S T U D I O
A I R
STUDIO AIR: 2014 Alyssa Santomartino 585168
UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE: SEM 1 Studio Tutors: Haslett Grounds and Brad Elias
DESIGN FUTURING Introduction to LAGI Precedent Competition Entry’s Energy Harvesting Research
pp. 10 pp. 12 pp. 14 pp. 20
DESIGN COMPUTATION Computational Design Precedents
pp. 22 pp. 24
GENERATIVE COMPUTATION Generative Design Precedents
BIBLIOGRAPHY Footnotes Refrencing
B.1 B.2 B.3 B.4
pp. 40 pp. 41
DESIGN CRITERIA CASE STUDY 1 Tesselation Matrix Successful Iterations
pp. 44 pp. 46 pp. 48 pp. 52 pp. 54
CASE STUDY 2 Double Adent White Reverse Enginerring
pp. 56 pp.58 pp.60
TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT Matrix Selected iterations
pp.70 pp.72 pp. 74
PROTOTYPING #1 #2 #3 #4 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL Digital Prototype #1 Digital Prototype #2 Digital Prototype #3 Scandinavian Public Bathing Tubular Solar Panels Design Proposal On the Site
pp. 76 pp. 78 pp. 79 pp. 80 pp. 82 pp. 84 pp.. 88 pp. 92 pp. 96 pp. 98 pp. 100 pp. 102
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND DIRECTION
BIBLIOGRAPHY Footnotes Refrencing
pp. 106 pp. 107
DESIGN CONCEPT Hybrid Solar Panels Finalising the Design
pp. 110 pp. 112 pp. 122
BIBLIOGRAPHY Footnotes Refrencing
pp. 123 pp.1 24
I N T R O D U CT I O N
My name is Alyssa and I am majoring in Architecture in Melbourne Universityâ€™s Bachelor of Environments. So far I am enjoying the course and all of the different aspects of learning and designing it involves. I enjoy spending time with friends and family, travelling, learning, reading and music along with design. Having travelled to different places in the world, I enjoy learning about different cultures and their design practices. I enjoy the structured but creative process of architecture; going from the idea, to sketches, to the computer aided design and a model example. I am therefore excited to learn about using parametric modelling in rhino and grasshopper. I have had some experience with Rhino through Virtual Environments course.
Other than this I have had experience with Auto Cad due to my external internship. The basics of this program were learnt thought the subject Virtual Environments. Here I also learn to use some of the Adobe programs like Indesign, Photoshop and illustrator.
PART A: CONCEPTULISATION
dd to the length of time atmospheric gases have been in the atmosphere. Should issues not be resolved this would lead â€œIn increasingly more unsustainable worlds, design intelligence would deliver the means to make crucial judge considered over a lapse of time, as whilst they might provide some relief for the mo
d to global population re- distribution on a massive scale . ements about actions that could increase or decrease future potential. ” (Pp. 12) These actions however, also have to be oment, they could worsen the situation in the future, something which Fry claims might be happening at the moment . Design is the leading area which can provide change for sustainability.
D ES I G N F U T U R I N G Design Futuring is the need to design for the present and future to ensure survival. In ‘Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice’ , Fry argues that without better designing, there mightn't be a future at all Presently we are downing in a sea of un-sustainability. Nature cannot be relied upon as a sustaining method due to large population and the amount of ecological damage that has occurred. Currently the renewable resources cannot keep up; used 25% faster than they renew . Therefore the ethical and ecological implication must be understood when designing. There needs to be a change in the thought process of design. The
problems need to be resolved; however after effects may still be around for years after due to the age of atmospheric gases. Should issues not be resolved this would lead to global population redistribution on a massive scale . “In increasingly more unsustainable worlds, design intelligence would deliver the means to make crucial judgements about actions that could increase or decrease future potential. ” (Pp. 12) These actions however, also have to be considered over a lapse of time, as whilst they might provide some relief for the moment, they could worsen the situation in the future, something which Fry claims might be happening at the moment .
The LAGI competition promotes green living and energy. It is located in Copenhagen in 2014 after competitions in New York (2012) and Dubai (2010). LAGI’s main goal is to provide a platform for design experimentation and the construction of large scale public art installations which promote and create green energy.
The 2014 competition is located at Refshale øen, Copenhagen. Refshale øen once was the site of a shipyard which was a major employment centre for Danish workers. It is a man made piece of land. The site is rich in historical context being situated directly across from the popular tourist location ‘The Little Mermaid’ statue. Surrounding are businesses, markets, warehouses and cultural and recreational centres.
The design is to consist of a three dimensional sculptural form which is well informed to the site. It should aim to create some form of renewable energy without polluting the atmosphere with harmful gasses.
The LAGI competition is extremely appropriate for a time where global warming and climate change are issues within society. Competitions such as these allow new technologies to be experimented with and tried in a real world condition.
Pouyan Bizet, Iman Amini, Alireza Houbakht, Amin Amini, Delaram Zarnegar & Setareh Sedghi, Sky Domes, (2012, Iran: LAGI) <http://landartge org/LAGI-2012/L053I31G/>
SKY DOMES: LAGI 2012 Iranian team consisting of Pouyan Bizet, Iman Amini, Alireza Houbakht, Amin Amini, Delaram Zarnegar, Setareh Sedghi.
Aims: to connect Manhattan with
the Freshkills Park through a visual relationship as, from the high-rise buildings in the city the park can be clearly seen. The sky domes can land and take off from the ground depending on the wind. Envisage: a wind farm with a capacity of 100MW. The Sky Domes mimic kites however are built with approximately 20 wind turbine lenses. This is an example of innovative technological use. As they mimic something which everyone is familiar with, the idea doesn’t seem so farfetched.
I think that this is a creative idea that could potentially create the amount of energy which has been envisaged. Seeing that the domes ‘take off and land’, this could potentially dangerous for users of the site, depending on their weight and materiality. The idea depends on the use of many domes, should Manhattan expand, the wind farm could not continue at this scale and the design would not survive. The domes do fit the brief and are a creative design idea which could be seen not only within the park but also from the city, becoming a daily reminder of sustainability. When on the site, the domes are also extremely user friendly which also meets the brief.
MirosĹ‚aw Struzik, Tadeusz Zdanowicz, Ph.D & Tomasz Pultowicz, LAGI Butterfly Project, (2012, Poland: LAGI) <http://landartgenerator
THE BUTTERFLY PROJECT: LAGI 2012 Polish design team; Mirosław Struzik, Tadeusz Zdanowicz, and Tomasz Pultowicz
for the butterfly concept tobecome symbolic of the change that was to happen at the park. “Like a metamorphosis in the life of an butterfly from the egg through unattractive larva to the beautiful adult, this project will change the landfill to colorful and full of attractions place to enjoy. ” Envisiage: that New York as a multinational centre. The butterfly has symbolic meaning within many cultures communities therefore all can connect with it. They attempt to create a sculptural artistic design and combined that with new technology to create renewable energy. The large butterfly outline is lined with smaller butterflies which are raised at angles. The wings of the butterflies are solar cells which aim to create a clean environment with fresh air. The larger butterfly outline is 500 by 620 metres. They aim to create a site where
the public can be involved, I however don’t believe that they have fulfilled this. In the design outline the images show a number of paths leading around the butterflies, making public involvement minimal. As they light up at night this is could become an attraction for the area, bringing tourists, however this seems to be a waste of the energy which has been collected by the butterflies. Overall however I don’t think that the design is leading in its technology, rather i find the design to be based to heavily on the butterfly concept. Usage of solar panels is not new and innovative. The designs should be inspiring of ways to renew energy which has not been seen before as this could influence new ideas within the community about energy renewal.
AEOLIAN TRANSPORT: LAGI 2012 Emma Froh, Olivia Waller from the USA
Aims: Use wind turbine technology to transform wind into energy
Envisage: a project which will
transform Freshkills Park from a landfill to a community space. The design intent production and movement, the final pink form being made up of curved hill shaped lines to display this
I think it is a comprehensive design. Landscape architecture has been considered;how the seed dispersal of plants will be characterised by the wind turbines. During peak harvesting periods the archâ€™s glow bright, lighting up the night sky. I think this is a brilliant idea as it serves as a celebration of
energy renewing. This would become a reminding force to the public which could become a changing factor in the way people think. It contributes practically and ideologically to renewable energy. This design stands out as the design team has considered how their project would last over time on the site. Whilst the vibrant hot pink arches are not that appealing to me in that location, nor are they extremely complex from a design point of view, the opportunities they present for the future are exciting and promising, therefore Iâ€™m inclined to like this proposal.
Emma Froh & Olivia Waller, Aeolian Transport, (2012, USA: LAGI), <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/GV28B5J/>
ENERGY HARVESTING TECHNIQUES RESEARCH
GEOTHERMAL: Geothermal energy harvesting refers to the residual heat under the earth’s crust from the creation of the planet1 . Once the heat is extracted, energy can be collected. The heat can then be reused for other purpose after extraction. Sktech: The geothermal process understood by me
GREEN DIESEL Green Diesel uses naturally occurring oils, due to the shortage of petrol. The process involves heating like canola and vegetable, to produce die- the oil to 600 degrees2 which could lead to problematic issues with public involvement. sel. This is a modern issue
PHOTOVOLTALIC: INFRARED AND UV Infrared and UV Photo Voltaic energy generators are essentially Solar energy panels, however the advancement leads to a 24hour capture potential. Normal Solar Panels collect the thermal energy from the sun, Infrared and UV, however, just collect the infrared and UV rays from the sun7. This allows all of the visible light spectrum to filter through. The technology developed has created a glass with this type of energy collection within. Potentially, this could be used on a house and it would permit natural light in and collect energy as well. The technology also reduces internal heat gain within the building 8. The conversion efficience is extreemly high, up to 90%. Therefore maximum energy can be captured
Technology has been developed from solar panels, where “multiple thin films of varying absorption capabilities are required to catch the entire spectrum of light”10 and then store it. This technique could be used on site in a sculptural manner, seen in the sketch
KINETIC ENERGY GENERATORS
Piezoelectric Generators convert kinetic energy from mechanical strain into electrical energy3. When exposed to vibrations from weight placed upon them power is produced. An example is a footstep. From walking on the plate’s power can be produced4. Due to this some research is being taken to place them within footpaths. The energy collected would be used to power lights and other small scale road connected objects5. The downfall however, it does not have a 24hour effect, only when in use will the energy reproduced.
Therefore, whilst it is an easy way for energy to be produced it may not collect as much energy as something over a 24 hour period. The bonus, however, is that such a technique could be easily incoperated into which ever design as today.
HYDROELECTRICITY (HYDROKINETIC): VORTEX POWER Vortex power is a concept based on the idea that fish use water vortex energy to propel themselves through it . These vortices created by placing objects in flowing water creating obstacles for the water to move around. As it replicates nature, it is not ecologically damaging like some of the other hydroelectrically energy creators . Fins are placed in the water which in turn generates a current through vibration. This creates an efficient feedback loop . The idea originated at the University of Michigan where a VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy) was created. It “emulates the natural and destructive phenomenon of vortex induced vibration” known as VIV. This is “motion which is induced on a body facing an external flow due to the periodic irregularities in the flow caused by boundary layer separation” . These vibrating bodies only need 1-2 knots of vibration. It is still in the stage of development.
Due to the site context, water could be brought directly onto it and the public could be involved in the process of creating obstacles for the vortexes. An example of this could be through the creation of a water way for the public.
D ES I G N C O M P U TAT I O N Computation within architectural design is a means of extending design possibilities through the use of computer based programming. Kalay indicates in his paper “Architecture’s New Media” (2004) that computers can be programmed to follow a logical line of thought. The computer however must be programmed correctly by the user. As design aims to engage with a particular situation parametric design and computational design can create a larger branch of possibilities which previously may have been considered impossible. Oxman and Oxman push this point in their paper “Theories of the Digital Architecture” (2014) where they claim that “innovative technologies have become the driving force in the formulation of theories as well as producing a new wave of tectonic and material creativity” (pp.3).
"The design balances a formal relationship between courtyard, building, and roof. [The courtyard] creates a contemporary complement to the new roof, while reflecting the character and spirit of the historic building"20
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUE ROOF Foster and partners 2004 In 2004 Foster and Partners won the design competition for the new roof and courtyard at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington. Computing was essential in the design process of the roof. Early design ideas involved a diagonal grid structure, undulating over the courtyard. It was supported in these early sketches by Norman Foster, by eight columns16.
Once inputted into the computation program the geometry created a complex surface which was able to be manipulated to fit the specifications of the current building. The design was able to be pushed to create a form free of columns within the central courtyard. This created an open space “that flood the upper floors with natural light”17.
Computation as a design process allows for change and flexibility within the design. The programs have the ability to allow architects to “generate and explore architectural spaces and concepts through the writing and modifying of algorithms that relate to element placement, element configuration, and the relationships between elements. ”18 In the example of the Smithsonian roof, the use of computation allowed for independent development of the structure with precise control over it. Computation was beneficial in this design as it allowed for simpler modification and faster regeneration. Menges claims that 415 models of the roof were created in just a six month period19. Computation allows for many different ideas to be explored quickly. Especially where the brief is highly
structured, the use of algorithmic design can allow simple ideas which fit to the brief to be explored and pushed to more creative limits. This design is interesting to me as I appreciate how the use of computer design allowed the initial sketch, which used load bear columns, to be transformed into an open courtyard. I think that computation can enhance a design rather than make it. From this roof design we can see how something modern can be incorporated into an older design. I like the clash of the different periods and how they are connected through the courtyard.
PRECEDENT COMPUTATIONAL IDEAS
HYDRA PAVILION Asymptote Architects
The Hydra Pier Pavilion was the Winning entry for the international competition “acknowledging and celebrating the fast growing city of Haarlemmermee21 in Amsterdam. It uses computation to create a form which incorporated the site (the water it sits on becoming a major component of the design). The linear roof and curvilinear structure was obviously the product of computation. Such a form is modern in its design. Computation has redefined architecture as it “allows designers to extend their abilities to deal with highly complex situations. 22 A more traditional design uses rectilinear geometric shapes due to the inability to construct buildings which were otherwise designed. Computation, however, has allowed these more abstractive designs to become realised.
However the use of computation does not stop at the design process. In fact with this building computation continued into the construction stage of it. Octatube Space Structures was tasked with the construction of the design which forced them to explore “innovative means of digital production”23. In order to create the modern design, new building technologies needed to be founded and/or advanced. The main challenge revolved around the roof due to the double panelled curved cladding. With the introduction of new technologies in design, this advancement needs to be replicated within the construction industry. “The company developed a combined process of digital production and explosive forming”24 to solve the problem. The structure was inspired by “technologies of flight and hydra-engineering”25. It projects the design into the water surrounding and reflects the design as well. After implementing the ideas into computer programs, they were manipulated until they could become resolved. With computation, therefore the initial ideas and intents will shape the digitalisation stage. I liked this example as it shows how a creative and unique idea can become realised with the incorporation of computation and advanced
D ES I G N C O
O M P O S I T I O N / G E N E R AT I O N Generative design in architecture uses algorithms to create the look and design of the concept from a few parameters inputted by the architect. This allows for further exploration of ideas, surpassing what is able to be designed by hand. According to Peters computation “has the potential to provide inspiration and go beyond the intellect of the designer...
through the generation of unexpected results”29. The designer, however, does not become redundant, for their initiation of the algorithm and its inputs is vital. Peters continues to suggest that generative computation can be “fully integrated”30within the design process.
ADMIN, Cloudscape installation at the Royal Malta University, (2012, web: My Design Pick) <http://mydesignpick. com/2012/06/20/cloudscapeinstallation-at-the-royal-maltauniversity/>
Other forms of Computational design are more generative in terms of their shape through computer. This form of design has become a â€œmedium that supports a continuous logic of design thinking and makingâ€?26. To me this implies that the computer and designer work in tandem to create a form, an ever evolving form due to algorithmic design inputs. The form of the cloud[s]cape installation draws back to the ideas of circulation, flows and vortexes. A custom algorithm was created to define its curves and surface pattern. The pattern replicates itself due to this algorithm on the surface at different scales. This use of algorithmic design allowed them to achieve the initial design intents.
C O M P U TAT I O N A L DESIGN
Riccardo Bovo, Digital Morphologies Chair Design, (2012, UK: furninspiration.com) <http://www.furniii.com/ ideas/digital-morphologieschair/>
Computational design is not limited to architecture. Modern Furniture design exhibits the use of panelling. Whilst the form of the chair is set by the need, the design itself seems quite random. I imagine this surface to come from the lofting of a few curves which has then been panelled for fabrication.
Agata Kycia, Museum of Contemportary art in Warsaw- the use of real-time simulation in the design process, (2010, Graduation project: Workshops factory) <http://workshopsfactory.wordpress.com/ category/agata-kycia/>
Prof Achim Menges, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, (2011, Stuttgart: Institute for Computational Design) <http://icd.unistuttgart.de/?p=6553>
Other building forms are inspirational due to their use of computation to form the building shape and texture. Whilst the overall form may connect to an initial idea or sketch, it can be seen that computation has evolved the design to something that could not be sketched.
Council on Tall buildings and urban Habitat, Al Bahar Towers, Abu Dhabi, (2013, web: Council on Tall buildings and urban Habitat) <http://www.ctbuh.org/ TallBuildings/FeaturedTallBuildings/ AlBaharTowersAbuDhabi/tabid/3845/ language/en-US/Default.aspx>
Prof Achim Menges, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, (2011, Stuttgart: Institute for Computational Design) <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6553>
The bionic research pavilion is a great example of computational design. The panelled shape is a reference to sea urchin's plate skeleton morphology27 which as then replicated with computer software. The size of the panels and the patterns of them were completely controlled by the algorithm; the form of the building was then created by this. The complex geometry was further advanced by the use of computation in the construction process of the building. While it appears to have a curved form, all of the pieces are in fact straight puzzle pieces. This idea replicated the way of designing that Kalay talks about in his piece â€œArchitectures New Mediaâ€?28.
Generative Design, Contact (2012, London: GenerativeDesign) , <http:// www.generativedesign.co.uk/contact/>
This generative model from GenerativeDesign is a simple form, made of a number of geometrical shapes. These shapes underlie a surface which transforms these curves into a smooth and curved one. The transformation from geometrical to fluid shape is interesting to me. The surface is panelled into long strips which give the building a sense of unity. The downfall to the design is its practicality. Iâ€™m not sure that this building could be built. While it is quite easy to make a generative form, the actual process of turning the form into a design and then later construct it is a long process. A good design needs to have the ability to become reality, not simply stay as a generative form.
Generative Design, Contact (2012, London: GenerativeDesign) , <http:// www.generativedesign.co.uk/contact/>
The idea of cladding a surface with a panel that expresses the structure of the frame is interesting. The triangular like panels are of different sizes. It looks as if the size of these triangles is dependent on its position on the curve. This is due to an algorithmic formula which dictates the clustering of panels and their attraction to a specific point. This creates an interesting sculptural form which could be mimicked in my LGAI design. The use of generation has created an interesting facade to a structural member. Dietrich defines an algorithm as a recipe for getting computers to do something specific30.
Przemek Jaworski, Hello, ( 2009 web: Parametric Design) <http://www. parametricdesign.net/?paged=2>
Other architectural designs use a box like truss system to create aesthetical appeal. They provide stability and a frame to hold the building up in this instance; however I question the need for such extravagance on the exterior of a building. The problematic issue with design generation is the point at which to stop. In the case of this building, even though I know little about its purpose and design, it looks as if the designer has generated the idea for too long, turning something simple into something complex.
This principle however is not limited to architecture. In fact it has inspired many art pieces creating fluid free forms. These forms could inspire my creation of the LGIA form. Furthermore as it is a competition for a sculptural design, research into art forms is beneficial in inspiring my own design. Some of these inspirations come
from hand drawn art. This indicates that generation is not limited to computation itself. The artist designed it from lines which flowed â€œcontinuously, algorithmically, and randomlyâ€?31 . In the initial stages of the design process this is what I will aim to do. Create flowing objects, curved and smooth.
RIght: Ju Young Park, Interactive art and Computational Design, Spring 2012, (2012 Carnegie: Carnegie Mellon University), <http://golancourses.net/2012spring/02/29/ju-youngpark-generative-art/> Above: Scholz & Volkmer, Montblanc Generative Artworks, ( 2011, Germany: onformative), <http://www.onformative. com/work/montblanc-artworks/ >
From some research it seems like the ‘Nervous System’ has become inspiration in the generative design of jewellery, sculpture and furniture. The use of the random cellular pattern is generative as it is unpredictable. Below are some of the photos which interested me most and I took a particular liking to I feel that these patterns could help to inspire my
design at the inital stages, perhaps when generating panels. The use of this pattern, however I feel is not longer generative due to it’s high use. Part of being generative is the creation of new, never seen before designs. I will, therefore try to change this into something new.
Left: Jessica Rosenkrantz and Jesse Louis-Rosenberg, Nervous System Generative Design Studio, (Accessed 2014, Web: generactive.net), <http:// generactive.net/nervous-system-generativedesign-studio/>
Right: Tafline Laylin, Nervous System’s DIY App Lets Users Design Their Own Cellular Wooden Tables, ( 2013, Web: Inhabitat.com), <http://inhabitat.com/nervous-systems-diy-app-lets-usersdesign-their-own-cellular-wooden-tables/>
CONCLUSION & lEARNING OUTCOMES
CONCLUSION The research of precedent’s and research undertaken to learn about computation and generative design has been benefited in creating a starting point for my own designs. I have understood terms like ‘Generative’, ‘Computation’ and ‘Algorithm’ from completing the readings and then further developed this through the discovery of a number of precedents which use these concepts for their own designs. I would like to replicate this in my own work, not only because this must be done to meet the brief. I find the transition and transformations from my own inputs to something unpredictable and random intriguing. It is very different to other architectural experiences which I have had, where design intent is achieved early on and then the rest of the process becomes about achieving this intent. This is almost the opposite, where the whole
process becomes the creation of intent. I would like to use pattern as a major factor in my design approach. This is quite a broad statement; however I believe that the broadness will lead to initiative. The object of using generation is limitlessness. This adds to the significance of designing this way. However my approach is logical. Whilst I wish to explore these random and initiative forms, I want to design something which can be constructed. This perhaps is the innovative part of my approach. Many of the precedents I looked at were either not built, or the construction process became complex. From using algorithms to create a design output, the design can benefit in being different, innovative and unusual to what has been created.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES From Part A I feel that I have started to achieve a number of the objectives set out in the study guide. The first objective is one which has been looked at in the most detail. Through looking at precedents I have begun to consider how the brief can be tackled through the form of digital technologies. Furthermore I have been learning Rhino and Grasshopper to complete this in further weeks. I have research how other people have generated designs through the use of algorithms in preparation to generate my own set of design possibilities (objective two). Objective three involves the developing of skills in various 3D media, which I have been doing regularly
(please see the algorithmic sketchbook). All of this research and learning about the virtual programs has allowed me to begin to understand computational geometry. I have been able to competently analyse a number of modern design and design ideas and how these would inspire my own designs ( Objective 6).
F O OT N OT ES 1. Robert Ferry &Elizabeth Monoian, a Field guide to renewable energy technologies, LGIA 2012, pp. 2. Ibid, pp. 3. Piezotechnology, Energy Harvesting- The Piezo Effectt for generating Energy, (2013), <http://www.piceramic.com/energy_harvesting.php> [Accessed on 10/3/14] 4. Robert Ferry &Elizabeth Monoian, a Field guide to renewable energy technologies, LGIA 2012, pp. 5.Andriopoulou Symeoni, A review on Energy Harvesting from Roads, <http://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:549685/FULLTEXT01.pdf> 6. Piezotechnology, Energy Harvesting- The Piezo Effectt for generating Energy, (2013), <http://www.piceramic.com/energy_harvesting.php> [Accessed on 10/3/14] 7. Robert Ferry &Elizabeth Monoian, a Field guide to renewable energy technologies, LGIA 2012, pp. 8. Ibid, pp. 9. Ibid, pp. 10. Rick Martin, New PV Cell generates electricity from UV and IR light, April 2014, < http://www.gizmag.com/pv-cell-ultravioletinfrared-light/14708/> [ accessed, 10/3/14] 11. Robert Ferry &Elizabeth Monoian, a Field guide to renewable energy technologies, LGIA 2012, pp. 12. Ibid, pp. 13. Ibid, pp. 14. Michael M. Bernitsas & James C. MacBain, VIVACE: A NEW CONCEPT FOR HARVESTING HYDROKINETIC ENERGY, (publication date unknown) < http://www.nist.gov/tip/wp/pswp/upload/87_vivace_a_new_concept_for_harnessing_hydrokenetic_energy. pdf> [ accessed 11/3/14] 15. Ibid 16.Achim Menges, “ Instrumental Geometry”, Architectural Design, Vol. 76, Iss. 2, pp. 42-53, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ doi/10.1 002/ad.239/abstract 17. “Renovation of Historic Home for Two Smithsonian Museums—the Smithsonian American Art Museum and the National Portrait Gallery”, Smithsonian Institute, 2011, from http://americanart.si.edu/pr/facts/renovation_overview.pdf 18. Brady Peters, “Introduction” in Computation Works: Architectural Design, March 2013, pp.8-15, from http://au.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1119952867.html 19. Achim Menges, “ Instrumental Geometry”, Architectural Design, Vol. 76, Iss. 2, pp. 42-53, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ doi/10.1 002/ad.239/abstract 20. “Gustafson Guthrie Nichol Wins Tucker Design Award For Smithsonian’s Kogod Courtyard”, Bustler, 3/2/10, from http://www. bustler.net/index.php/article/gustafson_guthrie_nichol_wins_tucker_design_award_for_smithsonians_kogod_co/ 21. “Hydra Pier”, archspace.com, 8/7/02, from http://www.arcspace.com/features/asymptote-architecture/hydra-pier/ 22. Brady Peters, “Introduction” in Computation Works: Architectural Design, March 2013, pp.8-15, from http://au.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1119952867.html 23.Achim Menges, “ Manufacturing Diversity”, Architectural Design, Vol. 76, Iss. 2, pp. 70-77, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ doi/10.1 002/ad.242/abstract 24. Ibid, pp. 25. “Hydra Pier Pavilion”, ArchiTravel, Accessed 20/3/14, from http://www.architravel.com/architravel/building/hydra-pier-pavilion/ 26. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 27. Prof Achim Menges, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, (2011, Stuttgart: Institute for Computational Design) <http://icd.uni-stuttgart. de/?p=6553> 28. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 29. Brady Peters, “Introduction” in Computation Works: Architectural Design, March 2013, pp.8-15, from http://au.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1119952867.html 30. ibid 31. Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, Definition of ‘Algorithm’, 1999, The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press) 32. Ju Young Park, Interactive art and Computational Design, Spring 2012, (2012 Carnegie: Carnegie Mellon University), <http:// golancourses.net/2012spring/02/29/ju-young-park-generative-art/>
REFERENCING Achim Menges, “ Instrumental Geometry”, Architectural Design, Vol. 76, Iss. 2, pp. 42-53, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ doi/10.1 002/ad.239/abstract Achim Menges, “ Manufacturing Diversity”, Architectural Design, Vol. 76, Iss. 2, pp. 70-77, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ doi/10.1 002/ad.242/abstract Achim Menges ( prof), ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, (2011, Stuttgart: Institute for Computational Design) <http://icd.uni-stuttgart. de/?p=6553> ADMIN, Cloudscape installation at the Royal Malta University, (2012, web: My Design Pick) <http://mydesignpick.com/2012/06/20/ cloudscape-installation-at-the-royal-malta-university/> Agata Kycia, Museum of Contemportary art in Warsaw- the use of real-time simulation in the design process, (2010, Graduation project: Workshops factory) <http://workshopsfactory.wordpress.com/category/agata-kycia/> Andriopoulou Symeoni, A review on Energy Harvesting from Roads, <http://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:549685/FULLTEXT01.pdf> Bentley, Generative Design,(2014, USA: Bentley Architecture), <http://www.bentley.com/fr-FR/Products/GenerativeComponents/> Brady Peters, “Introduction” in Computation Works: Architectural Design, March 2013, pp.8-15, from http://au.wiley.com/WileyCDA/ WileyTitle/productCd-1119952867.html Council on Tall buildings and urban Habitat, Al Bahar Towers, Abu Dhabi, (2013, web: Council on Tall buildings and urban Habitat) <http://www.ctbuh.org/TallBuildings/FeaturedTallBuildings/AlBaharTowersAbuDhabi/tabid/3845/language/en-US/Default.aspx> Dave, “Hydra Pier”, Contemporist, 9/2/08, from http://www.contemporist.com/2008/02/09/hydra-pier/ Emma Froh & Olivia Waller, Aeolian Transport, (2012, USA: LAGI), <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/TGV28B5J/> “Hydra Pier”, archspace.com, 8/7/02, from http://www.arcspace.com/features/asymptote-architecture/hydra-pier/ “Hydra Pier Pavilion”, ArchiTravel, Accessed 20/3/14, from http://www.architravel.com/architravel/building/hydra-pier-pavilion/ Generative Design, Contact (2012, London: GenerativeDesign) , <http://www.generativedesign.co.uk/contact/> “Gustafson Guthrie Nichol Wins Tucker Design Award For Smithsonian’s Kogod Courtyard”, Bustler, 3/2/10, from http://www.bustler. net/index.php/article/gustafson_guthrie_nichol_wins_tucker_design_award_for_smithsonians_kogod_co/ Jessica Rosenkrantz and Jesse Louis-Rosenberg, Nervous System Generative Design Studio, (Accessed 2014, Web: generactive. net), <http://generactive.net/nervous-system-generative-design-studio/> Ju Young Park, Interactive art and Computational Design, Spring 2012, (2012 Carnegie: Carnegie Mellon University), <http://golancourses.net/2012spring/02/29/ju-young-park-generative-art/> Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 Michael M. Bernitsas & James C. MacBain, VIVACE: A NEW CONCEPT FOR HARVESTING HYDROKINETIC ENERGY, (publication date unknown) < http://www.nist.gov/tip/wp/pswp/upload/87_vivace_a_new_concept_for_harnessing_hydrokenetic_energy. pdf> [ accessed 11/3/14] Mirosław Struzik, Tadeusz Zdanowicz, Ph.D & Tomasz Pultowicz, LAGI Butterfly Project, (2012, Poland: LAGI) <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/MS071256/> Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1 –10 Piezotechnology, Energy Harvesting- The Piezo Effectt for generating Energy, (2013), <http://www.piceramic.com/energy_harvesting.php> [Accessed on 10/3/14] Pouyan Bizet, Iman Amini, Alireza Houbakht, Amin Amini, Delaram Zarnegar & Setareh Sedghi, Sky Domes, (2012, Iran: LAGI) <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/L053I31G/>
Przemek Jaworski, Hello, ( 2009 web: Parametric Design) <http://www.parametricdesign.net/?paged=2> “Renovation of Historic Home for Two Smithsonian Museums—the Smithsonian American Art Museum and the National Portrait Gallery”, Smithsonian Institute, 2011, from http://americanart.si.edu/pr/facts/renovation_overview.pdf Riccardo Bovo, Digital Morphologies Chair Design, (2012, UK: furninspiration.com) <http://www.furniii.com/ideas/digital-morphologies-chair/> Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, Definition of ‘Algorithm’, 1999, The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press) Rick Martin, New PV Cell generates electricity from UV and IR light, April 2014, < http://www.gizmag.com/pv-cell-ultravioletinfrared-light/14708/> [ accessed, 10/3/14] Scholz & Volkmer, Montblanc Generative Artworks, ( 2011, Germany: onformative), <http://www.onformative.com/work/montblanc-artworks/ > Tafline Laylin, Nervous System’s DIY App Lets Users Design Their Own Cellular Wooden Tables, ( 2013, Web: Inhabitat.com), <http://inhabitat.com/nervous-systems-diy-app-lets-users-design-their-own-cellular-wooden-tables/> V. Lobo, N. Mainsah, A. Banerjee, J.W. Kimball , Design Feasibility of a Vortex Induced Vibration Based Hydro-Kinetic Energy Harvesting System, November 27 2012, < http://www.researchgate.net/publication/224231475_Design_Feasibility_of_a_Vortex_Induced_Vibration_Based_Hydro-Kinetic_Energy_Harvesting_System> [accessed, 11/3/14]
PART B: DESIGN CRITERIA
CASE STUDY 1.0 : RESEA
Tes sam pat are
ARCHING AN ALGORITHMIC DESIGN
ssellation by principle is about using the me or a few of the same shapes to create a ttern which fits together perfectly. There e no gaps or overlapping in a tessellation.
Doing this on a surface, particularly a three dimensional surface, allows for simple fabrication. The use of the folded tessellation can create curves without the paper curving at all.
C A S E ST U DY 1
“voltaDom: MIT 2011 ” ( accessed 31/3/14: SJET) <http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html>
The VoltaDom by Skylar Tibbits attempts to reference the historic significance of vaulted barrels in architecture. It is constructed to celebrate MIT’s 150th anniversary1 . It is made up of a number of repeated vaults which line the corridor and work together with light to create a spectrum. It uses tessellation in its panelling form; a number of strips were printed to make construction easier. Also, the vaults have been repeated to define the whole structure. The repetitions have been scaled and skewed, as seen in the image, however it can be noticed that the root shape it the same. It is made from a number of Curves within curves which are made possible by “an innovative fabrication technique that transforms complex double curved vault construction to that of simply rolling a sheet of material. ”2
“‘Voussoir Cloud’ by IwamotoScott with Buro Happold” (2009: Archivenue) <http://www.archivenue.com/voussoir-cloud-byiwamotoscott-with-buro-happold/
The Voussair Cloud project by IwamotoScott uses similar principles to the VoltaDom. It too is based upon a vaulted structure which incorporates light into the design. It is made of thin, light wooden panels which are scored by a laser cutter and then panelled into the curved shape. It “is a landscape of vaults and columns consisting of clusters of three dimensional petals”3. It uses a the repetitive element of the petal, some being removed in certain sections. It becomes complex because the petals are not the same size. They “migrate to form greater density at the edges”4. This creates interest within the tessellation. Over 2300 petals were scripted by Rhino.
â€œFERMID by Behnaz Babazadehâ€? (2014: Design PlayGrounds) <http://designplaygrounds.com/ d ev i a n t s / fe r m i d - by - b e h n a z babazadeh/ >
This example known as FERMID, uses kinetic energy to create a living sculpture. Use of parametric designing creates a number of curved shapes repeated. They move, making the sculpture look like it is breathing. 5 The design uses flexibile panels. This could relate back to the brief. The use of renewable energy within the design is inspiring. The flexibility allows for user interface. In my design i might like to replicate this movement to represent the energy i have chosen.
“Transformers by IMADE” (2014: Design P l a y G ro u n d s ) < h t t p : / / designplaygrounds. co m / d ev i a n t s / transformers-by-i-ma-d-e/>
Radial Clusters are used in this example to create a tessellation of panels around a point6. I’m not sure whether this would be considered true tessellation due to the fact that there are multiple gaps within the design. However the principle of repetition has allowed the breaking up of the surface to allow light to exit the lantern.
M AT R I X E X P LO R AT I O N VOUSSOIR CLOUD: IWAMOTTO SCOTT
Addition of an X unit and slider
Basic shape given
Mesh Surface X= -.2 Y= 1 Z=-.2
Smooth Mesh Iterations: 5 Strenght: 2
Smooth Mes Strength: 2
Addition of an X and Y units, both with sliders
Boolean toggle ON In Weld Verticies
Smooth Mes Strenght: 7
Proximity Min: -.5 Max: 4
Boolean toggle ON Kangaroo: False
Transform Geometry and Number Slider
Boolean Toggle ON Kangaroo: False
Kangaroo Weld Verticies
3D Oct Tree
Change Surface which mesh connects too
M AT R I X E X P LO R AT I O N
In this design iteration I feel like I have taken the geometry as far as it will go. Using the Reciprocated plug in I created little lines in between points. I think that the look aesthetically is quite night, however when tested in a real life situation it probably would not be constructible.
By inputting a Facet Dome plug in I was able to create this curvilinear shape from a linear form. This is an interesting creation to me for that reason. I donâ€™t fully understand the logic behind the shape but I find it aesthetically interesting.
Using Kangaroo I was able to create a fluid and relaxed shape. Whilst I donâ€™t think that this shape in particular will help to formulate my future design, I feel that learning about kangaroo may be beneficial in later stages of my design. It was amazing to see the form move on screen. About the practicality of this in a real life situation, Iâ€™m doubtful.
Creating a mesh on a surface is not hard nor extremely interesting, however it allows for a grand amount of potential for future iterations. I already know that I can apply inputs like the Vorrinoi or the triangulation onto a mesh surface and achieve an interesting looking design quite easily. I believe using a mesh on the next case study will be beneficial and allow me to create a pattern on the surface.
C A S E ST U DY 2 . 0 : C R E AT I N G A N A LG O R I T H M I C D ES I G N STRIPS AND FOLDING DOUBLE AGENT WHITE BY THEVERYMANY
This week's task involves reverse engineering a building of our groups choosing. We chose Double Agent White to research and then develop on Rhino and Grasshopper. This building is seen to incoperate Strips and Folding. Strips and Folding incoperates the use of panelisation to create generative cladding and object design.
C A S E ST U DY 2
DOUBLE AGENT WHITE IN SERIES OF PROTOTYPICAL ARCHITECTURES Architect:
Marc Fornes/ Theverymany
The project was one of a series displaying Prototypical Architectures. It features a continuous surface where 9 different spheres intersect to create freedom from minimal components. It “uses Object Oriented computing to generate developable parts for fabrication of double curved surfaces”6. The Double Agent White material is used as it enables construction.
Theverymany is known for his “extensive body of experimental, highly organic, large scale and selfsupported structures, between art and architectures”7.
The construction of the form is reliant upon computational and generative design. The pattern overlaid hugs the geometrical structure beneath. There is a connection between structure and ornament which creates a dynamic design. This combination interests me as I find the design appealing in its contrasts between simplicity and complexity.
C A S E ST U DY 2
REVERSE ENGINEERING THE DESIGN Double Agent White After researching the Double Agent white design my group attempted to recreate it digitally using Rhino and Grasshopper. It was discovered that the design was created by intersecting nine spheres. These nine spheres are unique in size. This became the base point for our rhino modelling. Using the sphere tool we created a three-dimensional sphere in Rhino. A slider was added to control the radius. A plane was added with the point connections in Rhino to allow for future movement. These points were also given sliders so that they have the potential to move. The central sphere however is connected to a specific point in rhino.
A smooth mesh component was added to achieve a smooth surface. when this input was not put in a hexagonal shape was created with points.
This was then replicated nine times and they were positioned on the largest and central sphere. This was done in a random and purely aesthetical fashion as I believe that this would have been the basis when the actually structure was designed. These are the first two spheres which I created. I have again applied the smooth mesh input.
The next stage was intersecting the spheres. We used the solid union command. This created one shape from the nine. The Grasshopper input can be seen to the left..
The next stage was intersecting the spheres. We used the solid union command. This created one shape from the nine.
The surface was divided into a number of points.
One of the trials to achieve surface pattern was the use of the arc tool. This, however just created the arcs on a horizontal rather than verticle plane. It was therefore not appropriate.
The next stage involved placing a pattern on the surface of the object. This was a difficult process due to the curved nature of the shape. After many trials and errors we used the cull pattern to create a random selection of faces which were deleted. This gave us the final output. A number of different true/false combinations were trialed. This is an example of one.
The mesh was turned into a surface to be able to ofset it. It was offset internally by a charge of -1 Both of the surfaces were later culled to create the same patterns on the internal face. This created an extreemly complext mesh with a number of different faces. Im not too sure how this can be progressed further.
C A S E ST U DY 2
REVERSE ENGINEERING THE DESIGN: Week 2 Double Agent White
Due to the intense complication surrounding the creation of the pattern on the model it was decided that the base form which we would work from was this. It is simply the union of the spheres, however as we would like to move away from the spheres, due to the amount of trouble which they have given us, i see this as positive. Without many initial inputs i can play around to create something better as i go along.
T EC H N I Q U E D E V E LO P M E N T Creation of a matrix
Moving on from reverse engineering the design as a group we had to create a number of iiterations of the design. This is to be set-up in a matrix.
T E C H N I Q U E D E V E LO P M E N T ITERATIONS AND POSSIBLE EXPLORATIONS
T E C H N I Q U E D E V E LO P M E N T OPTIONS TO FURTHER CONSIDER
A funky design created through the lofting of circles between the two offset layers of our Brep shape. The circles intersect creating a nice pattern on the surface. We have yet to decide how this could potentially renew energy, however it is extremely sculptural. Its sculptural nature is defined by the delicateness which the circles create.
Here, a feathering of layering is created. This design was selected for its delicacy and flexiblity. A possible direction would be using the petal-le layers to blow in the wind and create wind-energy. Another option would be to use magnetism to create a field as moveable parts draw near to each other.
This design was chose difference in relation to ples in the matrix. Usin were able to move aw cal shape. A dynamic ated through the inte different cones. With f of this design we belie tential to be an interact from as dictated by th perhaps make use of when connecting it to o ing. Many of the pas used a portion of th to allow the structure usually in relation to lig the tips of the cones lig tain amount of energy Another idea to explor of the sides of the co then rising throughou the magnetic force som site users. This will be through prototyping.
en for its point of o our other examng a cone input we way from a spheric design was creersection of these urther exploration eve that it has potive and sculptural e brief. We could f its pointed form our energy renewst years examples he energy created to do something, ht. We could make ght up when a cerhas been created. re is the possibility one flattening and ut the day due to mehow created by e further explored
28: Onion shape
Using contours with an attractor input for the distance between them an interesting form was created. It is extremely spherical, however the patterns created by the contour is of interest to us. Perhaps we could have disks on an axis, shaped like each contour, which move. As they move and bang into one another they could help to create the magnetic energy which we are trying to create.
An explosive design with lines protruding from a central sphere was created through a map-to-surface input. The shape created is unique and different; we find it extremely interesting and see lots of potential for further interpolation. The central sphere could be a gathering area for the site, the protruding elements a sculptural design. This would allow users to contemplate the design from within it. Possibly the design could be even more user friendly by allowing it to be climbed. A design such as this one would also allow us to cover a large amount of the site, which itself is actually quite large. The design could be turned on its side or created upright. This flexibility is appealing as it promotes further exploration.
his prototype explores the basic form that we have created in Grasshopper and Rhino. It also tests the interaction between spheres and how it would be possible to change the number of components in the overall form. This iteratative prototype is organic, which creates a soft and relaxed form. It would be an interesting paradigm change have an energy source that is delicate in form as opposed to a machine with harsh edges. Here we employed flexible twigs to wrap around a central spherical space. This natural material would be easily available at the LAGI site in Denmark, as Scandanavia is famous for its timber.
wo different materials were tested in the creation of this prototype. Firstly a normal paper one, followed by a thicker card. Whilst the thicker card was a more durable and better looking outcome, with the thinner paper I was able to weave the strands into one another to create the form at the top. Both were made in the same fashion, by strips of paper being cut from the edge to the outline of a circle. Due to the issue with sticking the strips together at the top of cone we began think about incorporating the renewing of energy and making the design more user friendly. Perhaps we could design a moving structure where the strips folded down and up during the day dependant on certain factors.
n order to emulate the softness and delicacy of the form obtained in our explorations, we used black tissue paper. If this option were to be further explored however, other possibilities would have to be explored. Thin slices of wood could be used to construct an incredibly beautiful piece. Other options could include using canvas or another waterproof material. An exciting possibility could be to use rubbish and junk from the surrounding waterways to create a space that produces energy and awareness of litter in the sea. This installation could be added to by people who use the site - in a way, a type of community art project.
he central sphere in this design, we imagine, would be a gathering area for the site. The area would most likely need to be enlarged. With a rough site cut out (not to scale) we randomly created a nest pattern around the sphere roughly copying the grasshopper prototype we created. However, we turned the grasshopper design on its side when creating this prototype as we felt it would fit the brief better. The point of interest in this prototype is the large footprint of it. By using a random scattered pattern and perhaps increasing the number of domes around the site, most of the site could be incorporated into the design.
T EC H N I Q U E
P RO P OSA L
Proposing a design to take forward into part c
continuing to develop our design based on the reverse-engineering exersize we aimed to broaden our design and move away from the spherical shape to come to a proposal.
T EC H N I Q U E P RO P OSA L
DIGITAL PROTOTYPE #1
Physical prototype number 4 was then replicated in a digital form. It was created through populating a surface with points and forming arcs in between those points at random intervals. The sphere trims any of the arcs intersecting it creating that central gathering space. I was not able to create a number of different starting
points for the arc, many of them begin at the same point for some reason., even though they all end at different points. After some contemplation, however it was realised that having one dense starting point for all of the arcs is more sculptural than having each arc starts where another ends. This way it seems less symmetrical and more random.
T EC H N I Q U E P RO P OSA L
DIGITAL PROTOTYPE #1
This physical prototype was created based on the digital model which we created. The aim of this was to see how the arched pipes which were made in rhino will fare once being created with paper. Straight away issues were run into with the creation of the pipe. It was not a smooth curve, as grasshopper had modelled, rather the paper bended at odd angles creating a pointed form. In order to create a smoother curve different folds and papers were experimented with. This twisted form created by folding the paper around itself was the best suited as it curved but still maintained a pipe-like form. This allowed the structural form to be replicated to a certain extent. We propose to apply this system to the site with the central sphere area functioning as a gathering area for people to view the sculpture and the energy being created. Seeing that our energy renewal technique focuses around water and magnetism we propose that magnetic fields could be created between the pipes and as the wind blows through the site, knocking the pipes together at their apexes, energy would be created.
T EC H N I Q U E P RO P OSA L
DIGITAL PROTOTYPE #2
This model was created through offsetting lines and creating surfaces in grasshopper. We used our baked sphere surface as a brep, with one of the contours formed through the matrix as a central curve. From this we were able to offset the points and extrude upwards. The surfaces finish where the spheres finished. This lead to an elegant formation of curved surfaces around a central point.
T EC H N I Q U E P RO P OSA L
DIGITAL PROTOTYPE #2
We then tested the design in a real life situation. It was a positive result. We were able to successfully achieve the creation of the curved surface without too much difficulty. As we are considering Vortex power as our energy renewing technique this design is perfect. Should we project the surfaces into water they would create obstacles for the water to flow around. This would create the energy which could be sent to the grid. Potentially the middle area could be a area for the users of the site to inhabit so that can view the process.
T EC H N I Q U E P RO P OSA L
DIGITAL PROTOTYPE #13
This digital model was created in grasshopper by using field attractors which made a series of lines over a sphere like form. Once the lines were piped, an elegant form with a number of interconnecting and intertwined arcs was created. Due to the small nature of the pipes we decided that prototyping this using the card cutter or manual prototyping would be difficult and almost impossible to replicate properly. It was therefore decided to look into 3D printing.
T EC H N I Q U E P RO P OSA L
DIGITAL PROTOTYPE #13
We aimed to test the model outside of the virtual world of Rhino where there was no gravity. We wanted to know if the model would perform well in a real life situation. Due to the fine members, in some areas the model failed, however we now know that if we were to continue with this design we would need to take this factor into further consideration.
T EC H N I Q U E P RO P OSA L
Scandinavian Bathing Culture
Within Scandinavia public bathing has held a place in tradition from centuries ago. It was used as a means of hygiene since before the middle ages. In Sweden the â€˜Sweat lodgeâ€™ developed, influenced by Asia8. Public bathing, however is a custom seen in many places throughout Europe. Budaphest is another country where this custom is prevalent. The amount of ornamentation used in these buildings was enormous, perhaps indicating their importance to the city and society. http://www.memetics.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/How-to-Enjoy-the%E2%80%9CCity-of-Healing-Waters%E2%80%9D-600x450.jpg
“Copenhagen Harbor Bath/PLOT” 05 Jan 2009. ArchDaily. Acessed 3/4/14, from http://www. archdaily.com/11216/copenhagen-harbour-bath-plot/
The Copenhagen Harbor Bath located within a close proximity to our site has also used this idea of public bathing in their design on an old port in Copenhagen9. They transformed “an industrial port and traffic junction [into] the cultural and social centre of the city” according to Archidaily. It allows for connection between the port and the installation, with the installation extending over the water. It uses modern design to reconnect the Danish to their roots.
T EC H N I Q U E P RO P OSA L
Renewable Energy Technique
The solar tubular panels are beneficial as they both create electricity through capturing solar, infrared or UV rays, and heat water at the same time. Once a PV panel in general heats up past its peak, it is not able to efficiently produce energy anymore. The benefit of heating water is that through the heating process the panel is cooled down as the heat is
transmitted. This allows for the creation of more energy than a normal solar panel10. As it both creates energy and heats water we believe it to be perfect for our concept.
T EC H N I Q U E P RO P OSA L
We propose that the design will be partially dug into the ground. It will be made of photovoltaic tubular panels to collect energy from the sunâ€™s rays. There will also be a number of public baths incorporated into the valleys of the design. Heat emission from the collections will be used to heat the water. Other areas of the site will be used for gathering areas, particularly under the apexes of the design.
T EC H N I Q U E P RO P OSA L
the little mermaid statue
The Design will be placed on the left hand side of the sight so that views of the little mermaid statue can be appreciated by site users. Also tourists at the Little Mermaid can see our site. It is also placed here as harbour water is to be used for the baths. We still need to discover how this is exactly possible, however due to a difference of 200mm water height between high and low tides a pump system would need to be incorporated.
179.71 LAGI SITE 101˚ 10.38 63.90
all units in metres
water taxi terminal PAGE 103
lEARNING OUTCOMES & DIRECTION
Feedback From the feedback during the intrem presentations it is clear that the next stage for our group is to further explore the capabilities of the energy renewing technology we have chosen. This will allow us to use it better within our design. We have to continue to fiddle with the final design to perfect it’s form, especially where it concaves underneath itself.
Learning Objectives Objective 7: Developing “the ability to make a case for proposals” We were able to anticipate the short comings of potential design proposals which we began to create with prototypes 1 and 2, the reason for starting afresh and creating digital prototype #3. Once we had associated the design to the brief and a cultural connection we realised the shortcoming of our selected energy technique, vortex power. Instead of sticking with it we researched new techniques and found the Tubular solar panels. Objective 8: begin developing a personalised repertoire of computational techniques As seen through my algorithmic sketchbook and the creation of the digital prototypes I am beginning to become more comfortable using Grasshopper and all of its plug ins. For the creation of the matrix I learnt how to use Kangaroo, Weave-a-bird, lunchbox and Starling. I found it most logical to implements what was taught in the tutorials to our algorithm when creating the matrix. This did not always work, however I felt comfortable fiddling with the algorithm to try and make it work. I was successful sometimes. Objective 2: developing “an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation” Objective 7: develop foundational understandings of computational geometry, data structures and types of programming. At the beginning of this process due to the case study selected my group was very focused around the sphere shape. The initial iterations were extremely spherical and it didn’t seem as if we could move past this shape. However we decided that we had to find a way to create different geometries. In some cases (i.e our final three prototypes) we either started with a blank file and used the knowledge gained from the initial exercise to inform our design or just used the baked brep shape to inform part of our design. From doing this I feel as if I thoroughly explored the algorithm and how it could be changed if I started again. Objective 3: developing skills in various three-dimensional media” As previously stated I have seen an improvement in myself in being able to problem solve when in the virtual programs. Through using the 3D printer I was able to translate this understanding from a purely virtual knowledge to an understanding of how it would perform in the real world with gravity.
F O OT N OT ES
1. “voltaDom: MIT 2011” ( accessed 31/3/14: SJET) <http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html> 2. “Skylar Tibbits: voltaDom” ( accessed 31/3/14: Arts at MIT) <http://arts.mit.edu/fast/fast-light/fast-installation-skylar-tibbits-vdom/> 3. “‘Voussoir Cloud’ by IwamotoScott with Buro Happold” (2009: Archivenue) <http://www.archivenue.com/voussoir-cloud-by-iwamotoscott-with-buro-happold/> 4. “Voussior Cloud” (2008: IwamotoScott Architecture) < http://www.iwamotoscott.com/VOUSSOIR-CLOUD> 5. “FERMID by Behnaz Babazadeh” (2014: Design PlayGrounds) <http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/fermid-by-behnaz-babazadeh/ > 6. Escobedo, Jessica “DOUBLE AGENT WHITE IN SERIES OF PROTOTYPICAL ARCHITECTURES” (2012: Evolo) <http://www.evolo.us/architecture/double-agent-white-in- series-of-prototypical-architectures-theverymany/ 7. “Marc Fornes and Theverymany” (accessed 5/4/14) <http://theverymany.com/about/> 8. Hoffman, Anna “ Quick History: Public Baths & Bathing” 5.1 2.11, from http://www.apartmenttherapy.com/quick-history-baths-bathing-146544 9. “Copenhagen Harbor Bath/PLOT” 05 Jan 2009. ArchDaily. Acessed 3/4/14, from http://www.archdaily.com/11216/copenhagen-harbour-bath-plot/ 10. Emspak, Jessie “Tubular Solar Panels create Electricity, Hot water” 11.4.1 2 from http://news.discovery.com/tech/alternative-power-sources/naked-energy-tubular-solar-120411. htm
“ARTICULATED CLOUD” ( 2012: Ned Kahn Studio’s) <http://nedkahn.com/portfolio/articulated-cloud/ > “Copenhagen Harbor Bath/PLOT” 05 Jan 2009. ArchDaily. Acessed 3/4/14, from http://www.archdaily.com/11216/copenhagen-harbour-bath-plot/ Escobedo, Jessica “DOUBLE AGENT WHITE IN SERIES OF PROTOTYPICAL ARCHITECTURES” (2012: Evolo) <http://www.evolo.us/architecture/double-agent-whitein-series-of-prototypical-architectures-theverymany/ FERMID by Behnaz Babazadeh” (2014: Design PlayGrounds) <http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/fermid-by-behnaz-babazadeh/ > Hoffman, Anna “ Quick History: Public Baths & Bathing” 5.1 2.11, from http://www.apartmenttherapy.com/quick-history-baths-bathing-146544 http://www.memetics.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/How-to-Enjoy-the-%E2%80%9CCity-of-Healing-Waters%E2%80%9D-600x450.jpg “Hypo Surface” ( accessed 31/3/14: Hyposurface) <http://hyposurface.org/> “Marc Fornes and Theverymany” (accessed 5/4/14) <http://theverymany.com/about/> “POLYP.lux by SOFTlab” (2014: Design PlayGrounds) <http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/polyp-lux-by-softlab/> “Skylar Tibbits: voltaDom” ( accessed 31/3/14: Arts at MIT) <http://arts.mit.edu/fast/fast-light/fast-installation-skylar-tibbits-vdom/> “Transformers by IMADE” (2014: Design PlayGrounds) <http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/transformers-by-i-m-a-d-e/> “voltaDom: MIT 2011 ” ( accessed 31/3/14: SJET) <http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html> “Voussior Cloud” (2008: IwamotoScott Architecture) < http://www.iwamotoscott.com/VOUSSOIR-CLOUD> “‘Voussoir Cloud’ by IwamotoScott with Buro Happold” (2009: Archivenue) <http://www.archivenue.com/voussoir-cloud-by-iwamotoscott-with-buro-happold/>
PART C: DETAILED DESIGN
D ES I G N C O N C E PT Feedback analysis
Further exploration based upon the feedback of the interm presentations. My group needed to consider the technology to a more indepth level. We also needed to consider how it could be constructed in our proposed design.
H Y B R I D T U B U L A R S O L A R PA N E LS
THE TECHNOLOGY Hybrid Tubular Solar Panels are a new age technology. They are still experimental however they were chosen as they are able to produce energy from solar power more efficiently due to its ability to heat water. Regular PV’s operate at a 20% efficiency rate and tend to stop producing energy efficiently after they have reached a certain temperature, typically 77degrees Celsius1 . The advantage of using the hybrid tubular system is its ability to cool itself down to continue to produce peak amounts of electricity. The water which flows through the vacuum tubes within the larger tube cools the tube down through transferring the heat to the water2 . This water will
then heat the water of our spa’s. The ideal temperature of a hot spring according to Peninsular Hot springs is 50 degrees3. The panels however can achieve temperature of 1204 degree’s so the hot water will have to be continually mixed with cold water from the bay or mains. The water running through the tubes will be drawn from the bay and then released back into the bay. There could also be an issue with the salt in the water in the bay. For this reason it may need to be filtered.
IMAGE: Quaschning, Volker, “Solar Thermal water heating” Renewable Energy World, 2004, pp. 95-99, accessed from http://www.volker-quaschning.de/ articles/fundamentals4/index_e.php
Naked Energy, “The Product: Technology’ 2012 http://www.nakedenergy.co.uk/product/how-it-works/
H Y B R I D T U B U L A R S O L A R PA N E LS
DENMARK In Denmark the optimal positioning for solar panel is at an angle of 45 to 60 degreeâ€™s5. Due to the curved nature of our design, some areas will fit into this perfectly while others
will not fit. Particularly the areas which will be covered by the bath bowl will not perform. These areas will not be made of the product, instead only glass tubes.
In Denmark the average Photovoltaic outputs 100 to 120 per kWh per m2 of solar PV. Naked Energy, one of the few companies who have a hybrid solar tube claims that their tubes are 45% more energy efficient than normal solar panels. This is due to three reasons. Firstly this was due to the water cooling aspect. Secondly the tubes have advanced Solar Panel
technologies within them undertaken by Imperial College London. Thirdly, they work very well in cold, cloudy or otherwise unfavourable conditions. Even if this became an issue the technology could be further advanced through the implementation of infrared or ultraviolet panels as these lights are accessible almost 24hours of the day.
Naked Energy, â€œThe Product: Technologyâ€™ 2012 http://www.nakedenergy.co.uk/product/how-it-works/
H Y B R I D T U B U L A R S O L A R PA N E LS
SUNLIGHT- CPH Copenhagen has on average 18 hours of sunlight in the summer and 7hours in the winter. This gives an annual solar resource of 975kWh per sq m according to Gasmia9.
Kobenhavn Denmark, GAISM, accessed 5/2014, http://www.gaisma.com/en/ location/kobenhavn.html
SUNLIGHT- MEL In comparison to Melbourne the sunlight seems quite similar. As does the cloud cover and clearness, both places averaging at 0.43 clearness. The temperature in Melbourne averages at 5 degrees higher than Copenhagen.
Melbourne Australia, GAISM, accessed 5/2014, http://www.gaisma.com/en/ location/melbourne.html
H Y B R I D T U B U L A R S O L A R PA N E LS
SUNLIGHT- LOND London's sun pattern is extreemly similar to Copenhagen. The cloud cover 38% It's temperature on a yearly average is 3 degree's higher than Copenhagen at 11 degrees. Temperature however has little impact on the tubes performance. Due to the similarity between London and Copenhagen we feel that information about the panels energy output in London will be similar to that of Copenhagen.
London United Kingdom, GAISM, accessed 5/2014, http://www.gaisma.com/ en/location/london.html
ENERGY OUTPUT The system we propose combines the production of electricity and hot water. The electricity created by the solar panels will all be sent to the grid as there is enough energy absorbed by the tubes to heat the water without impacting
the electricity production. Indeed, this can be seen through evacuated tube solar hot water. These tubes are also well suited to extremely cold temperatures and work in low-light.
"Solar Panels - Solar Hot Water" Navitron, http://www.navitron.org.uk/page. php?id=26&catId=71
The average monthly output of 20 tubes (47mm diameter, 1.5m long) in the UK are seen in the chart above12 . Therefore the annual average is 4.49 kWh13. This system has a positive output of energy.
On site, the energy will be used for three purposes: - pumping water from the bay into the design (the tubes theselves are self pumping. - filtering the water of salt (if this becomes an issue) - Cooling the water down; however this could also be achieved through using water from the mains supply.
H Y B R I D T U B U L A R S O L A R PA N E LS
CHANGES TO THE DESIGN
F O OT N OT ES
1. Emspak, Jessie “Tubular Solar Panels create Electricity, Hot water” 11.4.1 2 from http://news.discovery.com/tech/alternative-power-sources/naked-energy-tubular-solar-120411. htm 2. ibid 3. The Benefits of Bathing”, Peninsula Hot Springs, 2013, http://www.peninsulahotsprings.com/bathing/the-benefits-of-bathing-balneology 4. Stenkjaer , Nicolaj “Solar Cell’s In Denmark” Nordic Folk Centre, 2009, http://www.folkecenter.net/gb/rd/solar-energy/pv-market/solarcells_denmark/ 5. ibid 6. Archives (Jetson Green), “Hybrid Solar Tube Panels by Naked Energy” Jetson Green 2012, http://www.jetsongreen.com/2012/03/naked-energy-vitru-pvt-solar-dual-output. html 7. Solar Panels Plus “Frequently Asked Questions” 2014, http://www.solarpanelsplus.com/frequently-asked-questions/#2 8. Low Carbon Power Generation” Engineering Timelines, 2014, http://www.engineering-timelines.com/why/lowCarbonCopenhagen/copenhagenPower_04.asp 9. Melbourne Australia, GAISM, accessed 5/2014, http://www.gaisma.com/en/location/melbourne.html 10. Kobenhavn Denmark, GAISM, accessed 5/2014, http://www.gaisma.com/en/location/kobenhavn.html 11. “Low Carbon Power Generation” Engineering Timelines, 2014, http://www.engineering-timelines.com/why/lowCarbonCopenhagen/copenhagenPower_04.asp 12. "Solar Panels - Solar Hot Water" Navitron, http://www.navitron.org.uk/page.php?id=26&catId=71 13. ibid
Archives (Jetson Green), “Hybrid Solar Tube Panels by Naked Energy” Jetson Green 2012, http://www.jetsongreen.com/2012/03/naked-energy-vitru-pvt-solar-dual-output.html Emspak, Jessie “Tubular Solar Panels create Electricity, Hot water” 11.4.1 2 from http://news.discovery.com/tech/alternative-power-sources/naked-energy-tubular-solar-120411.htm “Low Carbon Power Generation” Engineering Timelines, 2014, http://www.engineering-timelines.com/why/lowCarbonCopenhagen/copenhagenPower_04.asp Naked Energy, “The Product: Technology’ 2012 http://www.nakedenergy.co.uk/product/how-it-works/ "Solar Panels - Solar Hot Water" Navitron, http://www.navitron.org.uk/page.php?id=26&catId=71 Solar Panels Plus “Frequently Asked Questions” 2014, http://www.solarpanelsplus.com/frequently-asked-questions/#2 Stenkjaer , Nicolaj “Solar Cell’s In Denmark” Nordic Folk Centre, 2009, http://www.folkecenter.net/gb/rd/solar-energy/pv-market/solarcells_denmark/ The Benefits of Bathing”, Peninsula Hot Springs, 2013, http://www.peninsulahotsprings.com/bathing/the-benefits-of-bathing-balneology Quaschning, Volker, “Solar Thermal water heating” Renewable Energy World, 2004, pp. 95-99, accessed from http://www.volker-quaschning.de/articles/fundamentals4/ index_e.php Kobenhavn Denmark, GAISM, accessed 5/2014, http://www.gaisma.com/en/location/kobenhavn.html Melbourne Australia, GAISM, accessed 5/2014, http://www.gaisma.com/en/location/melbourne.html