tiny house, big thesis alyssa danielewicz
Thesis Master of Architecture
Tiny House, Big Thesis Alyssa Danielewicz
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture
________________________________________________ Craig Saunders, AIA Thesis Supervisor Department of Architecture
________________________________________________ Daniel Davis, AIA, LEED bd+c Thesis Coordinator Graduate Program Director Department of Architecture
________________________________________________ Louis Manzione, Ph. D. Dean College of Engineering,Technology, and Architecture Department of Architecture College of Engineering, Technology, and Architecture University of Hartford May 15th, 2017
I would like to thank Craig Saunders and Ioana Barac for advising and inspiring me throughout the design process. Together they pushed me to achieve a project full of exploration, creativity, and fun.
table of contents
proposal position program analysis precedents conceptual design schematic design design development final design references epilogue
6 8 20 30 68 90 110 136 186 192
This thesis will study the tiny house movement, focusing on completely designing one tiny house. The tiny house movement is about the simple and environmentally conscious lifestyle achieved by living in residences that are less than 500 square feet. This movement has become a craze because of its many appealing benefits, such as affordability, connecting with nature, on experiences rather than possessions, having a sense of community, and sustainable design. The question I am studying with my thesis is How can a minimalist lifestyle be reflected in architecture?
I am intrigued by the tiny house movement and its many benefits to people and the environment. Through the design of a tiny house and a community, I can explore ideas of the movement at different scales. I would like to either work for or start a firm that specializes in tiny houses, which is what inspired the idea for my thesis.
The majority of tiny houses are built on wheels, allowing owners to frequently travel. This is why I am proposing to study my tiny house in multiple different contexts. In order for my design to be successful, it needs to respond to different surroundings. Although it is highly uncommon and undesirable for architecture to not have a strong relationship with its site, the success of this thesis will come from the ability to relate to multiple sites. The tiny house movement has created a new sense of community, where homeowners are bonded digitally, as they reside all over the country. The ability to travel and meet up with one another creates ever-changing physical communities as well.
Each tiny house is fully customized to its ownersâ€™ lifestyle, so it is impossible to design one â€œperfectâ€? prototype. To accomplish the design of a tiny house, I will select a client with specific interests. The house will be detailed in its entirety (as it is a small project). Because of the project size, many tiny house owners construct the project themselves, or at least assist with it. Therefore, I would like to also explore and present the most appropriate construction methods for the project.
Introduction Domestic architecture is one of the few building types that embody character and experience, reflecting the people that reside in them. Houses are unique because of how personalized they can be, since they cater to homeowners rather than the general public. In recent years, the tiny house movement has become increasingly popular, allowing homeowners to get rid of all their unnecessary items and pair down to the essentials. Tiny houses, although containing a bare minimum of belongings, are able to portray their owners’ character much better than a traditional sized house. These homes also allow the owners to connect strongly with nature and live a more fulfilling life.
“In recent years, the tiny house movement has become increasingly popular, allowing homeowners to get rid of all their unnecessary items and pair down to the essentials.”
“The best location for a microhouse is somewhere as wild and natural as you can manage.”
Building Type In The rustic, ‘temporary’ microhouse, John Vivian analyzes tiny homes and provides suggestions on how to build them based on the most successful techniques that have been employed by owners and builders of tiny homes over the years. The article begins with acknowledgment of the original tiny house, the owner of which has inspired Vivian and many others to follow in his footsteps. “The foundations of the first true American microhouse—and the philosophy that changed society’s attitude toward personal freedom and man’s relationship with nature—were laid ‘near the end of March, 1845,’ when Henry David Thoreau, a Harvard dropout from Concord, Massachusetts, borrowed an ax, walked a mile and a half to Walden Pond, and began to build a ten-by-fifteen foot one-room cabin of hand-hewn logs and recycled shanty boards fastened with salvaged nails and wooden pegs” (Vivian, 1998).
According to Vivian, the best location for a microhouse is somewhere as wild and natural as you can manage. These smaller homes often do not require a foundation, therefore bringing very little disturbance to nature. “A hand-built microhouse rests lightly on the earth, and you can site one in places where limited access, rugged topography, environmental ethics, or law prohibits conventional construction” (Vivian, 1998). The majority of these homes are on wheels, allowing them to be transported to multiple sites without leaving much of a footprint. By taking mobility into consideration, owners of microhouses have the ability to discover and become part of different environments, creating a strong connection with nature.
Perhaps the most important aspect to tiny homes is multi-functional space and furniture, carefully selected and designed to serve multiple purposes. Vivian references Thoreau’s 150 square foot cabin for its admirable use of space. “Thoreau’s high shallow Rumford-design fireplace and stove were flanked by simple cooking facilities on one side and a combined work and dining table and chairs on the other. At the far wall was the bed and a nightstand or two for the water pitcher, washbowl, and chamber pot…Against the middle walls was a small desk to keep writing supplies and a freestanding closet or chest of drawers to store clothing, tools, and equipment…Thoreau built his table with three legs, which saved foot space” (Vivian, 1998). Because everyone has different needs, tiny houses should be designed specifically for the owner and what is essential to them. Thoreau’s main hobby was writing, which is why fitting a desk into his house was of utmost importance. Every square inch of a microhouse matters, therefore minimizing down to the bare essentials is a requirement for anyone looking to live in one. This task is more commonly known as downsizing; before building a tiny home, owners will go through all of their belongings and eliminate anything that does not serve a daily purpose. “I have a theory that anything you really need should be in sight and available for instant use. Anything you squirrel away in a drawer or closet is as good as lost forever…The same is to rid of stuff that gets dusty; it’s not being used enough to warrant keeping” (Vivian, 1998). Vivian suggests designing with plenty of windows for natural light, and using the remaining wall space to hang belongings. Integrating clever storage ideas, like floor to ceiling bookcases that have a small footprint, or hanging items that are frequented less often from the rafters, will help make use of all available space. It is important for every item to have a home and a purpose. Every microhouse owner needs to fully embrace minimalism in order to live successfully in one of these homes.
“Every square inch of a microhouse matters, therefore minimizing down to the bare essentials is a requirement for anyone looking to live in one.” Domestic architecture is constantly evolving based on current needs and desires of society. Dwellings may also be designed as a way to disagree with contemporary methods and ideas. Thoreau designed his house on Walden Pond as not only a way to retreat from society, but also as an attempt to live a minimalistic lifestyle that opposed living in excessive luxury.
Houses began to grow in size alongside improvements in economy and healthcare. The development of medicine offered a much longer lifespan that prevented people from dying at an early age. This inclined people to build larger houses and own more things; they began investing in long term lifestyles. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the average U.S. single-family house in 1900 was 700 square feet. This jumped to 1,000 square feet in 1949, 1,660 square feet in 1973, and 2,500 square feet in 2007. When the housing market crashed, the average size dropped below 2,400 square feet by 2010, but rose again to 2,600 square feet by 2014. (McFedries, 2015).
building type 11 position
Average household size 1.4
Tiny houses, on the other hand, are typically one-tenth the size of today’s average house. In fact, they are often under 200 square feet, some even as small as 100 square feet. (McFedries, 2015). However, the tiny size doesn’t restrict owners from having the same amenities of a normal house, they just have to be more creative by making spaces multi-functional and reducing their belongings. (MacLeod, 2015).
“Tiny houses are typically one-tenth the size of an average house.” The recent trend in domestic architecture is referred to as the tiny house movement. Similar to Thoreau’s house on Walden Pond, the movement is a direct response to society’s trend of presumed need to have an excessive amount of space and belongings. More and more people are jumping on the tiny bandwagon, with the goal of pairing down to bare necessities and living simply.
The tiny house movement offers a lifestyle with many attractive aspects. One of the main reasons the movement is growing so rapidly is because of the affordability. “According to thetinylife.com, in 2013 the average tiny house cost a mere $23,000 to build versus $272,000 for a full sized house” (MacLeod, 2015). The size alone is an obvious reason as to why tiny houses are so cheap, but owners are able to reduce their costs in other ways as well. Many tiny houses are built with reclaimed materials; since there is not much to cover, it is more practical to build a tiny house with recycled materials than it is for a larger house. Constructing tiny houses is also much easier than traditional home construction, making it possible for homeowners to participate in manual labor, which further assists with building costs. “While the interior architecture of a full-sized house can afford ornament and a dose of pomp, tiny houses are restricted to a minimalist approach due to lack of space” (MacLeod, 2015). This is yet another way that tiny house owners are able to cut down on costs. Tiny houses also produce cheaper bills when living on the grid, or even no bills when living off the grid. Again, the size makes it easier to do so. By saving a significant amount of money, people who live in tiny houses are able to work less and enjoy life more. Extra money can also be spent on traveling and more worthwhile activities, an opportunity that is less available when spending the majority of money on bills and unnecessary items.
“In 2013 the average tiny house cost a mere $23,000 to build versus $272,000 for a full sized house”
average size typical [2,600 sf] tiny house [250 sf]
average cost typical [$272,000] tiny house [$23,000]
people that own their home people with no mortgage typical [65%] typical [29.3%] tiny house [78%] tiny house [68%] 1.5
With global warming looming over our heads, it is more important than ever to employ sustainable design in architecture. Being green is another important reason as to why people are going tiny; there are many ways that tiny houses can minimize leaving an environmental footprint. As previously mentioned, tiny houses can be built with reclaimed materials and manual labor. Owners can also opt to incorporate products that promote sustainable design; most tiny houses utilize one, if not all of these systems. For starters, solar power is a great way to provide electricity to a tiny house. Because of the size, few panels are required to fully power the entire house. Composting toilets are also a common feature in tiny houses, which do not require water and are able to give fertilized matter back to the earth when the composting process is complete. If homeowners choose to use a water collection system in conjunction with a composting toilet, they are able to live without connection to public water. These systems will provide filtered water to the house that can be used on a daily basis. It is also common for tiny house owners to embrace sustainability even more by growing their own food. These are just some of the few eco-friendly elements that are incorporated into tiny houses.
cutting a home’s size in half reduces its life-cycle emissions by 36%
largest environmental benefits of downsizing: reduced electricity & fuel use
more than 80% of greenhouse gas emissions during a home’s 70-year life-cycle are attributed to electricity & fuel consumption
The tiny house movement encourages homeowners to embrace nature, not only by protecting the environment through sustainable design, but also by living in it. As mentioned previously by John Vivian, smaller footprints allow these houses to be built on uncommon sites, typically in nature. Homeowners can build attached or detached porches, which create an outdoor space for when they are feeling cramped indoors. Living simply and in less space allows for more time to be spent outdoors. Tiny houses in nature provide owners with plenty of room to explore and participate in outdoor activities.
“With global warming looming over our heads, it is more important than ever to employ sustainable design in architecture.”
because of their size, many tiny houses are built from recycled materials
less lumber and other building materials
less space to heat and cool
reduced carbon footprint
little or no debt
Deciding to convert from a traditional house to a tiny house almost always improves the lives of those who do so. Tiny homeowners are able to live a happier lifestyle when they are able to remove clutter from their lives and focus on what’s important. The small size reduces time spent cleaning the house, a common complaint of owners before they go tiny. There is also a lack of privacy, which some people may see as a negative, but it actually allows those living together to become closer. People are able to spend more time together when they are not locked away in individual rooms, and they are forced to work together when adjusting to the new lifestyle. Nearly every person who is interviewed about going tiny recommends it to others because their lives have drastically improved.
Heidegger, a psychologist, studied how phenomenology influences architecture and humans in architecture. Specifically, he discusses how we create place in the space around us. Essentially, Heidegger explains that the space is a void, which is filled with a place. Once the void is filled, the place has social activity. Buildings are the embodiment of the spirit of that place, and to fully understand the building, we first have to understand the place. In The Four Elements of Architecture and Science, Industry, and Art, Gottfried Semper is adamant about the importance of craft. He acknowledges that successful art and architecture is rooted in man’s full understanding of materials and methods used. Admirable craft stems from an evolution of learned skills and an attempt to carefully perfect them. He recognized that art and architecture of the past are beautiful because man created a strong connection with the methods and materials he employed. These works of architecture have a strong sense of character because of man’s desire to perfect craft and have an understanding of what was being created. Because man would create a connection between himself and his work, there was always a spirit/character present in said work.
Theory/Conceptual nature of the building type/Approach Phenomenon is defined as the object of a person’s perception; what the senses or the mind notice. Phenomenology, therefore, is an approach on architecture that concentrates on the study of consciousness and the objects of direct experience. It focuses on the human experience and, in terms of architecture, how to create buildings that define a certain place’s character and provide experiences. Gottfried Semper, Christian Norberg-Schulz and Kenneth Frampton are three prominent theorists who explored phenomenology after reading Martin Heidegger’s Building, Dwelling, Thinking.
“Deciding to convert from a traditional house to a tiny house almost always improves the lives of those who do so.”
Christian Norberg-Schulz uses a different approach to address phenomenology in his works, The Phenomenon of Place and Heidegger’s Thinking on Architecture. He focuses on the strong connection buildings should have with their locations, as well as with their visitors. Addressing man’s senses and feelings is an important aspect in design. Schulz also introduces the idea that architecture should embody a certain spirit/character of the place it is situated in. By creating a connection to the space (location), the place (the built environment) will define a boundary between the landscape and the living space.
“The theory of phenomenology highlights both the importance of place and human relation to it.”
Kenneth Frampton also emphasizes the importance of resolving the connection between the natural and built environments in his essay On Reading Heidegger. By fully understanding the place and the threshold it creates, architects can give buildings character with not only a physical appearance but also a social appearance. He feels that buildings should emerge from the earth and fill the void between the earth and the sky. By doing so, buildings are able to maintain a strong connection with nature (the space). The theory of phenomenology highlights both the importance of place and human relation to it. Theorist Gottfried Semper defines phenomenology with the importance of craft. He admires art and architecture created by those who learn the methods and materials used and attempt to perfect them. People who are able to manually construct their homes, a common notion when going tiny, not only gain a better appreciation for craft, but also create a strong connection with the house itself. Putting personal labor into one’s house will bring about feelings of accomplishment for years to come, as the owner will constantly be able to admire his or her handiwork. Doing this will also allow the owner to truly customize their home, designed to perfectly suit their lifestyle and belongings. Every element of a tiny house is customized to its owners, creating a sense of character that caters to them. Christian Norberg-Schulz and Kenneth Frampton, on the other hand, have a similar approach on phenomenology that emphasizes a connection between man, space and place. Tiny houses are also able to accomplish this. For obvious reasons, there is a strong connection between man and the built environment. Tiny houses strongly embody their owners, allowing people to feel completely comfortable inside. When owners of these homes have guests over, the guests will immediately be able to identify a spirit of place.
“Every element of a tiny house is customized to its owners, creating a sense of character that caters to them.” As for a connection between space and place, tiny houses often propose a unique situation. Sometimes these homes are built on a foundation, typically in nature. In this case, the site is carefully selected and the building is designed and constructed with a strong connection to it. However, many tiny houses are constructed on wheels, allowing the owners to live a more adventurous lifestyle and have the opportunity to reside in different locations. This makes it more difficult to design a building that can strongly connect
to one specific place. The way homeowners accommodate this challenge is by knowing the type of space they would like to park in. Commonly, the space is in secluded areas of nature, so the owners will design windows and porches that still allow for a strong connection when inside the building. Porches allow for a connection between indoor and outdoor space, the outdoor space extending over a vast area in nature. From the inside, lofted bedrooms can feature skylights or sidelights that can be oriented toward a particular view. Owners can then appreciate this view whenever relaxing in their bedroom and create a collection of the many different views they have experienced through the window. Every element in a tiny house can be designed in this way because it is easier to pay attention to every aspect of the design. Tiny houses also leave a tiny footprint, allowing them to embrace nature and connect with it by disturbing it very little. theory/conceptual approach 17 position
Gottfried Semper The Four Elements of Architecture and Science, Industry, and Art
Kenneth Frampton On Reading Heidegger Physical and Social appearance
Importance of craft Connection between natural and built environments Architecture of the past was beautiful because there was a strong connection to methods and materials Connection between man and his work Spirit/Character in design
Context The majority of tiny houses are on wheels, allowing them to be easily transported to different locations. Owners of tiny homes therefore have a great amount of flexibility; they are able to easily pick up and move their entire lives to a new location as frequently or infrequently as they’d like. Combined with the opportunities to be off the grid and have career flexibility, tiny homes allow for a nomadic life centered around experiences.
As the tiny house movement is scaling quickly, the amount of locations homeowners can reside in is also growing. What began with a handful of organized tiny house communities and personal land to reside in has now become so much more. There are approximately 50 existing organized communities specifically for tiny houses, as well as dozens more in the planning stages. Spur, Texas is the first town in the country to become “tiny house friendly”. The town’s mission statement focusing on re-creating a sense of community and self sufficiency that has been lost to cities. Spur is a unique circumstance; it will not be common for existing towns to focus their efforts on tiny houses.
However, there has been a recent surge in towns looking to legalize tiny houses as primary residences. There is currently no defined codes for tiny houses, which presents many problems for homeowners. Tiny houses are being built and classified as RVs, or as non-primary residences. A Tiny House Appendix for the International Residential Code has been recently written and approved by the International Code Council (Morrison, 2017).Now that the code has been accepted, those interested in seeing tiny houses becoming recognized and legalized must bring the code to their local town, city, or state and make a case for adoption. Once the code is adopted, it will be acceptable for people to build and reside in tiny houses without searching for loopholes to do so. Along with the organized opportunities that welcome tiny houses, there is also a growing list of land that people can rent to reside in. The website tinyhousecommunity.com offers an updated map and lists of private land, RV parks, communities and eco-villages that are rented for tiny houses. Harvesthosts.com offers similar services, but at more unique locations. Homeowners are able to park at the wineries and farms listed on these website for a shorter period of time. Because the tiny house movement promotes self-sufficiency and flexibility, I have chosen to design my tiny house on a trailer, allowing it to move freely to various locations. I will continue to explore the many opportunities for tiny houses to be settled in, and present my design in multiple different contexts, rather than one. The ability and desire to move around to different sites presents an unfamiliar challenge to architecture; typically architecture responds strongly to its site and surrounding context. Since most tiny houses are on wheels, they need to respond to multiple contexts successfully. I will be taking this design opportunity into careful consideration throughout the design process. The final design will presented in contexts that differ significantly, in order to prove successful.
People are also able to live a more freeing and happier lifestyle, enjoying themselves and nature in the process. By living simply, people are able to focus on what is meaningful to them and learn to appreciate what is important in life, like experiences and personal relationships.
“The tiny house movement is a direct response to today’s typical lifestyle of living in oversized houses, owning an excessive amount of things, and losing ourselves in things rather than experiencing life. People now more than ever want to reconnect with nature, themselves, and their loved ones.”
Conclusion The tiny house movement is a direct response to today’s typical lifestyle of living in oversized houses, owning an excessive amount of things, and losing ourselves in things rather than experiencing life. People now more than ever want to reconnect with nature, themselves, and their loved ones. Going tiny not only allows for this, but also enhances the experience. Tiny house owners are able to rid of all their unnecessary crap and keep only what is important to them. Tiny houses are catered to the owners, forming a need and appreciation to every item that makes up the house. The things that owners do keep are used often and provide meaning. The extremely personalized houses create a sense of belonging and happiness to the owners, making them feel much more at home than in a large mansion full of endless things that show no personality.
typical spatial requirements tiny spatial requirements kit of parts before and after going tiny travel
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typical spatial requirements
typical spatial requirements Room Name
typical spatial requirements
Garage (2 car)
tiny spatial requirements Cooking
Counter Space Sink Cook-top/Oven Refrigerator/Freezer Storage Pantry
Dining Table Seating
The kitchen will be located at one end of the house. The counter will be ‘L’ or ‘U’ shaped to allow for an ample amount of prep space in the small area. Major appliance locations will be decided upon first. Storage will be secondary, fitting into leftover spaces.
The dining area will be part of a multi-functional space also comprised of the living area. Primary seating will be shared with the living room. Additional seating can be put in hidden storage when not in use. The dining table will either remain in the space with the capability of becoming larger, or will fold away into hidden storage.
tiny spatial requirements
Work Table Seating
Toilet Shower Sink Washer/Dryer Toiletry/Towel Storage Laundry Hamper
Bed Stairs Clothing Storage Personal Item Storage
Kitchen, Bathroom, Bedroom
The living room will be primary function of the houseâ€™s multi-functional space. It will be centrally located in the house, allowing for open space. The entrance will be located in this space, which should be designed to allow for a flow between the indoors and outdoors.
The work space will be located in a loft above the kitchen. It will be accessed by a ladder that can be stored out of the way when not in use. Having a loft for work space will allow for some privacy and minimize distractions when it is in use.
The bathroom will be on the opposite end of the house as the kitchen. It is the only closed off space in the house for privacy reasons.
The bedroom will be located in a second loft above the bathroom. It will be accessed comfortably by a staircase that contains storage. The bed will be sunken into the floor to allow for extra headroom in the space. Storage that doubles as a privacy screen will be located on the edge of this space.
25 program analysis
tiny spatial requirements
kit of parts
kit of parts
beFore & aFter going tiny These graphics show the differences one family found when going tiny (top graphics) after living in a traditional sized house (bottom graphics).
before & after going tiny 27 program analysis
travel 1 Boneyard Studios - Washington, D.C. 2 Community First - Austin, TX 3 Wildflower Villages - Flat Rock, NC 4 Orlando Lakefront @ College Park - Orlando, FL 5 Caravan Tiny House Hotel - Portland, OR 6 Opportunity Village - Eugene, OR
7 The Sanctuary - Ogilvie, MN
8 Lemon Cove Village - Lemon Cove, CA 9 Tiny House Village - San Francisco, CA (future) 10 Tiny House Village - Granby, CT (future)
While thinking in terms of design, I also began considering the technical aspects of a tiny house. Below is a diagram of the maximum dimensions a tiny house can be if it is to be legally towed by the owner. Tiny houses can be no wider than 8’-6” and no longer than 60’-0” including the towing vehicle.
little shelters alpha survival house carmel place koda ecocapsule camper swiss army knife
32 38 44 50 54 58 62 66
little shelters building type precedent students of taliesin west
100 sf [average] key features: siting strong concepts recycled materials owner-inspired design
My interest in the tiny house movement began when I visited the Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture (Taliesin West) in 2011. I learned that the shelters were designed and built by students to use as sleeping quarters while attending the school.
Taliesin West is isolated in the desert, allowing the students a large expanse of land to play with. Image 1.2 shows the majority of the land that has been developed on. The students were encouraged to use local materials they found and fully embrace the landscape in their designs. The function of these little shelters are primarily for sleeping, and often included a fire pit.
little shelter 35
little shelters 37
alpha building type precedent new frontier tiny homes
no permanent location
key features: multi-functionality program organization building form openness light indoor/outdoor space
I chose this precedent because of its innovative multi-functional features. The majority of these elements are centrally located in the house. This space has the ability to transform throughout the day accounting to the ownersâ€™ needs. The opaque walls are folded up for protection during travel or when privacy is desired. When the building is stationary, these walls can be folded down to open up the space and serve as an exterior deck.
Not only do the exterior walls of the house change, but the interior space has that ability as well. The images below show how this central area of the house can be transformed into living, dining and work spaces.
Surrounding this flexible, central space are the more static areas of the house. The bedroom and bathroom are stacked to one end of the house, shown in image 2.1. The kitchen is located on the opposite end of the house, shown in image 2.12.
survival house building type precedent tiny house nation
no permanent location
key features: indoor and outdoor gardens building form outdoor storage two lofts/access
survival house precedents
I chose this precedent because of its unique building form and spatial organization. This home features two lofts at different heights that are reflected by the exterior. To make the interior spaces feel more open, there is plenty of natural light. Because the lofts are the shortest spaces in the house, they are surrounded on all sides by windows to create a sense of openness. As shown in photograph 3.1, the exterior glass doors can remain open to allow even more light and fresh air into the house. A compact L-shaped staircase was designed to access the bedroom loft. This allows for a more comfortable transition between spaces and even provides standing room at the top step. The only interior door is to the bathroom, which is located next to the staircase. To save space and not get in the way of the stairs, a sliding barn door was used.
Because the kitchen takes up so much room, a unique solution was created for accessing the loft above it. This loft serves as a living space and second bedroom. A portable ladder to access this space is stored as the loftâ€™s railing when it is not in use.
The innovative use of exterior storage is another design element I am studying in this precedent. There is a space under the smaller loft that contains a pop-out outdoor grilling station as well as storage for outdoor activities. The strong emphasis on using both indoor and outdoor spaces helps make this a successful tiny house.
Below the taller loft is a kitchen with a gas range stove, full size refrigerator and large sink. The house was designed for a couple that enjoys cooking and wanted to grow their own produce, an aspect that I would also like to incorporate in my design. Because of the emphasis on cooking, the kitchen takes up a lot of space, leaving less for living and dining. A solution for both a dining table and extra kitchen prep space was a pop-up table that is stored under a raised couch when it is not in use.
carmel place building type precedent
nARCHITECTS New York, New York
key features: multi-functionality modular design organization tall ceilings juliette balconies
Our Community 1 borough, 1 neighborhood, 1 block, 1 street.. 1 Mount Carmel Place
Construction of this micro-living precedent was completed in spring 2016. It features 55 rental apartments and shared amenities. There are 5 modular apartment configurations that are stacked into four 11 foot wide towers. The individual apartments have design features that make them feel larger than they are. Ceilings reach 9’-8” and the end walls feature 8’ tall sliding windows with juliet balconies. Flexible built-in furniture integrate the bed, couch and storage that allow for a multi-functional open space. The modular designs, flexible spaces and creative use of storage are what can be taken away from this precedent.
Our Micro Towers 55 units, 4 towers, 10 floors, 1 community
Our Shared Spaces 3,525 sf exterior space, 5,470 sf interior amenities..1 key card
Our Micro Modules 75 modules, 5 weeks to erect them
My Micro Unit Average 286 sf, 2 zones, 1 home 4.2
Linear Storage Loft 70 cuft 16’ x 1’-10” H x 2’-6” D: the same volume of storage as a Volkswagen Jetta Sportwagen.
Bathroom/Closet Accessible bathroom with shower; full depth closet.
Juliette Balcony 63 sf 7’-0” W x 9’-0” H Sliding doors and a laminated glass guardrail.
Kitchen 70 cuft Efficient factory built kitchen with folddown table/counter, full height pull-out pantry, full height fridge, range and space for a convection microwave.
koda technical precedent designed by: kodasema
no permanent location
size: 326 sf
key features: undefined multi-functional space public/private division indoor/outdoor space unapparent mobility
Koda is a movable pre-fabricated house that promotes thinking green and healthy living. Through the use of solar panels, smart systems, well insulated walls, quadruple glazing, LED lighting and more, the house does not allow any energy to be wasted. The materials it is built with is another sustainable aspect; one unit only requires 9 cubed meters of concrete. The house is not on wheels, however, it is easily assembled and disassembled in four to seven hours. It is not fixed to the ground by a foundation, therefore it does not leave a footprint on the earth. Koda is unique because of its flexibility; the large amount of open space allows it to take many forms. â€œKoda can become whatever you want...a city centre home, a lakeside summer house, a cosy cafe, an office, workshop or studio or even a classroom.â€?
ecocapsule technical precedent designed by: nice architects
no permanent location
size: 86 sf
key features: compact size off the grid-wind/solar power rainwater collection mobility only essentials form follows function
I chose this precedent because it is the most compact example of an off the grid tiny home. Every aspect of this building is designed according to purpose. The exterior form is designed to maximize use of the natural elements. Equipped with both a wind turbine and solar cells, enough power can be gathered to sustain the house when there are periods without wind or sun. The round shape of the house allows for easy rain collection that can be purified and re-used. The small size also allows the building to be easily transported and stationed to nearly any location.
6.7 6.6 6.5
camper anti-precedent 267 sf
designed by: r-vision travel trailers
no permanent location
size: 267 sf
key features: pop-out living space lack of craft/personality seasonal use generic materials one story
A common argument against the tiny house movement is that there is no difference between tiny homes and campers/RVs. This is why I have chosen the camper my parents own as an anti-precedent. I disagree with the argument and would like to provide evidence as to why it is not true. A major difference between the two is materiality. Campers are typically designed with cheaper, more generic materials. For the most part, they are used seasonally, and therefore do not require the careful construction and durable materials that are found in tiny homes. Campers are created with no specific client in mind, unlike tiny homes which are entirely customized to reflect their owners.
swiss army knife
I chose a Swiss army knife as an abstract precedent because it perfectly represents tiny homes. The exterior case of the knives can vary in texture, color, material and size, depending on a personâ€™s preferences. The tools within each case also vary depending on a personâ€™s needs. These tools are cleverly compacted into the small case, utilizing the entire interior space.
swiss army kniFe abstract precedent designed by: victorinox key features: compact different material options different tool options personalized
project approach concept sketchbook evolve flux shift transit roam wander reflection
70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88
less than 500 square feet mobility
I began the conceptual design phase by creating a list of words that describe tiny houses (left). The intention of this list was to find inspiration for design through these descriptive words. It is common for tiny house companies to have an underlying theme or concept with their models, along with unique names for each type of home (see examples on following page. The list allowed me to easily come up with concepts for six tiny houses.
green design strategies
cabin in the woods
off the grid
71 conceptual design
concept : movement
The overall concept for my tiny houses is movement, reflecting the mobility of the homes as well as the tiny house movement. Within this concept are six individual tiny house designs, each named after a different form of movement.
evolve [to develop gradually]
flux [continuous change, passage or movement]
shift [to move from one place/position/direction to another]
transit [passing across or through]
roam [to travel with a purpose but no destination]
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wander [to travel without a purpose or destination]
These images from my sketchbook show how the six concepts were developed simultaneously.
evolve [to develop gradually]
Evolve is a prefabricated home that can be modified by adding or subtracting modules. The one-module home is a 12’ x 12’ x 12’ cube intended for one owner. The roof and upper windows can be raised or lowered to adjust light and privacy in the home. As a person’s family unit grows, so can the size of their home.
Flux [continuous change, passage, or movement]
Flux is the most adaptable unit, allowing the owner to create different spatial configurations as desired. The home expands and contracts by means of sliding floors, walls, and ceilings. This design is perfect for the person who likes to constantly change the layout of their living spaces.
shiFt [to move from one place/position/direction to another]
Intended for families, shift is a larger unit that can accommodate up to six people. Essentially, shift is composed of two tiny houses that can be attached to one another in a variety of ways. When traveling, the houses need to be towed separately. When parked, walls can be moved out of the way to allow for a connection of the two buildings. There are three bays in each home, with eight walls that can be moved for connections to the other home or with nature.
TRANSIT [passing across or through]
Transit is an off-the-grid home that allows for frequent travel. It is ideal for people with jobs that require constant relocation, such as traveling nurses, disaster relief workers, salespeople, and migrating farmers. The home is simple and serves as a relaxing space for these hardworking people. The bed sits on a platform to allow for easy access. The platform has storage that rolls out from under the steps. There is also an option to grow food on a small private roof garden. The exterior walls are made of photovoltaic insulated panels that can be clipped on and off to reveal windows.
ROAM [to travel with a purpose but no destination]
Roam is intended for people looking to travel and share their talents/businesses with others, such as performers, researchers, pop-up shop owners, and artists. The sleeping and bathing spaces are stacked on one end of the home, allowing the rest of the home to be completely open for any type of display. The exterior walls on one side can fully open, creating a deck and overhang that is the full length of the house. This allows for the homeowners to interact with the public easily.
WANDER [to travel without a purpose or destination]
Wander is intended for the minimalist who just wants to life live through experiences. Inspired by ancient nomadic tents, wander is scaled down to provide the homeowner with the essentials and allow them to easily travel with the home. The home is very simple with its contents, but has a unique form that helps it stand out and inspire adventure.
This first phase of design allowed me to explore many different conceptual ideas at once; by thinking about these ideas simultaneously, I was able to gain a significant amount of understanding for what I wanted to achieve from the project. The different concepts allowed me to explore various client needs/requirements, as well as underlying building designs. For the next phase of design, I plan on combining the most successful aspects of these six concepts, as well as further developing the ideas behind them. At the completion of the next design phase, I would like to complete two or three stronger conceptual designs that are at a more developed state. Along with building design, I will begin focusing on other influential aspects of the project, such as building systems, furniture design, and potential site locations.
critique | 2.3.17 + consider aluminum structure = lightweight + does the house need to be accessible?
+ where are the water tanks and batteries stored? + look into technical aspects, apply to designs
+ reconsider precedents + explore facade design/building expansion with origami/paper folding + calculate water and energy requirements
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+ develop and combine designs
+ how do different ages react to the house (infant - elderly)
travel sustainable design strategies rainwater collection sketchbook expansion concept 1 expansion concept 2 expansion concept 3 reflection
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The following maps show the current options for travel with a tiny house. The map below shows short-term rentals, located on farms and wineries. The lower map is comprised of other rental options, such as backyards or RV parks. The red and white map shows which states have developed tiny house communities.
california beach rv park coastal living habitats tiny homes the lavra lemon cove village napoleon complex tiny house village colorado sprout tiny home community florida orlando lakefront at college park rockledge tiny house community iowa sofair farms indiana towering pines vineyard lomax tiny house community kansas dapper tiny house park
maryland blue moon rising minnesota brainerd the sanctuary minnesota missouri dancing rabbit new york amazing acres north carolina camp tiny house of the triad coral sands point recreational village earthaven eco-village high coves eco-village highland lake cove sacred mountain sanctuary the village of wildflowers new mexico caballos de las estrellas eco resort city of the sun
ohio loveare homestead what hill mobile home community oregon dignity village lakeview tall town tiny village opportunity village simply home community south carolina city in the woods texas austin live | work commmunity first healing hands ranch spur vermont headwaters garden and learning center washington quixote village wisconsin occupy madison tiny house village
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sustainable design strategies
sustainable design strategies
typical water usage activity
shower (2 gallons/minute)
wash hands/dishes (1 gallon/minute)
total (per day)
water needed (monthly)
231 (conversion factor)
roof area (inches)
rainfall depth needed (monthly)
minimal environmental impact (no foundation)
water collection system
SIPS (structural insulated panels)
grey water collection
sustainable design strategies
using recycled / recyclable materials
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tankless water heater
energy efficient appliances
rainwater collection 1 person, 8x10 sf house 15 gallons of water per day 9” of rainfall needed per month
1 person, 8x20 sf house 15 gallons of water per day 4.5” of rainfall needed per month
1 person, 8x30 sf house 15 gallons of water per day 3” of rainfall needed per month
1 person, 8x40 sf house 15 gallons of water per day 2.3” of rainfall needed per month
2 people, 8x30 sf house 28 gallons of water per day 5.6” of rainfall needed per month
2 people, 8x40 sf house 28 gallons of water per day 4.2” of rainfall needed per month
rainwater collection 97 schematic design
The following sketches are a small number of the many explorations I thought about in terms of building expansion. I studied different ways to do so with moving volumes, panels, and unfolding fabric. After exhausting these ideas, I came up with three different concepts.
expansion concept 1
expansion concept 1
This first attempt at building expansion focused primarily on moving planes and folding fabric structures. By opening up the front end of the house with moving planes, the living area achieves a more comfortable scale. A half-circle expansion located above the sleeping loft allows for more headroom and the possibility for light and air circulation to occur in the space. This design felt a bit random to me and did not embody a strong architectural character. The back end of the house also feels tight and does not relate well to the outdoors.
expansion concept 1
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expansion concept 2
expansion concept 2
The second concept focused on movable volumes, rather than planes. I see this approach as being more successful than the previous concept, however a major disadvantage is that it is difficult to occupy the space when the volumes are not expanded. The ability to expand so significantly through different methods, on the other hand, offers extremely promising opportunities that I recognize should be further explored.
expansion concept 2
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expansion concept 3
expansion concept 3
The third concept combines the previous two, as well as explores some new thoughts. Through intricate unfolding, plane movement, and lifting, the building is able to successfully create a more comfortable space and relate to the environment from all angles.
expansion concept 3
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106 proposed design
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reFlection This second phase of design allowed me to focus on ways to expand the building. I was able to create three well-developed concepts that expanded the building in very different ways. However, I realized that the three concepts did not embody a strong architectural style. The overarching methods of expansion were successful, but need to be developed further.
For the next phase of design, I plan on focusing on how the house will expand in size. Having a tiny home that is capable of growing in size has many benefits, such as the ability to collect rainwater and sunlight, remain as compact as possible when traveling, and provide more living space when stationary.
critique | 2.17.17 + develop strong concept + define client necessities + design supports/kinetics + make building spatially dynamic - diagonal space is a good start + study nomadic appliances + resolve how rainwater collection works
+ develop mechanical systems
+ consider personal space + make sure two people can adjust everything + show how things work = craft (hydraulic pulleys/gears) + how can it be sustainable when driving? + can the roof become livable space? + expand down + no swinging doors
109 schematic design
+ study building in different contexts
+ develop structure
design approaches client requirements project development concept plans + sections kinetics structure water technology furniture + materials renderings reflection
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theoretical personal connection craft hard work personalization
off the grid connection to nature
connection to nature
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cultural acceptance comfort what is home?
multi-functional design space furniture easy to transport
location (infinite sites) practicality
community technology (digital community)
the way of the future affordable green building movement
client requirements alyssa: traveling architect frank: traveling accountant hobbies: art, cooking
queen bed clothing storage shoe storage shower sink with counter space composting toilet combination washer/dryer linen storage dirty laundry storage personal supply storage
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herb garden oven/range refrigerator freezer pots/pans storage spice storage coffee maker dry food storage sink/drying rack counter space serve-ware storage
comfortable couch seating for friends two desks book storage art material storage dining table
The first idea I came up with in this phase of design began with a compact rectangle comprised of two volumes. The inhabitable space is enlarged by expanding and contracting the two volumes. In addition to this volumetric motion, certain planes fold out to also expand the space and connect to the houseâ€™s surroundings. The combination of both volumetric and planar expansion was inspired by previous concepts from the past two design phases.
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After further exploration of volumetric expansion, I found that the opportunities for an architectural statement were greater when the volumes did not move in the same plane. This idea is achieved by rotation at a hinge, where the full building expansion results in a square-shaped space rather than a narrow rectangle. The diagrams below show how other parts of the house adapt to site conditions through other means of kinetic expansion.
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plans and sections energy efficient appliances
tankless water heater
using recycled / recyclable materials
SIPS (structural insulated panels)
water re-use floor plans 119 design development
cross ventilation building sections
water collection system
minimal environmental impact (no foundation)
water collection system
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PV Panels 4 1/2” SIP Roof Interior Ceiling Finish
Alucabond Metal Panel Siding 4 1/2” SIP Wall Sliding Glass Wall 1/2” OSB
Recycled Wood Floor 4 1/2” SIP Floor Trailer Water Containers Plumbing Wheels
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When looking into technology, I knew I wanted to start with an integrated photovoltaic panel system. The four images below are examples of Teslaâ€™s roof cladding systems that realistically represent certain materials, but are actually made of PV cells.
The second set of images are of the smartglass system, which changes glass from translucent to opaque at the flip of a switch. This type of technology is imperative to the narrow strip of glass that is along both the bathroom and bedroom spaces.
Furniture + materials The exterior of the tiny house will be clad in a durable metal panel system. There are also significant amounts of exterior glazing, which will need to be protected during travel as much as possible. The interior will feature recycled wood flooring, counter-tops, and beams, as well as a steel structure and accents. The lower diagrams show early development of movable furniture inside the house. The bathroom will feature
a sliding door mounted on an overhead track; a typical swinging door would take up too much space in the house. The only detached piece of furniture is the couch/dining table. The couch backing can be flipped to become a table which also separates the seats. In the kitchen space there is an overhead cabinet above the counter-top, which can be raised and lowered by a pulley system for easy access and to remain out of the way when not in use. This allows for utilization of what could have been dead space all the way up to the ceiling. The kitchen also features fold-up counter space that can also serve as workstations. These counters are folded down when not in use or when traveling.
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The following renderings look at the tiny house in three different contexts. The building adapts to the sites differently in order to respond to its surroundings. I chose three sites that contrast greatly in order to show the houseâ€™s entire capabilities. urban The house is compacted to its smallest size, allowing it to fit snugly between other buildings, as well as provide some privacy. mountain The house is rotated for expansion. The sliding glass walls help protect the interior from wind and other weather conditions. The glass walls frame the view and create a strong connection between interior and exterior spaces. beach The house is fully expanded and opened to fully integrate with nature. The most comfortable and private sites allow for interior and exterior spaces to become one.
At this point in the design phase I feel that I have developed an extremely strong concept that supports all of my original intentions. This design is miles ahead of the past concepts I came up with, and has the ability to strongly connect with any site. The large number of changes that the house can undergo allows for an exciting and ever-changing environment. For the final phase of design I plan to take this concept to a more realistic level. There is nothing major that I would like to change about the concept or design, but there are many smaller tweaks and developments that need to occur.
critique | 3.17.17 + resolve how kinetic elements work + create a secondary means of egress
+ diagrammatic axons of all building systems + bring floors closer to ground
+ insert hobbies/professions/character into design + consider weight of building + consider building movement (transportation)
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+ integrate planters into walls
+ develop a stronger architectural identity
sketchbook precedents exterior kinetics furniture design kinetic details building systems rainwater collection urban mountain forest beach site comparison model images reflection
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I began the final phase of design by returning to my sketchbook. I sketched out ideas of how I thought each kinetic element would work. This helped me gain an understanding of exactly how many moving elements I was working with, as well as what types of systems I needed to develop.
The sketches to the right show my ideas for a clip-on cable system that helps stabilize the building when it is traveling.
The final sketches on the last page are how I developed a new building form that features a sloped roof as well as sloped bathroom/bedroom wall. This decision creates a more dynamic and appealing form, allows for rainwater collection and makes the building more aerodynamic.
139 final design
The following precedents provided a significant amount of inspiration for the more recent design decisions. These precedents employ the sustainable design strategies and building adaptation that I am also searching to achieve. watershed - FLOAT alpha - new frontier tiny homes swiss army knife delta shelter - olson kundig
The following images diagram the exterior and interior moving parts of the tiny house. The images on these pages highlight all of the exterior kinetic elements of the house, and show the house as being fully expanded. The images on the following two pages show how the interior space adapts and is used. In addition to the interior elements I had previously designed in the design development phase, there are also easels and bar stools that can be stored out of the way when not in use. These diagrams are followed by sketches of how I intend for each kinetic element to behave.
exterior kinetics 143 final design
145 final design
glass wall @ kitchen entry
deck @ kitchen entry
lifted walls @ kitchen
bar table @ kitchen
kinetic details 147 final design
building rotation @ hinge
sliding roof @ corner
sliding glass walls @ corner
desk and storage @ bedroom
easels @ kitchen
kinetic details 149
counter-tops @ kitchen
wall cabinets @ kitchen
electrical @ bedroom
electrical @ bathroom
electrical @ kitchen
151 final design
2 people, 200 sf, closed 18 gallons of water per day 5.6”-6”-6.2” of rainfall needed per month
2 people, 376 sf, open 18 gallons of water per day 2.7”-2.9”-3.0” of rainfall needed per month
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urban I chose to first locate the house in an active Charleston, SC neighborhood. The tiny house in an urban context is as compact as possible. This allows for it to easily and comfortably fit between two existing buildings. Although the space is as compact as possible, there is still a comfortable amount of room for two people to live in. The main access into the house is through the glass door at the bathroom. Windows that can be exposed in the kitchen space allow light in during the day, and can be closed for privacy at night. The lower right rendering highlights the desk at the foot of the bed, which can be raised when needed. When lowered, the desk becomes part of the loft floor and is completely disguised.
157 final design
159 final design
forest The second environment I chose to locate the house in was a forest; the house becomes completely integrated with nature. There is a visible bleeding between indoor and outdoor spaces. The house is hinged open because there is plenty of room to expand. During the day, one of the sliding glass walls is hidden in the pocket wall so people can walk in and out of the house with ease. At night both glass walls can enclose the space so animalâ€™s donâ€™t get in the house. The following renderings successfully show the houseâ€™s transparency. Apparent in the rendering below, there is visibility through the entire house; nature is brought into the house by being framed in multiple locations. The rendering below also shows the exterior bar seating that is created by an unfolding wall bar stools. When not in use, the stools are pinned and stored between the kitchen beams, as seen in the right two renderings. The right two renderings also show the kitchen cabinets being lowered for access. The amount and sizes of the shelves were designed specifically for the client needs. There are also two drying racks that are located above the sink.
163 final design
165 final design
mountain The third location for the tiny house is in a rough terrain that can normally be difficult to access or build upon. With just enough generally flat ground for the house to rest upon, this site offers privacy and an extraordinary view through the expanded corner. The sliding glass walls enclose the space, protecting the interior from wind and rain. When the bathroom door is closed, a hidden fireplace is revealed and has the ability to heat the entire house. Even in the worst weather conditions, the house still feels protected and cozy.
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171 final design
beach For the final site selection, I wanted to exhibit the house in the most ideal and comfortable weather conditions, allowing the house to be completely integrated in nature. In this configuration, the least amount of walls enclose the building so a cool breeze can constantly flow through the house. Ideal views of the ocean are framed differently throughout the house, whether it is when painting at the kitchen window or sitting in bed. The lower right rendering shows the great amount of bathroom storage in the house. The storage spaces reflect the stairs on the opposite side of the wall. Here, close can be hung, shoes can be stored, and laundry can be washed and dried in one compact machine.
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177 final design
charleston, south carolina
rocky mountains, colorado
jan feb mar apr may june july aug sept oct nov dec
jan feb mar apr may june july aug sept oct nov dec
kinetic components used
easels planters desk @ bedroom
building rotation | sliding glass walls |sliding roof | kitchen walls kitchen counters |fireplace
laguna beach, california
jan feb mar apr may june july aug sept oct nov dec
jan feb mar apr may june july aug sept oct nov dec
building rotation | sliding glass wall _sliding roof kitchen cabinets | kitchen walls | outdoor bar table bar stools | entry deck
building rotation | sliding glass walls sliding roof | kitchen walls | easel kitchen counter | outdoor bar table bar stools |entry deck | entry glass wall | entry canopy |planters
acadia national park, maine
179 final design
181 final design
182 model images
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This final phase of design allowed me to focus my efforts to developing and improving ideas from the previous critique. Because the conceptual idea and first attempt at design were very strong, I was able to resolve the projectâ€™s smaller details. The project was pulled together nicely and I am satisfied with the extent of exploration I was able to achieve. Although there is more development to be done, I am glad I chose to explore as many different aspects to the building as I did, rather than focusing intensely on just a few. If I had more time to work on this thesis I would not make any major changes, but instead, continue to think about the less developed aspects of the project.
critique | 4.24.17 + project was well thought out and well done + thoroughly studied, developed, and presented + mechanical hardware was not fully explored + building systems diagrams are highly successful
+ nice use of context drawing + images
+ floor plans could be clearer and have better labels + model helped sell the project + details relate nicely to statement about craft + create maps of solar, internet to match rainfall + strong case for design
185 final design
+ missed exploration of an artist and accountant
+ necessary to see entire process for best understanding
position precedents design
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1.1 Thoreau, H. D. (2014, March 30). Walden Pond Hut [Title Page Illustration - 1882 Edition]. Retrieved from http:// uudb.org/articles/henrydavidthoreau.html 1.2 Olcutt, T. G. (2014, March 7). [A modern studio retreat in the woods]. Retrieved from https://smallhousebliss. com/2014/03/07/a-modern-studio-retreat-in-the-woods-workshop-apd/sony-dsc-11/ 1.3-1.6 Page, T. (2015, April 21). Less Is More: The Tiny House Movement. Retrieved from http://homestead-honey. com/2014/09/01/less-tiny-house-movement/ 1.7 Kinoshia, M. (2013). [Kumiko assembly]. Retrieved from https://nanatsuboshi-gallery.jp/user_data/artists_detail. php?artist_id=109
1.8 Frankel, E. (2013, May 21). Unplugged [Cabin in the woods]. Retrieved from http://nymag.com/homedesign/greatrooms/34728/
Frampton, K. (1974). On Reading Heidegger. Oppositions, (4), 1-4. Heidegger, M. (1997). Building, Dwelling, Thinking. In N. Leach (Trans.), Rethinking architecture: A reader in cultural theory (pp. 98-109). New York: Routledge. (Original work published 1951) MacLeod, F. (2015). 5 Things Architecture Can Learn from the Tiny House Movement. Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://www.archdaily.com/772637/5-things-architecture-can-learn-from-the-tiny-house-movement McFedries, P. (2015, October). Tiny Houses, Big Lexicon. IEEE Spectrum, 28. Morrison, A. (2017, March). Call to Action: Help with the Appendix Adoption Process. Retrieved May 07, 2017, from https://tinyhousebuild.com/tiny-house-appendix-adoption-process/ Norberg-Schulz, C. (1983). Heideggerâ€™s Thinking on Architecture . Prospecta: The Yale Architectural Journal, 20, 6168. Norberg-Schulz, C. (1976). The Phenomenon of Place. Architectural Association Quarterly, 8(4), 3-10. Semper, G. (1989). The four elements of architecture: And other writings (pp. 102-6). (H. F. Mallgrave & W. Hermann, Trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. (Original work published 1851) Semper, G. (1989). Science, industry, and art: proposals for the development of national taste in art (pp. 133-6, 1424). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. (Original work published 1852) Vivian, J. (1998). The rustic, `temporaryâ€™ microhouse. Mother Earth News, (168), 50. Witherell, E., & Dubrulle, E. (1995). Reflections on Walden. From http://thoreau.library.ucsb.edu/thoreau_walden.html
2.1 Taliesin West [Map]. (2017). In Google maps. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/maps/place/Taliesin West 2.2 Frazee, D. (n.d.). FLW School of Architecture Shelter [Digital image]. Retrieved from http://archinect.com/davefrazee/project/frank-lloyd-wright-school-of-architecture-shelter 2.3 Naik, P. (n.d.). Hanging Shelter [Digital image]. Retrieved from http://naikpranav.wixsite.com/site/hanging-shelter-taliesin-west?lightbox=image248q 2.4Hook Shelter [Digital image]. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.vidafine.com/blog/2010/03/taliesin-shelters/ 2.5 FLW Shelter [Digital image]. (2005, September 5). Retrieved from http://archinect.com/news/article/25088/taliesin-teardown-ruffles-feathers
2.7 Brittlebush [Digital image]. (2010, October 24). Retrieved from http://boiteaoutils.blogspot.com/2010/10/brittlebush-by-simon-de-aguero.html 3.1-3.12 Alpha [Digital image]. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.newfrontiertinyhomes.com/tiny-house/gallery/
5.1-5.6 Carmel Place [Digital image]. (2016). Retrieved from http://narchitects.com/work/carmel-place/ 6.1-6.7 KODA [Digital image]. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.kodasema.com/en/ 7.1-7.7 Ecocapsule [Digital image]. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.nicearchitects.sk/en/ecocapsule 8.1 Swiss Army Classic [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.amazon.com/Victorinox-Swiss-Classic-Pocket-Knife/dp/B00004YVB2 8.2 Swiss Army Camper Knife [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.amazon.com/Victorinox-Swiss-Army-Camper-Knife/dp/B000IAZDDG 8.3 Swiss Champ Pocket Knife [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.amazon.com/Victorinox-SwissChamp-Pocket-Knife/dp/B0001GS19U 8.4 Swiss Army Knives [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.swissarmy.com/us/en/Products/Swiss-Army-Knives/c/SAK
4.1-4.5 Survival House [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.fyi.tv/shows/tiny-house-nation/pictures/survival-house/thn-survival-house-1
2.6 Beers, P. (n.d.). Taliesin West [Digital image]. Retrieved from http://www.peterbeers.net/interests/flw_rt/Arizona/ taliesin_west/taliesin_west.htm
design reFerences 9.1-9.4 Mint Tiny House Company. (2014). Retrieved from http://minttinyhomes.com/ 10.1-10.4 Tiny Mountain Houses. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.tinymountainhouses.com/ 11.1-11.4 Tumbleweed Tiny Houses. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.tumbleweedhouses.com/ 12.1 Host Map [Map]. (2017). In Harvest Hosts. Retrieved from https://harvesthosts.com/maps 12.2 Tiny Housers Seeking Places [Map]. (2017). In Tiny House Community. Retrieved from http://www.tinyhousecommunity.com/map/#3/45.58/-99.93
13.1, 13.8 Pole Pass Retreat [Digital image]. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.olsonkundig.com/projects/polepass-retreat-2/ 13.2 Studhorse [Digital image]. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.olsonkundig.com/projects/studhorse-2/ 13.3-13.4 Art Stable [Digital image]. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.olsonkundig.com/projects/art-stable/
13.5, 13.7 False Bay Writerâ€™s Cabin [Digital image]. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.olsonkundig.com/projects/ false-bay-writers-cabin/ 13.6 Olson Kundig Office [Digital image]. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.olsonkundig.com/projects/olson-kundig-office/ 14.1 Watershed [Digital image]. (2016, October 3). Retrieved from http://www.archdaily.com/796403/watershed-float-architectural-research-and-design 15.1-15.2 Swiss Army Camper Knife [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.amazon.com/Victorinox-Swiss-Army-Camper-Knife/dp/B000IAZDDG 16.1-16.4 Alpha [Digital image]. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.newfrontiertinyhomes.com/tiny-house/gallery/ 17.1-17.3 Delta Shelter [Digital image]. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.olsonkundig.com/projects/delta-shelter/
The work completed in this thesis is only a small step in the study of tiny homes; the research and design could easily continue for years to come. The tiny house movement is a plausible living solution that addresses many environmental and political issues we are faced with today. If the movement continues to grow at a rapid pace, urban solutions will need to be developed. There are existing micro-apartments, such as Carmel Place, but there should also be a solution for those with portable tiny homes. The sketches below are a conceptual study of a simple tower that can house hundreds of tiny homes on wheels. Homeowners can come and go as they please and parking spots can be constantly rented out. Although this type of solution is not necessary any time soon, it allows us to look ahead and imagine the potential that the tiny house movement can bring. The opportunity to spend a year studying the movement and designing a personalized solution has allowed me to grow significantly as an architecture student. Being able to gain a comprehensive understanding of the subject provided me with the tools and ideas necessary to developing a successful design solution. The passion I have put into this thesis will continue as I advance in my career; I will further my education on the subject and hope to start my own firm that specializes in tiny houses.