Page 1

26

Pohutukawa • Oi exposed coastal ecosystem

KEY

♥ Nurse plant ■ Main component ✤ rare ✖ toxic to toddlers For restoration, in this habitat:

•••

plant liberally

••

 coastal sites

plant generally

• plant sparingly

Recommended planting sites Back Dunes

Medium trees Beilschmiedia tarairi

taraire

✤■

Corynocarpus laevigatus

karaka

✖■

Kunzea ericoides

kanuka

♥■

••

pohutukawa

♥■

Coprosma lucida

shining karamu

♥■

Coprosma macrocarpa

coastal karamu

 ♥■

Coprosma robusta

karamu

♥■

Cordyline australis

ti kouka, cabbage tree

♥■

Dodonaea viscosa

akeake whau

 ■ ♥■

hangehange

♥■

manuka

♥■

Metrosideros excelsa

Boggy Area

Escarpment

Sharp Ridge

•••

Steep Slope

Valley Bottom

• •

••• ••

••

••• ••

••• ••

•••

Broad Ridge

Gentle Slope

Alluvial Flat/Tce

• • ••• ••

•••

•••

••

••

• • • •

• • •

ecosystem one

Small trees, large shrubs

Entelea arborescens Geniostoma rupestre Leptospermum scoparium Leucopogon fasciculatus

mingimingi

Macropiper excelsum

kawakawa wharangi

Melicope ternata

♥■



••

• • • • •• ••

••

••

• • ••

• • •

• ••

mahoe

Melicytus ramiflorus Myoporum laetum

ngaio

Olearia furfuracea

akepiro

Pittosporum crassifolium

✖■

karo



••

houpara



• •

Pittosporum ellipticum Pseudopanax lessonii

nikau

west coast kowhai

✖■

stiff-stemmed coprosma taupata

 ♥■  ♥■

bluff korokio

 ✤■

Rhopalostylis sapida Sophora fulvida

••• •••

••

• • • • •• ••• ••• ••

• • ••

• •• •••

• •

•• ••• ••

•• ••• •• ••

• • •• •• •• •••

• • •

•••

• • • •

•••

•••

••

••

• • •

• • • • •

• • •

••

• • • •

••

••

• ••

•••

••

•••

• • •

Shrubs and flax-like plants Coprosma crassifolia Coprosma repens

Freycinetia baueriana

koromiko

Melicope simplex

poataniwha

Phormium cookianum Phormium tenax Rhabdothamnus solandri

••

•• ••

••

• • •

tauhinu

 ♥■

wharariki, coastal flax

♥■

harakeke, flax

♥■

taurepo

••

•• ••

kiekie

Hebe macrocarpa

Ozothamnus leptophylla

• •

Coprosma rhamnoides Corokia cotoneaster

•• ••

••

• •

•• ••

•••

•• •••

•••

• •

••

••

• •••

••

• • • •

• •

Vines and trailers Metrosideros perforata

akatea, small white rata

••

• •


27

KEY

 fully tolerant

tolerates some

 not tolerant

❖ tolerates shade during establishment  needs some shade to establish Planting notes, comments

Tolerance Sun

Shade

Dry

Moist



   

   

   

 

              

                





◗ ◗

   

   

        

◗ ◗











                  

  ◗

 

  

 ◗

    ◗ ◗

◗ ◗ ◗

    ◗

 

 

        

  ◗

 ◗ ◗

 ◗

 





 ◗

         

Boggy



Poor clay



Harsh wind

◗ ◗

 

  

  



◗ ◗ ◗

  ◗

  

◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

     ◗



        

          



    









 

   ◗ ◗

Natural neighbours, these medium trees (except taraire) often form groves, ie. a monocultural canopy.

The understory of these groves is often kawakawa, hangehange, nikau and houpara.


28

Pohutukawa • Oi Pohutukawa • Oi exposed coastal ecosystem KEY

 fully tolerant

tolerates some

 not tolerant

♥ Nurse plant

❖ tolerates shade during establishment  needs some shade to establish

Tolerance Sun

Shade

Dry

◗ ◗

 

◗ ◗

Moist

Boggy

Poor clay

Harsh wind

           

       

              

       

Ferns Adiantium aethiopicum makaka, maidenhair (round-leaved) common maidenhair

Adiantium cunninghamii



rosy maidenhair

Adiantium hispidulum

Asplenium appendiculatum spp maritimum

   

necklace fern

Asplenium flabellifolium

Asplenium northlandicum leather-leaf asplenum coastal blechnum

Blechnum blechnoides Blechnum membranaceum Blechnum novae-zealandiae

pukupuku

Doodia australis

ecosystem one

kiokio

giant hypolepis

Hypolepis dicksonioides Lindsaea linearis Pellaea falcata Polystichum neozelandicum

tutoke, shield fern

Polystichum wawranum

tutoke, shield fern

Pteridium esculentum Pteris comans

♥■

    ◗ ◗

bracken



NZ coastal brake

Pteris macilenta

       ◗ ◗ ◗

 

   ◗ ◗

   ◗

  ◗ ◗



◗ ◗







              

 ◗        

    

        

 

  ◗



◗ ◗

  

Low ground plants etc coastal astelia

Astelia banksii Calystegia soldanella

nihinihi, shore bindweed

Celmisia major var. major Centella uniflora Coprosma acerosa

Waitakere rock daisy marsh pennywort sand coprosma

Cordyline pumilio ti rauriki, dwarf cabbage tree Cotula coronopifolia Dianella nigra Dichondra repens Disphyma australe Hebe bishopiana Hebe obtusata Leucopogon fraseri Muehlenbeckia complexa Nertera depressa

bachelor’s buttons turutu, NZ blueberry mercury bay weed horokaka, NZ iceplant Huia hebe west coast cliff hebe patotara pohuehue nertera

Peperomia urvilleana

Samolus repens

shore pimpernel

Scandia rosifolia

coastal angelica

Selliera radicans

remuremu

Tetragonia implexicoma

NZ spinach

   

  ◗

 ◗

  ◗

          ◗

      ◗ ◗ ◗

                  

              ◗

 ◗

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     ◗

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      ◗ ◗

   


29

KEY

 fully tolerant

tolerates some

 not tolerant

♥ Nurse plant

❖ tolerates shade during establishment  needs some shade to establish

Tolerance Sun

Shade

Dry

Moist

Boggy

Poor clay

Harsh wind

 





    

 



Grasses, Sedges, Rushes

 

oioi, jointed rush

Apodasmia similis

sand tussock

Austrofestuca littoralis

Carex lambertiana



pukio

Carex secta

orange dune sedge

Carex virgata coastal toetoe

Cortaderia splendens

Cyperus ustulatus upoko tangata, giant umbrella sedge pingao

Desmoschoenus spiralis Gahnia lacera



Carex solandri Carex raotest

bamboo cutty grass

Juncus pallidus

giant rush

Microlaena polynoda

bamboo rice grass

Microlaena stipoides

rice grass

Poa anceps

plumed tussock

Spinifex sericeus kowhangatara, silver sand grass

    ◗

 ◗   

       ◗  ◗ 

 ◗

     ◗

   



      ◗

     



         





 





        

  

Planting notes, comments

Coastal Plants: Pingao grows in shifting sand. Silver sand grass, sand tussock and tauhinu (Ozothamnus leptophylla) grow in settled sand. Horokaka, shore pimpernel and remuremu naturally grow at the high tide mark, but wil also grow in sandy gardens. Carex secta only grows in still, not flowing, water Carex virgata grows in flowing water and areas prone to flooding. C. virgata is more commonly found and has a wider habitat range than C. secta.

 ◗

  




30

Manukau • Kahu stormy coastal hills ecosystem

KEY

♥ Nurse plant ■ Main component ✤ rare ✖ toxic to toddlers For restoration, in this habitat:

 coastal sites only

 epiphyte

••• plant liberally •• plant generally • plant sparingly

Recommended planting sites Gully Head

Tall trees

Boggy Area

Rockland

kauri

Agathis australis

kahikatea

Dacrycarpus dacrydioides

pohutukawa

Metrosideros excelsa Phyllocladus trichomanoides

••

Valley Bottom

Broad Ridge

Gentle Slope

Alluvial Flat/Tce

••

• • •

••

••

• • • • •

•••

• •••

• •••

••

• • •

• •

• •

tanekaha

miro

Prumnopitys ferruginea

Steep Slope

••

rimu

Dacrydium cupressinum

Sharp Ridge

• • • •

• • • •

• •

Medium trees taraire

Beilschmiedia tarairi

tawa

Beilschmiedia tawa

karaka

ecosystem two

Corynocarpus laevigatus

hinau

Elaeocarpus dentatus Hedycarya arborea

✖■

kohekohe

Dysoxylum spectabile

•• • • •

porokaiwhiri, pigeonwood

Knightia excelsa

rewarewa

Kunzea ericoides

kanuka

♥■

•• • ••

••

mangeao

Litsea calicaris

• •

white maire

Nestegis lanceolata

puriri

Vitex lucens

• •

pukatea

Laurelia novae-zelandiae

• •••

• • •• • • • •• ••• • • •

Small trees/large shrubs ♥✖■

mamangi

♥■

••

Brachyglottis repanda

rangiora

Carmichaelia australis

NZ broom

Carpodetus serratus Coprosma arborea

shining karamu

♥■

karamu

♥■

Cordyline australis

ti kouka, cabbage tree

Cordyline banksii Cyathea dealbata Cyathea medullaris Dodonaea viscosa Geniostoma rupestre Griselinia lucida Leptospermum scoparium

forest cabbage tree ponga, silver tree fern mamaku, black tree fern

hangehange

♥■

puka

■

manuka mingimingi

♥■

Macropiper excelsum

kawakawa

♥■

Melicytus ramiflorus Myoporum laetum

••• ••• •• •• ••• ••

large leaved mahoe mahoe ngaio



• • •

•••

••• ••• • •• •• •• ••

akeake

Leucopogon fasciculatus

Melicytus macrophyllus

•• •

••

putawetaweta

Coprosma robusta

Coprosma lucida

•• •

•••

•• ••• •• •• ••• ••• • •••

••• ••• ••• •• •••

•• •

••

•• •• ••• •• •• •••

••• •• ••• ••• •• ••• ••

••• •• •• •• ••

• •••

•••

•••

••• ••• • •• ••

••• •• •• •• ••

•••

• ••• ••• •• •• ••

••• • •

••• ••• •• •

••• ••• ••• •• ••

••• ••• ••

••• •••


31

KEY

 fully tolerant

tolerates some

 not tolerant

❖ tolerates shade during establishment  needs some shade to establish Comments

Tolerance Sun

Shade

Dry

     

❖ ❖

                           ◗

  

  ◗



    ◗

   ◗

 

❖◗

◗ ◗



  

  

◗ ◗

◗ ◗

◗ ◗ ◗



 ◗

  ◗

◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

 

   

 ◗

   

        ◗ ◗



Moist

Boggy

Poor clay

     

 

 

◗ ◗

       

           

                     

  

      ◗ ◗ ◗

   ◗







◗ ◗

◗ ◗

 

  

            

Harsh wind

  ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

  

Natural neighbours: karaka, kohekohe, kanuka and pohutukawa can form groves, ie. a monocultural canopy. Karaka and kohekohe are often the dominant components of the coastal forest. The main understory is hangehange, kawakawa, mahoe and gahnia.

 ◗ ◗

  ◗ ◗

   ◗

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◗ ◗

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◗ ◗

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Puka is naturally epiphytic when growing in the wild.


32

Manukau • Kahu stormy coastal hills ecosystem

KEY

♥ Nurse plant ■ Main component ✤ rare ✖ toxic to toddlers For restoration, in this habitat:

 coastal sites only

 epiphyte

••• plant liberally •• plant generally • plant sparingly

Recommended planting sites Gully Head

Small trees/large shrubs Myrsine australis

mapou, red matipo

♥■

akepiro

♥■

Olearia furfuracea

Boggy Area

Rockland

••

Sharp Ridge

Steep Slope

••• •••

••• ••

Valley Bottom

Pittosporum ellipticum

••

Pseudopanax arboreus whauwhaupaku five finger

• •

horoeka, lancewood

Pseudopanax crassifolius

houpara

Pseudopanax lessonii

••

nikau

Rhopalostylis sapida

west coast kowhai

Sophora fulvida

•••

✖■

•• ••

•• ••

•• •• •• ••

••

toru

Toronia toru

••• ••

••

•• •••

Gentle Slope

•• •••

••

••

Broad Ridge

••

Alluvial Flat/Tce

••• •••

ecosystem two

Shrubs and flax like plants Coprosma crassifolia

stiff stemmed mingimingi

••

Coprosma rhamnoides

Hebe macrocarpa

koromiko

Hebe stricta

koromiko patotara

Leucopogon fraseri

rohutu

Lophomyrtus obcordata

poataniwha

Melicope simplex

tauhinu

Ozothamnus leptophylla Phormium cookianum

•• •• •• •••

bush snowberry

Gaultheria antipoda

wharariki, mountain flax

♥■

harakeke, flax

♥■

Phormium tenax

••• •••

Pomaderris phylicifolia

tauhinu

Rhabdothamnus solandri

taurepo

••

•• •• •• •••

••

• •

••

••

••

• • •

• •

• •

•• •• ••

•• ••

••

•• •••

•••

•• •••

kumerahou

Pomaderris kumeraho

•••

• •

••

kiekie

Freycinetia banksii

•••

••

spiderwood

Dracophyllum sinclairii

••

•• ••

bluff korokio

Corokia cotoneaster

••

• •

Vines and trailers Metrosideros carminea

akakura, carmine rata

Metrosideros perforata

akatea, small white rata

Parsonsia capsularis

kaiwhiria, native jasmine

Parsonsia heterophylla

kaiku, native jasmine

✤■

✤■

• • • •

• • • •

• •

• • • • •

• • • • •

• • • • •

Ferns Adiantum cunninghamii Adiantum hispidulum

common maidenhair rosy maidenhair

Asplenium flaccidum makawe, hanging spleenwort Asplenium lamprophyllum Asplenium oblongifolium

glossy asplenium huruhuruwhenua shining spleenwort


33

KEY

 fully tolerant

tolerates some

 not tolerant

❖ tolerates shade during establishment  needs some shade to establish Comments

Tolerance Sun

Shade

Dry

Moist

        

◗ 

 

◗ ◗





  

        

     

               

          

            



                

   

   

   

 

    

    

    

    

◗ ◗

 ◗

  ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

 ◗

 

        ◗ ◗

   ◗



  

   

 

◗ ◗

❖ ❖

 

◗ ◗

   

  

   

  ◗ ◗

Boggy

 

Poor clay

 ◗

 ◗

   

  

Harsh wind

      ◗

 ◗

Sophora fulvida grows on rock outcrops and bluffs, west of Scenic Drive, including the west coast and Manukau Harbour, from Whatipu to Cornwallis

   ◗

 ◗

       ◗

 



Hebe macrocrpa and Hebe stricta do not occur naturally together. Plant one or the other.


34

Manukau • Kahu stormy coastal hills ecosystem KEY

 fully tolerant ❖

tolerates some

 not tolerant  epiphyte  needs some shade to establish

tolerates shade during establishment

Tolerance Sun

Shade

Dry

Moist

Boggy

Poor clay

Harsh wind

rereti



Blechnum discolor

crown fern

Blechnum filiforme

thread fern



hard fern

            

             

              

   

                    

     

Ferns Blechnum chambersii

Blechnum fraseri

 

Blechnum fulviatile Blechnum membranaceum kiokio

Blechnum novae-zelandiae Doodia australis

pukupuku

Hymenophyllum spp.

filmy ferns

      

ecosystem two

Lastreopsis glabella hairy legs

Lastreopsis hispida Lastreopsis microsora

velvet fern

Lastropsis velutina

Lindsaea linearis

Lindsaea trichomanoides mangemange

Lygodium articulatum



tarawera, button fern

Pellaea rotundifolia

Phymatosorus pustulatum kowaowao, maratata

moki, fragrant fern



Phymatosorus scandens Polystichum neozelandicum

tutoke, shield fern

Polystichum wawranum

tutoke, shield fern

◗ ◗

  

bracken

Pteridium esculentum Pteris macilenta

tuawera, trembling brake

Pteris tremula

       ◗

 

 ◗ ◗

 ◗ ◗

  

       

 ◗

               

 

      ◗

   ◗

 ◗ ◗

  

Low ground plants etc Arthropodium cirratum

rengarenga, rock lily coastal astelia

■

Astelia solandri

kowharawhara, perching lily

■

Astelia trinervia

kauri grass

Astelia banksii

Centella uniflora

marsh pennywort

Cordyline pumilio ti rauriki, dwarf cabbage tree Collospermum hastatum Dianella nigra Hebe bishopiana Libertia grandiflora Libertia ixioides Lycopodium deuterodensum Nertera dichondrifolia

kahakaha

■

turutu, NZ blueberry Huia hebe

    

large flowered iris

mikoikoi, NZ iris

◗ ◗

tree clubmoss



northern nertera

■

Peperomia urvilleana Pimelea prostrata

  

prostrate daphne



 ◗

  ◗ ◗

     

   ◗

  ◗

 ◗

  ◗

 

 

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         ◗ ◗

   

     ◗ ◗ ◗

     ◗




35

KEY

 fully tolerant

tolerates some

 not tolerant

 epiphyte

❖ tolerates shade during establishment  needs some shade to establish

Tolerance Sun

Shade

Dry

Moist

Boggy

Poor clay

Cyperus ustulatus upoko tangata, giant umbrella sedge

  

  

bamboo cutty grass

cutty grass



     

         

         

      

Harsh wind

Grasses, Sedges, Rushes toetoe

Cortaderia fulvida

coastal toetoe

Cortaderia splendens

Gahnia lacera Gahnia setifolia Gahnia xanthocarpa

toikiwi, cutty grass

Juncus pallidus

giant rush

 

 

Microlaena avenacea

forest rice grass

◗ ◗

Microlaena stipoides

meadow rice grass

Machaerina sinclaririi

tuhara, pepepe

Planting notes, comments

Coastal astelia, kowharawhara, kahakaha and wharanui are all epiphytes Kauri grass only grows in association with kauri trees

◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

 

   ◗

    ◗ ◗


36

Kowhai • Kotare harbour coastline ecosystem

KEY

♥ Nurse plant ■ Main component ✤ rare ✖ toxic to toddlers For restoration, in this habitat:

 coastal sites only

 epiphyte

••• plant liberally •• plant generally • plant sparingly

Recommended planting sites Gully Head

Tall trees Agathis australis Dacrycarpus dacrydioides

kauri

kahikatea

pohutukawa

Metrosideros excelsa Phyllocladus trichomanoides



■■

Boggy Area

Coastal Escarpment

Sharp Ridge

Steep Slope

Valley Bottom

• • •

• ••

tanekaha

• •

matai

Prumnopitys taxifolia

Alluvial Flat/Tce

••

• • • •

miro

Prumnopitys ferruginea

Gentle Slope

lowland totara

Podocarpus totara

Broad Ridge

• • • • •

• •

Medium trees taraire

Beilschmiedia tarairi

ecosystem three

titoki

Alectryon excelsus

[local]

tawa

Beilschmiedia tawa Corynocarpus laevigatus Dysoxylum spectabile

karaka

✖■

kohekohe

••

• •

•• •• ••

••

hinau

Elaeocarpus dentatus Knightia excelsa

rewarewa

Kunzea ericoides

kanuka

• •

•••

• •

mangeao

Litsea calicaris

♥■

pohutukawa

Metrosideros excelsa

white maire

Nestegis lanceolata Pittosporum eugenioides

tarata, lemonwood

Pittosporum tenuifolium

kohuhu tawapou

Pouteria costata

• •

• • •

• •

•••

•••



kowhai

✖■

Sophora microphylla

kowhai

✖■

puriri

•• ••

•• ••

• •

••

• •

••• ••

• ■■

Sophora chathamica

Vitex lucens

• • • • •

••

pukatea

Laurelia novae-zelandiae

♥■

• • •

• •

• •

• • • • • •

• • • • • • •

• • • • • • •

Small trees/large shrubs Alseuosmia macrophylla

toropapa makomako, wineberry

Aristotelia serrata

Brachyglottis repanda

rangiora

Carmichaelia australis

NZ broom

✖♥ ■

mamangi

♥■

Coprosma lucida

shining karamu

♥■

Coprosma macrocarpa

coastal karamu

Coprosma arborea

Coprosma robusta Coriaria arborea Cordyline australis Cordyline banksii

manawa, mangrove [estuary]

Avicennia marina

karamu

tutu

✖♥

ti kouka, cabbage tree

ti ngahere, forest cabbage tree

• • • •

••

• •

•••

••

• •

• • •

••• •• •••

•••

••• •• ••

•• •• •• •••

•• •• •••

• ••


37

Key:

 fully tolerant

tolerates some

 not tolerant

❖ tolerantes shade during establishment  needs some shade to establish  shade needed at base Comments

Tolerance Sun

Shade

      

❖ ❖◗

                 

     ◗

          

 ◗ ◗

 ❖◗

◗ ◗

Dry

    ◗ ◗

   ◗

 ◗ ◗

  

   

◗ ◗ ◗

◗ ◗ ◗



❖ ❖



  

  

◗ 

 ◗



❖

 

◗ ◗ ◗



Moist

Boggy

Poor clay

Harsh wind

      

      

 

       

                 

        

   

 

Kowhai distribution: Sophora chathamica is found mostly on forest margins and lowland sites. Plant east of Scenic Drive and Cornwallis. Sophora microphylla has a wide habitat range and occurs throughout Waitakere on terraces and hillslopes.

   

   

  

Requires estuarine conditions

      

 

                    

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◗ ◗

◗ ◗ ◗



 ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

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 ◗

  ◗

  ◗

   ◗ ◗ ◗

   ◗ ◗ ◗

◗ ◗




38

Kowhai • Kotare harbour coastline ecosystem

KEY

♥ Nurse plant ■ Main component ✤ rare ✖ toxic to toddlers For restoration, in this habitat:

 coastal sites only

 epiphyte

••• plant liberally •• plant generally • plant sparingly

Recommended planting sites Gully Head

Small trees/large shrubs continued

Cyathea medullaris

mamaku, black tree fern

Cyathodes juniperina Dicksonia squarrosa Dodonaea viscosa Entelea arborescens Geniostoma rupestre Griselinia lucida Hedycarya arborea Hoheria populnea

ecosystem three

ponga, silver tree fern

Cyathea dealbata

Leptospermum scoparium

whau

hangehange



♥■

houhere, lacebark

♥■

manuka

♥■

✤■

Myrsine australis Olearia furfuracea Olearia rani Olearia solandri Pittosporum crassifolium

large leaved mahoe

Pseudopanax lessonii Schefflera digitata Sophora fulvida Streblus heterophyllus Rhopalostylis sapida Toronia toru

Alluvial Flat/Tce

•• •••

••

•••

••

••

• •

••• •• •• ••

••

• • ••• •••

•••

•••

•••

•••

•••

• •

••

••• •••

••• ••• ••

•••

•• ••

•• •••

• •

•••

••

• •

• •

• • •

manakura mahoe

♥■

•••

••

maire taiki ngaio

✖■

mapou, red matipo

akepiro

♥■

coastal tree daisy

•• ••

•• •• ••

••

heketara

• •

•• •••

• • • ••

• ••• ••

houpara

♥■

west coast kowhai

• •

 ✖■

•••

• • • •

••

••

• • • ••

••

••

•• ••

•• •• ••

••

••

•• ••

••

toru

••

turepo nikau

• • • ••

pate

••

• •

karo

horoeka, lancewood

♥■

Pseudopanax arboreus whauwhaupaku, fivefinger Pseudopanax crassifolius

Gentle Slope

• ••

pigeonwood

wharangi

Myoporum laetum

Broad Ridge

puka

♥■

Mida salicifolia

Valley Bottom

akeake

kawakawa

Melicytus ramiflorus

•• •••

Steep Slope

Macropiper excelsum

Melicytus micranthus

Sharp Ridge

wheki

mingimingi

Melicytus macrophyllus

Escarpment

prickly mingimingi

Leucopogon fasciculatus

Melicope ternata

Boggy Area

••

•• •••

•• ••

Shrub & flax-like plants Brachyglottis kirkii var.angustior Coprosma propinqua

kohurangi, Kirk’s daisy

mingimingi

•••

Coprosma rhamnoides Coprosma spathulata Corokia buddleioides Corokia cotoneaster Dracophyllum sinclairii Freycinetia banksii

korokio

bluff korokio

•• ••

•••

• •

••

spiderwood kiekie

••

••

•• ••

••


39

KEY:

 fully tolerant

tolerates some

 not tolerant

❖ tolerates shade during establishment  needs some shade to establish  shade needed at base Comments

Tolerance Sun

               ◗

 ◗

              ◗

  ◗ ◗

  

Shade

Dry

Moist

     



                        

                               

         

       

       

       

◗ ◗  ◗ 

◗ ◗

❖◗

 ◗

 ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

❖◗ ◗ ◗

 ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

❖◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

     ◗

 

Boggy

                    

Poor clay

Harsh wind





   

   

◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

◗ ◗



  

◗ ◗

◗ ◗

◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

      

  ◗ ◗

 ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

        ◗ ◗





     

     ◗

Kowhai distribution: Sophora fulvida grows on rock outcrops and bluffs west of Scenic Drive, including the West Coast and Manukau Harbour, from Whatipu to Cornwallis.


40

Kowhai • Kotare harbour coastline ecosystem

KEY

♥ Nurse plant ■ Main component ✤ rare ✖ toxic to toddlers For restoration, in this habitat:

•••

plant liberally

••

 coastal sites only

plant generally

 epiphyte

plant sparingly

Recommended planting sites Gully Head

Shrub & flax-like plants continued

Hebe macrocarpa

koromiko

Hebe stricta

koromiko

Leionema nudum

mairehau

Melicope simplex

poataniwha

Phormium cookianum

••

harakeke, flax

♥■

••

tawhirikaro

♥ ■

marsh ribbonwood

♥ ■

Pomaderris phylicifolia

tauhinu

Rhabdothamus solandri

taurepo

Calystegia tuguriorum Vines and trailers

• • •

powhiwhi, convolvulus

akakura, carmine rata

Metrosideros perforata

akatea, small white rata

Parsonsia heterophylla

kaiku, NZ jasmine kohia, NZ passion vine

Passiflora tetrandra

Rubus australis

bush lawyer

Rubus cissoides

tataramoa, bush lawyer

Adiantum Ferns cunninghamii

• • ♥ ■

• • •

• • • • •

••

•• ••

Asplenium lamprophyllum

••

• •

• • ♥ ■

• • • • •

••

•• ••

necklace fern

glossy asplenium

• •

•• •• ••

common maidenhair

makawe, hanging splenwort

Adiantum viridescens Asplenium flabellifolium

• ••

rosy maidenhair

Adiantum hispidulum

••

• • •

downy maidenhair

Adiantum fulvum

Asplenium flaccidum

• • • •

••

kareao, supplejack

Ripogonum scandens

• •

• ✤

rata vine

Metrosideros fulgens

Alluvial Flat/Tce

Clematis paniculata puawananga, bush clematis Metrosideros carminea

Gentle Slope

puataua, scented clematis

Clematis forsteri

••

raupo

Typha orientalis

Broad Ridge

kumerahou

Pomaderris kumeraho

Valley Bottom

•••

taranga, long-leaved pimelia

Plagianthus divaricatus

Steep Slope

• • •

♥■

♥■

Pittosporum cornifolium

Sharp Ridge

wharariki, mountain flax

Phormium tenax

ecosystem three

Rockland

bush snowberry

Gaultheria antipoda

Pimelea longifolia

Boggy Area

• • •

•• ••

••

••

• •

• • •


41

KEY:

 fully tolerant

tolerates some

 not tolerant

❖ tolerates shade during development  needs some shade to establish  shade needed at base Comments

Tolerance Sun

        ◗

   ◗



Shade

◗ ◗ ◗

 ◗ ◗

 ◗ ◗

    

          

      

     

Dry

      ◗

      

Moist

       ◗

     



  

◗ ◗

◗ ◗

          

 

     

     

◗ ◗ ◗

 

  ◗

 ◗

Boggy

Poor clay

             

     

       

      

 

◗ ◗

      ◗

               ◗ ◗

Harsh wind

 ◗

        ◗

        ◗

     ◗

     

Natural neighbours: plant marsh ribbonwood in the salt marsh zone, between mangroves and land shrubs, such as oioi and mingimingi (Coprosma propinqua)


42

Kowhai • Kotare harbour coastline ecosystem Key:

 fully tolerant

tolerates some

 not tolerant

 epiphyte

❖ tolerates shade during establishment  needs some shade to establish Tolerance Sun

Shade

Dry

Moist

Boggy

 

  

 

  

        

Ferns continued Asplenium oblongifolium huruhuruwhenua, shining spleenwort Asplenium northlandicum leatherleaf asplenium

Asplenium appendiculatum ssp. maritimum floating fern

Azolla filiculoides Blechnum chambersii Blechnum discolor Blechnum filiforme Blechnum fraseri

rereti



piupiu, crown fern

thread fern



hard fern



ecosystem three

Blechnum membranaceum Blechnum novae-zealandiae

kiokio

Doodia australis

pukupuku



Doodia mollis

mokimoki

       

waewaekaka

Gleichenia microphylla Grammitis pseudociliata

filmy ferns

Hymenophyllum spp. Lastreopsis glabella

hairy legs

Lastreopsis hispida Lastreopsis microsora

velvet fern

Lastreopsis velutina Lindsaea linearis

◗ ◗

Lindsaea trichomanoides mangemange

Lygodium articulatum

tawawera, button fern

Pellaea rotundifolia

moki, fragrant fern

Phymatosorus scandens Polystichum neozelandicum

tutoke, shield fern

Polystichum wawranum

tutoke, shield fern

◗ ◗

  

bracken

Pterideum esculentum

sweet fern

Pteris macilenta Pteris tremula

  

matata, ring fern

Paesia scaberula

turawera, trembling brake leatherleaf fern

Pyrrosia eleagnifolia

■

  

               ◗

  ◗

    ◗

  

         ◗

       ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

 ◗ ◗

   ◗

                          

                   

Poor clay

Harsh wind

                     

 

   

 

  

         ◗

      ◗

 

◗ ◗

   ◗

Low ground plants sea celery

Apium prostratum

coastal astelia

■

Astelia solandri

kowharawhara, perching lily

■

Astelia trinervia

kauri grass

Astelia banksii

Calystegia soldanella

nihinihi, shore bindweed

Celmisia major var. major Centella uniflora Collospermum hastatum

Waitakere rock daisy marsh pennywort kahakaha

■ ■

   

 ◗

    ◗



   ◗ ◗

  ◗

 ◗

     

       

       

    ◗

  ◗


43

KEY:

 fully tolerant

tolerates some

 not tolerant

❖ tolerates shade during establishment  needs some shade to establish  shade needed at base

Tolerance Sun

Shade

Dry

Moist

Boggy

Poor clay

    

         

         

       

Low ground plants continued

bachelor’s buttons

 

turuturu, NZ blueberry

Cordyline pumilio ti raurika, dwarf cabbage tree Cotula coronopifolia Dianella nigra

Mercury Bay weed

Dichondra repens

parataniwha

Elatostema rugosum

Huia hebe

Hebe bishopiana

✤■

west coast cliff hebe

Hebe obtusata Leucopogon fraseri

patotara

Libertia grandiflora

large flowered iris mikoikoi, NZ iris

Libertia ixioides

creeping clubmoss

Lycopodium cernuum

tree clubmoss

Lycopodium deuterodensum



pohuehue

Muehlenbeckia complexa

Myosotis petiolata var. pansa Waitakere forget-me-not nertera

Nertera depressa

northern nertera

Nertera dichondrifolia

       

✤■

  ◗

Peperomia urvilleana strathmore weed

Pimelea prostrata Samolus repens

shore pimpernel

Scandia rosifolia

coastal angelica

Selliera radicans

remuremu

   

  ◗

    ◗ ◗ ◗

 

     ◗

 







  

  

◗ ◗

  

  

      

   ◗

 ◗

◗ ◗

   

Harsh wind

 ◗

          

      

   





◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

 ◗

Grasses, Sedges, Rushes oioi, jointed rush

Apodasmia similis Carex flagellifera Carex lambertiana Carex ochrosaccus

Solander’s sedge

Carex solandri

giant umbrella sedge bamboo cutty grass

cutty grass



toikiwi, cutty grass

toetoe

Cortaderia fulvida

coastal toetoe

Cortaderia splendens

Gahnia lacera Gahnia setifolia Gahnia xanthocarpa

Juncus krausii ssp.australiensis Juncus pallidus Machaerina sinclaririi

wiwi, sea rush giant rush tuhara, pepepe

Microlaena avenacea

bush rice grass

Microlaena polynoda

bamboo rice grass

Microlaena stipoides

meadow rice grass

Oplismenus imbecillis

slender panic grass

Poa anceps

◗ ◗ ◗

   

Carex virgata

Cyperus ustulatus

 

plumed tussock

   ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗



       



◗ ◗

   ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

       ◗ ◗ ◗

 ◗ ◗



                   

    ◗

              

      ◗

 ◗

    

  ◗ ◗

   ◗

     ◗

 ◗

 


44

Puriri • Kereru warm lowlands ecosystem

KEY

♥ Nurse plant ■ Main component ✤ rare ✖ toxic to toddlers For restoration, in this habitat:

 coastal sites only

 epiphyte

••• plant liberally •• plant generally • plant sparingly

Recommended planting sites Gully Head

Tall trees Agathis australis Dacrycarpus dacrydioides Dacrydium cupressinum Metrosideros robusta Phyllocladus trichomanoides Podocarpus totara

kauri

kahikatea

♥■

rimu

northern rata

tanekaha

♥■

lowland totara

♥■

Rockland

Sharp Ridge

Steep Slope

••

• •

• • •

••

••

Valley Bottom

• • • •

miro

Prumnopitys ferruginea

Boggy Area

Broad Ridge

Gentle Slope

Alluvial Flat/Tce

••

• • • • •

•• ••

• • • •

• • •

matai

Prumnopitys taxifolia

Medium trees titoki

ecosystem four

Alectryon excelsus

taraire

Beilschmiedia tarairi

tawa

Beilschmiedia tawa Corynocarpus laevigatus Dysoxylum spectabile

karaka

✖■

kohekohe

• • • •

••

Knightia excelsa

rewarewa

♥■

Kunzea ericoides

kanuka

♥■

••

•••

• • • •

kawaka

Libocedrus plumosa

mangeao

Litsea calicaris Nestegis cunninghamii

black maire

Nestegis lanceolata

white maire

Pittosporum eugenioides

tarata, lemonwood

Pittosporum tenuifolium

kohuhu

♥■

Sophora microphylla

kowhai

✖■

••

•• •••

•• •••

• • • •

• • • • • •

•• ••

• •

•••

• •

••

• • •

• •

•• ••

••

puriri

••

makomako, wineberry

♥■

••

Brachyglottis repanda

rangiora

✖♥■

Carmichaelia australis

NZ broom

Vitex lucens

•• •••

♥■

maire tawake

Syzygium maire

••

• •

• • •

••

pukatea

Laurelia novaezelandiae

hinau

Elaeocarpus dentatus

• • • • • •

••

••

••

•• ••• ••

• • • •

Small trees/large shrubs Aristotelia serrata

♥■

Coprosma arborea

mamangi

Coprosma areolata

thin leaved coprosma

♥■

kanono

♥■

shining karamu

♥■

Coprosma grandifolia Coprosma lucida Coprosma propinqua Coprosma robusta

• • • •• ••

••

• • • •

••

• •

•••

•• ••

••

• ♥■

••

•••

••

mingimingi karamu

• •

putaputaweta

Carpodetus serratus

•• •• ••

•• ••

••

••

•••

•••


45

KEY:

 fully tolerant

tolerates some

 not tolerant

❖ tolerates shade during establishment  needs some shade to establish  shade needed at base Comments

Tolerance Sun

Shade

Dry

       

    

  ◗ ◗

 ❖

◗ ◗

Boggy

Poor clay

       

 

 

◗ ◗

                 

     ◗

◗ ◗

 ◗







         

     ◗

  

◗ ◗

    ◗ ◗ ◗



  

Moist

 ◗ ◗

  ◗

  ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

◗ ◗ 

 

 ◗

 ◗

◗ ◗

   

        ◗

       ◗

                      

 

 

◗ ◗

    

◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

◗ ◗

  ◗

  ◗ ◗ ◗

    

◗ ◗

◗ ◗





  

◗ ◗ ◗



 

◗ ◗

Harsh wind

  ◗



      ◗

  ◗ ◗ ◗

   ◗

   ◗ ◗

 ◗ ◗

Plant east of Scenic Drive


46

Puriri • Kereru warm lowlands ecosystem

KEY

♥ Nurse plant ■ Main component ✤ rare ✖ toxic to toddlers For restoration, in this habitat:

 coastal sites only

 epiphyte

••• plant liberally •• plant generally • plant sparingly

Recommended planting sites Gully Head

Small trees/large shrubs continued tutu

♥✖■

ti kouka, cabbage tree

♥■

Coriaria arborea Cordyline australis Cordyline banksii

ti ngahere, forest cabbage tree

Cyathea dealbata

ponga, silver tree fern

mamaku, black tree fern

wheki

••

akeake

(local)

Cyathea medullaris

Dicksonia squarrosa Dodonaea viscosa

hangehange

♥■

puka

■ ■

porokaiwhiri, pigeonwood

♥■

houhere, lacebark

♥■

manuka

♥■

Leucopogon fasciculatus

mingimingi

Macropiper excelsum

kawakawa

large leaved mahoe

♥■

Geniostoma rupestre Griselinia lucida

Hoheria populnea Leptospermum scoparium

Melicytus macrophyllus

manakura

Melicytus micranthus

mahoe

Melicytus ramiflorus

Myrsine australis

akepiro

♥■

Olearia rani Pennantia corymbosa

heketara

♥■

kaikomako

(local)

whauwhaupaku, five finger

Pseudopanax crassifolius

Valley Bottom

••

••

•••

•• •

• •

•• ••• •• ••• ••

• •

•••

••

• • ••• •••

••

•••

• •• •• ••

••

•••

••

••• ••• ••• •• ••

•• •• •••

•• •••

• •

Schefflera digitata

pate

♥■

•••

Solanum aviculare

poroporo

♥■

nikau

•••

•• ••

toru

Toronia toru

•• •

• ••

Gentle Slope

Alluvial Flat/Tce

• • •

• ••

• •

• •

• ••

•••

••• ••

••• •••

•• •• ••• ••

• •

• ••

••

• •••

• •

•• ••

• •••

• • •

••• ••• ••

••• •• ••

••

• •

••

••

•• ••

••• ••

• • •

• • ••

••

•• ••

•• ••

•••

••

••

••

•• ••

turepo

Rhopalostylis sapida

Broad Ridge

••

• • •

♥■

horoeka, lancewood

Streblus heterophyllus

• •

• • •

■ ■

Pittosporum ellipticum

Steep Slope

mapou, red matipo

Olearia furfuracea

Pseudopanax arboreus

♥■

maire taiki

Mida salicifolia

Sharp Ridge

••

kotukutuku, tree fuchsia

Fuchsia excorticata

Hedycarya arborea

Rockland

prickly mingimingi

Cyathodes juniperina

ecosystem four

• • • •

Boggy Area

Shrubs & flax-like plants

••

toropapa

Alseuosmia macrophylla Brachyglottis kirkii var. angustior

••

Kirk’s daisy

Coprosma crassifolia stiff stemed comprosma, kohurangi (Te Henga) Coprosma rhamnoides

■ ■

••• ••

♥■

Coprosma spathulata Coprosma tenuicaulis

swamp coprosma

Corokia buddleioides

korokio

Dracophyllum sinclairii

spiderwood

•• ••

•• ••

•• ••• ••

•••

• •

• •


47

KEY:

 fully tolerant

tolerates some

 not tolerant

❖ tolerates shade during establishment  needs some shade to establish  shade needed at base Comments

Tolerance Sun

               ◗

  ◗

           

Shade

Dry

Moist

Boggy

◗ ◗ ◗



      

                               

          

   ◗

  H   ◗  

             ◗

    ◗

◗ ◗





 

◗ ◗

 

 ◗

 

 

     

     

     

 ◗



 





◗ ◗

   

   

◗ ◗ ◗

◗ ◗

     

   





◗ ◗

◗ ◗ ◗

   

 ◗

Harsh wind

                   

    

Poor clay

   ◗ ◗



     



      

   ◗

 ◗

     ◗

◗ ◗

  ◗

    


48

Puriri • Kereru warm lowlands ecosystem

Nurse plant

KEY

Main component

For restoration, in this habitat:

•••

rare

toxic to toddlers

plant liberally

••

plant generally

coastal sites only

epiphyte

plant sparingly

Recommended planting sites

Shrubs & flax-like plants cont. kiekie

Freycinetia banksii

Boggy Area

•••

••

bush snowberry

Gaultheria antipoda Hebe macrocarpa

koromiko

Hebe stricta

koromiko

Lophomyrtus bullata

ramarama

Leionema nudum

mairehau

Melicope simplex

poataniwha

wharariki, mountain flax

Phormium cookianum

harakeke, flax

Phormium tenax

•••

Pittosporum cornifolium

tawhirikaro

Pomaderris kumeraho

kumerahou

Rockland

Sharp Ridge

• • • • •

••

••

• •

taranga

Pimelea longifolia

ecosystem four

Gully Head

Pseudopanax anomalus Rhabdothamnus solandri

• •

Broad Ridge

Gentle Slope

Alluvial Flat/Tce

••

••

• • • • • •

••

• • • •

••

shrub pseudopanax taurepo

Valley Bottom

tauhinu

Pomaderris ericifolia

Steep Slope

••

••

•• ••

••

raupo

Typha orientalis Vines and trailers

Clematis forsteri

••

powhiwhi, convolvulus

Calystegia tuguriorum

puataua, scented clematis

Clematis paniculata puawananga, bush clematis Metrosideros carminea Metrosideros diffusa

white climbing rata

Metrosideros fulgens

rata vine

Metrosideros perforata Ripogonum scandens Parsonsia heterophylla Passiflora tetrandra

akakura, carmine rata

• •

akatea, small white rata supplejack, kareao

•••

••

••

••

• • •

Rubus australis

bush lawyer

Rubus cissoides

tataramoa, bush lawyer

••

••

• •

•• ••

kaiku, NZ jasmine kohia, NZ passion vine

••

• •

• • • •

••

• •

••

• • • •

••

• • •

•• ••

Ferns Adiantum cunninghamii Adiantum fulvum Adiantum hispidulum

common maidenhair

downy maidenhair rosy maidenhair

Adiantum viridescens Anarthropteris lanceolata Asplenium bulbiferum manamana, hen & chicken fern

• • • • • •


49

KEY:

fully tolerant

tolerates some

not tolerant

tolerates shade during establishment

needs some shade to establish

Comments

Tolerance Sun

Shade

shade needed at base

Dry

Moist

Boggy

Poor clay

Harsh wind


50

Puriri • Kereru warm lowlands ecosystem KEY:

♥ Nurse plant

 fully tolerant

tolerates some

 not tolerant

 epiphyte

❖ tolerates shade during establishment  needs some shade to establish

Tolerance Sun

Shade

Dry

Moist

Boggy

Ferns continued Asplenium flaccidum makawe, hanging spleenwort

■

Asplenium hookerianum glossy asplenium

Asplenium lamprophyllum

huruhuruwhenua shining spleenwort

Asplenium oblongifolium Asplenium polyodon

sickle spleenwort

Blechnum chambersii

rereti

■

ecosystem four

  

  

  

  

  

  

                  

                      

                    

       

                      

       

crown fern

thread fern



hard fern

 swamp kiokio

Blechnum minus

kiokio

Blechnum novae-zelandiae

Deparia petersenii

pukupuku

Doodia australis

tangle fern

Gleichenia dicarpa

waewaekaka

Gleichenia microphylla Lastreopsis glabella

hairy legs

Lastreopsis hispida Lastreopsis microsora

velvet fern

Lastreopsis velutina Leptopteris hymenophylloides

heruheru, crepe fern

Lindsaea linearis Lindsaea trichomanoides Lygodium articulatum

para, king fern

Paesia scaberula

matata, ring fern

Pellaea rotundifolia

tarawera, button fern

Phymatosorus pustulatum kowaowao, hounds tongue Phymatosorus scandens Pteridium esculentum

Pyrrosia eleagnifolia

✤■

  

moki, fragrant fern

bracken

  

Pteris macilenta Pteris tremula

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mangemange

Marattia salicina

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Diplazium australe

turawera, trembling brake leatherleaf fern

Sticherus cunninghamii

umbrella fern

Trichomanes reniforme

raurenga, kidney fern

wind

  

Blechnum filiforme

Blechnum membranaceum

Harsh

clay

  

Blechnum discolor

Blechnum fraseri

Poor

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51

KEY:

 fully tolerant

tolerates some

 not tolerant

 epiphyte

❖ tolerates shade during establishment  needs some shade to establish

Tolerance Sun

Shade

Dry

Moist

Boggy

Poor clay

Harsh wind

  

    

  

        

         

       

   

    



Low ground plants rengarenga, rock lily

Arthropodium cirratum

coastal astelia

■

Astelia solandri

kowharahara, perching lily

■

Astelia trinervia

kauri grass

Astelia banksii

kahakaha

Collospermum hastatum

◗ ■

Cordyline pumilio ti rauriki, dwarf cabbage tree Dianella nigra

 

turutu, NZ blueberry

parataniwha

   

Elatostema rugosum

large flowered iris

Libertia grandiflora

mikoikoi, NZ iris

Libertia ixioides

creeping clubmoss

Lycopodium cernuum Lycopodium deuterodensum Nertera depressa

tree clubmoss

nertera

 

northern nertera

Nertera dichondrifolia

■

Peperomia urvilleana Pratia angulata

panakenake



oioi, jointed rush



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Grasses, Sedges, Rushes Apodasmia similis

◗ ◗ ◗ ◗

Carex lambertiana Carex lessoniana Carex maorica Carex ochrosaccus

giant umbrella sedge

   

bamboo cutty grass

cutty grass



toikiwi, cutty grass

Carex virgata toetoe

Cortaderia fulvida

coastal toetoe

Cortaderia splendens Cyperus ustulatus Gahnia lacera Gahnia setifolia Gahnia xanthocarpa Juncus krausii ssp.australiensis Juncus pallidus

wiwi, sea rush giant rush

Machaerina sinclaririi

tuhara, pepepe

Microlaena avenacea

bush rice grass

Microlaena polynoda

bamboo rice grass

Microlaena stipoides

meadow rice grass

Oplismenus imbecillis

slender panic grass

Poa anceps

plumed tussock

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52

Glossary of Terms alluvial soil and silt by streams which

ecotone the boundary between eco-

naturalised a plant which is not native

has been deposited during floods, usually

systems, where one merges into the other

to an area, but has spread and established in the wild there

very fertile and free draining emergents the tallest trees in a forest biodiversity a combination of: diversity

which stick out above the canopy, eg.

non-invasive a plant (usually

of species, genetic diversity within

kauri, rimu

exotic/introduced) which will not spread into native bush or other natural areas

populations and diversity of ecosystems endemic occurs only in a particular canopy the tall layer of trees in a forest,

country or region. For example, kiwi are

nurse species the first species planted or

made up of species like tawa, karaka,

endemic to New Zealand, Australian

sown (eg. manuka or kanuka), or existing

kohekohe, taraire, puriri

harrier is native as it also occurs in other

vegetation such as gorse or brush wattle

Pacific countries

which creates good conditions for other

divaricating plants (mainly shrubs) with tangled branches, generally small leafed

species to be able to grow epiphyte a plant which sits on another plant but doesn’t harm its growth eg.

pioneer a colonising species, plants

eco-site planting plants in the location

‘widow maker’ plants which sit in the tops

which naturally establish on an open site

where they would occur naturally

of large kauri and rimu

and are able to withstand changes in

eco-source to use plants grown from

exotic an introduced species; a plant

seeds collected locally from a range of the

which does not naturally occur in the area

ridge a long narrow hill top, usually

naturally occurring vegetation in that place

or country

quite dry and wind exposed

ecology the interaction between living

friable easily crumbled

scarp a steep slope

physical environment. This includes all

gully a low point in the area where a

secondary vegetation the plants

kinds of organisms from algae and fungi

channel has been cut by water (usually

which grow up underneath the nurse, or

to plants, insects, lizards, birds and mam-

quite moist)

pioneering species

these interactions are the basis for the

gully heads the top of gully (not as

spur a small side ridge sticking out from

potential of natural areas to be self-main-

moist as a gully)

the main ridge

habitat a place where a plant naturally

understory shrubby and ground cover

grows

plant layers of the forest

indigenous native to an area or country

wetland these are permanently or

temperature and moisture

organisms, and between them and the

mals. The processes that are included in

taining, and for the benefits (ecosystem services) on which we rely in gardening (composting, formation of topsoil including fertility and friability, availability of water etc) and in our wider lives (cleaning

seasonally wet areas that have plants and

of water and air, detoxification of wastes,

invasive a plant which spreads easily

animals which are suited to wet

regulation of climate, etc)

through native bush and kills the plants

conditions

in it ecosystem a biological system comprising a community of living organisms and

knoll a small hill or mound

its associated non-living environment, interacting as an ecological unit eg. wet-

juvenile form many native plants look

land, dune system, forest, grasslands

different when they are young compared to when they are adults, eg. lancewood

ecosystem services fundamental life-support services provided by eco-

local not widespread, but occurring in a

system functioning without which human

few places

civilisations would cease to thrive; Includes purification of air and water, detoxification and decomposition of wastes, regulation of climate, regeneration of soil fertility, and production and maintenance of biodiversity

microsite a small area with specific conditions which only a few plants are suitable for (eg. a damp bit by the stormwater drain)


Contacts and Reading List Useful Books and Resources Native Forest Restoration: A Practical Guide for Landowners by Tim Porteous, Queen Elizabeth the Second National Trust, 1993

Amenity Planting Guidelines – for landscape designs and subdivisions; includes a list of high risk plants Planting Guidelines for Reserve Boundaries – for properties bordering a park or reserve

The Native Garden by Isobel Gabites & Rob Lucas, Random House, 1998

Planting Guidelines for Stormwater Detention Ponds

The Gardener’s Encyclopaedia of New Zealand Native Plants by Yvonne Cave & Valda Paddison, Random House, 1999

Toetoe Information Sheet – why toetoe makes a great nurse crop

Which Native Forest Plant? and Which Native Fern? by Andrew Crowe, Viking, 1994

Eco-sourcing flyer – a short explanation and guide

The Cultivation of New Zealand Native Grasses by Lawrie Metcalf, Random House, 1998 Weedbusting: A guide to recognising and controlling invasive weeds. Weedbusters. (www.weedbusters.org.nz) A Dictionary of Maori Plant Names by James Beever, Auckland Botanical Society, 1991

Eco-Sourcing Code of Practice (draft)

Invasive or Environmental Weeds of Waitakere – a full list of over 250 plants considered weeds in Waitakere Weed Fact Sheets on the worst weeds in Waitakere with specific detail on how to eradicate them The Green Network – an overview of the Green Network vision Green Network Community Assistance Programme – a summary of the assistance available from Council, or a specific flyer on the assistance you require

Auckland Regional Council Contact Enviroline ph (09) 366 2000 for copies of Pests Plants of the Auckland Region – various flyers on pest plants and animals to help with identification and control methods. Plant Me Instead – plants to use in place of common weeds Coastal Planting Guide – a series of six brochures on coastal planting

Waitakere City Council (WCC) For any of the publications below contact the Call Centre ph (09) 839 0400 (www.waitakere.govt.nz) Riparian Restoration Guidelines by Rachel Ebbitt – specific stream planting information Slip Sliding Away – dealing with erosion problems on streams The Whau: our streams, our river, our backyards, 2002 – a booklet on the Whau River produced by the community group Friends of the Whau (see contact details) in partnership with WCC; contains lots of information about streamside ecosystems and planting Carex in Auckland: A field guide by Chris McKain, WCC, 2004 The Waitakere Gardening Guide – for urban gardens

WCC also runs seminars, produces templates and fact sheets to guide the running of community projects. If you would like support for your Green Network project on public or private land, phone (09) 839 0400.

Community projects which enhance the Green Network These are some of the many community groups active in Waitakere. For more information contact the Call Centre: ph (09) 839 0400 (www.waitakere.govt.nz) Keep Waitakere Beautiful (www.ecomatters.org.nz) works on beautification projects including Operation Spring Clean, Trees for Babies, Clean Stream Waitakere and War on Weeds Landcare groups do vital weed control and restoration work eg. pingao planting at Te Henga (Bethells) and Piha, and ginger clearing at Karekare The Friends of the Whau (www.friendsofthewhau.org.nz) are rehabilitating, restoring and monitoring the Whau River Ark in the Park (arkinthepark@paradise.net.nz) are creating an open sanctuary for native birds at the heart of the Waitakere Ranges Weedfree Waitakere Trust (www.ecomatters.org.nz) provides weed control services and advice to protect and restore native bush on both public and private land.

NativeToTheWest part 2 (plant guides)  

Entelea arborescens whau Hebe macrocarpa koromiko •• •• Melicope ternata wharangi •• •• Melicytus ramiflorus mahoe Rhopalostylis sapida nika...

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