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AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION INTEGRATED DESIGN CASE STUDY

CAROLINE BOZZI, JORDAN FITCH, AMANDA FORTMAN, DAVID SCHAENGOLD, SACHINI WICKRAMANAYAKA CONNECTING OLD & NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION

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CONNECTING OLD AND NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I INTRODUCTION

PART III HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY

THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM 06 THE NEED FOR A RENOVATION 08 ABOUT LOUIS KAHN 10 ABOUT RENZO PIANO 11 TIMELINE OF PREVIOUS MUSEUM WORKS 12 SITE LOCATION 14 ABOUT FORT WORTH 15 THE MUSEUM CAMPUS 16

PART II A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW AND OLD EVOKING THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM 20 MATERIALS 22 BUILDING SCALE 24 TRIPARTITE PLAN 26 COURTYARDS AND PROMENADES 28 CIRCULATION FROM PARKING 30 INTERIOR CIRCULATION 32 ROOF FORM 34 STRUCTURE 36 SYSTEMS + STRUCTURE INTEGRATION 40 FILTERED DAYLIGHT FROM ABOVE 44 DAYLIGHT TO LOWER LEVEL 46 DAYLIGHT FROM SIDE 48

GREEN VS. ASSEMBLED ROOF 52 ROOF STRUCTURE PRECEDENTS 53 THE NASHER SCULPTURE CENTER 54 BEAMS 55 ASSEMBLY OF BEAM AND ROOF SYSTEM 56 THE PIN JOINT 58 THE DOG BONE 59 ALUMINUM CAPS 60 HORIZONTAL TRUSSES 61 DAYLIGHT BETWEEN STRUCTURE 62 ELECTRICAL BETWEEN DOUBLE BEAMS 64 SPRINKLERS BETWEEN DOUBLE BEAMS 65 GUTTERS 66 INTERIOR WALLS 68 EXTENSION OF BEAMS 69

PART IV THE HIDDEN GROUND CONCRETE COLUMNS 72 INTERIOR WALLS 73 SHEAR WALLS + HVAC 74 THERMOSTATS 75 FLOOR STRUCTURE + HVAC 76

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PA RT I INTRODUCTION

THE ARCHITECTS, THE PROJECTS

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he Kimbell Museum in Forth Worth, designed by Louis I. Kahn and built in 1972, has become in the years since its construction an iconic building of modernist Architecture. Its vault-shaped bays washed by diffused daylight have become one of the best known and loved examples of Kahn’s approach to building, which celebrates the qualities of light and material. The architect chosen to design an addition to it was therefore faced with a daunting task: how to meet the museum’s needs for more space without overwhelming the subtlety and simplicity of the original building with a very large structure or a complex form, but also to create a space that can stand up to the overwhelming architectural presence of the original museum. Renzo Piano accomplished both of these goals in the design of what has come to be called the Piano Pavilion, a freestanding structure facing the original Kimbell across a great lawn. In order to achieve his goals, Piano studied Kahn’s Kimbell building obsessively. Nearly every architectural aspect of the building, from plan to construction details to systems integration, is in some way a response to an analogous feature of the original building. At every turn Piano sought to design a building that was the equal of Kahn’s in subtlety, but one degree less forceful in its monumentality. Above all, Piano sought to create a space that speaks the same language as Kahn. His pavilion evokes many of the same qualities of timelessness and direct contact with the human condition that Kahn’s building so masterfully constructs. Piano thus keeps the focus of the museum complex on the original building while at the same time deepening and extending Kahn’s extraordinary accomplishment.

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INTRODUCTION

THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM

KAY AND VELMA KIMBELL

After making his initial fortune in the milling business in Forth Worth, Texas, Kay Kimbell and his wife Velma became interested in art, and began buying Old Master paintings in the early 1930’s. Realizing that they could create something more than just a private collection, in 1935 they organized the Kimbell Art Foundation to steward the collection after their deaths and eventually build a “world class art museum” in Fort Worth. After Kay’s death in 1964, Richard F. Brown was appointed the first director of the Kimbell Art Museum, with a mission to procure for the Kimbell collection a building worthy of the art it would hold. Though he considered several leading architects of the day, including I. M. Pei and Mies van der Rohe, Brown was persuaded in 1966 that Louis I. Kahn should be the architect of the new museum. Above: Portrait of Kay and Velma Kimbell Right: Richard F. Brown Looking at Kahn’s Drawings of The Kimbell Art Museum 6

CONNECTING OLD AND NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION


INTRODUCTION

THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM

Louis Kahn was at the height of his career in 1966, with commissions for the parliament building of Bangladesh and the Indian Institute of management recently completed, and the commission for the Yale Museum of British art a few years in the future. As an architect who was both revising and deepening the achievements of architectural modernism, he was a natural choice for a client who wanted a building to become as much of an attraction as the collection itself. Brown particularly admired the way that Kahn talked about nature and natural light. The idea natural light in the exhibit spaces became a key concept in Kahn’s design for the museum, and eventually for Renzo Piano’s design of his addition to the museum as well. Above: Early Sketch of The Kimbell Art Museum Daylighting Strategy by Louis Kahn Top Right: The Kimbell Art Museum Bottom Right: Double-Height Vault at The Kimbell Art Museum

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INTRODUCTION

THE NEED FOR A RENOVATION

1968-1969 - PIANO WORKS IN KAHN’S OFFICE

1974 - LOUIS KAHN DIES, AGE 73

1960

1970

1980

1972 - THE KIMBELL MUSEUM IS COMPLETED

EARLY 1980 - LACK OF SPACE

The museum lacked sufficient gallery space for permanent and temporary traveling exhibitions.

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1990

2000 2006 - A NEW PLAN

Under new leadership, another expansion plan was considered. Renzo Piano was hired to design a separate building facing the original museum across the lawn.

1989 - FIRST SCHEME

The architect Romaldo Giurgola, who had worked in Kahn’s office for many years, was chosen to design an addition for the museum. Giurgola’s plan, which involved extending the building’s cycloid vaults to the north and south, was met with nearly universal dismay and criticism, however, and after a number of prominent architects denounced the plan in a letter to the New York Times, the museum canceled the project.

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INTRODUCTION LOUIS KAHN

ABOUT LOUIS KAHN 1901-1974 Louis Kahn’s work is known for its monumentality, achieved through symmetry, the use of simple, often monolithic forms, and above all through attention to the light of the sun. He is broadly considered to be among the great innovators of Modern architecture. Though not one of Modernism’s early pioneers, he was among the first modern architects to return to an understanding of the importance of symbolism and a sense of timelessness in Architecture. Famous also for his use of materials, he frequently used textured brick and concrete, along with millworked wood and refined surfaces such as travertine. Kahn also worked very closely with engineers and contractors on his buildings, which resulted in very technically innovative and refined designs such as the library at Phillips Exeter academy and at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California.

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Above Top: Phillips Exeter Library , Exeter NH Above: Salk Institute, La Jolla CA


INTRODUCTION RENZO PIANO

ABOUT RENZO PIANO (b. 1937) Renzo Piano Building Workshop (RPBW), based in Genoa, Italy, was selected as the architect for the Kimbell Art Museum pavilion, an addition to be situated across the great lawn from the original museum. Piano worked in Kahn’s office for a year, 1968-69, and many critics have noticed the influence Kahn had on Piano’s later work, noted like Kahn’s for fineness of detailing and attention to natural light. His firm is particularly well known for museums and museum additions, and had already completed twenty-one of them by 2013, when the pavilion was completed. Museum curators like the firm’s work because it “lets the art speak.” In addition, Piano worked in Kahn’s office in 1968-1969. So in more ways than one, Piano was the most qualified architect to “create a structure that engages in a dialogue with his mentor’s masterwork, without replicating the gestures of his other Kahn nods.” Above Top: Renzo Piano on site with the museum’s Board of Directors Above: Piano’s concept sketch of the pavilion CONNECTING OLD & NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION

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INTRODUCTION

TIMELINE OF PREVIOUS MUSEUM WORKS

1980

1987 - THE MENIL COLLECTION HOUSTON TEXAS

Common Elements: Roof system to filter natural light, Courtyards

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1985

1990

1997 - THE BEYELER FOUNDATION BASEL SWITZERLAND

Common Elements: Roof system to filter natural light, Courtyards

1995


2005 - THE HIGH MUSEUM OF ART ATLANTA, GEORGIA

Common Elements: Roof system to filter natural light, Large open lobby, Courtyards

2000

2005

2003 - THE NASHER SCULPTURE CENTER DALLAS, TEXAS

Common Elements: Roof system to filter natural light, Courtyards, Structure integrated with lighting, sound, and irrigation system

2010

2009 - THE ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO CHICAGO, ILLINOIS

Common Elements: Roof system to filter natural light, Large open lobby, Courtyards

2015

2012 - ISABELLA STEWART GARDNER MUSEUM BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS

Common Elements: Significant natural light, Large open lobby

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INTRODUCTION SITE LOCATION

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INTRODUCTION ABOUT FORT WORTH

30%-40%

Typical American Climate TYPICAL AMERICAN CLIMATE The Fort Worth climate is significantly sunnier than average for the United States. According to NOAA, 64% of daylight hours see direct sun. This compares to 30-40% that is more typical for American climates.

The Fort Worth climate is significantly su than average for the United States. Acco to NOAA, 64% of daylight hours see dir sun. This compares to 30-40% that is m typical for American climates. The Piano ion accepts this difference as a challenge well as an opportunity. On the one hand radiant heat gain will be a significant cha for any structure built in Fort Worth. On other hand, it opens up daylighting strate that would not be available in cloudier climates. Piano makes use of these strate through his multi-layered roof, which eff ly blocks direct solar radiant heat gain w allowing for significant daylight autonom throughout the pavilion.

64%

Fort Worth Climate

FORT WORTH CLIMATE

The Piano Pavilion accepts this difference as a challenge as well as an opportunity. On the one hand, solar radiant heat gain will be a significant challenge for any structure built in Fort Worth. On the other hand, it opens up daylighting strategies that would not be available in cloudier climates. Piano makes use of these strategies through his multi-layered roof, which effectively blocks direct solar radiant heat gain while allowing for significant daylight autonomy throughout the pavilion.

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INTRODUCTION

THE MUSEUM CAMPUS

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CONNECTING OLD AND NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION

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C

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INTRODUCTION

THE MUSEUM CAMPUS

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Amon Carter Museum - Built 1961 Architect: Phillip Johnson

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The Piano Pavilion - Built 2013 Architect: Renzo Piano

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The Kimbell Art Museum - Built 1972 Architect: Louis Kahn

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Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth - Built 2002 Architect: Tadao Ando

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PA RT I I A CONVERSATION BETWEEN OLD AND NEW THE PIANO PAVILION AND THE KIMBELL IN DIALOGUE

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enzo Piano’s strategy in designing an addition to the Kimbell Museum begins with an almost obsessive attention to the original building. Almost every feature of the Piano Pavilion is a response to a particular feature of the Kahn building, and almost every feature of the Kahn building has its counterpart in the Piano Pavilion. The aim of this approach is not to slavishly reproduce the effects of Kahn’s building but rather to ensure that the museum complex forms a harmonious unity, with the addition in a subservient role but nonetheless a true partner of the original building, able to speak the same architectural language. The two buildings establish a kind of architectural conversation, with the visitor to the Museum playing the role of happy eavesdropper. Themes that will be found in full force in Kahn’s building are foreshadowed in Piano’s, and qualities of space common to both buildings are subtly inflected to provide a different experience in each. Piano returns to one particular relationship, however, again and again throughout his building: like Kahn he strives for monumentality, and in particular a kind of timelessness. However, at each turn the monumentality found in the Piano Pavilion is of a different kind than that of the Kahn building, and in every case the difference serves to prioritize the original building. Where Kahn uses a vault shape, Piano uses the less grand post-andbeam system; where Kahn employs a loggia, Piano uses a mere overhang; Kahn uses a masonry plinth, while the plain earth is grand enough for Piano. Through the use of these relationships, Piano has created a building that serves as something like a forecourt or a lobby for the original building. It is meant to be a place that can house art in its own right, but also a transitional space which prepares the visitor to walk across the great lawn into Kahn’s inimitable museum.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD EVOKING THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM

“Renzo Piano’s addition to Louis Kahn’s celebrated museum is a study in careful deference...Piano yields pride of place to the master.” Witold Rybczynski, Design Critic

“The pavilion was designed to evoke the original structure both architecturally and structurally while establishing its own unique identity. The two buildings together define a vision of excellence as creative as the artwork that each displays.” Guy Nordenson and Associates, Structural Engineer

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD EVOKING THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM

What was your approach to the Kimbell project? It must have been a challenge to build alongside Kahn’s structure. Piano: It took me some time to understand. I was told that the Kahn building was untouchable. Adding to the original master plan was difficult, so the only solution was to do something else. I started to think about designing another building across the street. Then I thought, What about putting the new building at a certain distance, in dialogue with Kahn’s? In some ways, the new pavilion is the opposite of Kahn’s. It’s open, it’s accessible. It’s actually there to show Kahn’s building. We struggled a lot when we were designing it. We measured the distance for where we wanted it—too far, too close. Then we started to find the solution. The client was fantastic. Clients are so important. A good client doesn’t tell you to do what you want. A good client is someone who struggles together with you. And a good client is someone who trusts you—if you’re trustable. Did your experience in Kahn’s office inform some of the decisions you made with the Kimbell project? Piano: No. When I was in Kahn’s office, I was working on the fifth floor on only one job: a factory in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, for Olivetti-Underwood type- writers. The reason I was in Kahn’s office was that, for a short time, I was in a class taught by Robert Le Ricolais at the University of Pennsylvania, researching lightweight structures—my passion. I was assisting Ricolais, breaking cables, doing funny things like that. Kahn and I had met a number of times at Ricolais’s house on campus, and one day he asked me to come over to his office. So I went there, started to sketch. I loved Kahn, that little man who was so strong, so persistent, so devoted.

The Kimbell named the pavilion after you, to differentiate it from the Kahn structure and to honor you. Yeah, so that it’s absolutely unique. I’m mad about that. But anyway, the pavilion is just a shelter, and when you look east, you see Kahn’s building. For me, it’s absolutely evident that it’s a natural observation point for the Kahn building and for the lawn. The idea was to make it one campus, and the lawn was a kind of roofless room in between the two. When this enters into the day-to-day life of Fort Worth, the two buildings work in synchrony. In some projects, you have to be extremely careful.You don’t have to limit your creativity; you just have to apply your creativity in a different way. Interview with Piano by Spencer Bailey for Surfacemag.come

What does it mean to you to be in dialogue with his Kimbell building? Piano: My building complements what Kahn’s does. His building is introverted; mine is extroverted. We didn’t destroy the lawn. It’s big enough to play Frisbee on, to enjoy, to eat sandwiches on. The new building flies on the ground. CONNECTING OLD & NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM - MATERIALS

Concrete Columns

Travertine Infill Panels

Oak Floors 22

CONNECTING OLD AND NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION


A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE PIANO PAVILION - MATERIALS

Glass Roof

Concrete Walls and Columns

Oak Floors CONNECTING OLD & NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM - BUILDING SCALE

LONG LOW PROFILE Kahn’s original building faced strict height restrictions so as not to block the view of the Fort Worth skyline from Philip Johnson’s Amon Carter Museum HALF OF THE PROGRAM IS UNDERGROUND

ABOVE GROUND

UNDERGROUND

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE PIANO PAVILION - BUILDING SCALE

LONG LOW PROFILE Piano’s addition to the Kimbell is slightly shorter than the original building so as not to compete with it in visual scale MORE THAN HALF OF THE PROGRAM IS UNDERGROUND

ABOVE GROUND

UNDERGROUND AND/OR UNDER GREEN ROOF

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM - TRIPARTITE PLAN

Kahn’s Kimbell museum has a tripartite plan comprising three sets of 102-foot Cycloid Vault Bays. The central mass is recessed, forming a kind of modern forecourt to enhance visitors’ sense of entering a significant public space.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE PIANO PAVILION - TRIPARTITE PLAN

Similarly, the Piano pavilion has a tripartite plan comprising three sets of 102-foot beams. The three main masses in plan line up with the three masses in Kahn’s museum, creating a sense of dialogue or counterpoint across the great lawn. As with the original building, the pavilion’s central mass is recessed, though much less so than in the original building. This comports with Piano’s general pattern in the pavilion of using moves similar to Kahn’s, but in a more subdued manner.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD

THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM - COURTYARDS & PROMENADES Courtyards formed by the removal of parts of certain bays form an important part of the visitor’s experience to the Kimbell, in forming exceptions to the otherwise unrelieved symmetry of the building’s plan. The promenade at the building’s West front is also important in providing a shaded buffer between outside and inside as well as heightening a sense of civic importance and monumentality.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE PIANO PAVILION - COURTYARDS & PROMENADES

The Piano pavilion does not have any courtyards strictly speaking, but the narrow gap between the eastern and west halves of the building provides a sense of enclosure in an outdoor space. Like Kahn, Piano allows an additional structural bay to extend beyond the building’s envelope, once again forming a shaded buffer between inside and outside, and once again in Piano’s case recapitulating Kahn’s device in a more subdued, less monumental manner.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD

THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM - CIRCULATION FROM PARKING Kahn, who lived in Philadelphia for most of his life and never learned to drive, did not consider that most visitors to the Kimbell would be arriving by car. Consequently, he tucked the parking lot behind the building next to a basement entrance, with the result that most visitors simply ignored the grand entrance on the building’s West front and entered through the basement.

INTENDED PATHWAY (BY ARCHITECT) ACTUAL PATHWAY

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE PIANO PAVILION - CIRCULATION FROM PARKING

One of the major goals of the addition was to modify the entrance sequence for visitors who arrived in cars. This was accomplished by the excavation of a parking garage under the lawn between the original museum and the Piano Pavilion. The garage elevators and stairs empty into the lobby of the pavilion, which then serves as a kind of staging ground for approaching the original museum as Kahn intended, across the lawn, from the West.

INTENDED PATHWAY (BY ARCHITECT) ACTUAL PATHWAY

ENTRY PARKING

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM - INTERIOR CIRCULATION

THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM A set of double stairs in the Kimbell allow for a ceremonial passage between upper and lower floors without diminishing the privileged position of the upper floor, as well as providing a site for one of the building’s most famous details, the folded metal hand-rail.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE PIANO PAVILION - INTERIOR CIRCULATION

THE PIANO PAVILION The double stairs in Piano’s pavilion are among the many direct formal quotations of the Kahn building, though their function is different. They serve to bring visitors from the garage to the main floor of the building, and do so without privileging the pavilion, as they would if the stairs ran axially to the East as they rose, or ignoring the pavilion as a distinct building, as they would if the stairs ran axially to the West towards the Kahn building.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM - ROOF FORM

The profile of the repeated curve of the cycloid vaults is one of the most immediate formal impressions of the Kimbell Museum.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE PIANO PAVILION - ROOF FORM

Piano pays homage to Kahn’s repeated vaults, but in a subdued voice, with his gently curved panels of glass that form the roof profile of the pavilion.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM - STRUCTURE

Groin Vault at Trajan Market ARCUATED Kahn’s use of the vault form in the Kimbell is complex. On the one hand, as in much of his work there is a gesture to ancient, even primeval, relationships between humans and the natural world. In the West, the vault immediately evokes thoughts of Roman Architecture in particular, with its connotations of permanence, publicness and grandeur. However, the vaults are only vaults at a visual level. By resting their corners on beams, rather than on continuous walls, Kahn is complicating, perhaps even subverting, their monumental effect.

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CONNECTING OLD AND NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION

Diagram of Vault

Kimbell Art Museum Cycloid Vault


A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE PIANO PAVILION - STRUCTURE

Stonehenge

Diagram of Post and Beam

The Piano Pavilion

TRABEATED The most striking formal analogy between the two buildings is Piano’s choice of a post-and-beam system. Like vaults, the post-and-beam system is extremely old, but rather than grandeur and publicness it connotes simplicity and straightforwardness. The system takes on a monumental appearance in the Piano pavilion, but in a more subdued and less dramatic manner than the original building. Moreover, like Kahn, Piano takes pains to complicate his invocation of a historic building method, in this case by using pin joints to hold the beams off the posts they would be expected to rest on top of. CONNECTING OLD & NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM - STRUCTURE

DOUBLE COLUMN + SINGLE BEAM Kahn uses a system of double columns that provides a space between vaulted bays, each column supporting a single beam-end (the vaults here appearing in their actual structural role as beams)

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE PIANO PAVILION - STRUCTURE

SINGLE COLUMN + DOUBLE BEAM Piano employs a device that makes reference to Kahn’s without imitating him. Instead of a double column, Piano uses a double beam, resting on a single column per pair of beam-ends.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD

THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM - SYSTEMS + STRUCTURE INTEGRATION ELECTRICAL & SUPPLY AIR BETWEEN DOUBLE COLUMNS The space between Kahn’s double columns is significant in the building as a servant space, a less-expressive architectural zone that can serve as a space for mechanical systems or circulation. Specifically, technologies that help make the building a functional space, such as supply air vents and lighting, are generally cordoned off within this servant zone.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD

THE PIANO PAVILION - SYSTEMS + STRUCTURE INTEGRATION ELECTRICAL BETWEEN DOUBLE BEAMS Though working with an even tighter servant space than Kahn, Piano manages to fit a great deal of technology between his double beams. As in Kahn’s building, this servant space cordons off technology for lighting and sprinklering the space.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD

THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM - SYSTEMS + STRUCTURE INTEGRATION ELECTRICAL & SUPPLY AIR BETWEEN DOUBLE COLUMNS In general, both Kahn and Piano manage to integrate their mechanical systems into gaps left by structural systems. In the Kimbell, air is supplied near the top of the columns and air returns through a reveal between the oak floor and travertine wall.

SUPPLY AIR

RETURN AIR

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CONNECTING OLD AND NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION

Comparing Structure and Ducts. Air being supplied from the top. Return Travertine is well insulated.. not structu Ducts btw the beams. Sorry d


A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD

THE PIANO PAVILION - SYSTEMS + STRUCTURE INTEGRATION Comparing Structure and Ducts. Air being supplied from the top. Return air is bottom of the wall ELECTRICAL & SUPPLY AIR BETWEEN DOUBLE COLUMNSTravertine is well insulated.. not structure. Ducts btw the beams. Sorry didn’t give you a whole lot of room to write. In general, both Kahn and Piano manage to integrate their mechanical

systems into gaps left by structural systems. However, Piano does the opposite of Kahn by supplying air through the floor and returning air through a reveal at the top of the concrete shear wall. By doing this Piano is utilizing the natural buoyancy of warm air and the thermal plumes generated by heat sources as cooler air is delivered from lower elevations.

SUPPLY AIR

RETURN AIR

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD

THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM - FILTERED DAYLIGHT FROM ABOVE Perhaps the most important experiential aspect of Kahn’s Kimbell is the ubiquitous presence in the galleries of indirect daylight from above, reflected by half-mirrored aluminum and washed down the curve of the vaults.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD

THE PIANO PAVILION - FILTERED DAYLIGHT FROM ABOVE In a sense, many of Renzo Piano’s museums pay homage to Kahn’s Kimbell with respect to their approach to natural light, but his Kimbell pavilion does so in a special way. The gentle, twice-filtered light from above has many of the same qualities as Kahn’s museum.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD

THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM - DAYLIGHT TO LOWER-LEVEL SERVANT SPACES Kahn designs light wells to let light into lower level servant spaces that do not receive filtered light from above.

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CONNECTING OLD AND NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION


A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD

THE PIANO PAVILION - DAYLIGHT TO LOWER-LEVEL AUDITORIUM Piano also uses light wells to let light into servant spaces on the lower level as well as the lower level Auditorium.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE KIMBELL ART MUSEUM - DAYLIGHT FROM SIDE

Bright lines of light at the ends of vaults provide a visual contrast with the filtered light from above, serving as a way also to emphasize the distinction of the vault from what it rests on. A classic Kahnian detail, it presents light where the eye naturally expects structure.

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A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW & OLD THE PIANO PAVILION - DAYLIGHT FROM SIDE

Piano does something similar where his beams run parallel to and above the pavilion’s concrete shear walls. The brightness of the admitted light serves to highlight the independence of the beam system from the wall below it.

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PA RT I I I HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROOF SYSTEM

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R

enzo Piano’s buildings are justly celebrated for their roofs. Beginning with the Menil Collection in Houston, Piano has worked through variations on a common theme: daylight through the roof. The roof of the Piano Pavilion at the Kimbell is variation of that theme that privileges the soft uniformity of daylight and simple, abstracted forms that help create an overall effect of subdued monumentality. The roof is also carefully constructed towards technical ends, specifically the exclusion of solar radiant heat gain. Piano skillfully manipulates the roof’s construction details, materials, and performative qualities to create a building that is unapologetically modern and yet nonetheless evokes a sense of antiquity or timelessness. In this Piano is following his former mentor, Louis Kahn, whose buildings are famous for precisely this atmosphere of ancientness or timelessness. In particular, the Piano Pavilion responds to the age-old human relationship to the sky, which has in many cultures throughout history both symbolized and embodied transcendence, permanence, and divinity. Louis Kahn leveraged these associations in the creation of a self-consciously “great” museum, and Piano takes Kahn’s work as a starting point for his own pavilion. Especially important are a few key construction details: technology is kept within a cordon between double beams, construction elements are isolated and distinguished from one another, and above all the visual appearance of the roof is kept simple and abstract. Because of the simplicity of the elements, as well as their physical isolation from another, the roof system evokes ancient trabeated construction while also making clear that this system is being evoked, not merely copied. The net effect of these efforts is a building that is undeniably contemporary but also richly evocative.

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY GREEN ROOF VS. ASSEMBLED ROOF

The Piano pavilion has two distinct roof system: one, the more ordinary of the two, is a green roof, covering the western half of the building. Beneath the roof are exhibition spaces that require low light as well as a number of back-of-house spaces. The roof covering the eastern half of the building is more complex and more central to Piano’s aims for his building.

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY ROOF STRUCTURE PRECEDENTS

Renzo Piano is justly famous for his roof assemblies. Many of them, especially for museum commissions, rely on the same basic idea: use the roof as the primary means of lighting the interior space of the building. He uses this strategy in the Beyeler Foundation near Basel, the Menil Collection in Houston, the Nasher Sculpture Gallery in Dallas, the Art Institute Addition in Chicago, the High Museum addition in Atlanta, and in the concert hall in his addition to the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston. Each of the roofs employs a slightly different system for creating light with a particular character in the spaces below. 1- The Menil Collection, Houston TX 2- The Art Institute, Chicago IL 3- The Nasher Sculpture Center, Houston TX 4- The High Museum of Art, Atlanta GA

1

2

4

3

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY THE NASHER SCULPTURE CENTER

Of all Piano’s previous roof systems, that of the Beyeler Foundation is perhaps most similar to the one employed at the Kimbell. However, because of its geographic proximity and its contrasting character, a further investigation of the Nasher Sculpture Gallery roof is worthwhile. Since the Kimbell and the Nasher share a hot, sunny, climate, both take pains to block the tremendous quantity of solar radiation that would pass through a simply glazed roof. In the Kimbell, this is accomplished chiefly by louvered solar panels, while in the Nasher a sculptural screen does this work. The sculptural screen does additional work as well at the Nasher in shaping the quality of the light. Specifically, from below the roof appears to visitors as if it were made of innumerable points of light. On closer inspection, however, the precise mechanism is entirely revealed to visitors. The Kimbell pavilion is quite different. The overall effect is that of a homogeneous plane of light, and the mechanism by which this is accomplished is entirely hidden in all of the gallery spaces, and only partially revealed in the lobby.

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY THE BEAMS

The pairs of beams that hold up the roof assembly are an impressive structural as well as architectural solution. They are laminated timber beams made of Douglas Fir, spaced at ten-foot intervals and spanning 102 feet (necessitating a cambering process during their construction to keep deflection within acceptable limits.) The beams are 52 inches deep and 8 inches in width, and the pair of beams are separated with a 16 inch gap, making the overall dimension 32� x 52�, with an l/d ratio of 20. The gravity load from the roof is transfered to the beams, thence to the concrete columns at the beam ends and then to the foundations.

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY ASSEMBLY OF THE BEAMS AND ROOF SYSTEM

1.

The beams are installed with a slight camber to reduce the dead load deflection

CONSTRUCTION BEAMS CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION BEAMS

1.

1. 1.

BEAMS

2.

Steel cables were attached to each laminated beam at 20’-0” intervals using slings over the beams. The cables were then tensioned by anchoring them to the slab below. The sling is then removed after the installation.

2.

2. 2.

3.

3. 3.

3.

The frame for the roof is then installed on top of the beams.

1. Errect the beams with a slight camber to reduce the dead load deflection. 56

2. wire steel to eachcamber laminated beam at CONNECTING OLD ANDcables NEW:aAN ANALYSIS OF THE PAVILION 1.Attach Errect the beams with slight toPIANO reduce the20’-0” dead intervals, using load deflection. 1. Errect the beams with a slight camber to reduce the dead

4.

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY ASSEMBLY OF THE BEAMS AND ROOF SYSTEM

3. 3.

4.

The glass panels are installed on top of the framing system. 1. Errect the beams with a slight camber to reduce the dead 1. Errect the beams with a slight camber to reduce the dead load deflection. load deflection.

4. 4.

2. Attach wire steel cables to each laminated beam at 20’-0” 2. Attach wire intervals, usingsteel cables to each laminated beam at 20’-0” intervals, slings overusing the beams. The cables are then tensioned by slings over the beams. anchoring them to The cables are then tensioned by anchoring them to the slab below. the slab below.

5.

3. The structural frame is then installed on top of the beams. louver panels installed on top of the glazing. 3. TheThe structural frame are is then installed on top of the beams. 4. & 5. This is then followed by the glazing and the louvers 4. & 5. This is then followed by the glazing which sits on top of the structural frame. and the louvers which sits on top of the structural frame.

5. 5.

Note- The cables are expected to loose tension propotionNoteare expected toof loose ately toThe thecables precentage of weight eachtension system,propotionwith ately to the precentage of weight of each system, with tension being equal to zero at the completion of the tension being equal to zero atthe thesling completion of the installation. upon completion will be removed installation. upon completion theprimary sling will be removed along with its anchorage to the structure. along with its anchorage to the primary structure.

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY THE PIN JOINT

The connection between the beam-pairs and the concrete columns that support them is crucial for understanding Piano’s overall goals. First, it is a modern-looking piece of structure that inhabits the servant space between the beams, like all the other modern technologies that Piano allows to appear to visitors. Second, the pin joint allows Piano to elevate the beams slightly above the beams that carry them. This gap is very visible to visitors inside the museum, while the pin joint itself is visible only on the building’s exterior. This gap accomplishes a number of goals for Piano. First, it simplifies and abstracts the core structure of the building, as Kahn does by allowing some light to penetrate between the vaults and the walls that terminate them. This simplification and abstraction, key for Kahn but used less often by Piano, contributes to the sense of monumentality, again in a subdued voice as used by Piano compared to Kahn. Additionally, the gap also allows Piano to subvert his chosen structure. Since the whole force carried by the beams in a post-and-beam system must come to rest on the columns, one would expect the beam-column connection to appear most solid; instead, one sees only air. This approach references and pays homage to Kahn’s use of the pseudo-vault, which lacks the walls necessary to carry the vault forces to the ground. In general, Piano employs a very different strategy of articulation towards the sky than he does towards the ground. Above, every interaction between components is elaborated and articulated, often with gaps present between components to stress their autonomy. Towards the ground, as will be discussed further later, joints tend to be concealed or minimized, and individual components meet flat or flush with each other.

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY THE DOG BONE

The Dog Bone joint is another example of components in the roof plane being concealed as this connection is on the inside of the beams.

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY THE ALUMINUM CAPS

The aluminum caps cover miscellaneous screws, washers and the 4.5�-diameter aluminum rod that connects the beams. The shape of the aluminum caps are routed out of the laminated wood beams so that the caps are flush with the wood face. By covering up the connection mechanisms, Piano is not cluttering the space with technology and allowing the structure to be clearly visible. However, he does not take pains to conceal the technology entirely, which is consistent with his general approach in the roof plane: he allows technology to have its given place, and does not take special pains to conceal it; only to prevent it from overwhelming or distracting from the massive simplicity of the beam system.

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY THE HORIZONTAL TRUSSES

The horizontal trusses provide lateral bracing to counteract the lateral torsional buckling in the beams. These are hidden in the gallery spaces by the fabric scrim that stretches between the laminated wood beams. The the rigid steel trusses and the connections between the paired beams creates a diaphragm to transfer the lateral loads from the eastwest directions. The diaphragm will then transfer the loads in the shortest direction towards the columns in the far North and south sides. This had helped to minimize the appearance of the joints and connections in the roof minimum and let the maximum daylight penetrate into the space. (Note that lateral loads from the North-South direction, discussed below, are handled differently.) Left: Exploded Axon showing dogbone, connections, aluminum caps and trusses Below: Plan Section Detail of Horizontal Trusses Connection to Beam

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY DAYLIGHT BETWEEN STRUCTURE

SOLAR PANELS

Sitting just above the glass is a photovoltaic louver system. The photovoltaic panels can be manually rotated through 180 degrees (so as to protect the cells from hail), and are generally configured so as the block all direct light coming from the South. The engineers for the louver arrays provided the curators with a table listing footcandles expected at various times of year depending on the angle to which the louvers are raised, at Piano’s request. The solar panels thus become part of the curatorial arsenal of the space, and do not serve merely to generate electricity and shade the roof, though their contribution to the energy needs of the building are not insignificant.

FRITTED GLASS

Below the solar panels is a layer of slightly canted fritted glass, with a white interlayer and an acid etch on the interior surface to reduce reflections. This glass forms the weather barrier for the roof, and serves to further diffuse the already indirect northern light entering the building.

FABRIC SCRIM

A fabric scrim sits below the glass which has two effects: first, it provides yet another layer of diffusion to the light entering the gallery spaces. Second, it conceals the glass and horizontal trusswork, creating the appearance of a uniform plane of light between the beams. The beams are thus additionally highlighted, as they are the only dark surfaces of the ceiling plane. The scrim is not present in the lobby space, presumably because a brighter space was desired, and the distracting appearance of the trusses and glass was less problematic in a space without art to focus on.

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY

ELECTRICAL BETWEEN DOUBLE BEAMS (INSIDE STRUCTURE)

Gallery spaces can be lit primarily with daylight or with electric light. Spotlights, outfitted with LED lights, and other building systems such as sprinklers and security cameras are run on tracks positioned in between the beams. This allows the space between the beams to read as much as possible as an undifferentiated plane of light. This effect is produced at night as well, with lights above the wood beams directed at the panes of glass. This illuminates the building from the exterior as well as providing a source of indirect light (reflected off the matte interior finish of the glass) to illuminate the fabric scrims.

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY

SPRINKLERS BETWEEN DOUBLE BEAMS (INSIDE STRUCTURE)

There are sprinklers pointed towards the ground to protect the gallery spaces and sprinklers pointed towards the glass roof to protect the space between the fabric scrim and the roof. In both cases the sprinklers are backgrounded. The sprinklers pointed towards the ground are positioned in between the laminated wood beams with other building systems like electric lights and security cameras. This is part of Piano’s general strategy of assigning technology its particular zone and not allowing it to appear outside that zone.

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY GUTTERS

Above the double beams are gutters which drain the canted glass, bringing water to downspouts on both the interior and the exterior of the building, where they run down behind columns. Even in this invisible-tovisitors condition, the basic logic of running systems between the beams is maintained.

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY GUTTERS

This diagram on the right shows the downspouts coming down through the shear walls on the interior of the building. The supply and return air ducts also run through this wall system that exists between the lobby and main gallery spaces. In this invisible-to-visitors condition, the basic logic of running systems between the structure is maintained in the vertical direction.

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HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY INTERIOR WALLS

The walls between galleries and the lobby provide an interesting exception-case for some of Piano’s general rules. Rather than running the beams simply over the walls, the space between the beams and between the masonry-panel wall and the ceiling is filled. Here he continues his scheme of showing distinct components in an articulated way. For instance, a reveal between the infill panels and the masonry-panel walls allows him to create a return-air vent (return air shown in red) while simultaneously emphasizing the distinction and difference between the two wall materials.

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Within this wall construction, supply air rises from the lower-level mechanical rooms and return air connects to the ducts on the lower level. This zone also houses water drainage pipes that brings water from the gutters on the roof to the mechanical spaces on the lower level (in red) (shown in axon on page 64). This condition is an exceptional one because Piano has taken pains simply to conceal what is going on, not to articulate it and assign it to a zone, as in the normal condition between the beams.


HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY

BEAMS EXTENDING FROM INTERIOR TO EXTERIOR

More expected is the condition where the beams penetrate the glass outer skin of the building. Here they pass through spandrel panels, which are in turn held off from the beams by something resembling a gasket. Piano’s strategy of distinguishing and articulating components in the ceiling-roof plane is carried through consistently here; the distinction between glass and beam is emphasized via the spandrel panel. Moreover the gasket between panel and beam provides a structural role in isolating movements in the glass wall from movements in the beam. The glass wall is able to stand up independently of the beam, including under wind loads, via glass fins extending into the space.

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PA RT I V THE HIDDEN GROUND

AN ANALYSIS OF THE WALLS AND FLOOR SYSTEM

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n the roof of the Piano Pavilion, details are highly articulated, isolated, and distinguished. For the details in the building that fall below the roof plane, Piano takes a very different approach. While simplicity and abstraction remain goals, instead of articulation and distinction all the details aim for a monolithic quality, with seamless joints and flush connections. Among the most celebrated of these monolithic details is the displacement ventilation system contained within the floor. Small gaps in the tongueand-groove connections between the floorboards allow air to pass slowly and imperceptibly between air handlers and habitable space. Other details include registers at the base of each window, which sit flush with the floor around them and magnets concealed within the floor to serve as doorstops. This approach to detailing achieves several goals for Piano simultaneously. First, and most basically, it provides a minimally intrusive environment for the viewing of art. Without much visible detailing, the visual focus of the gallery spaces will naturally be the art within them. Second, it provides a contrast with the highly articulated roof system, so that a clear contrast between ground and sky is achieved. Third, the ground, especially when contrasted with the sky, has served as a repository of meaning for human cultures throughout history, much as the sky has. In contrast to the permanence and transcendence of the sky, the ground has in many cultures symbolized transience, especially the transience of life, as well as immanence, and desire rather than thought. Because visitors to the pavilion walk above the ground plane and below the roof plane, Piano is situating them between the ground and the sky, and thus between immanence and transcendence. This is a natural place in which to place those objects in which the human condition is especially focused: art.

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THE HIDDEN GROUND CONCRETE COLUMNS

In contrast to the highly articulated manner in which the columns meet the beams they carry, they meet the ground with an absence of any visible joint. This accomplishes the intended effect of minimizing the visual complexity of the building below the roof plane, as well as forming a contrast with the more monumental treatment of the column bases in Kahn’s building, which rest on a masonry plinth. 72

CONNECTING OLD AND NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION


THE HIDDEN GROUND INTERIOR WALLS

Interior walls meet the floor also with an almost jointless condition. Piano’s drawings call for the smallest possible gap between floorboards and walls compatible with consistent craft. This absence of joint conduces to the sense that the concrete walls are monolithic, and likewise that the floor is a pure plane. These help the visitors read the space as simple and undistracting.

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THE HIDDEN GROUND SHEAR WALLS + HVAC

SUPPLY AIR (TYPICAL CONDITION)

Supply air is brought up from lower level and forced through a plenum. The air moves into the galleries through small gaps in the concrete metal decking and oak floorboards.

RETURN AIR (TYPICAL CONDITION)

Air returns through reveal at the top of the shear walls near the roof. The air then moves through cavities in the walls eventually to air handling units on the Lower Level. The absence of any visible openings for the air to pass through are part of Piano’s strategy to make the ground plane of the space as unarticulated as possible.

4

6 3

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THE HIDDEN GROUND THERMOSTATS

So as not to make any technology visible outside of its assigned zone between the double beams, thermostats for the gallery spaces are embedded within the concrete walls during construction. This allows the concrete walls to appear undisturbed by the technology necessary to maintain the gallery spaces as comfortable environments.

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THE HIDDEN GROUND FLOOR STRUCTURE + HVAC

THE BREATHING FLOOR By Woodwright Hardwood Flooring Company A pressurized plenum underneath the floor feeds air through small gaps in the floorboards. The plenum is raised about two feet above the structural concrete slab below. The micro-beveled CNC white oak boards were prefinished with UV-cured aluminum oxide finish and laid over sleeper system. There are 5/32nd-inch spaces between the floorboards to allow sufficient airflow at high volume and low velocity. This lowers the friction on the floor surface and prevents occupants of the space from feeling air movement. Within this plenum are magnets that serve as doorstops, so that no external visible connection need be made to the floor as would be required with traditional doorstops. Upper Left: Detail Photo of consistent gap showing tabs toward the bottom of the flooring every 12 inches on center. Lower Left: Sleeper System

"We had a fairly petite woman in our office wear her highest, smallest heels, and we tested different-size gaps to test what would and wouldn't catch." Larry Burns Principal at Kendall/Heaton Associates 76

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THE HIDDEN GROUND FLOOR STRUCTURE + HVAC

THE TRENCH AIR SUPPLY A water-based mechanical system supplies hot air along the exterior glass walls. This prevents condensation on the glass walls. The trench drains are inset in the floor so that their surface is flush with both the exterior ground and also the interior oak floors. This creates the impression of seamlessness throughout the detail. HOT AIR FROM TRENCH AIR SUPPLY COLD AIR FROM EXTERIOR GLASS WALL

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special thanks are due to the office of Kendall/Heaton Associates of Houston, TX, the executive architects for the Piano’s Kimbell Museum addition. They provided the construction documents for the addition at no charge and without their help this book would not have been possible.

WORKS CITED PART I: INTRODUCTION Courtesy of Getty Images, by Eric Feferberg. http://media.gettyimages.com/photos/italian-architect-renzo-piano-talks-to-journalists-during-the-of-the-picture-id454676988 Courtesy of Kimbell Art Foundation, Painting by Dario Rappaport, Portraits of Kay and Velma Kimbell, 1935. https://www.kimbellart.org/about/timeline Courtesy of Kimbell Art Foundation, Photo of Richard F. Brown, October 1960. https://www.kimbellart.org/about/timeline Courtesy of Arthur Ross Gallery, University of Pennsylvania, “Preliminary Section Studies of Vault and Reflectors”, Louis Kahn, 1966. http://www.arthistory.upenn.edu/themakingofaroom/catalogue/section7.htm Courtesy of Sanslartigue, by David McCarthy, 2013. https://sanslartigue.wordpress.com/tag/kimbell-art-museum/ Courtesy of Kimbell Art Foundation, “The Studio”. https://www.kimbellart.org/conservation/about/the-studio Courtesy of Fast Company Design, Architectural Archives of the University of Pennsylvania, George Alikakosdman. http://www.fastcodesign.com/3032814/slicker-city/the-evolving-genius-of-louis-kahn Courtesy of Kimbell Art Museum Courtesy of Designboom, “piano building sketch”, Renzo Piano, RPBW. http://www.designboom.com/architecture/renzo-piano-kimbell-art-museum-piano-pavilion-fort-worth-texas/ Courtesy of Yatzer, Robert C. Lautman Photography Collection, National Building Museum, 1972 https://www.yatzer.com/even-brick-wants-be-something-louis-kahn Courtesy of Plusaq, Philips Exeter Academy Library_Louis I. Kahn, 2013. https://plusaq.wordpress.com/2013/03/11/phillips-exeter-academy-library_louis-i-kahn/ Courtesy of The Philosopher’s Mail, “The Institute during the vernal equinox”, The Great Architects: Louis Kahn. http://thephilosophersmail.com/perspective/the-great-architects-louis-kahn/ 78

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Courtesy of Green Building Magazine Italy, 2013. http://www.greenbuildingmagazine.it/renzo-piano-architetto-di-frontiera Courtesy of Kimbell Art Museum Courtesy of Designboom, “piano building sketch”, Renzo Piano, RPBW. 2008. http://www.designboom.com/architecture/renzo-piano-kimbell-art-museum-piano-pavilion-fort-worth-texas/ Courtesy of ArchDaily, AD Classics: Menil Collection / Renzo Piano, by D Jules Gianakos, 2011. http://www.archdaily.com/171974/ad-classics-menil-collection-renzo-piano Courtesy of Buckhardt+Partner, New Beyeler Museum. http://www.burckhardtpartner.ch/en/references/items/new-beyeler-museum.html Courtesy of Phaidon Atlas, High Museum of Art Expansion, by Michael Denance http://phaidonatlas.com/building/high-museum-art-expansion/1006 Courtesy of Turner Construction, by Paul Warchol. http://www.turnerconstruction.com/experience/project/1E3/art-institute-of-chicago-modern-wing-and-nichols-bridgeway Courtesy of ArchOne, Texas A&M University. http://archcomm.arch.tamu.edu/archive/news/fall2008/stories/Haweswinsaward.html Courtesy of Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, by Nic Lehoux, RPBW. http://www.gardnermuseum.org/about/history_and_architecture/extensionpreservation_project Courtesy of ArchDaily, AD Classics: Kimbell Art Museum / Louis Kahn, by Igor Fracallessi, 2011. http://www.archdaily.com/123761/ad-classics-kimbell-art-museum-louis-kahn/503808b928ba0d599b000a46-ad-classics-kimbell-art-museum-louis-kahn-image Courtesy of FortWorthArchitecture, Amon Carter Museum. http://www.fortwortharchitecture.com/cd/carter.htm Courtesy of Architectural Record, Kimbell Art Museum Addition http://www.architecturalrecord.com/articles/7516-kimbell-art-museum-addition?v=preview Courtesy of Kimbell Art Museum Courtesy of Designboom, Tadao Ando Interview, 2001. http://www.designboom.com/interviews/tadao-ando/ PART II: A CONVERSATION BETWEEN NEW AND OLD “Channeling Kahn: Renzo Piano’s Addition to the Kimbell Art Museum.” Architect. 18 Nov. 2013. Web. 8 Dec. 2015. Nordenson, Guy, P.E., S.E., F.ASCE,, Elizabeth Hodges, Brett H. Schneider, and Lucile Walgenwitz. “Defining Excellence.” Civil Engineering, 1 May 2014. Web. 8 Dec. 2015. “Renzo Piano.” SURFACE. Web. 8 Dec. 2015. CONNECTING OLD & NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION

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Courtesy of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtesy of The Kimbell Art Museum. https://www.kimbellart.org/architecture/piano-pavilion/piano-films-and-images Courtsey of Chuck LaChiusa, 2009. http://www.buffaloah.com/a/DCTNRY/mat/trav/trav.html Courtsey of Designboom, Photo by Robert Laprelle at Kimbell Art Museum . http://www.designboom.com/architecture/renzo-piano-pavilion-at-kam-construction-coming-to-a-close/ Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtesy of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of ArchDaily, Renzo Piano Pavilion at Kimbell Art Museum / Renzo Piano + Kendall/Heaton Associates, Photo by Robert Laprelle, 3013. http://www.archdaily.com/448735/renzo-piano-pavilion-at-kimbell-art-museum-renzo-piano-kendall-heaton-associates Courtsey of ArchDaily, Renzo Piano Pavilion at Kimbell Art Museum / Renzo Piano + Kendall/Heaton Associates, Photo by Robert Laprelle, 3013. http://www.archdaily.com/448735/renzo-piano-pavilion-at-kimbell-art-museum-renzo-piano-kendall-heaton-associates Courtsey of The Cultural Landscape Foundation, Photo by Barrett Doherty Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of Architect Magazine, Photo by The Kimbell Art Museum. http://www.architectmagazine.com/project-gallery/the-renzo-piano-pavilion-at-the-kimbell-art-museum Courtsey of Architect Magazine, Photo by The Kimbell Art Museum. http://www.architectmagazine.com/project-gallery/the-renzo-piano-pavilion-at-the-kimbell-art-museum Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of Anothony’s Conctrete. http://www.anthonysconcrete.com/coatings.htm Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum.

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CONNECTING OLD AND NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION


Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of Encyclopaedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/technology/post-and-lintel-system Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum, https://www.kimbellart.org/architecture/piano-pavilion/piano-films-and-images Courtsey of Encyclopaedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com/technology/post-and-lintel-system Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtesy of Designboom, “piano building sketch”, Renzo Piano, RPBW. 2008. http://www.designboom.com/architecture/renzo-piano-kimbell-art-museum-piano-pavilion-fort-worth-texas/ Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. PART III: HOW THE BUILDING MEETS THE SKY Courtesy of Journal Sentinel, http://www.jsonline.com/blogs/entertainment/44905657.html Courtesy of Detail Inspiration, Photo from High Museum of Art http://www.detail-online.com/inspiration/extension-of-the-high-museum-of-art-in-atlanta-103626.html CONNECTING OLD & NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION

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Courtesy of The Boston Musical Intelligencer, Photo from BMInt http://www.classical-scene.com/2012/01/11/calderwood-hall-at-isgm/ Courtesy of The Fox is Black http://thefoxisblack.com/2012/04/25/renzo-pianos-nasher-sculpture-center-gets-a-rude-new-neighbor/ Courtesy of Arch Daily http://www.archdaily.com/171974/ad-classics-menil-collection-renzo-piano/5038203028ba0d599b000fc6-ad-classics-menil-collection-renzo-piano-photo Courtesy of The Dallas Morning News, http://www.dallasnews.com/lifestyles/arts/headlines/20130202-dallas-nasher-sculpture-center-opens-biggest-show-since-glare-dispute-began.ece Courtesy of Kimbell Art Museum https://www.kimbellart.org/architecture/piano-pavilion/piano-films-and-images Courtesy of the Kimbell Art Museum https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y5GB3BwijrQ Courtesy of Moore Design Works, Photo by Nic Lehoux http://www.mooredesignworks.com/kimbell/ Courtesy of Shock Blog http://www.schock-blog.com/completion-of-renzo-pianos-expansion-to-the-kimbell-art-museum/ Courtesy of The Dallas Morning News, Photo by Scott Cantrell, http://artsblog.dallasnews.com/2013/11/ Courtesy of maxresdefault at youtube.com https://dunedinstadium.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/kimbell-piano-pavilion-i-ytimg-com-youtube-maxresdefault.jpg Courtesy of GIG Holdings http://www.gig.at/de/referenzen/maerkte/us/item/us/kimbell-art-museum-fort-worth-texas Courtesy of The Architectural Record http://www.architecturalrecord.com/ext/resources/archives/projects/Building_Types_Study/museums/2013/images/Kimbell-Art-Museum-Addition-Renzo-Piano-Building-Workshop-18.jpg Goldhagen, Sarah Williams. “Kimbell Art Museum Addition.”Architectural Record 13 Dec. 2013. Courtesy of “The Progettare” magazine http://www.progettarearchitettura.it/quasi-completato-il-renzo-piano-pavillon/kam07/ Courtsey of ArchDaily, Renzo Piano Pavilion at Kimbell Art Museum / Renzo Piano + Kendall/Heaton Associates, Photo by Robert Laprelle, 2013. http://www.archdaily.com/448735/renzo-piano-pavilion-at-kimbell-art-museum-renzo-piano-kendall-heaton-associates Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum. Courtesy of The Dallas Morning News, Photo by Scott Cantrell. 82

CONNECTING OLD AND NEW: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PIANO PAVILION


http://artsblog.dallasnews.com/2013/11/ Courtesy of Ertex Solar / Sprotofski Courtsey of The Kimbell Art Museum Courtsey of ArchDaily, Renzo Piano Pavilion at Kimbell Art Museum / Renzo Piano + Kendall/Heaton Associates, Photo by Robert Laprelle, 2013. http://www.archdaily.com/448735/renzo-piano-pavilion-at-kimbell-art-museum-renzo-piano-kendall-heaton-associates PART IV: THE HIDDEN GROUND Courtesy of Kimbell Art Foundation by Nic Lehoux. https://www.kimbellart.org/architecture/piano-pavilion/piano-films-and-images Courtesy of Architects + Artisans by J. Michael Welton. http://architectsandartisans.com/index.php/2013/09/pianos-pavilion-at-the-kimbell-part-ii/ Courtesy of Kindall /Heaton Associates. http://www.kendall-heaton.com/projects/kimbell-art-museum-expansion/ Courtesy of the “Arts Journal Blog”, Photo by Lee Rosenbaum. http://www.artsjournal.com/culturegrrl/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/KiimbCarWall.jpg Courtesy of the “Woodwright hardwood flooring company”, Photos by Jose Suarez http://woodwright.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/NWFA-Kimball-Story.pdf McMillan, Karly. “Beauty & Brains: The Kimbell Museum Wood Floor Is Unlike Any Other.” Hardwood Floors 4 Feb. 2014. Courtesy of Kimbell Art Foundation, photo by Nic Lehoux. https://www.kimbellart.org/architecture/piano-pavilion/piano-films-and-images

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Kimbell Art Museum Expansion | Case Study  

An integrated technology case study of the Kimbell Art Museum Expansion design by Renzo Piano

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