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in aging with grace and dignity. Not to mention plenty of laughter and passion.

WELCOME TO HEALTHY AGING At Summit Vista we believe that healthy aging comes from staying active mentally, physically, and emotionally. It’s being truly engaged in life. That is why we have taken great care to create an environment that encourages close social relationships, involvement in meaningful and productive activities, and a variety of opportunities to use and share your valued skills and abilities. Our spacious 105-acre campus features a fully equipped fitness center, an indoor heated pool and spa, programmable machines, weight training, fitness classes, outdoor walking paths, a putting green, and a 62,000-square-foot clubhouse for socializing, family gatherings, and more. Then there’s our ever-expanding list of clubs which are determined solely by our residents, as well as multidenominational spiritual services and other enriching experiences unparalleled in retirement living. Add it all up and you start to get a sense of how we define healthy aging. Of course, another essential component to healthy aging is healthcare services. Summit Vista will offer a full continuum of care—including everything from independent living, assisted living, and home care to nursing care, memory care, and rehabilitation services. Look into Summit Vista today and see why our first residential building at Utah’s first Life Plan Community is already 75% full.

LEARN MORE ABOUT HEALTHY AGING THE SUMMIT VISTA WAY. Call us at 866-273-3785 or go online today to request a free Information Kit at www.SummitVistaLife.com/healthyaging.

5,000 Years of Civilization Reborn

“It’s historical, very entertaining, beautiful, and cultural.” —John Backstrom, Air Force Colonel


ive thousand years of civilization—live on stage! After sold-out shows last season, Shen Yun is back with a brand-new production. Watch ancient legends, heavenly realms, and modern tales of courage spring to life through classical Chinese dance. See ethnic dances, dazzling costumes, and powerful flips

March 16–18, 2018 Salt Lake City 2 0 17 George S. and Dolores Doré Eccles Theater


fill the stage with color and energy. And let the orchestra’s exquisite melodies, the singers’ soaring voices, and the dynamic animated backdrops uplift your spirit and transport you to another world. It’s five thousand years of civilization—reborn. Experience Shen Yun.

888-633-6999 ShenYun.com/UT

va l o r : a s a l u t e t o u ta h ’ s v e t e r a n s a n d m i l i ta r y


OGDEN. September 2017. Photographs of loved ones lost to suicide hang in rememberance at the 10th annual Northern Utah Suicide Awareness Walk. Suicide among military veterans is especially high in the western U.S. and rural areas, according to new government data that show wide state-by-state disparities and suggest social isolation, gun ownership and access to health care may be factors. Montana, Utah, Nevada and New Mexico had the highest rates of veteran suicide as of 2014, the most current VA data available. The suicide rates in those four states stood at 60 per 100,000 individuals or higher, far above the national veteran suicide rate of 38.4. Utah also ranks in the top five in suicide deaths in other populations—teens, young adults and senior adults. photo by summer anderson


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CONTENTS 1949-1989: The Cold War Arms Race

IN FROM THE COLD pages 10-19

Healing the Warrior Series: Part 4


One Chaplain’s Evolving Journey


DEPARTMENTS The Briefing / 4-5 Doing Business / 6-8 Blade HQ , L3 Technologies and Utah Patriot Partnership Community Relations / 34-36 Follow the Unassuming Journey of Pilot Jake Garn U’s 20th Annual Veterans Day Commemoration / 37 ‘I Love These Veterans’

WWW.UTAHVALOR.COM UTAH MEDIA GROUP / 4770 South 5600 West, West Valley City UT 84118 utahmediagroup.com To subscribe: 801-204-6100 / To advertise: 801-204-6300 PROJECT TEAM / Brent Low, Publisher / Megan Donio, Publications Manager Michelle Bridges, Project Manager / Utah Media Group Creative VALOR: A Salute to Utah’s Veterans and Military is a publication of Utah Media Group and distributed in partnership with Deseret News and The Salt Lake Tribune. Copyright © october 2017. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any format without consent of Utah Media Group. Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this publication and assume no liability for errors, inaccuracies or omissions.

on the cover :

SALT LAKE CITY. November 2016. Members of the University of Utah ROTC programs—Army, Air Force, Navy—perform the color guard during the annual Veterans Day Commemoration. courtesy u’s veterans day commemoration committee october

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The Briefing U ta h h a s a n e n ga g i n g m i l i ta r y c o m m u n i t y w i t h d e e p r oo t s a n d b ra n ch e s t h a t r e a ch f a r a n d w i d e. O u r m y r i a d o f s to r i e s a r e tol d i n o u r s ch ool s , l i b ra r i e s , m u s e u m s , a c t iv i t i e s a n d h o m e s . E ve r y n o w a n d t h e n VA LO R c o m e s a c r o s s i n te r e s t i n g “ b i t s a n d p i e c e s ” t h a t w e w a n t to s h a r e w i t h o u r r e a d e r s .

getty photo


Wreaths Across America: ‘I am an American. Yes I am!’


his December, Utahns will join thousands of volunteers across the country to place wreaths on a million veterans headstones in honor of their service and sacrifice for National Wreaths Across America Day on Saturday, Dec. 16. A growing number of cemeteries across Utah have begun participating in the event. “All races, religions, and types of people come together with one purpose that day to help us celebrate our veterans lives,” said Denyce Brown, Wreaths Across America Coordinator for the Layton Lindquist Mortuary and Cemetery. “Our older veterans didn’t get the big celebrations when they came home, so this is a good opportunity for them to come and see that their sacrifice isn’t forgotten.” When Brown first started volunteering a few years ago, only a handful of people participated. The event has now grown and volunteers help place hundreds of wreaths. Each year different groups help with the program; cadet programs, Girl and Boy Scout troops, Patriot Guard Riders, honor guard, and veteran service organizations. For Jason Smith, marketing manager at Lindquist, having the Scouts participate is a powerful learning experience. “They come to understand what it means to be a member of our country after they’ve laid a wreath at a veteran’s representatives from the military and hear their stories.” For more information about donating, volunteering or locating a cemetery participating in the event, visitwreathsacrossamerica.org.


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PROJECT AIMS TO REMEMBER ‘UNKOWN’ VETERANS TROUGH THE HOLIDAYS For eight years, Anna and Samatha have been part of the same Girl Scout troop based at Hill Air Force Base. They have participated with Wreaths Across America at Fort Douglas Post Cemetery for four years. “Last year we noticed that only a fourth of the graves had a wreath,” said Samatha. So as the girls began working on their Silver Award project, the highest award a second-year cadet can earn, they choose the WWA. They must complete 50 hours of community service on a project that “will have a lasting impact.” Part of their summer was spent with a table at the PX, commissary and local umg photo / beau burgess VFW posts raising awareness and funds. They have until Nov. 28 to reach their goal of 150 wreaths. Help them earn their Silver Award by going to wreaths.fastport.com and using group ID UT0015 to donate. Samatha’s grandpa, who was active duty, also participates in the wreath laying. Last year he went down to the unknowns and said, “this year, they’re all going to have a wreath.” —VALOR


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11/10-11 VETERANS DAY ACTIVITIES Many communities, academic institutions, military organizations and care facilities will hold ceremonies and recognitions for Veterans Day. Try these two events; for others in your neighborhood, visit veterans.utah.gov/calendars n ”VALOR” Utah National Guard Veterans Day Concert featuring 23rd Army Band and combined Granite School District high school choirs. Free. Friday, Nov. 10, Tabernacle on Temple Square, north West Temple, SLC, 7 p.m. NOTE: Change of location. Vietnam Veterans of America have diligently pursued their goal to build a replica of the Vietnam Memorial Wall in the West. The Wall will be located in Layton Commons Park. courtesy vva northern utah chapter 1079

LONG JOURNEY IN FINAL STAGES, VIETNAM WALL REPLICA READIES FOR GROUNDBREAKING IN LAYTON Dennis Howland, president of the Utah Vietnam Veterans of America, is seeing a dream come true with the Vietnam Memorial Wall replica groundbreaking at Layton Commons Park on Veterans Day, Nov. 11 (1:30 p.m. after the parade). Nearly three years ago Howland set out to fulfill a promise he made when he returned from the Vietnam war 50 years ago. “As long as I could breathe, I made it a personal goal that the world would never forget the guys I grew up with whose names are now on the Vietnam Wall in Washington D.C.,” Howland said, who set out to build a replica of the Wall in the West, despite the nearly half million-dollar cost. “I knew it was a lot of money, but I knew if I had to shake a quarter out of every pocket from people in Utah, I would,” Howland stated. Having raised over $440,000 from the state legislature, grants and dollar donations, the Wall is becoming a reality. The Vietnam Wall replica will be in excess of 320 feet, 80 percent the size of the original memorial located in our nation’s capital and will contain all 58,479 names. Layton Mayor Bob Stevenson says they agreed to have the Wall placed in Layton City for several reasons. “We reap the benefits of Hill Air Force Base and feel that supporting the military means also supporting our veterans,” Stevenson said. “This Wall helps us show our love and appreciation to the military and allows veterans to come and spend those inner moments reflecting on those who’ve served.” —RIMINGTON FOR VALOR

USTAR’S NEW INNOVATION CENTER OPENS The USTAR Innovation Center, housed at the Falcon Hill National Aerospace Research Park just outside the west gates of Hill Air Force Base, will officially open its doors in early November with an opening celebration to include Utah Gov. Gary Herbert and Lt. Gen. Lee K. Levy. “We’re excited to see the opening of the USTAR Innovation Center,” said Ivy Estabrooke, USTAR executive director. “It will provide important access to sophisticated equipment, office space, mentoring and proximity to strategic partners—all necessary components to grow Utah’s aerospace and advanced material sectors.” As a high-tech incubator and prototype lab, the Innovation Center serves the aerospace and defense, advanced materials and outdoor product sectors. The space includes over 20,000 square feet of office and lab space, conference rooms, and dedicated space for manufacturing, research and development projects. USTAR is Utah’s technology catalyst, accelerating the growth of Utah’s economy from invention through product development. Information on all USTAR programs can be found by visiting ustar.org. —USTAR FOR VALOR october

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n Edgar Harrell, Survivor, UUS Indianapolis Sinking shares his story of this harrowing ordeal of being attacked by Japanese torpedoes that sunk the ship and sent 900 men into shark invested waters. Hosted by Utah Military Academy. $10, tickets required. Friday, Nov. 10, Ogden area, 7-9:30 p.m. facebook. com/pg/UtahMilitaryAcademy/events

11/15 SALUTING OUR HEROES Honoring the men and women who have served our country. Highlighting opportunities and resources to assist veterans as they transition back to civilian life. Minimum $100 donation is kindly requested. Grand America Hotel, 555 Main Street, SLC, Noon-1:30 p.m. Wednesday. discovernac.org/saluting-our-heroes/

11/19 VOLKSTRAUERTAG —GERMAN NATIONAL DAY OF REMEMBRANCE German Americans and friends gather to pay tribute to the 41 German prisoners of war and others laid to rest at that historic burial ground. Speakers from German Consulate Utah. Fort Douglas Post Cemetery, 431 S. Chipeta Way, SLC, 10 a.m. Sunday. fortdouglas.org/events

02/27-03/02 23RD ANNUAL VETERANS CREATIVE ARTS FESTIVAL Veterans participate in areas of art, music, drama, dance and creative writing. Applications begin in December. Contact Melissa Rollins, 801-582-1565 ext. 2691 or melissa.rollins@va.gov. Art show and performances open to public. George E. Wahlen VA Medical Center, Bldg. 8., 500 Foothill Drive, SLC. va.gov/OPA/speceven/caf/index FOLLOW US at facebook.com/ utahvalormag or online at utahvalor.com va l o r : a s a l u t e t o u ta h ’ s v e t e r a n s a n d m i l i ta r y


Doing Business T h e B e e h ive S ta te h a s a d y n a m i c a n d d ive r s e e c o n o m y. D e f e n s e - r el a te d i n d u s t r i e s a r e pa r t o f t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t . Fr o m b u s i n e s s boa r d r oo m s , go ve r n m e n t o f f i c e s , e d u c a t i o n a l c l a s s r oo m s a n d i n d iv i d u a l l ivel i h ood s , VA LO R i n t r od u c e s r e a d e r s to t h e m a n y pa r t n e r s a n d r e s o u r c e s f i n d i n g s u c c e s s i n t h e m a rk e t pl a c e.




a uta h v e t e ran - fri e n d ly small b usin e ss

en Petersen, marketing manager for the knife company Blade HQ, wanted to identify a charity to support. With his company selling a product close to the hearts of military veterans, it made sense to want to raise funds to honor these men and women. Yet deciding which worthwhile non-profit organization his company was going to support did not signify the end to the obstacles he would face. “When you plan to use your business as a fundraising vehicle for charity it’s not particularly straightforward,” Petersen explains. “It’s navigating internal politics and sticking your neck out. If it’s going to work, everyone in the business has to support it.” Petersen was determined to make it succeed—particularly after his experience working on the long-term fundraiser Forged by War by Columbia River Knife and Tool. Before that, Petersen says, he had a healthy respect for our nation’s veterans, but “no reality.” He wasn’t alive during the Vietnam War and was not heavily impacted by the combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. Veterans’ sacrifices and the turmoil many of them experienced were abstract to him.

Eventually, Petersen and Blade HQ chose to support Continue Mission, which serves Utah veterans with service-connected physical, mental and emotional injuries. The idea was to produce flight tag keychains, sell them and donate all the profits to Continue Mission. It was a fine idea, but with potential pitfalls. “One of the challenges we had to face as a retailer is the simple fact that if we rally our customers to donate Blade HQ to a cause, there’s a risk that they 400 S. 1000 East, Ste. E1, Lehi UT 84043 donate but don’t spend their 801-768-0232, bladehq.com money buying our products,” Petersen recalls. “We had to convince our executive team to take the risk and jump together. And it worked.” Petersen said Blade HQ saw a 38 percent increase in revenue the day the fundraiser began. The first production of 300 flight tags sold out in two hours. Enthused customers demanded more. An additional 300 more flight tags were made and sold out upon arrival two weeks later. Petersen calls it, “magic—magic for the business and magic for the charity.” 6

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Blade HQ Marketing Manager Ben Petersen displays the brass tag the company will use for the 2017 fundraiser. The brass tag will be available at bladehq.com/veterans for $5 on Nov. 7 with all profits donated to Continue Mission. courtesy blade hq / darci larsen

3 TIPS FOR A SUCCESSFUL PARTNERSHIP n Authenticity is how Blade HQ built a strong reputation in the knife community—it’s easy to connect with people who have a shared love for steel. n We found an overlap between our veteran and industry contacts and asked for recommendations. n We support veterans who are making knives by connecting them and their products with a wider audience including active-duty folks heading all over the world and those at home after military service.

“I’m a big believer in using business to help community and I’m convinced it’s a symbiotic relationship that benefits both parties,” Petersen says. “I smile every time I see Continue Mission’s social posts; our small donation is helping veterans, and I get a lot of personal satisfaction from being part of it.” David Cordero has been a professional writer for more than 15 years. He has won awards on a variety of subjects, including sports, education and military matters. He volunteers as a board member for Utah Honor Flight and editing American Legion Post 90 newsletter. october

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L3 Technologies demonstrates its commitment to community involvement through a variety of outreach programs. One way is the company’s substantial support for the Utah National Guard Charitable Trust Sub-for-Santa program, where donations come primarily from L3 employees. courtesy l 3 technologies


SUCCESS DEFINED: AGILITY. INNOVATION. COMMITMENT. by Dana Rimington r ec ogni z e d as t h e to p v e t e ran - fri e n d ly c om pan y by u . s . v e t e rans maga z in e in


s a large international company serving as a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Defense, L3 Technologies’ Communication Systems-West (L3 CW-S) is committed to helping military personnel and veterans. With the company’s military leave policy, L3 Community Outreach Coordinator Ci Ci Compton says employees who are deployed during their employment at their Salt Lake City office receive help from the company vital to their military experience and success. “They often tell me the support and flexibility that L3 gave them during their deployment was critical for them, their family and their military service,” Compton said. “Our company underscores that they have our full support when on military leave.” Communications Manager Andrea Hellewell says L3 provides the continuation of health benefits and salaries for employees called to duty if their military income is less than their L3 salary. “When their mind is at peace knowing their families are being taken care of, then they can do what needs to be done to take care of their country.” Eighteen percent of L3 CS-W’s 3,500 employees are serving or have served in the military. As a result, their military experience carries over into their desire to help fellow employees and community october

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members. “We have such a high percentage of our employees who’ve actually served and seen how fellow servicemen have struggled with difficulties or worried about their families,” said Hellewell. “They’ve come together as a group to rally around their fellow employees and families of those serving abroad. They realize how important it is to have a bond to help support and lift each other.” Throughout the year, L3 as a company supports many outside veteran organizations, events and activities. The company also provides their employees opportunities to volunteer with organizations such as the National Ability Center or the National Veterans Wheelchair Games, host an annual Veterans Day flag raising ceremony, participate with Utah Honor Flight and contribute to a Sub-for-Santa program. L3’s Sub-for-Santa program is unique since their donations are entirely employee funded—100 percent. “Our veteran employees know how difficult it is because at one point they were the ones with families left behind. Now, they are eager for the chance to give back and say thank you to those serving,” said Compton. Dana Rimington has more than 12 years covering stories involving education, military, government and business in northern Utah. She focuses her efforts as a marketing content writer for businesses across the country.

HOW A LARGE CORPORATION CAN BE LOCALLY INVOLVED n L3 focuses on military and veteran programs to provide support and build relationships within the community. n Employees regularly support veteran and military initiatives, especially veterans and their families. n Individuals with military background are sought by L3 for their experience and understanding of the company’s equipment and mission.

L3 Technologies Communication Systems-West 640 North 2200 West Salt Lake City, UT 84116 801-594-2000, l3t.com/csw

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Utah Department of Workforce Services take part in hosting “employment fairs” to encourage businesses to hire veterans and military personnel. courtesy utah department of workforce services

UTAH PATRIOT PARTNERSHIP ‘MAKE THE PLEDGE’ by David Cordero d e partm e nt of wor k forc e s e rvi c e s e n c ourag e s uta h b usin e ss e s to h ir e v e t e rans

FIVE REASONS TO HIRE A MILITARY VETERAN n Leadership training: Disciplined to be responsible for activities, resources and people. n Teamwork: Able to work in a diverse and dynamic group of people.

It was this: The unemployment rate for military veterans was 8.1.

n Team leaders: Skills to analyze any given project and execute it with precision.

Bruce Summers, Chief of Veteran Services for the Utah Department of Workforce Services, an U.S. Army veteran who served in Iraq in 2005-06, remembers that Gov. Gary R. Herbert was concerned. “He challenged employers to hire veterans,” Summers recalls.

n Work under pressure: Effectively do the job, do it right the first time and do it timely. n Give and follow directions: Accountable for their actions and for the actions of those in their charge.


Utah Department of Workforce Services 801-526-WORK, jobs.utah.gov



he tipping point arrived in 2011 when the numbers for Utah’s unemployment were released. Still in recovery from what is known as the “great recession,” Utah’s unemployment sat at about 6.1 percent. That was not the problem.

This challenge came to life in the form of the Utah Patriot Partnership program, which was created in 2011 to encourage businesses to hire military veterans. Employers register to participate as a Utah Patriot Partner through the governor’s office and Department of Workforce Services, and through their partnership DWS and employers collaborate to find appropriate job matches to qualified candidates. The benefits of hiring veterans are extensive. Veterans tend to have strong work habits, place an emphasis on safety and have extensive experience working as part of a team.

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“We have found (veterans) to be hard-working men and women,” said Sheri Humphries, office manager for Hansen’s Landscape Services in St. George, a participant in the Patriot Partner program. “We are glad to have them aboard.” The Patriot Partnership has been a raging success. While the unemployment rate throughout Utah shrunk to 3.5 percent in 2016, the veterans unemployment rate dwindled to a microscopic 2.3 percent. The figure ranked fifth in the country, with Indiana at the top (1.8 percent). “In Utah we take seriously our obligations to those who have served our country diligently in military service. Among the best ways to show our appreciation is by assisting these individuals in finding meaningful employment that takes advantage of their leadership experience and skills,” said Gov. Gary Herbert in a press release earlier this year. “I am proud of how the Department of Workforce Services and the Department of Veterans and Military Affairs support and serve these exemplary men and women.” David Cordero has been a professional writer for more than 15 years. He has won awards on a variety of subjects, including sports, education and military matters. Among his volunteer endeavors are serving as a board member for Utah Honor Flight and editing American Legion Post 90 newsletter. october

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House Calls Daily Nursing Visits Homemaking Visits Pharmacy Deliveries

Medical Equipment Physical Therapy Housekeeping

Covered 100% by Medicare Please call us today to see if you qualify

(801) 639-5000 Serving the Salt Lake Valley for over 12 years


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affairs journal, 1953

CHECKPOINT CHARLIE, BERLIN. October 1961. Border disputes led to a standoff and for 16 hours the world was at the brink of war while Soviet and American tanks faced each other just 300 feet (100 meters) apart. Washington and its British and French allies had failed to prevent the Soviets building the Berlin Wall. After several days of escalating U.S. rebuffs to East German attempts to get American officials to show identification documents before entering East Berlin (thus indirectly acknowledging East German sovereignty, rather than Soviet occupation authority) ten U.S. M-48 tanks took up position at Checkpoint Charlie. This was the first (and only) such direct confrontation of U.S. and Soviet troops. ap photo


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he Cold War was a militarized confrontation between the two post-1945 great powers: the United States and the Soviet Union. It rose and fell in intensity but never escalated into a World War III. It began with the Berlin Crisis of 1948-49 and ended with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989. Throughout the Cold War, the U.S. was committed to the defense of Western Europe and Japan, and the “containment” of the Soviet Union. By 1955 two great alliance systems had emerged, each intended to deter the other from future aggression: the U.S.-led North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) of Western European nations and the Soviet-dominated Warsaw Pact, which included the Eastern European countries the Red Army had liberated from German occupation in 1944-45, or that had been Hitler’s allies during the war. At the end of WWII, Germany had been divided, with the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) in NATO and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) in the Warsaw Pact. The Soviet Union successfully tested its first atomic weapon in September 1949. This triggered a two-sided Cold War “arms race” to develop continually more destructive nuclear weapons and more precise delivery systems. Both sides developed a “triad” of long-range bombers, land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarines. The period of maximum danger of a nuclear conflict ended with the negotiated end of the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 and the signing of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in August 1963. In addition to its nuclear deterrent, the United States maintained, for the first time in its history, large ground, air, and naval forces in Europe and Asia. After 1963, the U.S. and the Soviet Union developed communication systems to reduce tensions during periodic crises, such as the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 and the 1973 Arab-Israeli War. As nuclear tensions lessened in Europe, the U.S. and the Soviet Union globalized their confrontation by supporting different armed movements contending for power in the post-colonial nations of the “Third World.” The 40 years of the Cold War contained two shorter periods of “hot” or shooting wars. In the Korean War of 1950-1953 and the Vietnam War of 1964-1973, the U.S. tried to prevent the violent Communist unification of peoples that had been geographically divided into two notionally


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/ s e rv i c e :

Navy, 1962-69

/ f ro m :

Salt Lake City


rowing up my father was a miner throughout the West Desert. I often spent time underground with him. Irony isn’t lost on me that I graduated from Bingham High School, home of the Miners. But I wanted to be a pilot. I signed up with the Marines, but discovered that they got the worst planes. The Air Force had first dibs, the Navy second, and leftovers went to the Marines; plus my odds at coming back from Vietnam weren’t too good. I went next door to the Navy recruiter and transferred. Scored high on the basic battery test and found myself as a missile technician on a nuclear submarine. Again the irony, my upbringing came in handy.

After boot camp, I went to submarine school and studied all the missile systems. Then on to sea school to study the Polaris umg photo missile and its systems. Next, special technology school where we studied aerodynamics and everything to do with those missiles and the theory behind it. I studied primers (should have lifted them), memorized charts and mastered berlin algebra—a technique to simplify circuitry. I was bad at math, but suddenly understood algebra. We were trained so well we could do our job blindfolded and we could perform any job in any compartment we were qualified for. Re n W i l l i e

Fleet ballistic submarines were larger than most surface ships. There were three levels in the missile compartment, two in auxiliary/machinery, one on the reactor and engineering levels. The reactor is a big tea kettle—nuclear radiation super heats the water,

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Salt Lake City

which circles around through the core where regular water passes through and turns to steam—that’s what turns the turbines. Life on a nuclear submarine? It was really crazy. We could stay submerged indefinitely, you were limited only by how much food you could take. Food came on fresh and frozen. The rest was canned or dehydrated. Limes and lemons lasted the longest. The toughest thing was to try and keep physically fit. There was a stationary bike in the mess and a set of weights in the torpedo room. Mostly we walked. We took three-minutes showers once a week. No sweat, literally—the scrubbers and burners purified the air that was constantly being cooled. We ran 18-hour days—six hours on watch, 18 hours off. During off hours you ate, slept and did maintenance. There were three shifts so you divided the crew into thirds. One third of the crew was at the duty station, one guy was asleep and one was doing maintenance. We had our own bunks on patrol so we only didn’t do “hot bunking” (sharing of bunks on off duty) except on trial runs. Patrols were three months—one for refit and two at sea. Then we were in port for training before going back out. I did seven patrols in the Atlantic. I went into the service to serve my country. I believed that freedom was in peril with the Cold War with the advancement of Communism. Our mission was to go out and protect the United States from attack. The attack from Russia was eminent because they had nuclear weapons, they had a delivery system and we were the answer too that. If we had ever fired a missile, then our mission would have been a failure. We were out there as a deterrent. We knew that and it worked. —VALOR

USS Nathanael Greene (SSBN-636), a Lafayette-class fleet ballistic missile submarine, was the third ship of the U.S. Navy to be named for Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene (1746–1782). The submarine departed for shakedown in December 1964. On March 13, 1986, she ran aground in the Irish Sea, suffering severe damage. The grounding was the first serious accident involving a U.S. Navy nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine. She was deactivated while still in commission in May 1987 due to both a result of the accident as well as in accordance with limitations set by SALT II treaty. u . s . navy photo


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(ABOVE) BIKINI ISLAND, MICRONESIA. July 25, 1946. The “Baker” explosion, part of Operation Crossroads, a nuclear weapon test by the United States military. The wider, exterior cloud is actually just a condensation cloud and was very brief. There was no classic mushroom cloud rising to the stratosphere, but inside the condensation cloud the top of the water geyser formed a mushroom-like head called the cauliflower, which fell back into the lagoon. dod photo (LEFT) WASHINGTON, D.C. Jan. 19, 1959. Pfc. Warner Bitterman ( left ) watches as Army chief chemical officer Maj. Gen. Marshall Stubb ( center ) checks new civilian gas mask being worn by secretary Margaret Francis at his Pentagon office. ap photo

sovereign states earlier in the Cold War. The United States was successful in one case—Korea, and unsuccessful in the other— Vietnam.

Soviet radar and anti-aircraft missile technology reduced the likely success of a bomber-based U.S. counter-strike against a Soviet attack.

During the Cold War millions of American men, draftees and volunteers, served in all military branches, believing that the temporary interruption of their civilian lives was necessary to maintain sea, air and land deterrents to a Soviet attack on NATO nations and to protect the American homeland.

Inter-continental ballistic missile (ICBM) technology emerged as the second leg of the nuclear triad. The ICBM force transitioned from liquid fuel (Atlas and Titan) to solid fuel (Minuteman). Solid fuel allowed a much smaller missile that could be more safely based inside hardened underground “silos” located in Midwestern and Great Plains states. These could be launched less than 60 seconds after the silo crew received and authenticated the “go-code.” However, while a large percentage of silo-based Minutemen were ready to launch at any moment they were, after all, fixed in place, and were themselves the targets of massive explosive yield Soviet nuclear ICBMs.

TRIAD OF STRATEGIC NUCLEAR WEAPONS From the moment of the first Soviet nuclear bomb test, the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in an arms race to design, build and field nuclear bombs and missile warheads, and the systems necessary to precisely deliver them to targets in the enemy’s homeland. Before 1960, the U.S. strategic deterrent relied exclusively on jet bombers equipped to drop nuclear “gravity bombs” from high altitude: a medium-range bomber, the Boeing B-47, which could not quite fly to targets in the Soviet Union and back from bases in the U.S., and another Boeing product, the long-range B-52, which could. However, only a fraction of the total B-47/B-52 force could be on alert at any given moment, and after 1959 october

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Also during the late 1950s, the U.S. Navy took advantage of solid-fuel missile technology to persuade Congress to fund the design, construction and deployment of the third leg of the triad: the Polaris nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine, 41 of which were launched between 1959 and 1967. The great advantage of the Polaris and the later Poseidon carrying “SSBNs” was that they were both ready to launch their 16 missiles at any moment and very hard to detect by Soviet aircraft or even va l o r : a s a l u t e t o u ta h ’ s v e t e r a n s a n d m i l i ta r y



/ s e rv i c e :

Air Force, 1959-63

/ f ro m :

Washington, D.C.

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Callao, West Desert of Utah


liked the Air Force and had joined for the air rescue/paramedic services program. At the end of basic training, they tried to recruit me as a drill sergeant. By that time the ARS job code was full, so I had to select another. I signed up for photo intelligence. The Air Force knew a high-flying, reconnaissance spy plane was coming online and began gearing up. We were the first group of airmen to get specific training on aerial photo interpretation. We ended up at Offutt AFB in Omaha, Neb., where Strategic Air Command headquarters were located. We had big viewing machines in our top-secret lab and we got really good at determining what was on the ground.

The U-2 could get up to 72,000 feet and no one worried too much about keeping missions secret because no SA-2 missile could get that high, but when Francis Gary Powers was shot down, he proved that the Russians could. Generals at the Pentagon wanted to continue flyovers but Eisenhower said no. However, we were still “looking in” with the D o n D u ff first spy satellite codenamed “Keyhole.” By umg photo the end of 1959 we knew where all missile bases in Russia were, under construction or operational, and knew how to identify them by “construction signatures.” That was very helpful when we got into Cuba. We began monitoring Cuba and by 1962 things were heating up. We had intelligence on the ground and some imagery showed 5,000 farm workers and all this equipment being shipped in. We looked at photos of great big cargo boxes on ships that were the sizes of aircraft boxes we had seen in Russia that transported munitions, cargo, missiles; so we became skeptical. Developing areas didn’t look much like farmland. On Aug. 29 photos showed a Soviet surface-to-air missile (SAM) site, with a configuration of the Star of David—circular with points with missile, missile, missile …. I told my boss that we needed to start watching. On Oct. 14 Kennedy authorized a direct flight over Cuba. The U-2 took off from Edwards AFB and by sunrise was over Cuba and soon landed back at McCoy AFB in Florida. Gen. Robert Smith, Air Force director of intelligence, was there to get the main camera film. But the CIA intercepted it. Smith said he was going to D.C. with them. Smith sent the 70mm tracker film to Offutt by special jet. The day crew got it on Sunday afternoon and confirmed a SAM site with missile trailers. Our captain was on the phone to Gen. Power, who called Curtis LaMay of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who we assumed notified Kennedy. But it wasn’t written down and the CIA denies it. When I came on shift at midnight, swing shift had found nothing new. I knew we were getting the main camera film at midnight because I heard Gen. Smith made arrangements with the Naval


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(LEFT) LA COLOMA, CUBA. Aug. 29, 1962: U-2 photograph of SA-2 surface-to-air missile (SAM) site under construction. (RIGHT) October 1962. U-2 photography revealing a completed SA-2 SAM site showing characteristic Star of David pattern. national security archive photos

Photographic and Interpretation Lab in D.C. where the film was being developed. He wanted a copy. On the flight to D.C. to get the film developed, the plane went to Bolling AFB first. It takes about six hours to develop the main film. If they had got into D.C. by 10 or 11 EST, the six hours would have put it in at mid afternoon. And if Gen. Smith would have put the main camera film on a plane at that time it would have been at Offutt in two hours and that’s why we got it at midnight. The CIA says we couldn’t have gotten it, but I contend that we did. That’s what we were looking at. I remember at 2 o’clock in the morning on Oct. 15, we were looking at the film and “zooming in.” There was a missile sticking out of one of the trailers. It was a Soviet MRBM. We were the first to confirm an actual missile. We were close to the war room, so I was briefing officers. Again, it’s not written down. But I assume Gen. LaMay was notifying the Pentagon and Kennedy. The CIA by their own admission didn’t confirm it until the afternoon. And then they told Kennedy, they would be giving a briefing on Oct. 16 at 11:30 a.m., complete with pictures. When Gen. Power and Gen. Smith got to D.C. on the morning of Oct. 16, again the CIA took all the briefing materials from them and closed the doors. The Air Force was not allowed to go into the briefing with other staff members and the President. They took credit for our discovery and it really ticked us off. Over the years I’ve tried to fill in the gaps. I’ve questioned the “official story,” the missing reports, the lapses in time. I’ve shown my research to others and been told it never happened that way. But I was there and I remember. It’s a part of history, my history. I’ll keep questioning and keep searching. —VALOR october

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(ABOVE) WASHINGTON, D.C. Oct. 1, 1962. U.S. President John F. Kennedy ( right ) confers with his brother Attorney Gen. Robert F. Kennedy at the White House during the buildup of military tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union that became the Cuban missile crisis later that month. ap photo (LEFT) NEW YORK. April 28, 1961. A dog sits near a police officer in the middle of an empty Times Square during a 10-minute civil defense test air raid alert. ap photo / bob goldberg

other submarines. The Soviet Union’s inability to develop the technology necessary to deliver a “knock-out blow” against the Polaris/Poseidon subs meant that the SSBNs have been the strongest single element of the U.S. strategic deterrent during the Cold War.

STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE AND ‘EYES IN THE SKY’ Throughout the Cold War, the U.S. and the Soviet Union struggled to gain strategic intelligence, or the knowledge of, and ability to understand, each other’s national “capabilities and intentions.” Capabilities refer to the nuclear weapon and guidance systems the opposing nation “fielded” or put in place ready to use, and the systems under development. Intentions refers to an opponent’s short-, medium- and long-term goals and plans for achieving those goals; in other words, what will he try to do next, and how willing he is to actually use, or credibly threaten to use, the strategic nuclear weapons in his arsenal. Of the many categories of strategic intelligence, usually classified by the means of collection, the “intelligence platforms” of the U.S. Air Force were never far out of the news during the Cold War. These aircraft photographed the Soviet Union, its Eastern European satellites, and Communist China using highresolution, high-altitude cameras, and used various sensors to record radar emissions and electronic message traffic. Generally, U.S. reconnaissance flights respected international law, and were routed along the borders of Communist nations in allied airspace or over international waters. Although the vast majority of these missions were flown without incident, at least 16 U.S. reconnaissance aircraft were shot down on the perimeter october

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of the Soviet Union between 1950 and 1970, with approximately 100 Navy and Air Force aviator fatalities. More notoriously, a relatively small percentage of overflights were conducted over the Soviet Union and China between 1956 and 1960 by the purpose-built super high altitude Lockheed U-2. Much extremely valuable photographic and electronic intelligence was gathered by the U-2, which enabled U.S. presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy to understand that the Soviet Union was not in fact ahead of the U.S. in neither strategic bomber of intercontinental missile technology or deployments. However, the golden age of overflights ended with the shootdown of a U-2 flown by CIA pilot Francis Gary Powers on May 1, 1960. Even so, the U-2 remained a critical intelligence platform: a much developed variant, the U-2S, is still flying today, having outlived its successor, the SR-71 “Blackbird.”

U.S. ARMY AND RESERVE UNITS DURING THE COLD WAR As in all of its previous conflicts, the United States rapidly demobilized after World War II. By June 1946, only 16 out of 89 divisions remained on active duty, 12 of which were in Europe or Asia. However, the Korean War of 1950-53 pulled in six of these divisions and led to a call-up of eight National Guard divisions. After Korea, the need to maintain a large and constantly ready Air Force and Navy meant that Congress declined to build the nation’s ground combat forces back up to anything close to the WWII forces. Thus, throughout the remainder of the 1950s and 1960s, the Army faced the dilemma of how to pose a credible deterrent to the much larger group Soviet armored and mechanized forces stationed in East Germany and Czechoslovakia. va l o r : a s a l u t e t o u ta h ’ s v e t e r a n s a n d m i l i ta r y



/ s e rv i c e :

Army, 1963-65

/ f ro m :

Salt Lake City


was an art major at the University of Utah. I had pushed my deferment for Vietnam just about as far as I could and wasn’t feeling too confident about my chances of not going overseas. My cousin was in the ROTC program and said it wasn’t too bad— class once a week and after two years they paid you. So I joined. After doing the first two years, ROTC leadership decided to take on three of us—all art majors. Two went infantry and one went artillery. I didn’t consider artillery because I didn’t understand logarithms—all that math. I didn’t want armor because every hour you’re driving a tank you’re laying underneath it for two or three more hours working on it. Infantry it was. Give me a M1, except they gave me a M14, which is a better rifle anyway, and assigned me to a unit.

As a commissioned officer, I went to Fort Bennington, Ga., entering the service before Vietnam got hot. Moved on to Fort Carson, Colo., with the 5th Infantry. We were capable Mi ke C u l l i s of doing everything that was being done in umg photo Korea—we had recon, munitions, medics, comms—basically a support company. I was assigned to be a heavy mortar platoon leader under the control of a battalion commander. As an E7, Sgt. Hester ran the show; I was his advisor. My job was to stand beside him and if he caught any trouble, I fixed it. If I screwed up, he got replaced. Sgt. Hester and I got along really well.

/ n ow :

Salt Lake City

Now, I’m a completely normal guy who’s gone through ROTC, become an infantry officer, know something about mortars and one day I’m involved in the custody and training of a tiny, tiny, tiny nuclear device that’s been miniaturized as part of the Cold War strategy. Sgt. Hester tried explaining the Davy Crockett by handing me the manual. I said I’d already read it and to ask me any question. He said it wasn’t a recoilless rifle, it’s this and this and this … My understanding was it has a tube that’s the propellant shaft with a pipe inside. When the tube comes out carrying the watermelon-sized explosive, it breaks lose and the pipe starts flying. It doesn’t do a trajectory like an artillery shell. It just drops down and explodes. The accompanying loose leaf held the flight list and if you checked all of those things, it would damn well fly. And it was checked constantly because it was a nuclear weapon. I saw a Davy Crockett fired once and I was really angry because my unit wasn’t picked. The bird colonel I was standing beside and I was complaining to nicely said, “Their equipment is newer than yours. That’s why they got to fire it. But lieutenant I promise you that if we have to fire one for real, you’ve got the job.” My response was, “Oh my hell!” The tactical purpose for the Davy Crockett was to take a bridge out, say an important choke point. The plan I was told was that when the Russians showed up with 350 tanks at Checkpoint Charlie. I was to drive out there, sit in the Jeep and piss them off. If they got real mad, I was going to go BOOM and melt them all. You can’t launch a tank after all … —VALOR

Dubbed the Davy Crockett Atomic Battle Group Delivery System, the 120mm M28 and 155mm M29 launchers were recoilless rifles that could be tripod mounted on an APC or directly mounted to a Jeep, utilized by a three-man firing team, and launch two varieties of M388 279mm tactical nuclear projectiles. The weapon was deployed to the European theater between 1961-1971. It was excused from service in Western Europe amid nuclear rollback agreements that took effect in 1968. If things had gone differently, it would have been the weapon that defined the Cold War. courtesy of mike cullis


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(ABOVE) GLASSBORO, N.J. June, 23, 1967. U.S. President Lyndon Johnson ( center ) listens to Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin’s interpreter ( right ) as Kosygin ( left ) listens during their hastily arranged U.S./ USSR summit inside Hollybush mansion, the college president’s residence, at Glassboro State College, during the Cold War and at the height of the Six-Day War between Israel and Arab states. ap photo (LEFT) ULM, WEST GERMANY. Oct. 22, 1983. An aerial view shows a line of peace demonstrators, protesting against the stationing of new US intermediate-range missiles. The peace movement managed to create the world’s longest line of people: 220,000 people held hands over a distance of 108 km from Stuttgart to Ulm. ap photo / roland holschneider

The solution to this “force ratio problem” was the development and deployment to NATO of smaller, non-strategic nuclear weapons that could be delivered by fighter aircraft; rockets such as the Honest John, Little John, and Sergeant; and the Davy Crocket, a jeep-mounted recoilless launcher, against the expected masses of Soviet tanks. U.S. policy was to defeat a conventional Soviet attack into West Germany with these “tactical” nuclear weapons by targeting troop concentrations and transportation choke points in East Germany. In August 1961 the Soviet premiere, Nikita Khrushchev (successor to Joseph Stalin) decided to wall off the Soviet zone in East Berlin from the three Western zones, in violation of the previous four-power agreements. As President John F. Kennedy could not know if this action was the opening move in a large assault on NATO, he sent two additional active army divisions to West Germany and called up two National Guard divisions to bolster the nation’s strategic reserve in the United States during this second Berlin Crisis. With an expanding war in Southeast Asia after the spring of 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson decided to avoid “alarming” the voting public by mobilizing reserve units before 1968, relying instead on increased draft calls. After the early 1968 Tet Offensive, President Johnson yielded to the pressure of the Joint october

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Chiefs of Staff and mobilized a small number of Army Reserve combat service support units for one-year deployments to South Vietnam. Meanwhile in NATO, the U.S. introduced several new generations of tactical nuclear weapons, to include the Lance and Pershing missile-systems, to maintain a ground combat deterrent against the Warsaw Pact. In the aftermath of Vietnam, the Joint Chiefs were able to convince Congress and Presidents Carter and Reagan that the active and reserve components needed to be unified into “one Army.” This would have three benefits. First, an upgrading of the equipment and personnel status of the reserve components to active standards would reduce post-mobilization, predeployment times in the event of a large conflict between NATO and the Warsaw Pact. Secondly, if reserve units were maintained at a higher state of readiness the Army could pass even more of its combat support and combat service support strength to the reserves, creating a leaner “tooth-to-tail ratio” in the active components. And finally, if the reserves were fully integrated into U.S. contingency planning, no future president could casually commit U.S. forces to combat abroad without a broad supporting consensus to include Congress and the American people. The mobilization of reserves thus became a “litmus test” of domestic support for any significant U.S. military effort overseas. va l o r : a s a l u t e t o u ta h ’ s v e t e r a n s a n d m i l i ta r y



/ s e rv i c e :

Air Force, 1964-92

/ f ro m :

Concord, North Carolina

/ n ow :

Salt Lake City


joined the military because I wanted to fly. At North Carolina State I went through ROTC, graduated and went to pilot training in Selma, Ala. My flight leader taught me how to fly. After three years in Germany, I volunteered for Vietnam as a combat forward controller and flew over the Ho Chin Min Trail for four months. I lead insertions and extractions on longrange patrols and to support teams in Laos. After leaving Vietnam I was assigned to B52 bombers. Now I’m only 5’6” and soon realized I didn’t have full control over the rudder, meaning I didn’t fit. Well, the higher ups decided to ship me off to tankers. I called a close friend I knew at Air Force administration and said, “Hey. This isn’t what I envisioned. I was expecting something more high-end, adventurous and fun.” He sent me orders to go to Beale AFB to interview for a new project— the U-2 program.

When the U-2 came online in the late 1950s, two groups were flying them: Air Force and CIA. All pilots flying for the Agency were “sheep dipped” (temporarily released from the Air Force to fly for the agency but could eventually re-enter the Fra n k ‘ Fu z z y ’ Fu r r military.) President Eisenhower didn’t want military umg photo pilots flying over the Soviet Union because it was an act of war, but gave permission for the CIA to. After Francis Gary Powers was shot down over the Soviet Union in 1960, the great heroic age of the U-2 shifted because reconnaissance was moving to satellites and the SR-71. The Air Force and SAC pushed for tougher missions. In 1962 with the Cuban Missile Crisis heating up, the Air Force moved operations from Texas to Florida. The CIA turned its focus on Vietnam. When the Agency folded all their U-2 operations in 1973, those assets went to the Air Force and they took on a more active role in places like the Mideast. Flying the U-2 can be taxing on the body. You’re sitting for 10 hours in a pressure suit that is basically a rubber bag. You perspire a lot. It’s not unusual to drop 5-7 pounds per mission. Guess how you wee-wee … You wear a urinary collection device that fits on you, and based on your ego and whether it leaked or not because you trimmed it to your size, you pressurize the suit, open a value which had a hole in it, let air go out through the tube, you pee and it went into a container on the aircraft. Now with women pilots … big diapers, huge diapers, good diapers-—$250 a piece.

(TOP) 1962. The U-2 operated photographed the secret placement of Soviet missiles in Cuba. Reconnaissance missions monitored movement of Soviet ships and the dismantling of the intermediate range ballistic missiles. (ABOVE) 1964. The SR-71, unofficially known as the “Blackbird,” is a long-range, advanced, strategic reconnaissance aircraft. (BELOW) 1960s. TRF-101 reconnaissance aircraft provided key intelligence about the Ho Chi Minh Trailin Southeast Asia. u . s . air force photos

People just don’t want you to know what you’re trying to get. I teach military history in the University of Utah’s Lifelong Learning program. I start with ancient Egypt and come forward. I try to get people to understand that intelligence gathering is important and is part of a larger whole. It’s not one-sided. It takes someone gathering information. Then once it’s analyzed, it becomes intelligence. Which when passed to the decision makers it becomes very important. When I finished my active U-2 flying, I stayed in the intelligence operational side of the military. I went to Omaha, Neb., and ran the U-2 and the SR71 programs and then moved on to the big airplanes, listening to everything going on. —VALOR


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(ABOVE) WEST BERLIN, WEST GERMANY. Dec. 8, 1987. U.S. President Ronald Reagan stands with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev as he welcomed him to the White House. The Soviet leader arrived for three days of summit negotiations on arms control and other superpower concerns. ap photo / doug mills (RIGHT) ULM, WEST GERMANY. Nov. 9, 1989. Berliners reunite under the gaze of East German “Vopo” (police) with thetearing of the Berlin Wall. The border separating East and West Germany was officially opened thus symbolising the end of the “cold war.” The Wall was erected in Aug. 13, 1961, to ward off western imperialism and hinder East Germans from defecting. ap photo

During the Reagan administration of 1981-1989, adequate funding was made available for purchasing new generation nuclear-powered aircraft carriers; Air Force and Navy fighter/ strike aircraft (F-15, F-16, and F-18); and the B-1 and B-2 strategic bombers. Earlier, in the 1970s, Strategic Air Command fielded the Minuteman III ICBM, with multiple, independentlytargetable warheads (MIRVs). Also during the Reagan years, the Army introduced a range of ground combat weapons for its armored and mechanized divisions: the Abrams tank, Bradley infantry fighting vehicle, the multiple-launch rocket system, and the Apache attack (anti-tank) helicopter. These gave the U.S. divisions in NATO a new qualitative boost to backstop its nuclear deterrent. This, then was the one army of active and reserve component soldiers and marines that liberated Kuwait in 1991, immediately after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

defend non-Communist states around the USSR’s geographical perimeter; secondly, targeted foreign aid to friendly nations to stabilize their economies and marginalize left-wing domestic parties; and finally, cultural diplomacy, in which Kennan anticipated the more recent concept of “soft power,” or the inherent attractiveness of American culture to populations under threat of Communism.


NATO was the first leg of containment. The second leg, foreign aid, was introduced in 1948 with the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Western Europe. The third cultural leg was symbolized by Hollywood movies and American cars. Although the Cold War became over-militarized, and the threat of the nuclear devastation was a real possibility, the Cold War ended more or less exactly as Kennan had predicted, with victory awarded to the opponent with the stronger economy and the more inclusive political system.

As early as February 1946, in his “Long Telegram” to the secretary of state, the “Russia expert” George Kennan predicted that if a protracted confrontation between the U.S. and Soviet Union developed, the United States would inevitably triumph, for the basic two reasons that representative democracy was superior to any other form of mass politics, and capitalism was the best method of creating the greatest good for the greatest number of citizens. In the long run the U.S., but not the Soviet Union, could give its people “guns and butter,” or both a strong military defense and a full range of consumer goods.

The “Reagan buildup” of U.S. ground forces in the 1980s, combined with the possibility and yet never fully realized, of an impenetrable defensive anti-ballistic missile shield (“Star Wars”) forced the leadership of the Soviet Union to conclude that it had decisively lost the “butter” part of the guns-and butterrace. This, overlaid with the disastrously failed Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979-89) finally delegitimized the Soviet Union, which dismantled itself in a series of dramatic political announcements between December 1988 and December 1991. Thus ended the Cold War.

Thus, relying on its enormously productive post-WWII economy, the U.S. could “contain” the Soviet Union through a three-legged global strategy: first, a credible military deterrent to october

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John S. Reed is a member of the history faculty at University of Utah, teaching courses in U.S. political, economic, foreign relations and military history. He did not serve in Vietnam, but served for 26 years as an Army reservist with one deployment to Iraq, as a staff officer 2007-08. va l o r : a s a l u t e t o u ta h ’ s v e t e r a n s a n d m i l i ta r y


(TOP) Community members attend the St. George Out of the Darkness Walk hosted by the Utah Chapter of American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. (ABOVE) Utah State Sen. Daniel Thatcher talks to Virginia Rep. Mark Keam about SafeUT. (RIGHT) Taryn Aiken, AFSP Utah spokeswoman, conducts a workshop on suicide prevention. (BELOW) A family shares memories of a loved one during the Northern Utah Suicide Awareness Walk in Ogden. photos by summer anderson


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PART 4: KINDRED SPIRITS by Summer Anderson for valor maga z in e

EDITOR’S NOTE: This is the final entry in our “Healing the Warrior” series. At VALOR we have attempted to explore the factors that too often affect our service members who are “lost, defeated or broken” in body, soul, mind or spirit. Warriors, realize there are many willing to help you get back on your feet. Reach out, ask. Be strong, brave and honest with your buddies, your family and yourself. We are here. We are part of your esprit de corps. —VALOR


ounds to the spirit take on varied identities, such as post-traumatic stress, moral injury, survivor’s guilt … for warriors, these offenses can create chasmic barriers to transitioning from an active-duty service member to healthy veteran. These unknown “enemies” attack the very courage it took to sign up for duty, and the warrior spirit becomes stuck—stuck between “suck it up” and “the fog of war.” I was a combat videographer with the U.S. Navy from 2005’08, deploying to Iraq with the U.S. Army 2nd Infantry Division for six months. I saw, felt and internalized many things that proved difficult to process. I buried it under the numbness of carelessness. A few months after deployment, I won two first-place awards for documentaries I produced in Iraq and Military Videographer of the Year for 2007. It was the pinnacle of any military videographer’s career—the highest honors of achievement. And yet, I felt empty. That gap was quickly filled with anxiety of guilt, false failure and suffocating fear. Avoidance became my crutch, and my spirit started losing the fight. I needed backup. Making the decision to seek help was not an easy one. However, sometimes a wounded spirit—especially a warrior one—cannot continue serving their country without it. Through intense and taxing therapy, healing for me took many years along many paths. My struggle continues, but so does the growth of a new courage. I’ve picked up where I left off and am now producing october

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a documentary on suicide prevention networks across Utah. Once again, in a very different way, I’m reuniting my warrior spirit with a mission and purpose to protect and save the lives of others. Throughout production, I’ve learned there’s not only strength in numbers, but more importantly in coordinated efforts. Utah’s Chapter for American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, the Utah Suicide Prevention Coalition, many grassroots organizations, and rural communities are joining forces to combat these issues collectively. And to no lesser degree, veteran and first responder voices are being heard loud and clear. Although prevention groups have existed for many years, the recent local and national recognition of this epidemic is bringing communicative innovations to the forefront. With the support of local legislation, a crisis intervention app for teens, called SafeUT, launched in 2016. This year State Sen. Daniel Thatcher and Rep. Steve Eliason created a Crisis Line Commission that has been developing recommendations for a unified crisis intervention phone number statewide. Currently, U.S. Sen. Orrin Hatch and Congressman Chris Stewart are working a bill through Congress requiring the FCC to designate a three-digit number crisis line nationwide. All are part of the whole of this public health crisis and the holistic need for solutions. The same goes for us. In our hurt, we can find the ability to be a powerful help, but to be effective, it takes a task force. For me, my painful experiences have proven to be a strength in times requiring compassion. But without mental and emotional aid for myself, tackling these issues could not be possible. And that is the point. It is true we are conditioned to toughen up and push through difficulty, but we are also trained to fight as a team. Who’s missing from your Warrior Spirit Task Force? va l o r : a s a l u t e t o u ta h ’ s v e t e r a n s a n d m i l i ta r y




oard-certified Clinical Psychologist Dr. Craig Bryan says those who knew him in college, sporting pierced ears and brightly bleached hair, would’ve considered him the last person anyone expected to join the military. Yet, colleagues and current events would prove more prophetic than aesthetics. “I was in my first graduate-level psychotherapy class when the U.S. invaded Iraq in 2003, and my professor opened that morning with a sidebar on his belief that not enough attention was paid to the consequences of war,” Bryan explains. “I remember his exact words, ‘you need to be aware of this—it’s something that will shape your lives as psychologists.’” To this day, Bryan acknowledges that exact teaching moment as the catalyst for his eventual decision to join the U.S. Air Force. Over the course of the next few years, friend, mentor, and former Army psychologist Dr. David Rudd further cemented the idea of military service as an impactful way to begin a career in psychology. Before long, Bryan was a commissioned officer, and eventually, he too found himself in Iraq. “The training opportunity as an Air Force psychologist was unparalleled,” he notes, explaining that his 2009 deployment came at a time when things “were not going well” for U.S. combat operations. “We were really starting to see the toll of war, and there was something about getting in the trenches alongside other service members that became a calling for me to care for men and women who were suffering under the burden of war,” he said.


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“You’re meeting with people while pieces of metal are being pulled out of their bodies; you’re communicating with others who have to type on the computer because their lips are melted shut,” he recalls. “It was during that time in Iraq that I also saw firsthand the consequences of suicide; standing over the body of a service member who had shot themselves in the head.” It was one of at least 20 dead bodies Bryan witnessed during his half-year deployment. Acknowledging that most clinical psychologists “never see that up close,” he considers it a transformative experience that solidified his desire to serve as a clinician focused on suicide prevention, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

A DRIVING FORCE Fast forward almost a decade, and Bryan remains somberly certain that wartime experience is the driving force behind his dedication to the University of Utah’s National Center for Veterans Studies (NCVS). Though the NCVS was originally founded by the aforementioned Rudd, Bryan was invited to assume the position of associate director in 2012, a seemingly hand-crafted role given his personal experience, military service, and highly-regarded collaboration on multiple groundbreaking military mental health studies. The NCVS mission is to engage in research, education, outreach and advocacy to improve the lives of veterans, and better position them for continued service that advances American values, prosperity and security. It’s primary functional pillars, according to Bryan, are research, clinical services, training and education, and community engagement. october

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NATIONAL ABILITY CENTER, PARK CITY. October 2017. The University of Utah’s National Center for Veterans Studies (NCVS) mission is to advocate for and improve the lives of veterans. For Director Dr. Craig Bryan and his wife, AnnaBelle, director of engagement and operations, they dedicate most of their resources to accomplish those goals. nac photo / jan drake

research underscores all of the NCVS tenets and is a key factor in the organization’s rise to prominence over the past few years. Some of the studies currently underway include shortterm suicide risk reduction, Primary Care Screening Methods (PRISM), and Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement. Other pre-clinical trials explore Evaluations of Suicidality, Cognitions and Pain Experience (ESCAPE), guilt, shame and suicide risk in military populations, and traumatic brain injuries and suicide risk in deployed service members.

When it comes to clinical services, Bryan treats a number of patients within the walls of his campus office, but his work also extends to the National Ability Center (NAC) in Park City as part of a groundbreaking partnership. During a two-week stay, personnel diagnosed with PTSD receive on-site cognitive processing therapy every morning. At the same time, they engage in recreation therapy with their families in the context of a picturesque backdrop.

“The NCVS is unique in its ability to combine medical expertise with our recreation knowledge to achieve fast results,” said Gail Barille, NAC Chief Executive Officer. “There’s nothing like watching an individual and their family walk into our facility without hope, head held down—then 10 days later, they walk out, heads held high, a new lease on life free of the daily challenges of PTSD.” october

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Pat Ebert, a member of the Utah National Guard who attended one of the intensive sessions, considers herself a walking testament to the program’s effectiveness. Initially certain she was “going to be part of the percentage who the treatment didn’t help at all,” Ebert’s outlook was entirely overhauled by the end of the session. “To thank Dr. Bryan and his team and staff at the NAC wouldn’t even suffice for the leaps and bounds of progress I’ve been able to make based on the program,” she said. “Their compassion and empathy for what members of the military experience is something I hadn’t found in any other counseling environment.” The third NCVS component, training and education, takes applied successes and translates specific techniques into the hands of other mental health professionals and support teams. Current workshops offered by the NCVS team include Brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (BCBT); Crisis Response Planning; and Mental Health and the Military. The list of people they help educate is robust and runs the spectrum from students in their program to leaders within the Department of Defense. The last pillar, community engagement, is the one furthest from Bryan’s comfort zone as a research and science professional. However, relationships—even the most unusual kind—have va l o r : a s a l u t e t o u ta h ’ s v e t e r a n s a n d m i l i ta r y


courtesy national ability center

proven invaluable for NCVS support and awareness. The recent “Ride to Zero” held in Salt Lake City is a prime example. The annual event is organized by the National Combat Veterans Association as a way to focus on suicide prevention. Bryan remembers the first meeting he had with organizers three years ago to determine if the NCVS might be a good candidate for the funds raised. “Here we were meeting in this stuffy, formal academic building on campus, and in walks this group of big, tough, biker guys, in all their biker gear … I was definitely unsure how it was all going to turn out,” he recalls.

By all accounts, it turned out just fine. This year’s event, held in late August, attracted more than 400 participants and raised more than $30,000 for NCVS research. Other engagement roles include serving as subject matter experts on various task forces and advising key policy makers.

A UNIQUE BOND Though Bryan’s team consists of more than a dozen administrative and scientific professionals, one particularly noteworthy colleague brainstorms ideas around his dinner table as well the conference table. Bryan’s wife AnnaBelle, NCVS Director of Engagement and Operations, mirrors his passion for veterans’ wellness, as hers was ignited in the same exact combat location. The two met while deployed to Iraq, though they barely spoke to one another at the time. “I was there in a public health role, and Craig was there as a clinician, and we would sit together with a group of people in the common area, but we really didn’t speak to each other very often because he was usually analyzing data and I was studying textbooks,” AnnaBelle explained. It wasn’t until the two were asked to participate in a live studio radio interview together that she took notice. “As he was talking to the host of the show about the scope of his work, I realized I had incredible admiration for what he was doing and how much he cared,” she said. “Craig returned home and got out of the military before I did, and we become good friends at that point, which eventually transformed into an unexpected relationship.” Bryan admits he noticed her too that day, but the ultimate realization of his feelings came after he returned home and transitioned back to civilian life. 24

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“I was actually out on a date with someone else, and when it was over, I immediately pulled out my phone and texted AnnaBelle,” he said. “It was the moment I knew—this is the person I’m thinking about—this is the person I want to be with.” Married six years now, both believe their deployment experience created a unique bond that translates into their combined professional endeavors—a partnership held in the highest esteem by colleagues and students on campus. “Everyone remarks on how amazing Dr. Bryan and AnnaBelle are and how important their work is,” said William Russell, an NCVS research assistant and Army veteran. “They are highly sought after in the research arena.” Russell also mentioned the Bryans’ reputation as tireless champions of their work, a notion underscored by a recent briefing AnnaBelle delivered to a four-star general. In fielding the senior military leader’s comment on their relentless workload and challenges, she instantly and emotionally replied that the husband and wife team “will take a vacation only when the suicide numbers drop and drop significantly.” Russell believes her mandate, noting “their work ethic is absolutely unparalleled.” “I just spoke to AnnaBelle a few weeks ago on the general topic of self-care for less burnout, and we laughed that she and Craig really probably need to take that to heart and take some more time off,” he said. The gravity of the military suicide trend—cited as up to 22 veterans daily—likely means it’s still going to be a while before the pair make any plans. “Iceland sounds like an ideal location,” AnnaBelle half-joked before noting that time away from the NCVS mission simply isn’t on the radar. When asked if he can picture the Bryans ever taking time off for some much-needed relaxation, Russell says he honestly can’t. But, quickly adds, “I certainly hope that when they finally do, they end up somewhere far away with no WiFi and zero cell phone service.” Jennifer Eaton is a journalist and public relations professional. She serves as public affairs officer for the Utah Air National Guard Joint Force Headquarters, and has been recognized with multiple Air Force journalism and public affairs awards. october

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GOSHEN, Hwy 6. August 2017. More than 7,000 veterans take their own lives each year. Members of the Combat Veterans Motorcycle Association, Chapter 49-1, they take this to heart and take action. For the third year in a row, the group held the Ride to Zero to raise money for the National Center for Veterans Studies’ suicide prevention program. This year the group donated more than $34,000. The event “continues to grow beyond our wildest imaginations and expectations.” The Ride to Zero doesn’t just happen it takes riders, sponsors, partners and hundreds of volunteers. As an organization “we don’t have the words for what this level of support means to us. Thank you.” Learn more at utcvma.com/ut-49-1-in-action/49-1-news umg photo


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Veterans tackle the intricacies of making a stained-glass project during a workshop hosted by Art Access and the George E. Wahlen Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Workshops in creative writing and visual arts are taught throughout the year. courtesy art access


‘ART IS FOR EVERYONE’ by Jennifer Weaver s e lf - e x p r e ssion t h roug h visual an d p e rforming arts

HOW CAN ART AND SELF EXPRESSION HELP VETERANS WITH HEALING n Interact with art professionals and witness their own creative side and exercise the power of rehabilitation. n Help disabled veterans gain a semblance of order in their life. n Reunite veterans with their peers, away from hospitals and the battlefield, in a peaceful environment. n Every veteran is given the opportunity to discover their talents and achieve an art career. n Gain encouragement, hopefulness, inspiration and a sense of peace as well as self-satisfaction.

Art Access 230 South 500 West, No. 125, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 801-328-0703, accessart.org



rt Access (AA) offers veterans the opportunity to use their creativity and imagination through visual artbased workshops such as painting, sculpting, photography, collage and poetry so obstacles of balancing their former military life with a new personal life are a little easier. The non-profit in Salt Lake City serves as an access point through which emerging artists, artists with disabilities, and others with limited access to the arts can enter and thrive in the local arts community. AA Program Director Elise Butterfield said research showed great benefits of the arts on returning soldiers, which influenced the partnership between the inclusive arts program and Salt Lake City Veterans Administration. The collaboration started in 2012, and expanded less than three years later after AA received a grant from the National Endowment of the Arts. “I took over this partnership after starting in 2015 and have been very grateful to work with such talented and passionate staff at the VA, particularly Heather Brown,” said Butterfield. “We are both cognizant of the expertise we have, and of the areas where we need support from each other.”

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Brown, VA recreational therapist, echoed the sentiment saying the big success story of the program is how it is catered to veterans and their comfort levels, “…if they don’t want to leave the hospital, we bring the programs to them.” She added that once the veterans feel comfortable, AA and the VA work hand-in-hand to build the bridge that connects them to the community. “Then once that happens, they can be their own ambassador to the creative community. They shouldn’t be receiving recreation in an insurance company essentially. We want them to (have) access like anybody else because they are like anybody else,” Brown said. “Our programs for veterans are about professional development—helping veterans develop the skill of self-expression in a variety of different formats,” Butterfield said. “While often this is a therapeutic experience, it’s not an art therapy course specifically. The benefits often come from being able to reach a new part of themselves or their experiences through art, and getting to be seen in a new way through art.” Jennifer Weaver is an award-winning journalist and freelance writer from Orem. She is the mother of three children and daughter of Vietnam KIA Sgt. 1st Class James C. Jensen, D Co, 2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry, 1st Cav Division. october

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“Everyone understands the operation of giving,” says Paul “Chief Wiggles” Holton. “Operation Give works around the world to give American troops the ability to serve others, especially children.” courtesy operation



‘SENDING SMILES AND HOPE. ONE GIFT AT A TIME’ by Jennifer Weaver giving of on e s e lf t h roug h s e rvi c e to ot h e rs


he rare and unexpected cries of a child behind barbed wire in the international zone in Baghdad, known as the Green Zone, caught the attention of Chief Warrant Officer and Army Interrogator Paul Holton. Those sounds of despair and terror were not something Holton could ignore, but he had no idea in that moment in September 2003, when he motioned to the young girl to come forward, how it would change his life forever. “She actually darted passed me and ran to her mother who that had been in the Green Zone being interviewed,” Holton said. “Obviously, they were very poor. My heart went out to that little girl.” Holton remembered items in his office that had been sent to him to give away to children if the opportunity presented itself. There was no better time. He returned to his office and collected a few small toys, flip-flops, a hair comb and a stuffed monkey with long arms and Velcro hands. “I came back to the child and proceeded to give her the items. When I placed the stuffed monkey’s arms around her, she stopped crying and had a big smile on her face. It was one of those moments you have an epiphany,” Holton said. “I knew I could do that with all kids I came across, brightening their lives and putting smiles on their faces.” october

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Holton assumed the name “Chief Wiggles” on his internet blog while stationed in Iraq where he solicited Americans to send items so that brief encounter he had with one child could be repeated to hundreds. That single blog entry turned into a national movement where many donations were sent to Iraq. Soon, he had other soldiers joining him in the cause. “It was an incredible experience that I’ve never forgotten,” Holton said. “That sparked the beginning into what evolved into Operation Give, and we started getting with different Iraqis and going out and reaching people by using the phrase, ‘winning hearts and minds.’” Today, the Salt Lake City-based Operation Give is a 501c3 charity that has provided more than 250,000 40-foot ocean containers to 17 countries around the world with a variety of items. “That one experience, 14 years ago, basically changed my life and gave me opportunities to do a lot of things that benefited others, and now I’ve given the opportunity to serve and give to fellow veterans who can get involved,” Holton said. Jennifer Weaver is an award-winning journalist and freelance writer from Orem. She is the mother of three children and daughter of Vietnam KIA Sgt. 1st Class James C. Jensen, D Co, 2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry, 1st Cav Division.

HUMBLE BEGINNINGS TURN INTO OPPORTUNITIES FOR GIVING In its 13th year, Operation Christmas Stocking has a goal of stuffing and delivering 10,000 stuffed Christmas stockings to military troops serving in Iraq, Afghanistan, South Korea and to the children of deployed soldiers back home in the United States. Giving is easy. Helping is easy. Contact us to find out how you might help by emailing Paul “Chief Wiggles” Holton at: wigglesholton@yahoo.com

Operation Give c/o Mesa Storage Systems 2275 South 900 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84119 801-884-6800 operationgive.org

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A sign of H.O.P.E. is displayed at the Ogden Out of the Darkness Walk hosted by the Utah Chapter of American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. Walkers shared messages of hope for someone who may be struggling. photo by summer anderson

UTAH SUICIDE PREVENTION COALITION ‘EVERYONE PLAYS A ROLE IN SUCIDE PREVENTION’ by Dana Rimington r e ac h ing out for a h e l p ing h an d

HOW TO HELP SOMEONE WHO MAY BE AT RISK FOR SUICIDE n If you recognize warning signs or think someone might be considering suicide—Ask them! n If you or someone you know is at risk for suicide, take action immediately! Do not leave them alone. n Call Suicide Prevention Lifeline 1-800-273-TALK (8255) or 911. n Take the person to the emergency room or seek help from a mental health professional. n Listen and tell them there is hope. It can be a great relief to someone in crisis when another person is willing to listen and talk with them about their thoughts.

Utah Suicide Prevention Coalition utahsuicideprevention.org



uicide Prevention Coordinator Kim Myers for the Utah Division of Substance Abuse and Mental Health, recently learned of a veteran who was planning to end his life, but changed his mind after joining Continue Mission, a non-profit organization focused on recreational and educational activities for veterans. Saving lives is exactly why Myers helped coordinate with the Utah Department of Health, National Alliance on Mental Illness of Utah, Utah Chapter of the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention and other core stakeholders to update the Utah Suicide Prevention Plan nearly five years ago. Since suicide is the leading cause of death in Utah, their goal is to reduce suicide rates by 10 percent in Utah by 2021. “Each year we lose too many family members, friends and neighbors to suicide; more than breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents, homicide, and many chronic physical health problems,” said Myers. “Together we can make a difference to prevent suicide, provide caring, evidencedbased interventions, and foster environments that promote acceptance, healing and recovery.” Continue Mission Co-Founder Sgt. Joshua Hansen, U.S. Army (retired) has heard many

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veterans tell him CM pulled them out of a dark place. “I know what they’ve been through from my own years of depression after I was injured in the Iraq war and losing five of my guys to suicide since I’ve been home in the last 10 years,” said Hansen, who adds the Utah Suicide Prevention Coalition has been instrumental in getting the community involved and educated about the signs and right responses to suicidal situations. “I believe suicide is preventable if we can all work together and help each other. Most people don’t get involved until they’ve lost someone to suicide, and realize they didn’t see the signs. The more we can get the community behind being educated about suicide prevention is huge.” The coalition is a partnership of community members, suicide survivors, service providers, researchers, and others all dedicated to saving lives and advancing suicide prevention efforts in Utah. “The coalition works to support their mission and ensure that many of the strategies aimed at the public also have an emphasis on the veteran and military community,” Myers said. Dana Rimington has more than 12 years covering stories involving education, military, government and business in northern Utah. She focuses her efforts as a marketing content writer for businesses across the country. october

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Resources :: Spiritual O ve r t h i s f o u r - p a r t s e r i e s e x p l o r i n g t h e j o u r n e y t o re h a b i l i t a t i o n — b o d y, s o u l , m i n d a n d s p i r i t . VA LO R l o o k s w i t h i n o u r c o m m u n i t i e s t o i d e n t i f y p e o p l e , o r g a n i z a i t o n s a n d re s o u rc e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o h e a l i n g t h e w h o l e w a r r i o r. In t h i s f o u r t h p a r t : We l o o k w i t h i n a n d f o c u s o n s p i r i t .


NATIONAL CENTER FOR VETERANS STUDIES NCVS believe in research, education, outreach and advocacy for improving the lives of veterans, and better positioning these skilled, experienced and well-trained veterans for continued service. 801-587-7978 veterans.utah.edu

AMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR SUICIDE PREVENTION AFSP raises awareness, funds scientific research and provides resources and aid to those affected by suicide. afsp.org/chapter/afsp-utah CONTINUE MISSION A local non-profit organization serving veterans with service connected physical, mental and emotional injuries. Year-round recreational, educational and social activities that promote health, behavioral wellness and encourage camaraderie. 801-243-2508 continuemission.org

SELF EXPRESSION RESOURCES PIONEER HOUSE Art is not only a creative expression but a healing medium for many, including veterans. We provide a creative outlet to veterans healing behavior illnesses with specially-priced classes. Bill Huges at 801-6244-4844 Mike Ferrin at ​801-502-9154 pioneercrafthouse.com/ veterans-program

HOPE4UTAH Hope is to reduce youth suicides in Utah by providing education, training and expertise in suicide prevention intervention and post-vention.

UTAH DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AND MILITARY AFFAIRS OUTREACH UDVMA outreach programs offer outreach through local communities and special events. Service offices and representatives travel on a consistent schedule across the state assisting veterans and their dependents with benefits. Discover more in your region. veterans.utah.gov/outreach


hope4utah.com NAMI UTAH NAMI believes veterans should receive at least the same full range of integrated services within the hospital and upon discharge to the community that are received by people with mental illnesses served by other public systems. 801-323-9900 or 877-230-6264 namiut.org NATIONAL ABILITY CENTER Empowers individuals of all abilities—cognitive, behavioral or physical disabilities by building self-esteem, confidence and lifetime skills through therapeutic, recreational and educational programs. 435-649-3991 discovernac.org

OTHER CRISIS LINES Veterans Crisis Line: 1-800-273-8255 / Press 1; Text to 838255 Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 1-800-273-8255; TTY 1-800-799-4889 Utah Domestic Voilence LINKLine: 1-800-897-LINK (5465) University of Utah Statewide Crisis Hotline: 801-587-3000, TTY: 801-587-8511 The Warm Line: 801-587-1055

(A recovery support line available daily from 3 p.m.–11 p.m. Certified peer specialists provide callers within Salt Lake County. They promote wellness in a nonjudgmental and respectful manner by listening, empowering a person to resolve his or her own problem, and fostering hope, dignity and self-respect.

VA PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILTATION Art therapy is really a form of self-expression that provides purposeful and holistic services that improve optimal functioning, enhance independence and wellness, and promotes quality of life. 801-582-1565, ext. 1559 saltlakecity.va.gov/services/ rec_therapy

This list is not meant to be all-inclusive. For additional recreational options, reach out to your local veteran center.


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A MINISTRY OF PRESENCE O N E C H A P L A I N’S E VO LV I N G J O U R N E Y A D M I N S T E R I N G A N D S U P P O RT I N G A L L FA I T H S by Hank McIntire for valor maga z in e


ol. James Montoya, senior chaplain in the Utah National Guard, is hanging up the cross early next year after 29 years of service.

A man who has spiritually guided thousands in uniform during his military ministry, Montoya felt guided himself more than 20 years ago. He had nearly completed his initial enlistment contract and was at a crossroads as a Military Intelligence linguist. “I was on a path that didn’t feel right for me,” said Montoya. “I was kind of lost.” Montoya’s father Joe, a grizzled Guardsman himself, suggested that James speak to someone about a career change. Montoya and his wife Felila went to see the head chaplain of the Utah Guard—on a Sunday—and learned of the need for more chaplains in the ranks. Leaning toward leaving the military, Montoya balked at the idea. The officer came back with what one might expect from a chaplain: “Why don’t you go pray about it?” So he did. After three days in the mountains, reflecting and praying about what to do with the rest of his life, Montoya came back with a decision. “I needed to pursue becoming a chaplain,” he recalled. “And I had a pretty strong inkling that I would be going to war.” It was 1995—six years before 9/11—and Montoya spent the next three years working to become an Army chaplain.

WHAT IT TAKES TO BECOME A CHAPLAIN Today, a chaplain candidate must complete a 72-credit hour Master of Divinity degree, but in those days Montoya 30

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was asked to complete an additional 28 credits beyond his 45hour master’s degree in a helping profession such as psychology or social work. And the military is now looking at a 90-hour education requirement for new chaplains, said Montoya. Beyond civilian education, candidates also attend chaplain school at Fort Jackson, S.C., where all U.S. military services train their chaplains. Even though chaplains are considered noncombatants—they carry no weapons and are classified Category IV under the Geneva Convention—they still receive combat training. “We need to understand what a typical soldier goes through,” said Montoya. And for those candidates who have no prior military service, they spend an additional five weeks at Fort Jackson in a modified, basic-training experience, where they learn military protocol, how to march, salute, wear the uniform and use the standard-issue gas mask. Montoya said he was among the “fortunate ones” who did have military experience and yet was still required to relearn the basics in that course. Upon completion of his education and chaplain training, Montoya received his faith-group endorsement from The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and was appointed an Army chaplain in 1998.

BEING A SHEPHERD AND COMFORTER Montoya joined one of the oldest yet smallest branches in the Army. The Chaplain Corps was authorized by the Continental Congress on July 29, 1775, to assign one chaplain to each regiment of the Continental Army, with a salary october

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“I’m not just a religious advisor to the command. It’s a ministry of presence. I need to be out and about, knowing what’s going on, offering a listening ear and helping them gain hope.” Col. James Montoya senior chaplain with the utah national guard

Senior Chaplain James Montoya has spiritually guided thousands in uniform throughout his military ministry.

equivalent to that of a captain, according to armyhistory.org. Militia regiments also added chaplains to the ranks, and they have been part of the military structure ever since. The typical role of the chaplain—serve as a link between the military unit and God, lead service members in religious observances and offer comfort to the weary and wounded—has been enshrined on the big and small screens. The movie Patton retells an actual event as the general asks Chaplain James Hugh O’Neill to compose a weather prayer so that the clouds would clear as Patton prepared to lead his troops in the Battle of the Bulge in 1944. O’Neill composed a prayer and had it printed and distributed to the soldiers of the Army’s Third Corps. The weather cleared soon after, and Patton later awarded O’Neill the Bronze Star. And perhaps the most famous example of the chaplaincy is from the television series M*A*S*H, where the soft-spoken, piano-playing Father Mulcahy shepherds the souls of Hawkeye, Trapper, B.J., Col. Potter, Hot Lips, Radar and others of the 4077th through the blood, death and politics of the war in Korea. Early on in Montoya’s spiritual service he fulfilled these traditional duties within the real-life drama of soldiers’ struggles at home station as he led religious services, counseled october

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umg photo / hank mcintire

on spiritual matters and offered a listening ear to those who needed to talk. That pattern continued as Montoya served as a chaplain in both Iraq (2003–2004) and Afghanistan (2008–2009). He saw his share of hostilities in the form of mortar attacks and small-arms fire, once feeling a bullet narrowly miss him as he drove a vehicle in a convoy while his armed chaplain’s assistant rode shotgun. One of Montoya’s duties during deployment was to meet with members of his unit following combat missions and to ask each a series of questions to determine how they were doing emotionally and if they posed a danger to themselves or others.

NEW DIMENSIONS OF A CHAPLAIN’S ROLE After a series of encounters with soldiers serving in that physically and spiritually hostile environment, Montoya observed that his chaplain role was quickly taking on some additional dimensions. Several reported to him in Iraq and Afghanistan that they felt uncomfortable with some of the missions they were asked to perform. The prospect of taking another human being’s life—even in self-defense—was at the very least unsettling for some and nearly incapacitating for others. va l o r : a s a l u t e t o u ta h ’ s v e t e r a n s a n d m i l i ta r y




n the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, more than 600 residents of New Orleans were brought to Utah to escape the devastation. Arriving late at night at the airport, evacuees were bused to Camp Williams for shelter. In the morning they awoke to find themselves in a valley surrounded by the tallest mountains they had ever seen. The director of the sheltering effort was there that morning, and as now-retired Col. Scot Olson of the Utah National Guard tells it, his visitors from the Bayou watched the sun rise over the mountains to the east and shed tears of hope. A decade later, as president of the Utah Guard Charitable Trust, Olson led the effort to secure donations for the building of a new chapel at Camp Williams to help with the spiritual needs of soldiers and their families. “The community built this building,” said Col. James Montoya, senior chaplain of the Utah National Guard. “The builders had respect for what was being constructed here. They watched their language during construction, and many subcontractors did their work at cost.” The structure, dedicated in 2015, offers two large worship spaces, classrooms, offices and gardens surrounding the building. Latter-day Saint and nondenominational religious services are held weekly with the option for other faith services as requested. The chapel replaced a World War II-era structure that served soldiers for decades. But its small size and barracks-like feel did not well serve the spiritual needs of the thousands who came to Camp Williams for training. Offering a beautiful view overlooking Mount Timpanogos and Utah Valley, the multiwindowed main sanctuary in the building accommodates worship services, weddings, funerals and baptisms. The building also houses meetings of support groups for family members who have lost a loved one to suicide; the Strong Bonds program, which provides classes on improving family relationships, dating and life skills; and resiliency training for service members and families to help them face difficult times in a positive way. The visibility of Sunrise Hall on Camp Williams and in the community has been a blessing to soldiers and families. “People know where to go,” said Montoya. “They can come in and pray, meditate and think of higher things. It sends a message that we are a community of faith.” The presence of Sunrise Hall creates a unique atmosphere both inside the chapel and at Camp Williams itself. “You come into this building and you feel something different,” said Montoya. “There is acceptance and support. Soldiers find something within themselves that is more meaningful.” And just as the Katrina evacuees felt the hope as the sun rose on their first day at Camp Williams, others who come to Sunrise Hall can share that same feeling. “I wish people who come here will leave with hope,” said Montoya, “that the sun will rise and things will be good for them.” —mcintire for valor


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Sunrise Hall at Camp Williams.

umg photo / hank mcintire

CAMPAIGN TO CONSTUCT HEALING GARDENS UNDERWAY At the request of military families and family support personnel of the Utah National Guard, the Utah Guard Charitable Trust has begun conceptual designs and will begin fundraising for the construction of a Healing Garden. This area will be located adjacent to the Sunrise Hall and will be a location for service members and their families to rest, recover and reflect from the challenges of serving in the military. The area will feature several areas designed to appeal to the human senses and provide a calming environment for service members and their families to experience. The garden will also provide a memorial area to remember all who have given their lives to the service of our country. In early 2018, the project will move forward toward design, engineering and construction. Many opportunities for members of the public to participate in the project will emerge. Detailed information will soon be available on the Utah Guard Charitable Trust website utahguard.org. —UNG CHARITABLE TRUST FOR VALOR


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“You talk to someone who has just killed someone at point-blank range, and they didn’t have time to think about it beforehand,” Montoya explained. “An enemy threw a hand grenade at them and they had to react.”

“I’m not just a religious advisor to the command,” he said. “It’s a ministry of presence. I need to be out and about, knowing what’s going on, offering a listening ear and helping them gain hope.”

Montoya described this oft-repeated scenario as creating “moral injury” in the hearts and minds of a number of his charges, where they were asked to violate a core value instilled in them by their upbringing or their religious beliefs. Such injury can have multiple dimensions—philosophical, emotional or spiritual.

In that ministry Montoya is experienced enough to spot warning signs and know when it is time to bring in a counselor or another type of intervention. “It’s a form of spiritual triage and then we refer them to a subject-matter expert,” he said.

“[At the time] they don’t realize the impact it will have on them,” said Montoya. “I have talked with them two hours after the incident or even years later. Either way, they are facing demons.” Some begin to question their faith or even the existence of God after such traumatic experiences. And added to this mix are those who enter the service who profess no faith at all. Montoya feels a responsibility to serve each group, both in the combat theater and after they return home. His solution is not to offer a bigger dose of dogma for doubters and nonbelievers, as well-meaning chaplains may have done in the past. Instead, Montoya takes a simpler stance. “We walk with them,” he said. “We can be a sounding board for those who used to profess faith and aren’t so sure about their belief now. And it doesn’t matter if they believe in God or not. They need to talk to somebody.” Another facet of chaplaining that Montoya learned in the combat theater and what is now being instilled in chaplain candidates is that they must understand and educate soldiers on the religious traditions of local, indigenous populations. “It’s our job to conduct good-faith religious-leader engagement, not to gather intelligence for commanders when we meet with local leaders in theater,” said Montoya.

DIVERSE NEEDS OF THE FLOCK Both overseas and at home, Montoya has also felt a keen responsibility to monitor the morale of his soldiers. october

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In summing up his chaplain career, Montoya now recognizes that his upbringing helped pave the way for how he ministers among his believing and nonbelieving soldiers. “I grew up in Hawaii in a community that was very accepting of diversity,” Montoya said. “That was something I could innately bring to the chaplaincy: embracing another, regardless of how they see things.” The analogy of a bridge is an apt one for today’s military chaplain. Montoya and his fellow ministrants can be Chaplain O’Neills or Father Mulcahys to those who have a traditional need, or they can be first responders for moral injuries and those who just need a safe place to share. “Chaplains have always tried to support all faiths—that hasn’t changed,” said Montoya. “But there is more diversity. Nonbelievers have more of a voice, and it’s getting louder.” Montoya teaches his chaplains to be sensitive to the diverse needs of their flocks, and at the same time he tells service members that it’s on them tell the chaplain where they are coming from and to explain what they want from them. “The policies and guidelines don’t answer everything, so we try to take people as they come,” said Montoya. “Most soldiers do what they do for a higher purpose: protect lives, freedoms, a way of life and those who cannot protect themselves,” he continued. “I have seen that God loves military members. I’ve seen God step in and bless them.” Hank McIntire served 26 years from 1988 to 2014 with the Utah Army National Guard and U.S. Army in both military intelligence and public affairs. He is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Communication at Utah Valley University. va l o r : a s a l u t e t o u ta h ’ s v e t e r a n s a n d m i l i ta r y


Community Relations M a n y s e r v i c e m e n a n d w o m e n o n t h e f r o n t l i n e m a k e s a c r f i c e s to d e f e n d o u r h o m e s a n d c o m m u n i t i e s . I t i s i m po r ta n t f o r t h e m to k n o w t h a t o n t h e h o m e f r o n t w e a r e “a l l i n t h i s to ge t h e r. ” VA LO R s h i n e s t h e s po t l i g h t o n i n d iv i d u a l s w h o w o rk t i r el e s s l y to s h o w o u r s u p po r t a n d ap p r e c i a t i o n .

BORN TO FLY F O L LOW T H E U N A S S U M I N G J O U R N E Y O F P I LOT JA K E GA R N by John S. Edwards for valor maga z in e


ne could make the case that Jake Garn was born to fly. Born in Richfield to a father who was trained to be a World War I fighter pilot and a mother who, according to family lore, took a flight when she was four months pregnant with Jake. Jake first took control of a plane at age 16. He knew where he was going and anyone who shared his life needed to understand what flying meant to him and that doing it made him an even better person. He flew so high that gravity couldn’t grab him and so low it seemed sometimes the ocean certainly would. The family moved to Salt Lake City in 1937 where Jake began elementary school. He went on to East High School and then on to the University of Utah, graduating with a business degree, a Naval commission and a ticket to flight school. He married his first wife Hazel who exhibited a resolve of her own. She was one of the first women in Utah to talk openly about having breast cancer. She became a public advocate for understanding and support in fighting and surviving the disease. But in 1957, she was simply a young ensign’s wife waiting for her husband to return safely from flying missions. Jake flew reconnaissance in a high-wing seaplane, taking off and landing on water. He covered the entire coast of China from north to south. “I knew it better than I ever knew the East or West coasts of the United States.” On such missions, Jake and his crew were looking for all manner of activity, including enemy submarines, shipping activity and any sign of troop movements. Often they were approached by Russian fighters that tried to intimidate the crew by flying too


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close, sometimes almost wing-tip to wing-tip. Jake recalls, “We had no air-to-air guns. But we flew so low and slow the high performance fighters quickly burned through their fuel trying to match us and had to head for home.” His most harrowing flight was one from his base in Japan to Wake Island. The plane lost power in both left engines. He told Deseret News Reporter Doug Robinson, “It took two of us to hold the rudder pedal so we could fly with power on just one side. It was a long straight approach.” And obviously successful. In 1960 his military obligation was over. He had a big decision, leave the Navy or continue on. By now he and Hazel had two children and he understood what many come to realize—that a military career can sometimes exact a bigger toll on the non-serving spouse. He chose to take an honorable discharge. Returning to Utah he began a career in business. But thoughts of flying were always there. In 1963 he joined the Utah Air National Guard which was transporting equipment and supplies to Vietnam in the early days of the war. He and his crew would fly to California, pick up a C124 Globemaster, not so affectionately known as “Old Shaky,” and begin the long journey to Vietnam, generally landing at Cam Ranh Bay. These missions could take 10 days or more. All the time he was holding down a full time civilian job, as do most members of the National Guard. By the mid-’60s, Garn became involved in grassroots politics, never intending to seek office. But he was nudged into running for the Salt Lake City Commission. He next ran for mayor and won. In 1974 Mayor Garn overwhelmingly was elected to the United october

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(TOP RIGHT) Jake Garn graduated from the University of Utah with a Navy commission and a ticket to flight school. (LEFT) He served as a Utah Senator from 1974-92. Garn said U.S. President Ronald Reagan tapped him as his “advisor on all things military.” (RIGHT) As a sitting Senator, Garn flew aboard NASA’s Discovery as a payload specialist. When Jake received his NASA flight wings he became the only person ever qualified to wear the wings of three services—the Navy, Air Force and NASA. courtesy garn family

States Senate. All this time he was still flying missions for the National Guard. Amid the triumphs, came tragedy. Barely two years into his term, on a lonely stretch of road near Sunol, Neb., disaster struck. Hazel Garn and three of the couple’s children were on their way back to Washington D.C., when her car rolled over and she was killed. The children survived. Garn seriously thought about resigning from his Senate seat and vowed he would never remarry. According to the Washington Post, the entire nightmare exploded again three years later in a Senate Committee hearing when car safety advocate, Ralph Nader, said, “I suspect, Sen. Garn, that some senator’s personal tragedy might not have occurred if the auto industry had listened to us in the early years.” After an increasingly hostile back and forth, Garn said, “You know what the first word I got in my office was, Mr. Nader? It was that my wife and children had been killed. You ought to try that kind of shock sometime. So, don’t question my concern for human life.” october

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At the time of that hearing, Sen. Garn’s life had moved on to a happier place. He had remarried. Kathleen Brewerton was a longtime friend and divorced mother of one. Two more came along and Kathleen found herself orchestrating the lives of seven children while her husband was working from early morning until late night. That was also when Col. Garn retired from the Air Guard. He was later promoted to rank of brigadier general. Jake still had his small private plane in a hangar in the Salt Lake area and flew it whenever he could. Steadily, Sen. Garn was gaining a reputation as a man who could work with anyone to get legislation passed. Dan Wall, minority staff director for the Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Committee, said, “He led efforts in Congress to modernize and strengthen the regulation of banks and thrifts.” Working across the aisle with democratic members of the House the controversial Garn-St.Germain Depository Institutions legislation and other bills toughening controls on financial institutions were passed. va l o r : a s a l u t e t o u ta h ’ s v e t e r a n s a n d m i l i ta r y


The Garn legislative effort that Utah benefits most from guarantees the completion of the Central Utah Project which moves water from northeastern Utah to the Wasatch Front. Many members of Congress were disgruntled at the cost and frankly jealous that Utah was getting such a large chunk of money for the project. They wanted to make yearly budget renewal mandatory. Garn went to work with Utah and national politicians, republicans and democrats alike. The Central Utah Project Completion Act was passed. On a matter of personal politics, Jake is staunchly pro-life. But when the leader of a pro-life political action group wanted to raise money to target abortion proponents, Garn and fellow Sen. Henry Hyde (R-Ill) resigned from the PAC. Their reasoning was prophetic: “Hit lists are counterproductive because they create irrevocable discord among legislators, any of whom can be subject to a ‘single issue’ attack by one interest group or another.” Alvina Wall, long-time secretary to Sen. Garn and family friend, recalls how he handled a critical family medical crisis. Daughter Susan had long suffered from juvenile diabetes. In 1986 doctors determined she needed a kidney transplant. “All the family wanted to be tested to see if they were a match. Jake called them all together and told them he hoped he would be a match. Further, if he and another family member were equally matched, he would be the one to donate.” He was a match. Wall continued, “That people frequently ask wasn’t that a hard decision?” She says Jake’s response is inevitably, “How could I not give her a kidney? Her mother gave her life the first time; now I could give her life a second time.” On a global basis Garn is best known for his 1985 flight aboard the space shuttle Discovery—nine days, 2.8 million miles, 110 orbits. Opponents of the payload specialist program used his above-average space sickness during the flight as one of their arguments for trying to abolish the program. Rarely mentioned is the fact that one of his jobs was to aid in the study of space sickness. He was supposed to be ill. Defenders also pointed out that Garn had more military flight hours—10,000—than any astronaut in the space program. Congress voted to name NASA’s primary training complex the Jake Garn Mission Simulator and Training Facility. In 1992 he received one of aviation’s most prestigious awards, The Wright Brothers Memorial Trophy from the National Aeronautics Association for “a lifetime of public service and active participation in all segments of aviation.” But life as a Senator was wearing thin. Kathleen recalls when their youngest daughter Jennifer pointed to a picture of the U.S. Capitol and said, “Daddy, that’s where you live.” Jake’s response was that he actually lived with her, but only worked at the Capitol. She was adamant that he actually lived at the Capitol. It was time to think about leaving Washington and returning to Utah. He declined to run for a fourth term. Today, at 85 years old, Jake says, “My 25 years as a military pilot is my greatest accomplishment in life.” John S. Edwards serves as the Civilian Aide to the Secretary of Army for Utah. His 30-year career in television news includes stints in Salt Lake City, Portland, OR, and Pittsburgh. He is an alumni of the University of Utah and its Army ROTC program. He is a member of the U’s Veterans Day committee. He served in the U.S. Army.


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by Michelle Bridges

hat started in 1998 as a simple ceremony honoring World War II veterans has grown into one of the largest college campus events of its kind in the country, and now recognizes veterans of all eras. As the state’s flagship institution, the University of Utah is a befitting place to honor Utah men and women who have serviced our country with courage, honor and commitment.

service.” The weeklong series of activities and recognitions is part community outreach and part raising awareness of who veterans are and what they represent.

And for the 20th anniversary “we’re going big!” said Paul Morgan, director of the Veterans Support Center and chair of the Veterans Day Committee. “It’s important that our veterans, whether on campus or off, know that the U honors them and their

“Our panels have gone from historical to current issues with the War on Terror. We’ve discussed drones, women’s roles in combat and last year, the military service of Native Americans,” said Greg Smoak, director of the Center for the American West and committee member. “What you read about in the news finds its way onto the panel. This year will be about experiences of unexpected minorities in the military.”

topic of discussion When choosing a topic for the forum each year a relevant topic is selected. Experts are recruited to share their knowledge and experiences.

honoring 11 Courage is not confined to one generation, bravery has no age limit and honor knows no color restriction or gender— and this is apparent in the 11 veterans whom the U proudly recognizes each year. “It’s not all about medals. We search for honorable, noteworthy people. We want them to be representatives of what Utah veterans are,” said Morgan. Lorna Murray’s father was one of the U’s first honorees. “My father was an ordinary man put in an extraordinary situation and rose to meet the extreme challenges he faced, and somehow managed to survive when so many others did not.” Murray, a local high school history teacher, has volunteered for the committee ever since. “Why do I stay involved? How can I not be involved?” said Murray. “I love these veterans. I love what they have given me and this country. They inspire me to be a better person every day.” University of Utah honors and supports the nearly 1,100 military-affiliated students on campus—actual veterans, active-duty, reserves and dependents. (TOP) American Indians conduct a color guard that includes those participating in a forum on “Serving Their Country: The Legacy of Native American Service in the United States Military.” (SECOND AND THIRD) Ceremony honoring 11 veterans from all military branches and eras for their service. (BOTTOM) Members of the Wasatch and District Pipe Band play the bagpipes as they lead a processional from the Marriott Library to the Student Union as part of the Veteran Day Commemoration ceremony. courtesy u’s veterans day commemoration committee october

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WEEKLONG ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS FOR VETERANS DAY n All Week: Wall of Honor inside the Union to recognize those who have served or are serving. n Monday, Nov. 6: Noon. Meet a Vet BBQ at the Union plaza for veteran and non-veteran students to socialize. n Tuesday, Nov. 7: 9 a.m. Dodgeball tournament in the Student Life Center hosted by the Student Veterans at Utah to raise scholarship funds. n Wednesday, Nov. 8: Noon. Panel discussion called “Identity and Service: The Experiences of Unexpected Minorities in the US Military,” at the Hinckley Institute. n Thursday, Nov. 9: 3 p.m. “When War Comes Home,” a film about war’s after effects on veterans and families, hosted by the U’s National Center for Veterans Studies at Ft. Douglas Post Theater. n Friday, Nov. 10: 11 a.m. 20th annual Veterans Day commemoration honoring 11 Utah veterans in the Union Ballroom. Complete with bagpipe procession, full-dress military ceremony and cannon salute. n Saturday, Nov. 11: Home football game vs. Washington State University with in-game commemorative activities featuring student veterans, veteran alumni and student veteran of the year.

for more information Visit the University of Utah’s Veterans Day Commemoration (veteransday.utah.edu), the Veterans Support Center (veteranscenter.utah. edu) or the Student Veterans at Utah (veteranscenter.utah.edu/studentresources/student-vet-association)

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Our staff of trained professionals stand ready to assist you in many ways, such as: • Outreach Activities - Help with VA Pension, and Aid & Attendance - Service Connected Disability Claims • Job Fairs - Getting you employed, skills workshops, etc. • etc. • • The Homeless Veterans Stand-Down - Providing food, shelter, and clothing The Utah Department of Veterans and Military Affairs is here to serve you. We operate: • The Utah Veterans Cemetery and Memorial Park • Four Veterans Homes from Ogden to St. George • The State Approving Agency for Veterans Education Utah Department of Veterans and Military Affairs 550 Foothill Drive, Suite 150 Salt Lake City, Utah 84113 Phone: 801-326-2372 Email: veterans@utah.gov www.veterans.utah.gov

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Utah Valor Magazine October 2017  

Utah Valor Magazine October 2017  

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