African Mining Brief July/Sep 2022

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Jul-Sep 2022, Volume 17 No. 3

Real Time Slope Stability Monitoring Health and safety for mines Health insurance requirements Asset transformation

Botswana Pula60.00, Ethiopia Birr 140.00, Ghana Cedi23.00, Kenya 500.00, Namibia N$80.00, Nigeria Naira 1,300.00 Rwanda Rwf 4,800.00, South Africa Rand 60.00, Tanzania Tsh12,700.00, Uganda Ush 20,000, Zambia Zmk 40.00, Zimbambwe US$7.00

Jul-Sep 2022, Volume 17 No. 3

Jul-Sep 2022, Volume 17 No. 3 Real -Time Slope Stability Monitoring Health and safety for mines

Health insurance requirements

Smart mining


Real-time health and safety for mines

Changing the narrative on gender bias in the mining sector

Botswana Pula60.00, Ethiopia Birr 140.00, Ghana Cedi23.00, Kenya 500.00, Namibia N$80.00, Nigeria Naira 1,300.00 Rwanda Rwf 4,800.00, South Africa Rand 60.00, Tanzania Tsh12,700.00, Uganda Ush 20,000, Zambia Zmk 40.00, Zimbambwe US$7.00

Asset transformation

Energy efciency


The key to sustainable wastewater infractructure

Health insurance


requirements for mining firmsemploying expatriates in Africa



Slope stability monitoring with reutech radars

Zijin mining group


mining for a better society

Sustainable asset


transformation in the mining space

Mobile crushing screen solutions


The concept of Generation Equality is a global campaign channeling efforts towards achieving gender equality by 2030. According to UN Women, this involves adopting and strengthening sound policies and enforceable legislation to promote gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels. Many studies now show that diverse workforces are inherently more successful in today's world, despite an ongoing perception that women are physically incapable of many of the technical or more physical roles in mining. Typically, women in the mining sector have thus been assigned softer roles like cleaning, administrative and office-based roles. However, the importance of gender diversification is becoming clear and changing the narrative around women in mining is an essential component of this. It is becoming increasingly evident that women are not only capable of performing jobs that were considered men's jobs, but that they bring a whole new perspective to the roles that can be immensely valuable.


Tshiamiso Mineworkers' Compensation Surpasses Half a Billion Rand

ASPASA Publishes the Driver's Handbook Under their Best Practices Guidelines Series

The Tshiamiso Trust has paid more than half a billion rand to 5 829 eligible silicosis and TB While navigating the routes and roads, every driver needs a claimants and their families and is companion to help them keep safe, maintain professionalgaining increased momentum in ism and ensure continued commitment to Vision Zero. processing claims. ASPASA, the surface mining industry association, has D a n i e l K o t t o n , C E O o f published, under their Best Practices Guidelines series, the Tshiamiso Trust, says: “In April, Driver's Handbook – a guide which ensures that drivers we announced that we had have all the information at their fingertips. “The handbook, which is free to all ASPASA members, is reached R320 million in payments to qualifying claimants in the 16 a comprehensive handbook detailing necessary guidelines months since our inception. Two ensuring working drivers understand and manage the risks months later, we are excited to faced and created while they drive and operate these vehicles for work. These include the drivers' conduct prior announce that we have surpassed to embarking on their journeys, while they are on the roads that milestone and reached over as well as what to do when the vehicle is stationary for R500 million in payments, placing us at 10% of our lifetime Vodacom's Wearable Devices Set to Boost target of R5billion in the second Mineworker Safety year of operations. This exceptional achievement owes to the strong partnerships we have established, the continuous enhancement of our systems, and the expanded operational capabilities as we have grown our footprint in South Africa and neighbouring countries”. We are also pleased to inform claimants that the Trust has ramped up its efforts in processing Deceased claims, thereby addressing a significant backlog that had accumulated. The past few months have seen Health and safety in South Africa's mining industry has t h e Tr u s t b u i l d i n g s y s t e m steadily improved over the past 15 years. In 2007, the capabilities for tracking down and industry recorded a startling figure of over 200 deaths and authenticating historical medical while that number has been significantly reduced with 72 records, as well as the searching fatalities reported last December, the ultimate goal, of and validation of dependents to be course, is “zero harm” as Minister of Mineral Resources, added as . Gwede Mantashe noted. beneficiaries. How is this goal to be reached? Innovative applications of smart technologies is an integral part of the solution – “This exceptional achievement and Vodacom is leading the way with its internet of things owes to the strong partnerships (IoT) technology. we have established.” In mid-2021, the first successful trial of the Connected Worker solution by Vodacom Business was introduced to a global mining company with various operations across the country.


More to see and do at Electra Mining Africa, celebrating 50 years this year

Electra Mining Africa and its line-up of conferences and free-to-attend seminars will be taking place from 5-9 September at the Expo Centre, Nasrec, in Johannesburg. Hundreds of exhibitors are ready to showcase their latest innovations, technology, products and services at Southern Africa's biggest mining, electrical, automation, manufacturing, power and transport trade exhibition. Industry stakeholders were disappointed that the opportunity to interact face-to-face at Electra Mining Africa in 2020 was not possible, due to the Covid-19 hiatus. It's an exhibition viewed by industry as one of the most important events on the calendar. This year, Specialised Exhibitions, organisers of the show, are promising an exciting interactive event with many activities planned by exhibitors and industry partners, and to also celebrate the show's 50th anniversary. In an effort to promote the importance of Forklift Operation and operators in the Supply Chain & Logistics industry, Lifting Africa and LEEASA (Lifting Equipment Engineering Association of SA) will be hosting a Forklift Driver competition during Electra Mining Africa. The event will provide forklift operators with an opportunity to prove their driving skills, compete with others, achieve recognition as a champion and win prize money. Entries are open for all operators who have a valid Forklift license and can drive. either a reach truck or a counterbalance Forklift Truck in racking. Electra Mining Africa is a much needed platform for buyers and sellers to connect face-to-face again. It presents an opportunity for industry networking to take place, to build business partnerships and new connections, and for new products and services to be launched. Jul - Sep 2022


Zijin Joins Hands with MTN and Huawei to Build Southern Africa Region's First 5G-enabled Metal Mine

Nkwe Platinum Limited and South Africa Zijin Platinum (Pty) Limited (wholly owned subsidiaries of Multinational mining company, the Zijin Mining Group), have joined hands with African telecommunications giant MTN and global ICT provider Huawei together, and signed a collaboration agreement to build the Southern Africa region's first 5G-enabled smart metal mine. MTN and Huawei are to provide 5G-based ICT solutions for the smart mining requirements including, not only high-speed 5G broadband access, but also smart mining solutions like vehicle remote control, IoT, and enterprise digital transformation. Once complete, the mine will mark a significant step forward in the digital transformation of the local mining industry. It will effectively demonstrate how a number of emerging technologies can be combined with 5G to improve functions across the mine. This kind of advancement will become increasingly important as South Africa looks to remain competitive in the global mineral and resources space. The country is the world's top platinum producer and mining accounts for eight percent of South African GDP. “For more than 20 years, the Zijin Mining Group has regarded scientific and technological innovation as its primary driving force, becoming one of the few multinational mining companies in the world to be equipped with autonomous system technology and engineering management capabilities, with a wellestablished scientific research Jul - Sep 2022

Fortescue and Liebherr establish partnership for zero emission mining equipment

Mining courses in maintenance, earthmoving at WMI

Fortescue Metals Group Ltd (Fortescue) and Liebherr Australia Pty Ltd have signed an agreement for the development and supply of mining haul trucks integrating zero emission power system technologies being developed by Fortescue Future Industries (FFI) and Williams Advanced Engineering (WAE).

The Wits Mining Institute (WMI) at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg will be hosting two exciting courses in July 2022 with wellknown excavation, load and haul expert Professor Zvi Borowitsh.

The partnership between Fortescue and Liebherr tackles the challenge of decarbonising heavy mobile equipment in the mining industry. It will support global initiatives to reduce emissions and it will enable both Fortescue and Liebherr's Mining product segment to achieve their respective commitments to address global emissions. The partnership will draw from Liebherr's industry-leading equipment and technology and FFI's expertise in green technologies to deliver zero emission mining equipment.

The first course – on Mechanised Earthmoving in Mining: Equipment, Technology and Management – will run from 27 to 29 July, while the second course will focus on Maintenance Management in Mining and be held from 13 to 15 July.

The courses will be conducted online using remote learning platforms which enable interaction with the lecturer and among participants; these platforms will Wärtsilä Introduces Decarbonisation also facilitate group discussions on case Services Business Model to Support Net Zero studies.


Professor Borowitsh, who is attached to both the University of the Witwatersrand and the Israel Institute of Technology, specialises in earth and rock excavation, as well as load and haul optimisation. He has extensive academic experience, and has managed and consulted to large-scale earthmoving projects.

The Mechanised Earthmoving course will provide advanced manual and computerised techniques to equip participants to select the most efficient and economical spread of equipment for projects. They will learn cost evaluation analysis for equipment economics and earthworks, and also explore the The technology group Wärtsilä's strategy for shaping the planning and management of earthmovdecarbonisation of the energy sector is strengthened with ing projects. the introduction of the company's Decarbonisation Participants will also practice simulaServices business model. tion with TALPAC and DRAGSIM The service utilises Wärtsilä's sophisticated power software; trial versions of the software system modelling and optimisation tools alongside inwill be made available for download house expertise to reduce power system emissions. It also onto their own computers. The course is ensures power availability with the lowest levelised cost of aimed at mining and civil engineering electricity. The ultimate aim is to help customers decarbonproject managers, engineers and ise their assets. technicians at technical and managerial Initially, the service will focus on existing Wärtsilä levels. customers in the mining and industrial sectors, as well as small-scale power utilities.


Mine Safety

Smart mining: Real-time health and safety for mines


t is estimated that we spend one-third of our lives at work. This therefore makes it vital to adapt traditional equipment and systems used in the working environment to the new technological paradigm allowing industries to stay connected and, at the same time, have workers as safe and protected as possible. Honeywell's top wide range of technologies and devices ensure the most favourable coverage, detection, hazard mitigation and life protection. They help keep more than a half a billion workers safer and more productive with mobile computers, barcode scanners, printers, voice-enabled software, material handling technology, sensors, software and protective equipment. From the factory floor to the furthest distribution centre, Honeywell sensors, switches, interfaces, and custom assemblies offer unmatched value down the line, thereby providing powerful solutions for any industrial need. Enhanced accuracy, accountability and durability are built into every part or construction, improving


output and endurance. Its smart PPE solutions are tailored for stronger perfor mance, longer productivity, and increased safety. As a leader in industrial sensing, Honeywell offers the perfect combination of performance and innovation to meet any of your needs today. It offers a full range of smart PPE solutions to help keep your workers protected when and where they need it most. Its comprehensive solutions in fall, respiratory, head, eye, face, hand, hearing and more are designed with everchanging worker needs in mind to protect your crew from head to toe. Smart PPE built for Safety; Designed for Your Comfort. At Honeywell, smart PPE safety is in the DNA as every single day, hundreds of millions of people work in hazardous environments, and rely on their safety equipment to get them home every night. For over a century, Honeywell has been protecting workers with head-to-toe safety offerings rooted in its industry experience

and relentless drive to innovate. Today, Honeywell's safety solutions protect the future of 500 million workers. These wearable gadgets increase productivity and efficiency and above all, they do not stop working until the last worker clocks out and gets home safely. Designed to provide safety, comfort, and mobility, Honeywell is home to a wide range of safety gears, gloves, hoods, helmets, boots and more. With Honeywell's NFPA certified products, workers can trust that they'll be protected during every call. From renowned Honeywell Morning Pride® turnout gear and helmets to an assortment of hoods, gloves and boots, its highperforming smart PPE has been trusted for almost a century. Without reservation, there's no time like the present to invest in smart wearables, as we are already engrossed in all things smart. Smart PPE promises a higher level of protection and more comfort through the use of enhanced materials or electronic Jul - Sep 2022

components. It combines traditional PPE with “electronics” in the form of components such as RF modules, sensors, detectors, data transfer modules, and batteries. These are further embedded in wearables in multiple forms as mines can now have a sensor equipped to alert you via a tag integrated into protective clothing, a hard hat or a wristband. Driven by the constant quest for improved workplace safety solutions, smart, or 'intelligent' PPE, with digital technologies, applications, solutions and smart sensors worn close to the body are rapidly being developed and adopted by employers. From its founding in 1885, innovation has always been Honeywell's legacy and future – and now it is creating what's next. Honeywell has made available Smart Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in clothing, helmets, safety shoes, safety gloves, ear plugs, protective eyewear, and other workwear. As a leader in industrial sensing, Honeywell offers the perfect combination of performance and innovation to meet any of your needs today. This wearable technology includes equipment such as tracking devices, sensors and monitors that feed data from the tech-infused PPE and provide insights on worker conditions and any harm they may come across in their environment. This arguably advanced workplace safety unlocks unprecedented opportunities to protect employees. They underpin lowpowered IoT sensors, sophisticated

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wireless connectivity, Artificial Intelligence (AI), machine learning, cloud and edge computing which can be applied to handle workplace constraints. This considerably improves workplace safety by reducing accidents and injuries, leading to greater productivity, efficiency and cost savings in the longer term. Protecting the Future of Millions of Workers The integration of smart systems aims to create an ecosystem of PPE to preserve the workers' integrity. Such equipment must therefore be adapted to the workers' needs; providing protection without impeding them from performing their tasks as normal. This aspect is crucial for an effective application of the systems, as an uncomfortable or bulky device would discourage workers from its use. Therefore, the technology best suited to these requirements is wearable technology, which can be worn as an accessory or garment. In challenging times such as these, it's important to put your employees' safety to the fore. Smart PPE can lead the way. A “new normal” is something we're hearing a lot more of; from AI and data mining efforts, but smart technology and protective equipment can help us better prepare for the future. With the market growing continuously, the number of such wearable applications and formats has been increasing steadily. Considering the availability and feasibility of wearable technologies and their ability to be an integral part of any individual's daily life, they are the perfect candidate for the deployment of personal protective equipment in the work environment, and have therefore adapted to the requirements

of different niches. This, coupled with the IoT revolution allows mining companies to gain access to some working environments' complex mechanics and react quickly to imminent danger. To this end, the different solutions that are integrated in the devices have been analysed, optimising the detection and prevention of risks, as well as the detection of the health conditions inherent to specific tasks in the workplace.All this is made possible thanks to the integration of sensors and actuators. Thus, an analysis has been made of the possibilities of adapting, developing and optimising existing technologies for measuring anthropometric parameters, human activity recognition, real-time location systems and sensor networks. It is no doubt that systems capable of monitoring the state of workers and the environment are needed to ensure safe conditions and can also be integrated with other lines related to production, enterprise resource planning (ERP), etc. In this regard, Honeywell's platform intends to meet the needs of any industry through a modular and adaptable design with the ability to inter-operate different individual protection devices, allowing for real-time visualization and early detection using artificial intelligence. It can therefore be concluded that the use of technologies such as wearables, IoT, edge computing combined with wireless. communications and artificial intelligence for decision making can bring about a significant evolution in safety and occupational risk prevention. Therefore, adopting a smart wearables policy now can ensure IoT systems are easily integrated in the future, keeping employees safe and protected. Why Smart PPE? Compared to traditional PPE, smart PPE's advanced features heighten usability and boost efficiency. It leads to a reduction in errors, and therefore the number and severity of workplace accidents and injuries, giving rise to improved productivity, efficiency and consequent long-term cost savings.

Honeywell has made available Smart Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in clothing, helmets, safety shoes, safety gloves, ear plugs, protective eyewear, and other workwear.


Wastewater Infrastructure

Energy efficiency: the key to sustainable wastewater infrastructure


ith no end in sight for loadshedding, it's important for municipalities to start engaging in energy efficient mechanisms in their water and wastewater infrastructure. This infrastructure is one of the biggest consumers of energy within a municipalities' operations and it is critical to start looking at ways to implement energy efficient measures within these operations. According to the guide compiled by Sustainable Energy Africa, Sustainable energy solutions for South African local government: a practical guide, in 2017, “the indications are that on average water and wastewater accounts for some 17% of energy consumption in a South African metro. In terms of electricity consumption alone (i.e. excluding liquid fuel use for vehicles), the proportion is far higher – often representing as much as 25% of the entire municipality's electricity bill.” Jul - Sep 2022

Owing to the fact that this contributes so highly to the municipalities' bill, it also means it has the greatest potential to be the starting point of electricity saving measures. By engaging in energy measures within the water and wastewater infrastructure cycle, municipalities stand not only be fiscally but also energy efficient going forward. “We have found that the aeration stage is one of the stages which consumes a lot of energy as it requires large pump systems and municipalities may not always pay attention to this aspect and may neglect to overhaul due to expensive nature of more energy efficient systems. However, what is important to remember is that although the expense may be high at the start, the benefits of cost saving in the long run will be worth it,” explains KSB Pumps and Valves' Hugo du Plessis, senior project engineer.

He continues that the most energy consuming aspects within the water services system relate to the stages of water treatment and pumping. He reiterates the importance of how the implementation of energy efficient systems will not only help municipalities obtain, retain and improve their Green Drop and Blue Drop certification but will also eventually allow customers to see the difference in their rates and taxes bill. “Inefficient pump systems will not be able to keep up with the 'backlog' of water when loadshedding occurs. KSB Pumps and Valves is willing to assist with site energy efficiency audits as we are a full solution provider. KSB Pumps and Valves, Annett Kriel, Tel: (011) 876 5600, Fax: (011) 822 1746, Email:, Web:



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Mobile Screening

Large-scale operation in India


aily production target with Kleemann MOBISCREEN MS 952 EVO and MS 953 EVO increased The red colour usually allows you to spot it from a distance: iron ore. The volcanic rock is mainly used in the manufacture of steel. India has vast reserves of iron ore and is the second biggest steel producer in the world. The mobile screening plants MOBISCREEN EVO from Kleemann are used during the extraction of the important material. India's total iron ore production for 2019 was 231 million tons, approx. 90 percent of which was used in domestic steel production. Hematite and magnetite are the iron ores mainly found in India. Thanks to its high quality and lumpy properties, hematite is the most sought-after iron ore for the local steel industry. Due to its fine grain properties, the processing method of the sedimentary rock usually demands a lot from the screens. This is where the classifying screens MS EVO provide a valuable service. In an iron ore extraction site in Keonjhar in the federal state of Orissa, Kalinga Commercial Corporation (KCCL) is responsible for iron ore extraction on behalf of the state-owned company Orissa Mining Corporation. Iron ore classified into up to four fractions Since January 2020, six MOBISCREEN EVO mobile screening plants from Kleemann have been in use at the Keonjhar

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location screening material to the desired final grain sizes. More than 20 excavators are deployed for extraction, handling and loading of the ore. 140 large dumper trucks transport the material from the mines for further processing by the screening plants. Five double-deck screening plants MOBISCREEN MS 952 EVO and a tripledeck screening plant MS 953 EVO make classification of the blasted and then crushed material into up to three or four (with the MS 953 EVO) fractions possible. With the use of these six mobile classifying screens, KCCL has achieved a continuous daily production target of 30,000 tons in two-shift operation. The desired final grain sizes of 0-10 mm and 10-40 mm are thus produced. “These plants have proved their value with regard to product quality and output. Over the years, they have become an indispensable element of our operation. The service, above all, is exemplary. The co-operation with the Wirtgen Group was crowned with success."Dr. SR Samal, Managing Director, Kalinga Commercial Corporation. Screening plants also impress under extreme conditions The screening plants MOBISCREEN MS EVO also operate precisely and highly efficiently under extreme conditions: in the iron ore open pit mining site in Keonjhar, they process feed material with a humidity content of 6 – 7 % without any problems.Dr. SR Samal, Managing Director, Kalinga Commercial Corporation: "We have been using Kleemann screening plants for more than two

years. These plants have proved their value with regard to product quality and output. Over the years, they have become an indispensable element of our operation. The service, above all, is exemplary. The co-operation with the Wirtgen Group was crowned with success. The investment was worthwhile because we managed to achieve our goals within the defined period.” Kleemann MS EVO series – precise and efficient The classifying screens in the EVO series impress with their high productivity, good transport properties and first-class screen results. The product series includes the two double-deck classifying screens MS 702 EVO and MS 952 EVO as well as the tripledeck classifying screens MS 703 EVO and MS 953 EVO. Thanks to the particularly large screening surfaces of 7 or 9.5 m², high production outputs combined with effective screening of up to 4 first-class final products can be achieved. Depending on the application case, safety. The plants can be operated conveniently with intuitive control system via a mobile control panel that can be attached at three different points on the plant. This increases work and operational safety. Thanks to the easily accessible work platforms, service activities can be carried out quickly and screen surfaces can be replaced without any problems. All other service components can be accessed from the ground so that maintenance tasks can be executed without any complications.


Snake Awareness

Snakes & the danger they pose for miners


nakebites kill thousands of people in Africa each year. One can never be too careful, particularly when it comes to mining. There are around 3000 species of snakes globally, and approximately 250 of these are potentially harmful. Venomous snakes are significantly dangerous because a snake bite has life-altering consequences. Besides death, a venomous snake bite can cause permanent physical damage due to tissue necrosis and persistent nerve damage and affect the victim psychologically, leading to loss of earning capacity due to ongoing disability. The economic impact of snake bites can be considerable. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that approximately five million snakebites occur annually, which results in around 100,000 deaths. “It is important for miners to arm themselves with knowledge. For example, getting to know what snakes occur on a mine and learning how to deal with snake encounters, minimises the risk of snakebites on site,” says Ashley Kemp, manager at the Africa Snakebite Institute. According to Ashley, mines should have accurate posters of snakes commonly encountered to educate employees. “Unfortunately, most posters on mines are put together with Google searches and are

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often inaccurate,” says Kemp. A number of mines are located in natural environments, and snakes on-site can be a common occurrence. Snakes are attracted to sites by food sources and suitable hiding areas. In order to minimise snakes on site, all areas should be kept clean, minimise food waste (which attracts rodents), and elevate onsite equipment and containers so snakes cannot hide beneath them. According to Kemp, once a dangerous snake is seen onsite, it's presence should be noted immediately, the control room should be contacted, and staff should keep an eye on the snake from a safe distance of 5 meters or more

until the on-site snake remover arrives. Kemp elaborates, “Precautionary measures also include sealing buildings, especially accommodation units, to prevent snakes from entering and providing protective clothing like snake gaiters to staff members. All employees should attend snake awareness training and there should always be trained and certified snake removers on duty.” If you are aware of any snakes in your surroundings, leave the snakes alone and treat them with respect.


Beginners Guide to Snake Identification Ÿ Advanced Snake Identification Ÿ Snake Awareness and First aid for snakebites Ÿ Advanced first aid for snakebites Ÿ On-site Corporate Snake Training You can also download the free African Snakebite Institute app ( for snake identification and first-aid protocols for snakebite. Becoming more vigilant of our surroundings, learning more on the dangers that snakes pose, and sharing our knowledge with others will positively impact our immediate working environments and society as a whole. Snake bites can change lives; as miners, we can help prevent this by equipping and protecting ourselves and our colleagues. Kemp concludes, “Snakebites are a real danger on-site, and the right precautions must be taken to reduce this risk. Treating a single serious bite will cost from R100,000 ($6000 USD) to in excess of R1 000 0000 ($60,000 USD). Ÿ

Contact the control room and notify them of the bite and the location of the victim – they will dispatch the medics to the site and the snake remover on duty. If there are more than two first responders, one can keep an eye on the snake, until the snake remover arrives, and the other responder will keep the victim still, calm and reassured until the .


medics arrive. The African Snakebite Institute offers online and in-person courses, some of which include the following: Ÿ Snake Awareness, First aid for Snakebite and Venomous Snake handling training

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Health Insurance

Health insurance requirements for mining firms employing expatriates in Africa David Tompkins, President of TFG Global Insurance Solutions Inc, gives us a detailed overview of what is required to obtain the care on needs and the services the organisation provides to support expatriates.


very citizen requires health care no matter where they reside or what industry they are a part of. Unfortunately, mining is renowned for being one of the most dangerous jobs in the world. Caveins, toxic air, extreme temperatures, and explosions are some of the hazardous occurrences. Furthermore, let's look at statistics in terms of how many accidents occur per year and how the number shave elevated over time. The need for insurance is nonnegotiable. Global statistics on mining accidents According to Statista, global insights and statistics platform, there were 60 mining accidents in Congo in August 2012 - and


within the year 2020, a total of expatriates working in the Canadian mining industry amounted to approximately 377 000 miners. Of course, these statistics vary worldwide, but there is no question that miners, particularly those working in foreign countries, should have the necessary health insurance. David elaborates by saying that the global mining industry has faced many challenges recently. And everything from employee shortages, commodity price fluctuations, conflicts, political uncertainties, environmental and technical difficulties, covid and a host of other challenges require that mining employers protect their most valuable asset, their people.

“One of the most important parts of a mining operation is to meet their duty of care by providing adequate health coverage for both the local workforce and the expatriate or foreign-trained workers operating at the mine sites, “says Tompkins, “The mines that we work with want to provide cost- effective medical coverage for their expatriates as the local coverage may not be available, or medical treatment may be sub-standard.” Why healthcare for miners matters When asked why insurance has been developed explicitly for miners, Tompkins says that some insurance providers that the organisation works with have developed health plans for mining operations in specific regions such as Africa, with plans that are tailored to their market requirements. However, (organisation) works with even larger and more recognised global insurance companies that can quote excellent international health plans to meet the needs of multinational mining companies operating in Africa and beyond. “Most mining clients will provide a comprehensive global medical plan that will cover the ex-pat mining employee both in the country that they are stationed in but also globally, excluding the USA or including the United States if the employee is an American citizen. “ says Tompkins. “There are also plans that can provide regional coverage to cover employees in Africa only, Africa plus Europe and globally. Covering the employee on-site and when back home or on leave is considered standard.” According to Tompkins, most local mining employers will be covered by a locallysourced health plan.

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Still, some mining clients will source an international plan for local employees or place a “key local national” on the ex-pat benefit plan, especially if the employee should be covered for medical treatment outside the host country of mine. “We find that most health plans for mining employees will provide a base of hospital-related expenses, then add on outpatient care, wellness, employee assistance and more,” explains Tompkins. Tompkins elaborates, Perhaps the most essential coverage that will be included or sold as a supplement is medical evacuation coverage. For most mining, local medical care in many African countries may be limited. A severe illness may necessitate a medical evacuation to seek medical care. The insurance company and its assistance provider will need to coordinate medical evacuation. Healthcare considerations for expatriates' family Another consideration in developing a health plan for a mining operation is to consider whether or not the dependents and partners of the employee will be covered. Of course, if the family is in the work assignment country with the employee, it is a given that the dependents will be covered. Still, in many cases, the family members will be in the employee's home country and may or may not be covered by the policy. So again, it is a question of cost and how attractive management wants to make the policy to attract increasing scarce and valuable mining talent. Tompkins says that the most common claims that expatriates make are out-patient charges such as doctor's appointments and prescriptions and paramedical claims such as physio, considering that the most prevalent medical support is required for

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illnesses and accidents. “Hospital and medical evacuation claims are less frequent but present the highest financial risk for a mining operator and hence the requirement to have excellent coverage,” says Tompkins. Healthcare insurance services and support “We act as the independent insurance consultant or broker to help examine the global insurance requirements for our mining clients operating worldwide, including in Africa,” explains Tompkins. Furthermore, TFG Global Insurance can run RFPs and obtain quotes from the market based on the unique requirements and budget of the mining client. After presenting the proposals and recommendations, the organisation can help implement a plan and negotiate with the insurer at renewal while providing unlimited advocacy and service during the policy year. In most cases, these types of organisations are paid by the insurance company and can work with clients around the globe. Overall, Tompkins believes that to attract and retain mining talent, mining management and human resources staff need to have a global medical plan that not only meets their duty of care but also provides a comprehensive medical, dental and evacuation plan to protect the employee at the mine site and back home. “Most global benefit plans for mining employees posted in Africa will also provide additional services and coverage such as telehealth, employee assistance programs, mental health and wellness, life coverage, accidental benefits, dental and disability coverage, concludes Tompkins.


Coarse Particle Flotation

Better flowsheets with hydrofloat® coarse particle flotation

By: Jose Concha, Eriez Global Product Manager- HydroFloat® CPF, Asa Weber, Eriez Director of New Flotation Technologies, and Eric Wasmund, Eriez Flotation Vice-President. o meet society's needs for critical mineral resources, the mining industry must develop projects that are socially accepted, environmentally sustainable, and economically profitable. One of the processes that have the highest potential to overcome some of these challenges is Coarse Particle Flotation (CPF). The CPF process has been an area of great interest to the mining industry for many years due to the innumerable benefits it can provide for the development of more profitable and sustainable projects. However, due to the limitations inherent in the design and operation of the conventional flotation technologies (e.g.



TankCells,etc.), it has not been possible to recover coarse particles; in practice it has been seen that conventional flotation technology is inefficient to recover particles greater than 150 µm using conventional flotation equipment.To overcome the shortcomings of conventional cells, a novel coarse particle flotation technology known as the HydroFloat® was developed and patented by Eriez. The HydroFloat is a fluidized-bed coarse particle flotation machine that overcomes buoyancy and froth ecovery restrictions through up current water velocity and plug flow conditions. This technology was patented in 2001 and represented a significant departure from conventional flotation. The HydroFloat recovers particles +2 times coarser than conventional flotation cells, which allows for a shift in the economic optimum grind size, and in turn increases

profitability and improves environmental sustainability of mining projects. In operation, feed slurry is introduced at Air bubbles selectively attach to hydrophobic particle surfaces to reduce the effective density of bubble-particle agglomerates, which reduces settling velocity and facilitates hydraulic carryover to the overflow. Expansion of the fluidized bed is controlled to alter the effective bed density, thus preventing lower density agglomerates containing the target mineral species from penetrating the fluidized bed and reporting to the underflow. Froth separation at the top of the freeboard is achieved with a 'zeroorder' froth depth, which minimizes hte drop-back of coarse particles the top of the HydroFloat and descends against a rising mixtureof water and fine air bubbles to form a fluidized bed of solids. Jul - Sep 2022

at the freeboard/air interface. The result of this breakthrough technology is an order of magnitude increase in selective recovery of coarse particles (e.g. +150pm) with as little as 1% mineral surface expression, as well as a corresponding shift in the economic optimum grind size for concentrators. There are two possible locations for the HydroFloat technology within a mineral processing flowsheet. Tailings Scavenger (TS) and Coarse Gangue Rejection (CGR). Tailings Scavenger is selective recovery of semi-liberated and fully liberated minerals contained within the coarse size fraction of rougher flotation tailings, thus increasing global plant recovery. For example, in copper concentrators, TS applications has demonstrated to increase global recovery by 2% to 6% and allow the plant to coarsen the grind size and increase the plant throughput. Coarse Gangue Rejection is a more ambitious application, which integrate HydroFloat as a preconcentration unit into the conventional grinding mill circuit. A conceptual flowsheet is shown in Figure 3. As illustrated, depending valuable mineral's liberation characteristics, a primary classification stage with a cut size of 300500 µm is used to significantly reduce the amount of material returning to the mill circuit. Jul - Sep 2022

The overflow from that classification stage feeds a secondary classification stage with a cut size of 106-150 µm. The overflow reports to conventional flotation, and the underflow feeds HydroFloat. This approach allows a significant reduction in the amount of grinding, translating to smaller mills and power (or increasing plant throughput with existing grinding assets). Additionally, this would mean the removal of coarse barren tailings at an early stage in the flowsheet. For this reason, some metallurgists are referring to HydroFloat as a type of ore sorting technology. This pre-concentration approach also

dramatically reduces the necessary conventional flotation capacity. In 2021 a breakthrough was achieved in the uptake of CPF in flowsheet design and industrial practice using the Eriez HydroFloat. This is demonstrated by Eriez supplying equipment for two large industrial plants for scavenging conventional flotation tailings. Newcrest's expansion of the tail scavenging plant at their Cadia Valley Operation is based on the successful commissioning of the first phase in 2018 and Anglo American's Quellaveco tail scavenging facility is a new 127 ktpd Cu/Mo plant which will use tail scavenging to treat the tail from the greenfield concentrator after it has been commissioned.


Towing Systems

Underrated rear step towbar


car on its own is an incredibly useful tool, but you can make it even more convenient by adding accessories. A towbar is key among the unobtrusive additions, given the options available, it's possible not damage the aesthetic of a vehicle in any way. These can be fitted to a vast majority of cars and light commercial vehicles. However, there are a few exceptions where a vehicle has not been approved for use with a towbar by the vehicle manufacturer, but this is quite unusual and does, in most cases, not stop a towbar being fitted for use with a cycle carrier. While considering a towbar, the best course of action is to start your search by asking how often you intend to use it and what you will use the towbar for. – whether it be a bike carrier, or tow trailer, horsebox or boat trailer. Lastly, you should determine whether the design of the towbar can or cannot affect the general outlook of your car. Based on these questions, you can consider the various types of towbars. Top among your list of considerations is Brink - a firm that has been in existence since 1906 and has experience across the globe, bringing a vast amount of knowledge into mining. With the largest collection of towbars in Europe, at Brink, you can choose from a wide variety of towbars ranging from flange balls, fixed towbars, detachable towbars to retractable towbars. Even though each single type of towbar has its own special features, they are all characteristically premium quality. tow weight and axle load of your car, and the Jul - Sep 2022

breakaway cable of your trailer is easy to connect.This means you can tow safely with a Brink towbar, as all their towbars are extensively tested in their own advanced test centre. This is done in accordance with the international regulations and Brink's strict standards. “Key among the things to look out for is the aspect of the capacity of the towbars, which should ideally align with what the manufacturer of the vehicle is allowed to tow. When there is a new vehicle being launched, we get a notification from the manufacturer about the towing capacity they require and we will design a tow bar specifically for that vehicle. From a tow bar manufacturer's perspective, the major requirement for towbars is that it is made with graded steel. At Brink, everything we use is graded steel, but most importantly, on all tow bars, there is a data plate attached to it that indicates the capacity of a tow bar and it should align with what the manufacturer allows the vehicle to tow as well. However, it's critical to note that some manufacturers require that we test above the capacity of the vehicle - This requires us to test two (2) to three (3) times the capacity of the tow bar is actually designed to tow. These are some of the reasons the genuine parts are more expensive than the aftermarket parts - especially because there is rigorous testing,” explains Mark Gutridge - Managing Director, Brink Towing Systems.During testing, the towbar is designed using the homologated mounting points, thereafter, stimulation is conducted and then prototypes are manufactured for

testing. At the close of the process, a durability test is conducted, including specific testing for overload testing on the x, y and z axis. In general, it requires about four (4) weeks for the towbar to be approved and compliant with the manufacturers and legal requirements. Costings and Purchase of Towbars Purchasing a towbar and wiring kit can cost hundreds of pounds. One may wonder why they have to pay so much, but the costs mostly cover the technical development, testing and production. In summary, the rear and underside of the car, with and without the bumper, is scanned with a laser measuring arm. R&D then draws a 3D towbar on the basis of these precise 3D scans, using the most advanced industrial drawing programmes, such as CAD. Subsequently, every separate component of the towbar is designed, including side plates, cross tube, ball plates, electrical socket plate, ball and locking mechanism. At the design phase, R&D focuses on several principles based on the mounting points on the chassis of the car and the maximum towing weight and axle load, as specified by the car manufacturer. The legally required height is measured from the ground up, 35 to 42 centimetres in maximum load, and the legally required space between the bumper and the bodywork is measured at least 65 millimetres to the centre of the ball. Our main goal is to leave the design intact by creating an invisible solution. With the help of the CAD FEM calculation programme, the design is run through a computation that provides insight in the external force, pressure and the resulting material.


tension and distortion. Using a colour system, issues such as strength, stiffness, fatigue, distortion and more are shown. With this extensive process Brink creates a final design of a towbar that matches the car model on which it will eventually be mounted.Subsequently, Brink produces a towbar from the 3D drawing, which is subjected to quality testing in its own advanced test centre, including being exposed to the most extreme circumstances in order to measure safety, sustainability and strength. At Production a towbar goes through over 40 different steps, from creating a model, bending the ball to welding the different pieces together. Manufacture of a new towbar takes about five to seven weeks. A wiring kit to match the towbar is then developed, tested and produced. As the newest cars have been equipped with the latest techniques and functionalities, there is a complex process to ensure the vehicle and trailer communicate efficiently. This takes a lot of time as well,


which affects the cost of the installation. Safety First Of course, the biggest responsibility for guaranteeing safety lies with the supplier of towbars, the official car manufacturers and the suppliers of trailers, caravans, boat trailers or horseboxes. They have all developed several safety systems which can make your trip as safe as possible. Brink capitalises on the Electronic Stabilisation Programme (ESP), with which most modern cars have been equipped. With its wiring kits, ESP can be expanded with the Trailer Stabilisation Programme (TSP), a safety measure that immediately corrects 'snaking' of your trailer. However, it's important to ensure that your speeds are appropriate for the weight that you are towing so that the gap between you and the vehicle in front of you allows for additional weight that you are trying to slow down.If you have a Brink towbar, the breakaway cable can always be fastened to a specific breakaway point on the towbar.

Brink advises that if you are buying a second-hand car, always check whether the towbar has a fastening eye. Also, always make sure that the cable is properly secured and that the brake system of the towed object is in working order. These checks should be conducted by a certified technician of the manufacturer prior to using the trailer or caravan. It is of vital importance that, as soon as you start driving with an object behind your car, you adjust your driving style accordingly. For example, by listening even more closely to your hard-working engine, so you can switch gears on time. Ensuring you take wider turns, to enable your trailer to make the corner instead of mounting the pavement. You should also anticipate other traffic with more attention than usual. Additionally, it is important that you become familiar with your combination. Therefore, Brink recommends first taking a few test drives before going on a long trip. This will help to make sure you also drive up and down an incline, such as a bridge, and practice reversing.

Jul - Sep 2022

Slope Monitoring

Real-Time Slope Stability Monitoring with Reutech Radars

Why is slope stability evaluation important?


lope stability is an important consideration in the management of various types of mining operations or geotechnical engineering projects. By definition, slope stability is a measure of how resistant a man-made or natural slope is to failure, due to collapse or sliding. Slope pit designs aim to provide a safe and stable slope for open pits mines, while still optimising excavation capabilities. Increasing the pit wall steepness enables maximised ore recovery and minimised waste stripping. This implies that the quantity of excavated material is reduced, thereby considerably decreasing mine running costs and improving financial returns. This increased wall steepness does, however, increase in the depth of the pit, causing a decrease in the factor of safety in the pit slope design. The primary purpose of a slope monitoring program is to assess the stability of the pit walls during operations and to detect any signs of instability, after which management or remedial procedures may be carried out. A slope monitoring program should detect instabilities timeously in order to prepare mining operations for potential threats, by providing an early warning. The consequences of an uncontrolled instability or slope failure can result Jul - Sep 2022

in: disruption of operations, loss of equipment, injury and worst of all loss of life, all of which ultimately could result in drop in market share. A comprehensive slope stability monitoring program is thus vital to support the safe recovery of ore. What is real-time monitoring? Real-time monitoring is the viewing of continuously updated or streamed information. This occurs through the implementation of applications and tools that constantly track and record the overall pit performance, and provide continuous updates. It essentially means that one is able to have eyes on the slope at any given time. This permits the user to determine the current state of the slope and enables the team to identify, detect, diagnose, report and respond rapidly, when an incident occurs. Reutech's real-time slope stability monitoring products. Reutech Mining is a proudly South African company dedicated to developing, manufacturing and distributing innovative technologies for the management of safety within the mining industry. After being approached by industry leaders in the mining sector, requesting

advanced geotechnical monitoring solutions, Reutech has been at the forefront of technological innovation for mining safety for more than 15 years. The demand for real-time geotechnical monitoring has led to the rapid advancement of monitoring technology. The application of ground-based radar technology has been used in mines, across the world, since the early 2000's. Reutech Mining is focused on providing and improving real-time mine safety for surface and underground applications, as well as, contributing towards a noteworthy increase in production for a large number of mines in Africa and around the wMSR Modular The Movement and Surveying Radar (MSR) is the world's most advanced slope monitoring radar, used for assessing the stability of mine pit walls, tailings dams and natural hazards. With the unique ability to extract multiple data points from a single antenna beam footprint. The MSR Modular delivers a high resolution threedimensional (3D) point cloud and provides data in range, azimuth and elevation, without relying on any other external mechanisms. This implies that the most accurate slope stability insights is provided at all times. MSR Modular is capable of covering broad areas quickly, making it the ultimate tool for simultaneously performing strategic and critical monitoring on any scale. The combination of radar data together with movement vectors from prisms and extensometers can be displayed on the same interface, allowing for the integration of data from various instruments. This integrated interface allows for a more holistic approach may be applied, in identifying areas of movement on the slope, and subsequently making more informed decisions. . The MSR Modular allows for various mounting options such as fully autonomous trailer or vehicle The demand for real-time geotechnical monitoring has led to the rapid advancement of monitoring technology.


exposure to geotechnical hazards. This subsequently increases productivity and allows for pit slope optimisation through design calibration.

mounting or fixed installations. MSRIVEsprit MSRIV Esprit®, is the fourth generation of the MSR range, developed specifically for repeatability of measurement, increased scan speed, advanced atmospheric reduction and minimised mechanical wear. MSRIV Esprit® is a staring radar which scans a fixed area using the concept of Multiple Input and Multiple Output (MIMO) radar technology. The advantage of using a MIMO architecture instead of scanning single points or sweeping over the slope, is that the system scans the entire area instantaneously and constantly. This system produces superior real-time movement data with an exceptionally accurate 3D point cloud, and a full 2D area scan update in less than two seconds. With a scan speed of less than two seconds, fast moving slopes are effortlessly detected and the phenomena of phase wrapping (ambiguity) is reduced drastically. The rapid scan time and reduction in phase ambiguity reduces the effects of rapidly changing atmospherics, almost completely,


and accumulates only true movement. This radar is the fastest scanning radar on the market making it the ideal solution for mines with rapidly changing atmospherics and fast moving slopes. Smaller movement measurements are detected much faster and with greater accuracy, resulting in the early identification of potential slope failures. The Esprit system is fully autonomous and include solar panels to reduce the carbon footprint of the system. How does the MSR Modular and MSRIV Esprit® aid slope stability monitoring in real-time? ·

The data from both the MSR Modular and MSRIV Esprit® is captured automatically, reliably and updated in real-time, which boosts the confidence of mining personnel in solving slope stability concerns.


The MSR systems aid in enabling risk management procedures and life-of-mine plans, which limit personnel


Teams are encouraged to include radar alarms for detected slope movement in their hazard planning and Trigger Action Response Plans (TARP).


Warning and evacuation orders can be issued once the stability of the slope approaches a dangerous threshold level, in keeping with the protocol and the monitoring program implemented by the team on site.


By identifying areas of continuous movement from the radar data, teams can get more proactive with their response methods and operational plans.


Different scan region areas can be selected allowing the client to focus on areas of high importance, without wasting scan time on areas of no interest.


The system is configured to perform the above tasks 24/7, in adverse weather conditions, therefore providing the client continuous safety critical monitoring throughout the day and night.


Both systems have the ability to send immediate automatic alerts and notifications to geotechnical teams via email and telecommunications, should an alarm be triggered.

Jul - Sep 2022

Zijin Mining

Zijin mining group: Mining for a better society


ijin Mining is a large multinational mining group. It is engaged in the exploration and development of copper, gold, zinc and battery metals worldwide, as well as the research of engineering technology. The group has mining projects in 15 provincial-level regions in China and 13 other countries. It operates major projects in China, such as the Julong Copper Mine in Tibet, the Duobaoshan Copper Mine in Heilongjiang, the Zijinshan Gold and Copper Mine in Fujian, the Ashele Copper Mine in Xinjiang, Shanxi Zijin, Guizhou Zijin, and Longnan Zijin. Its main overseas mines include the Čukaru Peki Copper and Gold Mine and the Bor Copper Mine in Serbia, the Kamoa Copper Mine and the Kolwezi Copper Mine in the DRC, and the Buriticá Gold Mine in Colombia. Zijin controls 62.77 million tonnes of copper resources, of which 20.33 million tonnes are reserves; 2,373 tonnes of gold resources, of which 792 tonnes are Jul - Sep 2022

reserves; and 9.618 million tonnes of zinc resources, of which 4.554 million tonnes are reserves. Zijin Mining ranks No.324 in the 2022 Forbes Global 2000 List, No.1 among global gold companies, No.8 among metal miners; and No.486 in the 2021 Fortune 500 List. Zijin's core competitiveness lies in innovation, especially technological innovation. It has a wealth of experience in geological exploration; hydrometallurgy; the processing of low-grade, refractory ores; and large-scale engineering projects. It is also accelerating its development in the field of renewable energy and advanced materials. It has added 7.63 million tonnes of lithium carbonate resources through the acquisition of the high-grade Tres Quebradas lithium project in Argentina. Its overseas copper and gold operations account for more than half of the group's total reserves, production,

and earnings. It has developed the “Five-pronged” Mining Engineering Model and founded the State Key Laboratory of Comprehensive Utilisation of Low-Grade Refractory Gold Ores. Its in-house technologies and engineering capabilities cover the full spectrum of exploration, mining, processing, smelting and environmental protection. Powered by its technological strength, Zijin Mining has been successful in the development of many mining projects across the world, and has fostered its own competitiveness in the global mining industry. Zijin is building its ESG system on the basis of international standards, and it is committed to developing green, eco-friendly mines to high standards. Zijin's vision is "Mining for a Better Society". It stands by the values of "Harmony Brings about Wealth" and "Balanced Development of the Company, its Employees and the Wider Society".


global mining company". It contributes to economic growth in China and the rest of the world by supplying high-quality minerals. In Africa, the group has mining projects in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Eritrea and South Africa. The Kolwezi copper mine in the DRC was the first copper mine constructed by Zijin and put into operation abroad. Kolwezi has produced over 70,000 tonnes of copper, providing more than 1,000 jobs for local people. Another DRC mine, the Kamoa-Kakula Mining Complex or known as “Kamoa Copper”, is a joint venture between Zijin Mining, Ivanhoe Mines, Crystal River Global Limited, and the DRC Government, and is the world's fastest growing major copper mine. The mine strives to produce the world's “greenest copper”. Following “carbon peak and carbon neutrality” initiatives, Kamoa Copper has implemented the Sustainable Livelihoods Program and set a net-zero GHG emission target for operation. Kamoa Copper is powered by clean and renewable energy with its main power source coming from the Mwadingusha hydropower plant and the Inga II hydropower facility. The project's GHG emission per tonne of copper produced will continue to drop when Inga II hydroelectric refurbishment is accomplished. A 2020 independent audit of


Kamoa-Kakula's GHG intensity metrics performed by Hatch Ltd. of Mississauga, Canada, confirmed that the project will be foremost among the world's lowest GHG emitters per unit of copper produced. The Bisha Zinc-copper Mine is the largest producing zinc mine in the State of Eritrea in Africa. The mining and stripping capacity of the project is 32 million tonnes per year, and its designed processing capacity is 2.4 million tonnes per year. In South Africa, Zijin's wholly owned subsidiary Nkwe Platinum Limited holds a 74% undivided share in the Mining Right in respect of the Zijin Garatau Platinum Mine. The Zijin Garatau Platinum Mine is located on the Eastern Limb of the Bushveld Complex, about 25 km north-west of Steelpoort and 30 km west-north-west of Burgersfort in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The Mine is currently in the construction phase but is anticipated to average 3.6 million tonnes of ore per annum once full capacity is achieved in a few years' time. To date, Nkwe Platinum Limited has spent over R45 million on its Social and Labour Plan. The investment included the upgrading of the Garatau Community Access Road, as well as adult training and education, bursaries, learnerships, internships, traditional leadership training and excavator operations, which have benefited the surrounding mine communities of the Zijin Garatau Platinum Mine. In June 2020,

Nkwe Platinum Limited launched itsfirst solar powered water supply system for the Ga Mpuru Village in the Garatau community, situated next to the Zijin Garatau Platinum Mine. The pumps installed on the water borehole and storage tanks are powered by a complete solar system. In addition to providing round the clock water for the members of the community, the solar system also powers a security electric fence for the water supply infrastructure, making it a self-sustaining unit. The community now has access to over 55,000 litres (continuous flow) of clean water from a pipeline, which spans over 2 kilometres within the community. Taps and water troughs are stationed at various strategic points along the pipeline to cater for both the community and livestock. This solar-powered water system forms part of Nkwe Platinum's second generation Social and Labour Plan, which enables Local Economic Development ('LED') projects in the form of clean water supply to the local mine communities over the next few years. Nkwe Platinum Limited believes believe that the development of enterprises is closely related to the sustainable development of its surrounding communities. Through, education, medical treatment, industrial support, infrastructure construction and disaster relief, it is committed to developing and working together in a mutually beneficial and harmonious way for the benefit of all. Jul - Sep 2022

Asset Transformation

Sustainable asset transformation in the mining space

“Asset transformation is more than a possibility, it is our collective responsibility if we want to leave a world worth living in for our children and their children.” Pieter Scholtz ining companies reap huge benefits extracting valuable minerals, but often at a cost to surrounding communities and the environment. However, regulating these activities mainly depends on national frameworks and policies, but implementing good practices remains problematic. On account of these variables, accelerated sustainability transformation is crucial for mining companies to remain competitive. To truly shift to “sustainable mining,” governments and companies must recognize the social impacts of mining, and enact laws and regulations that require community consultation throughout the life of a mine. It's therefore crucial to understand that in a bid to reduce financial, legal, environmental and (or) social liabilities for mining companies (in all life cycle phases), it's vital to leverage non-core assets to achieve the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This can be realised by enabling maximum


Jul - Sep 2022

possible environmental, social, and socioeconomic sustainability. In other words, the use of non-core assets to create viable investment opportunities for sustainable economic transformation whilst ensuring environmental sustainability should be encouraged. Despite being a difficult task – with the latest developments in legislation, it remains clear that mining companies will have to find ways to reduce post-closure liabilities. The new legislations do not necessarily change asset transformation or the approaches thereof, but will likely force more mining companies to embrace sustainable asset transformation as a means of not only ensuring their social license to operate, and legal compliance but also reducing their liabilities. To ensure the initiatives are sustainable, they ought to be mine specific and cocreated with the different stakeholders. This change in approach from mining companies does however need the different departments on a mine (social performance, environmental and operations) to work more closely. It also calls for better alignment of the Environmental Management Plan (EMP), Social and Labour Plan (SLP), Mine Works Programme (MWP) and closure plans.

More and more mining companies are embracing the fact that they do not have to fund everything around the reduction of their liabilities; if the business cases are well developed and the right beneficiaries have been identified, there are numerous external funding companies that provide the bulk of the financial requirements to bring the initiatives to life and these need to be unlocked. If you are thinking of top-list businesses with which to venture into post-closure, it's important to remember that Asset Transformation is not as simple as picking solutions off a list. There are many reasons why asset transformation initiatives fail, including underestimating the importance of creating the solutions from first principles on a caseby-case basis. The solution to sustainable Asset Transformation therefore lies in a blend of customised solutions based on the asset base of the specific mine and the environmental, social and socio-economic construct of the surrounding area. However, agriculture is generally a good first step for vacant land, or in select cases for rehabilitated land, but the job creation opportunities for agriculture are rarely sufficient. Other solutions


that have been implemented by mines and that can work in select cases are: creating renewable power solutions with shared ownership models; downstream processing of primary agriculture solutions (i.e. raison factory) and water treatment works with shared ownership models. It's no secret that mines tend to deteriorate in terms of investor attractiveness and financial health. Keeping this in mind - it is ultimately possible for mining companies to create value for their shareholders during the development, operational and closure phases. To achieve this, it's important to set the right climate for the deviation of financial, social, legal and environmental liabilities in the operational phase whilst the mine is still profitable. “Generally, it costs little for mining companies to enable the development of the business cases for the solutions of their closure and post-closure liabilities, and these can easily be funded during the operational phase of a mine – sometimes by using one financial input to achieve multiple outputs. By so doing, it has virtually no effect on investor returns given the quantum of the funds required. Most mining companies have however historically left their closure and postclosure liabilities to be addressed when they close the mine and then it more often than not becomes a lot more expensive than anticipated. It goes without saying that when there is no more revenue being generated because of operations winding down, liability cost increases make the company a lot less attractive to investors. In many cases, the incapability to close


the mine sustainably due to cost constraints has a negative impact on the environmentally and socially conscious investor base.” notes Pieter Scholtz, Director, Sustainable Development - Zutari. One may wonder if there is a rule book guiding sustainable asset transformation. To nurse your worries, Scholtz advises that there are great tool kits available. “When considered together, they can assist mining companies to think about Asset Transformation, but there is no silver bullet criteria that can be applied. At Zutari, we have created the Zutari-Asset-to-AssetApproach (ZA2AA) which is a structured approach through which we simplify the complex process of asset transformation. We use the ZA2AA in collaboration with the considerations in the Anglo Closure Toolbox and Anglo Social Way to assist our clients with their Asset Transformation programs. Using these three support mechanisms, we feel comfortable that we bridge all the gaps that need to be bridged to enable sustainable Asset Transformation. Many of our large mining clients do however have their own guiding principles which are mostly more than adequate to ensure the planning is effective. Execution is however another matter and often, good asset transformation initiatives fail because of poor project execution.” Scholtz notes. Past learnings teach us not to start too late. With the exponential evolution of technology and the resultant global population's needs, there is likely going to be an increase in the complexities around asset transformation planning and execution. However, there is a partial remedy amidst a multitude

of constraints. True to our knowledge, the world is changing at such a rapid rate that it unsecured market analysis perspective. It is also key to have someone on the team that can develop business cases and understand all the different pieces of legislation that come into play. Nonetheless, make sure the different departments on the mine have integrated planning. This will enable solutions to be as robust as possible, given the exponential change in the world around us. Solutions linked to long-term needs (sustainable electricity, water and food) are also likely to be more robust than those that are simply considering current trends. Despite the fact that a truly sustainable mine closure process has not been implemented in a large percentage of mines, the seemingly surmountable task is definitely possible. Scholtz explains that there is enough good momentum in many different mining companies across many countries in Africa where smaller sustainable solutions are being created in isolation to give us hope. “I have no doubt that we will have a successfully closed mine with a mining company still in a good financial state; a healthy environment and prosperous surrounding communities within the next decade. Apart from the momentum being there and many smaller successes being seen, we have no choice but to make asset transformation work across all mines in Africa if we have any hope of creating a Jul - Sep 2022

Asset Transformation children and their children,” he adds. He reiterates that asset transformation will become the only way mining companies think about their operational liabilities, closure, post-closure liabilities and social license to operate. “We must not forget that many of the core components of asset transformation have been part of mining companies' planning for many decades. It has only recently been given a name and is now considered in an integrated manner. The change in thinking required in mining companies is therefore incremental and not profound.” Scholtz notes. As we seek to eliminate the key whys and wherefores of historical mine closure failures in the past, Zutari is co-creating solutions in collaboration with the mining companies and their stakeholders to ensure human desirability of the solutions. They are also using their diverse workforce; partners and innovation toolkits such as Design. In his submission, he emphasises that historic failures are not that difficult to

Jul - Sep 2022

overcome; adding that the essence of why many asset transformation-related initiatives have failed historically is because they didn't achieve the overlap of stakeholder desirability, technical and legal feasibility and financial viability. Notwithstanding historic failures, mines incorporate cutting-edge contextual analysis tools to improve risk identification and mitigation. This rests heavily on identifying the risks to be mitigated by first identifying the mine's aspirations (Critical Success Factors). These are further ranked to ensure priorities are understood by all and then the risks of each of these Critical Success Factors materialising, can be identified. This approach allows mines to have a much better alignment on what success will look like and identify the most important risks to be addressed so as to ensure success. Zutari industry experts advise that, to transform a mining asset which is reaching its end of life, one needs to ensure financial sustainability for the mine, socio-economic

sustainability for the communities living in the area, and environmental sustainability. Zutari also advises mines not to start when the mine is already busy ramping down – start early enough (at least ten years before closure is ideal). To steer through the governance, programme feasibility, set-up, milestone measurements, assurance and reporting requirements, there ought to be proper Project Management as these are the same tools mining companies use when they start up a mine or when they're doing any other projects. “It can't be done halfway. For asset transformation to be successful, there will have to be a proper focus and funding channeled into it. If it is driven by the correct people with the right skills sets - with the associated support from the mine management – it will be much easier to achieve than what history suggests.” Scholtz concludes.


Mobile Crushing and Screening

Mobile crushing and screening solutions


he increased volume combined with the extra-large feed opening ensures high-capacity primary crushing in all demanding quarrying and mining applications. Africa is experiencing an influx of international and local manufacturers and suppliers of mobile crushing and screening equipment seeking to take advantage of the growing mine operations in Africa. Some of the local and international players include Metso, Keestrack SA, Pilot Crushtec suppliers of the Sandvik brand, Atlas Copco, HPE Africa the distributor for MB Crushers, as well as many other suppliers of renowned international brands. Crushing is an important mining process which involves the reduction of the particle sizes in an ore body after extraction. Otherwise know now as comminution, the process which actually involves crushing and grinding has over time undergone several innovations in order to improve efficiency and improve the liberation of valuable minerals some of which we will take a look at in this article power costs. The best equipment therefore is the one that offers reduced downtime and wear and tear impact while providing Sluggish demand for construction materials has meant that capital expenditure for aggregate crushers remains under pressure. “The upturn in mining is spurring local


demand for our mobile crushing equipment as contractors – who are our traditional market – move onto mining sites to conduct crushing contracts,” says Marais greater production for the same amount of energy. Along with crushing is the equally important screening that enables the separation of different sizes of particles. This can be for a number of reasons such as dewatering or in order to remove dust and smaller particles. There are several types of screens but the most popular is the vibrating screen. In all cases however the screen really consists of a surface with small apertures much like a tea sieve. Extraction of the highest amount of a valuable mineral with the least energy consumption over an extended period of time is the desired result in any mining process and it all starts with the effectiveness of the crushing and screening process. Growing demand Crushing equipment specialist Pilot Crushtec recently noted that they experiencing growing demand from the mining sector as rising commodity prices breathe new life into this industry. This contrasts with the construction sector, which remains challenged, according to Francois Marais, director sales and marketing at Pilot Crushtec. This shift from quarry-based or on-site crushing to the mainstream mining sector is demanding crushing equipment from the

larger end of the product range. “We've seen a move towards much bigger equipment than what our customers in aggregates would typically use,” he says. “Whereas we might in the past have been supplying operations producing 250 to 350 tonnes per hour, we are now working with customers who work in the region of 500 to 600 tonnes per hour and upwards.” This is well within the capacity of the Metso crusher range – represented regionally by Pilot Crushtec – which includes mobile units with throughput capacity of up to 1000 tonnes per hour. Recent orders include the supply of a mobile crushing train to an iron ore operation in the Northern Cape, where it is successfully processing up to 550 tonnes per hour. “We welcome these new opportunities, as we have the quality of product and depth of expertise to ensure the material volumes and operational uptime that mines require,” he says. “We know what this environment demands and can confidently support our customers and equipment at this scale.” This is opening the door to an exciting era of expansion for Pilot Crushtec, where the company is introducing new models and configurations. At one of the iron ore projects in the Northern Cape supplied by the company, for instance, a global 'first' is on the cards for Metso. Jul - Sep 2022

Purchasing decision Francois Marais also notes that there has been an alarming increase in the number of companies let down by underperforming crushing. number of calls recently from companies using other manufacturers' equipment, requesting urgent assistance in providing alternatives or support to help them meet their contract obligations,” says Marais. “It appears to us as if many companies have selected equipment based purely on price, rather than its suitability for their application.” He highlights the devastating impact which these constant and sometimes catastrophic technical failures and lack of spare supply have on the performance and reputation of “Even if the equipment can be kept functional, these unexpected repair and maintenance costs can end up rendering a project unprofitable,” he says. “What is happening in these

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cases is that any savings from the capital expenditure on the equipment is being eaten up by fast-rising operating expenditure.” The irony is that it is often the companies whose profitability is already marginal, who try to survive by purchasing lowpriced equipment upfront. He points out that this exposes the business to dangerously high levels of operating risk, as any unexpected downtime quickly wipes out the narrow profit margin. “One bad purchasing decision can push these players over the edge,” says Marais. “There is a mistaken belief that they can 'save their way' to profitability which simply does not make financial sense in this competitive sector.” He emphasises that successful crushing contractors recognise the vital importance of mission-critical equipment in their enterprises and contracts. They earn their success and

reputation by top-class performance, ensuring the production levels that customers demand – and thereby winning the return business necessary for sustainability and growth. “The economic environment certainly makes many firms risk-averse, and this tempts them to trim their capex budgets to unsustainable levels,” he says. “This suggests that they are incentivised by the wrong metrics, and may not have a proper alignment between their procurement mandate and their strategic business objectives.” He notes that this challenge is also reflected in a prevailing business culture in which buyers feel they are only justified in purchasing after the price is substantially reduced. Francois Marais insists that by saving on downtime and enhancing safety, the client removes excessive risk from their projects, so they can build sustainable brands and successful businesses.


Fuel Management

Fuel management optimizes mining operations


ines require various types of fuels, oils and lubricants in order to run machinery and equipment and the complexity of trying to monitor and control its dispensation has given rise to modern fuel management systems. Gone are the days of a padlock, pencil and clip boards to do this job in favour of more efficient and timely processes. The price of commodities has seen a steady rise over the years and this has added to the demand for better systems in order to improve the management of fuels. Enter the Fluid Automated Management Solution. A good fuel management system should automate the fuel dispensing operation in an organization, reducing fuel loss and the operational and administrative workload. The fuel management solution is comprised of capacitive probes that are fitted to the tank of the vehicle. The solution is designed for three different asset configurations, namely; singular fuel tank system, dual fuel tank system and aftermarket long-range double dual fuel tank system.


Evolution Large open cast mines in Africa haul masses of ore across the surface and consume millions of litres of diesel each month to fuel the large fleets of vehicles, plant and machinery required to operate a mine successfully and safely.With the increasing costs of fuel, it is crucial to the profitable operation of a minethat there is vigilant, reliable and timely monitoring of the fuel and other lubricants used daily. From the basic clipboard and pen came the self-contained, microprocessorcontrolled fuel island control system which has an ID reader (key, card, RFID etc.) to identify the vehicle and driver, a means of controlling a pump, a means of measuring the fuel delivered, and usually, a means of reporting fuel drawn by vehicle. The fleet list is usually input using an integral keypad. This was followed by a fuel island control system similar to its predecessor, which is either periodically or permanently connected to a PC which is used to report on the fueling and input the fleet information. Finally came the fuel island controller. It is fully connected directly to a central Internet based server which is updated in real time.

All fleet information and transactions are held on the central server. Connection is made from the fuel island to the server using GPRS, or can use the operators own network using a Wi-Fi or Cabled Network Link. According to Graeme Trautmann, Business Development at Gilbarco AFS, with ever-increasing pressure to manage input costs, mine managers must establish effective control and measurement of fuel costs, particularly in open-cast operations, where fuel can account for up to 30% of the overall daily operating costs. In addition, this is essential for mitigating risk to oil companies who provide fuel to the mines on consignment. There are a number of different probes that cover a wide range of tank capacities. “The solution is ideal for numerous asset types, from standard trucks, to mining equipment and large fuel storage tanks located at depots,” said QCIC director Brian McKenzie. With sites receiving up to 50 deliveries of fuel each day, it is vital to record and verify the delivery when it is made.

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Tank gauge technology detects the presence of water and continuously evaluates the tank for leaks. Overfill conditions during deliveries are prevented by the technology's ability to sound an alarm preventing the previous potential for overflows.

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The technology also records all volumes dispensed out of the tank. This, combined with vehicle tagging units installed on the fleet and plant, ensures that all transactions are recorded and that only authorised vehicles are able to refuel.

Real time Monitoring The principal advantages of a real time system are that site operation can be monitored in real time, stock figures are always current, and, with integrated tank gauging, fuel theft from tanks and short deliveries can be identified immediately. The principal advantages of a web-based system are that information is easily made available to all interested parties, allowing all to run reports and investigate issues. Data is viewable not only by the user, but by support staff, so that any issues are resolved quickly with a phone call. There are no compatibility issues with software as only a web browser is required to view data. Software may be centrally updated to the advantage of all. At the end of the day a good fluid automated management system needs to offer easy control and management of fuel and lubricant supplies. It should assist managers with timely information regarding the dispensing of fluids process and stock delivery process.