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Cartographic Architecture: Specific Interventions that Project the Rural Revenge of Ulu Papar in 50 Years

Amanda Mo ShuenYea

A/P Erik L’Heureux Advisor


CONTENTS Introduction

Abstract The Resort & The Sawmill The Dam Truth

Site Expedition

The Papar River, Sabah, East Malaysia Itenerary Stream near Kampung Timpayasa Kampung Timpayasa Kampung Kuala Papar Kampung Limbahau Kampung Mikik Bridge near Kampung Wawasan Agriculture, Aquaculture, Farms and Plantations Kampung Kabang Kampung Pantai Papar Papar Town Kampung Kigandang Kampung Tabilong

the Architect’s Act

The Process and Product of Representation The Paper Model The Map of Papar River, Sabah, East Malaysia The Map of Papar Dam Imagined, Sabah, East Malaysia Mapping of the River

The River and it’s Associations

The Story of Tropical Rivers The Papar River, a Short Film 360 Aerial Spheres The Panorama The Length Model Reconstructed Section

Ecological Mapping

Ecological Model Ecological Map Process

1 3 5

9 11 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 59

65 67 69

The Resort

Rainwater & Irrigation Diagram Current, Rendered Axonometric 5 Years with Intervention, Rendered Axonometric The Resort Drawings 50 Years Projection, Rendered Axonometric Current, Kampung Kigandang Section 5 Years with Intervention, Kampung Kigandang Section 50 Years Projection, Kampung Kigandang Section

The Sawmill

Rainwater & Irrigation Diagram Current, Rendered Axonometric 5 Years with Intervention, Rendered Axonometric The Sawmill Drawings 50 Years Projection, Rendered Axonometric Current, Kampung Tabilong Section 5 Years with Intervention, Kampung Tabilong Section 50 Years Projection, Kampung Tabilong Section

99 102 103 104 110 115 117 119

121 124 125 126 130 136 138 140

71 73

75 79 81 85 87 89

93 95 98

The Rural Revenge

Annex

Sem 1 Crit Process Drawings Book References Log Book Online Critique

142

144 146 148 149 152


CARTOGRAPHIC AR

S pecific Inter ventions that project the r ur al re venge of Indigenous Pap My Thesis began from a personal question of how and when should Architects act when the site presented hosts predominantly untouched landscapes and lacks Architecture. In a site where the human population is not a majority, should we, as Architects, still approach the site with an analysis that is similar to how we would in an urban or even suburban site? The Papar river in Sabah, East Malaysia was chosen to be my case study of this question. It runs from the Crocker Mountain Range for roughly 60km before merging into the sea. It meanders through the unforgiving terrain of the Crocker Range mountains and passes through small autonomous indigenous villages, plantations, agricultural plains, the sleepy Papar town and fishing villages. Like many tropical rivers, the Papar river has been used as infrastructure for transportation, resource, livelihood and is still contested over by the Government and various groups of locals. In the middle of 2019, the Malaysian government confirmed the new site of the Papar dam, estimated to be around 150-200m deep. If built, it will flood half of the indigenous kampungs in Ulu Papar, forcing them to relocate to another location that does not allow them to continue living their unique way of life and basically, plummets them into poverty. The Papar dam is not merely a search for resource, but is a war for land ownership and power. 1


CHITECTURE:

par in 50 years

The Indigenous populations of Sabah have a unique way of life that does not revolve around the making of money. Instead, they depend directly on their environment for food and water. Do not be mistaken, however, that they live without modern day essentials. Many have returned from working professionally in mainland Malaysia and most villages have solar powered panels, micro-hydro weirs and power plants. Their unique differences are firstly, that they build everything themselves and own a strong skillset. Secondly, their ideology of understanding one’s place in the Ecology of their environment. My Thesis is based on that narrative of returning indigenous peoples partnering up with an Architect (me) to design their Rural Revenge through specific architectural interventions that will project the 50 year future of Ulu Papar. These interventions exist on two intersecting planes - the Aesthetics of representation, and the Architectural product. I look at how representation and aesthetics affect our perception of a site and how it can be disected and redesigned to serve as a lens, guiding how an Architect traverses the Ecology of the site in relation to its themes. On the flipside of the coin, the Architectural product manifests these concepts into realisable construction details, Architecture and programmes. These together act as seeding points and examples for the growth of Ulu Papar for the next 50 years. 2


The Resort, Kampung Kigandang 1:2000 5 Years with Intervention, Kampung Kigandang, Rendered Axonometric Drawing

The Resort & The Sawmill

3

I picked two Kampungs along the Papar River for my architectural interventions based on their economic opportunity and ability to influence the rest of Ulu Papar. Kampung Kigandang and Kampung Tabilong both had road connection to either Papar Town or Kota Kinabalu. I introduced a main road with drainage and irrigation channels under a wasted belt of land that was cleared for the high power tension cable and towers that run across Ulu Papar to Kota Kinabalu. This main road not only interrupts surface runoff and promotes ground water absorption and pollution filtration, but it also serves to complete the tranportation circuit.


The Sawmill, Kampung Tabilong 1:2000 5 Years with Intervention, Kampung Tabilong, Rendered Axonometric Drawing

The Resort is introduced into Kampung Kigandang as it hosts white water rafting activities, while The Sawmill is introduced into Kampung Tabilong, an influential indigenous village which focuses on plantations and agriculture. These interventions houses specific programmes and systems that embed and capitalze on the unique way of life of the the Indigenous population and thier mindfulness of Ecology. These interventions give them more economic leverage, and act as seeding points for a growth of Ulu Papar that will not render them invisible. 4


Babagon Dam| Near Kota Kinabalu 5


The Dam Truth The Papar dam has been in the talks for nearly 2 decades and is estemated to be around 150-200m deep. If built, it will flood the ancestral burial grounds of the indigenous villages and basically, plummet them into poverty and disorientation. Half and hour away from Kota Kinabalu, the Babagon Dam is damaged and left unrepaired from the earthquake and 30% of Water is lost every month. Clearly, water resource is not the main concern. The Papar Dam is a struggle for land ownership and the politcs of race and religion. The marvelous visuals of dams mask the underground truth of what was at stake in building that dam. 6


SITE EXPEDITION The Papar River, Sabah, East Malaysia

In the last week of August, 2019, I set out with a friend, to Sabah, East Malaysia, to visit the Papar river. Being such an unknown destination, I knew very little about the Papar river before I actually was there. The tumultuous terrain and the long bendy Papar river were both disorientating and magnificent. Over the course of 1 week, I discovered the Papar river and its surroundings by foot, car and boat. On the first day itself, we found ourselves spontaneously hiking for 4 hours one way, to Kampung Timpayas and just when we felt the fatigue of the heat and terrain, we had to cross a large stream. The picturesque aerial views of the Papar river i saw from the airplane the day before was a mere reduction of the actual site and its surprises - both good and bad. And the beautiful landscape that leaves you speechless seemingly mask the true stories and struggles of the ecology of the Papar river. In the middle of December 2019, we returned to the Papar river to explore parts of the river we could not access before and met with Save Ulu Papar and Pacos Trust, non-profit organisations that are working against the building of the Papar Dam. They shared how they had zoned areas for different types of activities based on their knowledge of ecology. They also expressed their want to map their villages and our meeting turned into a spontaneous parties both ways.

7

I did not expect my site visit turned expeditions to leave me feeling as heavy-hearted as it did. This is not a Thesis about an idealistic Garden of Eden. This is me trying to find my place as an Architect in the decade of Climate Change.


From Left to Right Old Maps of the Asiatic Archipalego ; and The Island of Borneo | Edward Weller, Glasgow, 1972 | both from the book “Maps of Malaya and Borneo Discovery Statehood and Progress” (The Collections of H/R/H/ Sultan Sharafudin Idris Shah and Dato’ Richard); and Trip Equipment

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P O I N T S

12

Soil Sample Kampung Timpayasa 25/8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

RiverWater Sample Kampung Timpayasa 25/8

O F

Important Points Unregistered Philippino Settlement Papar Town River Front Papar Fish Market Papar Bridge Water Treatment Facility Water Treatment Facility Water Treatment Facility Redirected Water Canal White Water Rafting Centre Start Point of White Water Rafting Proposed Dam Site Kampung Buayan

I N T E R E S T a b c d e f g h i j k l

Visited Areas Kampung Sungai Papar Kampung Kuala Papar Papar Town Kampung Limbahau Kampung Mikik Kampung Kabang Durian Plantation LYL Breeders Bridge near Kampung Wawasan Kampung Kigandang River Camp Kampung Mandalipau White Water View Kampung Timpayasa

l

H U M A N

A C T I V I T Y Motored Boat Movements

Kampung Timpayasa

Journey for “Gravity Water� White Water Rafting route

Soil Sample Kampung Kigandang 30/8

Soil Sample Stream near Kampung Timpayasa 25/8

RiverWater Sample Kampung Kigandang 30/8

StreamWater & Soil Sample near Kampung Timpayasa 25/8

Kampung Tabilong

11

Papar River Water Sample Kampung Tabilong 11/12 k j

10

Kampung Mandalipau Kampung Kigandang 9

i

Bridge nearWawasan

River Soil Sample Wawasan Bridge 29/8

RiverWater Sample Wawasan Bridge 29/8 g

Chicken Farm

h

Durian Plantation Kampung Kabang

8

f

7

G R O U N D

C O V E R

T Y P E

Kampung Mikik Water Bodies

Ulu Papar

Primary Vegetation

Agriculture

Plantations

6 e

Kampung Limbahau

Papar Town

5

d

1 b

Sand Sample Pantai Papar 29/8

a

River MouthWater Sample Pantai Papar 29/8

RiverWater Sample Papar Town 29/8 2 3 4

c

Kampung Kuala Papar Kampung Pantai Papar 13

9

P A P A R

R I V E R ,

S A B A H ,

S C A L E 125m

1 : 2 5 0 0 0

M A L A Y S I A

N


From Left to Right Digital Version of Sample Model with my Map of the Papar River, Sabah Malaysia | 841 x 594mm; Picture of Physical Sample Model | 841 x 594mm

ITENERARY 24-8-2019

Flight SIN to BKI Contact Local Activist Group

25-8-2019

Hike to Timpayasa Village in Ulu Papar

26-8-2019

Kampung Kuala Papar Papar Town Papar Town River Front Kampung Limbahau Kampung Mikik

28-8-2019

Sabah State Library

29-8-2019

Bridge near Kampung Wawasan Durain Plantation Chicken Farm Kampung Kabang Kampung Pantai Papar Pantai Papar

30-8-2019

Roundtrip Bot Ride from Kampung Pantai Papar to Papar Town Papar Town Kampung Kigandang White Water Raafting Start Point Kampung Madalipau White Water Rafting

11-12-2019

Kampung Tabilong MicroHydro Plant at River Crossing

12-12-2019

Papar Town Kampung Sungai Papar

13-12-2019

Kampung Kaiduan Aquaculture Farm Kampung Kaiduan School Rubber Plantation near Kampung Kaiduan

14-12-2019

Meeting with Save Ulu Papar Non-profit Organisation Babagon Dam Kampung Tampasak 10


Stream near Kampung Timpayasa

25.8 Stream near Kampung Timpayasa

11


Fresh Water Stream | Towards Papar River 25-08-2019 Taken near Kampung Timpayasa

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Fresh Water Stream | Towards Papar River 25-08-2019 Taken near Kampung Timpayasa

Fresh Water Stream near Kampung Timpayasa 25-08-2019 The local indigenous population in Ulu Papar visit fresh water streams once every few days to retrieve fresh water supplies. They call this ‘air gravitas’ or ‘gravity water’. During the hike to Kampung Timpayasa, I crossed one of these streams and retreived water and soil samples. The water from the stream is extremely clear and cool despite the reddish-brown clay like soil that makes up the river bed. These Streams are almost more important than the main river itself as it feeds it with clean fresh water supply. It also provides multiple micro-habitats for the wildlife in addition to the fresh water resource for human inhabitants. 13


Pipes Connecting Stream Sources to this Stream | Upstream 25-08-2019 Taken near Kampung Timpayasa

Algae, Rocks, Stream Water

Algae growing on Rocks | Small Rapids 25-08-2019 Taken near Kampung Timpayasa

Downstream | Towards Papar River 25-08-2019 Taken near Kampung Timpayasa

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Kampung Timpayasa

25.8 Kampung Timpayasa

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Cable Bridge | Towards Kampung Timpayasa 25-08-2019 Kampung Timpayasa

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From Bottom Left to Top Sandy River Bank; Traditional Dusun Wood House; Papart River | 25-08-2019, Kampung Timpayasa

Kampung Timpayasa 25-08-2019 Kampung Timpayasa is deep in Ulu Papar and houses a community of indigenous Dusun people. The Kampung is situated on a hillside beside the Papar river. Its residents rely on the river for water supply and food as they are completely off the power and water grid of Sabah. Som of them are also employed by the government to manage and farm rubber or palm plantations on their land, earning a minor salary. However, these crops are controlled and hence, do not grant them economic power. Despite being off-grid, they expressed their want for electricity as they have self-installed solar panels. They are however, not in favour for the dam as it will force them to relocate and render their way of life impossible. The hike to Kampung Timpayasa was a long and strenious, yet impeccably beautiful. What you find in Kampung Timpayasa showcases the handiwork and unique ability of the indigenous people and the values of their way of living. One of the villages I met there used to work in Kuala Lumpur as an electrical technitian before moving back to his Kampung as he preferred the way of life there. 17


House with Solar Panels | Self-made 25-08-2019 Kampung Timpayasa

Pond, Redirected from Papar River | Plantation Water Supply 25-08-2019 Kampung Timpayasa

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Kampung Kuala Papar

26.8 Kampung Kuala Papar

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Personal Boat Jetty | Papar River 26-08-2019 Kampung Kuala Papar

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From Bottom Left to Top Large Rock River Bank; Dried Palm Leaf Covering River Bank; Fishing Net; Tyres for Boat Docking; Self-made Jetty with Fishing Supply Storage | 26-08-2019, Kampung Kuala Papar

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Old Fisherman House on Stilts | Self-made 26-08-2019 Kampung Kuala Papar

Kampung Kuala Papar 26-08-2019 Kampung Kuala Papar means the Village at the Mouth of the River. this Kampung houses mostly Muslim Malay fishermen and they have self-built jetties that jut out into the Papar river with their boats docked against them. Most of these fishermen fish in the Sea rather than in the Papar river as there are more fish in the sea. After a morning of fishing, they will drive their boat to the fishing market jetty of Papar town to sell their fish. the residences here are keen on the dam as they experience power shortages and are not very well connected to the power and water grid. They do not see the connection between the dam and the loss of river that might change their livelihood as well. The river water here is a murky brown and not very clean at all as it washes away not only soil and debris from upstream, but also carries the pollution and rubbish released into the river at Papar Town. The houses in this village also do not have toilets and all businesses are dropped directly into sea or river. The village also experiences alot of flooding in from the high tides of the sea and most of their traidtional houses are built on stilts. The residents are very friendly and one of them agreed to bring us on a boat ride on another day.

Motor Boat | Rainy Weather 26-08-2019 Kampung Kuala Papar

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Kampung Limbahau

26.8 Kampung Limbahau

23


Aerial View| Papar River 26-08-2019 Kampung Limbahau

Water Treatment Plant | Papar River 26-08-2019 Kampung Limbahau

24


From Bottom Left to Top Large Rock River Bank; Dried Palm Leaf Covering River Bank; Fishing Net; Tyres for Boat Docking; Self-made Jetty with Fishing Supply Storage | 26-08-2019, Kampung Kuala Papar

25


Old Fisherman House on Stilts | Self-made 26-08-2019 Kampung Kuala Papar

Kampung Kuala Papar 26-08-2019 Kampung Kuala Papar means the Village at the Mouth of the River. this Kampung houses mostly Muslim Malay fishermen and they have self-built jetties that jut out into the Papar river with their boats docked against them. Most of these fishermen fish in the Sea rather than in the Papar river as there are more fish in the sea. After a morning of fishing, they will drive their boat to the fishing market jetty of Papar town to sell their fish. the residences here are keen on the dam as they experience power shortages and are not very well connected to the power and water grid. They do not see the connection between the dam and the loss of river that might change their livelihood as well. The river water here is a murky brown and not very clean at all as it washes away not only soil and debris from upstream, but also carries the pollution and rubbish released into the river at Papar Town. The houses in this village also do not have toilets and all businesses are dropped directly into sea or river. The village also experiences alot of flooding in from the high tides of the sea and most of their traidtional houses are built on stilts. The residents are very friendly and one of them agreed to bring us on a boat ride on another day.

Motor Boat | Rainy Weather 26-08-2019 Kampung Kuala Papar

26


Kampung Limbahau

26.8 Kampung Limbahau

27


Aerial View| Papar River 26-08-2019 Kampung Limbahau

Water Treatment Plant | Papar River 26-08-2019 Kampung Limbahau

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Aerial View| Papar River Bend 26-08-2019 Kampung Limbahau

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Tall Grass| River Bank

House of Dusun Resident| Beside Papar River

26-08-2019 Kampung Limbahau

26-08-2019 Kampung Limbahau


Self-made Lookout Point | Papar River 26-08-2019 Kampung Limbahau

Kampung Limbahau 26-08-2019 Kampung Limbahau is home to many families of Dusun and Kadazan origins. They are however, not in communication with the indigenous population in Ulu Papar. When asked about the dam, they reply that they understand that the river will dry up but are not that concerned with it as it does not affect their livelihood or lifestyle. Their Kampung is well connected to the power and water grid and thier dependency on the Papar river becomes more indirect. That being said, their wtaer source is still the Papar river. Water is collected through a channels into a water treatment plant before being piped to the houses underground. This disaccordance between the under and above ground systems are similar to that of the ecology of the Papar river where ground water supply may not necessarily be reflected in the river siutation above. At this section of the river, the water is still a murky brown, mostly from carrying debris and soil downstream. It is still deep enough for motorboats to move through. The River banks are flushed with tall grass or dense vegetation, with a spotting of self-made jetties and lookout points. 30


Kampung Mikik

26.8 Kampung Mikik

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Aerial View| Papar River 26-08-2019 Kampung Mikik

Aerial View | Papar River and Agricultural Plains 26-08-2019 Kampung Mikik

32


Papar River | River Banks 26-08-2019 Kampung Mikik

Guesthouse| Beside Papar River 26-08-2019 Kampung Mikik

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Aeiral View| River Banks and Agricultural Plains 26-08-2019 Kampung Mikik

Aeiral View| Irrigation Channel 26-08-2019 Kampung Mikik

Kampung Mikik 26-08-2019 Kampung Mikik is similar to Kampung LImbahau in terms of their populatino and connection towards the river. In addition to that, Kampung Mikik houses a lot of agricultural plains and water is channeled from the river through a large man made canal to supply many agricultural plains. This channel travels far beyond Kampung MIkik and is currently being expanded to reach more new fields. This connection between food source, income and water supply makes them more invested in the river as a water resource and it makes them concerned about the dam plans in the future. However, they trust that the government will plan for the water supply of their agriculture stock. 34


Bridge near KampungWawasan

29.8 Bridge near Kampung Wawasan

35


Aerial View| Papar River and Bridge 29-08-2019 Near Kampung Wawasan

Aerial View | Kampung Wawasan 29-08-2019 Taken from Near Kampung Wawasan via Drone

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Papar River| Small Rapids 29-08-2019 near Kampung Wawasan

River Banks| Small Rapids, Large Smooth Rocks, Sandy Bank, Vegetated Bank 29-08-2019 near Kampung Wawasan

37


Bridge near Kampung Wawasan 29-08-2019

Upstream| Taken from Bridge

The bridge for cars to cross the Papar river located near Kampung Wawasan is also the place where the residents of Kampung Wawasan come to sell their produce including local fruits and crafts. Although the Kampung houses quite a large community and also has many agricultural and farming spaces, the environment where the bridge is located remains very quiet and serene, seemingly distant from the Kampung.

29-08-2019 near Kampung Wawasan

Dusun Fruit Store with Local Fruits| Beside Papar River 29-08-2019 near Kampung Wawasan

Papar River| Below Bridge 29-08-2019 near Kampung Wawasan

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Aquaculture Plains Rubber Plantation

LYL Breeder Chicken Farm Durian Plantation

29.8, 13.12 Agriculture, Aquaculture, Farms and Plantations

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Aerial View of Durian Planatation| Cleared Belt for High Power Tension Towers 29-08-2019 Durian Farm

Rubber Tapping | Rubber Plantation 13-12-2019 near Kampung Tabilong

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Aerial View of Chicken Farm| Beside Papar River 29-08-2019 LYL Breeders

Agriculture, Farms and Plantations 29-08-2019 | 13-12-2019 A stretch of farms and plantations span across the length of the Papar river as they depend on the river for direct water supply. Many farm owners dig their own canals to supply additional fresh water to their crops and farms. It is unsure if the chicken farm releases waste into the river but from water sampling, the water around this point of the river is much clearer than that taken from Papar Town.

Aerial View| Agriculture Fields and Plantations 29-08-2019 near Durian Plantation

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Plantations and farms however, are built very close or on the river bank, removing important transitional habitats and increasing the surface runoff into the river. The temperature of the surface runoff would also be higher than that of the river after flowing through the plantations. The amount of pollution would have also increased. Most of these crops are for the local population or are controlled crops such as rubber and palm.


Aquaculture Village| Redirected River Water in Fish Pond

Rubber Plantation

13-12-2019 near Kampung Tabilong

13-12-2019 near Kampung Tabilong

Irrigation Channel| Redirected River Water to Rubber Plantation 13-12-2019 near Kampung Tabilong

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Kampung Kabang

29.8 Kampung Kabang

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Papar River| Vegetated River Bank 29-08-2019 Kampung Kabang

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Self-made House on Stilts| Malay House 29-08-2019 Kampung Kabang

Agriculture, Farms and Plantations 29-08-2019 | 13-12-2019 Kampung Kabang houses a majority Malay community and agricultural spaces. They are connected to the power and water grid, although not so reliably. The residents are in favour for the dam as they believe it will improve their living situation. However unknown to them, the dam will not be supplying water and power to their Kampung. The dam which is built strangely only for water supply, will only be supplying water to Kota Kinabalu and not to the Papar region. This Kampung was still accessile by car albeit through a bumpy dirt road. 45


Wooden House with Laundry| Malay House 29-08-2019 Kampung Kabang

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Kampung Pantai Papar

29.8 Kampung Pantai Papar

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Docking of Fishing Boats| Pantai Papar 29-08-2019 Kampung Pantai Papar

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Kampung Pantai Papar 29-08-2019

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Kampung Pantai PApar is the village by the beach of Papar and houses many fishermen who line the beach with motorboats. I managed to get a boat ride with one of these fishermen on their way to the fish market in Papar town and was shown and illegal settlement on an island in the Papar River.


From Top to Bottom Right Kampung Pantai Papar from the River; Pantai Papar from the Mouth of the River; Jetty; Low Tide; High Tide; Mouth of the River and the Sea| 29-08-2019, Kampung Pantai Papar

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Papar Town

29.8 Papar Town

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Papar Riverfront| Papar River 30-08-2019 Papar Town

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From Bottom Left to Top Personal Jetty and Telecommunication Tower; View of School from the River; Fisherman House by the River; Mosque| 30-08-2019, Taken from the River at Papar Town; Aerial View of Papar Town and Papar Bridge| Taken by Drone

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From Top to Bottom Fish Market Jetty and River Front; Fishermen Exchanging Fish under Papar Bridge before goint to the Fish Market| 30-08-2019, Taken from the River at Papar Town

Kampung Pantai Papar 29-08-2019 The largest town that the Papar river cuts through is Papar town and it is historically famous for the long effort of trying to build the Papar bridge across the river for a railway. Today, the railway and a car bridge stands above the Papar river to connect Papar all the way to Kota Kinabalu. This town has many shophouses and a riverfront which is quite underused. Although it is the largest town Papar river cuts through, it is still a rather sleepy, slow-paced town. The population of the residents here are mostly Malays and Chinese. It houses both the town Mosque and Temple and the important Papar town fish market and jetty. There is no underground or above ground sewage pipes. Instead, most of the sewage is dumped straight into the Papar river and flows out into the sea. A small amount is emptied out into sewage vehicles and brought to a waste treatment facility nearer to Kota Kinabalu. The water is here is opaque brown and contains alot of unknown debris. It also emits a funky odour. The river banks are mostly eaten into by buildings and new man made banks of rocks and stones are made to prevent soil erosion and flooding. The air temperature here is defintile the hottest amongst all the spots I have visited along the Papar river. 54


Kampung Kigandang

30.8 Kampung Kigandang

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Traditional Raft and White Water Rafting Starting Point| Papar River 30-08-2019 Kampung Kigandang

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Kampung Kigandang 30-08-2019 Kampung Kigandang is used as the starting point for White water rafting along the Papar river. They are working together with the rafting company and are paid to provide land, services and labour for this experience. This sort of partnership allows the indigenous people to gain more economic power and also interact with tourists to give insight on their way of life and culture. This Kampung houses Kadazan people and many traditional aspects of their culture is visible in their surroundings. They also still use their traditional bamboo raft to bathe on the river. While they are connected to the power and water grid minutely, they still retrieve air gravitas and fish from the river. The river water herer is as clear as that from the stream although the locals say its not as clean. From the drone, the river is crystal blue littered with rapids and cuts through an island in the middle of the river. You can also see from the aerial shot, the high tension power cables that beside the Kampung and across the river. These cables are supplying power to Kota Kinabalu and to lay the towers for these cables, a belt of land is cleared. Kampung Kigandang was difficult to access to via a sedan car and most of the locals use either motorcycles or four-wheel drives to travel our of Ulu Papar. They do however still hike for hours from their Kampung to another occasionally. The Kampung unfo 57

Papar River, Traditional Raft, White Water Raft Kampung Kundasang


Lookout Hut

Slit Bamboo Walls

Traditional Kadazan House

Bamboo Walls

Local Wood

Electric Cables 58


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From Left Top to Bottom Traditional Raft and White Water Raft in Papar River; Cleared Belt of Land for High Power Tension Cable; Self-made Wooden Lookout Point; Bamboo Wall Infill; Bamboo Shade; Traditional Bamboo House for Guest Lodging; Papar River with High Power Tension Cables and Towers| 30-08-2019, Kampung Kigandang

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Kampung Tabilong

11.12 Kampung Tabilong

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Micro Hydro Weir Doubling as River Crossing| Branch of Papar River 11-12-2019 Kampung Tabilong

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Kampung Tabilong 11-12-2019 Kampung Tabilong is located very near to the proposed site for the Papar dam. It focuses on agriculture, aquaculture and plantations and also has a micro hydro dam that doubles as a vehicular river crossing built across a large stream, nearing the merging point between the stream and Papar river. The high tension power cables run above centre of the Kampung. Quite alot of excavation has been done as the Kampung rests on very tumultuous terrain. I got a chance to speak to the Chief of the Kampung who explained that this Kampung houses Kadazan and Dusun people for nearly 3 generations. Although he remained tight lipped on the issue of the dam, he acknowledged that if the river dries up, they would not be able to carry on living the way they do due to their lack of economic power and position.

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Being higher up in Ulu Papar, Kampung Tabilong was more difficult to access and required a mix of driving on bumpy dirt paths and hiking to reach. Due to the politics of the dam, the villagers are rather cautious about unknown vehicles entering this area as they are wary they belong to Government. In my meeting with the Save Ulu Papar non-profit group, I was told that they have accepted help from charity organisations to help them map their land in hopes of marking out proper territories. Instead, the information was not given to the villagers but to the Government, which aided their planning of the dam.


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Micro Hydro Weir Doubling as River Crossing| Branch of Papar River 11-12-2019 Kampung Tabilong

Aerial View| Papar River and Agricultural Plains 11-12-2019 Kampung Tabilong

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House of the Chief of the Kampung| Self-built with Solar Powered Panels and Water Irrigation from Streams 11-12-2019 Kampung Tabilong

Micro Hydro Weir Doubling as River Crossing| Water Entering the Weir 11-12-2019 Kampung Tabilong

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the Architect’s Act

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Essay of the Geography of Plants Plate Print | 1805, Alexander von Humboldt

the Architect’s Act

The Process and Product of Architectural Representation The construct of Nature slides in and out of various definitions, always remaining transcendental and imaginary. It is only through representations of Nature that some understanding of ecology is uncovered. Representations of Nature such as Alexander von Humboldt’s drawings have always acted as tools in specific discoveries. As they rewrite abstract Nature, representations deconstruct and highlight a site’s Ecology - the relationship between systems and things, both living and non-living. Dealing in the currency of Representation and Aesthetics, Architecture too, shifts in and out of the worlds of Science and Art. An Architect, hence holds a priviledged posittionto examine the Ecology of the very spaces we build in, through the process and product of Representation. To see and understand the silent Architecture of the site itself before we add to that Architecture. This Thesis looks at the Papar river in Sabah as an example of studying such Ecology via Architectural tools of Representations such as drawing, photography, film and modelling. It questions, the visual function of these specific tools as not only illustration or advertisement, but as a form of research itself. Using these tools, the Papar river will be disected, placed under a microscope and stitched together to uncover its Ecology and realise what makes it silent Architecture. What is the Humboldtian drawing of the 21st Century? 68


69


The Paper Model I constructed a topographic model consisting of all the topographic lines I traced for the map of Papar River, Sabah, Malaysia using laser cut paper to investigate the topography surrounding the Papar river. By removing the river and only looing at its topography, we can understand to some effect, the effect topography has on the shaping of the river and vice versa. I could begin to understand the stretched out time scale of such a vast topographic site and the Papar river. Including the tracing of the topographic lines, this model took me 3 months to build. I trekked those contours; I traced those contours; the Epilog machine lasered those contours; I glued those contours; and now those contours are embedded into my muscle memory. 70


71


72


73

l

11

12

10

j

k

9

i

P O I N T S

H U M A N

a b c d e f g h i j k

Visited Areas Kampung Sungai Papar Kampung Kuala Papar Papar Town Kampung Limbahau Kampung Mikik Kampung Kabang Durian Plantation LYL Breeders Bridge near Kampung Wawasan Kampung Kigandang River Camp Kampung Mandalipau White Water View

I N T E R E S T

White Water Rafting route

Journey for “Gravity Water�

Motored Boat Movements

A C T I V I T Y

O F

Important Points 1 Unregistered Philippino Settlement 2 Papar Town River Front 3 Papar Fish Market 4 Papar Bridge 5 Water Treatment Facility 6 Water Treatment Facility 7 Water Treatment Facility 8 Redirected Water Canal 9 White Water Rafting Centre 10 Start Point of White Water Rafting 11 Proposed Dam Site


74

Water Bodies

Ulu Papar

G R O U N D

Primary Vegetation

Plantations

T Y P E

Agriculture

C O V E R

P A P A R

D A M

a

b

4

2 3

c

125m

S C A L E

S A B A H , 1 : 2 5 0 0 0

I M A G I N E D ,

1

5

e

M A L A Y S I A

d

6

8

7

g h

f

13

13

N


Pantai Papar

Farms and Plantations

Kampung Timpayasa

75

Papar Town

Bridge and Kampung Wawasan

Kampung Tabilong


Kampung Limbahau

Kampung Kigandang and Mandalipau

Kampung Mikik

Potential Dam Site

Mapping of the River Redesigning the Site

The process and product of Mapping allows for newer iterations of the river and helps me relive my site expeditions. The product is a designed relief that highlights certain key points throughout the river and about the river. It also connect the river in plan intstead of its disjointed reality due to how bendy it actually is as well as the mountaineous terrain. Through the mapping, the flow and gravity of the river can be felt. Another mapping was done to imagine the Papar dam being built. This information was taken from various news articles as well as the different indigenous groups I met during the site expeditions. You can compare the two maps to see which Kampungs will be covered in the dam as well as the decrease in river size. As mentioned earlier in this book, like the Babagon dam, the imagined map of the dam is beautiful to look at, but it masks the silent voices and architecture of Ulu Papar. 76


the River & it’s Associations

77


The Story of Tropical Rivers Tropical rivers have always been associated with many uses, functions and aesthetics for a long time. I look into some of these associations and how the affect the way we perceive and use the river, The main associations I am looking into are the associations of the river as infrastructure, resource, recreation, heritage, and politics of land. Like many other tropical rivers, the Papar river is also seen in association with such themes and this varies from the communities using it.

The River as Infrastructure

Transportation of Goods, Services and Ease of Connectivity Since the days of explorers, rivers were used as highways to access deeper mainlands. It presented as the more convenient and safe route of exploration. Today, it also provides an easier route of transport in areas that are deep enough for boats. The Papar river is only deep enough for boats about one-third up, making it slightly different from most famous tropical rivers which extend deeply for a long way in. Instead, this creates a divide between Papar and Ulu Papar as it remains more inaccessible and foreign. Because the fishermen use the Papar river to transport their goods and services, this is also elusive to the Ulu Papar region where you see them fishing for their own fish.

The River as Resource Water, Food and Energy

Perhaps the biggest dilemma of the Papar river is its richness in resource for water, food and energy and this translates differently for different communities. Although their dependency of the Papar river varies in directness, the river still remains an undeniable resource for all communities. However, if understanding that this resource has limits and that the way it is used affects some this and livelihoods, how to we react with the river beyond its association as a resource? 78


The River as Recreation

Nolstalgia, Aesthetics & Energy The river also possesses a nolstalgic aesthetic that goes hand in hand with its use for recreation. This aesthetics can sometimes block the progress of the Ecology of the river, the river and its community as it hides and reduces the silent Architecture of the river to merely aesthetics. It is however, also a double-edged sword as aesthetics, as mentioned earlier, can also be used to raise new understandings of the river, allowing it to bring forth progress in a right direction. This Thesis is aiming to do that.

The River as Land Ownership Heritage and Politics

The control of the Papar river talks about the struggle for land ownership and power between the indigenous people and the Malaysian Government. One sees the river as something to be shared but is also an integral part of their heritage, while the other sees it as a resource and opportuniy, both economically and politcally.

“We can’t seem to cure them of the idea that our everyday life is only an illusion, behind which lies the reality of dreams.” Old Missionary 1982 Scenes from the Movie Fitzcarraldo

“Eventually, all things merge into one, and the river runs through it.” Norman Maclean 1992 Scenes from the Movie A River Runs Through It

79


Observations on the Coasts of Van Diemen’s Land Unknown Matthe Flinders

“We’ve got everything we need right here!” Allie Fox 1986 Scene from the Movie The Mosquito Coast

Dusun, Native of North Borneo 1923 Funk&Sons Postcard, Sandakan, B. N. Bornero

80


The Papar River| a Short Film Taken at 0:00:01 Director| Amanda Mo Videographer 1| Amanda Mo Videographer 2| Alvina Ng Editor 1| Amanda Mo Editor 2| Alyshea Mo Equipment| Marcus Mo Pictures and Video shot in| Papar, Sabah, East Malaysia Voice Recording| Meeting with the Save Ulu Papar non-profit organisation Thank you to the residents of Papar and Ulu papar and the Save Ulu Papar group

The Papar River A Short Film

81

Media has always played a heavy role in influencing the way rivers are portrayed and in turn, how we as the audience understands them. Part of this Thesis is to explore how using media as a form of representation can portray an ecological understanding of the Papar river and its story and how different forms of media can uncover various layers to the river. The Papar River is a very short film that condenses my site expeditions, the nolstagia of the river, its quiet power, the lifestyle and woes of its population and the political struggle over its ownership, into a quick-cut format. I chose such a format as I wanted to impose multiple informations over such a short period of time making it almost indigestable for the audience, mimicking my feelings from the site expedition. I was left heavy-hearted and somewhat flabbergasted. The interchange of still photograph and videos; and voice recordings and sounds of water bring up the contrasting images of the surface value and under ground value of the Papar river. The pauses and breaks between all the madness allows the audience to digest and reflect key inflections in the story of the Papar river.


0:00:02

0:00:04

0:00:05

0:00:08

0:00:14

0:00:12

0:00:17

0:00:29

Timeframes of the short film

82


83

Kampung Pantai Papar | 360 Aerial Sphere

Papar Town | 360 Aerial Sphere

26-08-2019 Taken with Drone

26-08-2019 Taken with Drone


360 Aerial Spheres With technology like drones, we have access to view the river from a height and get a different image - the aerial shot. These aerial spheres are taken as 360 panoramas on the drone and stitched together. The dron allows us to view the river in plan and see mroe connections than the bendy river in reality allows.

Essay of the Geography of Plants Plate Print | 1805, Alexander von Humboldt

Kampung Limbahau | 360 Aerial Sphere 26-08-2019 Taken with Drone

84


Kampung Kigandang | 360 Aerial Sphere 30-08-2019 Taken with Drone

85


Kampung Tabilong | 360 Aerial Sphere 11-12-2019 Taken with Drone

86


The Panorama

Perspectives of the Papar River at Various Heights The Panorama allows us to reconfigerate the perspective of the river into a sectional approach and allows us to grasp the flow of time and space with the context of the river. These panoramas of the the Papar river were taken at different height levels - the eye level, an elevated bridge level and sky level. This study inspired me to view the river as a length and to investigate its section. 87


Papar River | 180 Aerial Panorama 29-08-2019 LYL Breeders

Papar River and Bridge| 180 Bridge Level Panorama 25-08-2019 Bridge to Kampung Timpayasa

Papar River and Bank| 180 Eye Level Panorama 26-08-2019 Kampung Limbahau

88


89


The Length Model| Silicone 90


Model Making Equipment |2 Part Silicone and 3D Printed Moulds

Filling of the 3D Mould | Silicone Length Model Making Process

Gelatine Version 2 | Orange Brown and Mint

Gelatine Version 1 | Dark Brown and Blue 91


Rolling of Plasticine | Silicone Length Model Making Process

Sealing the 3D Mould | Silicone Length Model Making Process

Enlarging Tigher Areas | Silicone Length Model Making Process

Curing the Silicone | Silicone Length Model Making Process

The Length Model

Silicone and 3D Printed Moulds The Length Model was birthed from a curiousity of how long the river might be if the river was not as bendy. Adding to the Panoramas, this model propelled me into a new way of looking at the river - as a measurement of time. 92


93


Papar River Reconstructed Section| Papar River Map 1188 x 3364mm 1:200 Horizontal scale

94


95


Papar River Deconstructed and Reconstructed The Papar river reconstructed section pieces together part sections of the river in varying horizontal and vertical scales to realize the above ground and under ground Architecture of the Papar river and its ecology. It repositions the surrounding topography, buildings, inhabitants, flora and fauna around the Papar river as the main axis and forces the viewer to view everything in relation to the section of the river. It is my version of a Humboldtian drawing for the Papar River and serves as a lens before I ink the site with my Architecture.

Papar River Reconstructed Section Continued| Papar River Map 1188 x 3364mm 1:200 Horizontal scale

96


Ecological Mapping

Ecological Map Model | with Interventions 97

Done at 1:2000 Scale


Ecological Map Model | with Interventions Done at 1:2000 Scale

The Ecological Map When analysing a site, an Architect would usually refer to and overlay existing systems on site such as plumbing, ground level, sewage and so on. These systems are able to be analysed and compared together because of some sort of standardization, and usually this is their reference to the human. However, when we are face with sites like the Papar river where there is little man-made systematic Architecture, this restraint seems to erode and less consideration is given to other non-human cetric systems. These systems that are not designed primarily for the human are also quiet and unvonscious, rendering them invisible to us at first glance. In my Ecological mappings, I uncover such silent and autonomous systems - the Ecology of the Papar river and foreground them, forcing myself to consider them more equally when designing for the indigenous people of Papar. Ecology is defined as the relations between organisms - both human and non-human. Ecology is vast and complex and solidifies elements of Nature using concrete and real things as its components such as Economy or the terrain of th site. This focus on real components pull Nature out of the imaginary realm. Ecology acts as a catalogue of various perspectives of an Environment and to understand it, we need to deconstruct it into its relations. My Ecological mappings dissects the Papar river and organizes it into a sectional and planar catalogue to serve as a guide for my Architecture. After a series of mappings and sections, I designed an ecological map indicating the resistance and intensity of both flora and fauna AND indigenous development. I represented this in the form of this model to show the blurring of boundaries unique to this terrain and rural setting unlike that of a city. 98


Ecological Mapping

99

H I G H

I N T E N S I T Y

Z O N

S C A L E 208m


Z O N I N G Resistance Void Restoration of River Bank Restoration of Forest Intense Development Area Main Transport Band Interventions

G R O U N D

Water Bodies

C O V E R

Ulu Papar

Agriculture

T Y P E

Plantations

Ecological Map Model | with Interventions Done at 1:2000 Scale

The Ecological Map The construct of Nature slides in and out of various definitions, always remaining transcendental and imaginary. It is only through representations of Nature that some understanding of ecology is uncovered. Representations of Nature such as Alexander von Humboldt’s drawings have always acted as tools in specific discoveries. As they rewrite abstract Nature, representations deconstruct and highlight a site’s Ecology - the relationship between systems and things, both living and non-living. Dealing in the currency of Representation and Aesthetics, Architecture too, shifts in and out of the worlds of Science and Art. An Architect, hence holds a priviledged posittionto examine the Ecology of the very spaces we build in, through the process and product of Representation. To see and understand the silent Architecture of the site itself before we add to that Architecture. This Thesis looks at the Papar river in Sabah as an example of studying such Ecology via Architectural tools of Representations such as drawing, photography, film and modelling. It questions, the visual function of these specific tools as not only illustration or advertisement, but as a form of research itself. Using these tools, the Papar river will be disected, placed under a microscope and stitched together to uncover its Ecology and realise what makes it silent Architecture.

N E ,

S A B A H ,

1 : 1 5 0 0 0

What is the Humboldtian drawing of the 21st Century?

M A L A Y S I A

N

100


Ecological Map Model | Kampung Kigandang Done at 1:2000 Scale

Ecological Map Model | Kampung Tabilong 101

Done at 1:2000 Scale


Master Section | Papar River, Sabah Done at 1:500 Scale

Ecological Map | First Revision

Ecological Map | Second Revision

Done at 1:25000 Scale

Done at 1:5000 Scale

Ecological Map | Third Revision

Ecological Map | Fourth Revision

Done at 1:2000 Scale

Done at 1:2000 Scale

102


Individual Room Water Tanks with Filtration

Water Tank Open Pitched

Bioswales Mini River Filtration with Concealed Underground Water Tank

Irrigation and Drainage Channels on Road

103

THE RESORT


Rainwater Irrigation and Collection

Naturally Filtered Swimming Pool

Concrete Gutter with Rain Chains Bioswales

Rainwater Collection and Irrigation Diagram | Rendered Physical Model Made in 1:200 Scale

104


Kampung Kigandang | Taken from Papar River, Sabah, Malaysia Map 1:25000 Scale

The Resort

Kampung Kigandang Kampung Kigandang is positioned close to the riverbank and currently hosts white water rafting activities. In this rendered axonometric drawing, you can see the aerial view of the current state of the site. The resort introduced is located on an existing dirt road to end the usage of the road as it leads too close to the river and encourages development to occur there. It also acts as an economic centre that draws the kampung away from the riverbanks to allow habitat and flora restoration. The resort gently climbs up and down a hill with each block of space half nestled into the terrain and the other half elevated on columns. The construction of the resort is designed with the local materials and skillsets and values of the indigenous residents in mind. The rooms consists of a wooden core sandwiched by concrete blocks that house the bathroom and bedroom. The left block of each room is stacked on the right block of the room below, making a chain of rooms that climb up the terrain efficiently. The resort is characterised by the renovated design of the traditional Dusun house and features a series of pitched thatched roofs that are part of the rain water irrigation and collection system. Learning from the study of the river, the rainwater irrigation and collection system is made up of a series of gutters, rain chains, water tanks and filtrating bioswales. The entrance and reception of the resort has an open thatched roof that allows rain to fall into a river like bioswale that filters rainwater before it seeps into the concealed underground water tank. Together with the resort, a road with irrigation and drainage channels and a small reservoir are also introduced and these interventions project kampung kigandang in 50 years. The last rendered axonometric illustrates the projected 50 years of kampung kigandang where the more efficient agricultural villages have been pulled back from the banks and have bioswales that help filter and improve groundwater absorption. I then cut sections that imagined the underground changes and improvements with the introduction of the interventions over 50 years. These underground systems such as groundwater and soil conditions affect the state of the river and the indigenous community who depend on their environment. 105


C U R R E N T,

K A M P U N G

P R O J E C T I V E

R E N D E R E D

S C A L E 20m

K I G A N D A N G

A X O N O M E T R I C

1 : 2 0 0 0

106


107

A T

5

Y E A R S

W I T H

I N T E R V E N T I O N ,

P R O J E C T I V E

R E N D E R E D

S C A L E 20m

K A M P U N G

A X O N O M E T R I C

1 : 2 0 0 0

K I G A N D A N G


5

4

3

2

1

6

THE RESORT FRONT PERSPECTIVE 1

Reception

2

Dining

3

Kitchen and Dining

4

Room Type 1

5

Room Type 2

6

Path for Buggy

108


THE RESORT SCALE

100mm

3

1:200

16

15

2

14

11 13

12

10 8

1

9

COMMON AREAS EXPLODED AXO 7

6

5

4

109

1

Reception

2

Dining

3

Kitchen and Dining

4

Bioswales

5

Made River & Underground Water Tank

6

Wood Columns

7 8

Wooden Stairs

9

Retaining Concrete Wall

10

Dining Entrance

11

Wooden Louvred Windows

12

Concrete Rain Gutter

13

Concrete Column Pile

14

Wooden Railing

15

Kitchen

16

Water Tank


THE RESORT SCALE

50mm

1:100

8

7

6 5

4

3

1

2

COLUMN TO ROOF EXPLODED AXO 1

Concrete Column Pile

2

Wooden Beam

3

Wood Floor Planks

4

Wood Stairs and Ladders

5

Concrete Walls

6

Concrete Floor

7

Bath

8

Toilet

110


THE RESORT SCALE

100mm

1:200

24

23

21 17 20 18

15

14

19

12

16

13

10

11

22

4 3 2

7 6

1

8 5

111

9


THE RESORT SCALE

12.5mm

1:25

WINDOW EXPLODED AXO 1

Wooden Window Frame

2

Casement Window

3

Top Wooden Louvres

4

Bottom Wooden Louvres

5

Wooden Window with Louvres

2

3

5

4 1

COMMON AREAS EXPLODED AXO 1

Concrete Column Pile

2

Wooden Beam

3

Wood Floor Planks

4

Wood Stairs and Ladders

5

Concrete Walls

6

Concrete Floor

7

Bath

8

Toilet

9

Main Door

10

Balcony

11

Split Level

12

Queen Sized Bed

13

Mezzanine

14

Railing with Counter

15

Wooden Louvred Windows

16

Concrete Column Base

17

Concrete Retaining Walls

18

Water Tank

19

Wooden Columns

20

Wooden Beams

21

Rainwater Concrete Gutter

22

Wood Louvred Wall Infill

23

Wood Rafters

24

Thatched Roof

112


1 4

6 5

3

2

THE RESORT SIDE PERSPECTIVE 1

Room Type 2

2

Concrete Column Pile

3

Balcony

4

113

5

Pool Deck

6

Naturally Filtered Pool


5 0

Y E A R S

P R O J E C T E D ,

P R O J E C T I V E

K A M P U N G

R E N D E R E D

S C A L E 20m

K I G A N D A N G

A X O N O M E T R I C

1 : 2 0 0 0

114


CURRENT | PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Kigandang 1:2000

CURRENT | PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Kigandang 1:2000

115


50 YEARS PROJECTED| PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Kigandang 1:2000

50 YEARS PROJECTED | PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Kigandang 1:2000

116


CURRENT | PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Kigandang 1:2000

CURRENT | PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Kigandang 1:2000

117


50 YEARS PROJECTED| PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Kigandang 1:2000

50 YEARS PROJECTED | PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Kigandang 1:2000

118


Forest

Dirt Road

Cleared Belt for High Tension Power Towers

Good Soil Condition Great Groundwater Absorption Filters Pollution Lessens Water and Air Temperature

Leads too Close to River Cleared Land Bad Soil Condition Bad Groundwater Absorption

Wasted Belt of Cleared Land Bad Soil Condition Poor Groundwater Absorption

Increases Water Temperature

119

Increases Water and Air Temperature

K A M P U N G

K I G A N D A N S C 5m


Tar Road

Village

Disrupted River Bank

Split Channel of Papar River

Island

Papar River

Cleared Land Bad Soil Condition Bad Groundwater Absorption

Cleared Land Too Close to River Bank Bad Soil Condition Bad Groundwater Absorption

Disruption of Habitat Bad Soil Condition Bad Groundwater Absorption

Extreme Bend that created Split Channel Merges with Main Papar River after Island White Water Rafting Starting Point Increase in Water Pressure Increase in Water Temperature Poor Habitat Conditions

Disconnected Micro-habitat Splits Papar River from Extreme Bend

Second-hand Pollution from Split River Bend Increase in Water Temperature Disruption to Habitat

Increases Water Temperature

Increases Water and Air Temperature Waste Stored in Underground Sewage Tank

Increases Water Temperature

100m above sea level

50m

Fresh Water Stream | Towards Papar River 25-08-2019 Taken near Kampung Timpayasa

Maximum Water Level

Essay of the Geography of Plants Plate Print | 1805, Alexander von Humboldt

the Architect’s Act

The Process and Product of Architectural Representation The construct of Nature slides in and out of various definitions, always remaining transcendental and imaginary. It is only through representations of Nature that some understanding of ecology is uncovered. Representations of Nature such as Alexander von Humboldt’s drawings have always acted as tools in specific discoveries. As they rewrite abstract Nature, representations deconstruct and highlight a site’s Ecology - the relationship between systems and things, both living and non-living. Dealing in the currency of Representation and Aesthetics, Architecture too, shifts in and out of the worlds of Science and Art. An Architect, hence holds a priviledged posittionto examine the Ecology of the very spaces we build in, through the process and product of Representation. To see and understand the silent Architecture of the site itself before we add to that Architecture. This Thesis looks at the Papar river in Sabah as an example of studying such Ecology via Architectural tools of Representations such as drawing, photography, film and modelling. It questions, the visual function of these specific tools as not only illustration or advertisement, but as a form of research itself. Using these tools, the Papar river will be disected, placed under a microscope and stitched together to uncover its Ecology and realise what makes it silent Architecture.

N G , A L E

C U R R E N T, 1 : 5 0 0

What is the Humboldtian drawing of the 21st Century?

S E C T I O N

B B ’

120


Forest

EcoResort

Good Soil Condition Great Groundwater Absorption Filters Pollution Lessens Water and Air Temperature Edge Restoration

Pulls Decelopment away from River Sits Sensitively on already Cleared Land Improves Soil Condition Improves Groundwater Absorption

121

Increases Water Temperature

Bioswales Improves Soil Condition Improves Groundwater Absorption Decreases Water and Air Temperature Creates Micro-habitats

K A M P U N G

Reservoir

Using the Belt of Cleared Land for High Tension Power Cab Improves Soil Condition Improves Groundwater Absorption Decreases Water and Air Temperature Provides Water Resource Creates Micro-habitats

K I G A N D A N G ,

5

Y E A R S C 5m


bles

Tar Road

Village

Disrupted River Bank

Split Channel of Papar River

Island

Papar River

Cleared Land Bad Soil Condition Bad Groundwater Absorption

Cleared Land Too Close to River Bank Bad Soil Condition Bad Groundwater Absorption

Disruption of Habitat Bad Soil Condition Bad Groundwater Absorption

Extreme Bend that created Split Channel Merges with Main Papar River after Island White Water Rafting Starting Point Increase in Water Pressure Increase in Water Temperature Poor Habitat Conditions

Disconnected Micro-habitat Splits Papar River from Extreme Bend

Second-hand Pollution from Split River Bend Increase in Water Temperature Disruption to Habitat

Increases Water Temperature

Increases Water and Air Temperature Waste Stored in Underground Sewage Tank

Increases Water Temperature

100m above sea level

50m

Fresh Water Stream | Towards Papar River 25-08-2019 Taken near Kampung Timpayasa

Maximum Water Level

Essay of the Geography of Plants Plate Print | 1805, Alexander von Humboldt

the Architect’s Act

The Process and Product of Architectural Representation The construct of Nature slides in and out of various definitions, always remaining transcendental and imaginary. It is only through representations of Nature that some understanding of ecology is uncovered. Representations of Nature such as Alexander von Humboldt’s drawings have always acted as tools in specific discoveries. As they rewrite abstract Nature, representations deconstruct and highlight a site’s Ecology - the relationship between systems and things, both living and non-living. Dealing in the currency of Representation and Aesthetics, Architecture too, shifts in and out of the worlds of Science and Art. An Architect, hence holds a priviledged posittionto examine the Ecology of the very spaces we build in, through the process and product of Representation. To see and understand the silent Architecture of the site itself before we add to that Architecture. This Thesis looks at the Papar river in Sabah as an example of studying such Ecology via Architectural tools of Representations such as drawing, photography, film and modelling. It questions, the visual function of these specific tools as not only illustration or advertisement, but as a form of research itself. Using these tools, the Papar river will be disected, placed under a microscope and stitched together to uncover its Ecology and realise what makes it silent Architecture. S

W I T H

A L E

1 : 5 0 0

What is the Humboldtian drawing of the 21st Century?

I N T E R V E N T I O N ,

S E C T I O N

B B ’

122


Forest

EcoResort

Good Soil Condition Great Groundwater Absorption Filters Pollution Lessens Water and Air Temperature Restored Edges

Pulls Decelopment away from River Sits Sensitively on already Cleared Land Improves Soil Condition Improves Groundwater Absorption

123

Increases Water Temperature

Bioswales Improves Soil Condition Improves Groundwater Absorption Decreases Water and Air Temperature Creates Micro-habitats

K A M P U N G

Reservoir

Using the Belt of Cleared Land for High Tension Power Cab Improves Soil Condition Improves Groundwater Absorption Decreases Water and Air Temperature Provides Water Resource Habitats and Vegetation Restored to Some Extent

K I G A N D A N S C 5m


Condensed Agricultural Village

bles

Development on Existing Cleared Land Pulled back from River Mixed Crop Agriculture Improved Soil Condition Improved Groundwater Absorption Decreases Water and Air Temperature Waste Stored in Underground Sewage Tank

Restored River Bank

Split Channel of Papar River

Island

Papar River

Restoration of Habitat Improved Soil Condition Improved Groundwater Absorption

Extreme Bend that created Split Channel Merges with Main Papar River after Island White Water Rafting Starting Point Decrease in Water Pressure Decrease in Water Temperature Improved Habitat Conditions Decrease in Pollution

Reconnected Micro-habitat Splits Papar River from Extreme Bend

Decreased Pollution Decreased Water Pressure Decrease in Water Temperature Habitat Restoration

Decreases Water Temperature

100m above sea level

50m

Fresh Water Stream | Towards Papar River 25-08-2019 Taken near Kampung Timpayasa

Maximum Water Level

Essay of the Geography of Plants Plate Print | 1805, Alexander von Humboldt

the Architect’s Act

The Process and Product of Architectural Representation The construct of Nature slides in and out of various definitions, always remaining transcendental and imaginary. It is only through representations of Nature that some understanding of ecology is uncovered. Representations of Nature such as Alexander von Humboldt’s drawings have always acted as tools in specific discoveries. As they rewrite abstract Nature, representations deconstruct and highlight a site’s Ecology - the relationship between systems and things, both living and non-living. Dealing in the currency of Representation and Aesthetics, Architecture too, shifts in and out of the worlds of Science and Art. An Architect, hence holds a priviledged posittionto examine the Ecology of the very spaces we build in, through the process and product of Representation. To see and understand the silent Architecture of the site itself before we add to that Architecture. This Thesis looks at the Papar river in Sabah as an example of studying such Ecology via Architectural tools of Representations such as drawing, photography, film and modelling. It questions, the visual function of these specific tools as not only illustration or advertisement, but as a form of research itself. Using these tools, the Papar river will be disected, placed under a microscope and stitched together to uncover its Ecology and realise what makes it silent Architecture. G , A L E

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Y E A R S ,

1 : 5 0 0

What is the Humboldtian drawing of the 21st Century?

S E C T I O N

B B ’

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Concrete Gutter Rain Chains leading to Filtration Gutter and Bioswales

Concrete Gutter

Rain Chains leading to Filtration Gutter with Underground Watertank

125

THE SAWMILL

Sloping Zinc Roof


Rain Water Irrigation and Collection

fs

Bioswales

Towards Nursery Concrete Gutter

Rain Chain leading to Filtrating Water Tank

Bio Swales

Drainage and Irrigation Channels on Road

Rainwater Collection and Irrigation Diagram | Rendered Physical Model Made in 1:200 Scale

126


Kampung Tabilong| Taken from Papar River, Sabah, Malaysia Map 1:25000 Scale

The Sawmill

Kampung Tabilong The second site, Kampung tabilong, is located higher up on the papar river and focuses on agriculture and plantations. These plantations are mostly that of palm and rubber which are controlled crops which does not allow them much economic gain. Here I introduced the sawmill beside the cleared belt of land for the high-power tension cables, under which lies the new main road, connecting both the kampungs. Along with the sawmill, an existing palm plantation is converted into a sustainable mixed timber plantation. This increases economic gain and is a mixed crop plantation that improves forest connectivity and soil condition. The sawmill consists of 3 main spaces – the timber collection and debarking, the processing and storage and the workshop. Like the resort, the sawmill has a rainwater irrigation and collection system inspired by the river, consisting of slanted zinc roofs, guts, rain chains, bioswales and more water tanks.The first space is for collecting raw timber and debarking them. A system of pulleys help move the timber easily and the zinc butterfly roof channels rain water in to a drain and then a bioswale that leads to the timber nursery. The second space is for processing and storing of the timber. This includes a solar kiln for drying the timber and a more closed up space for storing the dried timber. Rainwater is directed to another gutter, drain and then bioswale.Finally, the last space is the workshop and has empty spaces for working. The slanted zinc roofs channel the remining rainwater into filtered water tank for use. Zinc roofs and rain chains are chosen to celebrate water sounds and mask the loud sounds of the saws. Together with the road and another small reservoir, the sawmill projects kampung tabilong in 50 year to feature more sustainable mixed timber plantations, agricultural villages with bioswales that are pulled back from the main river and restored forest edges. Again, I cut the sections at current, 5 years with interventions and at 50 years to represent the possible improvements and changes in the underground systems and conditions in relation to the above ground conditions. 127


C U R R E N T,

P R O J E C T I V E

K A M P U N G R E N D E R E D

S C A L E 20m

TA B I L O N G

A X O N O M E T R I C

1 : 2 0 0 0

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129

A T

5

Y E A R S

W I T H

I N T E R V E N T I O N ,

P R O J E C T I V E

R E N D E R E D

S C A L E 20m

K A M P U N G

A X O N O M E T R I C

1 : 2 0 0 0

TA B I L O N G


T H E S AW M I L L SCALE

100mm

1:200

13

TIMBER COLLECTION 1

Concrete Column Pile

2

Concrete Floor Slab

3

Concrete Column Base

4

Rainwater Drain

5

Unloading Bay

6

Raw Timber Storage

7

Debraking Machines

8

Wood Columns

9

12

Pulley System

10

Wooden Beams

11

Concrete Rain Gutter

12

Wooden Rafters

13 14

Bioswales

15

Timber Processing Area

11 10

8

9

3

5 4

6

2

1

15

7

14

130


TIMBER PROCESSING AREA

131

1

Concrete Column Pile

2

Concrete Retaining Wall

3

Processed Timber Store

4

Concrete Walls

5

Processed Timber Stacks

6

Wooden Stairs

7

Bioswales

8

Rainwater Collection & Storage

9

Timber Processing Area

10

Debarked Timber Store

11

Saw Machines

12

Sawed Timber Storage

13

Wood Stairs

14

Solar Kiln

15

Drying Timber Stacks

16

Wood Column

17

Pulley System

18

Wood Beams

19

Concrete Rain Gutter

20

Rain Chains

21

Wood Rafters

22

Zinc Roof

23

Currogated Glass Roof


T H E S AW M I L L SCALE

100mm

1:200

22

21

18

19

17

20

12

13

11

16 10

23

9

5

4 3

6

2

1 8

15 14

7

132


16

15

18

13

14

12

17

11

10

9

7

3

8

4

1

6

WORKSHOP

5

2

THE RESORT SCALE

100mm

133

1:200

1

Concrete Column Pile

2

Water Tank

3

Driveway to Store

4

Bioswale

5

Retaining Concrete Walls

6

Concrete Floor Slab

7

Washroom

8

Workshop Area

9

Table Saw Machines

10

Wooden Stairs

11

Concrete Column Base

12

Wooden Columns

13

Wood Beams

14

Concrete Rain Gutter with Chain

15

Wood Rafters

16

Zinc Roof

17

Bioswales

18

Timber Nursery


5 0

Y E A R S

P R O J E C T E D ,

P R O J E C T I V E

K A M P U N G

R E N D E R E D

S C A L E 20m

TA B I L O N G

A X O N O M E T R I C

1 : 2 0 0 0

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CURRENT | PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Tabilong 1:2000

CURRENT | PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Tabilong 1:2000

135


50 YEARS PROJECTED| PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Tabilong 1:2000

50 YEARS PROJECTED | PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Tabilong 1:2000

136


CURRENT | PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Tabilong 1:2000

CURRENT | PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Tabilong 1:2000

137


50 YEARS PROJECTED| PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Tabilong 1:2000

50 YEARS PROJECTED | PROJECTIVE AXONOMETRIC DRAWING Kampung Tabilong 1:2000

138


Sustainable Palm Oil Plantation Mixed Timber & Crop Plantation

Forest

Village

High Tension Power Towers with New Road

Villa

Single Crop Mixed Crop Plantation Plantation Improves Poor Soil Condition Forest Connectivity Improved Poor Groundwater Soil Condition Absorption Improved Groundwater Absorption Increased Water Temperature Decrease Water Temperature

Connected to Larger Foreset Area through Mixed Plantation GreatSoil Ground Condition Good Condition Great Groundwater Absorption Filters Pollution Lessens Water and Air Temperature

Cleared Land Bad Soil Condition Bad Groundwater Absorption

Wasted Belt Cleared Land of Used Cleared for Land Multiple Purposes Introduced Bad Soil Condition Drainage and Irrigation Channels Bad Poor Groundwater Soil ConditionAbsorption Improved Groundwater Absorption Increases Water and Air Temperature High Air and Water Temperature

Cleare Bad So Bad G

139

Increases Water and Air Temperature Waste Stored in Underground Sewage Tank

Increas Waste S

KK AA M M PP UU NN GG TTAA BB I I LL OO NN G S C 5m


age

ed Land oil Condition Groundwater Absorption

ses Water and Air Temperature Stored in Underground Sewage Tank

Forest

Restored Dirt RoadLand

Village with Agriculture

Good Soil Condition Great Groundwater Absorption Filters Pollution Lessens Water and Air Temperature

Cleared Land Removal of Dirt Road Improved Bad Soil Condition Soil Condition Improved Bad Groundwater Groundwater Absorption Absorption Increases Water Temperature Decreases Water Temperature

Cleared Land Bad Soil Condition Bad Groundwater Absorption Increases Air and Water Temperature

Damanged River Bank Cleared Land Poor Absorption Loss of Habitat No Filtration Increases Air and Water Temperature

Papar River Increase in Water Pressure Increase in Water Temperature Poorer Habitat Conditions Pollution from Bathing

200m above sea level

150m

Fresh Water Stream | Towards Papar River 25-08-2019 Taken near Kampung Timpayasa

100m

Essay of the Geography of Plants Plate Print | 1805, Alexander von Humboldt

Maximum Water Level

50m

the Architect’s Act

The Process and Product of Architectural Representation The construct of Nature slides in and out of various definitions, always remaining transcendental and imaginary. It is only through representations of Nature that some understanding of ecology is uncovered. Representations of Nature such as Alexander von Humboldt’s drawings have always acted as tools in specific discoveries. As they rewrite abstract Nature, representations deconstruct and highlight a site’s Ecology - the relationship between systems and things, both living and non-living. Dealing in the currency of Representation and Aesthetics, Architecture too, shifts in and out of the worlds of Science and Art. An Architect, hence holds a priviledged posittionto examine the Ecology of the very spaces we build in, through the process and product of Representation. To see and understand the silent Architecture of the site itself before we add to that Architecture. This Thesis looks at the Papar river in Sabah as an example of studying such Ecology via Architectural tools of Representations such as drawing, photography, film and modelling. It questions, the visual function of these specific tools as not only illustration or advertisement, but as a form of research itself. Using these tools, the Papar river will be disected, placed under a microscope and stitched together to uncover its Ecology and realise what makes it silent Architecture. What is the Humboldtian drawing of the 21st Century?

GG , , C5 U YR ER AE RN ST, , SS EE CC TT I I OO NN AA AA’ ’ A L E

1 : 5 0 0

140


Sustainable Mixed Timber & Crop Plantation

Forest

Village

High Tension Power Towers with New Road

Villa

Mixed Crop Plantation Improves Forest Connectivity Improved Soil Condition Improved Groundwater Absorption

Connected to Larger Foreset Area through Mixed Plantation Great Ground Condition Great Groundwater Absorption Filters Pollution Lessens Water and Air Temperature

Cleared Land Bad Soil Condition Bad Groundwater Absorption

Cleared Land Used for Multiple Purposes Introduced Drainage and Irrigation Channels Poor Soil Condition Improved Groundwater Absorption

Cleare Bad So Bad G

Decrease Water Temperature

141

Increases Water and Air Temperature Waste Stored in Underground Sewage Tank

Increas Waste S

High Air and Water Temperature

K A M P U N G

TA B I L O N S C 5m


age

Forest

ed Land oil Condition Groundwater Absorption

Good Soil Condition Great Groundwater Absorption Filters Pollution Lessens Water and Air Temperature

ses Water and Air Temperature Stored in Underground Sewage Tank

Restored Land

Village with Agriculture

Removal of Dirt Road Improved Soil Condition Improved Groundwater Absorption

Cleared Land Bad Soil Condition Bad Groundwater Absorption

Decreases Water Temperature

Increases Air and Water Temperature

Damanged River Bank Cleared Land Poor Absorption Loss of Habitat No Filtration Increases Air and Water Temperature

Papar River Increase in Water Pressure Increase in Water Temperature Poorer Habitat Conditions Pollution from Bathing

200m above sea level

150m

Fresh Water Stream | Towards Papar River 25-08-2019 Taken near Kampung Timpayasa

100m

Essay of the Geography of Plants Plate Print | 1805, Alexander von Humboldt

Maximum Water Level

50m

the Architect’s Act

The Process and Product of Architectural Representation The construct of Nature slides in and out of various definitions, always remaining transcendental and imaginary. It is only through representations of Nature that some understanding of ecology is uncovered. Representations of Nature such as Alexander von Humboldt’s drawings have always acted as tools in specific discoveries. As they rewrite abstract Nature, representations deconstruct and highlight a site’s Ecology - the relationship between systems and things, both living and non-living. Dealing in the currency of Representation and Aesthetics, Architecture too, shifts in and out of the worlds of Science and Art. An Architect, hence holds a priviledged posittionto examine the Ecology of the very spaces we build in, through the process and product of Representation. To see and understand the silent Architecture of the site itself before we add to that Architecture. This Thesis looks at the Papar river in Sabah as an example of studying such Ecology via Architectural tools of Representations such as drawing, photography, film and modelling. It questions, the visual function of these specific tools as not only illustration or advertisement, but as a form of research itself. Using these tools, the Papar river will be disected, placed under a microscope and stitched together to uncover its Ecology and realise what makes it silent Architecture. G , A L E

5

Y E A R S , 1 : 5 0 0

What is the Humboldtian drawing of the 21st Century?

S E C T I O N

A A’

142


Sustainable Mixed Timber & Crop Plantation

Forest

Village

High Tension Power Towers with New Road

Mixed Crop Plantation Improved Forest Connectivity Improved Soil Condition Improved Groundwater Absorption

Connected to Larger Foreset Area through Mixed Plantation Edges Restored Great Ground Condition Great Groundwater Absorption Filters Pollution Lessens Water and Air Temperature

Forest Edges Restored Improved Soil Condition Improved Groundwater Absorption

Cleared Land Used for Multiple Purposes Introduced Drainage and Irrigation Channels Poor Soil Condition Improved Groundwater Absorption

Mixed Bioswa Improv Good G

High Air and Water Temperature

Decrea Waste S

Decrease Water Temperature

143

Higher Water and Air Temperature Waste Stored in Underground Sewage Tank

K A M P U N G

Agr

TA B I L O N G S C 5m


ricultural Village with Bioswales

Restored Forest

Restored River Bank

Papar River

d Crop Plantations ales, Irrigation and Rain water Collection ved Soil Condition Groundwater Absorption

Restored Forest Edges Bringing back Habitats Good Soil Condition Great Groundwater Absorption Filters Pollution Lessens Water and Air Temperature

Pull back of Development Release of Water Bank Pressure Restoration of Habitat Good Soil Condition Good Groundwater Absorption

Decrease in Water Pressure Decrease in Water Temperature Restored Habitat Conditions Decrease in Pollution

ases Water and Air Temperature Stored in Underground Sewage Tank

Decreases Water Temperature

200m above sea level

150m

Fresh Water Stream | Towards Papar River 25-08-2019 Taken near Kampung Timpayasa

100m

Essay of the Geography of Plants Plate Print | 1805, Alexander von Humboldt

Maximum Water Level

50m

the Architect’s Act

The Process and Product of Architectural Representation The construct of Nature slides in and out of various definitions, always remaining transcendental and imaginary. It is only through representations of Nature that some understanding of ecology is uncovered. Representations of Nature such as Alexander von Humboldt’s drawings have always acted as tools in specific discoveries. As they rewrite abstract Nature, representations deconstruct and highlight a site’s Ecology - the relationship between systems and things, both living and non-living. Dealing in the currency of Representation and Aesthetics, Architecture too, shifts in and out of the worlds of Science and Art. An Architect, hence holds a priviledged posittionto examine the Ecology of the very spaces we build in, through the process and product of Representation. To see and understand the silent Architecture of the site itself before we add to that Architecture. This Thesis looks at the Papar river in Sabah as an example of studying such Ecology via Architectural tools of Representations such as drawing, photography, film and modelling. It questions, the visual function of these specific tools as not only illustration or advertisement, but as a form of research itself. Using these tools, the Papar river will be disected, placed under a microscope and stitched together to uncover its Ecology and realise what makes it silent Architecture.

G ,

5 0

A L E

Y E A R S , 1 : 5 0 0

What is the Humboldtian drawing of the 21st Century?

S E C T I O N

A A’

144


My thesis explores the representations of such a rural site to realize the silent ecology of what occurs above and underground. It repositions the surrounding topography, buildings, inhabitant and flora and fauna, around the Papar river as the main axis. This is the silent architecture of the Papar river and serves as a lens that allows me to design architecture that projects a path in the ecology of the river that benefits the environment and hence, the indigenous population. This is the rural revenge 145


the Annex

146


Length Models | Final Crit Setup 23-11-2019

Paper Model | Final Crit Setup 23-11-2019

Full Setup | Final Crit Setup 23-11-2019

147

Sample Model| Final Crit Setup 23-11-2019


Final Crit| Semester 1 23-11-2019

Full Setup| Final Crit Setup 23-11-2019

Reconstructed Section | Final Crit Setup 23-11-2019

Reconstructed Section| Final Crit Setup 23-11-2019

148


149


150


Architecture of Nature Nature of Architecture Diana Agrest

Dark Ecology| For a Logic of Future Coexistence Timothy Morton

The Adventures of Alexander von Humboldt, The Lost Hero of ScienceCoexistence Andrea Wulf

Architecture of Nature Nature of Architecture Diana Agrest

Ecology Without Nature| Rethinking Environmental Aesthetics Timothy Morton

151

Architecture of Nature Nature of Architecture Diana Agrest


Process Log Book 2019

Process Log Book 2019

Process Log Book 2019

Process Log Book 2019

Process Log Book 2019

Process Log Book 2019

152


Process Log Book 2019

Process Log Book 2020

Process Log Book 2020

Process Log Book

Process Log Book

Process Log Book

2020

153

2020

2020


Process Log Book 2020

Process Log Book 2020

Process Log Book 2020

Process Log Book 2020

Process Log Book 2020

Process Log Book 2020

154


The Sawmill Model| Incompleted Plaster and Styrafoam 1:100

The Sawmill Model| Incompleted The Sawmill Model| Incompleted

Plaster and Styrafoam 1:100

Colour Plaster 1:100, 841 x 594mm

The Sawmill Model| Incompleted Texture Sprayed Greyboard 1:100

155

The Sawmill Model| Incompleted Plaster and Styrafoam 1:100


Presentation Prep

The Papar River, Sabah, East Malaysia Map

Presentation Video Prep

Still Image Animations

Online Critique Due to the sudden circumstances of the new Covid-19 virus, we had to shift to an online critique format. This forced me to rethink my representation of my work and pushed me to explore another medium - the video. Although I still much rather a physical review, it did push me to learn new softwares. The Circuit Breaker also meant that materials for models were unattainable and as such, my model of my Sawmill in 1:100 was left uncompleted as I had run out of plaster. Well, at least I had begun and gone through part of the process and learned along the way.

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Profile for Amanda Mo

Cartographic Architecture  

Specific interventions that project the Rural Revenge of Ulu Papar in 50 years

Cartographic Architecture  

Specific interventions that project the Rural Revenge of Ulu Papar in 50 years

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