nuances between the two terms, the use of both in a single catalogue entry, or in the same line of attribution, is more confusing than eluciThe Clarion


dating. The "possiblies" and "probablies" are too prolific and repetitive, especially when a "circa" used with dates serves the same purpose. Ongoing scholarship constantly dispels old myths and updates past inaccuracies with new information. The possibilities and probabilities are better kept to a minimum with the understanding that attributions are subject to change, or as the auction houses proclaim, subject to few guarantees. Nitpicking? — perhaps. The collection at Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center is outstanding, and the fact that the photographic images for the most part are clear and consistent in color with the actual objects is reason alone for purchasing the catalogue. Go to the exhibition; buy the catalogue for its color reproductions and informative text. If you can't attend, then the catalogue will hint at what you missed. —Sharon L. Eisenstat Sharon L. Eisenstat is a graduate of the Museum of American Folk Art/New York University Master's Degree program in Folk Art Studies and is currently Managing Editor and Associate Curator for the Museum's forthcoming book and exhibition,"Five-Star Folk Art'

LICK'EM,STICK'EM:THE LOST ART OF POSTER STAMPS by H. Thomas Steele 96 Pages, color and black and white illustrations Published by Abbeville Press, NY,1989 $19.95 hardcover Poster stamp slogans and images shout out boldly from the pages of Lick 'Em, Stick 'Em:The Lost Art ofPoster Stamps. On one stamp a scantly clad mermaid, arms outstretched, sits on top of an oversized tuna sailing over crashing waves proclaiming, "RIDING TO HEALTH ON FISH AND SEAFOOD:' On another stamp produced by the Fisk Rubber Company, a yawning toddler in Dr. Dentons leans against a tire, while the stamp asks "TIME TO RE-TIRE?" (BUY FISK):' A towering green and purple genie stands out against the black background of another stamp announcing America's Electrical Week,December 2 to 9, 1916 and imploring "DO IT ELECTRICALLY!' Fall 1989

LICIVEMSTICKMM Art The Lost — i of Poster Stamps

H. Thomas Steele has amassed hundreds of examples of this peculiar art form — the poster stamp — which flourished for barely fifty years in Europe and America. It is the often whimsical decorative non-postage stamp generally ignored by the world of serious philately. Known in the stamp trade as "Cinderellas;' beautifully illustrated poster stamps were used primarily for advertising and promotion and are the precursors of today's Christmas and Easter Seals. Steele claims there is a "stirring of renewed excitement" in poster stamps as a new collectible. While it appears as if the poster stamp "craze" is more likely limited to what he refers to as a "small but sincere group of collectors;' Steele has nevertheless come up with a compelling case for the beauty, charm and — yes — collectibility of these extraordinary examples of early twentieth century commercial and graphic arts. Just as the fictional Cinderella was kept from attending the Prince's ball with her stepsisters, Steele explains, Cinderella stamps have been unjustly denied consideration by collectors ofstamps.If Steele has his way, these "prints charming" will be taken seriously as art — even high art. The stamps emerged in the fifty years before World War II — an era which saw the popularity of the European graphic poster artists. Clearly the stamps owe much to the larger lithographs, but the poster stamp is a genre in itself, Steele explains, "presenting diminuitively all that the largest billboard displayed, accomplishing everything that is required of an efficient poster!' Many of the artists created their design

exclusively for the miniature canvas of the stamp. Theirs was an art of concision and condensation, not reduction. Rather than simply serving as shrunken versions of their brazen forebears,the poster stamps speak in a unique voice. With less-is-more economy, they establish their own place in the world of modern advertising and, perhaps, the world of contemporary art. The stamps originated in Germany, as "Reklame Marken" ("advertising stamps") around the turn-of-the-century, and they quickly enjoyed popularity throughout Europe. The bright-colored mini-lithographs represented a bold departure from the monochromatic engravings of traditional postage stamps. Americans adopted the idea with a vengeance and soon colorful advertising stamps were found attached to envelopes and invoices and inserted into candy wrappers. Children would collect the stamps in candy packages much like baseball cards with gum sticks. The stamps were used to announce products (Morton Salt, Miller Standard Surgeons Rubber Gloves), promote events (International Hygiene Exhibition, Dresden 1930; Los Angeles X Olympiad, 1932), tourism (Eugene, Oregon,"The City of Radiation"; Chicago, "The Summer Resort"; Riverside, California. "The City That's Different"), and even to sell cars with the list price printed on the stamp. The book is as much a tribute to the beginnings of twentieth-century advertising as it is to the art of these stamps. In addition, poster stamps — like the posters — were used for political propaganda and public service announcements. Political parties, patriotism and war bonds were pushed with these undersized posters. One World War I stamp depicting tanks under a dark blue night sky proclaims"Only the Stars are Neutral!' Steele has found some truly beautiful and outstanding pieces — both historically and artistically important. In his exhuberance to sell people on his discovery, though, Steele perhaps overstates the importance of these finds. The case for poster stamps as "high art"is a weak one. These pieces are the work of "anonymous unheralded" commercial artists who produced thousands of these designs over the half century or so during which they were popular. They reflect the naive spirit of a newly industrialized world which is quite pleased with itself. Steele's 69


collection contains representative examples of important developments in graphic design including what he calls"a new vocabulary for the visual arts:' Taken for what it is, a large, diverse collection of"printed ephemera'Lick'Em, Stick 'Em is a charming book and may in fact herald a new era of poster stamp collecting. The book includes a sheet of colorful "collectible" poster stamps to help get you started. —Mike DeWitt

Shaker Baske

Mike DeWitt is a student at Wesleyan University in Connecticut. He worked as a summer intern at The Clarion.

SHAKER BASKETS By Martha Wetherbee and Nathan Taylor Published by Martha Wetherbee Basket Shop, Sanbornton, NH,1988 230 pages, black-and- white photographs $39.95 hardcover; $29.95 softcover BASKETRY:THE SHAKER TRADITION By John McGuire Published by Lark Books, Asheville, NC, 1988 144 pages, color and black-and-white photographs $24.95 hardcover

tort TeLhroque

In recent years there has been a respectable number of books published about the Shakers. The bookshelf of a Shaker collector or scholar may hold twenty or more volumes on the subject. Now it's time to add two more. Shaker Baskets and Basketry: The Shaker Tradition are important new books. It is interesting that two books dealing with an aspect of the Shakers that has been largely unexplored have appeared nearly simultaneously on the market. Each book offers a unique perspective on the subject. Shaker Baskets by Martha Wetherbee and Nathan Taylor is an achievement, and it is easy to understand why this book was thirteen years in the making.It is thoroughly researched and intelligently written — the authors delved into unpublished journals and day books of the Shakers, and sought out unpublished contextual photographs of 70


Shaker baskets. They took apart known,but damaged, Shaker baskets and studied their form, their construction and, importantly, their function. They "lived" baskets as they say in their introduction. What results is a book which, as Faith Andrews, a preeminent Shaker scholar, states in her introduction to Shaker Baskets, sets the "standard for what Shaker research should be!' Shaker Baskets is about much more than baskets. A clear and concise history of the

Shaker movement is woven evenly throughout the book. While to many well read students of the Shakers there will be repetition in this history, there is still plenty of new information to digest. Remember the story is told this time from a basketmaking perspective, and basketmaking was perhaps what saved the Shakers in the waning years when male membership had fallen off drastically. Read Shaker Baskets and you will become more knowledgeable about Indian and early settler baskets. In addition, you will learn about the black ash tree, its habitat, and its growth rings; you will know how to pound splint and get "satin!' You will also discover that Shaker basketmaking was much like a modern production line. The authors discuss split uprights, wide weavers and chase weaving and educate the reader on handles, rims, molds and tools and how each fit into the overall basketmaking tradition. Above all, appreciation for the beauty of a basket, Shaker or otherwise, will be enhanced. It is best to read Shaker Baskets when you can spend a few uninterrupted hours with the book in one hand and a basket (of any origin) in the other. Despite a myriad of excellent photographs, there is nothing like the real thing when trying to learn this subject. Be prepared for the fact that a basket you bought as "Shaker" may not fit the Wetherbee/Taylor defmition of a Shaker basket. Retain the idea, which the authors state, that there are a number ofearly Shaker baskets which defy their formulas. The baskets that Shaker Baskets focuses on are the Shaker "fancy" baskets, those that were sold to the world. The last sentence in the authors' introduction states that the "story keeps unfolding!' There is always more to learn and the next chapter in this study is awaited with eagerness. The major thrust in Basketry: The Shaker Tradition is how to make a Shaker basket. John McGuire spent time as the resident basketmaker at Hancock Shaker Village and while there immersed himself in the Shaker story. He brings to this book his new awareness and respect for the Shakers, their society and especially their basketmaking traditions. When McGuire relates the history and background of the Shaker society in this book it is a little confusing and hard to The Clarion

Custom Made Stretchers for displaying Quilts & Hooked Rugs Rag Carpets sewn together for Area Rugs

Pie Galinat 230 w 10th St., ny., n.y. 10014 (212) 741- 3259


follow. However, following his direction should lead to a basket that will closely resemble the real thing. He is so thorough in his approach that he reminds the reader to ask permission before treading on someone else's property in quest of the black ash tree and suggests relaxing the wrist at the moment of impact when pounding splint. While there are those who will cringe at the idea of plastic molds and the use of a microwave oven for splint drying, please recall that the Shakers were very forward in their thinking. If they were making baskets today they might well be using this new technology. Basketry: The Shaker Tradition is profusely illustrated with fine photographs. Each step in the basketmaking process is clearly shown; photographs reinforce the process giving the reader full opportunity to Fall 1989

understand each step. There are detailed instructions for making a cat head basket, spoon basket, personal carrier, pin cushion, fancy rectangular basket and twilled basket lid. Do not, however, think of this as only a how-to book. Reading through the instructions is interesting for even the most casual reader and also helps clarify some terms and procedures that make a basket Shaker. Robert F. Meader, of Hancock Shaker Village, sums up the accomplishments of this book when he says in his introduction that John McGuire makes "real and living the craftspeople and the work of their hands!' Between these two books there are differences of opinion. For example, Wetherbee/Taylor strongly suggest that a basket must be made of black ash to be Shaker while McGuire adds white oak and hickory. McGuire writes that the Shakers may not

have sold swing handle baskets, but they did make them. Wetherbee/Taylor claim knowledge of only one swing handled Shaker basket. Readers can draw their own conclusions and form their own opinions, which after having read these two books, they will be infinitely better qualified to do. McGuire's inclusion of a glossary and a list of basketry suppliers is welcome. Both books lack a detailed bibliography and that is regrettable. These books should reach a large audience, for just a passing interest in baskets, old or new, Shaker or not, ensures a pleasurable and informative reading experience. —Paula Laverty Paula Laverty is an advanced student at the Folk Art Institute. She and her husband are Shaker collectors. 71


I am pleased and proud to announce a unique and very special corporate relationship which has been established between the Museum of American Folk Art and Hartmarx Corporation. The company will introduce the inaugural season of Briar Traditional Apparel, a new line of American tailored clothing for men, during the Fall 1989. Hartmarx Corporation has made a generous corporate membership commitment to the Museum of American Folk Art over several years in conjunction with the introduction of Briar Traditional Apparel to the public and the presentation of seasonal offerings in the future. Although Hartmarx Corporation has some thirty-two clothing brands, including well-known Hart, Schaffner & Marx, the introduction of Briar Traditional Apparel marks the first step by the company to develop its own network of a multi-product brand of traditional men's apparel. In order to effec-

tively present the line, Hartmarx Corporation has decided to incorporate folk art into the image of Briar Traditional Apparel. Hartmarx Corporation will, as a benefit of its corporate membership, utilize the educational resources of the Museum, including the permanent collection and the library, in the preparation of printed materials which introduce each season's offerings. Objects from the permanent collection of the Museum as well as the private collections of Museum members which are historically and aesthetically consistent with each season's style will be integrated into photographic sessions. As a result, Briar Traditional Apparel will be very closely associated with American folk art and the idea of classic American craftsmanship. Photography for the Fall 1989 and Spring 1990 seasons has already been completed with the assistance of several members of the Museum. The Fall

* 3'1U 4

Shown above are two examples ofBriar Traditional Apparel advertisements which were photographed in Vermont for the Fall 1989 season. The following acknowledgement is incorporated into each advertisement: "Briar is proud to be a sponsor ofthe Museum ofAmerican Folk Art:'


1989 line, the inaugural season, was photographed on location in Vermont on the Morgan horse farm of two very special friends. Objects from the Museum collection as well as beautiful sculptural works and textiles from the collection of these members were incorporated into the layouts. The Spring 1990 line was photographed in Palm Beach, Florida; again, objects from the Museum collection were complemented by several outstanding examples of American folk art from the collection of two generous members in Florida. Yet another special Museum member in the San Francisco area assisted in lending objects for the Fall 1990 photography session which took place in the Bay area. The combination of support from Hartmarx Corporation, and the important assistance of Museum members nationwide, will continue to make this relationship a great success! Hartmarx Corporation is committed to preserving American folk art through the incorporation of outstanding examples into its national image and through its generous support of the Museum of American Folk Art. The following statement, from the Fall 1989 Briar Traditional Apparel brochure, summarizes the company's philosophy: "Symbolizing a long-standing credence to the tenets of fine design, Briar is proud to sponsor the Museum of American Folk Art. The Museum's celebrated works will play an integral role in building Briar's national image this season, for the collection shares the vitality and honest, straightforward spirit so evident in our country's folk art:' In these times of reduced support from so many traditional arts sources,it is especially gratifying for the Museum of American Folk Art to have a commitment, both fmancially and philosophically, from Hartmarx Corporation and Briar Traditional Apparel. The Clarion


Los Angeles Tribal and Folk Art Show ONE HUNDRED DEALERS Folk and Tribal Arts Worldwide (pre-1940)


Santo, New Mexico, circa 1830.

Saturday, November 11, 1989 11:00 a.m.-7:00 p.m. Sunday, November 12, 1989 11:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. Santa Monica Civic Auditorium Santa Monica, California General admission $6.00 Jacquard Coverlet attributed to Michael Schwartz, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; circa 1849.

Preview Opening Saturday, November 11, 1989 9:00 a.m.-11:00 a.m. Preview admission $20.00 The Preview Opening will benefit the Antique Tribal Art Dealers Association.

RD I. BOX 134• BEUEVILLE, PA 17004 • (717) 935-5125

Fall 1989

For further information, please contact: Caskey-Lees P.O. Box 1637, Topanga, California 90290, 213-455-2886


MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLK ART BOARD OF TRUSTEES Exective Committee Ralph Esmerian President Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq. Executive Vice President Lucy C. Danziger Vice President George E Shaskan, Jr. Treasurer Mrs. Dixon Wecter Secretary Karen D. Cohen Judith A. Jedlicka Theodore L. Kesselman Susan Klein Kathryn Steinberg

Members Mabel H. Brandon Florence Brody Peter M. Ciccone Daniel Cowin Barbara Johnson, Esq. William I. Leffler George H. Meyer Cyril I. Nelson Cynthia V.A. Schaffner William Schneck Ronald K. Shelp Bonnie Strauss

Maureen Taylor Robert N. Wilson Honorary Trustee Eva Feld Trustees Emeriti Adele Earnest Cordelia Hamilton Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr. Louis C. Jones Margery G. Kahn Alice M. Kaplan Jean Lipman

DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE Judith A. Jedlicka Theodore L. Kesselman Co-Chairmen Lewis Alpaugh Hoechst Celanese Corporation Gordon Bowman Corporate Creative Programs Frank Brenner Hartmarx Corporation

John Mack Carter Good Housekeeping Paul Chusid Squibb Corporation Jerry Kaplan Better Homes and Gardens Allan Kaufman Long Distance North

Francine Lynch Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A. Rachel Newman Country Living Thomas Troland Country Home Barbara Wright New York Telephone

INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL Frances Sirota Martinson, Esq. Mrs. Dixon Wecter Co-Chairmen Paul Anbinder William Arnett Frank & June Barsalona Mary Black Susan Blumstein Judi Boisson Gray Boone Robert & Katherine Booth Barbara & Edwin Braman Milton Brechner Raymond Brousseau Edward J. Brown Charles Burden Tracy Cate Margaret Cavigga Edward Lee Cave Richard & Peggy Danziger David Davies Marian DeWitt Davida Deutsch Charlotte Dinger Raymond & Susan Egan Margo Ernst Howard Fertig 74

Ted & Joanne Foulk Jacqueline Fowler Ken & Brenda Fritz Ronald Gard Robert S. Gelbard Dr. Kurt A. Gitter Merle & Barbara Glick Howard M. Graff Bonnie Grossman Michael & Julie Hall Lewis I. Haber Elaine Heifetz Terry Heled Josef & Vera Jelinek Joan Johnson Eloise Julius Isobel & Harvey Kahn Allen Katz James Keene Mark Kennedy Arthur & Sibyl Kern William Ketchum Susan Kraus Wendy Lavitt Marilyn Lubetkin Robert & Betty Marcus Paul Martinson

Steven Michaan Michael & Marilyn Mennello Alan Moss Kathleen S. Nester Helen Neufeld Henry Niemann Paul Oppenheimer Dr. Burton W. Pearl Patricia Penn Leo & Dorothy Rabldn Harriet Polier Robbins Charles & Jan Rosenak Joseph J. Rosenberg Le Rowell Randy Siegel Sibyl Simon Susan Simon Ann Marie Slaughter Sanford L. Smith R. Scudder Smith Richard Solar Hume Steyer Jane Supino Edward Tishelman Tony & Anne Vanderwarker John Weeden G. Marc Whitehead The Clarion


The Museum of American Folk Art thanks its current major donors for their generous support:

$20,000 and above Amster, Rothstein & Ebenstein Asahi Shimbun Bear, Stearns & Co.,Inc. Ben & Jerry's Homemade,Inc. Bidermann Industries Judi Boisson Marilyn 8c Milton Brechner Chinon, Ltd. Cosmair Inc. Country Living Mr. & Mrs. Frederick M.Danziger Dillard's Mrs. Eva Feld Estate of Morris Feld Genesco Inc. Hartmarx Corporation William Randolph Hearst Foundation The Hot Sox Co.,Inc. IBM Corporation Klear-Knit, Inc. Kodansha, Ltd. Mr. & Mrs. Ralph Lauren Jean & Howard Lipman R.H. Macy & Co.,Inc. Mahoney Cohen & Co. Manifaro Inc. Joseph Martinson Memorial Fund The May Stores Foundation, Inc. National Endowment for the Arts New York State Council on the Arts Optique Du Monde Ltd. Oxford Industries, Inc. PaineWebber Group Inc. Philip Morris Companies Polo Ralph Lauren Corporation Leo & Dorothy Rabkin Restaurant Associates Industries, Inc. Seibu Corporation of America Herbert and Nell Singer Foundation, Inc. Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom J.P. Stevens & Co., Inc. United Technologies Corporation Warnaco Inc. Warner Communications Mrs. Dixon Wecter Wells, Rich, Greene, Inc. Whisper Knits, Inc. The Xerox Foundation $10,000-$19,999 Estate of Mary Allis American Express Company Amicus Foundation Lily Cates Coats & Clark,Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Peter Cohen Cowen & Company The Joyce & Daniel Cowin Foundation Inc. Culbro Corporation Adele Earnest Fairfield Processing Corporation/Poly-fil Daniel and Jessie Lie Farber Fall 1989

Walter and Josephine Ford Fund Taiji Harada The Peter S. Kalikow Fund,Inc. Shirley and Theodore L. Kesselman Kohlberg Kravis & Roberts Foundation Naomi Leff& Associates, Inc. Manufacturers Hanover Trust Masco Corporation Kathleen S. Nester New York Telephone Reliance Group Holdings Republic National Bank of New York Revlon Group Inc. Derrald Ruttenberg Schlumberger Foundation, Inc. David Schwartz Foundation, Inc. Samuel Schwartz Mr. & Mrs. George F. Shaskan, Jr. Shearson Lehman Hutton Peter and Linda Solomon Foundation Springs Industries Mr. & Mrs. Robert Steinberg Barbara and Thomas W.Strauss Fund Watt= Ltd. Weiss Peck & Greer Wilke Farr & Gallagher $4,000-$9,999 American Stock Exchange The Bemhill Fund Bristol-Myers Rind Mr. & Mrs. Martin Brody The David and Dorothy Carpenter Foundation Tracy Roy & Barbara Wahl Cate Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A. Mr. & Mrs. Edgar M. Cullman Mr. & Mrs. Richard Danziger David Davies Department of Cultural Affairs, City of New York Jacqueline Fowler Colonel Alexander W. Gentleman Richard Goodyear Hoechst Celanese Corporation Barbara Johnson, Esq. Margery and Harry Kahn Philanthropic Fund Kornreich Insurance Services Mr. & Mrs. Robert Klein Wendy & Mel Lavitt Metropolitan Life Foundation George H. Meyer Steven Michaan Annette Reed Arthur Ross Foundation The Salomon Foundation Squibb Corporation Mr. & Mrs. Stanley Tananbaum John Weeden Robert N.& Anne Wright Wilson Norman & Rosita Winston Foundation $2,000-$3,999 American Folk Art Society American Savings Bank Berry Hill Galleries Inc. The Mary Duke Biddle Foundation Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Block Capital Cities/ABC

The Coach Dairy Goat Farm Country Home Mr. & Mrs. Joseph F. Cullman 3rd Exxon Corporation Mr. & Mrs. Alvin Einbender Cordelia Hamilton Justus Heijmans Foundation Johnson & Johnson Knapp Communications Corporation Mr. & Mrs. Richard LeFrak Mr. & Mrs. Daniel W. Lufkin Marsh & McLennan Companies Christopher & Linda Mayer McGraw-Hill, Inc. Morgan Stanley & Co.,Incorporated The New York Times Company Foundation, Inc. Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation Laura H. Petito Foundation The Reader's Digest Association, Inc. Betsey Schaeffer Robert T. & Cynthia V.A. Schaffner S.H.& Helen Scheuer Mr.& Mrs. Derek V. Schuster Joel & Susan Simon Mr. & Mrs. Austin Super Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Taylor Time Inc. Mangle Foundation V.I.P. Fabrics Adrienne Vittadini Inc. David & Jane Walentas $1,000-$1,999 B. Altman & Co. Brooke Astor The Bachmann Foundation Didi & David Barrett Mr. & Mrs. Frank Barsalona Stephen Bell Mr. & Mrs. Albert Bellas Edward Vermont Blanchard & M. Anne Hill Bill Blass, Ltd. Bozell, Jacobs, Kenyon & Eckhardt Mr.& Mrs. Edwin Braman Mabel H. Brandon Edward J. Brown Ian G.M. & Marian M. Brownlie Morris B. and Edith S. Cartin Family Foundation Inc. Edward Lee Cave Liz Claiborne Foundation Consolidated Edison Company of New York The Cowles Charitable Trust Crane Co. Richard K. Descherer Mr. & Mrs. Alvin Deutsch Mr. & Mrs. Donald DeWitt Gerald & Marie DiManno The Marion and Ben Duffy Foundation Echo Foundation Ellin E Ente Virginia S. Esmerian John L. Ernst Faith Golding Foundation Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Stuart Feld Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Ferguson Janey Fire 8c John Kalymnios 75


M. Anthony Fisher Susan & Eugene Flamm The Franklin Mint George Friedman Mr. & Mrs. Richard S. Fuld, Jr. Generra Sportswear Co.,Inc. Emanuel Gerard The Howard Gilman Foundation Selma & Sam Goldwitz Renee Graubert Mr. & Mrs. Martin D. Gruss Mr. & Mrs. Charles Gwathmey Terry & Simca Heled The Betty L. Hess Fund Hirschl & Adler Galleries Alice & Ronald Hoffman Stanley Jaffee Productions Mr. & Mrs. Yee Roy Jear Judith A. Jedlicka Joan & Victor L. Johnson William K. Joseph Isobel & Harvey Kahn Kallir, Philips, Ross, Inc. Mr.& Mrs. Leslie Kaplan The Karp Foundation The Kihi Lee & Ed Kogan Mr. & Mrs. Arie L. Kopelman Susan Kudlow Mr. 8z Mrs. Jeffrey Lane Estee Lauder Inc. Mt & Mrs. Ronald Lauder Estate of Mary B. Ledwith William & Susan Leffler John A. Levin Co.,Inc. Dorothy & John Levy James & Frances Lieu Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Liman Macmillan, Inc. Robert & Betty Marcus Foundation, Inc. Mr. & Mrs. James H. Manges Marstrand Foundation Helen R. Mayer & Harold C. Mayer Foundation Marjorie W. McConnell Meryl & Robert Meltzer Michael & Marilyn Mennello Robert & Joyce Menschel Foundation Benson Motechin, C.P.A., P.C. National Westminster Bank USA The Natori Company New York Council for the Humanities Mr. & Mrs. Donald E. Newhouse Maine Lou O'Kelley Mr. & Mrs. Edward Pantzer Penn Conn Limited Mr. & Mrs. Mark Perlbinder Mr. & Mrs. Roger Phillips Mr. & Mrs. William Potter Ramac Corporation Cathy Rasmussen Ann-Marie Reilly Paige Rense Marguerite Riordan Mrs. John D. Rockefeller III Alyce & Roger Rose Willa & Joseph Rosenberg Mt & Mrs. Jon Rotenstreich Schlaifer Nance Foundation 76

Mr. & Mrs. William Schneck R.D. Schonfeld & Co., Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Richard Sears Randy Siegel Rev. & Mrs. Alfred R. Shands III George Sheinberg Ronald K. Shelp Mrs. Vera W. Simmons Philip & Mildred Simon Mrs. A. Simone Mr. & Mrs. Richard L. Solar Mr. 8z Mrs. Elie Soussa Mr. & Mrs. Sanford L. Smith Sterling Drug,Inc. Paul Stuart Mr. & Mrs. Michael L. Tarnopol Phyllis & Irving Tepper That Patchwork Place Tiffany & Co. Tishman Speyer Properties Anne D. Utescher H. van Ameringen Foundation Tony & Anne Vanderwarker Veronis, Suhler & Associates Elizabeth & Irwin Warren Weil, Gotshal & Manges Foundation Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Weintraub Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Whitman Weiss Wertheim Schroder & Co. Mr. & Mrs. John H. Winkler Mr. & Mrs. Jon Wurtzburger $500-$999 APCO Corporation Didier Aaron Robin Albin Helen & Paul Anbinder Anthony Annese Louis Bachman Nancy Bachrach David C. Batten Roger S. Berlind Jeffrey & Mary Bijur Eleanor Dell Billet Robert & Katherine Booth Michael 0. Braun Carolyn & Kenneth Brody Nan Bush Inc. Mr.& Mrs. Ward Carey Colwill/McGee, Inc. Confluence Edward & Nancy Coplon Judy Angelo Cowen Edgar M.Cullman, Jr. The Dammatm Fund,Inc. Andre & Sarah de Coizart Oscar de la Renta Mr. & Mrs. James DeSilva, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. James A.Edmonds, Jr. Richard C. & Susan B. Ernst Foundation Mr. & Mrs. Howard Fertig Janet Fleisher Gallery Timothy C. Forbes Estelle E. Friedman Kenneth & Brenda Fritz Rild Gail Interiors Peter Gee Katharine S. Gilbert

Mr.& Mrs. William L. Gladstone Gomez Associates Mr. & Mrs. Baron J. Gordon Dr. & Mrs. Stanley Greenberg Grey Advertising, Inc. The Charles U. Harris Living Trust Denison H. Hatch Craig M. Hatkoff Stephen Hill Holiday Inn of Auburn Raymond E. Holland David Horowitz Mr. & Mrs. David S. Howe Mr. & Mrs. Thomas C. Israel Cathy M. Kaplan Mary Kettaneh Mr. & Mrs. Jonathan King Jana K. Klauer Joel & Kate Kopp Elaine Koster Helene-Diane Kravis Janet Langlois Dalia Leeds Mr. & Mrs. Peter Levy Mr. & Mrs. Richard M.Livingston Helen E. & Robert B. Luchars Manderley Antiques Hennine Mariaux Robin & William Mayer Mr. & Mrs. D. Eric McKechnie Gael Mendelsohn Christie Ferer Millard Pierson K. Miller Mr. & Mrs. Richard Netter Dr. Burton W. Pearl Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence B. Pike Priory Partners Mr. & Mrs. Stanley M. Riker Betty Ring Dorothy Roberts Trevor C. Roberts Joanna S. Rose Richard Sabino Saks Fifth Avenue Mary Frances Saunders Skidmore Owings & Merrill Smith Gallery SONY Corporation of America David E Stein Robert C.& Patricia A. Stempel Sterling Sound Texaco Philanthropic Foundation,Inc. Marco P. Walker Washburn Gallery Bruce Weber Anne G. Wesson Mr. & Mrs. Joint R. Young Marcia & John Zweig

The Museum is grateful to the Co-Chairmen of its Special Events Committee for the significant support received through the Museum's major fund raising events chaired by them. Karen D. Cohen Cynthia V.A. Schaffner The Clarion

Shelly Zegart Quilts, etc. ANTIQUE QUILTS


We have a quilt you'll love!

PAINTINGS For color photos and current catalogue, send $5 and stamped, self addressed envelope.


Authenticity and satisfaction guaranteed. MasterCard!VISA accepted. 12-Z River Hill Rd. Louisville, Ky. 40207

(502) 897-7566 By Appointment



PANTRY& HEARTH Quality .18' and 19'1 Century Kitchen and Hearth Related Jccessories (212) 532-0535



by appointmen or chance CERAMICS,





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Fall 1989




We wish to thank the following members for their increased membership contributions and for their expression of confidence in the Museum:

Mama Anderson, New York, NY Australian National Gallery, Canberra, Australia R. Sylvia Barton, Hermosa Beach, CA Patricia D. Bethke, Armonk, NY Michael Braun, New York, NY Kayla Briggs, Berkeley Heights, NJ James H. Bryson, Blue Bell, PA Leah Haggerty & Clark, New York, NY Jane A. Conway, Birmingham, MI Deborah Cummins, Barrington Hills, IL Aaron Daniels, New York, NY Mrs. William J. Doyle, New York, NY Sharon Eisenstat, Summit, NJ Ellin Feld, Garrison, NY

Alan M.Forster, Westport, CT Carol Freidus, New York, NY Ivan Gilbert, Columbus,OH Sam & Selma Goldwitz, Ridgefield, CT H. Baird Hansen,Syracuse, NY Ms. Norma Helwege, New York, NY Hatsue Honda, Forest Hills, NY Mrs. Jack Hughston, Cataula, GA Helen E.S. Iffland, New York, NY Andrew S. Jarmus, New York, NY Dr. J.E. Jelinek, New York, NY Guy Johnson, Red Bank, NJ Peggy Jones, Santa Fe, NM Madeline Joyce, Ridgefield, CT Louise R. Kaminow, Hewlett, NY Lee Katzoff, Yardley, PA William Ketchum, Rye, NY Norma & Aaron Kramer, New York, NY Mrs. Robert Lang, Rye, NY Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Lauder, New York, NY Annette Levey, Marina Del Rey, CA

Mrs. Erwin Maddrey, Greenville, SC Pierson K. Miller, Carlisle, PA Mrs. Thomas Mumford, Griffm, IN Mr. & Mrs. Peter Nason, Carversville, PA Sandra Nowlin, Franklin Lakes, NJ Linda Lee Ominsky,Philadelphia, PA Merrilee J. Posner, New York, NY George Quay, Chagrin Falls, OH Milton S. Rattner, New York, NY Paige Rense, Los Angeles, CA Lois Rosenthal, Cincinnati, OH Stanley Sackin, Atlanta, GA Arthur & Miriam Silverman, New York, NY Susan & Joel Simon, Montclair, NJ Sanford Smith, New York, NY James Sutherland, Cincinnati, OH Nancy Karlins Thoman, Glen Ridge, NJ Arno Uhlhorn, Glen Ellyn,IL Mr. G. Marc Whitehead, Wayzata, MN Mary W. Williams, Rutherford, NJ Jane Wulf, New York, NY


The Museum trustees and staff extend a special welcome to these new members:

Karen Ambramovitz, New York, NY Louise B. Anderberg, Canterbury, CT Edward Deming Andrews, New York, NY Linda AnseImo, Forest Hills, NY Andrew A. Anspach, New York, NY Keiko Aoshima, Port Washington, NY Mr. & Mrs. Jay T. Applegate, New York, NY Cindy Lea Arbelbide, Fort Worth, TX Katherine B. Archer, New York, NY Elayne Aschlcenes, New York, NY Linda Dano Attardi, New York, NY

Carl Bachmann, Atlanta, GA Elly Baily, Farmington, CT Thelma Barry, New York, NY Monty V. Batts, Columbus, OH Ellen Beach, La Jolla, CA Marjorie Behrens, New York, NY Carol E Beitcher, New Rochelle, NY Ruth K. Belikove, Metuchen, NJ Michael Belknap, Canaan, NY Susan Benton, Palo Alto, CA Jan Benzel, New York, NY Myron A. Berkowitz, New York, NY Elisa Bernstein, New York, NY


Cathy Bernstein, Stamford, CT Amanda M.Berry, Bellingham, WA Sanford M. Besser, Little Rock, AR Lynn Bilik, Berkeley, CA Joanne M. Blodgett, Chula Vista, CA Susan Boller, New York, NY Mrs. Joyce Bowes, Lancaster, PA Dr. James D. Boyce, Garden Grove, CA Heddi Bradley, Ogdensburg, NJ Kit Bradshaw, New York, NY Stephanie Braskey, Pottstown,PA Penny Brewer, New Bedford, MA Carolyn Brickett, Raleigh, NC Sharon Brophy, New York, NY Anna Brown, San Mateo, CA Mrs. Robert B. Brown, New York, NY Rose Bryan-Brown, New York, NY Nancilu Burdick, Orchard Park, NY Angela Bums, Cobham,England Mr. 8z Mrs. James T. Byrne Jr., Garden City, NY

Sandra & Barry Campbell, Bridgewater, NJ Katherine Canaday, Bronxville, NY Marsha Carson, Oakland, CA Bucky Cates, New York, NY Meryl Cayton, Northport, NY S. Thad Cherry Jr, Waverly, VA Jane B. Clark, Jamesburg, NJ Barbara Cohn, Los Angeles, CA Giles Colahan, Brooklyn, NY Eleanore C. Collins, Bronx, NY

Arlene & B.J. Conboy,Forest Hills, NY Adriaime Conflenti, Los Angeles, CA Mrs. Diane J. Coombs,Everett, WA F. Copeland, Toronto, Canada Judith Corrigan, Midland, TX Elsie Jane Crowley, New York, NY Jeannie A. Curhan, East Dennis, MA Ann Curley, Southport, CT Peggy Custard, Beaver,PA

Mitchell Darch, Chicago,IL Elizabeth Davey, New York, NY Stephen and Marga Davis, New York, NY Dr. Courtland H. Davis Jr., Winston-Salem, NC Morton DeBroff, Pittsburgh, PA Jane L. Del Favero, New York, NY Joyce Deyo, New York, NY Vilunya Dislcin, Cambridge, MA W.J. Dooley,Palm Springs, GA Sandy Drake, Waka,TX Sara Dratch, Schenectady, NY Marilyn Drennan, Bayonne, NJ Mr. & Mrs. Douglas A. Dunn, Scarsdale, NY

Hon. & Mrs. Edward M. Rowell, New York, NY Clyde Eller, Buffalo, NY Jo Ann Emmerich, New York, NY Jeffrey Epstein, New York, NY Beverly Erbacher, Cincinnati, OH

The Clarion


M.Erbes, Dunwoody,GA Esther Ann Ewert, Sherman Oaks,CA

Suzy Farbman, Huntington Woods, MI Kenneth Fechtner, Atlanta, GA Ellen Feig, New York, NY Suzanne & Howard Feldman, New York, NY Susan Feldman, New York, NY Anne Fenton, Long Island City, NY Judi Fibush, Santa Clara, CA Dorothy H. Fillmore, Windsor, CT John Finley, New Orleans, LA Joanne M.Flora, Jersey City, NJ Helen C. Flynn, New York, NY Mary A. Foppiani, Brookline, MA John Frame, Wrightwood, CA Joe C. Freeman Jr., Atlanta, GA Prof. Kihuko Fujii, Osaka, Japan

James A. Ganis, Palm Desert, CA Darlene Geis, New York, NY Barbara Genco, Huntington, NY Denise di Giovanni-Kirksey, San Carlos, CA Diane Goldman, Mt. Kisco, NY Ed & Bobbie Goldstein, Germantown, MD Harriet Wohl Goldstein, New York, NY Betsy Gomberg, Chicago, IL R. Gordon, Dorset, VT Mrs. Jeanne Kent Green, Philadelphia, PA Shirley E. Greenwald, New York, NY Gail Gregg, New York, NY Carolyn Grillo, New York, NY Marjorie P. Groff, Boyertown, PA Barbara Gross, Wilmington, DE

Bruce Haims, New York, NY Jane Hamada, New York, NY Darlene Hammond,Findlay, OH Joan C. Helpem, New York, NY Mrs. Catherine Herbst, Short Hills, NJ Sandra G. Heyman, New York, NY Junko Hikida, New York, NY Donald Hillman, New York, NY Lois N. Hilton, New York, NY Hudson Holland Jr., Nantucket, MA Charles Holzer, Portland, OR Minna Horowitz, New York, NY Nancy Hoyler, Co!den, NY Charlotte E. Hummell,E. Rockaway, NY Rosemary A. Hunt, New York, NY Sherry Hurwitz,l'renton, NJ

Mary Iannone, East Amherst, NY Mr. & Mrs. H.D. limber, Reading,PA Pamela Jacobs, South Egremont, MA Tracy Jamar, New York, NY Cynthia Johanson, Washington, DC Judith Johnson, New York, NY Fall 1989

Cheryl Johnson, New York, NY Marion Johnston, Valley Stream, NY Millicent K. Jones, New York, NY

Elizabeth Keepin, New York, NY Judith S. Kelius, Pottstown,PA Keith Swor Kendrick, New York, NY Sue Kennedy, Clinton, NY Carlyn Kingston, Hillsdale, NJ Lila W. Kirkland, Glen Head, NY Richard Knapple, New York, NY Lynn Kranz, Bay Village, OH Mary Elise A. ICreeft, Los Altos, CA Manly Kroening, Milwaukee, WI Mrs. Lucy Kroll, New York, NY Ruth Kunstadter, Brooklyn, NY Gloria Kurek, Woodbridge, CT Sandra Kurtz, Minneapolis, MN

Mrs. Beth LaCasse, White Plains, NY Mrs. Daphne Lake, Wyckoff, NJ Elise Langsam, New York, NY Ann C. Lapham, New York, NY Carolyn A. Lare, Telford, PA Louanne LaRoche, Hilton Head Island, SC Matthew J. Lasky, New York, NY Judith Lawler, Nyack, NY Deborah Leff, New York, NY Dorothy Leonard, Belle Plaine,IA Helaine Lesnick, Scarsdale, NY Barbara Levinson, New York, NY Mildred Levinstone, West Orange, NJ Stephen Lindberg, Keansburg, NJ Sandra Linderman, Thousands Oaks,CA Bruce Liman, Bangall, NY Fran Liu, Palo Alto, CA Drs. Tom & Pat Loeb,Roslyn, NY Barbara Lovely, Marietta, OH Susan Shaskan Luse, Bethesda, MD

Elizabeth B. MacDonald, Hamden,CT Carla Magoun, South Paris, ME Catherine E. Malcolm, New York, NY Mary Beth Manarchy, Chicago,IL Dianne Marcus,Port Chester, NY Mary Grace Maresca, Brooklyn, NY Helen Markel, New York, NY Lowell R. Marks, Los Angeles, CA Lauren Marrell, New York, NY Kathryn Martucci, Irvington, NY Norma May, New York, NY Cady McClain, New York, NY Sandra McCormack, New York, NY Mamie Mclndoe, New York, NY Anne Messina, East Williston, NY Cecelia Z. Messina, West Chester,PA Ann Metzger, Los Angeles, CA George Meyer Jr., Takoma Park, MD Eileen Meyers, New York, NY

Bryna Milberg, New York, NY Ms. Linda Miller, Providence, RI Ellwood, L. Miller, Myerstown,PA P.M. Miller, Leawood, KS Joanie Miller, Manchester, VT Jenny R. Mlawsky, New York, NY Dorothea Moore, Brooklyn, NY Martha Morse, Bryn Mawr,PA Melody Motto, Mendham, NJ Sally Munley, Wilmette, IL

Ruth Nadel, Redondo Beach, CA Judith E Nelson, Norwalk, CT Mrs. Robin Nolan, Grand Prairie, TX Jill Novack, New York, NY Edie A. Nudenberg, Newtown, CT

Mia R. Oberlink, New York, NY Dr. Jack T. Odom,Delray Beach,FL Leslie A. Ogan, Brooklyn, NY Marie Luise Olsen, Gamerville, NY Kenji Ooe, Asahi City, Japan Richard J. Owens Ill, Lakewood, OH

John Pachuta, Yardley, PA Mr. & Mrs. Samuel M.Palley, Huntingdon Valley, PA Joe Paschek, Solebury,PA Lucille Pennes,'Meson, AZ Richard S. Perlmutter, New York, NY Mark & Robin Persky, Scarsdale, NY Loretta Peterson, New York, NY Gary S. Pitcock, South Windsor, CT Michael Popp, Martinsville, NJ John Ptak, Raffles City, Singapore

Ellen Rafel, New York, NY Robert Ray, Birmingham, MI Ms. Kate Reed, Montreal, Canada Irene Reichert, Chapel Hill, NC Angelika Reilly, Ridgewood, NJ Beatrice Rexford, Hurleyville, NY Mitzi M. Rinehart, Tempe, AZ Richard W. Roberts, New York, NY Dr. Gerald D. Roberts, Westport, CT Diana J. Robertson, New York, NY Rochester Public Library, Rochester, NY Heather Rodts, New York, NY Susan Roe, Poughkeepsie, NY Marcia Romashko, Mequon, WI Herb Rosenthal & Assoc., Los Angeles, CA Howard Rothman, Scarsdale, NY Susan Roy, New York, NY Dr. Lenore Rubin, Englewood, NJ

Keiko Sakaguchi, Rye,NY Florence & Mauric Sands, New York, NY 79



Andrea H. Sapon, Oregon, WI August A. Saul, Bradford Woods,PA Charlene Sawyer, Houston, TX Kathleen C. Saxe, Sioux City, IA Joan Scafarello, New York, NY Doris Schlenker, Kutztown, PA Donna Schneier, New York, NY Margery Schunk, Westhampton Beach, NY Mr. & Mrs. Peter Schweitzer, Scarsdale, NY Hope H. Seeley, New Canaan, CT Lee-Anne Setterington, Dobbs Ferry, NY Joseph B. Shaffer, Herndon, PA Enid Shames, New York, NY Dorlene Shane, Coral Gables, FL Nancy L.A. Sheble, Chevy Chase, MD Ellen M. Sheehan, New York, NY Eleanor Shirnko, Lewiston, ME Carol Shuchman, Brooklyn, NY Morton Silverstein, New York, NY Ellen B. Simon, Rydal, PA Frank Sisser, Minneapolis, MN Robert Skinner, Southampton, NY Patricia Slowik, Princeton, NJ Patricia E Smith, San Diego, CA Smithwick Dillon, New York, NY

Susan Sontag, Westfield, NJ Vivian Southwell, New York, NY Mrs. M. Spiegel, New York, NY Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Spitzer, Kew Gardens, NY Patricia S. Steele, New York, NY Joel M. Stein, New York, NY Mrs. Mary Lou Strong, Locust, NJ Kumiko Sudo, Berkeley, CA Mr. & Mrs. Bernard Sunshine, New Rochelle, NY Thelma Swody, Stonington, CT Chet H. Taylor, Albany, GA Mimi Thompson, New York, NY Julian Tomchin, New York, NY Mrs. Juliet Travison, New York, NY Dale C. Troppito, Concord, MA Eleanor E Tropsa, Stamford, CT Gail 0. Troutman, Ridgefield, CT

Rosalyn Udow, Great Neck, NY Glenda J. Ulmer, Sonoma, CA

Mrs. Ruth E. Van, Derry, NH

Ellen Wald, Rumson, NJ Honore E. Walsh, New York, NY Gordon E. Warnke, Brooklyn, NY Mrs. Shirley Warren, Long Beach, NY Charlene Warren, Correctionville, IA Marcine Weiner, Hastings on Hudson, NY Patty Weiner, Sands Point, NY Mr. & Mrs. Bennett Weinstock, Philadelphia, PA Mrs. Rosalie C. Weir, New York, NY Barbara Weisskopf, Deerfield, IL Patricia West, Hartsdale, NY Richard S. Whaley, New York, NY Barbara White-Holtman, Warwick, NY Nina Williams, Denver, CO Joseph M. Williams, Chicago, IL Jane R. Willson, San Francisco, CA

Yankee Doodle Dandy, San Francisco, CA Julianne Young, Pittsburgh, PA

Ruth M. Zuckerman, Evanston, IL Egle Zygas, New York, NY

FOLK ART Join the Folk Art Society. SOCIETY Membership includes the i'LI NT quarterly publication, the Folk Art Messenger FOLK ART SOCIETY OF AMERICA P.O. BOX 17041 RICHMOND,VIRGINIA 23226 USA Please enroll me as a member of the Folk Art Society of America in thefollowing category:

0 El

Patron Membership


General Membership


Student Membership

$10, I.D. copy required

Foreign Membership

$30 U.S.

Membership covers an individual,family or institution. My check, payable to Folk Art Society,is enclosed. Name Address

The Folk Art Society of America is a non-profit, tax-exempt organization formed to discover, study, promote, preserve, exhibit and document folk art,folk artists and folk art environments.


MUSEUM OF AMERICAN FOLKART BOOK AND GIFT SHOP 62 West 50th Street 247-5611 Monday-Saturday 10:30 a.m.-5:30 p.m.

Across from Radio City Music Hall

The Clarion


"Town Clerk's Office", 31 X 32 inches, carved and painted wall relief sculpture by Vermont Artist Stephen Huneck from his -Jefferson N.H. Arson Fires Series". Inquires invited. PHOTO BY Ros)e Lermeux

Fall 1989



ESTHER IPP SCHWARTZ A Woman Who Made Things Happen (1904-1988) The Museum of American Folk Art is fortunate to have counted Esther Ipp Schwartz among its trustees. A selftaught authority on American decorative arts, architecture, furniture, paintings and folk art, Mrs. Schwartz was a truly remarkable woman and an inspiration to all who met her. Esther Schwartz was one of the early advocates of the establishment of the Museum of American Folk Art as the first institution in New York City devoted to the full-time exhibition and study of American folk art. When she first joined the Museum's Board of Trustees in 1962, she already had been collecting Americana for 36 years. Robert Bishop, who has served as Director of the Museum for many years, is one of many museum directors and curators who enjoyed fruitful professional relationships with Mrs. Schwartz. "I first met Esther when I was Curator at the Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village in Dearborn, Michigan',' Dr. Bishop recently observed. "Her sense of taste, style, and dedication to in-depth scholarship which she willingly shared with all were qualities I greatly admired. When I returned to New York, I once again had the opportunity to renew my friendship with both Esther and her husband, Samuel. Esther's eye for beauty and quality were with her in all that she accomplished. I truly enjoyed the visits to her home where I was able to see first hand the 82

objects she so lovingly chose for her collection. The Museum was fortunate enough to be able to borrow some of these treasures for exhibitions that were enjoyed by the public — a fact which gave Esther great pleasure!' In addition to her support of the Museum of American Folk Art, Mrs. Schwartz took leadership roles in many other institutions. Her love of colonial architecture and furniture led her, in 1957, to become one of the founding trustees of the University of Delaware Library Associates, a position she retained until her death. As a testimony to her well-known quest for knowledge, Mrs. Schwartz provided the University with her extensive American decorative arts library. Also in 1957, Mrs. Schwartz became vice-chairman of a New York group dedicated to restoring the 1763 Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island, the oldest Synagogue in the United States. Placed on the National Register in 1946, it is considered one of the finest examples of colonial architecture in the country. Mrs. Schwartz accepted the task not only of directing the restoration but of undertaking historic research to assure its integrity. Her dedication to this project led her to the discovery, at Yale University, of a previously unknown sketch of the Synagogue's Ark by Ezra Stiles. According to E.A. Smyk, Passaic County Historian, "this significant drawing (which other scholars had completely missed during previous investigations), provided an essential component in completing the restoration'? Mrs. Schwartz received the Gold Medal Award from the Preservation Society of Newport in recognition of her "intelligent and untiring efforts toward the restoration of Touro SynThe Clarion


agogue!' Albert M. Sack, well-known authority on American furniture, referred to Mrs. Schwartz's efforts at Touro Synagogue in a recent letter to her husband: "The loss to the antiques world is immeasurable as few people of her range and energy are on the scene. I remember when she took the chandeliers home from the Touro Synagogue and cleaned them herself as she trusted no one else to do them properly': In 1958, Mrs. Schwartz was elected a Trustee of the Passaic County Historical Society. She especially valued this affiliation as it afforded her the opportunity to research and preserve for future generations the County's heritage — Passaic County was the place of her birth and lifelong residence. Esther later became an Honorary Life Trustee of the Society and was cited for her "boundless energy, enthusiastic interest and knowledge of American antiques'? Mrs. Schwartz became a founding member of the Friends of the American Wing and the William Cullen Bryant Fellows of the American Wing of The Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1960. Two years later, she was named Chairperson of the Friends Committee and appointed a Fellow in Perpetuity of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. She and Mr. Schwartz donated many priceless objects from their collection to the American Wing. Frances Safford, Associate Curator of the Department of American Decorative Arts, echoed the sentiments of numerous members ofthe American Wing when she wrote, "Esther was such an outstanding person. Her acumen and wide-ranging interests as a collector were highly respected by all. I always admired her willingness to venture into little known areas of collecting and her determinaFall 1989

tion to not leave one stone unturned in her research:' Morrison H. Heckscher, Curator of the Department, has called Mrs. Schwartz"one of the great collector-scholars'.' Among other important associations, Mrs. Schwartz was a Trustee ofthe New Jersey Historical Society and served as Chairperson of the Museum Committee from 1965 through 1970. In 1973, she became a Founding Trustee of Friends of American Arts at Yale University. Mrs. Schwartz served as a Founding Trustee of the National Museum of American Jewish History, Philadelphia, and was the first woman to be elected an officer of the American Jewish Historical Society. The International Garden Club, an organization dedicated to the restoration of the Bartow-Pell Mansion Museum and Garden in Pelham Bay Park, New York, also included her among its honorary members. As attested by her other accomplishments, Mrs. Schwartz believed in preserving the best of America's past. Alarmed that a colonial home in Waltham, Massachusetts, could not be preserved in situ, Esther arranged for it to be dismantled board by board and transported to the American Museum in Bath, England. She was also a member of the National Trust for Historic Preservation, the Antiquarian and Landmarks Society, Inc. of Connecticut, the Bergen County Historical Society, and the English Ceramic Circle. Mrs. Schwartz wrote numerous articles on restoration and antiques for scholarly publications, the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, and The Magazine Antiques, among others. A portrait of Esther Schwartz would not be complete without reference to the home she shared for over 52 years

with her husband. Samuel, in Paterson, New Jersey. Recently, as he escorted a visitor through the house, Mr. Schwartz spoke fondly of the memories associated with each painting, drawing, watercolor, rug, or article of furniture silver or glassware, recalling the delight his late wife took in acquiring, researching and living with their collection. Regarding their library, whose shelves are impressively full, Mr. Schwartz proudly noted that"Some people collect books, but Esther knew what was in them!" The Museum of American Folk Art curatorial department has been given her full set of The Magazine Antiques as well as many books relating to subjects of American folk art, paintings and furniture. The Museum is grateful for this act of generosity. Throughout the years, Mr. and Mrs. Schwartz were ardent supporters of the Museum. Samuel Schwartz, continuing in this tradition, has generously made it possible for the Museum, in conjunction with the Pennsylvania German Society and Hudson Hills Press to publish a facsimile of a late eighteenthcentury religious text from Pennsylvania, hand-illustrated and illuminated by Ludwig Denig. When Mrs. Schwartz first found this Bible and added it to her collection she was told it was European in origin. However, she was able to prove through her research that the paper was colonial in origin and the text and illuminations the work of an eighteenth-century Lancaster County farmer. For all their many kindnesses, the Museum family owes a debt of gratitude to the late Esther Ipp Schwartz and her husband, Samuel Schwartz. They have done much to foster, promote and increase the public's knowledge and appreciation of the American heritage. 83



The Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shops are pleased to offer a selection of handcrafted treasures from talented artisans for your holiday shopping.

ROLY-POLY GOURDS AND ORNAMENTS Approximate sizes, prices and colors: Santa ornament — 3"H x 3"W —$19.95 Roly-poly — 9"H x 7"W — $67.95 — Choice of:(1) Herb Lady in black, dark blue, cranberry, brown, or emerald; (2)Santa Claus in red Shipping: $4.50 each These handpainted whimsical characters are inspired by antique roly-poly tins which served as advertising memorabilia. Goods from the Woods creates their unique collectibles from home-grown hardshell gourds which are dried, painted with transparent inks, and given a satin finish which allows the gourd's natural mottled variations to show through. Each one is signed, dated, and will last a lifetime. Give it a shake and you can hear the dried seeds rattle inside! Pictured here are a Santa Christmas ornament and two roly-poly gourds — a Santa and an Herb Lady. Roly-poly Santa is decked out in a traditional red costume and holds colorful toys in his arms;Herb Lady is dressed in vivid colors (you choose one), carries a bouquet of flowers and an herb book, and wears a straw bonnet trimmed with real dried flowers. The red Santa ornament, made from the hollow cut-off top of a gourd, hangs from a cord and will add a beautiful handmade touch to your tree. We offer the Santa and Herb Lady rolypoly gourds and the Santa ornament for sale immediately. An entire cast ofother delightful roly-poly characters (not pictured here) will be available after January, 1990. Please send a self-addressed, stamped envelope for 84

descriptions and ordering information on items not pictured. NOAH'S ARK BY NANCY THOMAS Sizes and prices: Ark — 24"L x 6"W x 11"H —$249.95 Pair of animals — vary from 2"-6"H — $12.95 per pair Shipping: Ark by itself or with animals —$7.50 Animals only — $4.50 for one or more pairs Artist Nancy Thomas works primarily in wood, fashioning her original designs in a sculpted or cut-out form and hand painting them. Her work is well-known in this country and she has quite a following of collectors. Twenty-five of her pieces decorated Jessica Lange's apartment in the movie "Tootsie;' which Lange later added to her own collection. Thomas' Christmas ornaments have graced White House Christmas trees. Mary Enrunerling, author of many books on American country style, featured Thomas' pieces in her recent book, Collecting American Country, and many national publications have presented her work also. This hand carved and painted Noah's ark is destined to become a treasured family heirloom which can be added to year after year. The ark comes with Noah and his wife, their dog, and a raven. There is a selection of twenty-three pairs of animals to purchase separately and each year Thomas creates another pair or two. She welcomes suggestions from collectors on their favorite creatures. The following pairs of animals are available for display either with the ark or on their own:swan,lion,lamb,cow,deer, pig, snake, antelope, koala, camel, rhinoceros, zebra, rabbit, goat, goose, elephant, raccoon, monkey, penguin, giraffe, owl, alligator, and porcupine. Why not treat your animal-collector friends to a pair of their favorites this holiday season?

HOLIDAY ANGELS Price: $54.95 plus $4.50 shipping Size: 20/ 1 2"L x 2Y2"H Nancy Thomas creates a band of angels in white to herald good cheer the year round. Eight handcut and painted wooden angels are joined at the wings in a continuous line and each holds a different seasonal or holiday symbol — New Year's horn, valentine, shamrock, rabbit, flag, watermelon, pumpkin, and Christmas tree. Hang them on a wall or set them on the edge of a windowsill, shelf, mantel, or the frame of a mirror or painting. BOOKS AND SCARVES AVAILABLE FROM THE MUSEUM SHOPS Our three silk scarves with patterns derived from quilts in the Museum's collection are delightful gift items. To receive a brochure on our silk scarves send a self-addressed, stamped envelope to the address below. The Museum Shops carry an extensive collection of books on American folk art. To receive a list of publications available by mail send $2.00 to the address below. ORDERING INFORMATION • Allow four weeks for delivery. Orders must be received by December 5th to guarantee delivery before Christmas. • List individual items and prices and then total your order. • Museum members may deduct 10% from price of merchandise. • Next, add 8.25% sales tax if mailed to New York City. Add local sales tax if mailed elsewhere in New York State. • Last, add shipping and handling charges. • Send check, money order, or credit card number with expiration date(MasterCard! VISA/American Express) to: Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shop, Two Lincoln Square, New York, NY 10023, Attention: Mail Order, Dept. CR. Sorry, no telephone orders or CODs. •Include your name, street address, and daytime telephone number. We cannot ship to a P.O. box. •If you wish, we will ship your gifts directly to the recipient. Enclose gift instructions. The Clarion

7520 Perkins Rd., Baton Rouge, LA 70808, (504)767-0526

Left to right: Ronald Cooper,"Girl Devil" — C. Cooper,"Bird" — Mose Tolliver, "Self Portrait" — William Dawson,"Three Heads" — Howard Finster,"Angel" — Howard Finster,-Heaven is Worth It All" — Raymond Coins, -Fish" — James Harold Jennings, "Art World" — Jimmy Lee Sudduth,-Woman" —Jr.Lewis,-The Diablo" — Fred Webster,"Sleep and Keep on Dreaming".


QUILTS From Contemporary to Traditional September 20 — October 31st

HANDS A SHOW OF Craft Cooperative Contemporary

531 Amsterdam Avenue (at 86th Street) New York, New York 10024 212.7871374 HOURS: Monday-Saturday 11-7:00, Sunday 11-6:00 Dee Danley-Brown

Fall 1989

Paradise Bound




SEPTEMBER GALLERY EXHIBITION OPENINGS "Access to Art: Bringing Folk Art Closer" and "Always in Tune: Music in Amerian Folk Art" are scheduled to open at the Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Mon-is Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square, Two Lincoln Square, on Columbus Avenue and 66th Street, New York City on September 21, 1989 and run through November 26, 1989."Access to Art: Bringing Folk Art Closer;' organized by the Museum as its inaugural exhibition of Access to Art速, a program designed to make art accessible to blind and visually impaired visitors, is sponsored by The Xerox Foundation, the New York State Council on the Arts and The Mary Duke Biddle Foundation. Irma Shore, Director of Access to Art速,reports this is the first accessible folk art show as well as the first accessible traveling museum exhibition to tour the country. The exhibition is accompanied by large print and braille labeling and checklist and a selfguided audio tour, provided by Sound-

alive Ltd. to the Access to Art速 program and available free of charge, so visitors can achieve the full benefit of touching and learning about the objects, which number in excess of two dozen from a special collection at the Museum. Additional educational programming during the exhibition includes the use of a Kurzweil Personal Reader, obtained through a grantfrom The Xerox Foundation, which will remain at the Gallery during the run of the show. "Always in Tune: Music in American Folk Art7 reflects the important contribution music has made to our folk art heritage. Michael McManus, Director of Exhibitions at the Museum of American Folk Art, is the Guest Curator of the exhibition which presents approximately 90 objects in all media gathered from major private collections and museums. In conjunction with this exhibition, educational programming and musical performances to complement the exhibition are planned. Docent-led tours may be arranged by contacting the Docent Program Coordinator at the Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square, telephone 212/595-9533. For more information about educational programs, contact the Curator of Education, Museum of American Folk Art,61 West62nd Street, New York, NY 10023; telephone 212/977-7170. Above, Geburts and Taufschein (Birth and Baptismal Certificate) of Martin Andres (Detail); John Spangenberg; New Jersey or Pennsylvania; 1788; Watercolor and ink on paper;15/ 1 2 x 13"; Promised anonymous gift. Left, Barn Scene (Detail); Mary Shelly; Ithaca, NY; March 1979; Carved and polychromed wood; 15/ 1 4 x 22"; Anonymous gift.


Registration is now open for the Fall lecture series of the Museum's Folk Art Institute. Lecture fees for members of the Museum are $25 for the series offour and $8 for single lectures; for nonmembers the cost is $35 for the series and $10 for single lectures. The following lectures, offered on Monday evenings 6:30 p.m.-7:30 p.m. on a noncredit basis, will be held at the Folk Art Institute, Museum of American Folk Art,61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023; telephone 212/977-7170. Please address inquiries to this address. October 30 Gravestones Speakers: Daniel and Jessie Lie Farber November 6 Death Themes on Textiles Speaker: Lee Kogan November 13 Death Themes on Paper Speaker: Gerard C. Wertkin November 20 Mourning Glory: Posthumous Portraits Speaker: Sharon L. Eisenstat

PUBLICATIONS COMPETITION WINNER The Museum was given an award of merit in the 1989 Museum Publications Competition sponsored by the American Association of Museums for its distinguished entry in the category of fundraising campaign materials. The Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square Endowment Kit was designed by Eng and Yee Designs, Inc. The printer was Craftsmen Litho and the project directors were Didi Barrett, Director of Publications and Johleen Nester, Director of Development. Congratulations for producing material that the judges evaluated to be excellent in communicating information, excellent in expressing and interpreting the museum and its programs and excellent in graphic/artistic appeal.

The Clarion





"The Road to Heaven is Paved by Good Works: The Art of Reverend Howard Finster" is scheduled to open September 21, 1989 and run through January 5, 1990 at the PaineWebber Art Gallery in New York City. Organized by John Turner, presented by the Museum of American Folk Art and sponsored by Paine Webber Group Inc., this exhibition of approximately 100 works in all media and a variety of subject matter, will explore the sources and art of this prolific contemporary artist.

Almost fifty Museum members enjoyed a day in the country with the Folk Art Explorers' Club on June 27,1989 as they toured two private collections near the Berkshires and concluded with a visit to the Coach Dairy Goat Farm which is owned and operated by Miles and Lillian Cahn,founders of the Coach Leather Co. The Folk Art Explorers' Club has organized its Second Annual Halloween Walking Tour of New York City Graveyards of historical and cultural importance on Saturday, October 28, 1989. Also planned is a five-day trip to Santa Fe from November 8-12, 1989 which will include visits to several private collections, museums and art galleries. For information about upcoming Explorers' Club trips contact the Membership Office, Museum of American Folk Art, 61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023, telephone 212/977-7170.

Howard Finster posed on giant shoe in his Paradise Garden, Summerville, Georgia.

MUSEUM'S TRAVELING EXHIBITIONS Plan to visit the following Museum of American Folk Art exhibitions when they travel to your area during the coming months: October 1-November 25, 1989 American Wildfowl Decoys: An Art of Deception The Morris Museum Morristown, New Jersey 201/538-0454 October 1-November 26, 1989 Catch a Brass Ring: Carousel Art from the Charlotte !Anger Collection Flint Institute of Arts De Waters Art Center Flint, Michigan 313/234-1695 October 6, 1989-January 1, 1990 Stitched from the Soul: Slave Quilts from the Ante-Bellum South Renwick Gallery of the National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution Washington, DC 202/357-2700 October 16-November 27, 1989 The Pennsylvania German Hex Sign: A Photo Panel Exhibition Beloit Historical Society Beloit, Wisconsin 608/365-7835 October 22-December 26, 1989 Life in the New World: Selections from the

Fall 1989

Permanent Collection of the Museum of American Folk Art Oklahoma Museum of Art Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 405/840-2759 October 26-December 21, 1989 Memories of Childhood: The Great American Quilt Festival 2 Arizona Hall of Fame Museum Phoenix, Arizona 602/255-2110 October 29,1989-January 1, 1990 Amish Quilts from the Collection of the Museum of American Folk Art Allentown Art Museum Allentown, Pennsylvania 215/432-4333 December 11, 1989-January 22, 1990 The Pennsylvania German Hex Sign: A Photo Panel Exhibition Center Gallery of Bucknell University Lewisburg, Pennsylvania 717/524-3792 December 24, 1989-February 17, 1990 American Wildfowl Decoys: An Art of Deception Gibbes Art Gallery Charleston, South Carolina 803/722-2706

Please contact Michael McManus, Director of Exhibitions, Museum of American Folk Art,61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023, telephone 212/977-7170 for further information.

Friendly goat greets Folk Art Explorers' Club members.

NEW YORK CITY CONFERENCE The Museum will host a one-day conference with the Galerie St. Etienne in New York City on Saturday, November 11, 1989. "Folk Art In America:The Last Fifty Years" will bring together folk art experts from across the country including Hildegard Bachert, Didi Barrett, Mary Black, Michael Hall, Lynda Hartigan, Herbert Hemphill, Jr., Jane Kallir, Director of the Galerie St. Etienne, and Susan Larsen. For additional information, contact the Curator of Education, Museum of American Folk Art,61 West62nd Street, New York, NY 10023; telephone 212/977-7170.


1050 Second ve, Gallery 57B NY, NY 10022 Lynn M. Lorwin

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Canted stepback pewter cupboard. Massachusetts, c. 1790. Pine.

Accessories from a collection of American folk art, pottery, doll's and children's furniture, toys, Christmas ornaments and paintings.

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omewhere tucked away in most of us are cherished memories of a life far different from the one we greet everyday. Memories of a grandparent's farm where childhood summers were spent wild berry picking on still July afternoons, and family apple gatherings in the golden light of autumn. In most of these pleasurable memories, food, family and a sense of place blend into an image of life as it ought to be. Many of our customers tell us that we are their connection to a special memory, that a particular taste has awakened some treasured recollection, and that American Spoon is now a part of many special occasions in their household. American Spoon offers wild berry preserves and rare native American nuts and mushrooms. Sauces and catsups inspired by research into the origins of authentic American foods. Dried fruits and varietal honeys. For holiday giving, gifts in Folk Art illustrated boxes and handmade birch bark baskets. Edible treasures from the orchards, fields and forests of Northern Michigan. For a catalogue please call 1-800-222-5886.

AMERICAN SPOON FOODS P.O. BOX 566 • PETOSKEY, MICHIGAN 49770 "Late Summer Picnic" by Sheila Burns Illustration from an American Spoon Folk Art Gift Box.

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Country Heritage ‘L‘HKEis 89



DECEMBER GALLERY OPENINGS "America Eats: Folk Art and Food:' an exhibition of approximately 150 objects and illustrations that examine traditional American cookery as a folk art form, will open December 7, 1989 and run through February 4,1990 at the Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square. Food historian William Woys Weaver is the Guest Curator. His article discussing some of this material appears on page 58 of this issue of The Clarion. Educational programming which will accompany this exhibition includes a four-part lecture series supported by Country Home. For further information on the lectures, contact the Curator of Education, Mu-

seum of American Folk Art, 61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023; telephone 212/977-7170. Opening concurrently on December 7, 1989 and running through April 15, 1990 at the Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square will be "Discoveries in Folk Sculpture," whose Guest Curators are Roger Ricca and Frank Maresca. Including familiar, traditional forms as well as forms of contemporary folk expression — both by known as well as anonymous makers — the curators promise an exciting show, some of whose objects were previewed in an article in The Clarion (Vol. 13, No. 4).

CHILDREN'S NEWSPAPER The letters of the alphabet form the framework for the inaugural children's still-to-be-named newspaper which will feature informative material on folk art interspersed with games, puzzles and drawings relating to the gallery exhibitions. The letter"C'however, stands for Contest, which encourages the children to provide a name. Designed to introduce young people, their teachers and family to the concepts presented at the Museum, the children's newspaper will have accompanying adult information.

Elementary schools in New York City will receive this material in advance of tours scheduled at the Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square. Copies of these materials will also be available at the Docent Desk for those not part of a scheduled tour. Educational programming for school children is supported with generous grants from The Chase Manhattan Bank and the New York City Department of Cultural Affairs.




BLOOMINGDALE'S SALUTES MUSEUM Bloomingdale's rolled out the red carpet on April 26, 1989 and hosted a cocktail party at its Manhattan store celebrating the opening of the new Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square and honoring the grand prizewinners and finalists of the "Memories of Childhood" crib quilt contest. Museum Director, Dr. Robert Bishop, and Carl Levine, Senior Vice President, Furniture, Bloomingdale's, ad-

The completion of a Quilt Day in Sullivan County, on July 15, 1989, brought the total quilts made in New York State prior to 1940 that were photographed, registered and documented to 3,726. The record number of 269 quilts in one day was set at Belfast, Alleghany County on June 12, 1989. The following regional coordinators should be contacted for further information with respect to future local quilt days: Diane Sutherland at 607/729-9642, coordinator for the mid-central region of the state (Syracuse, Ithaca, Owego, Vestal, Utica, Oneonta, Corning, Horseheads, and Elmira); Edith Mitchell at 518/359-7830 for the region north of the Mohawk River(Watertown, Glens Falls, Plattsburgh and 'Hipper Lake). For quilt owners unable to personally attend a quilt day, quilts may be registered by mail. Please contact Phyllis A. Tepper, Director of the New York Quilt Project, Museum of American Folk Art, 61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023, telephone 212/977-7170 for further information. Schedule is subject to change.

Dr. Robert Bishop, left, and Carl Levine are joined by Elaine Spencer, Jane Blair and Hanne Wellendorph, first, second and third grand prizewinners, shown left to right. dressed the guests amid room settings from "The America Collection" by Lane.

Hilari e Noel, a graduate of Martin Luther King High School, ably assisted the Museum staff this summer in the departments working with Membership, the New York Quilt Project and Quilt Festival 3. The Museum was pleased to participate in the Summer Jobs '89 program in New York City which was supported by Philip Morris Companies Inc. The New York Quilt Project also had another Martin Luther King High School student, Christine Chapman, assisting this summer. The Chase Manhattan Bank supported the Jobs for Youth, Inc. program responsible for her placement.

The Clarion

Robert Cargo



Southern, Folk, and Afro-American Quilts Antiques• Folk Art Tim Reed Leroy Almon Roger Rice Jerry Brown Sybil Gibson Sandra Rice Titus and Euple Riley Joseph Hardin Lonnie Holley Juanita Rogers Inez Shell James Harold Jennings Mary Tillman Smith M. C. "5-cenr Jones Georgia Speller S. L Jones Henry Speller Charlie Lucas Jimmie Lee Sudduth Sam Martin Tim Martin Son Ford Thomas Thomas May Mose Tolliver Inez Nathaniel Walker Emma Lee Moss Fred Webster Benjamin F. Perkins Yvonne Wells, picture quilts


In addition to works by these Southern artists, the gallery carries a large, carefully-selected stock of contemporary Afro-American guilts that is constantly changing.

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Wild Goose Chase Quilt Gallery/Chicago 1248 N. Wells St. Chicago, IL 60610 (312) 787-9778 Folk Art, Quilts, and Primitives



r, 26"x 89", A C ,ire Afutra Ori:inal, $399

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Reverend Howard Finster David Butler Clementine Hunter Mattie Lou O'Kelley Mary T. Smith Jimmy Sudduth Mose Tolliver Rita Hicks Davis Agnes Bischof Dud (Swiss) George W. Smethurst (England) Juanita Rogers Henry Speller Jas. "Son" Thomas Willie White Marvin Finn Jr. Lewis Thomas May Erma Lewis, Jr. William Miller Calvin & Ronald Cooper Catalog Available

loRk Folk Art Claire Murrays's art is beauty. It is a reflection of memories, the blend of the traditional and the contemporary, the vibrance of color and the warmth of home. Hand hooked rugs, kits and hand appliqued quilts. Call or write for our catalog, $5, refundable on first purchase. NANTUCKET COLLECTION,P.O. BOX 2489, DEPT. F2, NANTUCKET, MA 02584 1-800-323-9276•Info: 1-508-228-1913

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Fall Antiquesshow and a first edition folk art gift book by Phyllis George Brown; Associate at $500 includes one Preview ticket, special listing in the catalogue, one readmission to the show, a catalogue and a first edition folk art gift book by Phyllis George Brown; Affiliate at $250 includes one Preview ticket, one readmission to the show and a catalogue; and Friend at $150 includes one Preview ticket and a copy of the catalogue. David Ziff Cooking Inc. will cater the lavish Preview buffet. Tickets in all categories may be purchased through the Museum's administrative offices at 61 West 62nd Street, New York, NY 10023, telephone 212/977-7170. Preceding the public opening of the show on Thursday, October 19, 1989, a Preview Walking Tour will be conducted at 10:15 a.m. by Dr. Robert Bishop, Director of the Museum, and Helaine Fendelman, noted author and collector. Tickets for this guided tour highlighting the season's collecting trends are $35 per person and include admission to the show and a catalogue. Produced and managed by Sanford L. Smith and Associates, the Fall Antiques Show at the Pier has achieved national recognition as the foremost American antiques show in the country. The show opens to the public on Thursday, October 19 and runs through Sunday, October 22, 1989. Hours are Thursday through Saturday from 11 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. and Sunday from 11 a.m. to 6 p.m. Admission is $8. Free shuttle buses will run between the Museum of American Folk Art Book and Gift Shops located at 62 West 50 Street (between 5th and 6th Avenues, opposite Radio City Music Hall) and Two Lincoln Square (Columbus Avenue between 65th and 66th Streets) and the Pier on the half hour opening night and throughout the show.

Much enthusiasm greeted "Stitched from the Soul: Slave Quilts from the Ante-Bellum South" which opened at the Museum of American Folk Art/Eva and Morris Feld Gallery at Lincoln Square on July 20, 1989 and ran through September 17, 1989. Educational programming in conjunction with the exhibition, whose Guest Curator was Dr. Gladys-Marie Fry, included a symposium, whose speakers were Cuesta Benberry, Dr. Robert Cargo, Roland Freeman, Laurel Horton, Bets Ramsey, May Twining and Yvonne Wells; a series of African-American quilting demonstrations led by Virginia Hall and members of her quilting circle at Stuyvesant Heights Landmark Senior Citizens Center; and a lexture program, whose speakers included Helaine von Rosenstiel and Mimi Sherman, and were all supported by the New York State Council on the Arts. Marking the opening of the exhibition, Dr. Maude Southwell Wahlman, Chairperson of the Art Department of the University of Central Florida, delivered the keynote address which further developed the material presented in her articles that appeared in The Clarion (Vol. 14, No. 2 and Vol. 14, No. 3). uaox aa-i :soloqd

Celebrate Santa Fe! Plan to attend the eleventh annual Opening Night Preview of the Fall Antiques Show at the Pier which benefits the Museum of American Folk Art. The gala event, featuring American folk art in the Southwest tradition, will be Wednesday, October 18, 1989,from 6 to 9:30 p.m. at Pier 92, Berths 5 and 6, West 55 Street and the Hudson River. Honorary Chairman of the benefit evening is Phyllis George Brown. National Chairmen are David Davies and Ellen Taubman. Marvin Sloves is Corporate Chairman and Elaine Horwitch is Santa Fe Chairman. Museum Trustees Karen D. Cohen and Cynthia V.A. Schaffner are Co-Chairmen. Naomi Leff is Design Chairman. Joshua Baer of Santa Fe has organized a special exhibition featuring examples of the finest antique Native American art. Folk art will be created during a demonstration of authentic Native American blanket weaving by Navajo Indians. Preview sponsorship packages will be available as follows: Benefactor at $25,000 includes 20 tickets to the Preview and 20 tickets for the Post-Preview Celebration Supper at The American Festival Cafe, Rockefeller Center; Patron at $10,000 includes 16 tickets to the Preview and 8 tickets for the PostPreview Celebration Supper; Sponsor at $5,000 includes 8 tickets to the Preview and 4 tickets to the Post-Preview Celebration Supper; and Contributor at $2,500 includes 2 tickets to the Preview and 2 tickets to the Post-Preview Celebration Supper. In addition, Benefactors, Patrons, Sponsors and Contributors will receive Corporate Membership in the Museum of American Folk Art, special listing in the catalogue, unlimited readmission throughout the show, a catalogue and a first edition folk art gift book by Phyllis George Brown. Additional Preview tickets will be available as follows: Supporter at $1,000 includes one Preview ticket, special listing in the catalogue, unlimited readmission throughout the show, a catalogue


Above, Dr. Gladys-Marie Fry, welcomes visitors and Below, Dr. Maude Southwell Wahlman shares a moment with Dr. James Olander as the exhibition opens.

The Clarion

AS • , 44 *04 *Atop rO/4, 4 IX- v., • •










EXHIBITORS CONNECTICUT Advertising Americana ARK Antiques The Chatelaine Shop Nikki & Tom Deupree Ronald & Penny Dionne Fred & Kathryn Giampietro Stephen & Carol Huber Quester Maritime GaIllery Shoot The Chute Irving Slavid Antiques Frederic I. Thaler DELAWARE James M. Kilvington ILLINOIS Aaron Galleries The Clokeys Harvey Antiques Frank & Barbara Pollack INDIANA Bob Brown Folkways Carol Shope's Americana Don Walters IOWA Mary Ellyn & Gordon Jensen KENTUCKY Clifton Anderson Shelly Zegart LOUISIANA Didier Inc MAINE Rufus Foshee Antiques

Pine Bough/JoAnne Fuerst Robert O. Stuart Withington/Wells MARYLAND All of Us Americans Aileen M. Minor Stella Rubin Antiques James Wilhoit Antiques Cecelia B. Williams Elaine Wilmarth MASSACHUSETTS By Shaker Hands Bernice Jackson E.G.H. Peter Stephen Score Elliott & Grace Snyder Robin Starr Victor Weinblatt MICHIGAN Elliott & Elliott Denny L. Tracey Antiques MISSOURI Douglas L. Solliday NEW HAMPSHIRE Betty Willis Antique NEW JERSEY Arlene Noble Betty Osband & Paul Elliott Perrisue Silver NEW MEXICO William E. Channing Morning Star Gallery


NEW YORK CITY American Primitive Gallery T.J. Antorino Antiques Cynthia Beneduce Antiques Margaret Caldwell Deco Deluxe Richard & Eileen Dubrow Antiques Paula Ellman Judy Goffman Fine Art Grove Decoys Renate Halpern Galleries Helbum & Associates Herrup & Wollner Hillman/Gemini Historical Design Collection Jay Johnson Gallery Kelter Make Lost City Arts Susan Parrish Poster America Roger Ricco / Frank Maresca David A. Schorsch Susan Sheehan Gallery Sheppard & Sergeant Eric Silver Smith Gallery Brian Windsor Americana NEW YORK Judi Boisson Charles Brown & Co. Jacqueline Donegan Dudley Antiques Gaglio & Molnar

Lenny & Nancy Kislin Susan & Sy Rapaport Richard & Betty Ann Rasso Sterling & Hunt Robert & Mary Lou Sutter Walowen & Schneider OHIO Don Treadway Gallery PENNSYLVANIA Arts & Interiors Bucks County Antiques Chew & Formicola Bea Cohen Gordon S. Converse & Co. The Cunninghams Mary K. Darrah M. Finkel & Daughter Pat & Rich Garthoeffner Antiques Fae B. Haight Antiques William & Connie Hayes Jim Hirsheimer Katy Kane Olde Hope Antiques Philadelphia Print Shop Francis J. Purcell II Robertsons Southwest Indian Arts Robert Thomas Antiques VIRGINIA John L Long Thomas C. Queen

November 9-12 Park Avenue Armory Benefit Preview for The Brooklyn Museum November 8th

JAY JOHNSON America's Folk Heritage Gallery 1044 Madison Avenue,N.Y., N.Y. 10021 Tues.-Sun. 11-6 Closed Mon. 628-7280



JAY JOHNSON OUNTRt 492 Piermont Avenue,

Piermont, N.Y. 10968 (914)359-6216 Hours: Thurs.-Sun. 12-5 Baseball Practice byJanis Price Š 1989 Oil on canvas 30" x 28"

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 85 A Show of Hands 17, 18, 19 America Hurrah 35 American Primitive Gallery 89 American Spoon Foods 27 Ames Gallery of American Folk Art Antique Associates at West Townsend & 14 at Joslin Tavern 91 Authentic Design 4 Joshua Baer & Company 15 Cynthia Beneduce Antiques 91 Robert Cargo Folk Art Gallery 73 Caskey-Lees Shows 31 Cherishables Antiques 12 Christie's 36 George Ciscle Gallery 36 The Clokeys 89 Country Heritage 67 E.P. Dutton 65 Leslie Eisenberg Folk Art Gallery 29 Epstein/Powell 23 M. Finkel & Daughter 11 Laura Fisher 80 Folk Art Society of America 34 Galerie St. Etienne 71 Pie Galinat 88 Gallerie Americana 10 Gasperi Gallery 96

91 Sidney Gecker American Folk Art 85 Gilley's Gallery 32 Grass Roots Gallery 37 Grove Decoys 33 Guernsey's Hammertown Barn 73 73 Hayes Antiques 5 Herrup & Wolfner Inside Back Cover Hirschl & Adler Folk 81 Stephen Huneck 29 Martha Jackson 96 Jay Johnson 88 Jones Road Antiques Inside Front Cover Kelter-Malce 28 June Lambert Antiques 64 Main Street Antiques 1 Steve Miller 6 Morning Star Gallery Museum of American Folk Art Book & 80 Gift Shop 93 The Nantucket Collection 77 New Stone Age 65 Ohio Ethnographic Gallery 25 Richard W. Oliver 32 Outside-In Pantry & Hearth 77

7 Susan Parrish 34 E.G.H. Peter 2 Lynda D. Peters, Inc. 27 Wayne E. Pratt Francis J. Purcell II 64 24 The Quilt Gallery 26 R J G Antiques 30 The Rainbow Man 13 Roger R. Ricco/Frank Maresca 92 Rosebee Folk Gallery 77 Luise Ross Gallery 26 Stella Rubin John Keith Russell Antiques, Inc. Back Cover Sailor's Valentine Gallery 93 37 Sale of Hats 20 David A. Schorsch Skinner, Inc. 3 95 Sanford L. Smith & Assoc. 16 Sotheby's 31 Sweetgum Galleries 28 The Tartt Gallery 92 Wild Goose Chase Quilt Gallery 8 Thos. K. Woodard 91 Yankee Doodle Dandy 30 Yellow House Antiques Shelley Zegart Quilts 77 The Clarion

Hirsch!& Adler Folk

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The Clarion (Fall 1989)  

Howard Finster: Man of Visions • The Strip Tradition in European-American Quilts • The Dog Soldier Artists: Plains Indian Ledger Drawings •...

The Clarion (Fall 1989)  

Howard Finster: Man of Visions • The Strip Tradition in European-American Quilts • The Dog Soldier Artists: Plains Indian Ledger Drawings •...