Priscila Lena Farias / Anna Calvera Marcos da Costa Braga / Zuleica Schincariol (eds.)
Priscila Lena Farias / Anna Calvera Marcos da Costa Braga / Zuleica Schincariol (eds.)
S達o Paulo, 2012
Design Frontiers: Territories, Concepts, Technologies 2012 © Priscila Lena Farias, Anna Calvera, Marcos da Costa Braga, Zuleica Schincariol (eds.) Editora Edgard Blücher Ltda.
Editora Edgard Blucher Ltda. 1245 Pedroso Alvarenga Street 4th floor, Sao Paulo, Brazil Phone: 55 11 3078-5366 firstname.lastname@example.org www.blucher.com.br Graphic Design Iara Camargo, Isabella Aragão e Raquel Klafke All rights reserved Editora Edgard Blücher Ltda. Farias, Priscila Lena Design frontiers: territories, concepts, technologies [livro eletrônico] / Priscila Lena Farias, Anna Calvera; Marcos da Costa Braga / Zuleica Schincariol (Eds.) - São Paulo: Blucher, 2012. 3 Mb; ePUB ICDHS 2012 - 8th Conference of the International Committee for Design History & Design Studies. ISBN 978-85-212-0692-7 (e-book) 1. Desenho (Projetos) 2. Desenho (Projetos) – história 3. Desenho industrial I. Título II. Calvera, Anna III. Braga, Marcos da Costa IV. Schincariol, Zuleica
CDD 745.2 12–0174
Índices para catálogo sistemático: 1. Desenho (Projetos) – Discursos, ensaios, conferências 2. Desenho (Projetos) – História
PRESENTATION / This book is a collection of the papers presented at the 8th Conference of the International Committee for Design History and Design Studies (ICDHS). It registers the main ideas and trends on design history and design studies discussed during this academic meeting held in São Paulo, Brazil, in September 2012, which gathered researchers from 26 different countries, coming from America, Europe, Asia and Australasia. Promoted by a committee composed by well-known design scholars from America, Europe and Asia, ICDHS conferences aim to assess the current state of affairs of design history and design studies. The activity of the group began with a conference organized in Barcelona (Spain) in 1999, which was followed by a second meeting in La Havana (Cuba), in 2000. The Committee was inaugurated in the Istanbul (Turkey) conference, in 2002. The activity continued in the conferences held in Guadalajara (Mexico, 2004), Helsinki & Tallinn (Finland & Estonia, 2006), Osaka (Japan, 2008), and Brussels (Belgium, 2010). The theme chosen for the 8th edition of the conference, “Design Frontiers: territories, concepts, technologies”, aimed to provoke discussions on how design history and design studies may push the limits of design knowledge. The frontiers of design may be challenged in many ways: by the exploration of new territories, by the establishment of new concepts, by the emergence of new technologies, as well as by rediscovering the past and by finding new ways of applying current wisdom; and the papers published in this volume address one or more of those challenges. The Call for Papers announced 6 tracks, proposed by members of ICDHS board and the Brazilian organizing committee, and resulted in 369 proposals, in form of abstracts, coming from 36 different countries. All proposals were carefully reviewed by at least 2 members of the Program Committee, composed of 88 researchers from 57 institutions in 19 different countries, appointed by the track chairs. Efforts have been done in order to ensure that the proposals selected would cover different areas, methods, approaches and positions, resulting in 150 accepted proposals. Following a second round of reviews, based on the full paper version of the proposals, 112 papers were indicated to be presented in parallel sessions, and 13 in the poster session. This book, therefore, combines the 125 papers resulting from the Call for Papers, divided in 6 sections (History of design education, Identities and territories, National policies on design, Techniques and technologies, The New Imperialism, Open strand), with the text version of the lectures by three keynote speakers. The first chapter includes papers by Régulo Franco Jordan, director of the El Brujo archeological site and of Museo Cao in Peru, about the art and symbolism of the Moche, a pre-Inca culture; Guilherme Cunha Lima, professor and researcher at Rio de Janeiro State University School of Industrial Design, on design history in Brazil; and Veronica Devalle professor and researcher at University of Buenos Aires Faculty of Architecture, Design and Urbanism, on current problems in the historiography of design. The second chapter includes the 19 papers presented in the ‘History of design education’ sessions chaired by Haruhiko Fujita (Osaka University, Japan) and Silvio Barreto Campello (Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil). Those papers focus on historical studies of design education, with a particular interest in comparative studies of design education in different countries, cultures, periods, in its relationship with art and technology education. The next chapter gathers 30 papers that aim at design from the perspective of identity and territorial issues, approaching topics such as micro history, collective identities, gender, internationalization, marginalization and globalization. Such papers were presented in the ‘Identities and territories’ sessions chaired by Oscar Salinas Flores (National University of Mexico, Mexico) and Clice Mazzilli (University of São Paulo, Brazil). Chapter 4, ‘National policies on design’, includes 12 papers presented in the sessions chaired by Javier Gimeno-Martínez (VU University Amsterdam, Netherlands & Artesis University College of Antwerp, Belgium) and Cyntia Malaguti (University of São Paulo, Brazil). The papers address totally or partially state funded plans and institutions for the promotion of design, studied as signifying practices in both their economic and cultural dimensions.
The following chapter contains 28 papers presented in the ‘Techniques and technologies’ sessions chaired by Paul Atkinson (Sheffield Hallam University, UK) and Charles Vincent (Mackenzie Presbyterian University, Brazil). The focus here are methodologies and different models of process and practice, including histories of technique and practice and studies on cross and inter disciplinary collaborations, and on the impact of emerging and enabling technologies on the production, reception and consumption of design. Chapter 6 gathers 14 papers that were presented in the sessions entitled ‘The New Imperialism: the international face of design and design history’, chaired by Jonathan Woodham (University of Brighton, UK) and Denise Dantas (University of São Paulo, Brazil). Such investigations draw attention to the nature of design practice and history in the wider world, beyond the orthodox mapping of activity in the mainstream industrialized nations of the west, helping to redraw the world map of contemporary design activity, history and politics. Finally, Chapter 7 brings further investigations on territorial, conceptual and technological frontiers of design, congregating 22 papers presented in the ‘Open strand’ sessions chaired by Victor Margolin (University of Illinois at Chicago, US) and Priscila Farias (University of São Paulo, Brazil). We would like to thank all authors, track chairs and members of the program committee for their contribution in setting a very high standard of quality while assuring a wide-range of perspectives and views for the conference, and the members of the organization committee for making it all happen. We are sure that the papers published here will foster more investigations and discussions on design history and design studies. The Editors Priscila L. Farias Anna Calvera Marcos da Costa Braga Zuleica Schincariol
Art, symbolism and power in Moche Society, North Coast of Peru //JORDÁN, Régulo Franco
Pioneers of Brazilian Design //CUNHA LIMA, Guilherme
Traditions, archaeologies and genealogies in the history of Design //DEVALLE, Verónica
History of design education
Academies of art and schools of design: a comparative study of art and design education //FUJITA, Haruhiko
A fruitless misunderstanding: the historic models for Dutch Design education //DE RIJK, Timo
Japanese industrial design concepts in the transition from the nineteenth to the twentieth century: with special reference to the Japanese industrial design educators Hirayama Eizo (1855 - 1914) and Matsuoka Hisashi (1862 - 1944) //AMAGAI, Yoshinori
Best Maugard, Elena Izcue and Theodoro Braga: Design education in Latin America at the early twentieth century //BARBOSA, Ana Mae
Design history: from service subject to discrete discipline //LEES-MAFFEI, Grace / HUPPATZ, D.J.
Pevsner on Design education: meeting contemporary needs through the teaching of art history //KONDO, Ariyuki
Antipodean Design Science: applied home //WAITE, Noel
Bauhaus pedagogy and digital design //ANAY, Hakan / ÖZTEN, Ülkü
The Information Department at the Ulm School of Design //OSWALD, David
Search for meaning: a study on the Cranbrook Academy of Art´s graphic design department //CAMARGO, Iara Pierro de / VELLOSO, Leandro M. R.
(not)Solving (non)problems: Design contributions to Education in a complex world //TABAK, Tatiana / FARBIARZ, Jackeline Lima
The role of typeface categorization systems in the typographic education of the printer: a corrective legacy still with us today //DIXON, Catherine
A sparkle in people’s eyes //PACHECO, Heliana Soneghet / TOLEDO, Guilherme
Past, present and future of designerly ways of knowing //LIMA, Ana Gabriela Godinho / STEFANI, Alessandra Márcia de Freitas
John Ross’ pioneering role and contribution to printing, publication and education in Korea: 1870-1910 //RYU, Hyun-guk
Teaching arts and crafts or the technology transfer: Ernest Bower and textile design practice in Brazil //NEIRA, Luz García / WAIN, Sarah
Design in Brazil: which revolution? //NOBRE, Ana Luiza
The historical trajectory of the pioneers of design education in Brazil: ESDI/UERJ and ED/UEMG //DIAS, M. Regina Álvares / SAFAR, Giselle Hissa / AVELAR, Johelma Pires
Educational practice discourse on teaching project design in graduate design courses in Brazil //OLIVEIRA, Izabel Maria de / COUTO, Rita Maria de Souza
Identities and territories
The island of Italian Design? Some notes for questioning a long-lived myth //DALLA MURA, Maddalena / CARLO, Vinti
Design without borders: the nomadic journey towards sustainability //BARBOSA, Lara Leite
Redesigning turkish cult objects: from tradition to ‘Modern’? //BALCIOGLU, Tevfik
Incubation in isolation: how distance creates the difference in New Zealand product design //SMYTHE, Michael
Design Promises: the case study of Bangchaocha Bamboo Basketry Community //BOONLAOR, Nanthana / CHUENRUDEEMOL, Woranooch
Who’s who in brazilian design? Notes on identity and the professional design field //Souza Leite, João de
Territories of practice: convergence and divergence between design and architecture in postwar Japan //TEASLEY, Sarah
Paradise identity, between projection and protection: César Manrique’s lessons for current challenges in territorial innovation //JIMÉNEZ, Carlos
Politics of fragility in Catalonia: radical austerity in postwar context, its origins and continuity until nowadays //MITRANI, Alex
Designing ‘The House of Man’: Franco Albini and the place of Neorealism in Italian Design, 1930-1960 //Mekinda, Jonathan
172 ‘Swedish Modern’ meets international high politics: the 1959 New Delhi embassy and Ambassador Alva Myrdal //HAGSTRÖMER, Denise
Imported design ideas and its spreading in Latin America: a historiographical critique //CORTÉS, Dannae / CRUZ, Aura / GALLAND, Jani / PÉREZ, Marcela
Political Toys: Perón’s gifts for children, 1946-55 //BENDESKY, Mora
The identity and design of the modern British home under the influence of the ‘feminine territory’ and Japanese Art //YOSHIMURA, Noriko
Lira Popular, chilean broadsheets from the late nineteenth century: a graphic referent and its relation with sheets from Brazil and México //MALACCHINI, Simoné
The signature of Portuguese posters from 17th Century to 20th Century: one history of identities //BARBOSA, Helena
From the improvisation to the solution: the design in the casual market of the city of Rio de Janeiro //SILVA, Camila Assis Peres / LIMA, Guilherme Cunha
Design of dissent: the multimodal discourse in Guerrilla Girls and DASPU //PEREIRA DE ANDRADE, Ana Beatriz
Design and the street //GEIGER, Noni
Designing new tattoos: relations about technology and tattoo design //BITARELLO, Breno / NIEMEYER, Lucy / QUEIROZ, Joao
Outside looking in: foreign perceptions of Brazilian Design culture //SCAFF, Claudia / JOHANSEN, Douglas
Corporate identity in a global market: the challenge of the Jotun company //Skjerven, Astrid
Mapping and analysis possibilities to vernacular typography design attributes use for mobile design interfaces and applications //PEREIRA, Fabiano
Graphic narratives of the domestic landscape: a case study of the back pages of telephone directories, Medellín from 1956 to 2012 //Solórzano, Augusto / Correa-Ortiz, Didier
Place branding: graphic design’s participation in strategic management and brand identity of the cities //CARDOSO, Helder / PERASSI, Richard
Public information: Design, visibility and citizenship //CROCCIA, Florencia Cecilia / FÁBREGAS, Silvia / ADESSI, Mariano
Here we don’t speak, here we whistle: designing a language support system for the Silbo Gomero //MATOS, Sónia
Modernity boundaries in the process of understanding Brazilian Design //MIZANZUK, Ivan Alexander
Packaging design in Portugal during the 20th century as a political propagandistic device //COELHO, Nuno
Ocuppy Design: São Paulo and New York //ESPÍNOLA, Vanessa
A practical experience on acting local thinking global: design as the enabler of new sources of collaboration //BARROS, Mário / CASIMIRO, Ana
National policies on design
The doctrines of Good Taste //BÁRTOLO, Carlos
Between art and Industry: the Art Products’ Factory in Tallinn in the 1950s and 1960s //LOBJAKAS, Kai
Transforming territories and forging identities at the Independence Centennial International Exhibition in Rio de Janeiro (1922) //REZENDE, Livia Lazzaro
The Belgian participation in the Milan Triennials //FLORÉ, Fredie
Furnishing the street //Herring, Ellie
Design promotion in Belgium in the 1960s: national interests and european ambitions //Serulus, Katarina
Carmen Miranda, Marca Brasil (Brazil Brand) and national identity: a historical glance //MACEDO, Káritha Bernardo de / SANT’ANNA-MULLER, Mara Rúbia
Sweden designed by Ikea //Kristoffersson, Sara
Opportunities and challenges for the Design in the Brazilian National Policy on Solid Waste //BARBOSA, Elisa Jorge Quartim / SARMENTO, Fernanda
Design as strategy to improve wooden furniture production, through a network perspective //NUNES, Viviane / ZURLO, Francesco
The Italian public system supporting innovation: which role for design? //MORTATI, Marzia / SIMONELLI, Giuliano
Contributions of design: a tool to improve business performance. Metropolitan Design Center, Buenos Aires //OFFENHENDEN, Camila
Techniques and technologies
A survey on low-income housing research topics in Brazil //MENDES, Leticia Teixeira / CELANI, Gabriela
Design of elastic form with parametric simulation //LARA, Arthur H. / MAGRI, Paulo H. G. / CAMPOS, Patricia F. / SILVA, Nayara V. / NOLLA, Ieda Maria
Digital personal fabrication: social actions, ephemeral objects //OROPALLO, Gabriele
Living system design Studio: from digital to fabrication process //PAIO, Alexandra / OLIVEIRA, Maria João / CARVÃO, Luís / BRIMET, Silva
Joining Up: evaluating technologically augmented interdisciplinary cross-cultural collaboration //MCARTHUR, Ian / MILLER, Brad
Making Space: the future places, tools and technologies for open Design //DEXTER, Matt / JACKSON, Christopher
Designing through the loop: programming as a tool for aesthetic creation in the field of graphic design //SILVA-JETTER, Jorge
Sewn or Simulated: transformational fashion realizations //MARTIN, Kathi / KO, Hyeong-Seok
The use of ceramics within the signage project in hostile and environmental protected areas: the Keller Peninsula Case //FERRAZ, Nicoli / ALVAREZ, Cristina Engel / PINHEIRO, Mauro / RODRIGUES, Maria Regina
History, Design and technology in the leather trade: case studies from India and Britain //Schaber, Friedemann
Design for glass: a study of the historical relationship of production with new social paradigms //CERQUEIRA, Vicente
How to supply designers effectively with knowledge about accessibility and inclusion? //ZITKUS, Emilene / LANGDON, Patrick / CLARKSON, John
Online platforms for the co-Design of alternative urban scenarios //HANAUER, Rodrigo / HARTMANN, Patricia / REYES, Paulo / REMUS, Bruna do Nascimento / FRANZATO, Carlo
Relationships between Neuroscience and visual perception model Sens-Org-Int contributing to Design practices //Csillag, Paula
The voices of the users: how technology can help in co-innovation //ESSI, Kuure / LINDSTRĂ–M, Antti
Graphic innovations implemented in the Brazilian press by Julião Machado in the end of the 19th Century //FONSECA, Letícia Pedruzzi
Firebird: Alex Steinweiss’ 78rpm album covers and the letterpress printing process //NOVAES DE REZENDE, Andre
The presence of the autotype technique in the weekly Cri-Cri’s graphic design project: traces of the graphic memory in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco //CAVALCANTE, Sebastião A. / QUEIROZ, Malthus O. / LIMA, Clara S. / CAMPELLO, Silvio B.
Dutch maps of Pernambuco from the seventh century: the technique and the metafunctions of the graphical language //BACIC, Lucas / BASTOS, Luiza / CAVALCANTE, Sebastião A. / QUEIROZ, Malthus O. / CAMPELLO, Silvio B.
Co-ordinated design policy and the shift from one-off designs to comprehensive design systems //PRESTON, David
From ‘Do it yourself’ to ‘Open design’: users’ involvement and democratization //MALDINI, Irene
Contributions of improvisation techniques to interactive environment design //MASSARA, Bruno
Human development design centered: Mexican local case //Flores Magón y Jiménez, Héctor / Garduño Barahona, Aralia María
Identity across boundaries: a study conducted by communication designers and social anthropologists //BONINI LESSING, Emanuela F. / BONIFACIO, Valentina
Digital clothing manufacture: digital innovation and co-Design changing the clothing industry //SMITH, Marcia Tavares
How to go from the file to the factory //BARBOSA, Wilson / CELANI, Gabriela
Space, information and cosmology in today’s computer interfaces //BOECHAT, Marina Pantoja
The new imperialism: the international face of design and design history
Frontiers of looking past: a Nietzschean survey of introductions and intentions in Design History //Banu, Lisa
Design, histories, empires and peripheries //WOODHAM, Jonathan M.
Mythification of national discourses in Poster Design: rethinking expressions of Chineseness in the globalized world //WONG, Wendy Siuyi
Towards a digital batavia: resonances of the VOC in the New Colonialism of the Internet of Things //TAYLOR, Damon
Questionable translatability: the Contested notion of ‘Japaneseness’ in the craft and Craft Design of the Japanese Empire //Kikuchi, Yuko
Eastern craft in Orientalism and Modern Design //ISHIKAWA, Yoshimune
Mapping Cup & Saucer Design in the 21st Century //ITANI, Yoshie
Mappin tells the history of graphic design in São Paulo from 1913 to 1939 //TEMIN, Wilma Ruth
“Go you too to Amazonia”: analysis of a poster designed by Jean-Pierre Chabloz for the “Rubber Campaign” //MORAES, Ana Carolina Albuquerque
Organic Design, MoMA 1940: the breath of modernity reaches Latin America //SALINAS FLORES, Oscar
Modern design meets Latin America: the role of pioneering design magazines Habitat and nueva visión in Brazil and Argentina //AMORIM, Patricia / CAVALCANTI, Virginia
Lina Bo Bardi and Aloisio Magalhães: other strands of Design in Brazil //ANASTASSAKIS, Zoy
The graphic translation by the designer’s sensitive rationality //DEMARCHI, Ana Paula Perfetto/ FORNASIER, Cleuza Bittencourt Ribas / MARTINS, Rosane Fonseca de Freitas
The design of Manoel Bandeira: a historical view of periodicals in the the 1930’s in Pernambuco //CAVALCANTE, Sebastião A./ BARRETO CAMPELLO, Silvio
Brazilian Graphic Design in the ‘20s and ‘30s: Modernism and Modernity //Margolin, Victor
The Design of book bovers in Brazil during the sixties through the covers by Marius Lauritzen Bern //NAUFEL, Carina
The design of Fred Jordan //BASTOS, Helena Rugai
Domestic technologies and modernization of women in Chile between 1945 and 1970 //Álvarez Caselli, Pedro
La Escuela de Artes y Oficios de Santiago EAO (1849-1976) //CASTILLO, Eduardo
Itineraries for a Design Culture in Uruguay //FARKAS, Mónica / STERLA, Mauricio / CESIO, Laura / SPRECHMANN, Magdalena
Sertanejo Art Deco: an inspiration for a Brazilian design? //Souza, José Marconi B. de / Rossi, Lia Monica
Architectural lettering: from information to identity: a study on Gregori Warchavchik’s Condomínio Cícero Prado //D’ELBOUX, Jose Roberto
A dialogue between art and city through artistic interventions on streets, façades and walls in São Paulo city //HANNS, Daniela Kutschat / De Marchi, Polise Moreira
Vernacular design: a discussion on its concept //FINIZOLA, Fátima / COUTINHO, Solange G. / CAVALCANTI, Virgínia P.
Italian Radicals and Dutch conceptuals: the sensation of affect in two movements //KEULEMANS, Guy
Art criticism and the semantic construction of the concept of Design //VUKIC, Fedja,
Interieur Kortrijk, an edu-commercial Biennal as mediation junction between several actors //DE VOS, Els
The story of convertible Sofa-Bed: reading the social change in Turkey through the design of an industrial product //MERZALI CELIKOGLU, Ozge / ER, Alpay
Vapourware and the agency of ideas //ATKINSON, Paul
Pre-Columbian Asceticism: the Tuza-Piartal morphological expectation from its ocarina CRIA-269 //BUITRAGO, Juan Camilo / GUZMÁN, Adriana / PINILLA, Germán
The collection of textbooks “Tapete Verde”: from the creation to the graphic production by Editora Globo (RS/Brazil), on the 1970s //RAMIL, Chris
“Their pen draws everything, as if it were print”: letterforms on the title page of the Catecismo de la lengua Guarani //Diniz, Kollontai
Cruzeiro Novo Project: Design and technology for the first series of banknotes printed in Brazil //LESSA, Washington Dias / MIRABEAU, Almir / CUNHA LIMA, Edna Lucia / CUNHA LIMA, Guilherme Silva da
Design for a sustainable culture //PARODE, Fabio / BENTZ, Ione
Design and biodiversity: the production of knowledge in the development sustainable products //SANTOS, Nubia / MENDES, Josenete / GOUVÊA, Aurelio
Lightness and beauty in furniture design //MALUF, Marina Kosovski / SOUZA LEITE, João de / MAGALHÃES, Cláudio Freitas de
About the editors /
About ICDHS /
Scientific committee /
Organizing committee /
Cruzeiro Novo Project: Design and technology for the first series of banknotes printed in Brazil LESSA, Washington Dias / DsC / ESDI/UERJ / Brazil MIRABEAU, Almir / MsC / EBA/UFRJ / Brazil CUNHA LIMA, Edna Lucia / DsC / PUC-RIO / Brazil CUNHA LIMA, Guilherme Silva da / PhD / ESDI/UERJ / Brazil
Design / Technology / Aloisio Magalhães / Graphic industry This paper focuses on the relationship between the design of the series of the Brazilian banknotes known as Cruzeiro Novo, and the acquisition of technology to implement their production. Until 1970, all Brazilian paper currency was produced in foreign countries. The launch of this series designed by Aloisio Magalhães was a milestone in the process that enabled the Brazilian Mint for the production of money in Brazil.
1. Introduction We intend to analyze the conditions and initiatives that led to the national autonomy in money making, highlighting the technical and visual solution developed by designer Aloísio Magalhães. The Cruzeiro Novo paper currency series was launched in May 1970. Economic, political, institutional, and cultural factors were combined in several ways in this process. Among those we may highlight: the goal of avoiding wasteful spending on foreign currency used for the printing of money outside the country; the question of national sovereignty that involved in this issue; the nationalist ideology of economic growth characteristic of the military governments; movements of rationalization and modernization of the state machinery; the aspirations and initiatives of cultural modernization of the country involving the design as a profession; and the professional and institutional pride of the Brazilian Mint concerning the production of the money locally (Lessa, 2009). Our gathering of data initially took place by means of interviews with some people who, directly or indirectly, accompanied the process of design of the new series of banknotes. At a second moment, there was a bibliographic research that worked as grounds for the analysis. It focused on the visual characteristics of the projects presented in the design competition, on visual solution proposed by Aloísio Magalhães and on the technical characteristics used in the implementation of the project.
corporation. In 1957, the company decided to open a joint-stock company in Brazil specialized in security printing. With the creation of the new currency in 1966, the company carried out the overprinting of the existing banknotes with the words ‘cruzeiro novo’ (Trigueiros, 1987: 226). The Brazilian Mint had already printed banknotes. In 1854, for example, they were printed for the Bank of Brazil “while awaiting an order made abroad”. (Trigueiros, 1987: 152). Several years later, between 1907 and 1908, the Brazilian Mint printed five designs of lithographic matrices of the French company Georges Duval, already used in previous designs. Later, between 1920 and 1924, the Ministry of Finance made a new experience that resulted in printing of 17 designs in xylography. Finally, in 1961, the Brazilian Mint began the production of the third design of five Cruzeiros banknote, known as Cédula do Índio (Indian Banknote) (fig. 1). The design was developed in the Brazilian Mint and it greatly differed from the iconography and some graphical patterns used until now. According to Trigueiros (1987: 156), the production was interrupted not only because the productive resources of the Brazilian Mint were precarious, but also because the banknote had technical problems. On the other hand, we identified a positive appreciation of the experience on the part of the technical team of the Brazilian Mint. Vicente de Paulo, who headed the Department of Matrices, minimized the technical problems by saying that the production of the banknote was discontinued due to the lack of supply of paper bought abroad (Silva Junior, 2008: 115). Anyway, the effective process of the equipping of the Brazilian Mint only takes place from 1965 on.
2. The beginning of the production of banknotes in Brazil The international company Thomas de La Rue proposed to set up a banknote plant in Brazil between 1936 and 1940, without success. In 1956, a new proposal was made to setup a mixed
Figure 1. The Indian Banknote 5 Cruzeiros, 3rd design, 1961, chalcography plus offset. Design by Orlando Maia, Casa da Moeda (Brazilian Mint).
Design Frontiers: Territiories, Concepts, Technologies / Proceedings of the 8th Conference of the International Committee for Design History & Design Studies - ICDHS 2012 / São Paulo, Brazil / © 2012 Blucher / ISBN 978-85-212-0692-7
Cruzeiro Novo Project: Design and technology for the first series of banknotes printed in Brazil.
3. The new series of banknotes In November 1965, a decree was issued authorizing the creation of a new currency, the Cruzeiro Novo. It was also determined that a new series of banknotes and coins, designed and printed in Brazil, would represent the launch of a “strong” Cruzeiro. To do so, it was necessary to initialize some institutional changes regarding the issue of values and the organization of the Brazilian Mint. In 1950, the law established that one of the goals of the Brazilian Mint would be the printing of banknotes. Nevertheless, there was the idea of setting up a national plant for the production of paper currency that did not depend solely on the Brazilian Mint. That problem was solved in December 1964 when the military government determined the reorganization of the Mint, making it subject to the Ministry of Finance. Brazilian Mint would receive an increase in its productive capacity by means of the acquisition of equipment and training of staff abroad. Also, in December 1964, the National Monetary Council was created and the SUMOC (Superintendence of Currency and Credit and of Specialized Portfolios) was turned into the Central Bank of the Republic of Brazil (later called the Central Bank of Brazil, in 1967). The project of the new series of bank notes would be chosen by means of a competition by invitation. F. dos Santos Trigueiros, a Central Bank official, was appointed to organize it. The printing matrices would be developed in the European headquarters of De La Rue Giori. The competition jury consisted of Florisvaldo dos Santos Trigueiros (Central Bank), Vicente de Paulo Ferreira da Silva (Brazilian Mint), Wladimir do Amaral Murtinho (Ambassador and supporter of the project), Flavio de Aquino (Director of ESDI, School of Design) and Leopoldo de Souza Campos (engraver of the Mint and teacher of the EBA, School of Fine Arts). The competition was confidential and limited to the invited guests. The Central Bank invited the following people: Alexandre Wollner, Aloísio Magalhães, Gustavo Goebel and Ludovico Martino, all of the design area. The Mint appointed its employees: Benedito Ribeiro (coin engraver), Petrarca Amenta (designer), Waldir Granado (designer) e Zélio Trindade (banknote engraver). Each participant received an album with the basic characteristics of the banknotes and examples of banknotes from Brazil and from other countries. From the distribution of members of the jury, and invited participants, it is clear that there was a division between two professional categories, in fact, the two sides that organized the competition. The technical staff of the Mint were the heirs of a tradition of more than 250 years of security printing and, according to Silva Junior (2008, 130), where “connected to the School of Fine Arts (EBA)”. According to Lessa (2009): The Mint interpreted the production of banknotes as applied art. Subject to the system of the School of Fine Arts. Since the Empire there was a transit between the Artistic Section of the Mint and the Imperial (and, since the Republic, National) School of Fine Arts.
The designers were representatives of the newly created Central Bank which, according to Silva Junior (2008: 125), “seek to
Design Frontiers: Territiories, Concepts, Technologies
define its operation as a modernizing vector”, were holders of a potential for rupture that symbolize the vanguard, connected to the ESDI. As recent profession with contemporary characteristics, and the design professionals sought to show the differences of its practice in relation to the artistic tradition. Each group presented works with particular characteristics (fig. 2). While the technicians of the Brazilian Mint showed visual concepts connected, according to Silva Junior (2008: 127), to “a process of artistic creation unrelated to the serial production”, and to the security printing techniques, the designers sough to break with the classical iconographic tradition and bring designs connected to the standardization and industrial reproduction.
Figure 2. Layouts of six competition participants for the design of the series of the new currency. The rest was not found. To the left, the employees of the Mint, and to the right, the designers invited by the Central Bank.
The decision was announced on August 16, 1966. Four votes were given for the proposal offered by Aloísio Magalhães and one for the proposal of Benedito de Araújo Ribeiro. At the end of the competition, the design by Magalhães was chosen. According to Trigueiros (1984: 231), Aloísio Magalhães presented a design “that is not committed to a specialized graphic tradition that offered a new visual design… making use of the banknote as an element of genuine mass communication of our culture”. Silva Junior says that: Aloísio Magalhães won the competition, because the material he presented fascinated the jury and went well beyond the requirements and characteristics asked for. (...) It is a graphic proposal that conciliates visual innovation and appropriateness of the work to the specifics of the paper currency. (Silva Junior, 2008: 129)
On October 14, 1966, Magalhães presented the details, and on November 4, he and Trigueiros arrived in Milan to follow the production of the matrices at the Center of Instruction and En-
LESSA, Washington Dias / MIRABEAU, Almir / CUNHA LIMA, Edna Lucia / CUNHA LIMA, Guilherme Silva da
graving of De La Rue Giori. The work was developed in Vienna and London. The result achieved on February 14, 1967 did not correspond to the expectations of the designer. So, Magalhães returned to Brazil, but he and Trigueiros, who had stayed in Europe, continued to work in order to achieve the intended result. When Magalhães returned to Milan, in April, the solution was considered satisfactory. On May 11, both men returned to Brazil. On November 6, Magalhães presented to the Central Bank a mockup corresponding to the preparation of the matrices, thus concluding the stages of the project for production.
The Moiré effect is caused by the superimposing of equal graphic patterns in different angles, generated by the regular repetition of lines or dots. It is characterized by the formation of optical interferences between the two standards. The proposal of Magalhães was to develop controlled Moiré backgrounds. From films of rosettes and geometric backgrounds he experimented by superimpose them, until he got to the intended result (fig. 4). Jorge Manriques, of the Brazilian Mint, made an assessment of the association between the Moiré pattern and the guilloche concluded that “no one, until then, had dared, at that time, to place guilloche as he did” (apud Silva Junior, 2008: 142).
With the purpose of putting an end to the dependence on foreign suppliers in the manufacture of paper currency and of showing Brazil as a “country of the future”, the military government appointed the design that best presented the ideals of a modern and progressive country. Besides presenting the most innovative design, (fig. 3) the winning project also introduced a new safety factor, the Controlled Moiré, created from a guilloche�.
Figure 4. Moiré study developed by Magalhães; Press test run at Clicherias Reunidas Latt-Mayer SA, Rio de Janeiro (Mirabeau: 2010).
Figure 3. Competition winning design.
Technical aspects Technically, according to Frederico Porta, the Moiré effect occurs when there is a failure in the printing registration: term that, in photogravure, indicates a defect that can sometimes be noticed in reticulated cliché, when the original is also an autotypical gravure (reticulated). The overlapping of the two reticules, the original and the reproduction, may give the pattern flamed tones that may make the picture confusing. Porta (1958: 276) – emphasis added.
The matter of security, for obvious reasons, is vital. However, as Magalhães prints the Moiré pattern in a controlled manner, he proposes a means to increase the security of the banknotes, subverting conventional techniques of manufacture of banknote without losing the visual characteristics of the traditional money. According to João de Souza Leite (2003: 192), “an original design was achieved for the Brazilian currency”. Finally, Brazil reaches its autonomy for the production of its own currency. By examining the winning layout, we can note: a) it features a geometric structure that suggests the superposing of plane; b) it incorporates guilloches, for example, bands and rosettes: c) it combines the traditional visuality of the guilloche with an unusual security background, a Moiré obtained from the superimposing of linear patterns.
Design Frontiers: Territiories, Concepts, Technologies
4. Final considerations Aloísio Magalhães, repeatedly declared that money was one of the most comprehensive means of mass communication. Therefore, it was required that such communication be effective. Beyond that, the design of the banknotes was a quest for adequate, innovative and contemporary solutions, specific to the design field. It also became a factor of consolidation of a professional field. As we analyze the process, it can be said that: 1. the graphic categories consolidated by the tradition of banknote design were simplified without losing the visual characteristics that allow them to be identified as paper currency; 2. the procedures for visual modernization and technical innovation reach their high point with the use of the Moiré pattern as security background: 3. the ornament is elevated to a non-traditional technical level, providing a contemporary character to inventiveness; a) they characterize, what can conceptually be called, the “transfiguration of an error” by aesthetic value of visual effects and by the transformation of something graphically common into a sophisticated element. b) they respond to the demand for the use of elements of dif-
Cruzeiro Novo Project: Design and technology for the first series of banknotes printed in Brazil.
ficult reproduction and due to the emphasis of the Moiré effect in the layout, it emphasizes semantically the question of security.
Informação (Information Design International Conference),. 443-455. MIRABEAU, A.; Latt-Mayer, um Estudo de Caso. Tecnologia na História do Design Gráfico Brasileiro. Rio de Janeiro, ESDI/UERJ: 2010. MIRABEAU, A.; CAVALCANTI, L.A.P.; LIMA, G.C. ; LIMA, E.L.C. 2009. Ciclo Modernizante. Exemplos de aceleração evolutiva no Brasil. In: 4º CIDI Congresso Internacional de Design da Informação (Information Design International Conference), 2009, Rio de janeiro. Annals of the 4º CIDI Congresso Internacional de Design da Informação (Information Design International Conference). 471-479. PORTA, F., 1958. Dicionário de Artes gráficas, Porto Alegre: Editora Globo.
Figure 5. The 5 Cruzeiros banknote with the portrait of D. Pedro I.
The design by Aloísio Magalhães presents the singularity of being modern and independent without leaving tradition behind. It breaks with the visual conventions established in Europe and in the United States since the 19TH century. All of this confirms the importance of the series of banknotes Cruzeiro Novo, as a milestone in the development of Brazilian design, and as the reiterate of the sovereignty of the country.
Notes 1 In the gravure made with a burin, the visual effect of the crossed lines leads to the achievement optical shades of gray that may suggest volume in the drawing. It starts presenting patterns of regularity with the guilloche, “technique of production of geometric elements for security printing. Numismatic backgrounds, rosettes, bands and geometric backgrounds are traditionally produced by numismatic pantographs and by geometric lathes. Currently, specific programs of graphic computing restricted to the numismatic printing houses, replace the mechanical equipment.” (Silva Junior, 2008: 309).
References CENTRAL BANK OF BRAZIL. 1972. Iconografia do meio circulante do Brasil. Gerência do Meio Circulante. Brasília: Central Bank of Brazil. FERREIRA, Orlando da Costa. 1977. Imagem e Letra: introdução à bibliografia brasileira: a imagem gravada. São Paulo: Melhoramentos, Ed. da Universidade de São Paulo, Secretariat of Culture, Science and Technology. GOMBRICH, E. H. 1984. The Sense of Order: a study in the psychology of decorative art. New York: The Wrightsman Lectures, New York University Institute of Fine Arts; Oxford: Phaidon Press. IVINS Jr, W. M. 1975. Imagen Impresa y Conocimiento. Translation of Justo G. Beramendi. Barcelona: Editorial Gustavo Gilli. LEITE, João de Souza. 2003. A herança do olhar: o design de Aloísio Magalhães. Rio de Janeiro: Artviva.
SILVA JUNIOR, A. F. 2008. Uma etnografia do dinheiro: os projetos gráficos de papel-moeda no Brasil após 1960. Orientação de Clarice Ehlers Peixoto e co-orientação de João Trajano Sento Sé. Social Sciences Ph.D. Thesis at the State University of Rio de Janeiro.
About the author(s) Washington Dias Lessa is a CNPq level 2 researcher, holder of bachelor degree in Design from ESDI/UERJ (1973); he holds a Master’s degree in Education from the IESAE, Rio de Janeiro (1983); and a Doctor’s degree in Communication and Semiotics from the PUC-SP (1998). He is an Associate Teacher at the ESDI/ UERJ, where he began his teaching career in 1977. <washington. email@example.com> Almir Mirabeau da Fonseca Neto holds a master’s degree in Design by ESDI/UERJ (2010). He works in the printing industry since 1984 as a consultant in the graphic production and art director. He is currently a PROATEC scholar of the LHDB at the PPDESDI/UERJ, Substitute Teacher at the Department of Visual Communication/Design at the EBA/UFRJ and Assistant Coordinator at the Infnet Institute. <firstname.lastname@example.org> Edna Lucia Oliveira da Cunha Lima is a CNPq level 2 researcher. She holds a degree in Visual Communication from the UFPE (1979), Master’s degree in Design from PUC-RIO (1998) and a Doctor’s degree in Communication from ECO/UFRJ (2003). She is currently an Associate Teacher at PUC-RIO and participates in the Brazilian Graphic Memory PROCAD project. <email@example.com > Guilherme Silva da Cunha Lima is level 1 CNPQ researcher and CAPES consultant. He holds a degree in Visual Communication from the UFPE (1979) and a Ph.D. in Graphic Design from University of Reading (1993). He is currently an Associate Teacher at the ESDI/UERJ, where he is the Vice Coordinator for the Program of Postgraduate Studies in Design (PPDESDI/UERJ). <firstname.lastname@example.org>
LESSA, W. D. ; MIRABEAU, A. ; LIMA, G. C. ; LIMA, E. L. C.. 2009. A Articulação Visual do Projeto de Aloísio Magalhães para a Primeira Família de PapelMoeda Impressa no Brasil. In: 4º CIDI Congresso Internacional de Design da Informação (Information Design International Conference), 2009, Rio de janeiro. Annals of the 4º CIDI Congresso Internacional de Design da
Design Frontiers: Territiories, Concepts, Technologies
About the editors / Priscila Lena Farias Graphic designer, researcher and professor of design. She holds a Bachelor degree in Visual Communication from Fundação Armando Alvares Penteado (1984), a Master degree and a Ph.D in Communication and Semiotics from São Paulo Pontifical Catholic University (1997 and 2002). She is a professor, researcher and Ph.D. tutor at the University of São Paulo School of Architecture and Urbanism, were she coordinates the Visual Design Research Lab (LabVisual). She also teaches at Senac University Center, where she coordinates the Typography and Visual Communication Research Lab. She is the co-editor of InfoDesign - Brazilian Journal of Information Design, and a referee for several other scientific publications and research funding agencies. She is the author of ‘Tipografia Digital’ (2AB) and of many papers on graphic design, semiotics and typography, and the co-editor of ‘Advanced Issues in Cognitive Science and Semiotics’ (Shaker Verlag) and of the book series ‘Pensando o Design’ (Blucher).
Anna Calvera Researcher and professor of Aesthetics and Design History and Theory at the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Barcelona, where she is also involved in design research within the doctoral program. She is the author of a book on the theory of design by William Morris (Destination, Barcelona, 1992), of several papers on the experience of catalan Arts and Crafts and on the history of design in Spain, as well as papers on aspects of aesthetics and theory of design published in TipoGráfica, Temes de Disseny, Etapes Graphiques, and Journal of Design History, among others. She is also co-editor, with Yves Zimermann, of the books Arte ¿? Diseño (Gustavo Gili, Barcelona 2003) and De lo bello de las cosas (GG, Barcelona 2007). She is on the advisory board of the journal Design and Culture (Berg). She is a member of ICDHS board, and organized its first conference, ‘Design history seen from abroad: history and histories of design’ (Barcelona, 1999).
Marcos da Costa Braga Bachelor in Industrial Design from UFRJ, Master of Arts in Anthropology from UFRJ and Ph.D. in Social History from the Universidade Federal Fluminense. He is currently a professor of the Department of Architectural History and Aesthetics, at the University of São Paulo School of Architecture and Urbanism. He is a member of the editorial board of the journal Estudos em Design and a member of the Editorial Board of Arcos from ESDI / UERJ. He was the coordinator of the Design undergraduate course at Unicarioca from 1997 to 2004 and of the Silva e Sousa School of Industrial Design from 1991 to 1995. He has authored several texts on the history of design in Brazil and is one of the coordinators of the book series ‘Pensando o Design’, published by Blucher. He is the author of the book ‘ABDI e APDINS – RJ: História das Associações Pioneiras de Design do Brasil’, also published by Blucher.
Zuleica Schincariol Bachelor in Architecture and Urbanism from University of São Paulo (1982), Specialist in Art Museum Studies by the University of São Paulo Museum of Contemporary Art from (1996) and Master in Architecture and Urbanism from the same university (2001). She is currently a researcher and a professor at Mackenzie Presbyterian University. She has experience in Architecture and Urbanism, with emphasis on Visual Communication and on the following research topics: publication design, typography, environmental graphic design.
About ICDHS / The International Committee for Design History and Design Studies (ICDHS) is an international working group whose board members are internationally acknowledged design scholars. http://www.ub.edu/gracmon/icdhs
ICDHS Board Paul Atkinson, Sheffield Hallam University, UK Tevfik Balcioglu, Yasar University, Turkey Anna Calvera, University of Barcelona, Spain Lucila Fernández Uriarte, Institute of Design, Havana, Cuba Héctor Flores Magón, University of Guadalajara, Mexico Haruhiko Fujita, Osaka University, Japan Pekka Korvenmaa, Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture, Finland Victor Margolin, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA Viviana Narotzky, ADI-FAD, Spain Oscar Salinas-Flores, National University of Mexico Jonathan M. Woodham, University of Brighton, UK
ICDHS Conferences The activity of the group began with a conference organized in Barcelona (Spain) in 1999. This was followed by a second meeting in La Havana (Cuba), in 2000. The Committee was inaugurated in the Istanbul (Turkey) conference, in 2002. The activity continued in the conferences held in Guadalajara (Mexico, 2004), Helsinki & Tallinn (Finland & Estonia, 2006), Osaka (Japan, 2008), and Brussels (Belgium, 2010). ICDHS conferences aim to assess the current state of affairs of design history and design studies. They are scientific conferences with a referee process to select presentations. Every conference has a theme, chosen by the board and the local organizers as an indication of the issues to be considered. Previous conferences: 1999 Barcelona (Spain) / Design History seen from Abroad: history and histories of design 2000 La Havana (Cuba) / The Emergence of Regional Histories 2002 Istanbul (Turkey) / Mind the Gap: design history beyond borders 2004 Guadalajara (Mexico) / Coincidence & Co-incidence 2006 Helsinki (Finland) & Tallinn (Estonia) / Connecting: a conference on the multivocality of design history and design studies 2008 Osaka (Japan) / Another Name for Design: words for creation 2010 Brussels (Belgium) / Design & | ♥ | Vs Craft
Scientific committee / Track chairs Track 1 / History of Design Education Haruhiko Fujita / Chair / Osaka University / Japan Silvio Barreto Campello / Co-chair / Federal University of Pernambuco / Brazil Track 2 / Identities and Territories Oscar Salinas Flores / Chair / National University of Mexico / Mexico Clice Mazzilli / Co-chair / University of São Paulo / Brazil Track 3 / National Policies on Design Javier Gimeno-Martínez / Chair / VU University Amsterdam / The Netherlands / Artesis University College of Antwerp / Belgium Cyntia Malaguti / Co-chair / University of São Paulo / Brazil Track 4 / Techniques and Technologies Paul Atkinson / Chair / Sheffield Hallam University / United Kingdom Charles Vincent / Co-chair / Mackenzie Presbyterian University / Brazil Track 5 / The New Imperialism: the international face of design and design history Jonathan Woodham / Chair / University of Brighton / United Kingdom Denise Dantas / Co-chair / University of São Paulo / Brazil Track 6 / Open Strand Victor Margolin / Chair / University of Illinois at Chicago / United States Priscila Farias / Co-chair / University of São Paulo / Brazil
Program Committee Alaster Yoxall / Sheffield Hallam University / United Kingdom Alfredo Stipech / National University of Litoral / Argentina Alpay Er / Technical University of Istanbul / Turkey Ana Beatriz Factum / State University of Bahia / Brazil Ana Gabriela Godinho Lima / Mackenzie Presbyterian University / Brazil Andréa de Souza Almeida / Mackenzie Presbyterian University / Brazil Anna Valtonen / Umeå Institute of Design / Sweden Anna Calvera / University of Barcelona / Spain Artemis Yagou / VU University Amsterdam / Netherlands Beany Monteiro / Federal University of Rio de Janeiro / Brazil Bharain Mac An Bhreithiun / Middlesex University / United Kingdom Carlos Duarte / Institute of Arts, Design and Marketing / Portugal Carlos Calderon / Newcastle University / United Kingdom Catherine Moriarty / University of Brighton / United Kingdom Catherine Dixon / University of the Arts London / United Kingdom Christoph Zellwegger / Sheffield Hallam University / United Kingdom Cláudio Portugal / University of São Paulo / Brazil Cristiane Aun / University of São Paulo / Brazil Daniel Cardoso / Massachussets Institute of Technology / United States Daniela Petrelli / Sheffield Hallam University / United Kingdom Daniela Hanns / University of São Paulo / Brazil David Sperling / University of São Paulo / Brazil Davide Fornari / University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland / Switzerland Debarnot Jiménez / Camaguey University / Cuba Dennis Doordan / University of Notre Dame / United States Dipti Bhagat / London Metropolitan University / United Kingdom Edna Lucia Cunha Lima / Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro / Brazil Eduardo Castillo / University of Chile / Chile Eduardo Hamuy / University of Chile / Chile Elizabeth Guffey / State University of New York / United States
Emmanuel Ruffo / Institute for Architecture and Media / Austria Ertu Unver / University of Huddersfield / United Kingdom Ethan Robey / Smithsonian Institute / United States Giselle Beiguelman / University of São Paulo / Brazil Grace Lees-Maffei / University of Hertfordshire / United Kingdom Guy Julier / Victoria and Albert Museum / United Kingdom Héctor Flores Magón y Jiménez / University of Guadalajara / Mexico Helena Barbosa / University of Aveiro / Portugal Heliana Pacheco / Federal University of Espirito Santo / Brazil Hugo Fortes / University of São Paulo / Brazil Ian Gwilt / Sheffield Hallam University / United Kingdom Jane Pavitt / Royal College of Art / United Kingdom Jilly Traganou / The New School / United States João De Souza Leite / Rio de Janeiro State University / Brazil José Cabral / Federal University of Minas Gerais / Brazil Julio Frías / Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey / Mexico Justin Marshall / University College Falmouth / United Kingdom Karen Summerson / State University of New York / United States Kevin Klinger / Ball State University / United States Krista Kodres / Estonian Academy of Arts / Estonia Leon Cruickshank / Lancaster University / United Kingdom Leslie Atzmon / Eastern Michigan University / United States Livia Lazzaro Rezende / Rio de Janeiro State University / Brazil Lucy Niemeyer / Rio de Janeiro State University / Brazil Luis Rodriguez-Morales / Autonomous Metropolitan University / Mexico Luis Antonio Jorge / University of São Paulo / Brazil Marcos Braga / University of São Paulo / Brazil Marilda Queluz / Federal Technological University of Paraná / Brazil Marina Garone / National University of Mexico / Mexico Maristela Ono / Federal Technological University of Paraná / Brazil Monica Tavares / University of São Paulo / Brazil Mônica Moura / São Paulo State University / Brazil Oliver Neumann / University of British Columbia / Canada Pablo Herrera / Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas / Peru Paula Landim / São Paulo State University / Brazil Paulo Fernando de Almeida Souza / Federal University of Bahia / Brazil Pekka Korvenmaa / Aalto University / Finland Raquel Pelta / University of Barcelona / Spain Sarah Teasley / Royal College of Art / United Kingdom Solange Coutinho / Federal University of Pernambuco / Brazil Suely Fragoso / Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul / Brazil Teresa Riccetti / Mackenzie Presbyterian University / Brazil Tevfik Balcioglu / Yasar University / Turkey Timo de Rijk / Technical University Delft / Netherlands Veronica Devalle / University of Buenos Aires / Argentina Virginia Kistmann / Federal University of Parana / Brazil
Organizing committee / Conference convenors Priscila Farias / University of São Paulo / Brazil Anna Calvera / University of Barcelona / Spain
Marcos Braga / University of São Paulo / Brazil Zuleica Schincariol / Mackenzie Presbyterian University / Brazil
Organizing committee Andréa de Souza Almeida / Prof Dr / Mackenzie Presbyterian University / Brazil Carlos Zibel Costa / Prof Dr / University of São Paulo / Brazil Catherine Dixon / Prof Dr / University of the Arts London / United Kingdom Charles Vincent / Prof Dr / Mackenzie Presbyterian University / Brazil Clice Sanjar Mazzilli / Prof Dr / University of São Paulo / Brazil Cyntia Malaguti / Prof Dr / University of São Paulo / Brazil Denise Dantas / Prof Dr / University of São Paulo / Brazil Eduardo Camillo Ferreira / Undergraduate / University of São Paulo / Brazil Gil Barros / Prof MSc / University of São Paulo / Brazil Giselle Beiguelman / Prof Dr / University of São Paulo / Brazil Haruhiko Fujita / Prof Dr / Osaka University / Japan Iara Camargo / Doctoral student / University of São Paulo / Brazil Isabella Aragão / Doctoral student / University of São Paulo / Brazil Javier Gimeno-Martínez / Prof Dr / VU University Amsterdam / Netherlands & Artesis University College of Antwerp / Belgium Jonathan M. Woodham / Prof Dr / University of Brighton / United Kingdom Jorge Bassani / Prof Dr / University of São Paulo / Brazil Leandro Velloso / Master student / University of São Paulo / Brazil Lucila Fernández Uriarte / Prof Dr / Instituto Superior de Diseño / Cuba Luis Carli / Master student / University of São Paulo / Brazil Márcia de Paula / FUPAM / Brazil Maria Beatriz Camargo / Undergraduate student / University of São Paulo / Brazil Nara Silvia Marcondes Martins / Prof Dr / Mackenzie Presbyterian University / Brazil Nayanna Fernanda Guandalini / FUPAM / Brazil Oscar Salinas-Flores / Prof Dr / UNAM / Mexico Paul Atkinson / Prof Dr / Sheffield Hallam University / United Kingdom Raquel Klafke / Undergaduate student / University of São Paulo / Brazil Silvio Barreto Campello / Prof Dr / Federal University of Pernambuco / Brazil Teresa Maria Riccetti / Prof Dr / Mackenzie Presbyterian University / Brazil Victor Margolin / Prof Dr / University of Illinois at Chicago / United States
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Published on Oct 28, 2012
This paper focuses on the relationship between the design of theseries of the Brazilian banknotes known as Cruzeiro Novo, andthe acquisition...