Issuu on Google+

114

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

114


1

tvif ; td r f r l 0 g' (1) ppfreS af ompmayvGwv f yfciG &hf aSd p&ef (2) tm%m&Sipf epfreS o f r#wdu k zf suf&ef (3) 'Dru kd a&pDawmfveS af &;tiftm;pkrsm;ESihf vufwGJ aqmif&Guf&ef (4) jynfol jynfom;wdk h.cHpm;csufudk wifjy&ef//

jrefrmouU&mZf 1373 ck / e,k e f v c&pfEpS f 2011 / ZG e f v 1

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


2

tvif;tdrf rmwdum tvif;tdrfpum;

4

acwf+ydKifcHpm;r_ uAsm ig

rif;ok0%f

6

atmifcikd jf rifh av;av;(wdkusdK) xGef;+idrf; cdik f tarhom; rsdK;atmif

7 8 9 10 11 12

uAsm b0ppfppfxJu ppf w&m;cH aoG;rsm;&J hqEN *k%fjyKjcif; jrpf{&modk h wifjyjcif; ra0;awmhwJh tem*wf

umwGef; tifwmeufay:rS umwGef;rsm;

13

tvif;tdrf oa&mfpm “vef;”vdu k cf siaf o;&J h

aumhom;

15

atmifa0; armifpGrf;&nf aZmf0if;at;

18 19 23

aEGO;D

52

*g&0jyK pmrsuEf mS rsm; ESvHk;om;*Dw (uAsm) jynfolawGatmifyef;+rJqifjref;ol vlxkacgif;aqmif (odk hr[kwf) h h h

pmayqef;ppfcsuf olykefESvHk;om; uAsmrsm;

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

2


3

EdkifiHa&; okw &o Ak'<bmomESifh tm%m&Sifpepf wd[dwfuav;rS wd[dwf}uD;odk h a&jrihfavaomtcg vl}uD;oifykef}uD; trsdK;om;ynma&; ynmacwf ynmv_dif;rsm; ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;avmurSm a':&_ h(odk hr[kwf) a&morar$ jrefrmhEdkifiHa&; vpfb&,f0g' arG;zGm;jcif;ESifh w&m;r#wr_ vli,fwkd &h J h Edik if aH &;aumif;uifopf 30 vl hpGrf;tm;t&if;tjrpfpDrHcefhcGJr_

armifomrn ndKjr t&SifoH0&mvuFm& t&SifOm%du OD;oef h armifcdkifatmif zdk;oHacsmif; rdk;ausmfausmf 0if;Edkif armif=unfopf jzLjzLoif; 0if;vJhar

26 29 34 38 41 44 47 49 56 60 62 64

armifpdk;csdef

67

0wˆKwdk jroDwmudkarG;zGm;jcif;

tvif;tdrf 5 ESpfjynfh txdrf;trSwf 0wˆKwd+k ydKifyJG ausmif;pdrf; yg;pyf&mZ0ifxJu Zmwfvdkufrsm;

eef;qdkifa[mif vlcg;

79 85

rdk;ajropf

112

armifarmifvwf

92

jroef;wifh tvif;tdrfrD'D,m

98 107

Edik if aH &;tawG;tjrif tcef;quf p=um0VmxJu 'dkif,mvufwpf 26

bmomjyeftcef;quf tdrfajrSmifavSmiftdrf 44

Edik if aH &;tawG;tac: 'Da&jrifhopf tvif;tdrf rSwfpk

3

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


4

tvif;tdrf pum; vGwv f yf+yD; }uD;yGm;csr;f omr_ukd vlwikd ;f tvd&k =dS uygw,f? 'Dae&mrSm rdrw d ud, k w f nf;eJ@ rdrd aqGrsKd ; todu k t f 0ef; trsKd ;tEG,w f pk }uD;yGm;csr;f omr_uo kd m t&if;cH+yD; trsm;tusKd ;/ vlr_avmu 0ef;usiftusdK;awGudk xnfhrwGuf/ b,folaoao iawrm&if+yD;a&mqdkwJh pdw"f mwfe@J aqmif&u G af exdik f =ur,fq&kd if vl@avmu[m qkw, f w k yf supf ;D aerSmjzpfw,f? 'Duae@ tifrwef ,Ofaus;odrfarG@+yD; udk,fcsif;pmw&m;/ arwWmw&m; }uD;rm; =uygw,fqdkwJh jrefrmhavmu ywf0ef;usif[m urBmhtv,frSm edrfhusqkwf,kwfaewmudk jrifz@kd vykd gw,f? ppfreS w f hJ jrefrmh,Ofaus;r_qikd &f mawG uG,af ysmufysupf ;D aeyg+yD? wdik ;f jynfukd ppftyk pf u k , kd pf m;jyK ppfwyfvw l ef;pm;u tkycf sKyfvmaewm ESpf (50)xJ a&mufaeyg+yD? vufeuftm;ud;k eJ@ &ufpufpmG owfjzwfErdS ef if;+yD; tm%modr;f w,f? olw@kd ukd qef@usiaf wmfveS yf ek u f efol rSeo f r#ukd zrf;qD;owfjzwfw,f? wcsKd @ukd tcGit hf a&; &yfwnfvyk yf ikd f cGihf rqdo k avmufay;+yD; ppfuíefcaH pw,f? wdik ;f jynf&@J qkw, f w k yf supf ;D edru hf saer_/ jynfov l x l k iwfrw G af cgif;yg; edru hf saer_ukd rsuu f , G jf yKum ppfuíefjyKa&;udo k m wpdu k rf wfrwf vkyv f mcJ/h vkyaf eqJjzpfw,f? ,ae@wikd ;f jynfukd tkycf sKyfaewJh tpd;k &w&yf[m twkta,mif t&yf0wf OD;ode;f pdef tpd;k &jzpfw,f? tJ'D tpd;k &tzG@J rmS yg0ifwhJ vlawGtm;vH;k eD;yg;[m twkta,mif t&yf0wfawG qdw k m vdrrf &yg? tJ't D xJrmS rS ppfuíefjyK a'gufwikd t f jzpf wdik ;f &if;om;trnfcH 'kw, d orRw wa,mufukd yg0ifxm;ap+yD; rqdo k avmufygwJh t&yf0wfawGukd trnfco H x kH m;wmjzpfw,f? 'Dtpd;k &tzG@J w&yfv;kH udk xde;f csKyfne$ =f um; aqmif&u G af ewmu zufqpfppftm%m&Sif AdkvfcsKyfr_;}uD;oef;a&$eJ@ ppftm%m&SifawGqdkwm b,folrSjiif;r&ay? t&if;ppf+yD;ajym&&if 'Duae@ jrefrmjynfrSm tkyfcsKyfaewm[m ppftm%m&SifawGu tuGufcs/ pDrHudef;cs+yD; zG@J pnf;yHak wG/ a&G;aumufyaJG wGukd aumufuspv f rd v f nf t"rRjyKvkyaf qmif&u G +f yD; jzpfay:vmwJh (vlxu k a&G;aumufwifajrSuw f ,fqw kd m trnfc)H zufqpfppftm%m&Sif tusKd ;jyK/ tum tuG,jf yK tpd;k & w&yfomjzpfw,f? zufqpfppftm%m&Sif xm0, pdrk ;kd tkycf sKyfa&;yJjzpfw,f? bma=umifh zufqpfppftm%m&Siv f @kd oH;k &ovJqakd wmh urBmay:rSm ay:aygufcw hJ hJ zufqpfEikd if aH wG[m (tDwvD/ *smr%D/ *syef) trsKd ;om;a&;udk tvGeaf &S@wef;wif toH;k jyK+yD; ppftyk pf k tusKd ;pD;yGm;wckwnf;udo k m pdu k pf u kd rf wfrwf vkyw f wfw,f? 'Dru kd a&pDpepfukd qef@usif wdu k zf suw f ,f? &ufpuf=urf;=uKwf+yD; vdrv f nfaumufusppf mG usi}hf uH=uw,f? 'Duae@ jrefrmppftyk pf &k @J &yfwnfcsu[ f m 'Dtwdik ;f yJjzpfw,f? zufqpfppftm%m&Sif Adv k cf sKyfr;_ }uD;oef;a&$&@J tm%mpufatmufrmS yJ &yfwnfae&wJh twkta,mif t&yf0wftpd;k & OD;odef;pdef[m urBmudk t&yf0wftpdk;&topfyg[k b,favmufajymajym &yfwnfcsuf/ vkyaf qmifcsuaf wG[m ppfuíefjyKa&;qdw k m odomxif&mS ;aeygw,f? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

4


5

jrefrmEdik if &H @J pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;/ Edik if aH &; t&yf&yfukd ppfabmif;bDcíwf vlawGe@J rdrt d usKd ; pD;yGm;&yfwnfcsuf wckom=unf+h yD; ppfuíefjyKay;aewJh twW0g'DawGom yg0ifwhJ tpd;k &w&yf[m aumif;rGeo f ef@&iS ;f aom tpd;k &w&yfr[kwq f w kd m jrifawG@ae&yg+yD? 'ga=umifh wdik ;f jynfe@J vrl sKd ; tusKd ;udk tppftrSev f v kd m;&if/ +idr;f csr;f om,m0ajymaom vl@abmifwckukd jrwfE;kd &if 'Dtpd;k & w&yfukd vufrcHyJ qef@usiw f u kd zf su&f rSmjzpfygw,f? wGe;f vSeaf wmfveS &f rSm jzpfw,f? vl@avmurSm igqdw k t hJ wWukd tajccH+yD; jyKrlaqmif&u G &f if vl@avmuywf0ef;usif qkw, f w k yf supf ;D +yD;/ tJ'D igyg qdw k hJ t&m&mawGyg ysupf ;D =u&rSmjzpfw,f? uíEfyk w f @kd &ifqikd af wG@}uKH ae&wm zufqpfppftm%m&Sipf epfjzpfw,f? 'Duae@jy\emudk &_wwf&ifjzpfygw,f? aumufuspf vdrfvnf,kwfrmpGm jyKrlqufqHwwfwJh/ &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfpGm ajz&Sif;wwfwJh ppftkyfpkudk r,H=k unf =uzd@k vykd gw,f? rqdo k avmuf tcGit hf a&;/ vkyyf ikd cf iG ahf wG[m ppftyk pf &k @J ig;jrSm;csw d u f ig;pmawGomjzpfw,f qdkwm oabmayguf=uzdk@vdkygw,f? jrefrmjynfxJrSm ppftkyfpkudk qef@usifolawGtwGuf EdkifiHt0Srf; axmifawGzGifhxm;w,f? ppfvufeuf ypPnf;awG/ ppftiftm;awG wd;k cs@J aew,f? 'Duae@ wdik ;f &if;om;a'oawGrmS t"rR xd;k ppfaoewfoaH wG qlnaH e+yD; jynfoal wG twd'u k aQ &mufae=u+yD? zufqpf ppftm%m&SifpepfatmufrSm ol/ig wOD;wa,mufomr[kwf/ tzGJ@wzGJ@ tkypf w k pkomr[kw/f vlrsKd ;pk wpkwnf;omr[kw/f Edik if o H m;tm;vH;k twd'u k aQ wGa&mufum edru hf s ysupf ;D ae=u+yD? igwd@k rS igwd@k omv#if zufqpf'%fukd cHae=u&wmr[kw/f jrefrmEdik if o H m;tm;vH;k cHae=u&wmjzpfw,f? 'gudjk rif+yD; pkaygif;vufwJG wdu k zf su=f uzd@k vdyk gw,f? ppftyk pf u k kd wGe;f vSef wdu k zf suw f ahJ e&mrSm ppftm%m&Siu f kd awmfveS &f rSmjzpfovd/k ppftyk pf u k v kd nf;+zdKcG&J rSmjzpfw,f? ta&;}uD;wmu ppftkyfpkudk taxmuftyHhjyK/ tumtuG,fay; &yfwnfaewJh/ rdrdtusdK;pD;yGm; wckwnf;om=unfhwJh ppfuíefjyKa'gufwdkifawGudk wdkufzsuf&rSmjzpfw,f? ppftkyfpkudk ,Hk=unfudk;pm;jyK &yfwnfae=uwJh vlawG/ tzGJ@tpnf;awG/ vlrsdK;pkawGudk wifjycsiw f mu twkta,mif t&yf0wf OD;ode;f pdet f ygt0if wdik ;f &if;om;trnfcH 'korRw}uD; ESihf wuG tpd;k &opfw&yfqakd om tpd;k &onf wdik ;f jynfukd ppfreS af umif;rGew f hJ aumif;usKd ;a&S@&c_ sif &if Edik if aH &;tusO;f omawGvw $ yf g/ wdik ;f &if;om;a'oawGukd t"rRx;kd ppfqif wdu k cf u kd af er_awGukd &yfwef@ay;yg/ Edik if aH &;tiftm;pk tm;vH;k eJ@ &d;k om;pGm vufwaJG qmif&u G yf g? zufqpfppftm%m&Sif Adv k cf sKyfr;_ }uD;oef;a&$&@J xde;f uGyrf a_ tmufuae vGwaf jrmufatmifvyk yf g? vlxw k &yfv;kH aumif;pm;zd@k jrSiw hf ifcsi&f if rdrw d @kd &@J twWtusKd ;pD;yGm;udk t"duxm; tajccH&yfwnfwhJ ig.....ig wd@k &@J aqmif&u G af er_awGukd &yfwef@vu kd yf g? tm%m&Sirf eS o f r# usq;kH ap&rnf tvif;tdrf&Jabmfrsm; 5

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


6

ig h h h igh rSmvnf; ig / ol rh mS igESihf igh ig ol ih g / awG =h ucg0,f ig ESihf ig csi;f / ig ppfcif;vsuf yljyif;vSsH&J ig aygufuGJ. ? ig 'kuaQ y; / ig rat;I ig at;&a=umif; / cGichf g acsmif;vsuf igaumif;udk &Sm / igqd;k cGmaomf uGmavonf odk /h jzpfo+rdK v h nf; acgif;vSsKd u h , kd ahf cG / yjcKyfaAGY ief;ajrG rjcm; / ESo J H =um;vSsif yg;ysO;f axmifvsuf igonfxu G . f ? tdk zGm;zuf ig / toif igESihf ig ravSsmw h rf; / tm;tif prf;tHh ? tpGr;f omol / yef;qGw, f v l rd hf ? igrl ighukd atmifrnfavm? ? ighukd igu atmifrnfavm? ?

rif;ok0%f rwfv/ 1982? &SKr0 r*~Zif;rS

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

6


7

b0ppfppfxJu ppf raocsmwJh tem*wft&dyaf wG aphaqmfrw _ ;kd yGm;vm ra&&mcJh qifqmjzwftwdwrf mS arG@avsmzf @kd }udK;pm;=ur,f --- ? tdrk if;&ifah &mfwhJ cE<mtdrx f rJ mS a=uGviG o hf mG ;cJh EkysKd jcif;rsm; jyefaumuf b0c&D;waxmufrmS ,H=k unf&m &J&aJ v#muf&OD;r,f --- ? uH=urRmrSm (azhpb f w k f ) r&Srd eS ;f od&@J jyefumvSeu f m rdwjf zpfaqGjzpf &SmazGaerdw,f --- ? xdecf seaf rhypfv@kd r&wJh b0vrf;wdw k rkd mS tcsed w f ef tdrrf jyefjzpfchJ ae@&ufrsm; ydrk sm;vmw,f --- ? ESpt f wef=um odr;f qnf;xm;wJh wcsKd @&@J &d;k ;om;jcif;rsm; rd;k cg;a&awG wdu k pf m;vd@k a&umwmvdk usKd ;oGm;rSm pd;k &drw f ,f --- ? twdwt f a=umif;awG pOf;pm;&if; pdwaf xmif;ud, k af =ucJh +rdK@jy a&=unf&m jrufE&k m &Smr&wJh tarSmifnawG ajcmufveS @f aew,f --- ? &Sio f efjcif; teD;tem;rSm b,fuo kd mG ;&rSe;f rodwhJ aorif;wref ta0;ajy;vrf;rawG war#mw f ac: / pD;yGm;a&; Adu k ef mwJ=h um;rSm wdu k w f mar#mpf Of jrifjh rifrh sm;u om;a&;orD;a&; rpOf;pm;tm;wJh edru hf sra_ wG jyefjrifa,mifru d m vm&mvrf;udk r+idr;f rcsr;f vSnjhf yefz@kd ajcvSr;f rjyifawmh tem*wfEikd if aH wmfu jcpm;+ydKysuaf ew,f --- ? tm;vH;k ucspw f hJ a&$&nf +idr;f csr;f a&;eJ@ trsm;urke;f cJh a&&Snf ppfqw kd m b,fawmhrS rqHq k nf;rJh tpd;k r& rsO;f +ydKif ESpaf =umif;qdak yrJh +ydKifjrif;awGvkd vGwv f yfpmG uqkeaf yguf 'ke;f qdik ;f vdu k cf siv f @kd trsKd ;om;jyefvnf oifjh rwfa&; yef;csu D m;udk c%c% pdwu f ;l eJ@ qGaJ erdw,f --- ? ppf qdw k m woufpmtwGuf a&S;a[mif;ypPn;f wpfcv k kd atmifcikd jf rifh vuf&mrysuf pkaqmif;xm;vd@k aumif;wJt h &m r[kwb f ;l --- ? 7

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


8

w&m;cH

rpl;rprf; tcl;&rf;awmh ql;rSe;f rod yef; rodchJ ql;cl; 'Dvuf tqdyw f uf rS cl;ol tjypfvm; ql; tjypfvm; ar;cJhjim;rl ql;ypfrzGJ@ uwWm;vufa=umifh 'g%foufa&mufrl jyKolomv#if tjypf0if. b,forl jyK rdrdr_ ayg@ ? ?

av;av; (wdkusdK )

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

8


9

tnw& ol&aJ umif; -- wJh pma=umif;av;awG pDciG jhf yKyg -- ? tnw& ol&aJ umif; wyg; r*~iaf usmif;u ajymif;=uGomG ;+yD -- ?

aoG;rsm;&J hqEN

tnw& ol&aJ umif;wOD; usiphf Ofx;l twGuf pcef;ul;oGm;+yD -- ? tnw& ol&aJ umif; wa,muf tkwv f rf;uae c&D;=urf;av#muf+yD -- ? ausmif;ajymif; / pcef;ul; vrf;xl;zd@k qH;k wJah e&m tkwu f mvd@k ql;}udK;cwf bl;udjk zwfv@kd oHwikd =f um; &ifbwf}uD;eJ@ 0ifomG ;=u+yD -- ?

q&mawmf / bd;k awmf / ausmif;om; tv$mrwlwm tomxm;vdu k f ESvHk;om;jzLpif twlyif wdu k yf JG 0ifaeav&J@ -- ? trSet f wdik ;f ajym / t&St d wdik ;f vkyf todtwdik ;f qH;k jzwfawmh jynfo@l &ef rdpm> qd;k awG&@J t!SKd ;eJ@ axmif'%f trSeyf if oifcaH e&ayayg@ -- ?

jrefrmjynf rEk\rsm;twGuf pmpDum pm&if;vkyrf &wJh Zmenfausmf ol&aJ umif;rsm;xJu tnw& pm&if;0if oifw@kd o;kH a,muf use;f rmpGmeJ@ ,H=k unfcsuv f rf; qH;k cef;wdik w f ikd f qufav#mufEikd =f uygapaomf --?

xGef;+idrf; ( abmufaxmfom; ) 9

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


10

jzLpifonfh ESv;kH om; r[kw&f if rcH rSew f mudk vky&f J awmfveS &f w J hJ owWd b,fol rh mS rS r&Sd ?

H

H Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

acwf tqufquf ordkif;rSmwGif vG,t f w d u f kd cs pmoifcef;udk ausmcdik ;f cGyaf 'gif;tvH udik u f mpGJ a&S@wef;ucsD ? jynfo@l a&S@ rm;rm;&yf rw&m;zdEydS w f hJ tkypf ;kd olukd tHwk tvJvJ t+ydK+ydK wd@k rr_ a&S@o@kd csD &J&eJ w D hJ aoG; ordik ;f rSm pmwifr,f urBmu odapom; ?

H

*k%fjyKjcif;

rSeu f efwhJ qH;k jzwfcsuf jynfo@l twGuq f kd bmrqdk vky&f J a&S@wef;rScsD bmrxD wd@k ausmif;om; urBmrSm r&Sd ?

?

cdkif (&SDemum0g ) 10


11

e'D - {&m igwd@k aewJh jynfjrefrm[m 47 Zlvikd f 19 wke;f uvnf; rd;k arSmifusv@kd uHq;kd =urRmqd;k eJ@ wd;k cJ&h w,f ?

jrpf{&modk hwifjyjcif;

e'D - {&m aemufwcg 'DwvH;k ar 30 'Dy, J if;[m uHrqd;k rd;k arSmif =urRmqd;k eJ@ xyfw;kd cJjh yefao;w,f ? e'D - {&m wcsuaf vmufjzpfjzpf &mZ0ifordik ;f udk wl;az:cGijhf yKyg / twW=uL;wJh ppfbv D ;l awG[m r[kww f &kwef @J aygif;+yD olw@kd todik ;f t0dik ;f aumif;pm;a&;eJ@ tm%mwnf+rJz@kd qd&k if oef; 50 ausmw f hJ jynfoal wGukd paw;cH wdik ;f jynfuv kd nf; w&kwt f aygifqikd x f J xd;k tyfcsio f vdk xd;k tyf usKyfwdk@EdkifiHrSm Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;awG r&Sb d ;l [k qdu k m r=umc% urBmeJ@ tmpD,u H kd "gwfjym;a[mif;awG zGijhf yae+yD; twk;d t&if; ray;&wJh tEd, N - ukvm;udv k nf; wausmfausmfeJ@ tdyrhf ufxrJ mS ( ygyg ) ac:aew,f --- {&m0wD ?

e'D - {&m ig@uikd g t[kwx f ifae=uwJh tm%m&l; ,leaD zgif;0wf - ,leaD zgif;csw G f ppfbv D ;l awG[m usaemhtxif 'Dy, J if; rajymeJ@ 'D yJ[if;pm;wJh ol@vv kd l Zwfwo l m;vnf; pm;&Jw,f ?

tarhom; ('Dy, J if;wGif usq;kH oGm;onfh 'Dru kd a&pDwu kd yf 0JG if ol&aJ umif;tmZmenfrsm;tm; 1TuAs 1 mjzifh *k%jf yKtyfygonf )

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


12

vdck siw f m &wmu atmifjrifrv _ @kd owfrw S cf &hJ if vdck siw f m r&ao;wJh ig wd@k b0 ---us&;_H olv@kd owfrw S &f rSmvm; ?

ra0;awmhwJh tem*wf jrifa,mifaewJh trSefw&m;

ocsmF ykpm> wpfy'k v f kd tajzxkwv f @kd r&wJh rm,mavmurSm ra&&m oDt&kd D &Sad o;vd@k ar#mv f ifch suf raysmufq;kH oa&G@ cg;roefvnf; cgcsOrf mefe@J +zdKrSmbJ ? &wmudk ESpo f ufEikd &f if aysm&f i$ rf v _ @kd owfrw S w f hJ urBmrSm rESpo f ufwm&wJh igwd@k ae@pOf&ufrsm; pnf;vH;k r_ --- awG 0rf;eJrw S w f rf;vd@k owfrw S rf vm; k cf wfaeoa&G@ vGwv f yfpmG oabmrwlEikd b f ;l ? ESv;kH om;&yf0ef; wdu w[ke;f [ke;f avmifwhJ awmrD;v#H aysm&f i$ rf t _ wGuf vGwv f yfr_ vdo k vdk jymtdrrf mS aemufq;kH vJav#mif;&ovdk +idr;f ajcmufru _ if;zd@k ca,mif;vrf;rSm Armjynfu tm%m&Siaf wGvnf; wufrpHk &Gurf vHk vnf; jynfo@l tm;rmefrmS usq;kH rSmtrSeyf J ? pdwo f wWd ajryHo k ;kH c&D;qH;k xd &Guv f i$ &hf b kH J ? wcsed rf mS --qdw+f idraf omfvnf; at;csr;f wJh vGwaf jrmufwhJ bDv;l rdpm> rjynfph akH omfvnf; +idr;f csr;f wJh jyefcsKyfaESmifz@kd rjzpfEikd o f vdk rcrf;em;aomfvnf; vH+k cHKwJh f vH;k rSm ydwq f @kd xm;wJh vGwv f yfewforD; +cdr;f ajcmufr_ uif;a0;&m tdrw xm0& csKyfaESmifxm;vd@k r&Edik w f m "rRwm ? tdk --- rdwaf qG urBmtES@H ae@pOf --ae@pOf igwd@k rsKd ;quf cdek m;Edik rf mS ? tm%m&Siw f @kd us&;_H csed rf mS ,Hk=unfxm;prf;yg ? igwd@k &@J ---- rsdK;atmif (yD - au - ,l ) Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

12


13

13

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


14

umwGef; OD;b*srf;

“tjyKwfaqmftaotky”f Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

14


15

tvif;tdrfoa&mfpm

“vef; ”vdkufcsifao;&J h h h aumhom;

umwGe;f [efav;. yHrk sm;jzpfygonf/

tJ'h gudk jynfya&muf udk,fa&$ udk,frsdK; a0zefa&;q&m awGu “csuG / cs / cs” qdk+yD; udk,fhykqdk;p udk,feif;+yD; avxefuek ;f wdu k yf JG 0ifaeav&J @// tar&duef}u;D jyefawmh pum;vufaqmifwckusecf w hJ ,f / Edik if aH &;t& jyKjyifajymif;vJr_ awG rvkyf&if jrefrmEdkifiHtpdk;&[m ta&S htv,fydkif;EdkifiHawGvdk tjzpfrsdK;eJ h }uHK&Edkifw,fwJh / 'Dpum; t"dy`g,fu bmvJ / uav;awmifodw,f / “at; h h h rif;wdk h'Dtwdkif;qufoGm;vdk huawmh vlxktHk =uGr_awGeJ h }uHK&vdrfh ”vdk h qdkvdkufwmyg / tm%m&Sif tqufquf ta=umufqHk;utJh'gbJ / OD;ae 0if;vJ a=umufw,f / AkdvfapmarmifvJ a=umufw,f / Adkvfoef;a&$vJ a=umufwmbJ / tck OD;odef;pdef vJa=umufwmbJ / a=umufyg w,fqdkrS tJonfvdk tar&duef}uD;u rxdwxdav; uvdoGm;awmh OD;odef;pdef&ifxJ uvduvdeJ h usef &pfcJhrSmawmh aocsmygw,f/ usef&pfr,fqdk&ifvJ usefp&maygh/ [dkwavmu [efav; umwGef;xJrSm Adkvfoef;a&$ u OD;odef;pdefudk avSwpif;eJ h yifv,fxJ ar#mvdu k w f hJ yHyk gw,f / / wufr udak wmh olu ,lxm;vdu k w f ,f / avSay:rSm ,ufuef,ufuefeJ yh gomG ;wJh OD;odef;pdef b,favmufrsm; Asm rsm;vdkufrvJ / ppfwyfausmaxmufaemufcHeJ h tm%m&SifAdkvfoef;a&$ }uKd ;qG&J m vdu k u f +y;D orwjzpfc&hJ wJh OD;ode;f pdef / ol rh mS bmtm%mrS r&Sd / vGw+f ird ;f csr;f omcGiahf v;awmif vlajym olajymvGwfatmif xkwfjyefay;EdkifwJh taetxm; ol@rSmr&Sd / wGJvkyf&wmu Adkvfoef;a&$ &J h vufyg;apawG / umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf eJ h 'korw &SpfvHk;}uD; / tJonfvdk hnSyfxm;wJh *GifxJ ol hbmrS vkyfvdk hr&bl;qdkwm ol hudk,fol odw,f/ 'ga=umifh oef h&Sif;wJ htpdk;& wdk h aumif;wJ htpdk;&wdk h qdk+yD; ol hrdef hcGef;xJ r&J w&J xnfhajymoGm;ayrJ h tajymeJ htvkyf wxyfwnf;uszdk hqdkwm vG,fwmrSwfvdk h/ tckbJ=unhf / ol htpdk;&}uD;wufvmrS 17 ESpfavmuf ikwfwkwfarhaewJh jynfwGif;ppf}uD; jyefpae+yD / olb,ftjzpfccH siyf grh vJ/ wdik ;f &if;om;xJu 'korw &Sr;f }u;D vJ jynfwiG ;f ppfukd b,fvw kd m; ay;EdkifrvJ / “usaemfu &Srf; h h h tckjzpfaewmu ucsif” vdk h ajymcsif ajymaerSm / ol hcrsm a&$wd*Hk bk&m;oGm;vdkuf / [dkae&m / 'Dae&m aiGav;vSLvdkufeJ h wcgwcg owif;pmxJrSm ygcGifh&wmu vGJvdk@ bm tm%m yg0grS r&Sw d mawmhaocsmw,f/ aocsmwmuawmh OD;ode;f pdef acgi;f onfx h ufyakd jymifawmh r,f qdkwmbJ / ol hrSm 0dkif;aewJh tylrD;awGu enf;enf;rS r[kwfwm uvm;// tHkeJ h usif;eJ hAdsK h/ 15

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


16

orwjzpf+yD;+yD;csif; tmqD,HrSm OuUX vkyfzdk h 0ifwdk;=unhfw,f / zdvpfydkifeJ h pifumylu 0dkif; aqmfvu kd v f kd h zifyw d +f y;D jyefvm&w,f/ w&kwjf ynfroGm;cif vGw+f ird ;f csr;f omcGiahf =unmay;w,f/ rsuf ESmr& wJhtjyif wurBmvHk;u 0dkif;qJvdk h acgif;awmifrjyL&J&Smbl;/ aemuftar&duef}uD; vm+yD; uvd oGm;w,f/ tD*spf eJ hvpfAsm; vdk jzpfcsifovm;wJh / a=umufygw,fqdkrS ZGwfvmajcmufoGm;ao;w,f/ tck tdik t f ,fvt f kd urBm t h vkyo f rm;tzGJ }h u;D u &mZoHay;xm;+yD / wESpt f wGi;f jynfwiG ;f rSm vGwv f yf wJh tvkyform;or*~awG zGJ hcGifhay;&r,fwJh / vlpkvla0;qdk&if bwfpfum;wdk;pD;wmawmif r}udKufwJh tpd;k &opf}u;D vufxufrmS or*~awGzJG ch iG ahf y;zdk ah jymwm[m uku d w f wfwahJ cG;udk oGm;oGm;“p” aeovdk jzpfraebl; vm;// 'gu urBmeJ hqdkifwJh tylawG / jynfwGif;rSm 0dkif;aewJh tylrD;udkvJ=unhfOD;/ Adv k o f ef;a&$ “&du k pf m;”vkyo f mG ; wJh =uufqq l aD vmifpm pDru H ed ;f }u;D u wu,fvufawG =h u jyefawmh bmrS jzpfrvmbl;/ “tif” }u;D / tJ'h D “tif” pDru H ed ;f }u;D udk tckacwf ppfAv kd cf sKyaf wG aemufuae vkdufvkyfay;wm olwdk h&J h t&nftcsif; tHhrcef;qdkwmudk jyvdkufwmbJ/ aemufqHk;awmh uawmif; wjcm; / zifwjcm;eJ@v,fawGtodr;f cH& / pDru H ed ;f uef u h u G o f al wG axmifxJ a&muf&wmuvGv J @kd avmif pmqD&Sm;yg;wJh 'kuQrD;u av#mhroGm;bl;/ [kwfwdywfwdeJ h yk*~vduawGvufxJ qDqdkifawGv$Jay;+yD; wu,fxJ “vef;”awmhrvdkvdkeJ h / [if; h h h tck =ujyefawmh 'kH&if;twdkif; qDarSmifckdaps;uGuf}uD; }u;D vmwmbJ tzufwifw,f/ um;q,fp;D avmufprk &d if ud, k x f w k v f mwJq h D ol ah &mif;/ olxw k v f mwJq h D ud, k 0f ,feJ h tcef rh oif&h if rD;awmifavmifvu dk af o;/avmifpmqDaps;eJ t h wl cspjf cifi,f+yKd iaf ewmuawmh pm;aomufukefaps;E_ef;/ a&G;aumufyGJ rwdkifrDuawmh 0efxrf;awG vpmwdk;ay;rvdkvdk bmvdkvdkeJ@ xifa,mif xifrSm;jzpfatmif avoHypfw,f/ wu,fvJtpdk;&zGJ h+yD;a&m aiGr&Sdvdk h rwdk;ay;Edkifbl;vdk h jywfjywfyaJ jymcsvu kd w f ,f/ orw}u;D vJ t&if0ef}u;D csKyv f yk w f ek ;f u vpmbJ ,lr,fwhJ / rif;wdk 0h efxrf;awG vJ t&iftwdkif;bJ ,l=u / t&iftwdkif;bJ ckd;=u / t&iftwdkif;bJ 0Suf=u/ t&iftwdkif;bJ pm;=u / t&iftwdkif;bJ aiguf=u / t&iftwdkif;bJ uspf=u / t&iftwdkif;bJ 0g;ap (a0pm;) qdkawmh h h h aemufqHk; “}uD;” usefcJhwmbJ tzwfwifw,f/ ukefaps;E_ef; rsm;ajymygw,f/ tJ'g u wrD; / vufeufeJ h+idrf;csrf;a&; vJvdk hr&wJ hrD;u wrD; / vufeufqdkwmu udkifxm;&if ypfwm rypfwm tom;xm; “t[ef h”av;awmh jzpfao;w,f/ +idrf;csrf;a&;qdkwm}uD;u udkifxm;vdk h &wmrS r[kww f m// b,forl qdk raocsmwmudak wmh b,fuikd cf sirf vJ / aocsmwmudk udik cf siw f maygh / ud, k u f s awmh udik x f m;+y;D olrsm;=uawmh rudik ef J w h hJ / apwemrSe&f if “rif;wdk v h J rudik ef J h igvrJ udik b f ;l ” qdw k m avmufawmh tenf;qH;k jzpfoifw h maygh / rD;qdw k m udik &f ifyw l ,fqw kd m uav;awmifow d ,fr[kwv f m;/ bma=umifu h ikd o f vJqw kd mudk tajzr&SmbJ rudik ef J rh udik ef J q h akd wmh “b,fvuf”eJ rh udik &f &if “nmvuf” eJ hudkif=urSmbJav / tJh'D jynfwGif;ppfqdkwJh rD;u wrD;/ aemufwrD;uawmh 'DcsKyf qdw k hJ twdu k t f cHr;D bJ / Adv k o f ef;a&$uawmh ol roGm;cifuav;rSm pmav;ESpfa=umif;eJ h “zsufodrf;w,f” qdkwmavmufawmh vkyfoGm;yg&J h/ rpGwfryGwfav; vkyfoGm; wm uvm; / 'Dvkd tHek J u h si;f eJ &h adS ecJw h hJ [m}u;D udk pmav;ESpaf =umif;avmufeJ h zsuo f rd ;f &Hek J h 'DcsKyu f vJ b,f&rvJ / “rw&m;wJh trdef htm%mrSefor# wm0eft& zDqef=u ”qdkwJhrleJ h jyefwdkufwmaygh / jrefrm jynfrSm &SdwJ h w&m;&Hk;awG ukefoGm;w,f/ tr_Edkifvm;vdk h rar;eJ h / &H_;w,f / tck ukvor*~vl@ tcGifhta&;aumifpD udk wifxm;w,fajymw,f/ wu,fwifoifhwmu“0” vl htcGifha&;aumifpD/ bmjzpfvdk hvJqdkawmh olucsnfh ADwdkoHk;oHk;aewmudk;// yGJurjywfao;bl;// Z&ufawmifyHusdK;eJ h a=umiftdk}uD;vdkbJ / b,folurS b,fol hudk jywfjywfom;om; rvkyf=uao;bl;/ tJh'gudk jynfya&muf Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

16


17

ud, k af &$ ud, k rf sKd ;a0zefa&;q&m awGu “csuG / cs / cs” qd+k y;D ud, k yhf q k ;kd p ud, k ef if;+y;D avxefuek ;f wdu k yf JG 0ifaeav&J h/ t&Sdef,lcsdefav; awmif ray;bl;/ ol hcrsm tjyifa&mufwm vydkif;av;&Sdao;w,f/ wdu k yf 0JG if&rJh tajctaeav;udk avhvmcGiahf wmifray;csib f ;l / twif;cscikd ;f aewmrsm;ajymygw,f/ tJ'h D twdkuftcHqdkwJh rD;uwrD;/ uJ h h h usefwJhrD;awGudk aemufrS qufa&;r,f/ tJovdk 0kdif;aewJh rD;awmufawG =um;xJ acgif;udsef;ae&olu ajymif}uD; ac: OD;odef;pdef / tm%m yg0gawG jynfhjynfh00 &Sdwm r&Sdwm tomxm;/ avmavmq,f&Sif;&rSmu ol htvkyf / jy\emaygif;pHku ol hay:udk yHkusrJhudef;/ csa=uG;wmudk tcsdefr a&G;cH&Edkifovdk / axmifxJoGm;aeqdk&ifvJ zsmvdyf&rSmu olt&ifqHk; // &Sif;&Sif;ajym&&if t&ifqHk; t&dwfcH&rSmu ajymif}uD; / t&ifwkef;u AdkvfcifnGef hudk 0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;av; tJ h h h &mxl;}uD;ay;+yD; a=umifuav; / =uGuf uav; zrf;ovdk zrf;ypfwm tm;vHk;tod / aemufu avSmfwufudk ,lxm;wJh oluawmh +yHK;pdpdeJ h AdkufykwfaerSm/ ajymif}uD; b0u wu,fwrf;&Sif;=u / vif;=u pwrf;a[ hqdk&if bkrod brod eJ t h &ifq;kH t&dwcf &H rJo h l / wu,fwrf; t&dwcf o H ifw h o hJ u l tckawmh uef v h ef u h mxJ0if+y;D ajc&_yfaeav&J h/ rSm;t&dwfcH&wJh vlwa,mufta=umif; ta=umif;oifh vdk h azmufonfcsvdkufOD;r,f/ &efuek u f A[dpk nf txl;uk aq;&H}k u;D eJ h e,fuae vdyaf cgi;f jzwfzkd h wufvmwJh awmolaX; ESpfa,mufwdk h&J@ jzpf&yfrSefZmwfvrf;yg / tudkjzpfolu vdyfacgif;jzpfaevdk hnDeJ htwl A[dkpnfaq;&HkrSm vm+y;D txl; ukeJ h vdyaf cgi;f vmjzwfw,f / aq;&Hw k uf+y;D aemufae h vdyaf cgi;f rjzwfao;cif tudjk zpfou l aq;&Hak tmuf qif;+y;D vrf;av#mufowJh / nDjzpfol vlemapmifu h tdyaf &;ysuaf wmh tudak tmufqif; aewke;f vlem ukwifay:wuftyd af ew,f/ c%=umawmh empfrh u tcef;xJ0ifvm+y;D tdyaf ewJh nDjzpfou l kd yufvufvSefcdkif;+yD; bmrajymnmrajymeJ h tar$;trSifawGtukefvHk;&dwf oef h&Sif;a&;vkyf+yD; t&ufysH awmif qGwfay;vdkufao;w,f/ nae tudkjzpfol cGJcef;xJvJa&mufa&m jy\em pawmh wmbJ / cGJpdwfrJh txl;ukq&m0efu vSefvJ=unhfvdkufa&m tar$;awGAvjypfeJ h &_yf,Swfcwfae+yD; vdyfacgif;awmif rjrif&bl;jzpfaew,f/ 'gudk=unhf +yD; a'gow}uD;eJ h “'g bmoabmvJ h h h ighudk ynmprf;wmvm; ” qdk+yD; qlylusdef;armif;awmhwmbJ / 0dkif;aewJh q&m0efav;awGvJ rsufaphysuf rsufESmysufawG jzpfukef+yD / atmufu vlemvnf; rsufESm ZD;aph avmufyJusefawmhw,f/ xGufaewJh vdyaf cgi;f awmif txJjyef0ifajy;+yD / yg;eyfwhJ vufaxmuf q&m0efav;wa,mufu udpjP refjref+y;D atmif cGJcef;xJrSmwif tjref&dwfay;vdkufw,f/ 'DvdkeJ h vdk&if;udpP+yD;oGm;w,faygh / cGJpdwfq&m0ef}uD;udkvJ vlemapmifeh J v h el mudk vlrmS ;&dwrf w d t hJ a=umif; &Si;f jyvdu k =f uw,f/ q&m0ef}u;D vJ tckrS oabmayguf oGm;w,f/ cGJcef;xJu tjzpftysuf udkrodao;wJh nDjzpfolvlemapmifhu tjcm; vlemapmifhawGudkvJ olvdkt&dwfcH&w,f xif+yD; “ tif; h h h'Daq;&Hk emrnf}uD;csufuawmh h h h vlemapmifhudkawmif oef@ &Sif;a&;vkyfay;w,f / tHha&m / tHha&m ” qdk+yD; &Suf+yHK;av;eJ hqdkowJh / tckvJ avSmfwufrygbJ avSay:a&mufaewJh OD;odef;pdef / 17 ESpfavmuf aoewfwpfcsuf razmufbJ tckol orwjzpfrS wausmjh yefpwJh jynfwiG ;f ppfxaJ &mufaewJh OD;ode;f pdef / 2014 tmqD,rH mS OuUX ae&mr&&if t&SufwuGJtusdK;eJ jzpftHk;r,fh OD;odef;pdef h h h h pdef h h h pdef h h hpdefac:r_awG=um; xJ bmrS rvkyfvdkuf&ao;cif “t&dwfcH” vdkuf&rSjzifh / / tHha&m h h h tHha&m h h h qdk+yD; h h h “vef;”vdkufcsifao;&J h/ 17

aumhom; Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


18

*g &

jyK

pm

f ESm rsu

0

vlxak cgi;f aqmif

66ESpjf ynfh

ESvkH;om;*Dw ysO;f rikww f }kd uD;ab;u ²²² ppfom;carmufta[mif;xJrmS waygif;v&ifckefoH&Sdr,f? awmolrav; ta0; ²² carmufErG ;f EGr;f uav;xJ/ wa,moHprf;wJah EGO;D &Srd ,f? uHah umfawmu ²²² ckw H ef;vsm;av;awGay:rSm/ “aEGaESmif;&ufusef“oDcsif;&Sdr,f? oHwikd =f um;u ²²² rvSao;wJh ntoacsrF mS “ay:aEGvvSsif“csD &wk&rdS ,f? 'Dvyfkd gyJ ²²² wuUov kd &f yd o f mvrf;u ²²² r&yfem;wJph rf;acsmif;av;rSm py&if;&moDaw;oGm;&Sad yvdrrhf ,f? usaemf rkcs,w Hk ,f? ? (a':atmifqef;pk=unfo@dk ²²²)

atmifa0; ZGef 15/ 2011

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

18


19

pm

*g & *g &

0

jyK

pm

f ESm rsu

jynfolawGatmifyef;

jyK

f ESm rsu

0

vlxak cgi;f aqmif

66ESpjf ynfh

_rJqifjref;ol armifprG ;f &nf

av;pm;tyfaom rdwfaqGrsm;cifAsm; ²²² usaemf[m ppftm%m&Sipf epfudk pufqw k q f ef@usi+f yD; 'Dru dk a&pDa&;ukd axmufcv H v dk m;ol uAsmq&m wOD ; jzpf y gw,f ? 'D r k d u a&pD ta&;awmf y k H } uD ; rS m uAsmq&m}uD ; rsm;jzpf = uwJ h q&mrif;ok0%f/ q&m '*kefwm&mtp/ wifrkd;/ =unfatmif tv,f/ atmifa0;/ atmifyGifhtqkH; tm;vkH;uAsm q&mawG u axmufcHyg0ifcJh=uygw,f? pma&;q&m/ uAsmq&mtm;vkH;[m tjrJwrf; 'Drkdua&pDbufrSm pGJpGJjrJjrJ &yfwnfae=uygw,f? 'ga=umifh pma&;q&m/ uAsmq&mtm;vkH;[m 'Drkdua&pDacgif;aqmif a':atmif qef;pk=unfeJ@twl =uHh=uHhckdifckdif &yfwnfvSsuf&Sd=uygw,f? 'ga=umifh 'Dae@ rdwfaqGwkd@eJ@twl a':pk 66 ESpfajrmufarG;ae@yGJrSm twlE$JcGifh&wm aus;Zl;wifygw,f? a':pku, dk w f idk u f vnf; pmay0goem }uD;vSygw,f? ta&;awmfyrHk wkid cf ifuqk&d if ruse;f rmwJh rdcif}uD; ukd apmifah &SmufjyKpkae&if;u tcsd efav;enf;enf;&&ifuydk J wuUov dk pf m=unfw h u dk u f dk a&mufvm avh&Sdvkd@ usaemfwkd@eJ@ qkH&wwfygw,f? &efukefvrf;ab; pmtkyfa[mif;qkdifawGukdvJ ol@tukdozG,f cspfcif&wJh uAsmq&mwifrkd;eJ@twl oGm;a&mufar$aESmufzl;ygw,f? olausmif;olb0uwnf;u 19

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


20

zwf¶Œ_ avhvmzk@d pdw0f ifpm;wJph mtkyaf wG ua wmh '\eduaA'/ Ekid if aH &;aA' pwJh pmayusr;f *efawGe@J twˆKy`wWd pmayawG jzpfygw,f? pma&; q&mawGeJ@awGŒ&ifawmh &orSstcsdeftwGif;rSm pma=umif; aya=umif;awGukdyJ aqG;aEG;avh&Sdyg w,f? 'Drkdua&pDta&;awmfykH}uD;xJukd ckefqif;vm+yD; tcsed jf ynfq h o dk vkd Ekid if aH &;udpaP wGe@J eyef;vk;H ae &wJ=h um;u oma&;ema&;udpaP wGudk oGm;&w,fq&dk ifyJ pma&;q&mawGeJ@ 0kdif;zGJŒ+yD; pma=umif;aya=umif;awG ukd ajymqkdavh&Sdygw,f? a':pk[m urBmŒpmay/ jrefrmhpmayukd tjrJxdawGŒvSsuf&Sd wm awGŒ&wwfygw,f? a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m ArmjynfrSm rlvwef;eJ@ tv,fwef; (pdef@z&efppfuGefAifhausmif;) wkd@rSm pmoifcJhygw,f? e,l;a,mufrSm oleJ@ausmif;aezufwOD;u ol[m pmawmfolwOD;jzpfw,fvkd@ ajymjyyg w,f? ArmjynfrmS pmoifae&if;u rdcif}u;D a':cif=unf u oHtrwf}u;D tjzpfe@J tdE, dN jynfudk oGm;&awmh tdENd,jynfrSm wuUokdvfa&mufwJhtxd atmifatmifjrifjrif ynmoifcJh ygw,f? tJ'Du wuUokdvfrSm '\eduaA'/ EkdifiHa&;ody`Hwkd@ukd (2) ESpf avhvmqnf;yl;+yD;rS t*Fvefukdul;+yD; 0dZ…mbGJŒ &onftxd ynmoifygw,f? tdENd,/ blwef/ *syef/ t*Fvef/ tar&duef wuUokdvfrsm;rSm EkdifiHwum pmayavmu/ EkdifiHwum ynma&;avmurSm 0ifxGufoGm;vm (usKdwkdrSm a':pktcef;jycef;vkyfxm;) vkyaf e&if;u jrefrmvkd 0wfpm;qif,if+y;D / jrefrmr_/ jrefrmpmayukd tjrrJ uif;ruGm&Sad ecJyh gw,f? rdcif}u;D &JŒ jyKpyk sK;d axmifra_ =umifh pmaytEkynm jrwfE;dk jcif;/ olwyg;ukd pmemulnw D wfjcif;/ &J&ifw h nf=unfyiG v hf if;jcif; pwJh jrifhjrwfwJh *k%f&nfrsm;[m a':atmifqef;pk=unf&JŒ *k%f&nfrsm; tjzpf jzpfxGef; xifay:ae wwfygw,f? a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m tdE, dN jynfrmS ausmif;ae&awmh vlrsK;d jcm;/ bmomjcm; vlwef;pm; trsK;d rsK;d eJ@ &if;ES;D uGsr;f 0ifpmG qufq&H +y;D wuUov dk af &mufwt hJ cgrmS yJ bmompum;rwlayr,fh ynma&; rSm atmufwef;ruscJhygbl;? rdcif}uD;&JŒ jyKpkysKd;axmifr_eJ@ jrif;pD;wm/ pEN,m;wD;wm/ yef;tvSjyifwm wk@d ukv d J oif,al vhusichf &hJ zl;ygw,f? jynfya&muf&SdaewJhtcg a':cif=unfeJ@ nDtrvkd cifrif&if;ESD;wJh tqkdausmf bdvyfjyefoef; ac: a':oef;at; (Dora Than Aye) uvJ a':pkukd orD;t&if;ozG,f apmifha&SmufcJhygw,f? AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; bdvyfoGm;wkef;u a':oef;at;u bdvyfrSm ynmoifaeqJyg? tJh'Duwnf;u Akv d cf sKyaf tmif qef;eJ@ a':oef;at;wk@d u &if;ES;D cJ=h u+y;D atmifqef;rdom;pk&ŒJ t&if;ES;D qk;H rdwaf qGawGjzpfcyhJ g w,f? a':oef;at; t,fvf*sD;,m;pfrSm tvkyfvkyfaepOfrSm a':atmifqef;pk=unf [m ausmif;tm; &uf =uKv H @dk oGm;a&mufaecJzh ;l ygw,f? a':oef;at; ukvor*~rmS tr_xrf;aeawmh vJ a':pku a':oef; at; eJ@ vku d af e&if;u e,l;a,mufwuUov kd rf mS qufvufynmqnf;yl;cJyh gw,f? 'Dvkdae&if; u a':pkvJ ukvor*~&JŒ bwf*sufXmewckrSm tvkyfvkyfcJh&zl;ygw,f? 'DvkdtawGŒt=uKHawGa=umifhvJ EkdifiHwum tawGŒt=uKH/ oHwreftawGŒt=uHKawG &&SdcJhwJhtjyif urB m h p mayeJ @ wuG Ek d i f i H j cm;bmompum;wcsKd Œ uk d v J avh v mwwf u |rf ; cG i f h a wG &&S d c J h y gw,f ? 'Dvt dk awGŒt=uKt H rsK;d rsK;d a=umifh ArmjynfrmS 'Dru dk a&pDta&;awmfy}Hk u;D ay:ayguv f mawmh owW/d AswdW pG,fpkHt&nftcsif;awGeJ@ ArmjynfolawGuvJ av;pm;avmufatmif urBmŒ jynfolawGuvJ tm¶kHxm;avmufatmif opPm ynm jynfhpkHpGmeJ@ ¶kwfcsnf;yg0if OD;aqmifvmEkdifcJhwm jzpfygw,f? 'Drkdua&pDta&;awmfykH}uD;ukd a':pku 'kwd,vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyGJvkd@ armfuGef;wifcJhygw,f? rSefygayw,f? zcifAkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;u Armjynfukd wkdif;wyg;u|efb0u vGwfajrmufatmif OD;aqmifwu dk yf JG 0ifcyhJ gw,f? ckvJ a':atmif qef;pk=unfu Armjynfudk ppfu|eb f 0u vGwaf jrmufatmif Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

20


21

OD;aqmif wkdufyGJ0ifae&ygw,f? ck jynfolvlxkuvJ ol@ukd trsKd;om; acgif;aqmifvkd@/ ol@zcif}uD;ukd [kdwkef;u jynfolawGu ac:=uovkdyJ ac:wGifae=uygw,f? trsKd;om;acgif;aqmifqkd wmu vJ a&G;aumufyGJeJ@ a&G;vkd@&wmrsKd; r[kwfygbl;? rdbtarGvkd pmcsKyfpmwrf;awGeJ@ v$J,lvkd@vJ &wmrsKd; r[kwyf gb;l ? Zmwfyx JG u J od=um;rif;}u;D rk;d ay:uqif;vmovkd bGm;ueJ qif;vmvk@d vJ &wmrsK;d r [kwyf g bl ; ? ta&;awmf y k H } uD ; wck r S m vl x k e J @ twl wk d u f y G J 0 if & if ; u ay:xG e f ; vm&wmrsKd ; jzpf y gw,f ? wku d yf 0JG ifvx l }k u;D u wckwnf;aom ESv;Hk om; qENtjzpfe@J aygi;f pnf;*k%w f if bGŒJ wHqyd q f if vku d f wm rsKd; jzpfygw,f? 'DtwGuf usaemfwkd@ ArmvlrsKd;awG uHaumif;yg w,f? ESpf&Snfvrsm; cHpm;ae&wJh ppfu|efb0xJu vGwfajrmufa&;wkdufyGJrSm wu,fhukd owWd/ AswWdeJ@ jynfhpkHwJh pG,fpkHt&nftcsif;&Sdol ynmwwf acgif;aqmifwOD; &&Sdxm;cJh+yD r[kwfygvm;? a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m tzrf;tqD;tcsKyt f aESmif rcH&vk@d vGwv f yfciG &hf aewJt h cgrsK;d awG jrefrmEkid if H tES@H vSnv hf nf+y;D jynfov l x l ek @J rjywfwrf;a[majym aqG;aEG;pnf;¶k;H v_ŒH aqmfaeavh&ydS g w,f? ol@&JŒ a[majymaqG;aEG;csufawGa&m/ ol@&JŒ a&;om;csufawG[m tawG;tac:tqifhtwef; vJ jrifh+yD; jynfolvlxk vlwef;pm;ra&G; em;0ifEkdifwJh ajymqkda&;om;csufawG jzpfyg w,f? EkdifiHa&;a0g[m& tqef;w=u,fawGeJ@ avvkH;xGm;wJh a[majyma&;om;r_rsKd; r&Sdygbl;? vlukd,fwkdifvJ vlxk=um;ukd wkd;0ifa&maESmaexkdifwwf+yD; vl=um;/ ol=um;oGm;vmaexkdif pm;aomuf&wmukd pufqkyfp&m vkd@vJ aemufwGef@aewwfwmrsKd; r[kwfygbl;? a=umuf&GHŒp&mvkd@vJ aemufwGef@wwfwmrsKd; r&Sdygbl;? wae@awmh armifrkd;olwkd@eJ@ oefvsifbufukd oGm;a&mufaqG;aEG;a[majym+yD; &efukefoefvsiful; oDwmoabFmeJ@ jyefvm=uowJh? oabFmay:rSm c&D;onfawG=um;xJukd wkd;0if+yD; Zifa,mfiu S af wGudk ukvm;yJe@J vkyw f hJ pmav;acGqw dk hJ rke@f av;awG 0,f+y;D tpmauGs;owJ?h au|;&if;u usrvJqmvm+yD; “'gawG vlvJpm;vkd@&w,fr[kwfvm;”qkd+yD; zJhpm;owJh? wcg awmh &efukef+rdKŒxJu vrf;ab;pm tkyt f a[mif;qkid af wGuo dk mG ;+y;D uAsmq&mwifr;dk eJ@ twl ar$=uowJ?h tcsed v f ifv h mawmh ''usrqm+yD q&mrk;d '' vk@d ajym+y;D vrf;ab;u acguq f o JG yk q f idk rf mS vrf;ab;uvlawGe@J bJ twlwpl m;cJzh ;l yg owJ?h EkdifiHa&;avmuxJ a&mufvmawmhvJ jynfolvlxku cspf=ucif=uw,f? tnmrSm zkef waxmif;axmif;eJ@ c&D;oGm;=u&if; vrf;ab;&GmawGu tzkd;}uD;tkd/ tzGm;}uD;tkd cg;ukef;ukef;awGa&m/ uav;awGua&m 0rf;om;t,fvJ xGuaf wGŒ=uw,f? yef;pnf;awG/ oeyfcg;wk;H awGvJ vufaqmif ay;=uyg w,f? ppfom;av; wa,mufuqk&d if awmifah wmifrh m;rm;&yfae&if; u a':pktem; ukd a&mufvmawmh aoewfukd aygif=um;nSyf+yD; rwfwyf&yfuefawmh&Smygw,f? 'guwmh omrefjynfolawG=um;ukd oGm;wmukd;? tm%m¶l;ppfAkdvfcsKyfawG &JŒ aemufvkdufvufyg;apawGu aoewfawG wcsdefcdsefeJ@aygh? 'DvkdtEW&m,f=um;ukdvJ a':pk u rsufESmwpufrysufbJ &ifqkdifwkd; 0ifoGm;cJhwmygyJ? 'DyJ,if;vkd vlrkduftkyfpkeJ@ ajAmifvkyf=uHr_awG=um;ukdvJ ZGwfwkd;0if oGm;cJh&zl;ygw,f? jynfo@l arwWma=umifh aoab;u vGwcf &hJ w,fv@dk qk&d ygr,f? tusO;f cs/ tcsKyt f cs,cf H &wmawGq&dk if tm;vk;H od=uwJt h wkid ;f pkpak ygi;f (15) ESpf rSs =umcJyh gw,f? 'DumvawGrmS oHCmawG/ ouf}u;D 0g}u;D awGudk uefawmh+yD; arG;ae@tcrf;tem; tenf;tyg;av;rSs usif;ycGifh r&cJh&Smygbl;? ck 'gu tcsKyfuvGwf+yD; yxrqk;H t}urd f vle@J ole@J usi;f ycGi&hf wJh arG;ae@yGjJ zpfv@dk xl;jcm;ygw,f? vGwf vyfciG &hf wmeJ@ c&D;xGu+f y;D vlxek @J awGŒqkzH @dk }uKd ;pm;pDpOfaeygw,f? a':atmifqef;pk=unf[m tdEdN,jynfrSm ausmif;aeckduf i,fpOfawmifusif; uav;b0uyJ 21

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


22

r[wWr *END}uD;&JŒ t=urf;rzuf ''t[öo0g''' ukd aumif;aumif;}uD; avhvmqnf;yl;cJh&ygw,f? tar&dum; ukda&mufawmhvJ vlrJacgif;aqmif rmwifvlomuif;&JŒ “tdyfruf” w&m;ukd em;&nf0cJh ygw,f? csuu f dk pvkAd ufu jyZmwfq&m/ Ekid if aH &;acgi;f aqmif Aufpv f uf[m;Auf&ŒJ ”tm%mrJo h w l @dk &JŒ wef;ck;d tm%m”pmwrf;ukv d J uGsr;f 0if&if;ES;D cJyh gw,f? 'Dvu dk rmB ausmf t[öow&m;awGe@J r$r;f xk;H }u;D jyif; vm&oljzpfvkd@vJ ArmjynfolawG&JŒ 'Drkdua&pDwkdufyGJudk t=urf;rzufwJh vlxkenf;/ tm%m&Sif wkd@u zdESdyfwmukd ikH@cH&if; wkH@jyeftmcHwJhenf;awGeJ@ rSefrSefuefuef &J&J&ifh&ifh OD;aqmifEkdifcJhvkd@yJ Armjynfolvl xku av;pm;vkdufem cspfcif=unfnKd=uovkd/ urBmŒ jynfolvlxkuvJ todtrSwfjyK+yD; +idrf;csrf;a&; Ekb d ,fq}k u;D ukd cs;D jrifch &H wm jzpfygw,f? 'Dvdk Armhjynfo/l urBmjh ynfoal wG u av;pm;j rwfE;dk wma=umifh 'DEpS f 'Dv 'D&ufrmS wzefjyef+y;D usi;f ycGihf &wJh a':pk&ŒJ 66 ESpaf jrmufarG;ae@ukd txl;arG;ae@yGw J &yftjzpf usaemfw@kd awGvJ yg0ifqifE=J$ u wmjzpfygw,f? 'DarG;ae@rSm usaemfwkd@ acgif;aqmif/ usaemfwkd@&JŒ ESri,f/ tarmifwkd@ trdwkd@&JŒ ta': trjzpfol a':atmifqef;pk=unf touf&n S pf mG temrJv h suf qufvuf+y;D Armjynf'rD u dk a&pD&atmif/ &+yD;awmhvJ t"Gef@&SnfwnfwHhatmif acgif;aqmifaeygapvkd@ qkawmif;vkduf&ygw,f? ed*kH;csKyfrSmawmh a':pk touf (45) ESpfa&mufwkef;rSm wacwfwa,mufxGef;aygufausmf=um;cJhol pmqkd}uD; q&mrif;ok0%fu ol@wynfh ol@rdwfaqG AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;&J@ orD;twGuf txl;a&;zGJŒ *k%fjyKcJhwJh uAsmaw;wyk'fukd zwf¶_&Gwfqkdjycsif ygw,f? uAsmacgif;pOfu “arG;ae@qkawmif;” wJh? uAsmuawmh jynfolawGatmifyef; jrJqifjref;onfh atmifqef;pk=unf ''&JZmenf'' ukd jrefjynfwv$m;/ cspfolrsm;cJh? ''wkd@tm;wkd@tif/ wkd@t&Si'f ' ukd =unf&$ifapaom/ rmapaom[k arG;aomae@rSm xkdol[m arwWm=unfvif &$if&$ifykd@ a'gif;ysKdtkd;a0 wGefapzkd@wJh?

*g &

armifpGrf;&nf Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

22

f ESm rsu

q&m}uD; rif;ok0%f&JŒ arG;ae@qkawmif; uAsmjzpfygw,f? 'DuAsmrSm pmqkd}uD;u orD;''pk'' ukd ''&JZmenf'' wJh? '''kd@t&Sif'' wJh &nfn$ef;ac:qkdxm;ykH[m rxkdufwefolqkd&if ajrrsKdavmufygw,f? xkdufwefoltzkd@ xkdufwefwJhqkukd cH,ljynfh0rSmjzpfygw,f? usaemfwkd@wawGuvJ &JZmenf a':pk/ 'kd@tm;'kd@tif 'kd@t&Sif a':pkukd =unf&$ifapaom rmapaom&,fvkd@ qkawmif;arwWm ykd@=uygpkd@? a':atmifqef;pk=unf usef;rmygap ²²² a':atmifqef;pk=unf usef;rmygap ²²² p a':atmifqef;pk=unf usef;rmygap ²²² jyK m 0 aus;Zl;wifygw,fcifAsm; ²²? vlxak cgi;f aqmif 66ESpjf ynfh


23

*g &

ZGefv wpfq,fhudk;&ufae@? ? xdkae@um; jrefrmEdkifiH. vGwfvyfa&; Adou k mjzpfol Adv k cf sKyf atmifqef;rS/ wcsed rf mS jrefrmvlxktwGuf/ a&S@wef;rS rm;rm; &yf um/ vlxkacgif;aqmif jzpfvmr!fh/ orD; &wem a':atmifqef;pk=unf. arG;ae@ wnf;? wcsdefu AdkvfcsKyfonf oludk,fwdkif t,f'w D m tjzpf vkyu f ikd I f / xkwaf 0cJah om td;k a0 r*~Zif;xJwiG f yg&adS om uAsmjzpfo!fh “tEdkifrcH”xJu twdkif;--ightm; zH;k v$r;f xm;aom vuG,f oef;acgifTtarSmif twGi;f rSaeI tEdik rf cH t&_ H ; ray;wwf a omig. pd w f " mwf ud k zefqif;ay;o!fh ewf/ od=um;wdk@tm; ig aus;Zl;wif.? h h hqdkovdk/ tEdkifrcH t&_H;ray;aom pdwf "mwfjzif/h jrefrmEdik if u H kd vGwv f yfa&; &atmif &,lay;Edik f cJo h nf? xd k @ twl ,Q K tcsd e f w G i f v nf ; / AdkvfcsKyfwdk@ &,lay;cJhaom/ vGwfvyfa&; t&omudk/ cHpm;cGihf r&aom/ wdkif;ol jynf om; wd@k twGu/f ,cifvkd tEdik rf cH t&_;H ray; wwfo!fh pdwf"mwfydkif&Sif/ orD; &wemudk csefxm;ay;cJhaom AdkvfcsKyftm;/ u|Ekfyfwdk@rS xyfraH us;Zl;wifyg.?

pm

f ESm rsu

0

jyK

vlxak cgi;f aqmif

66ESpjf ynfh

vlxkacgif;aqmif (odk rh [kw)f

rw&m;aom trdef t h m%mrSeo f r# zDqefol avmu"Hw&m;. &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfaom vufqkyftwGif;odk@ a&mufae&jim;aomfvnf; igum; rwkefv_yf ridka=uG; aZmf0if;at; us uHw&m;. &dkufykwfjcif; '%fcsufwdk@a=umifh ig. OD;acgif;onf aoG;oHwdk@jzifh &J&JeD./ “!$wfum; r!$wf?” [kqkdovkd/ AdkvfcsKyfonf t*Fvdyfe,fcsJ@wdk@. trsdK;rsdK;aom &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfr_/ zdESdyfr_ wdk@=um;rS 'kuQ trsdK;rsdK;cHum/ wdkif;jynfvGwfvyf&ef/ wckwnf;aom &nfoef+yD;/ pdwfcGeftm; aumif;rGefpGmjzihf/ toufudkyg pGef@v$wfum/ acgif;armh &ifaumhI/ &yfwnfoGm;cJhaom tmZmenf ppfppfwnf;? a':pkonfvnf; zcif. aoG;tjy!fyh goyl yD /D tm%m&Siw f @kd . trsKd ;rsKd ;aom zdEydS cf sKycf s,rf /_ ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm zrf;qD;cH&r_ t}udrf}udrfeJ@/ toufaoqHk;Edkifo!fhwdkifatmif vky}f uHcH&r_rsm; }uHKawG@ 23

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


24

cJh&aomfvnf;/ ol&Jaumif;aoG;tjy!fhygolyDyD/ jynfoljynfom;wdk@. vGwfvyfcGifh/ wef;wlnDr# cGihf/ w&m;r#wr_ &&Sad &;twGu/f olu, kd w f ikd f 'kut Q rsKd ;rsKd ; cHpm;&aomfvnf;/ tm%m&Siw f @kd . +crd ;f ajcmufr_ udk ra=umufrvef@/ rwkefv_yfpGmeJ@ wdkif;jynf tem*wfaumif;pm;a&;/ vlxktusdK;twGuf/ “rw&m;aom trdef@tm%mrSefor# zDqef=u?” qdkaom emrnfausmf rdef@cGef;rsdK;jzifh vltrsm;udk a&S@aqmifvrf;jy&if; t%m&Sifwdk@tm; OD;r!$wfwrf; awmfvSefaeqJ/ vlxk&J@ acgif;aqmifyifjzpf.? olronfum;/ olr. OD;acgif;rS aoG;pdrf;&Sif&Sifwdk@jzifh &J&JeDaeo!fhwdkif OD;!$wf 'l;axmuft!hHcHr!fh yk*~dKvfrsdK; r[kwfacs? xdktwl a':pkonf/ vlxk&J@ acgif;aqmif qdkaom *k%fyk'fudk/ jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&; zcif AdkvfcsKyf. orD;&wem jzpfjcif;a=umihf &&SdcJhjcif; r[kwf? olr. &dk;om;r_/ udk,fydkif t&nftcsif;/ acgi;f aqmifEikd pf rG ;f &Srd w _ @kd eJtwl/ wdik ;f oljynfom;wd@k eJ@ cHpm;csuu f kd wom;wnf;jzpfatmif cHpm;Edik pf rG ;f &Sdaom pdwf"mwfa=umifhom jrefrmEdkifiHom;tm;vHk;. &ifxJ/ tonf;xJrS wnDw!Gwfwnf; vlxak cgi;f aqmiftjzpf owfrw S cf &H jcif; jzpfonf? xd@k twl wdik ;f &if;om; vlrsKd ;aygi;f pk. H ,H=k unfru _ kd &&Sdxm;aom “wOD;wnf;aom acgif;aqmif” [k ajymrnfqdkvnf; vGeftHh rxif? vlxkacgif;aqmif wpfa,muftjzpf ,Hk=unfr_/ tm;udk;r_/ av;pm; =unfndKr_ qdkwm/ tm%meJ@ odrf;oGif;vdk@ r&ovdk/ +cdrf;ajcmuf ,lvdk@vnf; r&ygbl;? OpPm"eeJ@ jzm;a,mif;vdk@ r&ovdk/ [efaqmifr_rsm;eJ@vnf; odrf;oGif;vdk@ r&Edkifygbl;? ol@tvkdvdk &ifxJ/ tonf;xJrS tvdv k kd cHpm;vm&+y;D rS/ ayguzf mG ;vmwJh t&mawGom jzpfv@kd / b,fvt kd &mrsm;eJ@rSvnf; zsuq f ;D vd@k r&Edkifygbl;? trsm;aumif;usdK;twGuf apwemoef@oef@eJ@ b,fvdk aqmif&Gufw,f? trsm;olig tay:rSm/ b,favmuf pmem em;vnfay;Edkifw,f/ rdrdudk,fusdK;/ rdrdtwW/ rdrd&J@ rdom;pkeJ@ touf cE<myg pGef@v$wfEdkifpGrf;&Sdw,f qdkwmawG[m/ tajymeJ@ oufaojyEdkifwJh t&mawG r[kwfygbl;? vufawG@vkyf&yfrsm;/ pGef@v$wf tepfemcHr_rsm;eJ@om jyrS &&Sdygw,f? tJ'Dvdk vlrsm;om/ rnfol. wdkufwGef;r_ rygyJ/ tm;vHk;u ,Hk=unfav;pm;pGmeJ@ acgif;aqmifaumif;tjzpf/ &ifxJrSm urŠnf;wif ae&may;=uwm "rRwmyg? tJ'Dvdk t&nftcsif;rsm;ESifh jy!fhpHkIom/ jrefrmEdkifiHom;tm;vHk;eJ@ urBmuyg a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk jrefrmEdkifiH. wu,fhtppftrSef acgif;aqmiftjzpf owfrSwf ae&may;=u jcif; jzpf.? Tavmb a'goudk }uD;pdk;&mXme. tjcm;rJhYum; aojcif;w&m;onf iHhvifhvsuf&Sd.? odk@aomf ightm; rwkefv_yfonfudk awG@&tHh? aemifudkvnf; b,fawmhrS ra=umufonfudkom awG@&tHh? a':pk-um;/ jrefrmEdkifiHom;wdk@twGuf vGwfvyfr_/ +idrfcsrf;r_udk &SmazGay;&if;/ t%m&Sif wd@k udk zDqefawmfveS af &;vkyaf eoljzpf.? xd@k twGuf olrrSm toufyg qH;k Edik o f nftxd jzpfEikd o f nfukd od&+dS y;D jzpf.? od@k &mwGif olrum; ,H=k unfrt _ wGuf rwkerf v_y/f ra=umufr&G@eH @J jzwfoef; &Sio f ef aeonfukd ordik ;f u oufaocHae.? xd@k twl olrar#mv f ifx h m;aom vGwv f yfciG /hf wef;wlnrD #ciG /hf w&m;Oya' pdk;rdk;cGifhawG &Sdo!fh/ 'Drdkua&pD &&Sd+yD;/ aemufqHk; yef;wdkifjzpfaom/ wdkif;jynf +idrf;csrf;r_ r&oa&G@/ b,fvt kd &meJ@rS wm;qD;vd@k r&yJ/ ra=umufr&G@/H owW&d &dS jdS zifh yef;wdik x f w d ikd /f olr wwfprG ;f or#jzifh ta&mufvSrf;r!fh acgif;aqmifaumif;jzpf.? ok*wdudk oGm;&mwHcg;0onf rnfr# usOf;ajrmif;onf jzpfap Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

24


25

,rrif;. acG;a& yk&ydk'fY ightjypfwdk@udk rnfr#yif rsm;pGm rSwfom;xm;onfjzpfap “igum; *&krjyK/ igomv#if ighuH. t&SifocifjzpfI igomvsif ihgpdwf. t}uD;tuJ jzpfownf;?“ a':pk-um;/ wdik ;f jynfaumif;pm;a&;/ tm%m&Siw f @kd vufrS vGwaf jrmufa&;twGuq f v kd #i/f rnfol. rsufESmrSraxmuf/ rnfolwOD;wa,muf. tjypfwif a0zefr_udkrS rr_yJ/ *&krpdkufyJ/ olr ,H=k unf&m twGu/f ta&mufvrS ;f r!fo h o l m jzpf.? xd@k twl omrefvrl sm;vd/k tpOftvm ud, k u f sihf w&m;tjrifawG/ t&Sw d &m;tay: tpOftvmw&m;uae/ em;vnfvufcx H m;yHak wG=um;rSm ydwrf o d l r[kwfygbl;? tajctaeeJ@ tcsdefumvt&/ ordkif;. awmif;qdkr_t& rdrdEdkifiH/ rdrdvlrsdK;eJ@ urBm }uD;udk jrSifhwifay;EdkifpGrf; &Sdaom/ acgif;aqmifaumif; wpfa,muftjzpf ay:xGufvmol jzpf.? avmueDwd rsm;=um;rSm ydwrf o d l r[kwyf /J umv/ a'o/ ya,m* [laom/ oH;k yg;aom taetxm;udk avhvm oHk;oyf+yD;ygrS/ vkyfoihfvkyfxdkufwmudk a=umuf&GH@jcif;uif;pGm wpdkufrwfrwf vkyfudkifEdkifpGrf; &Sdaom vlpm;rsdK;jzpf.? udk,fhuH=urRmudk udk,fwdkif zefwD;EdkifpGrf;&Sdovdk/ udk,fhpdwfudk apcdkif;Edkifaom pGrf;aqmif&nf &Sdaom/ t&Sifocifvdk vlpm;rsdK; qdkvnf;/ rrSm;acs? xdk@jyif olwdk@[m/ olwdk@&J@ pdwfxJrSm olwdk@&J@ udk,fydkif twWb0udk/ jiif;y,fxm;+yD;/ wdkif;jynfeJ@ vltrsm;twGuf +idrf;csrf;r_udk aqmif;usO;f ay;Edik rf ,fh b0xJrmS yJ woufwm jryS Ef x HS m;&if;/ ydik ;f jzwfxm;aom t}u;D tuJqv kd nf; rSm;tHh rxifacs? acwfumvESifh tajctaersm;u awmif;qdkvmv#if/ vlrsm;pk/ wenf;tm;jzifh tiftm; enf;aom zdESdyfcH vlwef;pm;rsm;bufrS/ rm;rm;rwfrwf &yfwnfum/ umuG,fay;o!fh jynfolwdk@ tm;ud;k tm;xm;&m/ ol&aJ umif; (0g) vlxak cgi;f aqmifum;/ acwfwikd ;f / acwfwikd ;f rSm ay:xGuv f monf rSm avmu"rRwmyif? xdkolwdk@. acgif;aqmif!$efjyr_jzifh/ vdk&myef;wdkifxdwdkifatmif t+yD;wdkif a&muf&SdoGm;onfrsm; &Sdovdk/ w0ufwysufjzifh +yD;qHk;oGm;cJhonfrsm;vnf; &Sd.? okd@yifaomfvnf; atmifjrifjcif;/ ratmifjrifjcif;um; tajctaeESifh ta=umif;w&m;wdk@. taetxm;ay: rlwnf+yD; Š f;wifxm;+yD; jzpf.? uGJjym;wwfaomfvnf;/ xdkolwdk@. yHk&dyfum;/ vlom;wdkif;. &ifxJrSm urn ordkif;jzpfpOfrSm a&;jc,fxm;+yD; jzpf.? xdkodk@aom acgif;aqmifrsm;um; raoqHk;rD uwnf;u/ udk,fhordkif;udk,f a&;p&mrvdkatmif ordkif;wif+yD;om; ordkif;0if/ }uD;us,faom vlom;rsm; jzpf.? aoqHk;oGm;o!fhwdkifatmif xm0& &Sifoefaer!fh yk*~dKvfrsm; jzpf.? a':atmifqef;pk=unfum; jrefrmhordkif;twGuf tab; Adkvfva&mif/ zcif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; wdk@vdkyif xm0& &Sifoefaer!fh ol&Jaumif;/ vlxkacgif;aqmif[k qdkv#if vGeftHh rxifacs? T 2011 ckESpf ZGefv (19) &ufonf/ jrefrmhvlxkacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unf. aetdrftus,fcsKyf b0 r[kwfaom taetxm;jzifh/ }uH K }ud Kuf&aom arG;ae@yifjzpf.? aEGOD;wGif ajcmufaoG@cJhor#/ rdk;OD;umv ZGefvwGif twdk;csJ@um &GufEk/ &Gufopfwdk@ jzihf/ zHk;v$rf;um pdrf;vef; pdak jyvmovd/k rdcif a':pk. b0 om,mcsr;f ajrph mG eJ@ a':pk vkv d m;aom jynfow l @kd twGuf olrvkyaf y; csiaf om vGwv f yfciG ahf tmufrmS vHv k +kH cH K +cH K ae&zd@k / ppfreS w f hJ vH+k cH Kr_ ywf0ef;usirf mS vGwv f yG v f yf aexdik cf iG &hf +y;D aemufq;kH rSm txGÉt f xdyf yef;wdik t f jzpf +ird ;f csr;f r_ukd aqmifusO;f ay;Edik w f hJ usawmfw@kd tm;udk;&m vlxkacgifaqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unf tjzpfeJ@ touf&mausmf &Snfygapa=umif;/ aZmf 0 if a t; jrefrmEdkifiHom;rsm; tm;vHk;enf;wl qkrGefawmif;&if; *k%fjyKyg.? 25

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


26

tyd k i f ; (9)

Ak'b< momESi @f tm%m&Si fpepf

armifomrn

(www.maukkha.org

rS ul;,laz: jyygonf?)

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

26

wd k i f ; jynf w ck u d k tk y f c sKyf w J @ tpdk;&wdkif;rSm ol@tajccHtkwfjrpfeJ@ol &Sdyg w,f? tajccHtkwfjrpf cdkifrmoavmuf tpd;k &[m cdik rf m+y;D / tajccHtw k jf rpf aysm@nHh oavmuf tpdk;&[mvnf; aysm@nHhae ygw,f? 'ga=umif@ tpd;k &wdik ;f [m ol@tajccH tkwfjrpfudk cdkifrmonfxuf cdkifrmatmif vky&f ygw,f? tajccHtw k jf rpf +yKd ysuw f meJ@ tay:taqmuftODjzpfw@J tpd;k &[mvnf; jydKuGJysufpD; oGm;&+rJ jzpfvdk@yg? 'D r d k u a&pD t pd k ; &&J Œ tajccH tkwfjrpfu trsm;jynfol tusKd;pD;yGm; udk a&S;&Sw _ @J w&m;Oya' jzpf yg w,f?onfw&m; Oya' r&SdawmhwJ@ae@/ onfw&m;Oya'udk rvd k u f e mwJ @ ae@[m 'D r d k u a&pD tpd k ; & ysuo f ek ;f aysmufu, G w f @J ae@ygy?J 'ga=umif@ 'Drdkua&pD tpdk;&[m w&m;Oya'awGudk aumif ; rG e f o nf x uf aumif ; rG e f a tmif vkyfae&+yD; w&m;Oya'udkvnf; av;av; pm;pm; vdkufem usif@oHk;&ygw,f? tm%m&Sifpepf&JŒ tajccHtkwfjrpf uawm@ trsm;jynfolawG&JŒ ta=umuf w&m; jzpf y gw,f ? trsm;jynf o l & J Œ ta=umuf w &m; aysmuf u G , f o G m ;wJ @ ae@[m tm%m&Sifpepf jyKwfusoGm;wJ@ ae@ygyJ ? 'ga=umif @ tm%m&S i f p epf & J Œ ,mZfyv†if ay:rSm ,pfrl;ae=uolrsm;[m trsm;jynfol a=umuf&ŒHG xdwv f ef@aeatmif enf;rsKd;pHkoHk;+yD; ta=umufw&m; &yf0ef; wckukd zefw;D ae=u ygw,f? tm%m&Sifpepf wnfaqmufzdk@ twGuf ESvHk;om;r&SdwJ@ vlwa,muf/ vufr&GHŒ ygwDw&yfeJ@ ta=umufw&m; &yf0ef;wckyJ vdktyfw,fvdk@ qdkEdkifygw,f? jynfolvlxk. cspfjrwfEdk;rS_xuf xdwfvef@


27

a=umuf&ŒHG r_u rdrt d m%mwnf+raJ &;twGuf trsm;}u;D ydpk w d cf s&onf vd@k rufc, D m A,fvD a&;om;wJh tm%m&Sif tkycf sKyaf &;pepfta=umif; pmtkyf (The Prince) xJrSm a&;om; xm;ygw,f? vl@ordkif;rSm ay:xG e f ; cJ @ wJ @ tm%m&S i f t pd k ; &awG & J Œ &uf p uf = urf ; =uKwf r S _ a wG u d k =unf h & if 'D t csuf b,favmufreS u f efovJqw kd m odEikd yf gw,f? qdAk , D ufjynfaxmifp}k u;D rSm pwmviftpd;k & vufcsuaf =umif@ aoqH;k &olaygi;f [m oef; 60 ausmf &Scd @J ygw,f? w&kwjf ynfrmS armfpw D ek ;f tpd;k &&JŒ vufcsuaf =umif@ vl 35 oef;ausmf aocJ@ &ygw,f? *smr%DrmS [pfwvm tpd;k &a=umif@ aoqH;k cJ@&olaygi;f oef; 20 ausmf &Syd gw,f? ta&SŒawmiftm&Su tm%m&Siftpdk;&awGxJrSmawm@ urfabmm'D;,m;u ydkayg@ tpdk;&a=umif@ vlaygif; 2 oef;avmuf aocJ@&ygw,f? 'Dvkd vlawGukd oef;eJ@cs+D y;D owfjzwf&jcif;&JŒ t"du &nf&, G cf suu f awm@ ta=umufw&m; zefw;D a&; jzpfygw,f? jrefrmEdkifiHrSmvnf; tm%m&Sifpepf tjrpfwG,faewm ESpfaygif; 50 jynhfygawmhr,f? jrefrm tm%m&Sif tpdk;&awGu ta=umufw&m;&yf0ef;awGudk b,fvdk zefwD;cJ@ygovJ? jrefrmEdkifiHrSm ppftm%m&Sifpepfudk pwifysKd;axmifoGm;wJ@ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;[m t&J0H@qHk; ol& owdt W &Sq d ;kH qdw k @J wuUov kd af usmif;om;rsm;udk &uf&ufpufpuf owfjzwfjy+y;D ta=umuf w&m; &yf0ef;twGuf tkwfjrpfudk pwnfaqmufcJ@ol jzpfygw,f? oltkyfpdk;wJ@ umv wavsmuf vHk;rSm aumufusp&f ufpufw@J axmufvrS ;f a&;tzGJ rh sm;&JŒ tultnDe@J trsm;jynfol txdwf xdwf tvef@vef@ jzpf a eatmif v k y f j yD ; tm%m&S i f p epf u d k tcd k i f t rm wnf a qmuf o G m ;ygw,f ? 'gayr,f @ jrefrmEdkifiHom;rsm;&JŒ a=umufpdwfuG,faysmufoGm;wJ@ 1988 ckESpfrSmawm@ ppfwyf qdkwm ypf&if wnfw h nfyh pfw,fv@kd +crd ;f ajcmuf [de;f a[mufaewJ@ =um;uyJ Adv k cf sKy}f u;D ae0if;[m tm%m,mZfyv†iu f vGi@f pifusomG ;cJ@ygw,f? tm%m&Sipf epfukd qufvufwnfwahH pcsiw f @J Adv k cf sKy}f u;D ae0if;eJ@ taygi;f ygrsm;[m wdik ;f ol jynfom;rsm;&JŒ ta=umufw&m;uif;rJ@rSu _ kd wefjyefzsuq f ;D zdk x h yfr}H uKd ;pm;jyefygw,f? &yf&mG &JŒ vH+k cKH ra_S wGukd vspfvsL&S_+yD; rif;rJ@taetxm;a&mufatmif zefwD;vdkufw,f? jynfol axmif aygif; rsm;pGmudk &uf&ufpufpuf owfjzwfzrf;qD;ygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; jyKwfus oGm;wJ@ twGuf ,dkifeJ@oGm;wJ@ tm%m&Sif pepf taqmuftOD}uD;udk tcdkiftrm jyefwnfaqmufzdk h twGuf ppftpdk;&[m zdESdyfajcmufvSef@rS_awGudk rjywfwrf; wdk;jrSif@vkyfaqmif+yD; jrefrmEdkifiHol EdkifiHom;trsm;tay:rSm ta=umufw&m; &yf0ef;}uD;wck v$rf;rdk;aeatmif pOfqufrjywf vkyfaqmifaecJ@ygw,f? ta=umufw&m;udk zefw;D csiw f @J twGuf jrefrm@ppftpd;k &[m ordik ;f rSm ay:aygucf @J wJ@ urBmh tm%m&Siftpdk;&rsm;&JŒ Oyrmudk ,l+yD; vlrqefwJ@ ESdyfpufnSif;yef;rS_awG/ zdESdyfrS_awGudk w&pyf usL;vGefaecJhygw,f? tpdk;&qef@usifolrsm;udk tESpfudk;q,f w&m txd axmif'%fcsygw,f? tpd k ; &qef @ usif r S _ t ay: tm;ay;ol a wG u d k ES p f & S n f a xmif ' %f csygw,f ? wd k i f ; &if ; om;rsm;ud k jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif;rSm &yfwnfvdk@ r&atmif ESdyfpufygw,f? t"du &nf&G,fcsufu jrefrmEdkifiHol EdkifiHom;rsm; xdwfvef@ aezdk hyJ jzpfygw,f? ta=umufw&m;&yf0ef;}u;D wckukd pepfwuszefw;D aewJ@ ppftm%m&Sirf sm;u Ak'b < momudk xGe;f um;atmif yH@yd;k ay;aeygw,fv@kd ajymqdw k m[m ajymifajymifwif;wif; vdrv f nfro _S m jzpfyg w,f? bma=umif@vJqdkawm@ Ak'<bmom&JŒ &nfrSef;csufeJ@ ajzmif@ajzmif@ qef@usifwJ@ tvkyfudk vkyfaevdk@yg? Ak'b < mom&Jh &nfreS ;f csuu f ta=umufw&m;awG uif;&Si;f wJ@ vl@avmu=u;D jzpfygw,f? tm%m&Sipf epf&hJ 27

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


28

&nfrSef;csufu ta=umufw&m; v$rf;rdk;wJ@ vl@avmu jzpfygw,f? Ak'b < momudk xGe;f um;atmif yH@yd;k csi&f if/ omoemawmfukd tm;ay; apmif@a&Smufcsi&f if vlawG rSm ta=umufw&m; enf;yg;aysmufuG,foGm;atmif tm;ay;ulnD&rSmom jzpfygw,f? Ak'<bmom xGef;um;wJh EdkifiHwck[m ta=umufw&m;awG zHk;v$rf;yD; bmrS rvkyf&J rudkif&J rajym&J rqdk&J jidrf0yfemcHae&wJ@ EdkifiHrsKd; vHk;0 r[kwfygbl;? Ak'<bmom0ifwa,mufqdkwm avSmifcsKdihfxJrSm xdwfvef h+idrf0yfae&wJh wd&p>mefrsKd; r[kwfygbl;? Ak'<bmom0ifqdkwm ta=umufw&m;uif;rJhpGmeJ h vGwfvyfpGm &Sifoefaexdkifa&;udk y"mexm;olrsm; jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umif@ tm%m&Sifpepf aysmufuG,fa&;twGufqdk&if jrwfAk'< a[mn$efwJ@ w&m;awGudk aoaocsmcsm vdkufemusif@oHk;zdk@ygyJ? jrwfAk'<u ta=umufw&m;uif;&Sif;a&;twGuf o'<g oDv okw 0d&d, ynm qdkwJ@ tcsufig;csufeJ@ jynfhpHkatmif vkyf&r,fvdk@ vrf;n$efcJ@ygw,f? 'Dtcsufig;csufudk jznfq h nf;Edik &f if ta=umufw&m; uif;&Si;f r,fv@kd a[mcJ@ygw,f? jrefrmvdk jyefq&kd &if orRmw&m;awGukd jywfjywfom;om; ,H=k unfjcif;/ pGpJ +JG r+J raJ qmifxm;jcif;/ av@vmem=um;jcif;/ tifwu dk t f m;wdu k f usi@f }ut H m;xkwjf cif;eJ@ ydik ;f ydik ;f jcm;jcm; odjrifoabm aygujf cif; wd@k yJ jzpfygw,f? Ak'b < mom0if jrefrmEdik if o H m;rsm;[m jrwfA'k a< [mn$ew f @J orRmw&m;awGukd wu,f ,H=k unf yg&ŒJ vm;? wu,f aqmifxm;yg&ŒJ vm;? wu,f av@vmem,lyg&ŒJ vm;? wu,f tm;xkw=f u yg&ŒJ vm;? wu,f em;vnfoabmayguf=uyg&JŒvm;? ta=umufw&m;&yf0ef;udk jyefvnf+zdK zsufzdk htwGuf onftcsuaf wGukd jyefppfaq;zd@k vdyk gw,f? tusKd;&v'fudk axmufq+yD;=unfh&if Ak'<bmom jrefrmEdkifiHom;trsm;pktaeeJ@ txufyg tusif@awGudk ydkifydkifEdkifEdkif rusif@oHk;ao;bl;vdk@yJ ajym&ygvdrf@r,f? ta=umufw&m;udk tajccH tkwfjrpfvkyfxm;wJ@ tm%m&Sifpepf}uD;u wnf&Sdaeao;vdk@yg? Ak'<bmom0ifawG trsm;pk aexkdif&m jrefrmEdkifiHrSm ta=umufw&m;&yf0ef;}uD; wnf&SdaewJh tjzpf[m r,HEk ikd f avmuf atmifjzpfygw,f? 'gayr,hf Ak'b < mom0if jrefrmEdik if o H m;rsm;taeeJ@ onfvkd ta=umufw&m;&yf0ef;}uD;udk rz,f&Sm; Edkifp&m ta=umif;r&Sdyg? ta=umufw&m; uif;a0;apwJ@ Ak'<bmomw&m;rsm;udk av;av; eufeuf usif@oHk;zdk@om vdktyfygw,f? o'<g oDv okw 0D&d, ynm qdkwJ@ w&m;aumif; w&m;jrwfawGudk usif@oHk;zdk@om vdktyfygw,f? ('Drdku&ufwpf jrefrmtoH a&'D,dkwGif xkwfv$if@cJ@zl;aom aqmif;yg; jzpfygw,f?)

armifomrn

“zd w f a c:tyf y gonf ” Edik if aH &;/vlra+ &;/pD;yGg;a&;tawG;tjrif aqmif;yg;rsm; a0zefa&; aqmif;yg;rsm; uAsm/0wˆKwd/k umwGe;f /yef;csD rsm;udk rnforl qdk vGwv f yfpmG ay;ydk Eh ikd yf gonf// pmrlrsm;ud(k 15)&ufae h aemufq;kH xm;jyD; ay;ydŒk }uyg&ef Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4 arwWm&yfct H yf2y8gonf//


29

*syef {u&mZf [D&kd[DwdkESifh ynmoif buf ol i ,f c sif ; / jyif o pf E k d i f i H aqmf b G e f ; wuU o d k v f r S a'gufwmbJGŒ&&SdcJhol/ t*Fvdyf-jrefrm tbd"mefudk jyKpkcJhol a'gufwmb[ef. nD/ jAdwdoSsacwf eef;&if;0ef/ *syefacwf jrefrmjynf. t"dywd tm%m&Sif/ trsKd;om; acgif;aqmif=uD; OD;atmifqef;u pum;ajymenf;t&mwGif pHjyK cH&ol a'guw f m barmfudk tdk;a0OD;ndKjru pmwpfwdk@ wkd@xdcJhjcif; jzpfonf? a'guw f mbarmf. vkyef nf;udik ef nf;rsm;onf tm;enf;aumif; enf;cJah yvdrrhf nf? Ekid if v H w G v f yfa&;twGuf olvyk u f ikd cf &hJ pOfwiG f jAw d o d sS onf urmB ay:wGif tiftm; taumif;qk;H / bke;f rD;aev tawmufyqkH;tcsdef jzpfaeI olomr[kwfygbl;/ b,folrS vGwfvyfa&;&atmif vkyfEkdifao; rnf r[kwfyg? 'kwd, urBmppfjyD;I jAdwdoSswdk@ =oZm usqif;vmcsdefwGif a'gufwm barmfvnf; tm%m vufvw $ cf &hJ I aemufyikd ;f vGwv f yfa&; =uKd ;yrf;r_wiG f ol. tcef;u¾onf rxif ay:awmh? xd@k a=umifh ordkif;wGif olŒae&mu &Sdoifhoavmuf r&Sd[k ,lqygonf? od@k aomf ol. rsK;d csppf w d /f Ekid if cH sppf w d /f Ekid if v H w G v f yfapvdpk w d f wd k @ ud k u m; rnf o l r S s oH o , &S d p &mrvd k a cs? zuf q pf awmfvSefa&; twGuf a'gufwmbarmf. tcef;u¾rnfrSs ta&;ygyk H u d k OD ; Ek . ig;ES p f & moD Armjynf pmtk y f w G i f tao;pd w f n $ e f ; qk d xm;onf ud k =unf h I od E k d i f o nf ? vlwpfOD;. ordkif;wefzdk;onf =unhf&SKol. axmifh/ acwf tcsdefwdk@udk vkdufI trsKd;rsKd; ajymif;vJ wwfonf jzpf&m aemiftESpf (50-100) t=um ordkif;wGif &Sdaernfh a'gufwm barmf. ae&mudk rnfolrSs rodEkdif/ rcef@rSef;Ekdifyg?

wd[dwfuav;rS wd[dwf}uD;okd h ysHoef;ol

ndKjr

a'guw f mbarmfrmS ydecf sK;H jcif;rSty &kyq f if;o¾mef ysu, f iG ;f jcif; r&S?d orD;ESihf aqGrsK;d rsm;. tjyKtpk xl;jcm;aumif;rGefvGef;Iom oufqdk;&Snfaejcif; jzpf.? orD;wpfOD;u q&m0ef jzpfaeI txl; apmifah &SmufEidk af vonf? olonf uG,v f eG o f l w&kwaf cgi;f aqmif=u;D armfpw D ek ;f ESihf oufw&l , G w f l (85) ESpf jzpf&kHomru cHpm;&aom a0'emcsif;vnf; wlnDae.? yguifqef a&m*g ac: aoG;om;xkHxdkif;jcif; jzpf.? armfpDwkef;u 0jzdK;ol/ a'gufwmu ydefol jzpfI a0'em '%fcsufudk ykdrdkcHEkdif&nf&Sdum aemufus uG,fvGefjcif; jzpf.? a'gufwm arhajrmaeonfqdkI aecsif; ncsif;yif oGm;awmhrnf xif&aomfvnf; trS e f w G i f &uf a ygif ; (50) ausmf r S uG , f v G e f c J h . ? orD ; rsm;. tjyKtpk u m; tH h = ozG , f 29

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


30

aumif;rGefvSygayonf? om;orD; 0wW&m; ausyGef=uygayonf? a'gufwm ruG,fvGefrDu “Armjynf &kef;xGufjyD” ac: pmtkyfwpftkyf t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh a&;om;&m EkdifiHjcm;Y xkwfa0cJhavonf? xdkpmtkyf. aemufqufwJG tcef;wpfckudk olu qufvuf a&;om;jyD;pD;csdefY u|efawmfhudk ac:um xdkpmrludk pmayAdrmefodk@ wifjy&ef ckdif;apcJh.? jrefrmrsm; t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh a&;om;aom pmrlrsm;udk udk,fwkdif xkwfa0jcif; rjyKEkdifI pmayAdrmefrS ulnD&ef awmif;cHjcif; jzpfavonf? u|eaf wmfvnf; xk;H pHtwkid ;f XmerSL; OD;xif=u;D xHo@kd vGecf ahJ om ok;H av;ESpu f wify@kd ay;cJ. h ? ola&;aom pmtkyfrSm &Sm;yg;ypPnf; jzpf.? ol@xHY wpftkyfwnf;om&Sdae&m u|efawmfu iSm;I txl;tcGifhta&; taejzifh “wpfywftwGif; zwfjyD;jyefay;” [k qdkum cGifhjyK.? u|efawmfvnf; xkH;pHtwkdif; arhavsmhae.? TwGif a'gufwmu u|efawmfhudk w,fvDzkef;qufum a'geSifh armESihf =urd ;f armif;ygawmhonf? “rif;udk ig0g;pm;r,f/ owfypfr,f” [laom jcrd ;f ajcmufcsurf sm; yg&adS vonf? TwGif olteD;Y em;axmifaeaom om;orufjzpfol 0wfvkH udk&JxGef;u tu,fyif rSwfxifum a=umuf&ŒHG wkev f y_ f aeavonf? w,fvzD ek ;f wpfzufu em;axmifaeol u|eaf wmfum; ol. =uKH ;0g;oHukd em;aomwqifum w0g;0g; w[m;[m; oabmusvsuf &Sdavonf? “[m tefu,fuvJ/ owdxm; rSaygh” ponfjzifh ol. a'gorD;udk u|efawmfu ,yfcyfIyif ay;aerd.? udk&JxGef;ESifh awGŒaomtcg u|efawmfu “udk,fhvl wu,f rSwfaeovm;/ tefu,fu ysif;ysif;&Sdvdk@ tdkufwifvkyfjyD; usKyfudk =urd ;f armif;aewmyg/ cifrifwv hJ cl si;f 'Dvykd spyf spEf pS ef pS af v; E_wcf eG ;f qufo&rS wpfrsK;d t&om &Sw d ,fav/ wpfenf;qdk&ifvnf; t"dywd=uD;[m ckaecgrSm ajcG&Hoif;yif; enf;yg;aeavawmh usKyfwdk@vdk cifrifolrsm;udkom tEkdifusifh&awmhwmaygh” [k &Sif;jy&avonf? t*Fvyd af cwfu yxr eef;&if;0efrmS a'guw f mbarmf jzpf.? ol. "m;rygwu D trwftiftm; (16) OD;om &Sdaomfvnf; b=uD;baz. trwf (40) ausmf &Sdaom ig;yGifhqdkiftzJGŒudk tEkdif,lum nGef@aygif;tpdk;& zJGŒEkdifcJh.? xdknGef@aygif;tpdk;&udk ocifESifh OD;apmwdk@ yl;aygif; jzKwfcscJh.? OD;apm. rsK;d cspt f zJŒG 0ifw@kd u ocifrsm;udk 0g;&if;wkwjf zifh &ku d af omtcg a'guw f mbarmfEiS yhf if ocifwdk@ yl;aygif;=u&jyef.? odk@ESifh *syefacwf wpfavSsmufvkH; a'gufwmyif =uD;pkd;vsuf &SdcJhavonf? olonfvnf; jrefrmjynfudk 1936 ckrS 1946 cktxd q,fESpfq,frdk; v$rf;rdk;cJholyif jzpfavonf? a'guw f mbarmf. Ekid if aH &; y&d,m,frmS pEN*w k ef nf;ESihf qifwal yonf? tpkid t f cJ=u;D rm;&m A[dkt&yfudk wdkuf&kduf xdk;ESufjcif; rjyKbJ trSwfwrJh eHab;wpfavSsmufudk jzdKvSJypfjcif; jzpfonf? olŒenf;olŒ[efukd u|eaf wmfwpf=urd f jrif&zl;.? ynmawmfoifrsm; bdvyfo@kd xGucf mG csed w f iG f eef;&if;0ef a'guw f mvnf; yef;qd;k wef; qdyu f rf;odŒk &kww f &uf a&muf&v dS m.? t*Fvyd af cwfwiG f a*:&mwHcg;rSL;u olŒudk eef;&if;0efrSef; rodojzifh 0ifcGifh ray;acs? a'gufwmu tjyHK;rysuf? u|efawmfvnf; Tta&;Y a'guw f m=u;D b,fvv kd yk rf vJ[k pdw0f ifpm;pGm apmif=h unfah e.? olu [efrysub f J a*:&m. [ef@wm; csufudk rodav[efjzifh teD;tyg;&Sd rdwfaqGwdk@udk E_wfqufpum; ajymae.? xdk@aemuf wHcg;aygufY 0ifvdkolrsm; ydkrdk rsm;jym;vmojzifh a*:&m=uD;vnf; aumif;pGm rppfaq;EkdifawmhbJ &SdaecsdefwGif a'guw f muvnf; jyKH ;jyKH ;&$i&f i$ Ef iS yhf if vltyk x f YJ a&maESmygomG ;um oabFmay:od@k a&mufomG ;.? od@k vSsif olonf tm%mudk okH;Ekdifygvsuf rokH;? rnfolrSs oduQmrysufapbJ tEkenf;ESifh vdk&ma&mufap.? t*Fvdyfacwf twGif;Y ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;u eef;&if;0ef a'gufwmudk &SKwfcsum “a&zsef;ukvm;pyfudkjzifh/ a&$eef; rtyfEkdifygbl;” [k a&;om;cJhzl;onf? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

30


31

trSet f m;jzifh a'guw f mbarmfrmS “a&zse;f ukvm;pyf” r[kwyf g? olŒzcif OD;a=u;rSm vl&nfreG f rGet f rsK;d om;=u;D jzpfygonf? yxr t*Fvyd -f jrefrm ppfyGJ jzpfymG ;jy;D aemuf &ckid jf ynfe,fEiS hf weoFm&De,fw@kd e,fcsŒJ vufatmufo@kd a&muf&o dS mG ;&m armfvjrKd ijf rKd Œ Y omoemjyKausmif;rsm; pwif xGef;um;ygonf? OD;a=u;onf xdkausmif;rS t*FvdyfpmESifh jyifopfpmrsm; oif,l wwfajrmufcJhonf? xdk@aemuf rEWav; aejynfawmfwGif rif;nD rif;om;wdk@. enf;jyq&m jzpfcJhonf? rif;wkef;rif;u EkdifiHjcm;odk@ oHwrefrsm; apv$wf&mwGif bmomjyefol tjzpfESifhvnf; tr_awmfxrf;cJhonf? rtlyifjrdKŒrS axmifydkif=uD;orD; a':ode;f wifEiS hf nm;&mwGif armifb[efEiS hf armifbarmf ac: om;ESpaf ,muf xGe;f um;cJo h nf? axmifyidk =f u;D oD,dk'dkrSm ujym; jzpfonf? odk@aomf olŒorD;rsm;rSm rdcifudk EG,fI Ak'<bmom tppfrsm; jzpfcJhonf? xdak cwfu emrnf=u;D rtlyifr,frsm;yif? od@k vSsif rdcif a':ode;f wifyifvsS if jrefrmaoG; (80) &mcdik Ef e_ ;f &Sad om jref r mwd k i f ; &if ; ol jzpf & um; OD ; a=u;ES i f h &aom om;rsm;Y jref r maoG ; rnf r S s yg&S d o nf u d k wGucf su=f unf&h KS Eikd af yonf? ygawmfrcl sed Yf OD;a=u;rSm awmfveS af &;orm; b0od@k a&muf&u dS m a':ode;f wifrmS vlrrnfom; ESpfa,mufESifh wJGvJ usef&pf.? TwGif &efukefjrdKŒ pdefaygausmif;odk@ rdbrJhuav;rsm; tjzpf pm&if;oGif; tyfESHvdkuf&.? odk@vSsif tpfudk armifb[efrSm c&pf,mefbufodk@ vkH;0 ouf0ifoGm;vsuf nDjzpfol armifbarmfum; rd&kd;zvm Ak'<bmom0g'udk rpGef@cJhacs? olarhajrmaepOf tdrfa&SŒ Y om;orD;wdk@u Ak'<bmom w&m;pmrsm; &Gwfzwfaeonfudk jrifawGŒcJ&h .? xd@k jyif a'guw f m use;f rmpOfuvnf; a&$ref;wifarmif. Ak'0< ifZmwf/ =umeDuef q&mawmf. ,yfvSJw&m;oHrsm;/ "rRuxdu OD;vSodef;. wdwfacGrsm;udk ESpfoufpGm em,lavh&Sda=umif; =um;od&.? *syefacwfu a'gufwmESifh b=uD;r_dif;wdk@ wcrf;wem; =udKqdkcJh=uaom vGwfvyfa&; twkrSmvnf; aumif;aom tuGufrsm; &Sdaeonfudk rarhtyfacs? “r,f ,kH=unfatmif ajymprf;yg armif&,f/ cspfw,f qdkwmav;udk ajymprf;yg armif&,f” [laom oDcsif;oGm;t& ppf'kuQ trsKd;rsKd; a&muf&Sdaeaom r,fArmu rdrdtm; pGef@v$wfum wpfukd,faumif; xGufajy;aom udkt*FvdyfxHrS tm;ay;oHav;rsm;udk tzefwvJvJ arSsmfwvifhvifh jzpfae.? wu,fwrf;qdkawmh zufqpf*syefESifh raygif;csifygay? odk@aomf (cspf) qdkaom pum; (0g) vGwfvyfa&; [laom a0g[m&udk zGifh[&ef tvGef cufcaJ eaom t*Fvyd u f ppfumv wpfavSsmufv;Hk a0hvnfa=umifywf vkyu f m tESpo f m&uif;rJah om puULjzLpmwrf;udo k m xkwjf yefcahJ vonf? xdkodk@ ra&r&m tcsdeftcgrsKd;wGif *syefwdk@u [kwfonf jzpfap/ r[kwfonf jzpfap/ (vGwfvyfa&;) qdkaom pum;udk &J&J=uD; a=uG;a=umfypfvdkufjcif;rSm rsm;pGm xda&mufvSayonf? atmifjrifaom pdw"f mwfppfqifa&;[kyif qd&k ayrnf? &mZ0if a&pD;a=umif;onf vGwv f yfa&;bufo@kd pD;qif;vsufomvSsif &Sdaeonf r[kwfavm? xdkobm0 a&pD;a=umif;udk ydwfqdk@wm;qD;xm;cJh&mrS e,fcsJŒwm&kd;=uD; usKd;usum vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"mwfrsm; w&a[m pD;qif;=uap&ef *syefwdk@u rdik ;f Ak;H azmufcGJ ay;vdu k o f vdk jzpf.? “vGwv f yfjyD vGwv f yfjy/D wk@d jynf vGwv f yfjy”D ? tb,f e,fcsŒJ onf xdak &wHcg;=u;D udk &yfwnf wGe;f vSeu f m twdwo f @kd jyefapEkid t f ehH nf;? xdktcsdefu u|efawmfonf tjcm;aom ynmawmfoifrsm;ESifhtwl taemufEkdifiHokd@ a&muf&adS e.? r[mrdwrf sm;ESihf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G af ecsed f jzpf.? od@k aomf *syefw@kd u jrefrmhvw G v f yfa&; a=unmaomae@Yum; txufyg pdwftm;wuf=uGr_rsm; wzGm;zGm; ay:aygufum tjcm;aom ta0;a&muf jrefrmrsm;ESifhtwl vGwfvyfa&; aomufyJG atmifyJG usif;yrdyg ownf;? 31

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


32

1339 ck (c&pf 1977) e,kev f qef; (13) &ufae@wGif uG,v f eG cf o hJ l a'guw f mbarmftwGuf wuUov kd &f yd o f mvrf;&Sd ol@tdrw f iG f e,kev f qkwf (4) &ufae@u &ufvnfqrG ;f au|;.? y&dwo f wfrsm;udk tkef;Ekd@acgufqJG/ =umqH=uD;/ ausmufausmESihf qEGrf;ruif;/ aumfzD ponfwdk@udk au|;.? olŒtdrfY pm;aomuf&jcif;rSm tjrJwap &ojynfhpkHvsuf jyKpkykHrSmvnf; olrwlatmif oef@jyef@ rGefjrwfykHudk owd&rd.? uefawmf=uD;tdrfwGif xdkodk@ pm;&uH =uKH=udKufpOf u|efawmfu “tefu,f taeESifh jrefrmxrif;qdkif wpfck zGifh&if odyfaumif;rSmyJ” [k ajymvdkufrd.? a'gufwmu xdkaumufcsufudk ESpo f uf[ef rjyacs? “igo@kd aom t"dywd=u;D udk tb,fa=umifh atmufwef;pm;vkyif ef;udk vkyu f ikd af p&ef avSsmufwif0Hhoenf;” [k t"dy`g,f aumuf,l[ef &Sd.? u|eaf wmfh taeESihf xdo k @kd rjrifygacs? jrefrmjynfY waumif;acwf/ yk*aH cwf/ tif;0acwfw@kd rS pI ousomuD0if rif;tqufqufwdk@ pkd;rdk;tkyfcsKyfcJh=u&mwGif ,ae@wdkif urmB htqifhtwef;rDaom jrefrmxrif;qdkif wpfckrSs xlaxmifEkdifjcif; r&Sdao;onfrSm {&mr [muGuf=uD;/ &SufzG,f=uD; jzpfonf r[kwyf gavm? Tacwftqufquf [muGu=f u;D udk a'guw f m. yJaG wmfwnfenf;/ tefw. D rD;zdak csmif n$ef=um;csuf/ rdom;pkwdk@. oyf&yfpGm cif;usif; jyKpkr_wdk@omvSsif txufwef;usus ajz&Sif;Edkifonf r[kwyf gavm? a'gufwmonf 0wfpm;qif,Ofr_Y &kd;&dk;yifeDESifh ydk;ykqdk;udkyif wpfrsKd;xGifum O'gef;qefqef ausmah eatmif zefw;D wwf ouJo h @kd olŒpm;yJrG mS vnf; jrefrmhrrl ysub f J vlwum av;pm;rufarmatmif au|;arG;wwf.? jrefrmwdk@u xrif;[if;wkd@udk wpfcgwnf; pkaygif; okH;aqmifwwf=u.? e&oD[yawhrif; vufxufu pm;awmfyJGwGif [if;cGufaygif; okH;&mausmf yg&Sdonf qdk&mwGif ,ckumv bkef;=uD; ausmif;rsm;Y ausmif;om;rsm; aumufcH&orSs [if;cGufrsm;udk pkaygif;wnfcif;xm; ouJhodk@ &Sdacsrnf? pkHvifatmif ,liif pm;aomuf&ef vG,fulrnf r[kwf? Oa&mywdkufwGif xrif; (0g) aygifrkef@udk t&efxm;vsuf [if;cGufrsm;udk wpfckjyD;rS wpfck wnfcif;avh &Sd.? txufwef; w&kwfpm;yJG xdkifenf;rSmvnf; xdktwdkif;yif? a'gufwm. tdrfY Oa&myrludk okH;vsuf wifqufaom [if;rsm;um; tm;vkH; jrefrmppfvSayonf? vufaq;cGufESifh vufokwfy0g xm;ykHwdk@rS pI jrefrmjzpf ,Gef;cGuf tnmxnfrsm; jzpfvsuf oyf&yf usufoa& &SdvS.? rdwq f uf&mY vnf;aumif;/ ta&mif;t0,f vky&f mY vnf;aumif; pm;yJaG omufyEGJ iS hf {nfch EH idk rf S wGifus,f aygufa&muf.? urBmESifh qufqHa&;wGif w&kwfqdkif/ ukvm;qdkifrsm;rSm urBmt&yf&yfwGif vlrsKd;wkdif; vufcHEkdifaom tqifhokd@ a&muf&Sdae.? jrefrmwdk@um; jyifyudk csefvSyfvsuf jynfwGif;Yyif urBmhtqifhtwef; rSDaom jrefrmxrif;qdkif wpfckrSs r&SdonfrSm ,ae@wkdif jzpf.? zdvpfydkifjynf/ ,k;d ',m;jynfEiS hf tif'ckd sKid ;f em;wd@k u jrefrmxuf wpfqifo h maom tajcY &Sad e.? a'guw f mESihf tefww D @kd . vuf&mrDvu kd af om wifZmarmf tp&So d nfh userf o d m;pkw@kd u Txrif;qdik f ta&;awmfyu Hk kd qufvuf pOf;pm;oifh.? a'gufwm. &ufvnfqGrf;uyfyJGodk@ OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmfjidrf;/ OD;odef;azjrifh/ OD;cifarmifav;/ OD;ndKxGef;/ OD;azcif/ ocifcspfarmif (jrefatmif)/ OD;ausmfrif;/ OD;ausmfjrifh pojzifh EkdifiHa&; e,fy,frS yk*~dKvftrsm; vma&muf=u.? u|eaf wmfu OD;AaqGEiS hf wpfpm;yJw G nf; usojzifh oGm;avol ta=umif; pyfrpd yf&m ajym=u.? wpf=urd u f td;k a0*sme,fwiG f Adv k rf LS ;=u;D a[mif; cifnKd u ol. tawGŒt=uKrH sm;udk a&;&mwGif Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

32


33

*syefacwfu awmfveS af &;ae@udk a&$Œajymif;cJ&h jcif;rSm a'guw f mbarmfrS wpfqifh owif;aygu=f um;oGm;I jzpf&av[ef pGyfpJGcJhayonf? u|efawmfu a'gufwm. acsycsufudk xdkpGyfpJGcsufESifh twl yl;wJG azmfjycJhayonf? a'gufwmu a'gESifh armESifh ajz&Sif;&mwGif twdkcsKyfrSm “igu odorSsudk [kdtcsdefu zGifhajymcJh&if rif;wdk@ tm;vkH; acgif;jyKwfukefrSmaygh” [k yg&Sd.? oufaocH tjzpf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u awmrcdkrD olŒxHodk@ a&;cJhaom twGif;pmudkvnf; wifjy.? jrefrmacgif;aqmifrsm; rk'kHjrdKŒodk@ wd r f ; a&S m if = u&mwG i f ol E S i f h t wl zqyv acgif ; aqmif = uD ; rsm; ppf j yD ; csd e f t xd ruJ G r uG m vku d yf gc=hJ uykrH sm;udv k nf; azmfjy.? TudpPESifh ywfoufI OD;AaqGu a'gufwm. acsycsufudk axmufcH.? olodoavmufwGif awmfvSefa&; &ufa&$ŒcJh&jcif;rSm yJcl;&Sd jrefrmwyfom;rsm; v_yf&Sm;ykHudk *syefwdk@u &dyfrdoGm;I jzpfonf qdk.? trSeftm;jzifh OD;AaqG udk,fwkdif *syefwdk@ zrf;qD; csKyfaESmifcJh&mrS a'gufwmyif y&d,m,f trsKd;rsKd;okH;um u,fwifcJhonf? OD;cef@ (yef;waemf) . ajymjycsuft& ynmrif;=uD; OD;csKd. om; pwifvDcsKdonf r[mrdwf bufawmfom; tjzpf jrefrmjynfodk@ avxD;ESifh qif;vm&m *syefwdk@ owftq hH q J rJ S a'guw f myif u,fwifco hJ nf? xkdudpPESifh ywfoufI a'gufwmu OD;ausmfjidrf;odk@ pma&;&Sif;jy&mwGif “*syefawGu ocifoef;xGef;udk rouFm jzpfaecsdefrSm igudk,fwkdif olŒudk awmifil ajymif;ay;cJhwm rif;todygyJ? ocifpkd;uvnf; ol@tajctae raumif;bJ tEW&m,f &SdaejyDqdkwmudk igu tzefwvJvJ =udKwif owday;cJw h ,f? igu uGejf rLepfawGuakd wmif tJovdk *&kwpdu k f u,fq,fcahJ o;&if jrefrmhwyfrawmfukd acsmufusatmif b,frSm vkyfrvJ” [k yg&Sdavonf? Todk@ t"dywd=uD; taejzifh =udrfzefrsm;pGm olwwftm;oa&GŒ udk,fhvlrsKd;rsm; csrf;oma&; zefwD;cJhykHwdk@rSm vSsdKŒ0Sufcsufrsm; jzpfI olu zGifhIvnf; rajym/ tom;,ljcif;/ tjrwfxkwfjcif;vnf; r&Scd ahJ y? xdt k csuu f kd axmuf&KS I OD;AaqGu “a'guw f m[m vl=u;D vlaumif; Ekid if aH &;orm;vd@k qd&k rSmy/ olŒrSm vl=uD;pdwf&Sdw,f/ pnf;urf;&Sdw,f/ vufa0S@xdk;&mrSm csufatmufxdk;jyD; tEkdif,ljcif; r&SdwJh ormorwf vufa0S@orm;vkdaygh” [k xdkae@u tuJjzwf.? a'gufwmuG,fvGefcsdefu xl;jcm;csufrSm ol. psmyea=umfjimudk oludk,fwdkif a&;ay;cJhjcif; jzpf.? t*FvdyfbmomESifh a&;ay;cJh.? yxr ol@emrnf/ xdk@aemuf “wd[dwfuav;rS wd[dwf=uD;odk@ ysHoef;ol” [k yg&Sd.? xdkrSsomyg&Sdaom a=umfjimwkduav; jzpf.? xdkaqmifyk'frSm acgrynm&Sd=uD; (yvdkwdeyf) . vuf&mudk udk;um;jcif;yif? “The flight from the alone to the Alone²Plotinus” [lI t*Fvdyfvdk vm&dS.? wd[dwfuav;rSm ol. ykxkZOfb0uav;udk qkdvdk.? wd[w d =f u;D um; edAmŠ efr*fzv kd u f kd qdv k . kd ? u|efawmfwdk@ jrefrmordkif;wGif tr&yl&acwfY trwf=uD; OD;ay:OD; uG,fvGef&m ol. vufwpfbufudk acgif;tjyif xkwfum jzef@xm;ap&ef rSm=um;cJh.? arG;zGm;pOfuvnf; bmrSs r,lvm/ aooGm;aomtcgYvnf; bmrSs ygroGm;ykHudk w&m;jycsifaom oabmyif? ,ckvnf; a'gufwmonf j*Kd vw f ak cwfY 'k;H ysyH rm aumif;uifo@kd wuf&mwGif oHa,mZOf tnpfta=u;wd@k udk wpfcjk y;D wpfck pGe@f cJjh y[ D k t"dy`g,f &&Sdavonf

ndKjr

pmarmfuGef;/ trSwf (2)/ Zlvdkif/ 1985 33

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


34

” Á omrp> & d , tvG e f t m;}uD ; aom vl r sd K ;rsm;jzpf = uonf [ k rS w f w rf ; wif x m; avowJ h ”

a&jrifhavaomtcg t&SifoH0&mvuFm& "rRyd,q&mawmf

bk&m;&Sif oufawmfxif&mS ; &Spd Oftcgwek ;f u wpfae@aomtcg od}um;rif;}u;D a&mufvm+y;D "bke;f awmf}u;D awmfral om jrwfpmG bk&m;......ewfawG/ vlawG/ tol&mewfawG/ e*g;awG/ *E<AeŠ wfawG/ ouf&o dS wW0g [lor# cdu k &f efa'go uif;yum aexdik v f =kd uygw,f? vufeufOpPm'%fab; uif;a0;um aexdkifvdk=uygw,f? &efol[lor# uif;pifyum aexdkifvdk=uygw,f? pdwfqif;&J uif;um ESvHk;pdwf0rf; =unf=unfomomeJ@ aexdkif vdk=uygw,f? cdkuf&efa'go pdk;pOf;r#r&SdbJ aexdkifvdk=uygw,f? tJ'Dvdk at;at;aq;aq; csr;f csr;f omom aexdik v f =kd uayr,fh tJ'v D kd rae&bJ cdu k &f efa'go jzpfae=u&ygw,f? vufeuf OpPm'%fab; oifha&mufae=u&ygw,f? &efolawG 0dkif;0dkif;vnfae=u&ygw,f? ESvHkrom tjrJpdwfqif;&JpGm ae=u&ygw,f? b,fvdktaESmiftzGJ@rsdK;awGa=umifh tJ'Dvdk tvdkrusbJ qif;&J'kuQ a&mufae=u&wmygvJ bk&m;" [k ar;av#mufavonf? xdktcg bk&m;&Sifu "owW0gawG[m Áomrp>&d, taESmiftzGJ@a=umifh tJ'Dvdk yÉdyuQ awGjzpfum qif;&J'u k aQ wG a&mufae=u&wmyJ"[k rde@f awmfro l nf? bk&m;&Si. f tajzudk aus;Zl;awmf&iS f r[mpnf q&mawmfbk&m;}uD;u "umrbHkom; ewfvlrsm;wdk@ aumif;pm;jynfh0 ab;&efyv#uf at;jrcsr;f om aevdyk gvnf; Áomrap> ol&w _ af yGI xifacsrus qif;&J&wnfh" [k vuFmpD qHrk cJo h nf? xd@k tjyif "remvdu k if; 0efw&kd iS ;f vufiif;csr;f om=u&rnf" [lIvnf; a&;om;qHrk um &H;k cef;/ "rRm&H/k qGr;f ausmif; ponfh vlorl jrifEikd o f nfh ae&mrsKd ;rSm pmvH;k }u;D }u;D jzifh a&;csw d x f m;aponf? tajccH vdt k yfcsuf jzpfvrd rhf nf[k ,lq&onf? remvdrk a_ wG uif;=uv#ijf zif/h 0efwrkd a_ wG &Si;f =uv#ijf zifh ,ckvufiif; csrf;omzdk@&m aocsmonf? od=um;rif;u oHa,mZOf [laom a0g[m&udk oHk;Iar;ojzifh bk&m;uvnf; oHa,mZOf [laom a0g[m&ESihf ajzawmfro l nf? oHa,mZOf q,fyg;wGif Áomrp>&, d oHa,mZOf ESpyf g;u tqd;k qH;k jzpfyHkay:onf? xdka=umifh bk&m;&Sifu Áomrp>&d, oHa,mZOf taESmiftzGJ@a=umifh owW0gtm;vHk; 'kuaQ &mufae =u&onf[k ajzawmfro l nf? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

34


35

wwd,urBmxJu EdkifiHwpfckonf udkvdkeDatmufrS vGwfajrmufonfrSm ESpfaygif; wpf&m em;odk@ uyfvm+yD? odk@aomf ,ckwdkif 'Hk&if; 'Hk&if; qif;&JjrJ qif;&JjrJjzpfonf? vGefcJhaomESpfwpf&mcef@u xdEk ikd if H xdv k rl sKd ; ta=umif;udk okawoejyK rSww f rf;wifcahJ om pma&;q&mwpfO;D u xdv k rl sKd ; trsm;pkonf Áomrp>&d, tvGeftm;}uD;aom vlrsdK;rsm;jzpf=uonf[k rSwfwrf;wifxm; avowJh? a&uefwpfuefxJY =umrsdK;ig;yg; pGifhpGifhum;um; yGifhvef;wifhqef; ae=uonf? xdk=umrsdK; ig;yg;onf a&edrfhonfhtcg edrfhvdkufoGm;=uonf? a&jrifhonfhtcg jrifhvdkufoGm;=uonf? =umawG jrifah ejcif;onf a&jrifah oma=umifjh zpfonf? a&jrifah vaomtcg =umawGjrif=h u&onfrmS "rRwmjzpfonf? udk,fydkifb0wck. ppfrSefaom tedrfhtjrifh/ b0rsm;pGmwdk@. tedrfhtjrifhonf udk,f&nf udk,faoG;/ pdwf&nfpdwfaoG;ESifh wdkuf&dkufoufqdkifonf? udk,f&nfudk,faoG;[lonf vkyf&nfudkif&nf t&nftcsif;jzpfonf? xdkt&nftcsif;onf Om%f&nfOm%faoG; ESifhvnf;qdkifonf? rnfr#odoenf;? rnfr#wwfoenf;? odjcif;/ wwfjcif;a=umifh Om%f&nf Om%faoG; xufjruf&onf? Om%&nfOm%faoG; [lonfrSmvnf; Om%feDOm%feufudk rqdkvdk? tjzLa&mifOm%f/ tvif;a&mifOm%fuo kd m qdv k o kd nf? twW/ y& ESp0f aumif;usKd ; rD;armif;xd;k jyEdik f aom Om%fuo kd m qdv k o kd nf? ,ckacwfY tdik u f sLESihf tD;usL [lI cGjJ cm;oH;k =uonf? tdik u f sLu Om%f&nfOm%faoG; jzpfonf? tD;usLu pdwt f &nftaoG;jzpfonf? tdik u f sLjrifv h #if vlawmfjzpfonf? tD;usLjrifv h #if vlaumif;jzpfonf? wcsdK@u vlawmft"du/ wcsdK@u vlaumif;t"du[k 0d0g' uGJjym;aeonfvnf; &Sdonf? trSefu b,f[mt"du[k ajymIr&/? ESpfckvHk;uawmh t"duusonf? awmf&HkESifhvnf; rjyD;/ aumif;&kHESifhvnf; rjzpf ? wpf c k o m t"d u qd k v #if j zif h wpf z uf a pmif ; eif ; jzpf o G m ;Ed k i f o nf ? awmf v nf ; awmf / aumif;vnf;aumif;rSjzpfrnf? vlawmfu tvkyfvkyfvdk@aumif;onf? vlaumif;u ,Hk=unfpdwfcs&onf? vlaumif;u =unfndKzdk@/ vlawmfu av;pm;zdk@jzpfonf? tvkyfuvnf; vkyfae=u&OD;rnf? xdktcg awmfvnf;awmf/ aumif;vnf;aumif;rSjzpfrnf? vlawmfESifh tvkyfvkyf&onfrSm pdwfcsrf;om ouJhodk@ vlaumif;ESifh twlae&onfrSm pdwfcsrf;omonf? odk@aomf ol@tdkifusL/ tD;usLvdkuf+yD;awmh rnfr#awmfonf/ rnfr#aumif;onf[k 'D*&D tedrfh/ tjrifhawmh uGJygvdrfhrnf? t"duuawmh tvkyfjzpfzdk@om jzpfonf? tvkyjf zpfatmif vkyw f wf=uzd@k vdo k nf? vlwpfO;D . b0wpfc/k vl@tzG@J tpnf;. b0rsm;pGmwd@k udk jriS w hf if=u&mY vlawGawmfz@kd vdo k vd/k aumif;zd@k vnf; vdyk gonf? awmfz@kd twGuf ynm&yfawG oif,=l u&rnf? qnf;yl;=u&rnf? avhvm=u&rnf? }udK;pm;=u&rnf? tm;xkwf=u&rnf? twwfawG/ todawG/ A[kokwawG &Edkifor# &atmif/ &SdEdkifor# &Sdatmif &SmazGpkaqmif;=u&rnf? Tum; udk,f&nfudk,faoG;/ Om%f&nfOm%faoG; twGufjzpfonf? pdwft&nftaoG; twGufudkrl/ bmoma&;em;vnf&rnf? bmoma&;udkif;&_dif;&rnf? bmoma&;av;pm;&rnf? bmoma&;tqHktrawGudk emcH&rnf? jynfol@eDwdawGudk em;vnf&rnf? vl @ usif h 0 wf / vl @ wm0ef / vl @ 0wW & m;awG u d k em;vnf & rnf ? vd k u f e m&rnf ? usif h o H k & rnf ? pdwft&nftaoG;udk edrfhusapwm/ jrifhrm;apwmu pdwfxJrSmom&Sdonf? xdkoabmudk em;vnf&rnf? rl&if;yifudk,fpdwfu tjzLa&mifoufouf jzpfonf? apwodwfawG a=umifh pdwfu ta&mif trsdK;rsdK;ajymif; taumif;tqdk;jzpf&onf? tavmb/ ta'go/ tarm[/ arwWm/ u&k%m/ rk'dwm/ o'<g/ ynm paom apwodwfawGa=umifh pdwfu aumif;&onf? jrifh&onf? avmb/ a'go/ arm[/ 35

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


36

Áomrp>&d, paom apwodwfawGa=umifh pdwfu qdk;&onf/ ,kwf&onf/ nHh&onf/ edrfhus&onf/ ao;odrf&onf/ atmufwef;us&onf? bk&m;&Sif. ouUyOokwWef t&=unfhv#if vlwpfOD;pD. tedrfhtjrifh/ vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wpf ck. terfhtjrifh/ vlrsm;pGmwdk@. tedrfhtjrifh/ okcESifh 'kuQ jcm;em;&mY Áomrp>&d, t"duusonf[k aumufcsufcsEdkifonf? tb,fa=umifh ,ckxd rcsrf;om&oenf;? Áomrp>&d, a=umifhjzpfonf? tb,fa=umifh ,ckxd 'kuQ wGi;f eufaeoenf;? Áomrp>&, d a=umifjh zpfonf? tb,fo. l Áomrp>&, d avenf;? remvdk 0efwdk[k qdk=u&mY remvdkwmu Áom jzpf.? 0efwdkwmu rp>&d, jzpf.? Áom u olwyg;pnf;pdru f kd jiLpljcif;/ uJ&h @J jcif;/ onf;rcHEikd jf cif; vuQ%m&S. d ? olwyg;pnf;pdrw f @kd Y rarG@av#mjf cif; udpP&o&Sd.? olwyg;pnf;pdrfrS rsufESmv$Jonf[k tjzpfjzifh w&m;&_olwdk@tm; a&S@&_ xifvmjcif; ypPKyXmefY&Sd.? olwyg;wdk@. pnf;pdrfv#if eD;aom ta=umif;&Sd.? a&S;a&S;b0u uHaumif;axmufrv#uf ,ckb0 Om%f0&D , d wd@k twGuf OpPmpnf;pdrf *k%o f &d f wufaeoludk jrif&/ =um;&onf&Sdaomf 0rf;rajrmufEdkifygbJ/ rsufESmrJhum yg;pyf&GJ@um/E_wfcrf;plum/ apmif;um/ ajrmif;um/ csdwfum/ &dwfum =unfh&_ajymqdkr_/ "udk,fhxufom remvd"k qdkonfhtwdkif; xdo k . l *k%o f wif;udk r=um;vd?k em;raxmifvrkd /_ "ZD;uGuaf vmufawmh iSuw f ikd ;f vS&@J / onfv, kd ek af wmh csHKwdkif;&Sd&J@"[k uJ@&J@&_wfcsr_rsm;onf Áom. oabmvuQ%m csnf;wnf;? y&rR& uHaumif;rojzifh jynfh0*k%fod&f ol@pnf;pdrfudk r+rdefEdkifaumif; apmif;ajrmif;rJ@&GJ@ uJh&J@jiLpl &_wfcsr_ rSwf,l Áom oabmwnf;? (oHbmÉD) Tpnf;pdrf/ *k%fod&fowif; ausmfaZmjcif;paom t&mpkonf ightm;omjzpfygap? tjcm;olwdk@tm; rjzpfygapESifh[k jzpfaompdwfonf rp>&d,pdwf (0efwdkpdwf) jzpf.? ,if;0efwdkpdwf jzpfay:vmaom oabmw&m;udk "rp>&d, " [kac:onf? pdwf.0efwdkr_onf rp>&d, twGuf jzpf&aoma=umifh rp>&d, udk 0efwdkr_jzpfay:a=umif; oabmw&m;[k qdk&onf? rdr&d &S+d y;D aom OpPmpnf;pdrf *k%o f &d t f rsKd ;rsKd ;/ &oif/h &xdu k /f &vwHah om OpPmpnf;pdrf *k%o f &d f trsKd ;rsKd ;wd@k udk olwyg;ESihf rqufqaH pvdjk cif;/ olwyg;onf ,if;OpPmpnf;pdr/f *k%o f &d f rjzpfapvdjk cif;onf rp>&, d yifjzpfonf? ,if; rp>&, d onf &&S+d y;D pnf;pdru f pkd I JG jzpfwwfaom rp>&, d / &vwW@H aom pnf;pdru f kd pGJIjzpfwwfaom rp>&d, [k ESpfrsdK;uGJjym;.? rdrd&&Sd+yD;/ ydkifqdkif+yD; pnf;pdrfOpPmrsm; olwyg;wdk@ESifh qufqHoGm;rnfudk vnf;aumif;/ ta=umif;wpfpw kH pfcak =umifh rdryd ikd q f ikd rf _ qH;k &_;H oGm;I olwyg;vufo@kd a&muf&o dS mG ;rnfukd vnf;aumif; awG;awmpdk;&drfI pdwfrcsrf;rom jzpfr_onf &&Sdydkifqdkif+yD; pnf;pdrfudk pGJI rp>&d, jzpfjcif;wnf;? rp>&d, onf &oifh/ &xdkuf/ &vwWH!aom rdrdpnf;pdrfudk v#dK@0Sufjcif; vuQ%m&Sd.? rdrpd nf;pdru f kd ruG,0f u S o f m/ rod0k u S o f mI olwumESihf qufq&H jyefv#iv f nf; ,if;od@k qufq&H onfukd onf;rcHEdkifjcif; udpP&Sd.? pGef@}uJay;urf; vSL'gef;r_/ rdrdpnf;pdrfudk olwyg;ESifh qufqHapr_Y wGef@wdkwkwfepfaom w&m;[lIvnf; a,m*DOm%fY xifvmwwf.? rdrdpnf;pdrfonf rp>&d,jzpfzdk@ teD;qHk;aom ta=umif;w&m;jzpf.? rp>&d,onf "rR"mwftm;jzifh avmb"rR"mwf/ a'go"rR"mwfudk t&if;cHIjzpfay:wwf.? xdk@a=umifh avmb/ a'go ESpfyg;onf rp>&d,. t&if;cH rlvw&m;rsm;jzpf.? "&vwWH@+yD; ighypPnf;ES,f tHhcsD;zG,fum; rsm;=uG,folwyg; rjzpfapum;[k jzpfyGg;wwfvsOf; 0efwdkjcif; r,Gif; rp>&d, oabmwnf;"? (oHbmÉD) Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

36


37

“rl & if ; yif u d k , f p d w f u tjzLa&mif o uf o uf jzpf o nf ? apwod w f a wG a=umif h pd w f u ta&mif trsd K ;rsd K ;ajymif ; taumif ; tqd k ; jzpf & onf ” odrf;ydkufjcif;udk tpGJjyKI 0efwdkr_ rp>&d,jzpf.? rp>&d,udk tpGJjyKI apmifha&Smufr_ tm&uQ jzpf.? apmifha&Smufjcif;[laom ta=umif;a=umif;a=umifh wkwfaqmif&jcif;/ vufeufaqmif&jcif;/ cdkuf&efjzpfjcif;/ qef@usifjcif;/ jiif;ckefjcif;/ rcHomatmifajymqdkjcif;/ ukef;wdkufjcif;/ r[kwfrrSefajymjcif; [l a om ,k w f r maom tuk o d k v f w &m;rsm; jzpf a y:vmwwf . ? pnf ; pd r f c srf ; om [l o r#. rlvblwjzpfaom 'geudk wm;jrpfwwfaoma=umifh rp>&d,onf pufqkwfzG,f taumif;qHk;jzpf.? rp>&d,xuf pufqkwfzG,faumif;aom w&m;rnfonfr&Sd? rp>&d,onftm0gorp>&d,/ ukvrp>&d,/ vmbrp>&d,/ 0¾rp>&d,/ "rRrp>&d, [lI ig;rsdK;&Sd.? tm0go[laom ae&m/ Xme? rdrdydkifeuf wpfckckESifhpyfI ray;vdk/ rpGef@vdk/ rr#vdk ESajrmwGef@wdkjcif;onf tm0gorp>&d, jzpfonf? bwfpfum;ay:rSm odk@r[kwf tjcm;wpfae&m&mrSm ae&maumif;av;wpfck &&Sx d m;onft h cg xdak e&mudk olwyg; z,fray;vdrk o _ nf tm0gorp>&, d jzpfonf? vlr_a&; yk*~dKvfa&;ESifhpyfI udk,fu tompD;&onfhtcg edrfhusolrsm;ESifh rywfoufapcsifr_/ ywfouf&rnfudk pdwfwGef@wdkr_onf ukvrp>&d,jzpfonf? udk,fhcspfol/ cifol/ =unfndKolu olrsm;udkcspfcif=unfndKoGm;rSm pdk;&drfwmuvnf; ukvrp>&d,jzpfonf? udk,fydkif[k cH,lxm;aom udk,fhypPnf;/ udk,fhOpPm/ udk,fh&ydkifcGifh/ udk,fhvkyfydkifcGifhudk rr#vdk/ ra0vdk/ rpGef@ vdk/ ray;vdk/ ESajrmwGef@wdkaejcif;onf vmbrp>&d,jzpfonf? *k%fowif; ausmfapmjcif;ESifhpyfI udk,fhvdk olrsm;udk rjzpfapjcifwm 0¾rp>&, d jzpfonf? ud, k w f wfovdk olrsm;udk rodrwwfapcsiw f m "rRrp>&, d jzpfonf? q&mrsm; q&mpm;csefv#if "rRrp>&d,[k qdk&rnf? &oifh&xdkufaom pnf;pdrfOpPmY t=uifol.&r_udk tvdkr&Sd? xdkol&I aeonfudkaomf vnf;aumif;/ &vwWH@ pifpifjzpfonfudkaomfvnf;aumif; }uHpnf=um;od&v#if pdwfyifyef;.? xdkoabmonf Áomjzpfonf? t=uif OpPmpnf;pdrfudk rdrdtvdk&Sd.? xdkxdkOpPmpnf;pdrfpkudk rdrd &rS&ygrnfvm;[k rdrd r&rnfhta&;twGuf }uHpnfI pdwfyifyef;.? xdkoabmonf rp>&d,rnf.? avmb/ a'go/ arm[ a=umifh pdwft&nftaoG; edrfhusonf? Áomrp>&d, a=umifh ydkIedrfhusonf? pdwft&nftaoG;onf Áomrp>&d, a=umifh tedrfhqHk;odk@ a&mufoGm;onf? pdwt f &nftaoG; edrrhf a_ =umifh vl@t&nftaoG;/ vlaer_ tqift h wef;awGyg vdu k I f edru hf s&awmhonf? a&jrifch ahJ omf =umjrifv h rd rhf nf? pdwt f &nftaoG;jrifI h vl@t&nftaoG;/ Om%f&nfOm%faoG;wd@k jrifch ahJ omf vlaer_ yk*~vdub0/ vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wdk@. tqifhtwef;/ vlaer_ b0tqifhtwef; tm;vHk; jrifhoGm;ygvdrfhrnf? Ak'o < nf avmuY tjrifq h ;kH / tjrwfq;kH yk*Kd~ vjf zpfonf? &kyt f m;jzifv h nf;aumif;/ pdwt f m;jzifh vnf;aumif;/ vl@t&nftaoG;/ pdwft&nftaoG;/ Om%f&nfOm%faoG; tjrifhqHk; yk*~dKvfjzpfonf? xdt k mZmenf a,mufsm;jrwfukd xdu k o hJ @kd jrifah tmif/ jrwfatmif jriS w hf ifay;aom w&m;um; r[m*&k%m ESifh aemufyg arwWm/ rk'dwm/ OayuQ m / ynm0D & d , ponf w d k @ j z pf o nf? t&SifoH0&mvuFm& a&jrifhv#if =umjrifhygvdrfhrnf? pdwft&nftaoG; jrifhrm;v#if Om%f&nfOm%faoG;/ udk,f&nfudk,faoG;/ vlaer_b0/ vlaer_tqifhtwef; tm;vHk; jrifhrm;vmzdk@ aocsmygonf? t&SifoH0&mvuFm& (2010/ arv/ tawG;tjrif rS jyefvnfaz:jyygonf) 37

"rRyd,q&mawmf Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


38

bkef;}uD;eJ@ pum; rajymwwfvkd@qkdwJh uav;rav; tjzpfukdawmh &ifxJ pvkH;pck jzpf+yD; usef&pfygw,f? ol@rdb/ ol@tbkd;tbGm;wkd@[m Ak'<bmomawGyg? bk&m;eJ@/ w&m;eJ@/ oHCmukdvnf; uk;d uG,f ae=uolawGyg? Ek@d ayr,fh touf 20 avmuf &Sad e+yjD zpfwhJ 'Duav;rav;eJ@ ol@tpfurdk sm;acwfrmS bkef;}uD;eJ@ pum; rajymwwfbl;vkd@ ajym&atmif &[ef;oHCmeJ@ olwkd@wawGrSm tawmf}uD; tvSrf;uGma0; ae=u+yDvm;vkd@ taru pdwfraumif; jzpfrdygw,f? (vlxka':trm) rdwaf qGwpfyg;&Jh azhpb f w G cf rf mS wifxm;wJh q&mr}u;D vlxak ':trm&Jh pum;? trsK;d bmomukd cspfcifwJh pdwfxm;eJ@ ylyefr_}uD;pGm ajym=um;cJhwJh arwWmpum;yg? rsdK;qufopf vli,fawG trsdK;bmom cspfwwfzkd@ ta&;/ ukd,fh,Ofaus;r_/ ukd,fhbkd;bGm; tarGtESpfawGukd xdef;odrf;wwfapzkd@/ jrwfEkd;wefzkd; xm;wwfapzk@d ta&;/ toufq;Hk onf txd raerem; a&;om;oGm;cJw h hJ pmayrdcif/ Ekid if &H ŒJ rdcif}u;D wpfO;D &Jh arwWmpum;yg? q&mr}uD; vlxka':trm pum;ukd zwf&awmh ol@enf;wlyJ pd w f r aumif ; jzpf & ygw,f ? rajymwwf v k d @ rajym=u&k H w if r u bkef;awmf}uD;awGqkd ta0;uae a&Smif=urSmrsKd;/ bkef;}uD; pum;qkd&if em;raxmif&r,fh t&mrsdK;&,fvkd@ xifrSwfoGm;rSmtxd awG;+yD; pkd;&drfrdwma=umifhvnf; ukd,fhpdwfraumif;r_u tar vlxk a':trm xufyif omaumif; omavrvm;&,fv@dk yif ykyd o kd mom awG;rdygw,f? &kyf0wˆK tajccH xifvG,fjrifvG,fwJh tusdK;&v'frSomv#if wu,fh tusKd ;&v'fv@dk ,lqwJah cwfrmS olw@dk vkt d yfcsuf jynf0h apzk@d @@ xifomjrifom wkduf&kduf tultnD ray;ovkd jzpfaewJh bmoma&; tqk H ; tru vl i ,f r sm;t=um; a&yef ; rpm;Ek d i f jzpf a ewwf w m tqef;awmhvnf; r[kwfygbl;? tod^m%f&ifhusuf &G,f&,fvkd@ (rd;k rcrD', D mrS) ,l q Ek d i f w J h touf t wef &vmol tcsKd Œ =um;rS m yif v sif bmoma&;qkdwmukd a,mif0g;0g;om em;vnf aewwf=uwmrkd@vnf; vli,fawG=um;rSm bmoma&;uay;wJh tod^m%fawG a&yef;rpm; t&Sif^m%du jzpfaewm tqef;qkdEkdifr,f r[kwfygbl;?

vl}uD; oifykef;}uD;

bkef;}uD;eJ@ pum;rajymwwfbl; - qkdwJhpum;u t&Sifbk&m;? wynfhawmf? wynfhawmfr pwJh omoem awmfeJ@pyfwJh tokH;tE_ef;rsm; okH;+yD; rajymwwfbl;vkd@ qkdcsifwm jzpfrSmyg? rdb/ q&morm;rsm;uvnf; bke;f awmf}u;D rsm;eJ@ pum;ajym&if wynfah wmf/ t&Sib f &k m; pojzifh ajym&r,f? tJ'DvkdrS rajym&if i&J }uD;wwfw,f? tjypfjzpfwwfw,f&,fvkd@ oif=um;xm;avawmh tjypfjzpfrSm a=umuf&ŒHG wmvnf; ygr,f xifygw,f? aemuf+yD; tJ'Dvkd omoemh tokH;tE_ef;rsm;ukd qDavsmfatmif rokH;wwfolawGukd vnf; r,Ofaus;olav;awG? &kid ;f pkid ;f olav;awG&,fv@dk txiftjrifao;wwf/ uJ&h ŒJ wwfwma=umifv h nf; ajymzk@d 0efav; oGm;wwf=uwmvnf; ygr,fxifygw,f? b,fae&mrSmyJjzpfjzpf ta=umufw&m;eJ@ ajcmufvSef@/ pnf;&kH;wwfwmawGukd =um;od&wJh tcgwkdif; “a'gaom twˆH eZmemwd - ta=umufw&m; tajccHr_uae trSefw&m; &v'faumif; xGufrvmEkdifbl;” - qkdwJhpum;ukd owd&rdwwfw,f? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

38


39

wu,fawmh wpfESpfwcg/ 2 ESpf 3 ESpfaevkd@rS wpfcgrS &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;eJ@ qkHzkd@}uKHzkd@ rvG,u f w l hJ vli,fawGtaeeJ@ omoemeJ@ pyfqidk w f hJ tok;H tE_e;f rsm;ukd rSerf eS u f efuef ok;H wwfz@dk qkw d mu vG,fr,fawmh rxifygbl;? tawG@t}uKH t&awmh oHCmawmfrsm;eJ@ wajz;ajz; &if;ESD;vmwJh tcgrSm tavhtusifh &vm+yD; rSefrSefuefuef okH;pGJvmwwfwmukd awG@&ygw,f? 'ga=umifh awG@awG@csi;f tcsed rf sm;rSm usaemfyJ ok;H ok;H / usryJ ajymajym em;vnf cGiv hf w $ af y;+y;D wajz;ajz;eJ@ oifjyoGm;zkd@ vkdr,fvkd@ ,lqygw,f? 'ga=umifh tokH;tE_ef; rSm;wJh vli,frsm;ukd q&mrdbrsm;u i&J}uD;r,f/ &kdif;pkdif;w,fvkd@ ajcmufvSef@r_/ jypfwif&_wfcsr_ rjyKyJ pmem em;vnffpGmeJ@ wajz;ajz; &if;ES;D atmif zefw;D ay;+y;D oifjyoGm;zk@d vkyd gvrd rhf ,f? ukd,fawG@jzpf&yfyg? wcgu aygufazmf 'umr}uD;u w,fvDzkef;eJ@ qGrf;pm; vSrf;yifhygw,f? zke;f ukid u f idk jf cif; olu ar;ygw,f? “eifu bkef;}uD;vm; ” wJh? [kwyf gw,f qkad wmh “0u ²²²+rdKhuyg? eifwkd@ukd xrif;pm; zdwfcsifvkd@? tJ'g tdrfu aumifrawGu bkef;}uD;eJ@ pum;rajymwwf=uvkd@ 0u ajymay;wm? tdrfudk vmEkdifrvm; ” vkd@ ajymygw,f? tdrfu aumifrawGu bkef;}uD;eJ@ pum;rajymwwfvkd@ 0u ajymay;wmqkdawmh pdwfxJu tenf;i,fawmh +yKH;rdygw,f? 'gayr,fh tvm;wl tawG@t}uKHrsdK;u ukd,fh twGuf tqef;r[kwfvkd@ 'g[m uJ&h phJ &m wpfcv k @dk awmh rjrifygb;l ? aemuf+y;D &kid ;f pkid ;f wJh tok;H tE_e;f vk@d vnf; rxifcyhJ gb;l ? 'l;ae&m'l;/ awmfae&mawmf/ avsmfpGm okH;pGJwwfjcif;qkdwm vkdtyfwJh t&mvkd@ vufcHayr,fh ravsmfpGm rokH;wwfwma=umifh vnf; tjypf wpfckjzpfavw,fvkd@ rxifrdygbl;? (rtyfpyfwJh a0g[m&pum;eJ@ yifhzdwfwJh qGrf;ukd &[ef;awmfrsm; rbkef;ay; rokH;aqmif aumif;bl;qkw d hJ 0denf;ynwfawmfudk rodem;rvnfv@dk jzpfrmS aygv h @dk pGypf rJG ,f rxifygb;l / t%krwW0aZ…ok b,'\m0D - t%kjrLyrm%rSs ao;ao;i,fi,f tjypfuav;ukyd if ab;tEœ&m,fv@dk &SKjrif&r,fv@dk a[mxm;w,f r[kwfvm;vkd@vnf; ar;cGef;xkwfcsifr,f rxifygbl;)? wu,fawmh ukd,fhukd,f qGrf;pm;yifhwJh aygufazmfr}uD;qkd&if jrefrmjynfrSm aepOfu bkef;awmf}uD; ausmif;awGukd wpfacgufrS ra&mufzl;cJholyg? jynfy a&mufcgrSom bkef;awmf}uD;rsm;eJ@ &if;ESD;+yD; ckvdk eif wpfcGef;/ ig wpfvSnfh qufqH&if; bkef;awmf}uD; ausmif;rsm;ukd 0ifxGufoGm;vmusifh &vmwmyg? ckqkd ol@ajr;awGawmif ausmif;awGukd oGm;vm0ifxGufaevkd@ bkef;awmf}uD;rsm;eJ@ &if;ESD; uGsrf;0ifaeyg+yD? tzGm; wkdufwGef;r_eJ@ ,Ofaus;r_ oifwef;awGvnf; wufa&muf=uvkd@ ckqkd olwkd@tzGm;ukdyifvsif tzGm; bkef;bkef;eJ@qkd 'Dvkdajym&w,fvkd@ olwkd@uyif tzGm;ukd jyefvnf oif=um; ay;aewwf=u+y?D uk, d u f awmh jrefrmpum;ukd avvk;H uGaJ tmif rajymwwfwhJ olawGe@J awG@wkid ;f ajymwwfovkd ajymyg/ ukd,fhem;rSm pum;jyefpuf wyfxm;w,f? eifyJajymajym/ igyJqkdqkd/ t&Sifbk&m;/ wynfhawmfvkd@yJ jyef+y;D =um;ay;w,fv@dk ajymxm;vku d w f ,f? 'Dvrdk S rajym&if olw@dk taeeJ@ bmrS rajymzk@d yJ&adS wmhw,fav? wpfv;Hk p ESpv f ;Hk p jrefrmpum;av;ukd }uKd ;pm;+y;D ajymae&wJo h al wGudk [kv d adk jym&r,f/ 'Dvadk jym&r,fv@dk n$ef=um;ae&if b,frSm c&D;u a&mufEkdifygawmhrvJ? 'Dvkdajymwm jynfy EkdifiHrsm;rSmawmh [kwfwmaygh? jynfwGif;rSmawmh rSefrSefuefuef 39

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


40

ajym&rSmaygv h @dk qkad umif;qkEd idk pf &m &Syd gw,f? ok@d ayr,fh jynfwiG ;f rSma&m vli,fawGudk oHCmawmfrsm;eJ@ t}udrf b,favmufrsm;rsm; awG@cGifh&atmif qkHEkdifwJh tcGifhta&; zefwD; ay;xm;ovJqkdwm jyefar;=unfzh @dk vkyd gvrd rhf ,f? aemuf+yD; bmoma&;eJ@ vli,fawG a0;apwJh ta=umif;xJrSm tjcm; ta=umif;rsm;vnf; ygavrvm;vkd@ pOf;pm;rdygw,f? a'gorxm;zkd@ ajymae=u olawG=um;rSm a'goawG yGm;aewwfwm/ avmbyg;zkd@ ajymae wwfoal wG=um;rSm avmbawG rsm;aewwfwmuvnf; vGrJ mS ;r_ wpfcyk gy?J 'Dvdk vGrJ mS ;aer_awGudk awG@jrif ae&wwfwhJ tajctaersKd ;rSm bmoma&;qkw d m arwWmw&m;awG wk;d yGm;atmif oif=um;ay;wwfwm? rSSsa0wwfatmif vrf;n$ef ay;wwfwm&,fvkd@ ajym&if em;0ifp&m jzpfyghrvm;? b0 aexkdifr_twGuf taxmuftyHhaumif; wpfck&,fvkd@ vufcHzkd@a&m vG,fulyghrvm;? =um;od&r_eJ@ vufawG@u jcm;em;aumif; jcm;em;aeayraygh? bkef;}uD; jzpfae+yD;uGm? taruvnf; w&m;awG 'Davmufem+yD;/ tazuvnf; w&m;awG 'D a vmuf xk d i f + yD ; - pojzif h vl i ,f a wG & J h tvk d r us[ef pum;awG [ m vl i ,f a wG = um;rS m bmoma&;eJ@pyf+yD; b0ifrus Ekdifr_uae xGuftHvmwJh wkH@jyef pum;rsdK;yg? 'Dpum;rsdK; =um;&+yDqkd&ifawmh 'g[m ukd,fhqDrSm wpfckckrSm; ae+yDqkdwm ola&m ukd,fyg em;vnf=uzk@d eJ@ jyKjyif=uzk@d vkad e+y&D ,fv@dk odz@dk vkyd gvrd rhf ,f? 'D v k d t ajymcH & zG , f taetxm;rsd K ;awG uk d , f h z uf u rjyKjyif b J e J @ awmh bmoma&; tqk;H trrsm;[m b,fvdk aumif;w,f/ b,favmufawmif wefz;dk &Sw d ,f&,fv@dk b,fvydk if pnf;&k;H vrf;jy vkyfvkyf/ vli,fawGtaee@J vufoifh cHem;axmifay;zkd@eJ@ ,kH=unfpGm vkdufemzkd@ tqifoifhjzpfEkdifr,f r[kwaf ybl;? tESpfESpfq,favmuf toufuGmjcm;olawG=um;rSm (Generation Gap) rsdK;quf uGmjcm;r_a=umifh awG;ac:,lqykH/ vufcH ,kH=unfykHvnf; uGJjym;wwfw,fvkd@ ynm&Siftrsm;u ,lqcJ=h uygw,f? enf;ynmawG wk;d wufvmr_a=umifh ckaemufyidk ;f rSm qkv d sif rsKd ;quf uGmjcm;r_u 'Dxufyif ykdkrkdjrefqef/ uGJjym;r_awGuvnf; ykdrkd rsm;vm w,fvkd@vnf; ajym=uygw,f? bmoma&;tay:/ bmoma&;ukd OD;aqmif OD;&Guf jyKaeolawGtay: touft&G,f }u;D &ifo h al wGe@J i,f&, G o f al wG jrifwt hJ jrifjcif; uGmjcm;wwfwmukd owdxm;rdygw,f? tpOf t vmawG u k d pG J p G J + rJ + rJ wef z d k ; xm;wwf o l a wG & J h tcsd K @tjrif [ m acwf o pf vli,fawGtjrifrmS tok;H r0ifwhJ t&mawGom&,fv@dk jrifwmrsKd ;vnf; &Sw d wfygw,f? tjyeftvSet f m;jzifh bmoma&;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; vli,fawG&Jh tcsKdŒarSsmfvifhcsufawG[m tpOftvmukd vGefpGm wefzkd;xm; vGe;f olawGtwGuf vufoifch zH @dk cufwmrsKd ;vnf; &Sw d wfygw,f? 'Dawmh taumif;qkd+yD; ay;wdkif; taumif;csnf; rjzpfEkdifwmukd owdjyKrdapzkd@ vkdtyfovkd ukd,fh&JŒa&S;&kd;tpGJ tjrift& roifhavsmfbl; xifwJht&mayr,fh acwfopf vlom;awGtwGuf tokH;us wwfwmrsdK; &SEd idk af =umif;ukv d nf; vufceH m;vnfay;zk@d vkad yvdrrfh ,f? ?

t&Sif^m%du {jyD 5 / 2011 Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

40


41

trsKd;om; ynma&; onf jrefrmEdkifiHY 1921 ckESpf wGif ay:ayguf vmonf? ay:aygufjcif;. ta=umif; rSm trsm; od&Sd=uonfh twdkif; 1920 ck &efukef wuUodkvf jyifqifa&;tufOya'udk oabmrusaom taeES i f @ ausmif ; om;=uD ; i,f w d k @ onf jref r mEd k f i f i H ynma&;pepf u d k topf xlaxmifrnf[al om pdwx f m;jzif@ ausmif;rsm;rS oydwaf rSmuf xGuv f m=ujy;D vSsif trsK;d om;ausmif;rsm;udk wpifaxmif=uavonf? trsKd ; om;ynma&; tzG J @ wG i f rsKd ; cspf y k * ~ d K vf = uD ; rsm; yg0if I trsKd ; om;ynma&;. &nf & G , f c suf r sm;ud k xk w f j yef a=ujimavonf ? xk d & nf & G , f c suf r sm;teuf ta&;=uD ; aom &nf&G,fcsufrsm;rSm rlv &Sd&if;pGJ ynma&; pepfonf trsKd;om;wdk@tm; tusKd;r&Sd/ t&m rxifaom vcpm; jzpfavmuf&Hkom &nf&G,fonfh ynma&; jzpfcJ@acs onf? xkdynma&;udk pGef@pm;I EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm; igwdk@EdkifiHwGif vkyfudkif=uD;yGm;aeaom tvkyf=uD; tudkif=uD; rsm;/ owWKwGif;rsm;/ opfawmrsm;udk wdkif;&if; om;rsm; udk,fwdkif vkyfudkifpDrHEdkif&ef &nf&G,f onf[k qdo k nf (1923 {jyv D wGif usi;f yaom trsK;d om; ynma&; uGe@f z&if@. tusK;d aqmif twGi;f a&;rS;_ OD;armifarmif tHk;cdkif. xkwfjyefcsuf)?

trsKd;om; ynma&; OD;oef h

41

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


42

tjcm;ta&;=u;D aom &nf&, G cf surf sm;rSm jrefrmvlrsK;d wd@k twGuf bmoma&;ESi@f jrefrmpmay/ jrefrmEdkifiHordkif;/ jrefrm@,Ofaus;rS_ tpkpkwdk@udk &SdjyD; ausmif;rsm;wGif ta&;ray;cJ@ojzif@ trsKd;om; ausmif;rsm; oD;jcm;zGif@vSpfjyD; 4if;ynm&yfrsm;udk zGH@jzdK; aptH@[k &nfrSef;cJ@=uonf? t*Fvyd b f momrSvI JG tjcm;bmom&yfrsm;wGif jrefrmbmomjzif@ oif=um;cGi@f ay;&ef yxr vS@H_ aqmfc@J olrsm;rSmvnf; trsK;d om;ynma&; tzG@J yif jzpfonf? jynfo@l eDwEd iS @f Edik if aH &; tajccHrsm;udv k nf; vli,frsm;tm; ydk@cs&ef &nf&G,fonf? ydk@cscJ@=uonf? T&nfreS ;f csurf sm;onf rSeu f efaom &nfreS ;f csurf sm; jzpfa=umif;udk ynma&;vdu k pf m;olwikd ;f 0efcH=u&ayrnf? odk@&mwGif tb,f@a=umif@ trsKd;om;ynma&;onf atmifjrifoif@oavmuf ratmifjrifc@J oenf;? 1922-23 ckEpS u f trsK;d om;ausmif; 91 ausmif;wGif ausmif;om; 16000 &Scd @J &m/ 1935-36 ckESpfwGif ausmif; 55 ausmif;ESif@ ausmif;om; 7800 rSsom tb,f@a=umif@avSsm@ usc@J ygoenf;? ynma&;onf tjcm;ta&;rsm;enf;wl aiGay:wGif trSDo[JjyK.? aiGtrsm;qHk; oHk;EdkifvSsif ynm taumif;qHk; &Edkif.? trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm; zGif@pu tpdk;&taxmuftyH@ r,lrD ausmif;q&m q&mrrsm;onf riwf&w kH r,f ud, k u f sK;d udk vH;k 0pGe@f I arwWmvkyif ef; apwemvkyif ef;jzif@ tepfemcHvsuf oif&=um;&cJ@=uonf? tjidrf@vljyufrsm;. a&ywfvnf 0kdif;vsuf&Sdaom ae&mudk uGsef;[kac:onf/ a=uG;ywfvnf 0dkif;vsuf&Sdaom olukd ae&Sife,f ausmif;q&m[k ac:onfqdkaom jyufvHk;onf a&S;ESpf 20 ausmfu acwfpm;cJ@zl;onf? 4if;aemuf rsm;r=umrD tpdk;&. taxmuftyH@ ,loif@r,loif@ jy\em ay:ayguv f mjy;D aemuf taxmuftyH@ ,laomausmif;ESi@f r,laomausmif; [lI ESprf sK;d uG=J ujyefonf? r,laom ausmif;q&mrsm;onf wjznf;jznf; =uufaysmufiu S af ysmuf aysmufuek =f ujy;D jzpfI/ ,laom ausmif;rsm;omvSsif 1941-42 ckESpftxd toufrao usefcJ@avonf? toufrao[k qdk&mY usef;usef;rmrm oefoefpGrf;pGrf; &Sd=uonfr[kwf? csLcsmcsnfheJ@pGm usefcJ@jcif;jzpfonf? taxmuftyH@udk ,laomtcg tjcm;Edik if jH cm; omoemjyK ausmif;rsm;enf;wl t&S;kH_ .wpf0ufukd &=u.? t&S H _ ; . wpf 0 uf q d k & mY tu,f I ausmif ; wpf a usmif ; . wpf E S p f u k e f u sp&d w f o nf wpfaomif;jzpfI ausmif;vc av;axmif&tH@/ vdkaom aiGajcmufaxmifudk t&S_Hk;[kac:ayonf? xdak jcmufaxmifteuf tpd;k &u oH;k axmif axmufy@H I ausmif;aumfrwDu &Smay;&aom oH;k axmifonf trsm;tm;jzif@ q&mrsm;. tdwfxJu ES_dufjyD; &Smay;&aom oHk;axmifjzpfojzif@ udka&$q&mwdk@onf rdrdwdk@. vcxJrS tcsKdŒudk vSL=u&avonf? q&mwpfa,mufonf cGif@jyKaom vpm 150 usyf&vSsif 150d- &a=umif; vufrw S x f ;kd &I/ 120d- avmufuo kd m ,l&&Smonf? useaf om 25d/ 30d- cef@udk vSL&onf? a&S;oa&mtcgu ynmrif;=uD;wdk@onf xdkodk@ twif;rvSLrae& pepfudk yaysmufapjcif; tvdk@iSm/ wpfESpfvSsif wpf=udrfus ausmif;tkyfrsm;xHrS rdrd.ausmif;wGif q&m q&mrrsm;. vcudk tjynfh xkwfay;&ygonf/ wpfjym;wpfcsyfrS rEkwfyg[laom vufrSwfudk ay;ap&onf? xdk@a=umif@ trsKd;om; ausmif;rsm;omru tjcm; taxmuftyH@cH ausmif;[lorSsonf ‘rkom;ryg vuFmracsm’ [laom pum;udk vufudkifjyKvsuf rkom;udk tm;&yg;&oHk;um vufrSwf xdk;=u&onf? xdkudpPudk ynma&;0ef=uD;vnf; od.? ynmrif;=uD;vnf; od.? ynm0efrsm;vnf; od.? tcsKyfudk qdk&aomf bkpkc&kutp od.? odk@&mwGif ynma&;Xmeonf ‘odomodap rjrifapESif@’ [laomxH;k udk ESv;kH jyK=uavonf? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

42


43

1939 ckESpfwGif taxmuftyH@ES_ef;udk tpdk;&u wpf0ufrS oHk;yHkodk@ wdk;ay;vdkufaomtcg/ taxmuftyH@cH ausmif;rsm;onf rsm;pGm oufom&m&=uavonf? t&S_H; ajcmufaxmif&Sdaom ausmif;udk a&S;u tpdk;&u oHk;axmifay;&m/ ,ck av;axmif ay;jcif;jzpfI/ usefESpfaxmifudkom q&mrsm;xHrSyif a&S;uuJ@odk@ rdkufa=u;cGJ=u&jyefonf? rkom; t=u;D pm;rS tao;pm;jzpf&rkH sS jcm;em;avonf? Ttjzpftysuw f @kd onf acwfa[mif;u udpPrsm; jzpfI/ ppfaESmif;acwfwGif vHk;0 aysmufuG,foif@ayjyD? ynmoif=um;a&;onf tpdk;&. wm0ef[laom tajccHoabmudk ydkufrdvSsif tpdk;&onf ausmif;rsm;udk usyfjynfh axmufyH@&rnf? xdkodk@ usyfjynfh axmufyH@vSsif ausmif;rsm;onf tpdk;& ausmif;rsm;om jzpfvmayrnf? tpdk;&onf trsKd;om;tpdk;&jzpfI/ ynma&;0efonf trsKd;om;0ef=uD; jzpfvsS if ausmif;rsm;tm;vH;k onf tb,fa=umif@ wd;k wufonfh trsK;d om;ausmif;rsm; rjzpfEikd &f rnfenf;? trsdK;om;ynma&;udk pwif xlaxmifaom yk*~dKvf=uD;wdk@. &nf&G,fcsufonf tb,f@a=umif@ rjynfhpHk&rnfenf;? trsKd;om;ynma&; tzGJ@onf trsKd;om;tpdk;&ESif@ tb,f@a=umif@ yl;aygif; aqmif&Guf&ef 0efav;ae&ygtH@enf;? trsKd ; om;ausmif ; rsm;. &nf & G , f c suf o nf rnf r S s yif aumif ; rG e f y gaomf v nf ; trsKd;om;ynma&; pepfwGif rlvuyif rSm;,Gif;aom tajccHwpfck &SdcJ@avonf? xdktajccHrSm wjcm;r[kwf? tpdk;& ausmif;rsm;wGif q,fESpfESif@ oif&rnfh ynmudk ig;ESpf/ odk@r[kwf ajcmufESpfESif@ wwfatmifoifrnf [laom pepfyif jzpf.? ynmoif&mY aq;jrD;wdk r&Sd? aq;jrD;wdkESif@ oifI &Edkifaom ynmonf ‘ynm’ r[kwf/ ‘oifnm’ rSsom jzpfEikd af yrnf? rlvu q,fEpS f oif,&l aom A[kow k (Informative content) udk ig;ESpf ajcmufESpfESif@ Om%faumif;aomolrsm; &Edkifrnf rSefaomfvnf;/ xdkA[kokwonf ynmr[kwfao;? jynfhjynfh00 vlwpfa,mufjzpfEdkfif&ef tjcm;tajccHrsm;vnf;yg&rnf? aygif;oif; qufqaH &;vnf; yg&rnf? ausmif;oufvnf; rwdv k eG ;f ap&? ausmif;om;b0onf =u;D jyif;vmaomtcg ae&rnfhb0udk erlemjy jzpfap&rnf? wpfoufvHk;twGu f ausmif;wGif pmawGŒ omvSsifru/ igawGŒ awGvnf; trsm;=uD; oif,l=u&onf? xdk@a=umif@ ynmoif&mY tcsdefwdkzdk@u ta&;r=uD;/ tcsdefvHkvHkavmufavmufESif@ jynfhjynfh00 pHkpHkvifvif oifEdkif&efomvSsif ta&;=uD;onf? a&S;u ynmwpf&yfudk ydkrdkpHkvifatmif oif=um;Edkif&ef =udK;pm;=u&rnf? trsm;tm;jzif@ xif=uonfrmS ausmif;uxGuv f sS if ynmoif=um;jcif; jy;D qH;k jy[ D k t,l&=dS uonf? xdkxuf rSm;,Gif;aom t,lonf r&Sdacs? rnfolrqdk ausmif;wGif ae&jcif;onf ynm&Smaeenf; ed\&nf;udk av@vmjcif;om jzpfonf? wu,f@ ynmudk ausmif;xGufrS &Sm&rnf? vl. b0onf ynmoif=um;vsu&f adS om ausmif;=u;D yif jzpfavonf? vlonf wpfoufv;kH ynmoif=um;vsuf &So d nf? aorSomvSsif vl@avmu ausmif;=u;D rS xGu&f awm@onf? xd@k a=umif@ igawm@ b,ftwef; atmifjyD/ ynmoifwmvnf; jyD;jyD/ aemufqufjyD; ynm&Sm&ef rvdk[laom pum;onf/ ynmpdk;pdrSs r&dSaom vlay:a=um@ pum;omvSsif jzpfay.? wu,f@ausmif;om; touftydkfif;tjcm;onf/ odwwfonfht&G,frS aoonftxd jzpf.? (‘ArmopfESif@ ynmopf’ pmwrf;rS xkwfES_wfazmfjyygonf?) 43

OD;oef h Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


44

,ae@acwfonf ynmacwf? rae@uacwfaum ynmacwf r[kwb f ;l vm;[k ar;p&m¶So d nf? vl,Ofaus;r_EiS hf tod^m%fynm/ rd;k ukwfpufÿikd ;f udk cs@J cahJ om &Daeqef;acwf/ 19&mpk urBm}uD;udk yko H pf avmif;cJah om pufra_ wmfveS af &;acwf/ xdak cwfumvwd@k . wyfO;D atmifvaH wmfonf ynmjzpfonf?, ae@ tdik w f aD wmfveS af &;wGiv f nf; ynm OD;aqmifqyJ if? od@k aomf ukecf ahJ om&mpkY pufrt _ &if;tES;D ESihf o,HZmw &if;jrpfw@kd }uD;pd;k onf? ,ae@acwfwiG f ynmt&if;tES;D ESihf ynm&if;jrpfw@kd *vdb k ,fvu kd af Z; ¶Si;f urBmtm;}uD;pd;k onf? rnfo@kd ¶adS p acwfwikd ;f wGif vl;om;wd@k onf ynmtm; tirf;r&¶SmazGc=hJ u onf? vlom;wd@k twGuyf nmonf oJuEWm&rS tdak tppfyrm? jynfwiG ;f ppf rD;cd;k wtlt=l um;rS uav;i,frsm; ppfa0;+idr;f csr;f &m bke;f }uD;ausmif;rsm;od@k nKSd ; i,fpmG tm;ud;k pGm a&mufvmcJ=h uonf? b0¶Sio f efa&;ESiyhf nm qufpyfaeaom ae&mod@k a&mufvm jcif;jzpfonf? (rsKd ;!Ge@f / twGJ 1/trSwf 30/jynfo@l acwf)? usawmfrh w d af qG OD;ausmo f ed ;f onf t+idr;f pm;ausmif;q&m}uD;/ ,ckawmh &cdik jf ynfo@l u, kd pf m; vS,f v$waf wmftrwf? ol@Zmwd ausmufqyd ¶f mG onf ykÀm;u|e;f ESiehf ;D onf? od@k aomf uGejf rLepfw@kd }uD; pd;k onf? ol@rb d rsm;u acsmifvnfaom v,form;/ om;orD;udk ynmwwfapcsio f nf? ¶GmwGin f qdv k #if zke;f 'dik ;f zke;f 'dik ;f / acsmifvnforl sm; aiGa=u;ESihf v,fyikd , f mydik rf sm; a=umuf&onf? od@k EiS hf ynma&;toifh twif¶h adS om +rdK@a[mif;(ajrmufO;D )wGif i,fi,fuwnf;u }u;D vm&onf? ppfawG+rdK@wiG f pmoif&efvnf; rwwfEikd ?f ol@avoHrsm;Y jynfwiG ;f ppfEiS ahf us;vufynma&; a&m,Suu f m 0rf;enf;zG,f ygvmwwfonf?

”acgif;aqmifawGrSm em;axmifpGrf;&nfeJ@ odvdkpdwfjyif;zdk@vdkygw,f” Ref: Economist (Jan 20,2011.)

ynmacwf / ynmvdKS if;rsm; armifcikd af tmif(ppfawG) ,ae@umvxd aus;vufEiS +hf rdK@jy ynma&;uGm[aeqJ? od@k EiS hf tqifajyaom ynmvdv k m;aom rdbrsm;u om;orD;rsm;udk +rdK@ausmif;od@k y@kd &onf? ud, k ¶hf mG wGif ausmif;}uD;r¶S?d xd@k twl +rdK@i,frsm;rS aiGa=u;wwfEikd o f rl sm;rSm +rdK@}uD; +rdK@jyausmif;rsm;/ +rdK@jy abmf'grsm;od@k a&mufvm=uonf? awm+rdK@rv S l i,frsm; +rdK@jywuUov kd rf sm;od@k a&mufvmonf? om;orD;udk ynmwwfapvdI k v,fa&mif;/ EGm;a&mif;/ +cHa&mif;/ tdraf &mif;ESihf pD;ygG;a&;,dik ef @J omG ;aom rdom;pkyjHk yifrsm;udk aus;vufwiG =f um;ae&onf? tvkyf tudkif tcGifhtvrf;udk tomxm;/ om;orD;udk ynma&;vlvm;ajrmufapcsifonf? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

44


45

Tvrf;twdkif; ynmwwf "eºu,f +rdK@}uD;jy}uD;om;wdk@twGuf jynfwGif;ynma&;udk ausmf=unfhvmcJh=uonf? om;orD;rsm;u ^m%f&nfxufrsuf+yD; &nfrSef;csuf}uD;onf? rdbtwGuf ukeu f sp&dwf pOf;pm;p&mrvd?k 'Dawmhb,fausmif;udk yd@k rvJ? ,d;k ',m;z,fxm; puFmyl a[mifaumifvm;? tar&d u ta¶S @ yd k i f ; td k i f A D v d * f 8ausmif ; qd k & if a um? tar&d u ef xd y f w ef ; wuU o d k v f r sm;ud k tdyfrufzGJ@Edkifygonf? urBmxdyfwef; wuUodkvf 10ckESifh bÀma&;&efykHaiG 2009 tokH;wdk@rSm (1) [m;Auf (a':vm 25 bDvD,Hausmf) (2) bmuav (5 bDvD,H) (3) pwef;zdk@ (15 bDvD,H) (4) MIT (rufqmusL;quf)(8 bDvD;,H) (5) urf;b&pfcsf (7 bDvD,H) (6) u,fvfwuf/umvDzdk;eD;,m; (2 bDvD,H) (7) y&ifpwGef (15 bDvD,H) (8) udkvHbD,m (6 bDvD,H) (9) csDum*dk (9 bDvD,H) (10) atmufpzdk@'f (5 bDvD,H) jzpfonf? Edkb,fqk& ynm¶Sifrsm; arG;xkwfr_udk Ed_if;,SOf=unfh&mwGif tar&du 209OD;/ *smreD 80eD;yg;/ t*Fvef 70ausmf/ jyifopf 30ausmfESifh ¶k¶S 30eD;yg;jzpfonf? [m;Awfonf jyifopfESifhtwlwl 30ausmf urf;b&pfu ¶k¶SuJhodk@ 30eD;yg;? MIT ESifhpwef;zdk@'fu 18OD;pD¶Sd=uonf? wuUov kd rf sm;onf vlrsKd ;pkH Edik if pH w Hk @kd . r[mOD;aESmuf +yKd iyf jJG zpfaeonf? urBm}u;D udk yHo k pfavmif; aeonf? ,ae@urBmudk pdeaf c:aeaom jy\em}u;D rsm;onf Edik if eH ,ferd ed f ausmv f eG =f uonf? ynma&; wGiEf ikd if H e,ferd w d af ysmufvmonf? Edik if jH cm; ynmoifausmif;om;onf 2000jynfEh pS w f iG f 2oef;atmuf ¶Sd&mrS 2008wGif 3.7 oef;¶Sdvmonf? tar&duESifh t*Fvdyfpum;ajym EdkifiHrsm;qDodk@t"duOD;wnf=u onf? jyifopfEiS hf *smreDw@kd vnf; ay:jyLvmjzpfonf? jyifopfo@kd Oa&myESio hf @l udv k ekd aD [mif; tmz&duEdik f iHrsm;rSjzpfonf? ,ae@urBmonf {u0if¶dk;urBmr[kwfawmh/ tar&duef}uD;pdk;r_ usqif;ae+yD[k okH;oyfae=u onf? w¶kyjf ynfE;kd xvmr_/ tdE, Nd / b&mZD; paomxGe;f opfp Edik if }H u;D rsm; Ed;k xvmr_ukd axmufjy+y;D t ar&duefacwf uke+f y[ D yk if tvGet f u|H ajymvm=uonf? rnfo@kd qdak pumrl todw&m; opfyifxyd zf sm; wGif tar&duefwuUov kd rf sm; ¶Sad eqJyif? xdw k uUov kd rf sm;onf acwftqufqufwiG f enf;ynmawmf vSeaf &;rsm;udk t¶Sed jf rSiahf y;cJ=h uonf? olw@kd onf *vdb k ,fbZd eufrsm;ESihf qufo, G af eonf? ukr% ` rD sm; u ok@awoe&efykHaiGrsm;udk jznfhqnf;ay;=uonf? 0efxrf;rsm;/ ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh atmifjrif+yD;om; vkyif ef;}u;D rsm; yl;aygi;f aqmif¶u G =f uonf? MITausmif;om;a[mif;wd@k onf ukr% ` aD ygi;f 25800wnf axmifcJh=u+yD? 0efxrf; 3.3ESifh ESpfpOfxkwfvkyfr_wefzdk; a':vm 2bDvD,H¶Sdonf? rsufarSmufacwfwGif bmom&yfe,fy,fcsi;f yl;aygi;f r_rsm; tm;aumif;aeonf? 20&mpktwGi;f ¶lyaA'ESihf tif*sief , D m ynm aygi;f pnf;r_onf pufre_ nf;ynm wk;d wufa&;udk t¶Sed jf rSiahf y;Edik cf o hJ nf? 21&mpkwiG f t"due,fy,fonf ZD0aA'ESihf tif*sief , D m ynmaygi;f pnf;r_ jzpfonf? MIT.uifqm okawoeXmewGif ZD0aA'ynm¶Sif rsm;ESifh tif*sifeD,mrsm; yg0ifaeonf? pDrHcsufrsm;wGif uifqmuvyfpnf;rsm;udk zsufqD;ypfEdkifaom emEdktr_efrsm; jyKvkyfa&;yg0ifonf? rsdK;ADZ ajymif;vJxm;aom Adkif;&yfpfrsm;jzifh vlom;tusdK;azmfaqmif 45

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


46

rnfh enf;vrf;rsm;¶SmazGonf? MITonftodynmudk xkwv f yk o f vkd jzef@vnf;jzef@cso D nf? jyÏmef;pmtkyf rsm;/ ydk@cscsufrsm;udktGefvdkif;ay:wGif tm;vkH;eD;yg;&Ekdifonf? T0efaqmifr_udk 2002wGifpvkyfvJh+yD; vl aygif;oef; 70okH;cJh=uonf? vuf¶Sdwufa&mufoif=um;aeol. tqaygif; 7000cef@jzpfonf? wuUodkvfrsm;onf e,fedrdwfausmf+yD; yl;aygif;aqmif¶Gufr_ wdk;yGg;vmcJhonf? qif;&JrGJaw r_/ a&m*gb,ys@H ES@H r_/ EsLuvD,m;udp/P aomufo;kH a&jy\em/ urBm}u;D ylaEG;vmr_ paomvl@tzJ@G tpnf; jy\emrsm;onf e,ferd w d jf zwfausmf ajz¶Si;f &onf? ajz¶Si;f Edik pf rG ;f ¶Sad om Edik if rH sm;/ acgi;f aqmifrsm;onf wuUov kd yf &0k%rf sm;xJrS xGuv f m=uayonf? ‘pdwf0ifpm;p&m jy\emtm;vHk;[m e,fedrdwfausmfvGef=uygw,f? wcsdK@u e,fedrdwfawG cG xm;=uw,f? wcsKd @jy\emawG[m bdZeufawG/ tpd;k &awG/ wuUov kd af wGe@J tusKd ;tjrwf rar#mu f ;kd wJh wJhtkyfpkawG yl;aygif;aqmif¶Gufzdk@vdkygw,f? 'ga=umifh ausmif;om;awGudk e,fedrdw fjzwfausmf&Jatmif avhusio hf if=um;ay;zd@k vdyk gw,f’[k [m;Auf. uifae'D tpd;k &aumvdyaf usmif;tky}f u;D t,fvpf ;l u aumufcsuq f jJG ycJo h nf? acgif;aqmifawGrSm em;axmifpGrf;&nfeJ@ odvdkpdwfjyif;zdk@vdkygw,f[k olajymjyonf? [m;Awfausmif;om;rsm;onf tpdk;&rsm;/ aps;uGufrsm;ESifh EdkifiHom;wdk@.qufEG,fr_rsm;udk tjriftrsdK; rsdK;/ ¶_@axmifhtrsdK;rsdK;rS avhvm&onf? 'Drdkua&pDudk axmufcHaom/ qef@usifaom jiif;cHkr_rsm; jyKvkyf &onf? uifae'Dtpdk;&aumvdyf. ausmif;om;xuf0ufonf EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;jzpfonf? ausmif;om; a[mif;rsm;xJwGif ukvor*~ twGif;a&;rSL;csyfESifh urBmb%f OuUÏrSpum EdkifiHh0ef}uD;csKyfrsm;/ orRw rsm;yg0ifonf? urBm@pD;ygG;a&;zdk&yf udkwnfaxmifaom uavmh¶Swfvnf; yg0ifonf? urBm@taumif;qHk; wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;onf urBmw0ef; ^m%f&nfjrifh tkyfpkrsm;rS pka0;vmjcif;jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifhwuUodkvf. pdwf"gwfcGeftm;udk wdk;jrSifhvmapovdk ausmif;om;rsm; onf urBm@ynma&;uGe&f uf. tpdwt f ydik ;f jzpfvmcJah yonf? urBm@xdyw f ef; wuUov kd 2f 0wGif 27ckonf tar&du efrS[k ¶Sef[dkif;wuUodkvfrS owfrSwfonf? trsm;pkrSmcsrf;om+yD; Edkb,fq ktwGu f olwdk@a0pkursm;onf? Ttcsufonf tar&duefyg0gaysmh. t"du&if;jrpfyifjzpfonf?tar&duwGif ynmoif}u;D jyif;vmaom urBm@acgi;f aqmifrsm;onf tar&duefwefz;kd rsm;/ pHEe_ ;f rsm;ESihf ,Ofyg;aeonf? *vdkb,fynmwwf tDvdkufrsm;. =oZm}uD;xGm;vmr_udk wcsdK@updk;&drfvmonf? ‘,Ofaus;r_ rsm; wku d rf jd cif;’usr;f udk 1996wGiaf &;om;xkwaf 0cJah om uG,v f eG o f l [m;AwfygarmuQ qifjrL&,f[ef wifwrfu‘*vdkb,fu&ufawG[m trsdK;om;opPm apmifhodr_ tm;enf;w,f? olwdk@[m trsdK;om;t pd;k &awGukd tDvu kd af wG&@J *vdb k ,fvyk if ef;awG jrefqefvma&;twGuf toH;k 0ifwhJ "gwaf wmfarGawmft aeeJ@om jrif=uw,f’[k pd;k &drw f }u;D ajymcJo h nf? tenf;i,f rSeaf umif; rSeEf ikd yf gonf? od@k aomf wdik ;f &if; om; vlrsdK;rsm;. opPmapmifhodr_onf tm;aumif;cdkifrmqJyif? EdkifiHwum xdyfwef;wuUodkvfrsm;odk@ rdrdEdkifiH. xl;céefxufjrufaom vli,frsm;a&muf¶Sd&efESifh trdEdkifiHwuUodkvfrsm; pGrf;&nfjrifhrm;vm&efrSm ta&;}u;D ygonf? xdx k uf ynmiwfaeqJjzpfaomaus;vufvil ,frsm;twGuf aumif;rGefaom ynma&;tajccHtkwfjrpfrsm; wnfaqmuf&if; rsufarSmuf EdkifiHopf wnfaqmufa&;wGif ta&;}uD;yga=umif;?

armifcikd af tmif(ppfawG) Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

46


47

Armjynf EdkifiHa&;avmurSm

zefwdk@wrf; upm;jcif; &Jabmfzdk;oHacsmif;

i,fi,fwkef;u zefwdk@wrf; upm;=uwmudk rSwfrd=ur,f xifygw,f? udk,fhbufuae wbufe,fajrxJ pGef@0if+yD; wbufuvludk acgif;wcsufykwf/ ykcHk;wcsufwdk@+yD; udk,hfbufxJ jyefajy;vm=uwmyg? wbufuvnf; 0ifvmr,fhvludk 0ifvmcsifatmif aemufqkwfay;[efjy/ ae&muGuv f yf zefw;D ay;/ jrLac:+y;D acgi;f wcsujf yefyw k v f @kd &atmif =uKd ;pm;=uygw,f? wae@uyJ tar&duef qDew d w f m rufued ;f [m =uŒH zGwf t&yf0wf ppftpd;k &udk acgi;f wcsuyf w k +f y;D ol@e,f xJudk jyef0ifoGm;yg+yD? aemuf+yD; =uyfajy;rSma&m &efukefrSmyg vlawG/ tzGJ@tpnf;awG awmfawmfrsm;rsm;udk acgi;f ykw/f ykc;kH wd@k oGm;ygw,f? 'Dbufu jyefyw k zf @kd =uKd ;pm;=uwmawGvnf; awG@&ygw,f? 'gayrJh b,fyw k cf suaf wGu xda&mufw,f qdw k muawmh apmih=f unh&f rvdk jzpfaeygw,f? xl;jcm;wmu jynfwiG ;f uwcsKd ŒvlawG[m rufued ;f vmwJt h cgrmS rufued ;f udk rykwyf J =uŒH zGwf tpd;k &udk vSr;f ykww f m awG@&ygw,f? Oyrm olw@kd [m rufued ;f eJ@ awG@qHk pum;ajym&mrSm qef&iS af c: ydwq f @kd r_awG zGiafh y;a&; ajymwmyg? olw@kd [m rufued ;f udk odapcsiw f mxuf t&yf0wfppftpd;k &udk olw@kd tpd;k &bufrmS ¶Sad =umif; odapcsiw f mu ydrk sm;aew,fqw kd m xif¶mS ;aeygw,f? ArmjynfeJ@ tar&duefwdk@&JŒ vuf¶Sd qufqHa&; tajctaerSm zefwdk@ovdk tuJprf;wmawG/ b,fajcmufum ajcvSrf;wmawG vkyfae=u&OD;r,f xifygw,f? EdkifiHa&; tusOf;om;awGudk v$wfay; oa,mifa,mif vkyfwm/ e*dku udk,fhEdkifiHtwGif; 0ifcGihfray;wJh etz&JŒaemufvdkuf c¶dkeDolaX;awG&JŒ aqGrsKd ;wcsKd Œudk vm+y;D aq;ukocGifh ay;wm pwmawG[m wbufujrLS +y;D wbufu ykww f m/w@kd wmawGukd ESpfbufpvHk;u azmfjyaewm jzpfygw,f? tcktxdawmh ESpfEdkifiH&JŒ oHwrefa&; v_yf¶Sm;r_awG[m [efa&;jywJh vuQ%m ydak qmifaeygao;w,f? 'gayrJh zefwdk@wrf; upm;wmeJ@ rwlwJhtcsufu zefwdk@wrf;[m ESpfbuf/ ESpfzGJ@t=um; upm;wmjzpf+y;D qDew d w f m rufued ;f &JŒc&D;vd[ k muawmh wjcm;tzG@J awGuykd g xnhw f u G &f w,f qdw k mygy?J 0g¶iS w f efa&m =uyfajy;yg 'DyrJG mS wbufom;udk tuJprf;wm vky&f if; w¶kwef @J tdE, dN tyg tdref ;D em;csi;f Edik if aH wGu b,fvkd oabmxm; azmfjyrvJJ qdw k mudv k nf; rjywf tuJcwf ae&ygw,f? tckavmufe@J awmh wjcm; wwd,EdkifiHwcku toHxGufvmEdkifp&m r¶Sdao;ygbl;? 'gayrJh 'Dae@vdk tm¶Swdkuf awmifydkif;eJ@ ta¶SŒydkif;rSm wif;rmr_awG pjrif&aecsdefrSm 'Dc&D;pOfudk OyuQmjyKxm;=uvdrfhr,fvdk@ ,lq&if nhHvGef;&m usygr,f? }uŒH zGwt f pd;k &qdw k m ay:vmwmeJ@ w+yKd ief uf 'DO;D § Adv k cf sKyaf wG vkyw f hJ yxrqH;k Edik if jH cm;a&; ajcvSrf;[m tar&duefeJ@ w¶kwft=um;rSm upm;zdk@ vHk;yrf;wmyJqdkwm owdxm;oihfygw,f? 'g[m rqv tpdk;&upvdk@ e0w-etz tv,f 'Dae@txd ArmjynfrSm wnf¶SdcJhwJh ppftpdk;& tqufquf 47

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


48

tvl;tvJ vH;k yrf;=uwJh tpOftvm oHwrmefa&; vkyif ef;vdk w&yfjzpfaeygw,f? omrefEikd if w H ckq&kd if 'g[m bmrS ajymp&m r¶Syd gb;l ? t&ifuvnf; bufrvdu k f v_y¶f mS ;r_/ wwd, urBmv_y¶f mS ;r_ qdw k mawG ¶SdcJhwmygyJ? 'gayrJh jy\emu tcktcgrSm 'djyifEdkifiHawGu “usaemf[m bufrvdkufEdkifiH ygcifAs”qdk+yD; v_y¶f mS ;jy/ axmufcrH ¶_ mS wmawGvyk w f m rawG@&yJ =uŒH zGwt f pd;k &urS 'Dvv kd yk af ewm[m bma=umifv h v J @kd ar;p&m ¶Sdaeygw,f? wjcm;vlawGtaeeJ@ udk,hf&yfwnfr_udk EdkifiHwum tv,frSm w=udrf/ ESpf=udrf azmfjyvdkuf&if udpP at;oGm;ayrJh Armjynfu ppftpdk;&awGrawmh avSeHESpfbufudk cufcufcJcJ eif;ae&ovdk [efcsuu f kd ¶Smvd@k r&bl; jzpfaeygw,f? 'grsKd ;qdw k mu wcg[efcsuf ysuo f mG ;&if [efcsuu f kd jyefxed ;f zd@k cufwwfovdk ud, k u f , kd w f ikd u f vnf; wnfwnf+ird +f ird f jzpfz@kd vdyk gw,f? Armjynfvkd jynfwiG ;f wnf+ird rf _ r¶Sw d hJ Edik if /H avSeaH wG trsm;}u;D eif;csiw f hJ tpd;k &/ avS=u;D ay: avSi,fwifovdk twkta,mif tpdk;&awG qifhxm;csifwJh tpdk;&w&yftaeeJ@ wnf+idrfwJh [efcsufwck r&Edkifwm rqef;ygbl;? olw@kd vkyw f mawG twGuf olw@kd cHae&wmyg? ydq k ;kd wJh ta=umif;&if;wcku =uŒH zGwf tpd;k &taeeJ@ tckvkd todtrSwjf yKra_ wG ¶Smaewm[m jynfolvlxk tusdK;twGuf r[kwfyJ tm%m& ppfAdkvfcsKyfawGeJ@ olwdk@&JŒaemufvdkuf c¶dkeD olaX;awG&JŒ tusd K ;twG u f rvnf ¶ _ y f vk y f a e jzpf w ,f q d k w mygyJ ? Ed k i f i H = uD ; awG t =um;rS m ud k , f h o d u Q m eJ @ ud, k w f nfwnf+ird +f ird f &yfwnfaew,fq&kd if jynfol vlxu k kd rxdcu kd yf gb;l ? 'gayrJh ud, k t fh =ut H pnfe@J ud, k f EdkifiH=uD;awGt=um;rSm rjzpfnpfus,f upm;w,f qdk&ifawmh =um;nyf+yD; wdkif;jynf emwwfygw,f? wu,fusawmh 'Dae@ Armjynfe@J teD;qH;k jzpfwhJ awmiftm¶Swu kd ef @J tm¶Swu kd f ta¶SŒydik ;f wd@k rSm r+idrfrouf jzpfr_awG/ wif;rmr_awG jrifawG@ae&ygw,f? bifvm'if towfcH&+yD;wJh aemufrSm wmvDbefrsm;&JŒ vufpm; acsa&;v_yf¶Sm;r_awG wdk;rsm;vm¶Hkru ygupPwefeJ@ tar&duefwdk@t=um; qufqHa&; wif;rmvmygw,f? 'geJ@ wqufxJ tdENd,/ w¶kwfwdk@uvnf; 'Dajctaeudk tm¶Hkpdkuf jyifqifvmae=uygw,f? awmifudk&D;,m;eJ@ ajrmufudk&D;,m; jy\em[m vdk%facgif;tqHk;u tvif;a&mifav;udkawmif rjrif&ao;wJhtjyif *syefrSmivsifeJ@ qlemrD0ifaqmifhvdkufawmh udpPawGu ydk¶_yfukefygw,f? awmifw¶kwfyifv,frSm yifv,fxJu usGef;av;awG twGuf ywf0ef;usifu EdkifiHawGt=um;rSm wif;rmr_awG ay:vmaecsdefrSm tar&duefu tJ'Da'orSm¶SdwJh ol@a&wyfudk tm;jznfrh ,fv@kd a=unmcJyh gw,f? 'gt h jyif ArmEdik if eH @J teD;qH;k jzpfwhJ xdik ;f eJ@ uarŠm'D;,m;wd@k t=um;u ppfy[ JG m ywf0ef;usiu f kd ysŒH ES@H vmp&m r¶Sb d ;l qdak yrJh wnf+ird af t;csr;f wJh ywf0ef;usiu f kd ysupf ;D apwmawmh trSeyf gy?J 'DvdktcsdefrSm AdkvfcsKyfodef;pdef&JŒ“t&yfom;”tpdk;&[m EdkifiHwum oHwrmefa&;&mrSm tpGrf;awGjyzdk@ vkyfaeygw,f? olwdk@&JŒ zGJ@pnf;yHk Oya'wdk@ a¶G;aumufyGJwdk@/ “vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGihf”wdk@ qdkwmawG[m olwdk@udk rsufESmvdktm;& vkyfaeolawGudkom vSnhfpm;vdk@ &ayrJh EdkifiHwumudk rvSnhfpm;Edkifygbl;? qDedwfwm rufudef;vkd vludku 'gavmufeJ@ olwdk@ajymif;aewJh tajymif;tvJwdk@/ 'Dru kd a&pDvrf;a=umif;wd@k qdw k mawGukd vufcrH wJv h m;? 'Dc&D;pOfukd jyefcsKyv f u kd &f if topfpufpuf }uŒH zGwf orRw crsm “ ta¶SŒtv,fydkif; rSmvdk awmfvSefa&;awGeJ@ &ifqdkif&vdrfhr,f” vdk@ ynmay;cH&wmyJ tjrwf&vdkufygw,f? zefwdk@yGJrSm ol@udk a¶SŒaevdkufay;=uwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;awGuawmh zm;cGifh tjrwf &vdu k =f uygw,f? jynfov l x l }k u;D tzd@k uawmh tajymif;tvJ[m jynfwiG ;f u t"du jzpf&r,fqw kd hJ t,ltq ydck ikd +f ro J mG ;&ygw,f? &Jabmfzdk;oHacsmif; Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

48


49

(www.yoma3.org

rS ul;,laz: jyygonf?)

jrefrmjynf tusOf;axmifawGxJrSm ppftm%mydkif rsm;u 1988 aemufydkif; tqufrjywf zrf;qD;xm;wJh EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;aygif; ESpfaxmifausmf &Sdaew,fqdkwm vlwdkif;odwJh tcsufwckyg? jrefrmppftm%mydkifawG&JŒ tusOf;axmifqdkwmuvJ ae&xkdif&wmutp wudk,fa& oef@&Sif;r_/ tpm;taomufw@kd txd tpp cufcyJ ifyef;vSwhJ tajctaeawGe@J yg? txl;ojzifah wmh rdrw d akd 'o &yf&mG eJ@ a0;vHwhJ tusO;f axmifawGukd tm%mydik rf sm;u tpDtpOf&&dS dS yd@k aqmifxm;wmu ydrk kd cufcaJ pygw,f? 'DtcuftcJrsm;udk wwfEkdiforSs vufvSrf;rDorSs vdkufygaqmif&Guf apmifha&Smufaeol wOD;uawmh a':¶_ (ac:) a':¶_oif; jzpfygw,f?

a':¶+ (od k @ r[k w f )

EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;udk apmifha&Smufol

rdk;ausmfausmf

a':¶_[m touf (61) ESpft&G,f trsKd;orD;wOD;jzpf+yD; trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf prf;acsmif;+rKd Œe,f pnf;¶H;k a&;rSL; wOD;vnf; jzpfygw,f? olr[m tusO;f om;apmifah &Smufa&; vkyif ef;udk a&$0ga&mifawmfvSefa&;t+yD;rS pwifaqmif&GufcJh&m ,ae@txd tusOf;om;aygif; w&m0ef;usifudk apmifah &SmufaeqJ jzpfygw,f? a&$0ga&mifawmfvSefa&;umv aiG=um&Hausmif;wdkuf/ r*~ifausmif;wkduf/ eef;OD;ausmif;wdkuf/ ykZGefawmif a&$awmifausmif;wdkuf pwJhausmif;wdkufrsm;udk tm%mydkifppfwyfu 0ifa&mufpD;eif;+yD; a&$0ga&mifawmfvSefa&;rSm yg0ifcJhw,fvdk@ ,lq&wJh oHCmawmftajrmuftrsm;udk zrf;qD;¶Hk;wif ppfaq;cJhygw,f? +yD;awmh oHCmawmfrsm;udk tif;pdefaxmifrS oufqdkif&m+rdKŒe,f w&m;¶Hk;rsm;odk@ ¶H;k xkw&f mrSm tif;pdet f usO;f axmifrS eHeuf (8;00) em&Dcef@rSm ¶H;k xkw+f y;D nae 3;00-4;00 em&Dcef@xd ¶Hk;xkwfcsdef &Snfvsm;vSaomfvnf; tm%mydkifrsm;u oHCmawmfrsm;&JŒ qGrf;udpPudk bmrSpDpOfay;jcif; r&SdcJhygbl;? 49

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


50

+y;D awmh oHCmawmfrsm;udk vl0wfv&J mrSm }uzhH w G rf sm;/ &Jwyfz@JG rsm;&JŒ ykq;kd tuFs D tpkwt f +y/J acs;txyfxyfrsm;om 0wfay;cJh=uojzifh oHCmawmfrsm;rSm t0wfykqdk; npfEGrf;vSa=umif; a&SŒae udn k n D v D i_d /f udzk ;kd jzLwd@k xHuwqifh a':¶_ =um;odc&hJ w,fv@kd qdyk gw,f? tJ'Dtcg a':¶_[m pdwfrcsrf;rom jzpfcJh&+yD; w&m;¶Hk;csdef;ae@awGrSm w&m;¶Hk;rsm;odk@ qGr;f vdu k v f q H ufuyfjcif;jzifh tusO;f om;apmifah &Smufa&;vkyif ef;udk pwifvyk af qmifcahJ =umif; od&ygw,f? olr&JŒ apmifha&Smufa&;vkyfief;rSm pwifcJhwJhoHCmawmfrsm;uawmh aiG=um&Hausmif;wdkufrS q&mawmfrsm; jzpf=uygw,f? xdkq&mawmfrsm;uwqifh aemufxyf b,folb,f0g¶Hk;xkwf b,fae@ b,f+rKd Œe,frmS &Srd ,fpojzifh vufqifu h rf; ajym=u&mu a&$0ga&mifawmfveS af &;t+y;D umvaemufyikd ;f wae@xJ +rd K Œe,f 3-4 ck t xd qG r f ; vd k u f u yf & wmrsKd ; jzpf v mcJ h y gw,f ? aemuf y d k i f ; rS m awmh oHCmawmfrsm;omru vlyk*~dKvf EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;&JŒw&m;¶Hk;csdef;rsm;udkvnf; tqufrjywf xrif;vdu k af us;G &wmrsK;d wd;k csŒJ vkyu f ikd cf &hJ w,fv@kd qdyk gw,f? a':¶_[m wmarGw&m;¶H;k +y;D vSsif ykZeG af wmif? ykZeG af wmif +y;D vSsif r*Fvm'H?k r*Fvm'H+k y;D vSsif ajrmufOuUvmpojzifh w&m;¶H;k rsm;vSnyhf wf aus;G arG;cJo h vdk ykq;kd tuFs/D axmif0wfpjkH ymrsm;txd axmufyhH ay;a0cJw h ,fv@kd od&ygw,f? ,ae@txd axmif0wfpjkH ym 0rf;quf tpHk 500 cef@axmufyHh ay;vSLcJh&+yD; t0wfykqdk;/ aq;0g;/ zdeyf/ jcifaxmif/ tdyf,m tcif;/ tpm;taomuf/ uGrf;aq;vufzuf/ qyfjymtp/ oGm;wdkufaq;tqHk; tusOf;om;rsm;xHta&muf ay;yd@k aeolvnf; jzpfygw,f? “tefwDuawmh tif;pdefaxmifa&mufwmeJ@ wwfEkdiforSs ydk@ay;vdkufwmbJ? e,fu ajymif;vmolawGu bmqdkbmrS ryg=uovdk aqGrsKd;om;csif;awGuvnf; vdkufrvmEdkifbl;av? 'Dawmh b,fol@rS wGufuyfraebl;? tif;pdefaxmifudk a&mufw,f =um;wmeJ@ za,mif;ykqdk; tcif;ydk@w,f? t0wfyq k ;kd / jcifaxmifpwm vdrk ,fxifwmudk yd@k vdu k w f mbJ” vd@k a':¶_u ajymjywwfygw,f? 'Dvkd yd@k ay;&wm[m vG,u f al csmarG@vSw,fawmh r[kw&f yg? olrtaeeJ@ om;orD; 5 a,muf vkypf mudik pf meJ@ tdrrf mS t+ird o hf m xdik pf m;Ekid yf gvsS uf axmifb;l 0rSm axmif0efxrf;awGu taiguf tief;cH/ jiLjiLplplcH+yD; ydk@&&Smw,fvdk@od&ygw,f? wjcm;olawGudk ygq,fay;oGif;+yD; olrudk waeukef rwfwyf&yfapmifhcdkif;&ifawmifrS olruawmh rwfwyf&yf+yD; waeukefapmifhaevdk@ wcsKdŒaom oabmaumif; wJh axmif0efxrf;rsm;u vufavSsm+h y;D olryd@k csiw f hJ ygq,fxyk u f kd vufcaH y;vdu k &f w,fv@kd =um;od&ygw,f? olr[m e,fta0;a&muf Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm;xHuv kd nf; vufvrS ;f rDorSs pmwdu k rf w S qifh ygq,frsm; ay;ydk@ avh& Sdygw,f? 'gwifru axmif0 ifp mvmawG@ wJh e,faus;vufawm&Gmu EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;&JŒ rdom;pkrsm;udk olr&JŒtdrfrSm wnf;cdkap+yD; axmif0ifpmawG@zdk@ pDpOfay; wmawGvnf; vkyyf gao;w,f? +y;D awmh Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;wa,muf emruse;f jzpfv@kd tif;pdeaf q;¶Hu k kd a&mufvmw,fqdkwmeJ@ tusOf;om;vlemrsm;u olrxHta=umif;=um; today;ovdk olruvnf; aq;¶Ht k xd vdu k v f aH pmifah &Smufwwfygw,f? Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om; rsupf cd v JG nf; olrygw,f? tlusvnf; olrygw,f? pydkwmvdk trsKd;om;oHk;ypPnf;vdk&ifvJ olrygw,f? oDv&Sif q&mav;awG twGif;cHt0wf r&SdwmvJ olrygw,f? olr[m wu,fhudk (ygav&m yJcl;qm;) ygbJ? ygav&m yJcl;qm;qdkwJh pum;yHku ae&mwumrSm pyfpyfppk k 0ifygwm raumif;wmudk ajymwmyg? a':¶_qw kd hJ Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;awGtwGuf bmvd k v d k / bmjzpf j zpf ygaewJ h yJ c l ; qm;uawmh tvG e f t &om&S d o G m ;apwJ h qm;yG i f h a v;awG jzpfaeygawmhw,f? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

50


51

wu,f a wmh ol r [m avmuwm0ef od p d w f & S d o l y g? vl q ef w J h v l v d k @ bJ ol r ud k uAsnf;wyfcsifygw,f? olr[m EkdifiHcspfpdwf &Sdw,f? arwWmpdwf &Sdw,f? *¶k%mpdwf &Sdw,f? olr&JŒarwWmpdwf/ *¶k%mpdwfu tusOf;us om;orD;&SdwJh wdkif;ESifh jynfe,f toD;oD;u tusOf; axmifawGqD vrf;c&D;roGm;wwf rvmwwfol rdom;pkawGuv kd nf; oufqikd &f mtusO;f axmifawGtxd vdkufyg ydk@aqmifay;avh &Sdygw,f? 'ga=umifh olr[m usKdif;wHkaxmif/ +rdwfaxmif/ ppfawGaxmif/ uav;axmif pwJh jrefrmjynfweHwvsm;u e,fta0;axmifawGtES@H a&mufcb hJ ;l olvJ jzpfaeygao;w,f? tusOf;us oHCmrsm;&Sd&m avSavSmftif;/ wdkuf}uD;/ Owdk/ rtlyif tvef;/ usKdufxdk+rdKŒe,f rkyv ` if &Jbufpcef;awGxd Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;awG rSm=um;orSsukd vnf; acguw f ek @f acgujf yef oGm;a&muf apmifah &Smufwwfjyefygw,f? armfv+rKd it f usO;f axmifrS OD;Zif;wyg; tm[m&jywf+y;D b0ewfxyH sv H eG af wmf rla=umif; =um;od&wJt h cg olr[m }u;D pGmaom pdwq f if;&Jjcif;jzpf+y;D olvufvrS ;f rrDv@kd yg? rodvu kd v f @kd yg? od v d k @ awmh ygq,f y d k @ ay;ygw,f v d k @ qd k y gowJ h ? tck t csd e f r S m ol r [m ae@pOf a e@wd k i f ; tusO;f om;apmifah &Smufa&;vkyif ef;eJ@ yifyef;EGr;f e,faewwfayrJh ud, k u f yifyef;ayrJh raoEkid af o;bl;? txJu vlawGu tm[m&jywf+y;D aooGm;Ekid w f ,f? ig }uKd ;pm;rS/ ig }uKd ;pm;rSv@kd olrud, k o f rl tm;ay;+y;D vkyaf e&w,fv@kd qdyk gw,f? wu,fawmh olr[m Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm;udo k m ruyg? &efuek +f rKd ŒrSm wnf;cdpk &mr&So d l e,fta0;u rdom;pk0ifawG tif;pdefaxmifudk axmif0ifpmvmawG@=uvSsif olrtdrfrSm wnf;cdkap+yD; =unf = unf j zLjzLeJ @ axmif 0 if p m awG @ Ek d i f a tmif pD p Of a y;wwf y gao;w,f ? tusOf ; axmif u vG w f a jrmuf v mol tusOf ; om;rsm;ud k v nf ; ol r u &ef u k e f + rd K ŒtES H @ bk & m;zl ; vdu k v f yH @kd aqmifay;wwfao;ovdk vGwaf jrmufvmwJh oDv&Siq f &mav;rsm; oDv&Sijf yef0wfciG rhf &vd@k pm;0wf a ea&; cuf c J a ewmud k ajz&S i f ; Ek d i f b d k @ puf c sKyf o if w ef ; wuf E k d i f a tmif pD p Of w mrsKd ; vJ vkyaf y;wwfoyl g? a':¶_u olr'Dvdk EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;apmifha&Smufa&;vkyfief;eJ@ ae@pOftcsdefukefaewmudk om;orD;awGu r=unfrjzL jzpfvmwJhtcg (eifhwdk@ igESpfvHk; oHk;vHk;xdk;vdk@ tdrfwdkifcsGwf avsmf&&ifvJ ukefr,f? ESpfvHk; oHk;vHk;eJ@ igtcsKyfxJa&muf/ axmifxJa&muf&ifvJ eifwdk@ t&SufuGJr,f? aiG ukefr,f? igtck trsm;aumif;usKd; vkyfaewm? eifwdk@ *k%f,lwwf=uprf;)vdk@ rdom;pktwGif; twdkuftcHvkyf wwfoyl g? tm%mydik rf sm;u ac:ar;jref;&ifawmh usrEkid if aH wmf ykeu f efaewm r[kwyf gb;l ? vlra_ &;vkyif ef; vkyaf ewmvd@k ajzygowJ?h oufawmifo h ufom ygb?J jrefrmjynfrmS olvv kd al wG vl 20 &Srd ,fq&kd if tusO;f om; 2000 ausmf tusO;f axmifawGxrJ mS tawmftoifah wmh oufawmifo h ufom&SEd idk yf gvrd rhf ,f? (taru arG;/ axmifu aus;G ) 'Dru kd a&pDta&;eJ@ axmifusaeol a':¶_&JŒ ygq,fxkwfudk vufcH&&Sdaeol EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGuawmh olrudk 'kwd,tarvdk@ ac:ae=uyg+yD? &[ef;awGuawmh (bduQK rmwm) &[ef;wdk@&JŒ tarygwJh? a':¶_ (odk@) EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;wdk@&JŒ 'kwd,tar (odk@) bduQKrmwm? olruawmh EkdifiHa&; ,Hk=unfcsufa=umifh tusOf;usaeol olr&JŒ om;orD;awG tm;vHk;tjrefqHk;vGwfajrmufygapvdk@ ae@pOfqak wmif;aeygowJ?h tara':¶_ -olr&JŒ qENtjrefqHk; jynfhEkdifygap?

rdk;ausmfausmf 51

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


H

H

52

H pmaya0zef qef;ppfcsuf

“&if a oG ; &J ² t[m& csd K jrEd k @ &nf o m taumif ; qk H ; yg” a=unmaewJ h t cd k u f uav;tar&J ² t[m& tcd k ; cH & wJ h umv rxG u f E d k @ eJ ² “pk d ² av pd k ² av” tarEd k @ wd k u f rsuf & nf + yd K uf + yd K uf acgif ; id k u f p d k u f ? ? (u) uAsmESifhuAsmpmtkyfrsm;udkwyfrufolrsm;tzdk²/uAsmpmtkyfxkwfa0onfhckESpf/rnfolu xkwfa0onf/b,frSmxkwfa0onf/onfpmtkyfwGifxdktcsufrsm;udk&Smr&/oJvGefp tpwpfpbJ azmfjf yxm;onf? rsufESmzkH;yef;csDudk(CoverIpo2001)[kazmfjyxm;onf?xdktcsuft&“vGwfvyfaom uavmif&Sifrsm;tzGJ²tpnf;”u2001wGifxkwfa0onf[kqGJvGJawG;p&m&Sdygonf?xdkodk²rSef;qawG;xif ,lq& onfqu kd wJurwdusIjzpfonf? wdusonft h csurf mS uAsmq&marmifv0S if;(jrif;jc)H jzpfonf/1960ckEpS af ESmif;ydik ;f umv &_r0/ aiGwm&D/ aoG;aomufr*~Zif;wd²k wGio f lu h Asmrsm;udak zmfjycJb h ;l onf/ 1970ckEpS rf sm;wGiv f nf;rd;k a0r*~Zif;Y uAsmrsm;/ Edik if w H umbmomjyefuAsmrsm;ESiphf maya0zefa&;aqmif;yg;rsm;a&;cJb h ;l onf?xdak emufawmcdk olyek jf zpfvmcJo h nf? vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;wGiyf g0ifum ppftm%m&Sipf epfuakd wmfveS cf o hJ /l olyek u f Asmq&m/ ESpaf ygi;f ok;H q,fausm=f umcJ+h y;D rS ol.“olyek ²f ESv;Hk om;uAsmrsm;”pmtkyu f x kd w k af 0jzpfco hJ nf?,if;tcsuf rsm;uxif&mS ;odomvSonf/jynfwiG ;f wGiaf ysmufq;Hk aysmufu, G af ecJah om uAsmq&mudk onfuAsmpmtkyf jzifh xdawG²&aomol.pmzwfy&dowfjzpfco hJ rl sm;taejzifh jyefvnfqpHk nf;vdu k jf cif;jzpfonf?

aEGO D;

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

52


53

(c) awmfvSefa&;orm;olykefwdk²udkav;pm;*k%fjyKonfh olykefESvkH;om;uAsmrsm;pmtkyf/ tzGihfuAsm“opPmrka,m”rSonf“0e,ftusOf;om;”tydwfuAsmtxduAsmyk'fa& 22yk'fuAsmwdk/ uAsm&SnfESpfrsdK;pvkH;yg0ifae=uonf? 1960rsm;wGifoDzGJ²cJhonfh“opfudkif;ajcmufav;ay:0,f”rS2001wGifzGJ²oDa&;pyfcJhonfh uAsmrsm; txdESpfaygif; 41 ESpftwGif;cHpm;r_&ifckefoHudkzGJ²EGJ²cJhaomuAsmrsm;jzpfonf? ,ckvnf;uAsmrsm;udk oDuek ;f zG²J EG²J aeqJ uAsmq&marmifv0S if;onf 0wWKw/kd 0wWK&n S /f &opm wrf;/ tufaq;rsm;tjyif ordik ;f / Edik if aH &;aA'/ Armjynfajr,m jy\emponfh u¾rsm;udv k nf;a&;om; aeqJ/odk²aomfvnf; uAsmonf ol.ESvkH;om;0dOmOfjzpfaeayvdrfhrnf/uAsmudk wyfwyfrufruf a&;zG²J oDu;Hk avol? ol.uAsma&;zGJ²jc,for_c&D;onf (1960 -2011)ESpfaygif; 51 (ig;q,fwpfESpf)odk²yifwdkifchJ acs+yDaum? ,if;&Snfvsm;=umjrifhaomuAsm c&D;onfol.0dnOfrSmuAsm yifjzpfa=umif; azmfjyaevsuf &Sdonf? vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;wGif uAsmudkwGifwGifus,fus,fra&;Edkifawmh/ uAsmvufeufxuf vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;udka&S²wef;ydk²xm; cJh&ykH&onf/ArmjynfuAsmq&mrsm;xJwGif vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;odk²qif;vmcJh+yD; ArmjynfvGwfajrmufa&;/ jynfol h'Drdkua&pD/ wef;wlnDr#a&;/ +idrf;csrf;a&; twGufwdkufyGJ 0ifcJh=uaom uAsmq&mrSmvufq,facsmif;yifjynfhyghrvm;/xdkuAsmq&mrsm;xJwGif armifvS0if; (jrif;jcH)onfxif&Sm;aomuAsmq&mwOD;jzpfonf? }uKH}udKufaecJhojzifh uAsmq&m/ tvSaA'ynm&Sif(tEkynmqdkif&mtawG;tac:ynm&Sif) c&pPwzkd m aumwf0v J f udo k wd&aponf/ pydejf ynfwiG ;f ppfwiG f vufeuf udik af wmfveS af &;Y vlxt k wGuf toufaoG;ay;pGef²cJhol uAsmq&maumwf0Jvf wdkufyGJxJwGifusqkH;pOf touf27 om&Sdao;onf[k owfrSwfxm;cJhbl;onf/ xdkuJhokd²aom uAsmq&m &Sdawmh&Sdonf/ &Sm;onf/ wdk;wufpGef²vGwfaom ol&aJ umif;uAsmq&mwd²k onf wdik ;f jynfvw G af jrmufz²kd vdt k yfvmaomtcg vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &; wGiEf pS jf rKycf =hJ u onfuakd wG²&onf? (*) q&marmifvS0if;(jrif;jcH) a&G;jc,faomuAsmta=umif;t&mrSm eif;jym;vlxk.vlr_b0t a=umif;t&mjzpfonf/ wenf;tm;jzifrh nfonft h a=umif;t&mudk uAsmq&mua&G;jc,fovJ/ tcspv f m;/ toJuGJudpPvm;/ trkef;vm;/ wudk,fa&woD;yk*~vb0udkA[kdjyK+yD;/ qENjrif;&dkif;rsm;udka&;zGJ²jcif;vm;/ uAsmy&dowfem;vnf& cHpm;&cufcaJ om &_yaf xG;ayGvaD ompdwZW cHpm;r_rsm;vm;/ &Si;f vif;odomaom vlrb _ 0udk &_yaf xG;atmifvyk v f u kd o f nfv h rl u _ Asmvm; uAsmq&marmifv0S if;u tzdEydS cf eH if;jym;vlx. k vlrb _ 0toD;oD;udk uAsma&;jc,fol acwftqufquf tm%mrJ/h ypPn;f rJ/h i&JwiG ;f eufxrJ v S x l b k 0ESihf vlxck pH m;r_uo kd u l aumufEw _ af &G;jc,fco hJ nf? vlwef;pm;toD;/ vlrsKd ;toD;oD;/ b0toD;oD;xJupdepf jD r&Haom ewfbaHk y:ub0udrk a&G;cs,f (ra&G;jc,f)/ tm%m*k%/f "e*k%w f ;kd jzifrh mefwuf rmefzaD eaom zdEydS o f v l w l ef;pm;udk rusL;&ifh bke;f awmf bG²J rSvrf;cGx J u G v f mum bk&ift h m%mudzk q D efonfh aus;vufZeyk'rf S qif;&Jom;aus;vufv,forl udzk ²JG qdo k nf? pepfq;kd /acwfq;kd . '%fuckd g;pnf;cHae&aom vlxb k 0udo k mzG²J qdo k nf/ Armjynfaus;vufvx l k omru/ xkdvlxkuJhodk²aome,fcsJ²t&if;&Sifpepfwdk²/ ajr&Sifya'o&mZfwdk²aoG;pkyfzdESdyfr_atmufrS tm&S/ tmz&du/ vlxu k ykd gz²JG qdo k nf? 53

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


54

zGJ²qdk&mYeif;jym;vlxk. ukef;aumufp&mr&Sdatmif qif;&JwGif;eufr_/ ya'o&mZfwdk@ ."g;atmuf/ ppftm%m&Si. f aoewfatmufwiG f EHck smEkt H aomb0udk a&;aom tcgvw l ef;pm;tjrif/ wd;k wufaomordik ;f tjrifEiS u hf Asmudzk ²JG EG²J avol? rcHr&yfEikd o f nfo h rdik ;f auG²wGi/f awmfveS &f ek ;f uefonfh tzdeSdyfcHvlxk.cGeftm;/ owWd/ ZGJpdwf"gwfrsm;udkazmf usL;oDzGJ²ol? txl;ojzifhppftm%m&Sifpepfudk toufoGif;aom zdESdyftEdkifusifhowfjzwfaom/ zufqpftkyfpk zdESdyfa&;ppfudkckcHawmfvSefonfh vlxkppfyGJ.aoewfoH/aoG;toufrsm; udktxif;om;jrif&onf? twdkif;om;=um;&onf/ txl;ojzifh 0e,f.vlxrk sm;udzk ²JG EG²J xm;onf? 0jynfe,fESifh 0vlxkudka&;zGJ²aomuAsmrSm av;yk'f&Sdonf? xdkuAsmav;yk'fxJwGif “0awmifwef;odk²tvGrf;uAsm”onfya'o&mZfpepf/ ppftm%m&SifpepfESifhawmf vSefa&;umvxJrS 0vl x k u d k z G J ² EG J ² r_ x J w G i f taumif ; qk H ; /tvS q k H ; /uAsmjzpf o nf ? uAsm22yk ' f o nf o l @ tvS E S i f h o l ud, k pf &D adS e+y;D om;/ uAsm&Snaf v;yk'rf mS vnf; xdek nf;ESiEf iS /f o²kd aomf“0awmif;wef;od²k tvGr;f uAsmonf” tvSq;Hk uAsmjzpfonf[t k vS aA'jzifw h efb;kd jzwf&vdrrhf nf? 0e,fawmifxyd u f um0dik ;f &Gm/ um0dik ;f anmifyif}u;D ESihf 0vlx[ k x k if[yfxm;onf? ya'o&mZf pepfatmufraS =uuGpJ &m0vlxo k nf ESprf sm;pGmjzwfoef;cJ+h y;D aemuf awmfveS af 'o/ awmfveS af &;wyfom; rsm;jzpfvmcJ=h uonf/ vGwaf jrmufa'ojzpfvm&mrS0acgi;f aqmifwpku/ wdu k af zmfwu kd zf uf rdwaf qGygwD udEk iS x f w k u f m &efot l yk pf u k kd tm;xm;qnf;uyf aygi;f pnf;vdu k o f nf? ppftyk pf o k nfxakd cgi;f aqmifwpk. u,fwif&SifjzpfvmcJhonf?,cktcgtpdk;&wyf zdeyfajc&mawG0awmifrSm ae&mrvyfajc&mcsif;xyf “um0dkif;” rGef;usyfaea&mhr,f? uAsmq&mu&rf;a&mfwrf;wum 0awmifwef;udv k rG ;f rda=umif;zG²J EG²J onf? 2001uzG²J cJo h nfh uAsm&Snf?(2001 aemufydkif;0acgif;aqmifwpfpkESifh 0EdkifiHa&;onf tcsdK;tauG²ordkif;xJvSnfhajymif; a&muf&SdvmcJhonf? r[m ArmvlrsdK;}uD;0g'Drsm;rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDr[kwfyJ ppftm%m&Sifpepf ppf t k y f p k o mjzpf a =umif ; od o G m ; yk H & onf ? ) uAsmq&monf xd k u Asm&S n f u d k t Ek p d w f j c,f o r_ / tEkpw d jf yuGurf sm;jzifrh ;H_ xm;onf? 0e,fvl xk. b0jzwfoef;r+ordik ;f tqifq h ifu h =kd unf vifyo D atmif o&kyfaz:onf/ a0pnfatmifzGJ²EGJ²xm;onf? wzefta=umif;t&mESihf yko H ¾efz²JG pnf;r_onf nDnw G v f u kd zf ufae+yq D v kd #if uAsmwyk'o f nf vSyvm&rSmjzpfonf/ uAsmq&m. pdwu f ;l &kyyf v Hk m$ onf uAsmtvS.toufjzpfonf? “0awmifwef;od²k tvGr;f ajy”uAsmwGif tvStrsm;=u, G 0f onf/ crf;em;onfuakd wG²&onf/ xd²k a=umifx h u kd Asmonf uAsm q&mjzpf&usdK;eyfonfh uAsm[k rSwfcsufcsrdonf/ rSwfwdkifwckpdkufxl vdkufonfhuAsmvnf;jzpfonf/ eif;jym; vlxk. &kyfykHv$mtjzpf ordkif;wGifusef&pf cJhayvdrfhrnf? ta=umif;t&mESihf yko H ¾efz²JG pnf;r_/ odyo f nf;nDnw G f onft h zG²J tEG,rf sKd ;/ [efyefrsKd ;ud“k yef; yefwo hJ &l aJ umif;”“e*g;awmifa=umay:rScpH m;csurf sm;” ESihf “&Gmuav;xJrAS o Hk ”H uAsmwd²k wGiaf wG²Edik f onf/ uAsm22yk'f xJwiG u f Asmwdk 5yk'yf g0ifonf? uAsmzG²J pnf;r_uspv f pfouJo h ²kd tvSuvnf;odyo f nf; onfudkawG²&onf/ uAsmwkd²&J²acgif;pOfu “Edk²&nftcdk;cH&wJhn” “&ifaoG;&J²t[m& csdKjrEdk²&nfom taumif;qkH;yg” a=unmaewJt h cdu k f Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

54


55

uav;tar&J² t[m& tcdk;cH&wJh umv rxGuEf ²kd eJ² “pkd²av pdk²av” tarEd²k wdu k f rsu&f nf+yKd u+f yKd uf acgif;idkufpdkuf? ? (1999) Edk²&nfudk rnfodk²tcdk;cHcJh& avoenf;/ uAsmy&dowfudkpOf;pm;&ef uAsmq&mu v_yfEdk; vdkufonf/uAsm. tvSudkjzpfapzdk² pdwful;&kyfykHv$monf ta&;}uD;a=umif;&nfnGef; cJh+yD;jzpfonf? xdkpdwful;&kyfykH v$mtzGJ²tEGJ²a=umifh cHpm;rkudkydk Ixd&Saponf? uEW&e,fcsJ²/ a0'emajrv$m/ {nfhonfZifa,mf/ ewf&xm;/ aevdarRmf/ cg;udkif;wkHcsd rdciftdk/ yef;jcif;tarmuf uAsmyGifhaumuf/ ppfzdeyfajcGcsvdk² a=urGaewJh&Gmuav;/ “qEN&iftdrf/ r+idrfrouf/ vdi_ ;f =uufcyG w f ²kd / ponfph w d u f ;l &kyyf Hk v$mrsm;onf ol.uAsmrsm;xJrS &ifcek o f pH ed yf iG rhf sm;jzpfaeum +yKd ;+yKd ; jyufjyuf awmufvufaeonf? (C) uAsmq&mudkawG² csifv#ifwjcm;oGm+yD; &Smp&mrvdk/ ol²uAsmawGxJrSmbJ uAsmq&m onfcdkatmif;ae wwfonf/ uAsmq&marmifvS0if;onf jrif;+cH+rdK²wGifr&Sd/ “teDyGifh”uAsmxJwGif “igjyefvm+yD”“0awmif wef;odk²tvGrf;uAsm”ESifh“0e,f&J²tusOf;om;”uAsmrsm;xJwGifol&Sdaeonf? ol²udkxdkae&mxdkuAsmrsm; xJwGif ol²udkawG²&rnf/ 0dk;w0g;r[kwf/ “olykef}uD;c&D;waxmuf bk&m;}uD;odk²a&mufcJhw,f/ uAsmtyg t0ifxdkuAsmrsm;xJwGif/ uAsmq&mudkawG²&onf? “0e,ftusO;f om;” uAsmwGif uAsmq&mudk 0e,f.tusO;f om;tjzpfEiS ahf wG²&ykrH mS / pdwx f d cdkufp&maumif;onf/ 0e,fvlxktwGuf toufay;umuG,fcJhol/ 0e,fvlxk tusdK;pD;yGm;twGuf/ Armjynf uGejf rLepfygwED iS t hf wl xrf;yd;k &Guaf qmifco hJ /l q,fEpS t f =umwGif olonf0e,ftusO;f om;jzpf vmcJhonf? ao&rnfhtcsdefudkapmifhpm; aeonfhuAsmq&m ol²tm;vGwfay;zdk² 0e,fvlxku [pfa=u;G awmif;qdo k u H kd tusO;f axmifxrJ S =um;&pOfao&GmoGm;vJ aysmaf ysmyf [ J k tm;wufajzodrchf o hJ /l vlxk.apwem/ arwWm&dyf wGifaornfh &ufudkaysmf&Gifvd_ufvSJpGm apmifhcJh&ol? xdkuAsmonfol²uAsm pmtkyf.Ekwfquftydwf uAsmyJ b0.tpdwf tydkif;rsm;udkaz:jyxm;onfh uAsmrsm;wGif uAsmq&m udkxdkodk²awG²&Sd&p_rJ? xyfar;Edik yf gao;onf uAsmq&monf uAsmxJwiG t f b,fuo hJ ²kd olu&Sad eygoenf;/ vlxEk iS hf twlo&l adS eonf udak wG²&onf/ pdwZW rd;k n tdrrf ufjzLxJwiG rf [kw/f vlrv _ ufawG²b0wdu k yf x JG w J iG f vlxk ESit hf wl&adS ejcif; jzpfonf? uAsmq&monfyifv#if vlxjk zpfojzifh vlxck pH m;r_onf uAsmq&m.cHpm;r_t jzpfvx l Ek iS hf wom;wv$mwnf; usco hJ nf? xdrk w S qifw h ufvmum vlxpk pfyu JG Asmq&mESihf twlwu kd cf hJ onfh vGwfajrmufa&;wdkufyGJxJrS ol&Jaumif;vlxkudk a&;jc,fzGJ²oDaomtcg olonfjynfol² uAsmq&momru awmfvSefa&; uAsmq&mtjzpfodk²a&mufvm&awmhonf/ jiif;Ir&awmh?

aEGO;D ZGef/14/2011 55

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


56

”tqH;k rSmawmh 'H&k if; 'H&k if;ygyJ vd@k yJ toGio f pf jrefrmhEikd if aH &;udk apmifah r#maf ewJh acgif;&Sjd yD; OD;xkyrf &So d el @J OD;xky&f jdS yD; acgif;r&So d al wGukd owif;yg;vdu k yf gw,f”

a&morar$ jrefrmhEikd if aH &; 0if;Edik f (Lin Po Yin) jrefrmEdkifiHwGif Edk0ifbmv(7)&ufae@rSm a&G;aumufyGJusif;yjyD;pD;jyD; tpdk;&opfw&yf ay:ayguv f mjyjD zpfonf? tm%m&vmaomtpd;k &onf jynfo@l v$waf wmf tpnf;ta0;usi;f yjy;D orRw 'k-orRweJ@0ef }uD; (30)OD;udkvnf; twnfjyKjyD;jzpf.? wdkif;a'o=uD;ESifh jynfe,fv$wfawmf tpnf;ta0;udv k nf; wpfjyKd iw f nf; usi;f yjy;D jzpf.? xkw d ikd ;f a'o=u;D ESijhf ynfe,fvw $ af wmf tpnf;ta0; wGif orRwu tqdjk yKxm;onfh wdik ;f a'oESihf jynfe,f 0ef}u;D csKyrf sm; 0ef}u;D Xmersm;udv k nf; v$waf wmf rS twnfjyKcJh.? 'Drdkua&pDenf;t& a&G;aumufyGJjyKvkyf usif;y&jcif; &nf&G,fcsufrSm jynfolrsm; taejzifh Oya'jyK v$waf wmfwiG f rdrad exdik &f m jrKd @e,fukd ud, k pf m; (rdrw d @kd ud, k pf m;) v$waf wmfwiG f ajymqdk aqG;aEG; jcif;rsm;ESifh qHk;jzwfcsuf jyKvkyfEdkifrnfh udk,fpm;vS,f wOD;udk a&G;cs,f&ef a&G;aumufyGJwGif rJxnfhjcif; jzpfonf? usaemfwdk@ EdkifiHudk tkyfcsKyfrnfh orRw(odk@) 0ef}uD;csKyfudkyg a&G;cs,fjcif; oabmvnf; oufa&muf.? wEdik if H eJ@ wEdik if u H m; orRwpepf (jyifopf/ &k&mS ; / tar&duef) ESihf 0ef}u;D csKyf t"dupepf d ? a&G;aumufyu JG si;f yI rJay;&jcif; (jAw d ed f / Oa&my) Edik if rH sm;uJo h kd tkycf sKyrf y_ o kH ¾mef uGmjcm;r_um;&S. &nf&G,fcsufum; jynfoljynfom;wdk@. qENudk taumiftxnf azmfaqmifay;Edkifrnfh tpdk;&w&yfudk 'Drdkua&pDenf;usus ydkifqdkifEdkif&ef jyKvkyfjcif;om jzpf.? jrefrmEdkifiHwGif a&G;aumufyGJ usif;yI rJay;&csdefwGif 'Drdkua&pDenf;usus tpdk;&w&yfudk azmfaqmifEikd &f ef jynforl sm;taejzifh tcGit hf a&;&cJyh govm; h h h h h tJ'h t D csuu f pI pOf;pm;&ef vdyk gonf? tb,fa}umifhqdkaomf trsm;eJ@ oufqdkifaomcdkifrmwJ@ oabmwlnDcsuf wckudk yËdOmnf tjzpf aqmif&GufwJhtcgrSm Oya'a=umif;t& ta&;=uD;wJh tcsufwcsuf &Sdygw,f? tJh'guawmh rJay;&rnfh um,uH&SifawG&J@ oabmqENyg ravsmfuefwJh =oZmtm%mudk toHk;cswm/ jcdrf;ajcmufwm/ tusyfudkifwmawG uif;&Sif;jyD;rS rdrdqENtavsmuf oabmwlnDpGm rJJay;wmrsdK; aqmif&GufwmrsdK;udk qdkvdkwmyg/ tJh'DtcsufawGeJ@ rnDn$wfcJh&if 'Da&G;aumufyGJ[m 'Drdkua&pDenf; rusovdk w&m;r#wr_ vnf;r&Syd g? xd@k jyif jrefrmEdik if w H iG f jyKvyk af om a&G;aumufyw JG iG f orRwtm; jynforl S wdu k &f u kd f a&G;cs,f wifajrSmufcGifh (tar&duef) uJhodk@ r&Sdacs/ 'Dru kd a&pD qdo k nfrmS t=uiG ;f rJh trSt D cdk uif;wJh pepfwckjzpf.?'Dru kd a&pDukd tajccHwhJ t"du Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

56


57

ta=umif;t&mawG[m yHkaorl csrSwfxm;jyD;jzpfygw,f? 'g[m jyefjyifvdk@ r&ygbl;/ t"duuswJh ta=umif;t&mawG ryg0ifbl; pHrrSDbl; qdk&if b,fvdkenf;eJ@rS 'Drdkua&pDvdk@ rowfrSwfEdkifyg? 'gayrJh EdkifiH wEdkifiHcsif;pDtvdkuf vdkwdk;ydkavsmheJ@ vdkufavsmnDaxGjzpfatmif vkyf&wmrsdK; &Sdovdk vdkvnf; vdt k yfwm rSeyf gw,f/ 'guv kd nf; wOD;wa,muf tzG@J tpnf; wck&@J tusKd ;twGuf jyKjyifo;kH pG&J if 'Dru kd a&pD pHeJ@ rudkufnDyg? 'Dvdk vdkwdk; ydkavsmh vkyfzdk@&m EdkifiH wpfckvHk;&J@ trsm;pku oabmwlzdk@vdkygw,f? xdk@tjyif a&G;aumufyGJ rwdkifrDSuwnf;u rnfonfhpepf usifhoHk;rnfqdkaom tajccHOya' udk twdtvif; jyXmef;&ygw,f/ a&G;aumufyGJqdkif&m Oya'ESifh enf;Oya' rsm;udk =udKwif jyXmef;&rnf jzpfygw,f/ a&G;aumufyJG umvwGif rormr_rsm; ray:aygu&f ef ESihf ta&;,lEikd &f ef jynfoel @J Edik if H wum u todtrSwfjyKEdkifaom a&G;aumufyGJ apmifh=unfh xdef;odrf;rnfh w&m;a&; r他dKif tzGJ@tpnf; w&yf rv$rJ aoG vdt k yfwmtrSeyf g? 'gawG r&Syd eJ @J rSeu f efwhJ w&m;r#wwJh 'Dru kd a&pD enf;vrf;uswhJ a&G;aumufyJG rjzpfEikd yf gb;l ? jrefrmEdkifiHwGif usif;yjyD;oGm;aom a&G;aumufyGJ yHkpH taetxm;udk =unfh&if 'Drdkua&pD&J@ tajccH pHn$ef;rsm;eJ@ b,fvdkrS rudkufnDovdk tESpfom&tm;jzifh bmrSr&SdwJh ta&+cHK 'Drdkua&pDqdkwm &Si;f &Si;f =u;D ay:vGiaf eygw,f? jrefrmEdik if w H iG f vuf&dS tkycf sKyv f yk u f ikd af eaom Adv k cf sKyrf LS ;=u;D oef;a&$ rSm urBmay:wGif tqdk;0g;qHk;aom tm%m&Sifrsm;wGif wOD;tygt0if jzpf.// xdk@twl tEdkif&&Sdaom =uHhzGH@ygwDrSmvnf; ppfwyfrS t&m&Sdrsm;eJ@ taygif;tyg OD;aqmifaom ppfwyfudk,fpm;jyKygwD yif r[kwv f m;? tpd;k & tzG@w J iG f taygi;f yg cef@tyfc&H aom 0ef=u;D (30)OD;rSm tm%m&Sit f pd;k &vufxufwiG f 0ef=uD;wm0ef ,lxm;olrsm;ESifh umuG,fa&; OD;pD;XmerS xdyfwef; t&m&Sd trsm;pkomjzpfojzifh a&GaumufyGJ usif;yjyD; tpdk;&opfw&yf wnfaxmif&m rajrmufacs? tm%m&Sif tpdk;&. vlrajymif; rl r ajymif ; onf h w&m;0if tpd k ; &jzpf a p&ef jyKvk y f r _ o m ajymvd k @ &aomf v nf ; trS e f w u,f 'Dru kd a&pDenf;usus wdik ;f jynfukd ajymif;vJ&ef =uKd ;pm;aeonf[k ,H=k unf&efrmS udu k n f w D m wckrrS &Sad cs? tqdk;0g;qHk;rSm orRwjzpfolonf EdkifiHawmfeJ@ tpdk;& t=uD;tuJjzpfonf [k qdkaomfvnf; wyfrawmf. t=u;D tuJ r[kw[ f k tajccH zG@J pnf;yHk Oya'rSm =uKd wifjyXmef;xm;jcif;jzpf.? TuJo h @kd aom Oya'rsdK; b,f'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHawG rSmrS r=um;zl;acs? rnfonfh'Drdkua&pD vrf;a=umif;twdkif; oGm;aom Edik if w H iG rf qdk a&G;aumufyjJG y;D v#if v$waf wmf ac:,lusi;f yjy;D tEdik &f ygwu D , kd pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm; trnf pm&if ; eJ @ twl jyXmef ; jyD ; aom tajccH O ya't& orR w trnf u d k a=ujimpjrJ y if / xd k o d k @ udk,fpm;vS,ftrsm;pk. qENjzifh a&G;jc,fcH&aom orRwrS rdrdpdwf=udKuf tpdk;&tzGJ@0if 0ef=uD;rsm;udk a&G;cs,cf ef@tyf a=ujim.? jrefrmEdik if w H iG f a&G;aumufyjJG y;D I &ufaygi;f rsm;pGm =umonftxd a=ujimxkwjf yefjcif;r&Sad cs? xd@k tjyif tajccH Oya'wGif umuG,af &; OD;pD;csKyu f kd orRwrS wdu k &f u kd cf ef@xm;cGirhf &Sb d J vuf&dS tm%m&Sif umuG,fa&; OD;pD;csKyfom tpdk;&opfudk cef@tyfEdkifovdk orRw. txufwGif &Sdaeonfh orRwrSm EdkifiHawmfudk tkyfcsKyfaom &kyfao;tpdk;&tzGJ@ acgif;aqmifvdk jrifae.? xdk@twl rnfonfh EdkifiHawmfwGifrqdk tjrifhqHk; w&m;pD&ifa&; tzJG@rSm w&m;v$wfawmfcsKyf jzpf.? odk@&mwGif jrefrmEdkifiH. tpdk;&opf usifhoHk;rnfh tajccH Oya'wGifrl umuG,fa&; OD;pD;csKyfu qH;k jzwfyikd cf iG hf r&S[ d q k . kd ? qdv k &kd if;rSm wyfrawmfom;rsm;onfvnf; Edik if o H m; jynfoyl if jzpfaomfvnf; &mZ0wfr_ wpfckck usL;vGefonfhwdkifatmif olwdk@tay:wGif EdkifiH. w&m;Oya'rSm oufa&mufr_ r&SEd ikd af tmif wrif zefw;D a&;qGx J m;jcif;vdk jzpfae.? xdu k @J od@k tajccH Oya'udk jyefvnfjyifqif&efrmS vnf; 57

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


58

jynfo@l v$waf wmfu, kd pf m;vS,f tm;vH;k . av;yHo k ;kH yHk axmufc&H ef vdt k yf./ xdak xmufcrH _ &&efrmS vnf; rjzpfEikd af cs? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf v$wfawmfwGif jynfolvlxku a&G;aumufwifajrSmufwm r[kwfyJ wdu k &f u kd cf ef@xm;onfh ppfwyf ud, k pf m;vS,f 25% ygjy;D jzpfaoma=umifh 'Dvkd tpd;k &rsKd ;eJ@ tkycf sKyrf y_ pkH u H kd jynfol@v$wfawmfu tkyfcsKyfaom EdkifiHa&; yHkpHvdk owfrSwfvdk@ r&Edkifygbl;? 'Drdkua&pDrSm wpfydkif;wpfp &,fv@kd r&Syd g? 'Dru kd a&pD enf;vrf;udk azmfaqmifaeygonf vd@k vnf; ajymvd@k r&Edik yf gb;l ? vuf&dS tpd;k & taejzifh trSefwpfu,f 'Drdkua&pD vrf;a=umif;udk azmfaqmifvdkv#if t&ifOD;qHk; EdkifiHa&; tusOf;om; v$wfay;&ygw,f? xdk@twl rw&m; nSif;cHxm;&aom ygwDrsm; zdwfac:jyD; aqG;aEG;&ef vdktyfovdk tjyKd it f qdik f ygwrD sm;tjzpf vdt k yfaom cGijhf yKjcif; vkyaf qmifciG rhf sm;ay;tyfro S m rSeu f efaom 'Dru kd a&pD vrf;a=umif;udk azmfaqmif&m a&mufygrnf/ vlwpfa,mufonf rJ&o kH @kd oGm;I rJay;vku d jf cif;onf bmrSrjzpfavmufygb;l [k xifjrifap aomfvnf; trsm;pkaygif;I rJay;jcif;a=umifh xGufay:vmaom &v'fonf vlwpfOD;csif;pD. uH=urRm (Edik if o H m;wd@k . tajccH &ydik cf iG )hf ESihf Edik if w H pfEikd if . H rl0g'rsm; ajymif;vJomG ;onftxd ta&;ygvyS gonf? 'Drdkua&pD enf;vrf;ususjzifh w&m;r#wr_&Sdaom a&G;aumufyGJrsm;wGif; jynfolrS rvdkvm;aom tpdk;&wpf&yfudk z,f&Sm;Edkif&ef tcGifhta&; &Ekdifrnfjzpf.? odk@aomf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif usif;y jyD;oGm;aom a&G;aumufyGJwGifum; xdktcGifhta&; r&Edkifa=umif;udk 2008ckESpf tajccH Oya' jyXmef; jyD;uwnf;u odEikd af yonf/ a&G;aumufyJG usi;f yay;rnf[k qdu k wnf;u twdu k t f cHygwrD sm;ESihf tm%m&Sif wd@k . =u@H zH@G ygwDrsm;=um; wef;wl tcGifhta&; &Sdoifhonf? pme,fZif; rD'D,mrsm;rS tqifhwef;wl vGwfvyfpGm rdrd wdk@. rl0g'udk vGwfvyfpGm a[majymcGifh a&;om;cGifh &&rnf? jrefrmEdkifiHwGifum; xdktcGifhta&; r&Edkif &Sjd y;D jrefrmhtvif; owif;pmuJo h @kd owif;pmrsm;rS tpd;k &ydik f jzpfaejcif; yk*v ~ u d ydik f owif;pm xkwaf 0cGihf vdk enf;vrf; trsdK;rsdK;jzifh ydwfqdk@xm;jcif; owif;*sme,frsm; tay:wGif pmaypdppfa&; [k ac:aom owif;vGwv f yfciG u hf kd ydwq f @kd aom tzG@J rsm;&S. d ? Edik if aH &; ygwrD sm; rJq, G &f ef ukeu f srnfh aiGa=u; tvSLaiG xnfh0ifolrsm;. yg0if ywfoufr_onf &dk;om;oavm/ tcGifhta&;twGuf xnfh0ifjcif;avm qdkaom apmifh=unfh avhvmrnfh EdkifiHwpfum u todtrSwfjyKEdkifavmufonfh a&G;aumufyGJ apmifh=unfh xdef;odrf;a&; w&m;r他dKif r&Sdjcif;onf w&m;r#waom a&G;aumufyGJ &v'frsm; ray:aygufEdkifacs? Edik if aH wmftvH ajymif;vJjcif;udv k nf; a&G;aumufyJG usi;f yjy;D tEdik &f ygwrD S ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;ESihf ta&G;cs,cf H ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm; yg0ifaom v$waf wmf(trsKd ;om;v$waf wmf/ jynfo@l v$waf wmf) rS wwfod em;vnfaom ynm&Sirf sm;. tultnDjzifh a&G;cs,jf y;D rS jyifqifjcif; ajymif;vJjcif;rsm; jyKvyk &f ;kd xH;k pH&. dS ? yHrk eS t f m;jzifh Edik if aH wmf tvHonf vGwv f yfa&; &pOf uwnf;u toH;k jyKcahJ om tvHawmfukd tpOftquf tpdk;& tzGJ@tpnf; ajymif;vJonfhwdkif toHk;jyK=u.? EdkifiHawmf. tvHawmfonf EdkifiH. tESpfom& t"dy`g,frsm;pGm yg0ifatmif ynm&Sifrsm; ordkif; ynm&Sifrsm; pOf;pm;awG;ac:jyD; ygvDref v$wfawmfrSm tm;vH;k axmufcrH E_ iS hf vGwv f yfa&; &jy;D tpOf tquf toH;k jyKcjhJ cif;jzpf.? ,ae@ ppftpd;k &rSm rnfonfh t"dy`g,f / rnfonfh tESpfom&rS r&SdyJ jynfaxmifpk pdwf"gwfudk udk,fpm;jyKxm;onfh jrefrmEdkifiHawmf tvHukd =uzhH @HG ta&mif ud, k pf m;jyKxm;aom ta&mifay:wGif wyfrawmf trSwt f om; =u,fwpfv;kH jzifh ajymif;vJjcif;wGif EdkifiHom;wdk@. qEN ryg0ifyJ rdrdwdk@ oabmt& ajymif;vJypfvdkuf.? Tonfum; jrefrmEdkifiHawmf. ordkif;0if trSwftom; ordkif;0if udk,fpm;jyKxm;aom t&mwpfckudk zsufqD; Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

58


59

azsmufypfwmeJ@ twlwlyif / EdkifiHeJ@,SOfaom tvGef=uD;rm;onfh jypfr_udk jyKvkyfjcif;yifjzpf.? a&G;aumufyGJ usif;yay;&Hk/ jynfol@v$wfawmfrSm t&yfom; udk,fpm;vS,f tenf;i,frS vufndL;axmif acgif;ndrfh yg0ifcGifh &&HkeJ@ udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u awmif;qdkaomm pD;yGm;a&; ydwfqdk@r_udk tar&duef ESifh Oa&my EdkifiH=uD;rsm;u cGifhjyK&ef rvHkavmufyg? w&m;r#wr_ &Sdaom 'Drdkua&pD vrf;a=umif;rSef razmfaqmifEikd o f a&G@ rjzpfEikd b f ;l qdw k mudk Ed0k ifbmv (7)&ufae@ xGuaf y:vmnfh &v'f w&m;r0if[k tar&duef EdkifiHjcm;a&; 0ef=uD;Xme ajym=um;csuft& odomygw,f? jrefrmhedkifiHa&; taetxm; ajymif;vJ&efrSm w&kwftpdk;&. tcdkiftrm tumtuG,fay;r_ atmufrSm&Sdaeoa&G@ EdkifiHwpfum. xda&mufulnD yH@ydk;r_ r&Edkifygbl;? tuef@ towfeJ@ yH@ydk;r_om &Edkifr,f qdkwm oabmaygufjyD; udk,fhEdkifiH&J@ ta&;udpPudk usaemfwdk@ jynfolawGom a':atmifqef;pk=unf&J@ acgif;aqmifr_eJ@twl udk,ftm;udk,fudk; ajz&Sif; &rSmyg? a&G;aumufyu JG kd apmif=h unfh xdr;f odr;f aom tzG@J &Sad omfvnf; a&G;aumufyJG Oya'. yk'rf (87) t& w&m;r#wr_udk razmfaqmifEdkifaejcif;rSm ay:vGifap.? 4if;wGif aumfr&SifESifh aumfr&SiftzGJ@0ifrsm; aumfr&SiftzGJ@cJGtqihfqifhESifh ,if;wdk@. tzGJ@0ifrsm;/ a&G;aumufyGJa=umif;t& jzpfap jypfr_a=umif;t& jzpfap w&m;pGJqdkjzif; rcHxdkufap& [k jyXmef;xm;onf? tm%m&Sifwdk@ pdwf=udKuf vkyfaqmifEdkif&ef tumtuG,f ay;xm;jcif; jzpfojzifh vGwv f yfjy;D w&m;r#waom a&G;aumufyEJG iS hf qef@usib f uf jzpfae.? jynforl sm;xH jynfo@l v$waf wmf a&G;aumufyOJG ya' rl=urf;udk &Si;f vif;azmfjyjcif;/ t=ujH yKcsuo f abmxm; qENrsm; awmif;cHjcif;r&Syd J tm%m&Siw f @kd pdw=f uKd uf wzufowf a&;qGJ jyXmef;jy;D a&G;aumufyJG usi;f yojzifh w&m;r#waom a&G;aumufyGJ jynfolrsm;twGuf 'Drdkua&pD vrf;pOfudk azmfaqmifEdkifaom tpdk;&udk jzpfay:vmrSm b,fvdkrS rjzpfEdkifyg? 'Drdku&pD&J@ tajccHrlrSm vlxku tpdk;&udk a&G;cs,fwifajrSmuf&wJh udpP jzpfaomfvnf; jrefrmEdkifiHwGif azmfaqmifaom 'Drdkua&pDrSm tm%m&Sifrsm;u vljrifaumif;atmif ay;vmwJh a&G;cs,fp&mudkyJ jynfolawGu wdkuf&dkufa&G;cs,fcGifh&wJh wdkuf&dkuf'Drdkua&pD tqifhyJ&Sdygw,f? ta&;=uD;udpP tm;vHk;udk tm%m&Sif tpdk;&uyJ qHk;jzwfygw,f? jynfol@ taejzifh tpdk;&udk rJay;a&G;cs,fcGifh r&ygbl;? 'Drdkua&pDtwGuf t"du tusqHk;jzpfwJh Rule of Law vdk@ac:wJh w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;r_ r&Sdjcif;[m jrefrmEdkifiH 'Drdkua&pD vrf;a=umif;ay: ra&muf&SdEdkifjcif;&J@ tajzqdkvnf; rrSm;ygbl;? vuf&Sd jrefrmEdkifiH&J@ EdkifiHa&; ajymif;vJr_[m ppfwyf tkyfcsKyfr_rS 'Drdkua&pD twkta,mif tm%m&Sifqef vl@abmiftodkif;t0kdif;eJ@ tpm;xdk;wJh ajymif;vJr_ygyJ? tem*gwf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif tkyfcsKyfr_ tm%mudk wpdwfwa'o v$wfawmf &&Sdawmh jyKjyifajymif;vJr_ tenf;i,fvyk Ef ikd w f maygh [k ajymqdak eaomfvnf; vuf&dS a&G;aumufyJG tjy;D tem*gwf jrefrmEdkifiHrSm vlvnf;rajymif; rlvnf;rajymif;bJ ESvHk;om;r&SdwJh tm%m&SifawG ppfcarmufrS acgif;aygif;ajymif;wmyJ &Sdygw,f? usefwmuawmh bmrS rajymif;vJyg? jynfol@ udk, fpm;jyK v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm; taejzifhvnf; wdkif;jynfudk jyKjyifpdwf b,favmufyJ tm;aumif;aumif; tajccHOyga' t& bmrSrwwfEdkifwJh taetxm; r[kwfygbl;? tqdk;0g;qHk;rSm tajccHOya'yg tcsufrsm;rSm wyfrawmf wzufapmif;eif; tompD;,lum a&;qGJxm;jcif;jzpf.? tqHk;rSmawmh 'Hk&if; 'Hk&if;ygyJ vdk@yJ toGifopf jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;udk apmifhar#mfaewJh acgif;&SdjyD; OD;xkyfr&SdoleJ@ OD;xkyf&SdjyD; acgif;r&SdolawGudk owif;yg;vdkufygw,f? w&m;r#wr_ r&SdwJh tajccHOyga'eJ@ rw&m;wJh trdef@ tm%mrSefor#udk zDqef=uygpdk@ / // 0if;Edik f (Lin Po Yin) 59

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


60

vpfb&,f0g'arG;zGm;jcif;ESihf

w&m;r#wrSK

armif=unfopf

w&m;atmufwGifarG;zGm;/ ¶Sifoefaexdkif=u&aomvlom;wdkhonf tm;vHk;omwlnDr#jzpfI obm0tcGifhta&;udkvnf; wef;wlnDr# &¶Sd=u.? obm0tcGifhta&;(Natural Right) qdkonfrSm b0&yfwnfcGifh/vGyfvyfcGifhESifhypPnf;OpPmydkifqdkifcGifhwdk@jzpf.?,if;tcGifhta&;wdk@udk wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; o[Zmwjzpfjzpfusio hf ;kH Edik af &;twGuf vlom;wdk o h nftcsi;f csi;f tjyeftvSeo f abm wlncD sujf yKum vlry_ ËdnmOf(social contract)csrw S I f rdrw d kd t h ay: pDrcH ef ch rJG j_ yK&ef tpd;k &tzGJ t h pnf; (0g)Edik if aH wmf tm%mudk wnfaxmifzGJ hpnf;=uonf/ xdktcgEdkifiHawmftpdk;&tzGJ htpnf;onf4if;udk wifajrSmufzGJ@ pnf;ay;aomEdik if o H m;wd. hk rlvobm0tcGiahf &;rsm;jzpf=uonfb h 0&yfwnfciG /hf vyG v f yfciG Ehf iS yhf pPn;f OpPm ydkifqdkifcGifh wdkhudktmrcHcsufay;I obm0w&m;ESifhtnD tkyfcsKyf&rnfjzpf onf?xdk@a=umifh avmhcftvdk t&Edik if aH wmftm%monf vlwpfO;D wa,mufwiG v f nfaumif;/tzG@J wpfz@JG wGiv f nfaumif;rwnf¶adS y?vl@ tzGJ t h pnf;wpf&yfv;kH Yomwnfayonf? xdk@jyifavmhcfu a¶$;aumufyGJpepfjzifh jynfol hudk,fpm;vS,frsm;udkrJay;Itpdk;&zGJ hpnf;jcif; onftaumif;qHk;pepfjzpfonf[kqdkayonf? Todk@EdkifiHom;trsm;pkua¶G;aumufwifajrSmuf+yD; EdkifiHawmftm%mtyfESif;cH&aom tpdk;&tzGJ@onf EdkifiHom;wdk@.obm0tcGifhta&;udk umuG,f apmifah ¶SmufEikd jf cif;r¶Sad omtcg od@k wnf;r[kwf 0ifa&mufpu G zf uf xdyg;vmaomtcgwiG f rlvoabmwl xm;cJh=uaomvlr_yËdnmOfonfysufjy,foGm;aoma=umifh EdkifiHom;wdk@onftpdk;&tm;awmfvSefydkifcGifh (Right of Revolution) ¶S d a yonf ? Tod k @ aomavmh c f . ‘obm0tcG i f h t a&;’/‘trsm;pk tkyfcsKyfa&;’ESifh‘awmfvSefydkifcGifh¶Sda&;’[laomt,ltqrsm;onf acwfopf'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHa&;wGif aoG;a=umrsm;yrmpdrfh0ifysH@ESH@vsuf¶Sdayonf? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

60


61

‘EdkifiHawmftm%m. rlvydkif¶SifrSmEdkifiHom;rsm;jzpfaoma=umifh EdkifiHom;tm;vkH;onf EdkifiHa&;wGifyg0ifaqmif¶GufEdkifcGifh¶Sdolrsm; jzpf=uonf’[laom avmhcf.t,ltqudk tar&duef vGyv f yfa&; a=unmpmwrf;wGix f nfo h iG ;f azmfjyxm;ayonf? xdt k csed rf pS I vlwikd ;f yg0ifaqmif¶u G =f uaom EdkifiHa&;pepfonfurBmwpf0ef;ysH@ESH@oGm;.? ,if;pepfonfurBmhEdkifiHa&;orkdif;wGif ta&;tygqHk;aom zG@H +zKd ;wd;k wufr_ jzpfonf[q k Ekd ikd af yonf? avmhc. f Edik if aH &;'\eudk tajccHIay:xGe;f vmaom awmfveS af jymif;vJr_ wpf&yfrmS ‘Edik if aH &; t&w&m;0ifjzpfr_’(Political Legitimacy)jzpf.? ,if;rSm tkyfcsKyfcHEdkifiHom;wdk@. auseyf cGifhjyKcsuf(0g)oabmwlnDcsuf &¶SdrSomv#if EdkifiHawmftpdk;&wpf&yfonf w&m;0ifjzpfonf[laom tcsufjzpfonf? ,ae@umvwGif rif;qdk;rif;npf tm%m¶Sif tpdk;&jzpfap/'Drdku&ufwpftpdk;&jzpfap tpdk;&wdkif;urdrdwdk@onfjynfolvlxk.oabmwlcGifhjyKcsuf(consent)&¶Sdxm;olrsm; jzpfonf [koma=uG;a=umf=u.? rnfonfhtpdk;&acgif;aqmifr# rdrdwdk@.tkyfcsKyfcGifhtm&%monf bk&m;ocifu csrS w f a y;xm;jcif ; jzpf o nf [ l I vnf ; aumif ; / obm0w&m;upOf q uf r jywf c srS w f a y;onf [lIvnf;aumif;rajym=um;=uawmhay? EdkifiHom;wdk@.oabmwlcGifhjyKcsuf &¶dSaomtpdk;&[lonf vl@tzG@J tpnf;wpf&yfv;kH Edik if o H m;tm;vk;H . vdt k ifqENujkd ynfq h nf;ay;&onfh ,EW&m;jzpfayonf? rsufarSmufacwfwGif EdkifiHacgif;aqmifrsm;/EdkifiHa&;orm;wdk@onf oabmwlcGifhjyKcsuf&¶Sdaom tpdk;&omv#ifa&¶SnfwnfwHhrnfjzpfa=umif; aumif;pGmoabmaygufem;vnf=u.? jynfolwdk@. oabmwlcGifhjyKcsufrygv#if tpdk;&w&yfonfaumif;pGmv_yf¶Sm;vnfywfI r&Edkifaoma=umifhjzpf.? xdk@a=umifhvnf;enf;vrf;rsdK;pkHudktoHk;jyKI‘w&m;0iftpdk;&rsm;’udkxlaxmif=u.? Tae&mwGif Ed k i f i H a &;w&m;r#wr_(Political justice)onf t a&;ygayonf ? w&m;r#wpG m jzif h jynf o l w d k @ . ,H=k unfaxmufcrH (_ 0g) oabmwlciG jhf yKcsu&f ¶Sad omtpd;k &onf w&m;0iftm%mudk rSeu f efpmG &¶Sad om tpdk;&jzpf+yD; rdrd.vkyfief;pOfrsm;udkvnf; acsmarG@pGmvnfywfEdkifatmif pGrf;aqmifEdkifrnfjzpfayonf? Todk@r[kwfv#if EdkifiHom;jynfolwdk@. ,kH=unfr_ysufjy,foGm;+yD; pdwfa&mudk,fygyl;aygif; aqmif¶Gufr_ udkvnf; qHk;¶_H;oGm;um zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufr_vnf; &Edkifrnfr[kwfacs? a&¶SnfwGif qlyltHk=uGr_rsm;/ rauseyfrr_ sm;/t=urf;zufwu kd cf u kd q f ENjyr_rsm;vnf; xdEk ikd if rH sm;wGif qufwu kd af y:vmrnfomjzpfonf? ,ckvwfwavm wleD;¶Sm;/ tD*spf/t,fab;eD;,m; wdk h.w&m;0iftpdk;&rsm;}uHKawG@ ae&aomtjzpfqdk;rsdK;jzpfayonf?odk hjzpfIacwfopfEdkifiHa&;ody`Hynm¶Sifrsm;u avmhcfajymovdk EkdifiHom;wdk@.EdkifiHa&;Y yg0ifvkyfaqmifEdkifcGifhESifhEdkifiHa&;t&w&m;0ifjzpfr_wdk@onf 'Drdkua&pD EdkifiHwnfaqmufjcif;twGufta&;}uD;ouhJodk@ jynfolwdk@.,Hk=unfr_udk wnfaqmufay;Edkifaom EdkifiHa&;w&m;r#wr_onfvnf; r¶Sdrjzpfta&;yga=umif;qdk=uayonf? xdk@a=umifhrsufarSmufacwf EdkifiHa&;'\eynm¶Sif *|efa&m(Jhon Raws)u‘w&m;r#wr_onfvlr_tzJG@tpnf; wnfaqmufa&; wGit f ajccHtusq;Hk aom aumifjrwfjcif;w&m;jzpfonf’[kqckd jhJ cif;jzpfayrnf? armif=unfopf Ref: 1. James Barber, ‘Citizen Politics’,1786 . 2. Oxford Dictionary of Politics,2003.

jynfol@acwf twGJ1 /trSwf34 / 3rwf/ 2011 =umoyaw; 61

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


62

vli,fwkd h&JΠEdik if aH &; aumif;uifopf (30)

H vlawGu jrefrmyDyDyJ csdwfvHkcsnfawG0wf acgif;aygif;wvlvleJh uke;f uke;f uGuMG u;D awGvyk q f akd wmh usaemfwdk u h awmh oabmusw,f? ADpD'Do&kyfaqmifawG vdkayghaemf/

o¶kyfazmf aumufa=umif;yef;csD - rif;ausmfcdkif (www.moemaka.com

rS ul;,laz: jyygonf?)

D jzLjzLoif;

wavmwkef;u EkdifiHa&;orm;a[mif;rsm;wjzpfvJ pma&;q&mrsm;/ vuf&Sdv$wfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,fqdkwJhyk*~dKvfrsm;u v$wfawmfwGif;EkdifiHa&; qkdwJhtoHawG tawmfav;nHatmif ajym=u qk=d uwmawG em;rqef@atmif =um;cJ&h ao;ygw,f? ckxufxdawmh rD'D,mtrnfcH tpdk;&tvkyfauGs;jyK pmapmifawGavmufrSmom v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,fawG&JŒ v$wfawmftawG@=uHKawG/ ar;jref;cef;avmufom zwf&ygao;w,f? bmeJ@ tvm;o¾mefwo l vJqakd wmh ay:jyLvmjzpfvq k J ay:jyLvmjzpfavmufw,f qkw d hJ wufopfp tqdak wmf/ o¶kyfaqmifawGudk tifwmAsL;ay;wmrsKd; jzpfaewmawmh &ifarmp&myg? “v$ w f a wmf E k d i f i H a &;qk d + yD ; ZG w f a jymae=uwmygAsm? w&uf v m; usaemf w k d @ ae@pOf jrifae&wmyJav/ 15 rdepf v$waf wmfac:w,fAsm/ b,favmufrsm; [mo}uKd uaf ewJh vlawGvnf;awmh rodb;l ? 15 rdepfe@J t+y;D owfvu kd w f hJ v$waf wmfrsK;d u usaemfw@dk wkid ;f jynfu pwmayg/h tpuwnf;uudk v$wfawmf em,u}uD;qdkwJhvlu ajymxm;om;vm;Asm/ jiif;ckef aewmeJ@ tcsdefrukefaeeJ@/ bmjzpfr,f nmjzpfr,fayg?h aumif;ygw,f/ wkid ;f jynfa&;&m 15 rdepfwm qk+d y;D awmh Ekid if w H umudak wmif jzef@oifw h ,f? 'grS 'Drdkua&pDqkdwm v$wfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,f 400 avmuf 15 rdepf awG@&w,fqkdwm odoGm;rSmaygh? twk,rl ,fh wkid ;f jynfawGuvnf; twk,El idk w f mayg?h Ek d @ rd k @ tvum;ae orR w ud k v nf ; apm'uwuf / [d k p D r H u d e f ; qk d v nf ; apm'uwuf / EdkifiHjcm;a&;&mvnf; apm'uwufqkd&if rjzpfawmhbl;av? ckvdk pDpDrHrHvkyfxm;wm 45 rdepfavmuf aqG;aEG;&if b,favmufaumif;avrvJAsm? 'Drdkc&uf 'Drkdc&uf qkdwJh txl;tqef; vlom;awGvnf; 15 rdepf 'Drdkc&uf jzpfzl;oGm;wmaygh? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

62


63

'Dwdkif;oGm;&if [mopma&;q&mwkd@/ [mo¶kyf&SifqdkwmawG aysmufoGm;Ekdifw,fav? bmjzpfvkd@vJqkdawmh n 8 em&Dwdkif&if 0wf¶Hk}uD;awGjcHK aygifcsdefvdkyJ wlawGxk ygw,f? 'Dvlvnf; ¶ky&f nftm;jzifah wmh usew f muawmh jrefrmhtoHu vlwa,mufu 0if0ifajymay; vlawGu jrefrmyDyyD J csdwfvHkcsnfawG0wf/ acgif;aygif;wvlvleJ@ ukef;ukef;uGuG}uD;awGvkyfqdkawmh usaemfwkd@uawmh oabmusw,f? ADpD'Do¶kyfaqmifawG vdkayghaemf/ tJhvdkqkdawmh usaemfwkd@ twGuf vrf;cif; wHwm;aqmufwmtjyif vlaygif; 400 ausmf[m ADpD'DawGjyay;awmh t&rf; aus;Zl;wifw,f ajym& rSmaygh” 'guawmh pdwftcsnfaygufaewJh vli,fwa,mufu tjyif;txef a0zefjyoGm;wmyg? wu,fwrf;awmh 'Dvdkv$wfawmfEkdifiHa&; wGifus,fvmwmeJ@trSs vlxkEdkifiHa&; aysmufoGm;avrvm; qdkwJh tm%m&SifawG&JŒ pdwfrlrrSefr_udk vlxku aumif;aumif; odae+yD;om;yg? 'D v$wfawmf uk, d pf m;vS,af wGtaeeJ@uvnf; [D&=d owyw&m;udk qifjcifoifah eyg+y?D ud, k pf m;vS,af wGtaeeJ@ rdru d dk jynfolu b,favmufxd ,Hk=unfw,f/ rJ b,favmuf ay;cJhw,fqkdwmawmif odyg&JŒvm;vdk@ ar;cGe;f xkw&f rvdk jzpfaeyg+y?D trSefudk trSeftwdkif;0efcH&Jzkd@ vdktyfygw,f? udk,fu rJEdkifcJhwmvm;/ tm%m&Siftvdkus 0ifujy toHk;awmfcH&wmvm;/ tm%m&Sifcif;usif;wJh 'Drkdua&pDZmwfysufxJrSm vl&$ifawmf 0ifvkyfae&wmvm;qdkwm udk,fhzmom todqHk;yg? a&G;aumufyGJ}udKumvawGrSmwkef;u ajymcJhwJh jynfoal wG&ŒJ toHudk v$waf wmfrmS zGi[ hf r,fqw dk hJ tcsi;f t&mawG ajymcGi&fh r&qdw k mvnf; 'Dy*k Kd~ vaf wGu jynf o l v l x k x uf od a e+yD ; om;jzpf y gw,f ? tck trd e f @ ay;wmawG vk d u f v k y f a e&ol wyfrawmfom;awGuawmif rdred @J rxdu k w f efwhJ &mxl;awGay;vd@k jiif;y,fvu dk w f ,f qkw d hJ toHawGvnf; xGufay:vmaeygw,f? 'Dvkyf&yfawG rSefrrSefvdk@ usrtaeeJ@ rajymvdkayr,fh rdrdeJ@xkdufwefw,f/ rwefb;l qkw d mudk odaewmudu k 'D wOD;wa,mufcsi;f pDrmS &Sad ewJh t&nftcsi;f ud, k &f nfu, dk af oG;awG jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh trdef@awGeJ@oGm;wmawGukd Oya'a=umif;t& jyKjyifcsifygw,fqkdwJh vlawGtaeeJ@ xyfrH pOf;pm;p&mawGjzpfaeyg+yD? wqifhcsif;pDoGm;rS 'Drdkua&pD&r,fqkdwJh tkdif'D,mrsKd;[m wdkif;jynfeJ@ vlrsK;d udk apmfum;wmvk@d rsm; bma=umifh rpOf;pm;=uavovJqw dk m ar;cGe;f xkwpf &myg? v$waf wmfEidk if aH &; b,favmuf &Sifoefaeae vlxktusKd;rjyKEkdif&ifawmh v$wfawmfqkdwmvnf; tvum;oufoufvkd jzpfaerSmyg? 'Dv$wfawmfrSm b,fol@wifjycsufawGudk axmufcHw,f? b,fol@tqkdjyKcsufuawmh bmqdkwmrsKd;awGudkvnf; ckxd xkwfazmfrajymEkdif=uao;ygbl;? usrwkd@ 'Drdkua&pD vdkcsifwmyg? pum;vH;k awG vdck siaf ewm r[kwyf gb;l ? w¶kwpf um;yHw k ck&ydS gw,f? “jrifomwJah e&mrSm zGuyf g” qkw d hJ pum;&yfav;yg? jynfolukd udk,fpm;jyKjcif; rjyKjcif;qkdwm tom;xm;vkdufvkd@ v$wfawmftpnf;ta0; usi;f yaewmawGuadk wmh ae@pOfe;D yg; jrifawG@ae&ygw,f? 'Dv$wfawmfu xifomjrifom&SdaewJhae&m wckyg? 'D xifomjrifomae&mrSm usrwdk@ vdkcsifaewJh 'Drdkua&pD[m ajrjrSKyfcHxm;&ovdk jzpfaewmyg? 'ga=umifh usrwkd@ vli,fxkawGtaeeJ@ nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ@ ppfppfrSefrSef 'Drdkua&pDudk azmfxkwf=uygpdk@vdk@ usr qENjyKvkduf&ygw,f? usr rjzLjzLoif;yg? (vGwfvyfwJh tm&StoH a&'D,dktpDtpOfudk jyefvnfwifqufwm jzpfygw,f) 63

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


64

vl@pGrf;tm;t&if;tjrpf pDrHcef@cGJr_qdkonfrSm rdrd&J@pD;ygG;a&;tzGJ@tpnf;twGif;Yaomf4if;/vlr_a&; Edik if aH &; v_y¶f mS ;r_tzG@J tpnf;twGi;f Yaomf4if; 0efxrf;rsm;/tzG@J 0ifrsm;wpfO;D csipf &D @J pGr;f aqmifru _ kd rdr&d @J organization firm(tzG@J tpnf;) twGuv f yk if ef;atmifjrifatmif azmfxw k pf rD cH ef@cGJ toH;k jyKjcif;vd@k qdck sif ygw,f? vlom;wdik ;f rwlnw D hJ t&nftcsi;f rsm;pGm¶Syd gw,f? wcsK@d uazmfxw k o f ;Hk pGcJ iG ¶hf =dS uovdk wcsKd @rSm azmfxw k o f ;Hk pGcJ iG hf r&¶S=d u¶Smygb;l ? wcsKd @rSm tcGi¶hf &dS @J om;eJ@ azmfxw k o f ;kH pGzJ @kd r}uKd ;pm;=uygb;l ? wpfO;D csi;f pD&@J rwlnw D @J t&nftcsi;f awGay:rSm rwlnw D @J wm0efcaJG 0ay;aqmifapjcif;jzifh vl@pGr;f tm;t&if;tjrpf awGudk jynfhjynfh00 aqmif¶GufapEdkifrSm jzpfygw,f?

vl@pGrf;tm;t&if;tjrpf pDrHcef hcGJr+qdkwm bmvJ h h h 0if;vJhar(acwW *syef)

usrwdk@tm;vHk; rdrdwdkif;jynfeJ@vlrsdK; zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufwm/ aumif;pm;wmjrifcsif=uwm csnf;yJjzpfyg w,f? t&rf;wd;k wufaewJ@Edik if aH wG¶o dS vdk qif;&Jw@J Edik if aH wGvnf; trsm;}u;D ¶Syd gw,f? ‘bma=umifq h if; &JErG ;f yg;ae=u&ovJ?’ ‘bma=umifah &m*gawGcpH m;ae&ovJ?’‘bma=umifah cwfynmwwfawGenf;o xufenf;vm&ovJ?’qdw k mudq k ifjcifoifyh gw,f? usrwd@k vlrsKd ;awGuyJ tvGen f w hH ma=umihv f m;? ?ao csmwmwpfckuawmh vlrsdK;uvkH;0rnHhbl;qdkwmygyJ?jrefrmvlrsdK;awG[m awmf=uygw,f? jzwfxdk;Om%f eJ@ud, k cf si;f pmw&m;vnf; ¶S=d uygw,f?tJ't D wGuaf =umifh tajz¶Smoifyh gw,f? usrwd@k Edik if H aumif;wJh zG@H +zKd ;wd;k wufrt _ wGuf tajz¶Smzd@k qENr¶S&d ifawmh usrwd@k Edik if t H wGuf raumif;wJzh @HG +zKd ;wd;k wufre_ @J y}u J KH =u&rSmjzpfygw,f? b,fvzkd @HG +zKd ;wd;k wufre_ @J wd;k wufcsio f vJqw kd mvJ ud, k u f , kd w f ikd af ocsmodxm;em;vnf zd@k vdyk gw,f? em;vnfatmifvnf;}uKd ;pm;oifyh gw,f? qif;&JwJhEdkifiHawGrSm wdkif;jynfzGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuf (1)tajcaetcsdeftcg (2)t,ltqo abmxm; (3)tzG@J tpnf; toif;t0if;tkwjf rpfcidk rf mr_ (4)tusKd ;&v'fe@J aemufqufwJG qdw k t hJ csut f vufawGukd xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;oifw h ,fv@kd vlro _ yd yH` nm¶Sif yD/'Avl/y&ufpw f efu qdyk gw,f? vl@pGr;f tm; t&if;tjrpfb,fuvmovJ? vl@pGr;f tm;t&if;tjrpfb,fuvmovJq&kd if ynma&;pepfuvmygw,f? Edik if w H pfEikd if rH mS ynma&;pepfraumif;&if vl@pGr;f tm;t&if;tjrpf enf;yg;oGm;ygr,f? vlom;t&if;tjrpf enf;yg;oGm;&if obm0t&if;tjrpfrnfr#yifaygºu,f0ygap/ pDrcH ef@cGrJ u _ |r;f usio f rl ¶Sw d t hJ wGuf wd;k wuf zd@k cufcaJ pygw,f? ynma&;aumif;zd@k qd&k mY oufqikd &f mtpd;k &&J@ ynma&;ay:vpDay:rlwnfygw,f? uswdk@jrefrmjynfolawGrSm tvG,fwulA[kokwrSD;p&m pm=unfhwdkufr¶Sdbl;? oufqdkif&mvl}uD; awGe@J ynma&;0ef}u;D awGu arhaeovm;/ wrifyrJ vkyaf y;ovm;/ rajymwwfatmifygy?J pm=unfw h u kd f r¶Sw d t hJ wGuf ausmif;pmoifcef;u oif¶;kd !$e;f wrf;tjyif wjcm;pmayjzpfw@J tcsp0f wˆKawG odik ;f 0wˆKawG uvG&J if zwfwt hJ usihf r¶S=d uygb;l ? oif¶;kd !$e;f wrf;awmif tjyifA[kow k eJ@,SO+f y;D roifay;awmhwt hJ wGu‘f .’‘onf’ra¶G; tvGw&f atmifoif/ ajzqd=k uwmyJ t[kwx f ifae=uw,f? 'DtwGuOf ;D aESmuf awG[m tvkyrf vkyw f wfawmhb;l / awG;awmwwfwhJ tusiahf wGq;kH ¶_;H vmygw,f? pifumylEdkifiHrSm rlvwef;ausmif;om;b0u tpjyK+yD; wcgwavrSm pmtkyfrzGifhyJ ideayJoif oGm;wJt h csed af wG ¶Scd yhJ gw,f? wpfa,mufwnf;&J@tajzxuf tzG@J vdu k (f group discussion) vky+f y;D (team work) tzG@J vdu k v f yk af qmif+y;D xGuv f mwJ&h v'fuykd J OD;pm;ay;=uw,f? usrwd@k jrefrmEdik if &H @J ynma&;p epfrSm oif=um;ae&wJh ausmif;om;awG[m bmeJ@wlovJqdk&if jrif;vSnf;rSm csnfxm;wJh jrif;awGvdkyg Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

64


65

yJ? ab;0J,m r=unfrh ad tmif rsuv f ;Hk ab;ESpzf ufukd um+y;D vd&k mc&D;udk jrefjrefa&mufatmifyJ }urd ef @J wk@d armif;ESifovdk jzpfae=uygw,f? 'D=um;xJrSmrS wcsdK@rdbawGu uav;i,fawG pl;prf;ar;jref;xl&if ol wdk@twGuf auseyfwJhtajz ay;Edkifatmif}udK;pm;rJhtpm; atmfaigufwwf=uygw,f? 'ga=umifh }uD;vm wmeJ@tr# ar;wwfwt hJ usihf survey(pl;prf;wJt h usi)hf awG wpfpwpfp aysmufq;kH vm=u&ygw,f? rar; awmhrod/ rodawmhrwwf/ rwwfawmh olrsm;jyKor#ukd vufcaH e&wJt h xd a&mufae&ygw,f? usrwd@k jrefrmawG trsm;pk[m EdkifiHjcm;om;qdk jzLjzLrJrJ txif}uD;+yD; udk,fhEdkifiHu Mineral resources(obm 0t&if;tjrpf)awG xkwfokH;cHae&wmawmif vufydkuf=unfhae&wJh b0a&mufae&ygw,f? rdrdEdkifiHrSm 0ifa&mufvmwJh Edik if jH cm;ukr% ` w D ck[m bmtwGuf 0ifa&mufvmwmvJ/ b,fvkd Trade (ukeo f , G rf )_ awG vkyfrSmvJ pOf;pm;+yD; rdrdEdkifiH&J@obm0t&if;tjrpfawG/ vlom;t&if;tjrpfawG rqHk;¶_H;atmif um uG,&f rJw h m0ef tm;vH;k rSm¶Syd gw,f? xd@k twl 4if;tzG@J tpnf;xHrS jrefrmEdik if t H wGuf b,fvt kd usKd ;aus; Zl; jyefvnf&¶Sad tmif aqmif¶u G }f uKd ;yrf;zd@k vJ vdyk gw,f? wdik ;f jynftyk cf sKyf rif;vkyaf ewJv h rl sm; ydo k wdcsyf oifyh gw,f? ynma&;e,fy,fwiG v f nf; ausmif;om;wpfa,muf pmrawmfwmeJ@ txufuazmfjycJw h t hJ wdik ;f ./ / onfra¶G; r&wmeJ@avmurSmbmrS oH;k pm;vd@k r&atmif vl}u;D rdb/q&mawG qlq;kH rwmawG}uKH z;l yg w,f? ausmif;pmr&ayrJh tjyifpD;ygG;a&;qdkif&m tawG;tac: EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac: eJ@vlr_a&;qdkif&m qufqaH &;awG[m ykaH o,lqcsuaf wGa=umifh vl@pGr;f tm;t&if;tjrpfawG aysmufq;Hk apygw,f? vGrJ mS ; pGm tok;H csjcif;cHae&ygr,f? xk@d twl ppftpd;k &&J@ vufvw G pf yg,f toH;k csra_ =umifh obm0t&if;tjrpf awG wpfpwpfp ukeq f ;Hk aeygw,f? 4if;tjyif vl@pGr;f tm;t&if;tjrpfawG[mvJ wkid ;f jynftusKd ;/jynfo@l tusdK;twGuf aumif;pGmazmfxkwftoHk;cscGifh r&¶Sd=uygbl;? *syefEdkifiH/ awmifudk&D;,m;/ xdkif0rf/ puFmyl/ rav;¶Sm; pwJEh ikd if aH wG wd;k wufvmwm[m tm¶Swu kd o f m;awGtxJrS ydrk x kd ;l jcm;+y;D Om%f&nfjrifrh m;ae vd@k r[kwyf gb;l ? tJ'ED ikd if w H csKd @[m Edik if aH &;/ tkycf sKyaf &;rSm tm%m¶Siv f ;kH csKyu f ikd w f hJ pepfuw kd jznf;jznf; ESihf pGe@f v$wt f yk cf sKyv f jJ cif;a=umifv h J jzpfygw,f? usrwd@k Edik if EH iS , hf OS af jym&v#i@f @@@@ 1? ausmif;pmoifcef;rStp pD;yGg;a&;/ Edik if aH &;/ vlra_ &;e,fy,fawGrmS group discussion(tzG@J vdu k af qG; aEG;qHk;jzwfjcif;) rjyKoavmuf¶Sm;yg;aejcif;/ team work(tzGJ@ zGJ@IwufnDvufnD vkyfaqmifjcif;) enf;yg;aejcif; @@@ 2? trSef/ trSm;udk &J0Hhjywfom;pGm axmufjya0zefEdkifr_ tm;enf;jcif; 3? jy\em&J@ source(t&if;tjrpf)udk ¶SmazGqef;ppf&rJt h pm; blame(tjypfwifjcif;)udk jyKvyk af e=ujcif; awGu usrwdk@EdkifiH zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufr_ aemufusae&jcif; ta=umif;rsm;pGmxJrS t"duta=umif;&if;vdk@ xifrdygw,f? EdkifiHwpfEdkifiH wdk;wufzGH@+zdK;r_rSm Management(pDrHcef@cGJr_)u t"duusygw,f? 'ga=umifh Human Resource Management bmom&yf [ m vl o m;wd k i f ; wwf o d e m;vnf x m;oif h w ,f xifygw,f?HRMbmom&yfudk jrefrmjynfrSm 1996-97avmufrS oifwef;awG us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ zGifhvSpfcJhygw,f? odk@ayrJh 4if;bmom&yfxuf Accounting ManagementvdkbmomrsdK;Yaomf4if;/ Financial ManagementvdkynmrsdK;awGrSm avhvmol rsm;cJhygw,f? 1 semester pmoifESpfwpfck&J@ pmar;yGw J ikd ;f rSm &efuek rf aS usmif;om; 3000avmuf¶ydS gw,f? pmayvdu k pf m;olrsm;av wdik ;f jynftwGuf ynma&;Trend jrifhvmwJhtwGu faumif;wJhtaygif;vuQ%mvJ jzpfygw,f? tJ'DynmawGu dk tokH;cs&rJhae&m toHk;cscGifh r&&SdwJhtwGufvJ wdkif;jynftwGuf t&rf;epfemygw,f? 4if;twGif;rSmrS 65

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


66

ppftpdk;&&J@ vufvGwfp yg,f toHk;csr_awGa=umifhmineral resource(obm0t&if;tjrpf) awG ¶S m ;yg;vmaeygw,f ? 'D ¶ S m ;yg;vmwJ h resources awG a e&mrS m usrwd k @ Ed k i f i H o m;awG t m;vH k ; &J @ vlr_pGrf;tm;t&if;tjrpfeJ@ 0ifa&mufxdk;azmuf ae&m,loifh+yDjzpfygw,f?ta¶S@awmiftm¶SrSm wpfcw k nf;aom obm0t&if;tjrpfrS rxGu¶f w dS hJ puFmylEikd if [ H m olw@kd Edik if o H m;awG&@J vl@pGr;f tm;t&if; tjrpfudk aumif;pGmem;vnfudkifwG,f toHk;cscJh&if;jzifh wkd;wufzGH@+zdK;wJh EdkifiHtjzpf&yfwnfaecJhwm ,ae@rsuaf rSmuf tm;vH;k awG@jrif&wJt h wdik ;f ygy?J ,ae@rsufarSmufumvrSm xl;jcm;atmifjrifwJh pD;ygG;a&;/ ynma&;/ vlr_a&; tzGJ@pnf;wkdif;rSm tzGJ@vdkufaqG;aEG;aqmif¶Gufjcif; u¾u txl;ta&;ygvmygw,f? nD!GwfpGm aqmif¶GufEdkifjcif; r¶Sd v#if vkyfaqmifaewJh udpPwdkif;rSm ,SOf+ydKifr_awGudk awmfawmf}udK;pm; vkyfaqmif&ygvdrfhr,f? rdrdwdk@ yef;wdkifa&mufzdk@ ZGJ/ vHk@v/ cH,lcsufeJ@ twlwuG !SdEd_if;aqmif¶GufrS tqifajyrSmjzpfygw,f? vltrsm; pk[m team work ta=umif;vnf; em;vnf=uygw,f? od@k ayrJh atmifjrifrt _ enf;trsm;[m vl@pGr;f tm; t&if;tjrpfukd tok;H csre_ nf;yg;aejcif; a=umifv h jJ zpfygw,f? 'kw, d urBmppf}u;D +y;D wJah emuf tEkjrLAk;H '%f cH&wJh*syefEdkifiH[m ol@rSmtqifhtwef;jrifhrm;wJh vlom;t&if;tjrpfeJ@ tkwfjrpfcdkifrmr_a=umifhvJjyef vnfwdk;wuf atmifjrifvmwm jzpfygw,f? w¶kyfEdkifiHrSm ,ckqdk olwdk@EdkifiHom;awGudk 1ESpfwpfcgtrd ajrjyefvm&rJh ay:vpD csrSwfvdkufygw,f? 'g[m olwdk@EdkifiHrS vl@pGrf;tm;t&if;tjrpfeJ@ywfoufwJh tusKd ;pD;yGg;r,kwaf tmif aqmif¶u G jf cif;vnf;jzpfygw,f? ud&k ;D ,m;Edik if [ H mvJ ppf+y;D acwf}u;D rSm tar&d uefO;D aqmifwt hJ yk pf ek @J qdAk , D uf,el , D H OD;aqmifwt hJ yk pf w k @kd &J@ ppfab;wdu k yf t JG wGi;f rSm aiG/ pufre_ nf; ynmeJ@ wjcm;vdktyfwJh tultnDrsm;udk udk&D;,m;wpfEdkifiHxJudk t&if;¶SifEdkifiHawGu apmifr=unfh¶_cJh jcif; cHcJh&ygw,f? xdk@tjyif udk&D;,m;awG&J@ ZG/JvHk@v/0d&d, rcHcsifpdwfeJ@ rdk;¶Gmwkef;a&cHqdkovdk &wJhtcGifh ta&;udk rvGww f rf;cHEikd cf =hJ uvd@k ,ckvkd wd;k wufaewmjzpfygw,f? pD;yGg;a&;qdkif&m EdkA,fqk¶Sif tdENd,EdkifiHom;ygarmuQ trmw&mcefu‘zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuf vGwv f yfrq _ w kd m r¶Srd jzpfvt kd yfygw,f/ vGwv f yfrr_ ¶S&d if zG@H +zKd ;wd;k wufr_ r¶SEd ikd yf g’vd@k ajymcJzh ;l ygw,f?us rwd@k jrefrmawG[m vl}u;D olr&J@qH;k rpum;udek mcHz@kd i,fpOfuwnf;u oif=um;cJ=h u&ygw,f? qHjzLoGm; }udK;txd vl}uD;rdbvJ ¶dkaoudkif;¶_dif;=uygw,f? acguf¶dk;a=uaewJh aumif;wJh"avhwpfckyg? odk@ayrJh w cgwavrSm rdrv d ufatmufu wifjyaqG;aEG;csuaf wGukd q&mvky/f apmfum;w,fxif+y;D vspv f sL¶_wwf wJt h wGuf trSm;trSeu f kd vGwv f yf&0J @H pGm raxmufjyawmhygb;l ? txufv}l u;D auseyfatmif jyKral qmif ¶Gufr_a=umifh rdrd&J@tzGJ@tpnf;rSm tEkwfvuQ%m jzpfvmapygw,f? xdkif;EdkifiH[m ppftpdk;& c%c%tm%modrf;wm cH&ayrJh olwdk@EdkifiHpD;yGg;a&;[m jrefrmjynfvdk edrfhusoGm;jcif; r¶Sdygbl;? 'gbma=umifhvJqdkwm qef;ppfzdk@vdkygw,f? jrefrmjynfrSm ppfwyftm%modrf; cJw h w hJ av#muf jrefrmjynf&@J pD;yGg;a&; r,fr,f&&rvkycf yhJ J b,fo@l rSmtjypf¶w dS ,f b,f0grmS tjypf¶w dS ,f eJ@ tjypfwif(blame) vkyaf ewmeJ@ urBmrSmqif;&JwhJ Edik if t H jzpf owfrw S jf cif;cHae&ygw,f? 'ga=umifh usrwdk@EdkifiH&J@ ukefqHk;vkjzpfaewJh obm0t&if;tjrpfawGtpm; vl@pGrf;tm;t&if;t jrpfe@J wd;k wufatmifjyKvyk f }uKd ;yrf;oifyh gw,f? 'Dvakd qmif¶u G zf @kd twGuf vGwv f yfwhJ w&m;r#wwJh 'Drkd ua&pD &¶Szd @kd vkyd gw,f? od@k rSom vGwv f yfpmG awG;awm}uq H Edik +f y;D aumif;rGew f hJ ynma&;pepfukd xlaxmif Edik rf mS yg? ta=umif;trsKd ;rsKd ;a=umifh jynfya&mufvm=u&ayrJh rdrw d @kd &Jvrl sKd ;/ wdik ;f jynftwGuf taumif; qHk;jzpfatmif/ vGwfvyfr#wwJh 'Drdkua&pD &¶SdwJhtcsdefrSm toHk;cscGifh&atmif pnf;vHk;nD!GwfpGmeJ@ rd r d u d k , f w d k i f o wd r xm;rd w J h t&nf t csif ; awG u d k tjyKoabmeJ @ ,ck c sd e f r S p I jyif q if } ud K ;yrf ; aqmif¶u G o f mG ;=uygp@kd ? 0if;vJhar(acwW *syef) Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

66


67

jroDwm udkarG;zGm;jcif; armifp;kd csdef a&!d‡rsm;onf opfyiftdk}uD;wGif vdrf;uyfouJhodk@trnfrodaom ae@rsm;. vGr;f armzG,w f @kd onfvnf;igEh v S ;kH om;wGif vdr;f uyfaeonfwum;? &m0d¹ENmewfw*dk; pma&;pm;yG J p G e f ; wG i f xyf w if x m;aom uAsmpmtkyfyHkay:rS xdkuAsmpmtkyfudk apmapmuwJu w±G u f c sif ; zwf = unf h cH p m;aerd o nf ? jroef ; wif h bmomjyefonfh &m0d¹ENmw*dk;. “avvGifhaeaom iSufi,frsm;” stay birds uAsmxJrS xdkuAsmyk'fudk pdwfjzifh±Gwfvdkufrdonf? ol@rsufESmonf wcsuf+yHK; vufoGm;onf? ESpf&Snfvrsm;a0;uGmcJhonfh trdajrudk onf&ufxJwGif vGrf;arm&Da0 aewwfonf? vGifhyg;ajrmygaeaom wdrfwdkufawG ±GufEkopfwdk@ESifh pdrf;a0!kd@qdkif;aeaom awmtkyfawG/ pdr;f pdr;f vJh aom uwWyD g aumfaZmudk qGq J ef@xm;onfh war#mw f ac: jrufcif;jyifawGu ol@pdwu f kd n‡K@d ac:cJh avovm;? ol@ pdwo f nf !$waf jymif;!ho H ufum ol@ESv;kH om;yifpnfwiG f vdr;f uyfaeaom vGr;f armbG,f wdk@udk owdw& &SdaecJhonf? wu,fu owd&onfxuf emusnf;emusifr_ rsm;/ pdwfrcsrf;ajrhr_rsm;/ vGrf;armr_wdk@jzifh &pfywfaESmifzGJ@ xm;onfh aqG;ajrhr_rsm; jzpfaecJhavonf? arG;&yftrd o f @kd vGr;f onfh tdrv f rG ;f a0'emonf &ifu h sujf cif;qDa&mufrvmyJ woo wajrah jrh w&pf00J J cHpm;&onfh tvGr;f jzpfaewwfonf? xdck pH m;r_onf ±l;oGwjf cif;wrsK;d yif jzpfaeavrvm;rod? jroDwmudk pdwfwGifowd&wdkif; wa0h0J0J jrifa&mif&rf;a&mfrdaeonfom? bma=umifhrsm; jroDwmudk rcspEf ikd cf &hJ wmvJ? nDrav;wpfa,mufvkd cspo f w l pfa,mufvkd b0c&D;azmftjzpf apmifah &Smufaz;ulz@kd trlt&mjzifh t&dyjf ycJo h nfub kd ma=umifrh sm; rodusK;d u|jH yKc&hJ ovJ? bma=umifh vpfvsL±_ OyuQmjyK cJ&h o vJ? xdkar;cGef; r#m;tpif;pif;u &ifodk@ 0ifpl;&if; jroDwmudk pdwfwGifjrifae&onf? 'D&ufawGrSmyJ vjcrf;avmif;avS ±GufvGifharsmaeaom aumif;uifwGif nDrav;jroDwmudk awG@ae&avonf? waomaom wdu k cf wfaeaom avwd;k oH/ opfuikd ;f zsm;rsm;qDrS avc|eo f rH sm;xJwiG f jroDwm. tudka&ætudka& qkdaom aqG;eifhac:oHudk pdwfem;xJwGif r#ifr#ifoJhoJh=um;ae&onf? npfax;usK;d a=uaewJh b0xJrmS taumif;qH;k trGeq f ;kH tjzLpifq;kH vkyv f u kd rf w d meJ@ toufwacsmif;vJ aoqHk;oGm;awmhwmyJ tudk&,f- [k jroDwmajymcJhavovm;? tudkom jroDwm eHab;rSm&SdaecJh&if tckvdk ajymrSmyJqdkwm tudkodw,f? tckawmhrSef;q+yD; &rf;a,mf=um;a&mifaerdw,f? a&v_dif; vdyrf sm;ay:rS c&rf;jym aA'gyiG rhf sm;ES,f jroDwm. ±kyyf kH rsm;onfvnf; jrKwaf jcay:ajc pdwt f awG;jrpfjyifY awG@&avonf? 67

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


68

w*d;k . uAsmpmyk'u f wdu k w f u kd q f ikd q f ikd f usL;&ifah ejyefonf? onfae@nrSm tke;f vufawGu wzsyzf syv f y_ v f @kd ? yifv,fu v_id ;f awGu qlnv H @kd ? vjynf0h ef;}u;D u urBm}u;D &JŒ ESv;kH aoG;pufvkd wGv J u JG sv@kd tcspf&JŒ emusifwJh v#KdŒ0Sufcsufudk b,faumif;uifursm; wdww f qdwf ,laqmifvmcJh avovJu, G ?f ? w*d;k vGefcJhonfh ESpfq,fhoHk;ESpfu azsmufzsufr&Edkifaom twdwfudk b,frdk;aumif;uifu ,laqmifo,fy;kd vmcJyh gvrd ?hf jroDwmudk rdwq f ufay;cJo h [ l m a':av;aiG r[kwv f m;? ol@awmaus;vufrS a&mufvmcJph Of rdcif. nDr0rf;uGJ a':av;tdrw f iG f aexdik o f nf? oH;k usyq f ,fih g;jym; wae@pmvkyt f m;c &&So d nfh tvkyu f kd vky&f if; vli,fah &;&m nausmif;wufonf? q,fwef;udk wpfEpS w f nf; wpf}urd w f nf; atmifcahJ omfvnf; atmufwef;pma&; tvkyu f &kd mS r&? xd@k a=umifh jrLeDpy,f ukeaf vSmif±w kH iG f ae@pm;v&Si;f xdt k vkyu f ykd J qufvyk f &awmhonf? wuUov kd o f nf b0 vufwefEiS hf tvSr;f a0;uGmoGm;cJah vonf? xdkumvwGif jroDwmeJ@ pwifodu|rf;cJh&jcif;jzpfonf? wae@? tvkyf+yD;I a':av;aiG tdrjf yefvmpOf jroDwmudk tvnfac:vmcJo h nf? “a[m'gu ighwlrdk;jrifhwJh? awmuwufvmwJh awmom;}uD;aygh? olu a':av;aiGwdk@ txnfcsKyfvkyf ief;xJu pufcsKyfor jroDwmwJh? cifrif=u/ &if;ESD;=u ulnDapmifha&Smuf=uayghuG,fæ [kwfvm;? wpdrf;awG r[kwfawmhbl;aemf?” jroDwmtoufu q,fh&SpfESpf? ol@xufoHk;ESpfi,fonf? jroDwmu ol@udk tudkyJac:onf? ol@udk,fol nDrqdk+yD; udk,fpm;jyKajymqkdonf? vBufwyGJudk twlpm;&if;/ a&aEG;=urf;aomuf&if; yGifhvif;u|rf;0ifoGm; cJh=uonf? “nDr0ifaiGaumif;&if awmom;}uD;tudk@udk wuUodkvfrSm ausmif;xm;ay;csifw,f? nDru ajcmufwef; eJ@ausmif;xGucf hJ &wm? armifErS awGtwGuaf yg?h ” “bmvJjroDwm wuUodkvfu aiGv0ef; vkyfaphcsifwmvm;? armifav;awGtwGuf vpm 0ifaiGeJ@ ausmif;p&dwf rvHk avmuf&wJhtxJ ighwl awmom;}uD;udk ausmif;xm;ay; csifw,faygh avæ[kwv f m;” &,foHrsm;u {nfhcef;usOf;usOf;av;udk odrfhodrfhwkefapcJhonf? “nDr&,f apwemarwWm pum;=um;&awmh 0rf;omw,f? aus;Zl;txl;wifygw,f? wuUov kd f qufwufzdk@xuf tvkyf&zdk@u ta&;}uD;w,f? ppfAdkvftodkif;t0dkif;eJ@u tquftpyfr&Sdbl;av? tvkyf&Smvdk@ r&&ifawmh awmjyef+yD; v,fxJrSm pdkufysKd;xGef,uf&r,fxifyg&JŒ?” olwdk@ ESpfa,mufudk aemufajymif&eftuGufacsmif;aeaom a':av;aiGrSm pum;0dkif;xJ 0ifvmcJhonf? usDp,f aemuf ajymifawmhwmygyJ? jroDwm wcpfcpf&,favonf? a&aEG;awG tHxu G rf vmap&ef yg;pyfyw d +f y;D usw d I f &,favonf? “ighwl &Gmjyef&if jroDwmvkdufoGm;ayawmh? aumufrpkdufEdkif&ifawmh jroDwm&JŒ a,muQr Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

68


69

jzpfwJh ightpfreJ@ awG@+yDom rSwfayawmh? xrdefwdkwdk atmufem;updk/ xrdefwdkwdk atmufem;updk raqmheJ@awmh&JŒ ar#mhwG,fravæ qdkwJh oDcsif;pmom;xJu twdkif;aygh? ar#mhwG,f&if i,foHygatmif atmfidkayawmh? oref;uGuf xJrSm idkayawmh? igjzifh ajym&if;eJ@awmif toJ,m;rdw,f?” “a':av;&,f tJ'u D sawmhvJ ar#meh ufqw kd m *sKed @J vm;uG@J a¹reG *g;awmif a=umufz;l uG,af yg?h tudk@ tarudkvJ nDru a=umuf&rSmr[kwfawmhbl;? bmjzpfvdk@vJqdkawmh a,muQr[m nDr&J@ tarjzpfoGm;vdk@aygh aemf? [kwfw,faemf tudk?” ndKvJhaom rdk;jrihf. rsufESmjyifwGif ywWjrm;a&mif orf;aeavonf? tlvSdKuf toJvSdKuf &,forG ;f ajymqdak eaom jroDwm. EkazG;azG;yg;jyifay:wGif pawmfb,f&aD &mifu jzmusaecJo h nf? pum;vH;k awGu racsmarG@awmh xpfaigah eav+y?D jroDwm&,fvu dk cf grS yGiv fh if;&d;k om;r_ tjzLa&mif[efyefu xyfjznhf vkdufIvm;rod/ ydkI vSy0if;vufoGm;onf? igh ESvHk;om; aqmif;&ufrsm;ay:odk@ oifah ejcnfonf +yKH ;Ijy.? ESvHk;om; aEGOD;wGifyGifhrnfh yef;yGifhrsm;udk b,fawmhrSrarh? ? w*d;k &if;ES;D u|r;f 0ifaponfh a&aEG;=urf; pum;0dik ;f rS xdpk um;vH;k rsm;onf ESpaf ygi;f ESpq f ,fausmu f pum;vHk; rsm;twdkif;yif pdwfxJwGif wvGifvGifjrnfaeavonf? jypfrsKd;rSJ@rwifaom/ 0if;0gjzLpdrfhaom jroDwm. csppf zG,f ±kyyf o kH nfvnf; xdpk Ofu zsm=urf;jyifay:wGif xdik u f m&,farmaeonfh ±kyyf t kH wdik ;f yif pdwfrsufvHk;xJrSm jyefjrifae &onf? pdrf;vef;aom twdwfawmtkyfudk b,frdk;aumif;uifu o,faqmifvmcJh avovJu, G ?f xdkrS pwifum cifrifr_acsmif;i,fonf aemifwGif&Snfvsm; us,f0ef;euf±_dif;vmaomtcg oHa,mZOf jrpfr tjzpf olwdk@ESpfOD;om;. &ifwGif w'D;'D;pD;qif;aecJhonf? ,QKjyefvnf pOf;pm;awG;awmpOf ay:xGufvmcJhonfh jroDwmESifh twdwf±kyfyHkum;rsm;onf tdkrif;aom tdyfruf rSefom;jyifay:rS =unfvifxif&Sm;EkopfqJ t&dyfta&mifrsm; jzpfaecJhavonf? aESmifóu; jzpfvmcJo h nfh oHa,mZOfonf olw@kd ESpOf ;D tm; aemifwiG f wif;&pfatmifcsnaf ESmifxm;cJo h nfukd a':av;aiGyg od&cdS o hJ nf? ol@tvkyu f òr x h rJ mS ? r[mAE<Kvvrf;ESihf odrjf zLvrf;a'girhf mS ? tvkyu f jyefonft h cg jroDwm wkd@ tvkyfvkyfonf husKH;}uD;vrf; txnfcsKyfpuf±Hkodk@0ifonf? jroDwm teD;tyg;odk@ ola&muf&SdoGm; +yD;xkdifckHwGif 0ifxkdifvkduf onfESifh aemufajymif usDp,foHrsm;udk pwif=um;&awmhonf? ±Sdrf;wdrf;wdrf; zdrf;wdrf;wdrf; jzpf&onf? oHk;acguf ajrmufwGif ±dk;oGm;onf? olwdk@ ESpfOD;udk cspfolwdk@b0 vrf;a&muf atmif avSmif=u wGe;f yd@k =uonf? aemufawmh vufav#mo h mG ;yH&k onf? rkew f ikd ;f pJp yifv,fuo hJ @kd +ird o f uf oGm;onf? wu,fvJ jroDwmudk nDrwa,mufES,f cifrifapmifha&Smufonfh oHa,mZOf tr#ifzGJ@ csn±f rkH v S I JG cspo f nfh pdwu f kd csK;d zJu h m +ird o f ufapcJo h nf? wcgw&H &ifcek cf ahJ o;onfukd qufvuf&ifrckef Edkifatmif tvkyfvufrJh b0/ b0tmrcHcsuf r&Sdonfh tajctaeu wm;qD;acszsufcJh&onf? &ifckefoHrsm;udk OD;aESmuf qifjcifr_u odrf;ykdufcJhjcif;jzpfayvdrfhrnf? jroDwm.tvkyfodk@ ola&mufaeus aom=umaeŒ aeŒvnfydkif;wGif jroDwmu ae@vnfpm xrif;bl;xJ wGio f @l twGuf w0ufcsex f m;wwfonf? ola&mufonfEiS hf xrif;bl;udzk iG u hf m jyifay;onf? 69

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


70

jroDwm =unfjzL vdk@rqHk; =unfEl;qGwfysHŒ I rqHk; awmh? wdwfwcdk; &ifckefaeavonf? “nDrudk,fwdkifcsufwm? tudkpm;vdk@ aumif;&J@vm;? +rdef&JŒvm;? bl;oD;a=umf csufuaumif; &J@vm;? tukdpm;aemf?” a':av;aiGESifh jroDwmt=um;&Sd uGufvyfwGif xdkifcHkwcHkudk ,l+yD;xdkifonf? tjyefwGif bwfpu f m;twl pD; twljyef=u onf? awmifOuUvm 16 &ufuu G w f iG f a':av;aiGu qif;+y;D use&f pfco hJ nf? 11 &ufuGufodk@ jroDwmtdrftxd olvdkufvmcJhonf? jroDwm rdom;pkrSm ol@rdom;pkuJhodk@yif qif;&JEGrf;yg;=uonf? ylavmifajcmufaoG@aom qif;&Jjcif;i&Ju b,fenf;ESifhrS pdrf;pdkºu,f0csrf;omr_udk arG;zGm;ray;EdkifcJhay? zcifu ta0;ajy; um;*dwfwckwGif ukefxrf;tvkyform;? rdcifu ZD;,dkxkwfonfh tvkyfwGif ZD;,dkxkwfonf? nDrav;ESpfa,mufESifh armifav;ESpfa,mufu rlvwef;ESifh tv,fwef;ausmif;wGif ausmif;wuf aevsuf? rdom;pkESpfa,muf. 0efxkwf0efykd; jrifhrdk&fawmifudk olwdk@oHk;a,muf0ifaiG ZD;aphjzifh ypfaygufòzcsonfhtcg b,frSm t&mxifrnfenf;? csrf;ajrŒaysmf±Gif EdkifygtHhenf;? jroDwmtdro f @kd a&mufv#in f pmpm;+y;D jyefróS uufonf? pm;rSow l @kd b0udk tzufvyk o f nf[k cHpm;=uyHk &onf? wlwl wefwef qufqHonf[k xifyHk&onf? xdk@a=umifh pm;&onf? qif;&JrGJaw i&Jb0wGif jzLpifarwWm apwemonf xm0&&Sifoef pdrf;jraewwfonf? olwdk@rSm vltcsif;csif; aoG;pkwfjc,fvS,f 'kuQay;aom/ tEdkifusifhum aomurD;awmufapaom vl,kwfrm rsm;ESifh Edi_ ;f ,SO=f unfah omtcg wu,ho f al wmfpifawG jzpfaecJah vonf? jroDwmudk 2&uf 3&uf rawG@EkdifcJhonfhtcg wcgw&H jroDwmtdrfodk@ vdkufoGm;wwfonf? wcgw&H we*FaEGae@ eHeufcif;wGif jroDwmxHa&mufoGm;wwfonf? vbuf&nfESifh tD=umauG; 0,foGm;wwf+yD; jroDwmrdom;pkESifh twlwuG eHeufpm pm;wwfonf? jroDwm. zcif OD;av;óuifrSm wywfv;kH yifyrf;cJo h r# EGr;f vsaewwfonf? jroDwm. rdcif a':av;jrurl tm;i,fErG ;f yrf;onfh ±kyv f m$ udk tm;wif;ZGpJ w d jf zifh v$r;f ±Hk ,Suo f ikd ;f xm;wwfonf? “tudu k b,fawmhwuUov kd f wufrmS vJ” “b0u tJ'Davmufwdus aocsmvSw,f r[kwfygbl;? wuUodkvfwufzdk@ &nf&G,fcsuf rxm;awmhbl;? tvkyf&&if vkyfom;aumvdyfudk wufr,fvdk@ pOf;pm;xm;w,f? tckavmavmq,f wa,mufxJ pm;p&dwfaep&dwfu oHk;usyfq,fhig;jym;eJ@ rvHkavmufawmh tvkyfwckxyfvkyfrvdk@? AdkvfcsKyfvrf; 27 vrf;xdyf EGm;Edk@'dkifuae EGm;Edk@ udk,fpm;vS,fydk@cdkif;wJh vBuf&nfqdkifawGudk EGm;Edk@ vdu k yf @kd &r,f?” jroDwmrSm yg;pyfta[mif;om;? ai;&Daom rsufvHk;tpHkjzifh ol@rsufESmudk armh=unfhae±HkrS vGJIbmrS bmrSrwwfEdkif? rajymomawmh? “at;uG,f/ tJ'Dtvkyfu tqifajyw,f/ vlvdkw,fqdk&ifayghuG,f/ om;&J@ OD;av;udk tJ'DtvkyfrSm vkyfcdkif;ygvm;?” “óu;pm;=unfah o;wmaygh a':av;&,f?” wu,fu eHeufapmapm EGm;Ed@k vdu k yf @kd cJo h nfh pwkwaW e@wGif tvkyu f &yfqidk ;f oGm;onf? av;&uftwGuf 16 usyf &vku d o f nf? 'gy?J vufum;EGm;Ed@k ukeo f nfu vkyif ef;udk &yfqikd ;f vdu k If jzpfonf? bGJ@&vli,frsm;? q,fwef;atmif ausmif;om; vli,frsm;rSm tvkyfvufrJhtjzpfESifh pGef@ypfypPnf;/ tr_dufo±dkufrsm;tjzpf yHkxyfaeonf? tvkyfvufrJh vli,fb0onf rwfwwf opfajcmufyifawG jzLuminary pfvmcJ=huMagazineVolume onf? 70 5,No.4


71

tonf;ESvHk;. a=uuGJr_aemufrS t&mrsm;. csKd;csKd;c|wfc|wfjrnfoHudk ig=um;&aomfvnf; xdkt&mrsm;udk igrjrifEdkif? w*d;k wnae? tvkyfqif;csdefwGif bwfpfum;ay:rS qif;vmcJh=u+yD; a':av;aiGESifh vrf;cGJum jroDwmtdrfodk@ ajcvsifav#muf =uonf? jroDwmudk wckckajymjyzdk@ vdktyfvmcJhojzifh xdknaeu wrdkifeD;yg;udk twlav#muf&if; pum;ajymjzpf=uonf? “tud@k tvkyu f tkwpf uf&w dS hJ tif;pdef 'nif;uke;f udk ajymif;&r,f? bufpt kH qifajy&atmif 'nif;uke;f rSm tudk ajymif;aerSmjzpfr,f? eufzefajymif;rS jzpfr,f? a':av;aiGw@kd vJ pdwrf aumif;=ubl;? ajymif;a±GŒ cGcJ gG =u&r,fqakd wmh? tJ'gnrD av;udk today;wm? E_wq f ufwm? 'gayrJh tudv k mvnfrmS yg? nDrav;ab;em;rSm tm;ay;wJhtcsdefuawmh av#mhoGm;wmaygh? tJ'DtwGuf pdwfraumif;ygbl;? b,fvykd jJ zpfap tudæ k ” bmqufajym&rSef;rodawmh? nDrav;pdwfraumif;rSmvJ taotvJpdk;&drfaerdonf? ol. nmvufarmif;udk wG,fzuf xm;aom jroDwm. nmvufarmif;onf wc%Y!SmwHrS aºuvGifh aom&Gu0f guo hJ @kd jyKwu f s oGm;onf? tm;ud;k tm;xm;olEiS hf tm;ay;ol.vufrsm;onf tqufjywfomG ; onfh edrdwfvuQ%mrsm;ayvm;? quf+yD; pum;rajymjzpf=uawmh? jroDwmtdrfodk@ a&mufvmpOf a':av;jrudkawG@&onf? OD;av;óuifu tvkyfu rjyefao;? arSmifw&D nOD;qnf;qmY a':av;jrwdk@ rdom;pkudk E_wfquf+yD;jyefcJhonf? vrf;w0ufxd jroDwm ygvmcJhonf? aemuf vSnfhjyefpOf jroDwmxHrS idk±d_ufoHudkol =um;&onf? “tud@k udzk ufickd siw f ,fov d m;/ oGm;awmh” ol@ykcek ;f pGe;f wGif jroDwmrsuEf mS tyfvu kd o f nf? ol@ajcvSr;f rSm&yfaeqJ? ol@vufjzifh jroDwm. OD;acgi;f udk EG,rf #if wr#iEf , S f &pfywfxm;+y;D jzpfomG ;onf? rsuEf mS cGgvu kd o f nfEiS hf ±_u d o f EH iS hf rsu&f nfu ol@ykckef;pGef;Y usef&pfcJhonf? xdkpOfu olwdk@ESpfa,mufudk orD;&D;pm; cspfolrsm;tjzpf xifrSwfEdkifonf? olu &ifckefoHudk armifESrqdkonfhqifjcifodjzifh xdrf;csKyfoif;owfcJhol? &ifckefoHaoqHk;aeoltjzpf b,folrS rodEdkif? jroDwmrSvGJI? ywf0ef; usiftxifvGJ+yD; &D;pm;cspfoltjzpf txifcH&v#ifvnf; renf;bl;qdkolr[kwf? tjrwfxkwfvdkol r[kwf? EkopfysKdjrpfvGef;aom jzLaomyef;yGifhjzpfonfh jroDwmonf ol.apmifhpnf; r_a=umifh &ifcek &f Ed;k Ed;k &ifonfyifv#if &ifrcke&f aJ wmh? wd;k wdwv f eG ;f aom &ifcek o f u H kd jroDwm ol@bmom jyef=um; ae&jyefonf? xdkae@nu vrf;ab;rD;wdkif rD;a&mifatmufrSmvm;/ arSmif&dyfpyfwGifvm;? ,QKjyefpOf;pm; =unfhaomtcg olwdk@ESpfOD;. cspfolwdk@ yHk&dyfay:vGifaeaom v_yf&Sm;r_trlt&monf b,fae&mrSmvJ qdo k nfukd pOf;pm;Ir& awmh? 0d;k w0g;&Da0aeav+y?D txl;wvnf olrw S rf ad eonfrmS r0Hrh &J axG;ayG@r_EiS hf &ifcek o f rH sm;udyk if? aemufwvwGif olaexdik o f nfh tdrcf ef;usO;f usO;f uav;od@k jroDwm tvnfa&mufvmcJo h nf? “tud@k udk vmavhvm wm” [k&,fIajymonf? avhvma&;qdo k nft h wdik ;f a0zefa&;vJvyk cf o hJ nf? 71

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


72

tudk&,f usef;rma&;vJ *±kpdkuftHk; [kqdkonf? “tudkwdk@ oli,fcsif;ESpfa,muf aewJhtcefu te@Htoufraumif;bl;? wzuftdrfu tnpfta=u;awGu tudkaewJh tcef;atmufudk pD;0ifaew,f? wae&mudk ajymif;oihfw,f? tvif;a&mifvJr&bl;? ae@a=umifawmif arSmifrdkufaewJhtcef;[m awmom;}uD;udkrdk;jrifh&JŒ tcef;aygh” jroDwm pdwfraumif;jzpfrdwmvm; cHjyif;wmvm;? wckckudk xdxdcdkufcdkufcHpm;rdcJhonf? oluawmh jroDwm. pdwf roufromESifh +yHK;aomt+yHK;udk yef;wyGifhtjzpfESifh =unfharmaecJhonf? twlwal eonfh rsK;d ausmu f kd jroDwmESihf rdwq f ufay;cJo h nf? rdsK;ausmu f kd vdu k cf zhJ @kd ac:ao;onf? od@k aomfrvdu k cf ?hJ jroDwmudk ac:vmcJ+h y;D olw@kd . qif;&Jom;&yfuu G x f rJ S qif&o J m;xrif;qdik u f av;wGif xrif; aºu;onf? xd@k aemuf rdom;pk tzd@k [kqu kd m yvmwmESiv hf u B &f nfukd 0,fjcrf;xkwaf y;vdu k o f nf? aemufwacguf jroDwm vma&mufvnfywfcahJ o;onf? aemufq;kH wacgujf zpfaecJo h nf? olonf jroDwmESifh tawG@usJvmcJhojzifh pma&;+yD; tm;ay;onf? pmwdkufrSay;ydk@onf? tvkyfaumif; awG@&if OD;av;udk tvkyfajymif;+yD;vkyfzdk@ vmajymr,f[k pmxJwGifa&;cJhonf? tkwfpuf tvkyfu &yfqdkif;oGm;+yD qdk&ifawmh OD;av;vkyfwJh ukefxrf;wJh tvkyfudk OD;av;eJ@twl vmvkyfr,f[k aemufajymifovdk jzpfaeonfhpma=umif;wa=umif;udkvJ xnfha&;jzpfcJhonf? b0qdkwm wdkufyGJyJ? b0twGuf owWdawG ZGJpdwf"gwfawGudk arG;jrL ysKd;axmifxm;&r,f qdkwmvJ pmxJrSmwpGef;wp &Sif;jyxm;cJhw,f? b0qdkwm yef;csDum;csyfwcsyfvdk worwfwnf;r[kwfbl;? vlawGtm;vHk;[m bmwpfcrk S ar#mv f ifv h @kd r&awmhb;l rGe;f =uyf vm+yq D &kd ifawmh xGuaf yguaf wG &SmazG=uvdrrhf ,f? wae@ae@ w&uf&ufrSmtudkwdk@nDrav;wdk@ b0awG[m ajymif;vJwdk;wufoGm;& rSmayghæ [k txyfxyfa&; xnfo h nf? aemufwpfEpS w f iG f jroDwm tvkyx f u G o f mG ;+yD qdo k nfo h wif;udk =um;&awmhonf? xdo k wif;udk ±kwfw&uf=um;& vdkufpOf ol@acgif;ay:u qHr#ifqHyifawG axmifxoGm;onf? acgif;onf ,QKxuf ESpq f }u;D oGm; onf? aoG;vGew f w k af uG;a&m*gu armifav;ti,fq;kH udk aorif;xHac:aqmifomG ;cJo h nf? aq;±Hkwif uko zdk@ aiGr&Sdojzifh tdrfrSmyJ uav;uaoqHk;oGm;onf[k a':av;aiGu ajymjyonf? bma=umifhtvkyfu xGufoGm;&wmvJ? b,fvdkxifovJ[k a':av;aiGudk ar;jref;pHkprf; aomfvnf; a':av;aiG wdwu d sus tajzray;Edik ?f tdkæ rdef;ri,f yifv,fonf urBmajr}u;D udk &pfywfouJo h @kd oifonfvnf; euf±_dif;aom rsuf&nfwdk@jzifh urBm}uD;. ESvHk;om;ukd &pfywfcJhonfwum;? w*d;k aemifwiG jf roDwm. b0ed*;kH udk jyefvnfajym=um;cJ&h onf? odvu kd &f onfh tcdu k t f wef@wGif a'go/ a=uuGrJ /_ qd@k eifrh /_ 0rf;enf;ylaqG;r_/ w&m;cHukd rauseyf rausat;Edik o f nfh a'gowd@k onf rD;v#rH sm; tjzpf ajymif;vJoGm;um &ifudk avmifòruf awmhonfyJ? wu,fu &ifudk ravmifu|rf;rDuyif avmifu|r;f jcif;cHc&hJ onfh jroDwm. b0udk b,faomtcgwiG rf S arhazsmufI r&Edik af wmh? atmufq;kH v$m b0wljcif; cspfarwWm pmemr_onfydkrdkI t&G,ftpm;}uD;rm;oGm;um pdwfwGif ,QKc%rSmyif wajrŒajrŒ emusn;f apcJo h nf? 'nif;uke;f wGif olEiS t hf wlaexdik cf o hJ nfh oli,fcsi;f rsK;d ausmu f jroDwmtdru f akd &mufcahJ =umif;/ Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

72


73

jroDwmudk vufy;l vufus awG@cJ&h / pum;ajymcJ&h a=umif; ajymjypOfu =um;ae&onfh em;ESpb f ufuykd if r,HkEdkif chJ? em;av;buf&Sd&ifawmif r,HkEdkif? rsdK;ausmf&Sif;jypOf &ifxJwGif usifueJ usifueJ eifhusJcHpm;&onfrSmvJ trSefyJjzpfonf? rsK;d ausmt f vkyf XmerS txl; t&m&Sq d o kd l ppfAv kd . f wdww f w d yf ek ;f tajrm‡ ifr,m; jzpfaecJo h nf [kqdkonf? jroDwmxH ra&mufwm=um+yDwJh? pmeJ@aiGudk ppfAdkvfuoGm;ay;cdkif;I jroDwmxH oGm;ay;cJh&onf? jroDwmjzpfaerSef; jroDwmeJ@awG@rS od&onf[k qdkonf? jroDwmemrnfudk ajymif;xm;cJhonf? cifrsKd;wifh? “igwdk@ tdrfcef;udk jroDwm ESpfacgufvmvnfbl;wmyJ? igaumif;aumif; rSwfrdwmaygh rd;k jrif&h ,f? igvJ tHt h m;oif+h y;D pmay;aiGay;+y;D wmeJ@ csujf cif; tjrefxu G v f mcJw h ,f? ol@rsuEf mS udk zsyu f eJ wcsuyf J =unfEh ikd w f ,f?” rsKd;ausmfajymor# pdwfxdcdkuf±HkrS wyg;tjcm;ajymp&m r&Sdawmhay? wu,fhwu,fwGif rsK;d ausmt f vkyf vkyaf eonfh ukeo f , G af &;0ef}u;D Xme txl;t&m&Spd pfAv kd o f nf 'kw, d jzpfonf? jroDwm tvkyfvkyfcJhonfh usKH;}uD;vrf; txnfcsKyfpuf±HkrS !$ef=um;a&;rSL;csKyf AdkvfrSL;aZmfrif;onf jroDwmudk pwifodrf;oGif; jzm;a,mif; zsufqD;cJhol? yxrw&m;cH? umryifhulaumif. t!_d@ yOPvufuGef,uf tr#ifrsm;xJwGifoufqif; ajcr$cHcJh&av ol jroDwm? ppfAv kd af wGrmS u vuf&t dS rd af xmifrb _ 0wGif ºu,f0csr;f om+y;D om;? tm%mvufnKd‡ ;xd;k or# a&$qakd &$/ aiGqakd iG jzpfomG ;=u+y;D om;? q,fausmo f uf orD;awGyif avmuedrmŠ efbakH y:u wuUov kd w f iG f txufwef;v$m pm&if;0ifrsm;jzpfcJh=u+yD? ukefxrf; tvkyform;wpfOD;. orD;}uD; jroDwmrSm ajcmufwef;ESifhausmif;xGufcJh&um pufcsKyftvkyform;r? +yD;awmh ppfAdkvf. umraiG0,f u|ef jzpfvmcJo h nf? olwdk@. orD;rsm;ESifh t&G,fwltoufwlrsm;jzpfaom "e tm%m ynmrJhaom jroDwm rsm;onf olwdk@. =oZmtm%m wefcdk;atmufwGif "e tm%m ynmwdk@ ryGifhvef;Edkifonfhtjyif eif;ajccH&onfh ta¹cGcHyef;rsm;om jzpfvmcJh=uonf? wcsKdŒyef;yGifh jzLv$rsm;udk ajcmufv/ wcsdKŒudk ud;k vjzif&h rRut f aoG;tom; tazsmaf jzcHb0od@k olw@kd uyif wGe;f yd@k cJ=h uonf? wcsKŒd rSm vdt k yfae aom aiGa=u;udk&,l=uonf? wcsKdŒu tqifhjrifh tvkyfae&m? wcsKdŒqdk&mxl;&oGm;=uonf? cifrsKd;wifhac: jroDwmrSm ajcmufv twGuf aiGa=u;&&dSonf? xdk@aemuf t0wftxnfESifh tvSjyifrdwfuyfrsm;/ a&ar$;rsm; ponfh rufvHk;rsm;&&SdcJh=uonf? aemuf wpfa,muf ppfAdkvf. vufwGif;wGif ig;v aexdkifcGifhay;xm;cJhonf? tcef;wpfcef; iSm;xm;+yD; xdktcef;wGif umraus;u|ef vkyf&onf? 'kwd, ppfAv kd u f jroDwmudk yxrppfAv kd . f yefawmfusjzpfco hJ jzifh aiGa=u;yrm% rsm;rsm;ray;awmh? azsmaf jz a&;u|ev f yk t f m;crSm tvGeyf ifenf;yg;oGm;cJah vonf? 1980 ckEpS rf sm;wGif òr@awmf. a'owES@H wvsm;wGif yef;aºuawm &moDu v$r;f umyef;jzLyGirf sm;rSm wa0h00J J aºuvGichf =hJ u&avonf? wdik ;f jynfEiS v hf rl sK;d tm; tEW&m,fcyford ;f rS u,fwifrnf[k a=ujim cJah omppfAv kd w f odu k o f nf vlw@kd udk t!Ge@f csK;d tjrwfxw k u f m tqDpm;I tom;òrae=u av+yDaum? xd@k aemuf yef;a¹ccsK;d zsu&f m tdrcf ef;rsm;rSwqifh òr@awmf. vrf;ryvufazmif;ay:od@k niSuf ae@iSufrsm;tjzpf wcsKdŒaom umrppfu|ef yef;uav;rsm;onf a&mufvmcJh=uonfvnf; &SdaecJhonf? jroDwmonfyifv#if A[kdw&m;±Hk;. aemufausmbuf vGwfvyfa&;pmwrf;a&;xdk;&m vGwfvyfa&; ausmufwikd o f @kd ra&mufvmbl;[k b,foal jymEdik yf grnfenf;? 73

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


74

av;ESpf&Snf=umcJht+yD;jroDwmudkjyefvnfqHkawG@aomtcg olwkd@ESpfOD;pvkH;yif rwfwwfu touf&SL &yfqdkif;oGm; ouJhodk@ rifoufrdaecJh=uonf? ar#mfvifhrxm;aom awG@qHkthH=ojcif;u xGuo f uf0ifoufukd E_wo f rd ;f ,latmif oGm;cJah vovm;? rwfwwfuarhae =uonf? jroDwmtoHu wH&k aD eavonf? “tud”k [k ±kww f &ufac:vdu k o f nfh toHu avxkxw J iG f txyf xyfw&kH aD ecJo h nf? “nDrav;” qdak om wke@f jyefou H wd;k wdrv f eG ;f vSonf? &ifw@kd onf tpdwpf w d f uGaJ =uoGm;cJh av+yv D m;rod? &Spfav;vHk; ta&;awmfyHkpwifcJh+yD? 'kwd,ajrmufonfhae@ vlxkcsDwufppfa=umif;rsm; qHkqnf;&m òr@awmfcef;ra&SŒ vlyifv,fxJwGif olwdk@ESpfOD;vma&muf qHkqnf;cJh=ujcif;jzpfonf? &Sdor# tiftm;jzifh jroDwmonf ol@udo k rd ;f ayG@ zuf!p‡ x f m;cJh avonf? ol@&iftw kH iG f acgi;f pdu k rf suEf mS tyfum w±_HŒ±_HŒidkaºu;aecJhonf? vGefcJhonfh av;ESpfu 'nif;ukef; tkwfpufodk@ ajymif;a&GŒ rnfh&ufY vrf;ab; arSmif&yd pf yfwiG f E_wq f uf id±k u d_ o f x H ufyif jyif;jyaecJo h nf? oD;rcHEikd f [efraqmifEikd o f r# ±_u d o f w H @kd onf &ifudkzGifhvSpf jyo&m t&m0wWK wckjzpfaecJhonf? jroDwmrSm tvSrjc,fyJ cyfErG ;f EGr;f vSaeqJ? jzLEktom;a&mifu 0g&ifv h moa&mif? wckawmh uGmjcm; oGm;onf? ,Qiu f +yKH ;vdu k &f ,fvu kd w f ikd ;f csraf jrŒaom t+yKH ;onfErG ;f vs yef;wyGiEhf , S f ,J, h o hJ m &Sad wmhonf? “nDr b0[mysufpD;oGm;cJhyg+yD tudk&,f? ppfAdkvf&J@ t"rR zsufqD;jcif; cHcJh&+yD;wJhaemufrSm av#mfa=u;tjzpf tajr‡mifr,m; wdwfwdwfykef;jzpfvmcJhw,f? tJ'Db0udk ESpf}udrfESpfcg&cJhw,f? uav;awGausmif;xm;zdk@ p&dwf/ tazhudk aq;ukwJh p&dwf/ tdrfcef;iSm;ceJ@ tdrfpm;&dwf/ tJ'Dpm;&dwfpu aiGa=u;awGukd tJ'b D 0u &cJw h ,f tud?k apwemarwWmeJ@ ay;cJw h mr[kwb f ;l ? aiGe@J cE<mud, k ef @J vJ&wm? rESpfu tazqHk;w,f? armifav;ti,fqHk;vJ qHk;&Sm+yD? tudk@udk cspfwJharmifav;aygh? aemufqHk;awmh 'Dta&;awmfyx kH J b0a[mif;u trJpuf tnpfta=u; '%f&mawGukd c0gcsz@kd a&mufvmcJw h myJ tud?k vlawGukd t&Siv f wfvwf òr0g;zsupf ;D aewJph epfukd vlawGuyJ zsuo f rd ;f zd@k csw D ufvm=uwmyJ? woufv;kH qHk;±_H;a=urGcJhwJh b0awG vlawG[m csDwufwdkufyGJ 0ifvdk@ toufay;&&ifvJ ay;qyf&usKd;eyfygw,f? woufvHk; qHk;±_H;cJhor#twGufayghtudk?” jroDwm. rsufvHk;tdrfonf awmufvufvmvdkuf/ rSdefazsmhoGm;vdkuf? =urf;wrf;aom aEGvnfc&D;b0 ujroDwmudk taumif;qH;k oif=um;jyocJ+h y;D jzpfonf? yxrawmh jroDwmud=k unfu h m/ jroDwmajymwmawGudk vdkufvHrSwfom;&if; thH=o aerdonf? aemufawmh jroDwmudk xdkodk@yif em;vnfoGm;onf? cuf=urf;aom b0[m taumif;qHk;q&myJ? “nDrb0 ysupf ;fD oGm;pu nDrtdru f kd tudv k mrvnfygapeJ@vd@k }uw d +f y;D qkawmif;aecJrh w d ,f? tdrfrSm vJnDru raeawmhbl;av? tudkvmvnf&if taratmf[pfidkrSm pkd;vdk@” vlxk v_dif;vdyfawGcsDwufoH/ [pfaºu;oHawGu olwdk@ ESpfa,mufudk zHk;v$rf;xm;ESifhonf? jroDwm. pum;vHk;awGudk pdwfem;jzifh aumuf,lcJh&onf? olu jroDwmudkar;onf? aemufae@awG 'dk@ESpfa,muf b,frSm qHkqnf;=urvJ? aq;±Hk}uD; ta&SŒbuf 0ifaygufrSm reuf 10em&D qHk=ur,f? ae@wdik ;f qH=k ur,f [kcsed ;f qdv k u kd f =uonf? jroDwmvufawGu ðywfwu l o hJ @kd ol@vufarmif;udk wif;&pfzufw, G x f m;onf? rv$waf wmh? rdk;+cdrf; oH=um;rS awmufwJhu uGmusonf? ukwfwG,fxm;wwfonf[k =um;cJhbl;onf? jroDwm. ukww f , G zf ufayG@ xm;aomvufrsm;onf vnf; xdo k @kd yifjzpf avrvm;? jroDwm. rsuv f ;kH tdrx f w J iG f rsuf&nf=unfrsm; tdkifpðyae+yD? aumif;uifudk armh=unfh&if; “tJ'Dvdk rdk;wdrfawG !dk@vm&if &ifxJrSm Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

74


75

qd@k vmw,f? tud@k ud}k uw d +f y;D vGr;f awmhwm yJ? owd&awmhwmyJ? tudu k nDrudk owd&&JŒvm;? nDrvdrk S vGrf;&JŒvm; ajymprf;yg?” ywf0ef;usifu olwdk@udk *±krpdkuftm;? &efolppfwyfu vlxkudk b,fuae0dkif;xm;rvJ? ypfcwfowfjzwf=urvJ? tif;pdeb f ufukd csw D uf=urvm;? war#mw f ac: vlyifv,f}u;D onf csw D uf&ef vrf;pudk&SmazGaeoa&mif? “tudk@pmxJrSm tudka&;cJhovdkbJ? nDrrSm cGeftm;owWdawG arG;cJh+yD;+yD? 'DtHkºuGawmfvSefr_xJ a&mufvm cJw h mudyk J =unfah yawmh? b0udk ajymif;vJypfwm ud, k u f , kd w f ikd yf J ajymif;vJypf &wmr[kwv f m;? 'Dta&;awmfyHk}uD; +yD;&if tudkeJ@ nDr twlaecsifw,f? twlae=u&atmifvm; tudk? b0opftwGuf wpfujyefpcsiw f ,f? tudek @J yJ jyefpcsiw f m? tudu k aum” “bmjzpfv@kd topfjyefrpEdik &f rSmvJ? tudu k [kw d ;Hk u tpd;k &vcpm; tvkyu f ykd J tm;xm;cJw h m? tudku tawmhudk a&vdkufvGJcJhwm? tawG;vGJ&if b0vJvGJacsmfoGm;awmhwmyJ? nDreJ@ygvGJcJh&w,f? tck yk*v ~ u d qyfjympuf±rkH mS tvkyo f iftjzpfe@J vkyaf ew,f? vcvJaumif;w,f? aemifrmS ud, k w f ikd q f yfjym xkwfvkyf Edkif+yD? b,fvdkyJ jzpfygap ta&;awmfyHk+yD;wmeJ@ nDrvdyfpm twdkif; tudkvdkufvmcJhr,f? 'grSr[kwfvJ tudkqDvmcJh? tao;pdwfajymjy wdkifyif=uwmaygh? 'Dwcgawmh tudk@b0xJrSm nDrav;&Sdae&r,f? [kwfvm;aemf?” ol@udk wd;k Iyif wif;uspq f w k ! f p‡ x f m;onf? jroDwm. yg;jyifay:wGif yef;EkaoG;oef;vmonf? bmudrk S rr_Eikd af wmh? 'Dru kd a&pD wku d yf u JG topf? b0a[mif;xJrS b0opf&ifcek o f u H topf? xd&k ifcek o f H rsm;u bmrqdk b,fo@l udrk qdk &ifqikd 0f o hH nfh &ifcek o f t H opfrsm; jzpfaecJo h nf? b,ftcuftcJ awmifpOf awmifwef; ukdrS rr_awmh? jzwfoef;&eftoifh? rr_awmh? vlxkwdkufyGJppfa=umif;awG pwifa&GŒvsm;=u+yD? vlxkESifh vkyfxm;onfh vla&pD;a=umif;rsm; ajrjyifxufwiG f pD;qif;ukef =u+y?D olw@kd ESpOf ;D rSm ppfa=umif;jcif;rwl? jroDwmwGif ajymp&m pum;vH;k awGu wyHw k acgi;f use&f pfaeqJ? “b0opfudk pwif=updk@qdkawmh tudk&,f 0rf;omvGef;/ 0rf;enf;vGef;jzpf&w,f? nDrb0u '%f&mawGe@J rjzLpifawmh bl;av? tJ'b D 0udk tud@k udk ray;tyf&ufb;l ? tudk urf;,lwrJG hJ nDrvufu npfEGrf;aewJhvuf? rwlrwefawmh jzpfae+yDav? tudk@udk cspf&mrus ESpf&musavrvm; tudk&,f? oem;oGm;+yD? tm;vJemoGm;+yD?” ol@em;udk wd;k uyfcg ajymvmcJjh cif;jzpfonf? xd@k aemuf jroDwm vdu k yf gvmcJo h nfh omauw tvkyo f rm;oydwf ppfa=umif;xJwiG f jroDwmvdu k yf gomG ;cJo h nf? ±GŒH !$ex f w J iG f ayguo f nf=h umyef;onf a&xJwGif tjcm;trnfESifh aygufonfhwdkif ar$;+rJar$;rnfom jzpfay. ? w*d;k aemufw&uf? aq;±Hk}uD; *dwf0wGif csdef;qdkxm;onfhtwdkif; ESpfa,mufom;qHkqnf; jzpf=uonf? “tcknDrav;u b,frSmaevJ? tarhtdrfrSmyJvm;?” “tud k u pajym tud k b,f r S m aevJ qd k w m? tud k a ewJ h t cef ; ud k [d k w H k ; uvd k y J avhvmvd@k &rvm;?” 75

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


76

“ rdwfaqGawGeJ@ twlaew,f? nDrvmvnfvdk@&w,f? avhvmvdk@vJ &wmyJ? tudk pmay;pm,l wuUov kd f wufae w,f? "gwak A' bmom&yfukd ,lw,f? qyfjymcsuzf @kd ? tckavmavmq,f tdrfjyefra&muf ao;bl;? tvkyform;oydwftwGuf oydwfpcef;rSmyJ &Sdaew,f? nDr vdkufvmcJh&if oydwpf cef;xJrmS yJ ae&rSm? b,fEh , S v f ?J ” “nDru tarhtdrfudk wv wacgufESpfacgufyJ a&mufw,f? 'gvJc%yJ? aiGjyefydk@w,f? nDrawGu tarhukd 0dik ;f ulnD =uw,f? tarvJ t±kyóf u;jywfygy?J ajymrjycsiaf wmhb;l tud&k ,f? nDru b0wl trsK;d orD; ESpOf ;D eJ@aew,f? tud@k udk tvnfrac:csib f ;l ? vmrvnfaphcsib f ;l ? ta&;awmfy+kH y;D &if tud@k udv k mawG@r,f? b0opfjyefpzd@k ? tckawmh b0a[mif;udk vufpowfae+y?D aemuf&ufawGup+y;D vufpowf&awmhr,f? tudk@udk tckar;&tHk;r,f? b0opf wnfaqmuf&if tudk t&ifuvdkyJ nDrudkjrwfEdk;EdkifygtHk;rvm;? rdjroDwmudk wefzdk;xm; jrwfEdk;EkdifygtHk;rvm;[if” jroDwmrsufESmu wtm;udk !_d;usaeonf? tm;i,fpdwfu jroDwm. aoG;a=umxJwGif ykef;cdkvSnfhywf aecJhonfrSm =umcJh+yD? ,QKawmh xkwfar;&+yD? cspfaom tukd@&ifcGifxJwGif ðrwfESH&awmh rnfqdkawmh jrwfEdk;vSpGm cspfEdkifyghrvm;qdkonfudk odcsifae+yD? vGefcJhonfhnu tudk@udkjrifa&mifvsuf pdwu f ;l tdyrf ufbw kH iG f tud@k udk v_u d v f cJS sppf mG xdo k @kd yif ar;cGe;f xkwaf ecJrh o d nf? vlxak wGu wd;k odwyf =d uyfvmcJo h nf? ajcESpaf csmif;pm ae&m wae&mudyk if ukwu f yftm;wif; ,lxm;&onf? jroDwmu tkwfeH&Hukd rSDxm;onf? olu jroDwm udk zdrxm;rdatmif usm;uefxm; &onf? vlom;pm; ppftm%m&Sif. ppfwyfu vlxkcsDwuf&m vrf;a=umif;rsm;udk ydwf qdk@xm;+yD? oydww f yfom;rsm;rSm wa,mufEiS w fh a,muf avwd;k r0ifomatmif txyfxyf yd=uyfvmcJo h nf? jroDwmar;cGe;f xkwo f nfukd ajz&awmhonf? nDr&,f ar;p&mrvdak wmhygb;l uG,?f xm0& ,k,jrwfE;kd Edkif&r,f/ jrwfEdk;yghr,fæ [kavoHjzifh ajymvdkufpOf jroDwm armh=unf+yHK;EGJ@onfudk awG@&onf? ol@vufESpfzuf utkwfeH&Hudk axmuf+yD; jroDwmudk umxm;aecJhojzifh ab;0ef;usifu olerf;onfudk rjrifvu kd Ef ikd ?f jroDwm ezl;qHpudk txyfxyf erf;±_u d af ecJrh o d nfukd jroDwm qGw=f unfaomt+yKH ;jzifo h m wkef@jyefcJhonf? tJ'g jrwfEdk;wJhterf;vm; tudk[k jroDwmar;awmh olu+yHK;Iacgif;udk wqwfqwf +ird jhf yonf? vlxkawG ydwfnyfv#Hus vmcJhor# aemufqkwfp&m r&Sdawmh? eH&Hjzifhuyfvsuf &yfcHxm; olawGrmS ydIk touf±=_ uyfvm onf? olu jroDwmudk t&Ge;f taomazmufro d nf? awG@w,fr[kwv f m;? ta&;awmfyHk}uD;u tudkwdk@ ESpfa,mufudk qHkqnf;zdk@ atmifoG,fvkyfay;cJhwm[k ajymonf? [kww f ,faemfæ [kjroDwmu ajymajymqdq k w kd v_u d w f vS&J ,favonf? odyrf =umvdu k ?f pwifcsw D ufonft h csed o f @kd usa&mufvmonf? oydww f u kd yf EJG iS hf vlxck sw D uf&m vrf;a=umif;rsm;udk vlowfppfwyfu vdkufvHydwfqdk@onf? vlxkuwuef@/ &efolppfwyfuwuef@? aq;±Hk}uD;a&SŒrSwqifh cGJxGuf csDwuf=uaom ppfa=umif;wcsKdŒonf ypfcwfacsr_ef;jcif;cH=u&onf? xdkae@u jroDwmwdk@ ESpfOD; rcGJrcGgppfa=umif;wck xJwGif csDwufcJh=uonf? vmtudk/ ppfa=umif;xdyfudk ta&mufoGm;r,f [kqdkum ol@udkqGJac:vmcJhonf? wdkufyGJxJrSm a&SŒwef;rSmyJ aecsiw f ,f/ aemufuvdu k w f hJ aemufvu kd rf jzpfcsib f ;l [kqu kd m awmfveS af &; cGyaf 'gi;f tvHuikd rf sm; &S&d mod@k a&mufvmcJh=uonf? tvHu dkifrsm;udk aemufvlESihf vlp m;vlvJvS, faomtcg jroDwmonf cGyaf 'gi;f tvHuikd f jzpfvmcJo h nf? b0 '%f&mtemw&u pdw"f gwt f iftm; toacsu F kd arG;zGm;ay;cJo h nf? xdpk w d "f gwaf =umifyh if wufºuv_y&f mS ; vmcJjh cif;jzpfonf? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

76


77

umryifhul ppfAdkvf ESpfaumif. yOPvuf tajr‡;uGef,ufwGif oufqif;cJh&ol jroDwmonf tif;quf yd;k r$m;waumif r[kwrf eS ;f ppftm%m&Sipf epf rd;k aumifuifukd 'l;jzifw h u kd u f m wdu k yf 0JG ifvsuf jyoaecJo h nf? rdu k ±f ikd ;f zdEydS af om aumif;uifukd rD;wif±Œd_ ae=uav+yaD um? igonfa0'em cHpm;cJh&bl;+yD pdwyf suf tm;i,fczhJ ;l +yD aojcif;w&m;udk odc+hJ y/D Tavmu}u;D tv,fwiG f vljzpf&jcif;twGuf ig0rf;ajrmuf.? w*d;k =o*kwv f 18 &uf ppftm%m&Sio f rd ;f onfh aemufae@ 19 &ufwiG f jroDwmonf tmZmenf jzpfvmcJh onf? tmZmenf ol&Jaumif;wdk@. usqHk;jcif;twdkif; wdkufyGJ0if csDwuf&if; vrf;ay:wGif usqHkcJhjcif;jzpfonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;vrf;twdkif; ta&SŒrS taemufodk@ ausmif;om;ESifhvlxku csw D ufvmcJo h nf? “tm%modr;f wmtvdrk &S/d =um;jzwftpd;k & csujf cif;zG@J / ppftm%m&Sipf epf usq;kH ygap æ/ 'Dru kd a&pD ta&;awmf atmif&rnf” qdo k nfh [pfaºu;oHrsm;onf opfyif/ "gww f ikd /f taqmuftOD;ESihf ausmufom; eH&rH sm;ukd ±du k cf wfyw hJ ifaeonf? xdAk v kd cf sKyv f rf; ppfa=umif; a&SŒqH;k wef;tvHuikd w f yfwiG f jroDwm ygvmcJhonf? odrfjzLvrf;awmifrS ajrmufodk@csDwufcJhonfh odrfjzLppfa=umif;wGif rdk;jrifhygvmcJhonf? tm±k%w f ufcsed f uwJu ppftm%g&iS f opPmcHppfacG;rsm;onf csw D ufvmEdik o f nfh vlxak usmif;om;xkukd òzvSJacsr_ef;ypfowf&ef twGif;0ef±Hk; pnf;±dk; wav#muf taqmuftOD;rsm;xJwGif ae&m,lxm;cJh+yD; jzpfonf? Adv k cf sKyv f rf; ppfa=umif; twGi;f 0ef±;Hk (0ef}u;D rsm;±H;k ) +cpH nf;±d;k od@k eD;uyfvmonfEiS hf ppfacG;tkypf u k pwif y pf c wf a jcr_ e f ; avawmh o nf ? puf a oewf o H r sm;ES i f h t wl qef u G J u sJ o uJ h o d k @ vl x k a wG jyef@usJxGufoGm;onf? jrufckwform;. jruf&dwf'g; atmufu jrufyifrsm;uJhodk@ w&dyf&dyfvJòy usqHk;ukefonf? vrf;onf aoG;csif;csif;&JoGm; cJhavonf? wcsKŒd a&ajrmif;xJ ckeq f if;=u? qufvufcsw D uf&ef v_aH qmfnmoHrsm; v#x H u G v f mcJjh yefonf? ysm;tHkudk wkwfjzifh xdk;ouJhodk@ aoG;±l;aoG;wef;jzifh atmf[pfajy;v$m; ykef;a&Smif/ &ifqdkif=uyHkrSm ±ke;f &if;qefcwf jzpfaecJo h nf? vrf;ray: aoG;tdik rf sm;xJrS tavmif;rsm;udk wufvu k m o,f,o l w l csKŒd rSm xyfryH pfowfjcif;cH&jyefonf? wavmif;ay: wavmif; xyfomG ;onf? jroDwmonf 'Drdkua&pD&&Sdbdk@ ao&usKd;eyfw,f/ vGwfvyfa&;twGuf jzpfw,fa[h [kc, H [ l pfaºu;cJh olawmfveS af &; orD;ysK?d aoG;tdik x f w J iG f jroDwmxdo k @kd yif tm;wif;[pfaºu;G aecJo h nf? rd;k jrifo h nf vrf;ab;wGif arSmufvsuu f jrifuiG ;f awGukd jzef@usu=f unfo h nf? rv_y&f aJ o;/ bmvky&f rvJ/ bmvkyv f @kd &Edik Of ;D rvJ? &ifcek o f rH sm;onf &ifxw J iG f [de;f nHvsuEf iS hf tawG;wd@k rSm jrefqefvy_ &f mS ;aeonf? “nDrav;? [kww f ,f jroDwmyJ? nDrav; tud'k rD mS / tud'k rD mS a[h/ c%+ird af evdu k yf g? c% +idrfaevdkufprf;yg nDrav;” toHay;+yD;+idrfoufaebdk@ txyfxyfajymaerdonf? aoewfoHrsm;=um;wGif olvdkyJ jroDwmvnf; rv_yfr±Suf arSmufvsufae&m,lxm;onf[k xifrSwfaecJhonf? olESifh jroDwmonf ayESpfq,f/ oHk;q,fr#om a0;rnf? aoG;ql aoG;yl &ifckefum t=unfh tm±Hkonf r_ef0g;aecJhonf? “tud@k toHukd =um;&w,f? tudb k ,frmS vJ? igw@kd &JabmfawG b,fa&mufuek =f u+yv D ?J 77

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


78

igwdk@a&SŒquf csDwuf&r,f? r+yDqHk;ao;bl;? 'Drdkua&pD wdkufyGJ r+yD;qHk;ao;bl;? tudka&? tudkvufawG b,frmS vJ? vufwJG ac:r,fq”kd jroDwm aoG±;l aoG;wef; jzpfaecJjh cif;vm;? wud, k v f ;kH aoG;csi;f csi;f &Jaeonf? cGyaf 'gi;f ezl;pD; eD;apG;aomta&mifESifh udk,fcE<mrS pD;xGufvmaom eDv$aoG;a&mifwdk@onf jroDwmudk,fay:wGif aygif;pyfa&m,Sufae+yD? tm;wif;nD;wGm; atmf[pfum ol&Sd&mqDodk@ vSrf;wuf&ef odk@r[kwf a&SŒodk@csDwuf&ef prf;+yD;ukef;xonf? ‘,D;’±dkifjzifh xyfI ukef;xjyefonf? a=u;pm;ppfacG;. aemuf xyfypfcwfvdkufonfh usnfonf nDrav; jroDwm. cE<mukd,fxJ xyfrH0ifpl;cJhavonf? }u;D jrwfjcif;onf arG;vmonfh uav;i,fjzpf.? olu, G v f eG o f nfh tcgwiG f ydkI }uD;jrwfaom uav;b0udk urBmavmu}u;D xJwiG f xm;&pfcahJ vonf? w*d;k

armifpdk;csdef 1/ar/2011 / eHeuf 2em&D/ 5rdepf

xdik ;f edik if wH iG vf rl sm;omru wd&p>mefrsm;yg a&G;aumufy0JG ifvsuf&dS

tdref ;D csi;f xdik ;f edik if w H iG f r=umrD a&G;aumufyJG usi;f yawmhrnf jzpf&m ,ckepS w f iG f xl;xl;jcm;jcm; vlrsm;omru wd&p>mefrsm;yg yg0if ,SOfjydKif =urnfjzpfa=umif; od&onf? avmavmq,fwGif wd&dp>mefrsm;jzpf=uonfh u|J / usm;/ acG;/ zGwf eSifh arsmuf rsm;u ygwDaxmifI ,SOfjydKif aeonf? tqdkyg ygwDtm; oGm;a&muf pHkprf; ar;jref;junfh&mwGif u|eaf wmfwkd t h rd ef ;D csi;f jrefrmedik if rH mS }uH eJ zh w G f aygi;f jy;D awmh }uzH w G f ygwaD xmifjy;D wjcm; vlom; ygwD awGukd rJtjywftowfeJ t h edik , f l edik w f m rsu0f g;xifxifawG jh rif&ygw,f? u|eaf wmfw@kd vJ 'Dvrkd jzpfb;l vd@k rajymedik b f ;l [kygw0D ifwpfO;D u xl;qef;pGmjzifh vlvjkd yefajzcJyh gonf? ,ck yg0if,SOfjydKifaomzGwfrSm jrefrmedkifiH }uHzGwfygwDrS zGwfowœ0geSifh aqGrsdK; wpfpHkw&m awmfpyfygovm; [k ar;jref;=unfh&m xdyfwef;v#dK@0Sufcsuf jzpfojzifh ajz=um;cGifhr&Sd[k wkef@jyefonf? (owif;/ "mwfyHk -befaumufrSvufwdk hol) from burmastrange news Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

78


79

tvif;tdrf 5 ESpfjynfh txdrf;trSwf 0w¬Kwdk jydKifyGJ

0wˆKtrnf trnf&if; uavmiftrnf

ausmif;pdr;f eef;qdkifa[mif tvif;puf

tpuawmh ausmif;wufz@kd ygy?J crf;wd@k ¶Gmu acgiw f ,f? rdik ;f vm;uae ae@w0ufum;pD;+y;D aemuf xyf oH;k em&Davmuf vrf;av#mufraS &mufrhJ ‘vG,rf rk’qdw k ¶hJ mG uav;? rlvwef;ausmif;av;awmh¶w dS ,f/ 'gayrJh oifay;rJhq&mu ¶Sdvdkufr¶Sdvdkuf/ +rdK@eJ@a0;awmh awmf¶Hkwef¶Hk q&mawGrvmcsif=uovdk a&muf vmwJq h &mawGuvnf; =um=umraeEdik =f ubl;/ ajy;=uwmyJ? ¶Gmav;em; ppfwyfwwyfa&mufvmwJh t csed u f p+y;D ‘vG,rf rk’=urRmiifc&hJ ygawmhw,f? xif;/0g;ckwaf y;&ovdk tvSnu hf svyk t f m;ay; oGm;&w,f? ppfa=umif;xGu&f if &dumQ awG/usnq f efawGo,fz@kd ay:wmvdu k &f w,f? ud, k &hf u d mQ eJ@ ud, k , f o l mG ;&w,f? jyefvm&if awmfawmfrsm;rsm;u '%f&m&vmw,f? wcsKd @qd&k ifa¶S@wef;rSmyJ aocJ&h wm¶Sw d ,f/ crf;taz vnf; ay:wmvdu k &f if;eJ@ qH;k oGm;cJw h ,f? ¶GmrSmrae&J=uvd@k +rKd @ueD;pyf&maqGrsKd ;awGqD oGm;cdv k =H_ uwJo h l awG rsm;vmw,f? ol@,mav;udik ;f av; vufpowf+y;D rS vdu k v f mcJrh ,fv@kd a+ym+y;D crf;udk tazhtrsKd ;awG ¶SdwJh usdKif;wHkudkydk@vdkufw,f? tareJ@armifav;¶GmrSm usef&pfcJhw,f? tazhtrsdK;&J@tdrfu pD;yGg;a&;orm;awG t0iftxGufrsm;wJhtdrfyg? tdrfom;awGeJ@{nfhonfawG pm;zd@k aomufz@kd csu&f jyKw&f / t0wftpm;awGav#maf y;&wmeJ@ rd;k vif;rd;k csKyf tm;&w,fv@kd r¶Sb d ;l ? pdwf aumif;¶Sw d hJ {nfo h nfawGu rke@f zd;k av;bmav; ay;wwfygw,f? tazhtrsKd ;awG ausmif;tyfay;ygw,f? ig;wef;pwufawmh crf;toufu 14ESpjf zpfae+y/D twef;xJrmS toufut}u;D qH;k / tajccHra=ucJ&h awmh bmoifvdk@oifrSef;rod? ausmif;oufr=umvdkufygbl;/ ausmif;rwufjzpfawmhbl;? tpuawmh crf;wpf a,mufxJ xrif;aué;/ t0wftpm;qifay;¶keH @J =unfjzL=uayrJ/h tareJ@armif;av;xyfa&mufvmawmh trsdK;awGu odyfr=unfcsifawmhbl;? tdrfiSg;aezdk@usawmh 0ifaiG¶SdygrS? tJ'Dtcsdef usdKif;wHkrSmodk;arG;(puf xd;k )u acwfpm;aew,f/ od;k arG;xd;k qdik af wG rsm;vmw,f? od;k arG;xd;k wwfwo hJ al wG/ wwfEikd w f o hJ al wGu tdrfrSm udk,fydkifpuf0,fxm;w,f? rxdk;wwfwJholusawmh qdkifrSmoGm;oif&w,f? pufr¶Sdbl;qdkvnf; ud, k o f ifxm;wJh ynmudk oifay;wJq h ikd rf mS yJ jyef+y;D oH;k vd@k &w,f? xd;k vd@k &wJh txnftwdik ;f vufc&w,f? udk,fydkifpuf ¶SdwJholuawmh qdkif}uD;u atmf'gudkcGJ,l+yD; tdrfrSmwEdkifxdk;=uw,f? puftvHk; 10uae 79

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


80

40txd¶w dS hJ qdik }f u;D awG¶w dS ,f? xd;k +y;D om;txnfawGukd ,d;k ',m;eJ@w¶kwu f ykd @kd w,f? crf; od;k arG;xd;k oGm; oif+y;D wwf+yq D w kd meJ@ }uKd ;pm;+y;D xd;k ygw,f/ 0ifaiG¶+dS yq D w kd meJ@ tdrif gS ;aevdu k w f ,f? ud, k yf ikd f od;k arG;xd;k puf¶Sd&if tdrfrSmxdk;vdk@&w,f/ 'ga=umifvJ odk;arG;xdk;puf 0,fEdkifzdk@ reufuae naerdk;csKyfwJhtxd =udK; pm;cJhw,f? 'DvdkeJ@bJ 3ESpf=umoGm;w,f? odk;arG;xdk;puf r0,fEdkifao;bl;? e,fajrvHkjcHKa&; ta=umif;jy csuef @J usKd i;f wH-k wmcsv D w d /f rikd ;f vm;/rikd ;f rum;vrf;awG c%c%ydww f ,f? um;vrf;jyefrzGirhf csi;f txnf qdik af wG od;k arGqikd af wG vkyif ef;&yfxm;&w,f? tJ't D csed af wGqkd ukeaf ps;E_e;f u 2qckew f uf+yaD yg/h 0ifaiG omrrSefayrJh xGufaiGuawmh wef;pDaewmyJ? armifav;&J@ausmif;vc/ tdrfiSg;c/ &yfuGufoma&;ema&; ulaiGtjyif/ vrf;cif;wmvnf;ay;&w,f/ ¶Gmuvdk ay:wmrqGw J mom¶Sw d ,f/awmf=um vmjyef+yD ay:wm a=u;/ bma=u;nma=u;? od;k arG;xd;k pufwvH;k 0,fEikd zf @kd aeaeomom xrif;eyfreS zf @kd awmif tEdik Ef ikd ¶f cdS b hJ ;l w,f? =uyfwnf;wJ'h %fukd rcHEikd w f t hJ qH;k rSm ,d;k ',m;Edik if x H J 0iftvkyv f yk zf @kd qH;k jzwfvu kd w f ,f? ywf0ef; usifu vli,fawmfawmfrsm;rsm;vnf; oGm;ae=u+yD? tarhudk pdwfrylzdk@ txyfxyfrSm+yD; wmcsDvdwf+rdK@ udk oGm;w,f? tJ'u D wqifh ,d;k ',m;e,fpyf+rKd @ r,fqikd x f 0J if+y;D wpfnwnf;vdu k w f ,f? todwa,muf u rdwq f ufay;vdu k w f hJ yGpJ m;u tppt&m&m pDpOfay;w,f/ befaumufa&mufwt hJ xd wm0ef,w l ,f qdk+yD;/ tvkyfuvnf; tqifoifhbJwJh/ ykZGefpuf¶HkrSm tvkyf&r,fajymw,f? r,fqdkif+rdK@rSmwnf;awmh/ crf;t&if}udKa&mufaewJh rdef;uav; 3a,mufeJ@/ wcef;xJtwlwlae &w,f? aemufw&ufrmS aemufxyf rde;f uav;2a,muf xyfa&mufvmw,f? tm;vH;k [m 'D¶rS ;f jynft a¶S@ydkif;ujzpf+yD;/ +rdK@eJ@a0;wJh ¶GmawGuae vmcJh=uwmjzpfw,f? vDql;/ tcg/ yavmif/ ¶Srf;vlrsdK;awGjzpf +y;D wa,mufrS tajccHynmtv,fwef;txd ynmoifrvmcJ=h ubl;? wcsKd @¶GmawGqkd emrnfawmif r=um; zl;bl;? crf;wdk@tm;vHk;udk ukefwifum;wpD;ay:wif+yD; r,fqdkif+rdK@uae xGufvmw,f? ukefwifum;rSm ukeaf wGvnf; wifxm;ygw,f/ twGi;f ydik ;f rSmawmh vlxikd +f y;D vdu k Ef ikd af tmif pepfwusvyk x f m;+y;D /tjyif uaocsm=unfh&ifawmif txJuvlawGudk rjrifEdkifyg? tqifhqifhwifxm;wJh puULyHk;/azghyHk;awGudk um;atmufcs+y;D aocsmzGi=hf unfrh yS J vlygvmwmudk odEikd rf ,f? *dwaf wGa&mufwikd ;f um;&yfwmudk owd jyKrdayrJh ae&mudkawmh rodEdkifbl;? um;}uD;awG oGm;vmwJh toHawGeJ@bJ ta0ajy;vrf;r}uD;ay:rSmqdk wmavmufawmh owdxm;rdw,f? *dwfawGrSm tppfcHzdk@ 0DpDr_wfoH=um;wdkif; &ifwxdwfxdwfawmhjzpf om;/ oGm;vmaeusjzpfygvdrfhr,f? vHkjcHKwJhae&ma&muf&if tayghtyg; oGm;Edkifzdk@yg pDpOfay;w,f? 'DvdkeJ@ bJ rdk;vif;awmh befaumuf+rdK@udk a&mufcJhw,f? +rdK@jyifvdk@xif&wJh jcH0if;us,fus,f wckxJrSm crf;wdk@6a,mufudk xm;w,f? jcH0if;u awmfawmf us,w f ,f? 0if;xJrmS rsuEf mS csi;f qdik af qmufxm;wJh wdu k 2f vH;k / um;*dak 'gief @J wG+J y;D aqmufxm;wJh wdu k af v; 1vH;k / pkpak ygi;f wdu k 3f vH;k ? tkww f w H ikd ;f u cyfjrifjh rif/h tyifqv kd @kd tke;f oD;yif av;ig;yifavmuf¶+dS y;D / pdu k f xm;wJh jrufcif;awG¶Sdw,f? ykZGefpuf¶Hk r[kwfwmawmh aocsmw,f? 'DjcHxJrSm ,dk;',m;trsdK;om; 4a,mufe@J trsKd ;orD; 3a,muftjyif/ tcsed jf ynfv h w $ x f m;wJh acG;}u;D 3aumifvnf;¶Sad o;w,f? crf;wd@k 6 a,mufukd rsuEf mS csi;f qdik af qmufxm;wJh ESpx f yfwu kd x f u J ,d;k ',m;trsKd ;orD;awG aewJw h u kd rf mS ae&m csay;w,f? wdu k u f ESpx f yfwu kd jf zpf+y;D tay:xyfrmS tdycf ef;/trd o f m a&csKd ;cef;¶Sw d ,f? crf;wd@k 6a,muf twGuf tdy&f m6ck jyifxm;ay;w,f? a&mufa&mufcsi;f a&csKd ;/ t0wftpm;vJcikd ;f w,f? }uKd uw f m,l0wf ygq+kd y;D t0wftpm;xnfx h m;wJh tdw}f u;D 2vH;k vmay;w,f? ,d;k ',m;pum; em;rvnfawmh vuf[ef ajc[efe@J bJ? xrif;au|;w,f/ pdwaf rmvlarmeJ@ pm;vdu k =f uwm csxm;wJx h rif;/ [if;awG tukeaf jymif a&m? tcsKd wnf;zd@k rke@f eJ@opfo;D pH/k tcsKd &nfyg ygvu kd af o;w,f? Adu k w f if;wmeJ@ wa,mufuw kd a,muf Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

80


81

owdxm;=unfv h u kd af wmh tm;vH;k ud@k ,d@k um;,m;awG? abmif;bDtwdk t=uyfawG/ puyfaemufcJG wdek @H eH@eJ@/ =uyfwt hJ uFs q D &kd ifvnf; eif;uefusy+f y;D / tuFs t D yGqjkd yefawmhvnf; wu,fu h kd zd;k ,d@k zm;,m;? xrif; pm;cef;eJ@uyf&ufu rD;zdak csmif/ wzufrmS awmh em;aecef; cyfus,u f s,w f ck ¶Syd gw,f? vGwv f w G v f yfvyf }uKd uo f vdk aevd@k &w,fqakd yrJh tdrx f u J ae tdrjf yifuakd wmh vH;k 0ay;rxGuyf gb;l ? rde;f uav;wa,muf qDrmS ¶S&d rJh toH;k taqmifypPn;f awG ud, k pf &D w,f? crf;wd@k wdu k ef @J rsuEf mS csi;f qdik w f u kd rf mS aewJh a,musmF ; av; 4a,muf[m tcsed jf ynfh 'Dzufwu kd u f b kd J apmif=h unfah eovdb k ?J 'Dzufwu kd x f u J akd um vH;k 0rvmo vd/k 'DrmS aewJh trsKd ;orD; 3a,mufuvnf; crf;wd@k pm;zd@k csujf yKwaf y;/ oef@¶Si;f a&;vkyaf y;eJ@ wdu k t f jyif zuf rxGu=f ubl;? vdt k yfwmudk 'Dzufu tdrw f iG ;f ajymzke;f av;eJ@ ajymvdu k &f if/ [dzk ufwu kd u f trsKd ;om; awGu wm0ef,&l w,f? um;eJ@tjyifxu G 0f ,f+y;D 'Dzufwu kd &f @J rD;zdak csmif taemufayguu f kd vmyd@k ay;w,f/ 'Dtrd af &muf+y;D aemufw&ufrmS ,d;k ',m;pm poif&w,f? ,d;k ',m;trsKd ;orD; 3a,mufxu J ol@ud, k f ol ‘yEl;’vd@k ac:wJh touf40t¶G,f trsKd ;orD;wa,mufu oifay;w,f? yHrk eS yf gbJ ae@wdik ;f pmoif/ x rif;pm;/ r*~Zif;zwf/VCD=unfh 'Davmufygb?J 2ywfavmuf=umvmawmh ,d;k ',m;pum;&J@ av,lav odr;f udk em;axmifwwfvmw,f? tvkyrf vkycf if ,d;k ',m;pum; wwfz@kd vdak =umif;/ w&m;r0if cd;k 0ifvm wJt h wGuf &Jurd&ifzrf;+y;D e,fpyfjyefy@kd r,fh ta=umif;eJ@ pmjrefjrefwwf/ pum;jrefjrefwwf&if tvkyu f kd ydk@ay;r,fhta=umif;/ pmxuf ,dk;',m;pum; wwfatmif crf;wdk@tm;vHk; }udK;pm;oif=uygw,f? qHyif !Syf/ta&mifqdk;/tvSjyifay;/ t0wftpm;vSvSav;0wfcdkif;+yD; wa,mufpD/wa,mufpD "gwfykH t¶dkuf cH&w,f? tvky¶f u kH kd yd@k zd@k wJ?h tm;vk;H tqifajyaeayrJh aewdik ;f VCD wacGu=kd unf&h wJh tvkyu f awmh rvkyfcsifqHk;bJ?,dk;',m;pum; em;,Ofzdk@vdk@omajymw,f/ tm;vHk;[m npfnrf;acGawG/17ESpf/ 20 ESpf avmufbJ ¶Sad o;awmh 'gu=kd unfzh @kd tm;vH;k ¶Su=f uw,f? 'DtxJrmS ‘t,fav;’qd1k 2ESpb f ¶J adS o;w,f? wjcm;jyp&macGawGvnf; r¶Sb d ;l vm;rodygb;l ?2vom=umoGm;w,ftvkyu f b,faerSe;f rodao;bl;? 3vrjynfhwjynfh&J@ naecif;wckrSm/crf;eJ@aumifrav;2a,mufudk tvSqHk;jyifqifay;w,f?t 0wftpm;awGuvnf; qef;qef;jym;jym;awG/ }uKd ;odik ;f a'guzf ed yfawG bmawGe@J / yGaJ eyGx J ikd f oGm;&rJt h wdik ;f bJ/ xrif;apmapmau|;+y;D apmifch ikd ;f w,f? r=umygb;l pwpfumteufwyfxm;wJh rSet f vHck s teufa&mif Aifum;wpD; a&mufvm+yD; crf;udkyxrqHk; ac:xkwfoGm;w,f? um;ay:rSm um;armif;orm;wa,muf/ taemufwikd ;f 0wfpu kH kd ususee0wfxm;wJh ¶kyt f awmftoifah umif;wJh trsKd ;om;2a,muf¶w dS ,f? crf; udk um;aemufcef;rSm xdik cf ikd ;f +y;D olw2kd a,mufu crf;&J@b,fe@J nmrSm uyfxikd =f uw,f? w&dy&f yd af jy;ae wJh um;ay:uae vSr;f =unfv h u kd &f if pdu k cf if;eJ@opfo;D jcaH wGukd awG@&w,f? tdrw f tdref @J wtdrq f &kd ifvnf; ta0;}u;D ? +rKd @xJ0if+yq D w kd meJ@ um;awG/val wG/ qdik u f ,fawG trsm;}u;D / rGe;f =uyfwhJ +rKd @jyvlaer_u crf;udk pwif rdwzf @JG vmcJw h ,f? [dak uG@'Dywfe@J tcsed t f awmf=um armif;vmwJu h m;[m a&mifprkH ;D awG/ rSw d w f w k f rSw d w f w k f rD;awGe@J tvSqifxm;wJh wdu k }f u;D wck&@J ta¶S@rSm&yf+y;D ab;em;xdik v f mcJw h hJ trsKd ;om;2a,muf eJ@twl um;ay:uqif;+y;D wdu k x f u J akd c:vmw,f? wdu k w f ckv;kH rSm uyfxm;wJrh eS af wGuvnf; teufa&mif pwpfum uyfxm;w,f? a[mfw,fvm; bm;vm;/ vlt0iftxGufenf;+yD; taemufwdkif;0wfpHk0wf vl i,f/ vlvwfyikd ;f 0efxrf;awGukd awG@&ygw,f? wdu k t f a¶S@ um;yguifrmS awmh wu,faumif;wJh Zdrcf u H m; awmfawmfrsm;rsm; &yfxm;wm awG&ygw,f? "gwaf vSum; wckuaewuf+y;D 3xyf&@J tcef;wcef;a¶S@rSm &yf+y;D wa,mufuwHcg;acguv f u kd af wmh wHcg;yGiv hf m+y;D crf;wd@k 3a,muf tcef;xJukd 0ifvu kd w f ,f? t aemufwdkif;om; vljzLwa,muf crf;wudk,fvHk;udk 0g;pm;awmhr,fhtwdkif; =unfh+yD; ,dk;',m;trsdK;om; 2a,mufeJ@ t*Fvdyfpum; ajym=uw,f? tJ'D2a,mufu crf;udk tJ'DvljzLeJ@ tdyfzdk@ajymw,f? acgif;udk 81

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


82

rdk;}udK;typfcH&ovkd ygbJ? cspfol&nf;pm;awmif rxm;bl;wm/ b,fvdkvkyf tJ'DvleJ@tdyf&rSmvJ? rwwf wacguf ,d;k ',m;pum;eJ@ jiif;ygw,f? rvkyEf ikd w f t hJ a=umif;eJ@ wjcm;aumif;wJt h vkyb f J vkyrf ,fqw kd hJ ta=umif;/ tjyif;txefjiif;awmh crf;vufarmif;udk cyfwif;wif;qG+J y;D tcef;tjyifukd jyefac:xkwv f mw,f? aiGawG trsm;}uD;&if;+yD; ac:vm&wJht=umif;/ ta&mif;t0,fwnfh+yDjzpfvdk@ {nfhonfudk vufcH&r,fht a=umif;/ olwdk@'DtjyifrSm apmifhaer,f/ {nfhonfudktvdkrwlbl;vdk@ xyfjiif;&if owfjypfr,fh ta=umif; awG/ xGuaf jy;zd@k / cdik ;f wmrvkyv f @kd uawmh 'DrmS awG@vm;qd+k y;D cg;=um;rSm xd;k xm;wJh ypPwakd oewfukd xkwf jyw,f? tcef;xJukd jyefy@kd +y;D wHcg;udv k nf; tjyifuae ydwv f u kd w f ,f? a=umufpw d /f ¶Supf w d /f 0rf;enf; pdwfawGeJ@ crf;rsuf&nfawG wvdrfhvdrfh usvmygw,f? tarhudk wrf;wrdw,f/ uav;b0u}uD;jyif;cJh &wJh ¶Gmav;udv k nf; owd&rdw,f? tJ'v D }l u;D ajymwJh pum;awGukd em;rvnfyg? bmwcGe;f rS jyefrajym EdkifcJhyg? puf¶Hk tvkyfor wa,muftjzpf }udK;pm;r,fqdkwJh tawG;awG/ pdwful;awGvnf; 'Dn/ 'Dtcef; xJrSmbJ usaysmufcJh&ygawmhw,f? 'Dwdkuf}uD;&J@ tay:qHk;xyf4v$mrSm ae&mcsay;ygw,f? 15a,mufacsmifacsmifcsdcsd tdyfEdkifwJh t cef;}uD;wxJckrSm pk+yD;tdyf&w,f? crf;tyg 15a,mufvHk;[m jrefrmjynfuygbJ/ 0dkif;+yD;tm;ay;=uw,f olw@kd xJu awmfawmfrsm;rsm;vnf; tpuawmh 'Dvyk if ef;udk vkyzf @kd vk;H 0pdwrf ul;cJb h ;l wJ?h olrsm;Edik if x H J w&m;r0if cdk;0ifvmwJh todr¶Sd ynmr¶Sd trsdK;orD;i,f wa,muftwGuf vkyfp&mtvkyfqdkvdk@ 'gbJ ¶Sdw,fwJh? wjcm;jyifytvkyf(qdkiftvkyform;/ oef@¶Sif;a&;/ tdrfazmf) vkyf&ifawmif &wJhvcuenf;+yD; uHraumif;&if wESpfavmuf tvm;um;cdkif;+yD; vkyftm;cwjym;rS ray;wJhtjyif &JvufxJtyfvdkufvdk@ e,fpyfjyefy@kd cH&wJo h al wG renf;bl;wJ?h 'Dtvkyu f awmh aemufu, G rf mS xdik ;f &Jt&m¶Sad wGu, kd w f ikd f tusKd ; tjrwfwl &¶Sd+yD;/ &oifh&xdkufwJh vkyftm;cvnf;ay;w,f? &Jt0iftxGuf ¶Sdayr,fh tppftaq; r¶SdwJh ta=umif;/ p&dwf+idrf;/ xrif;au|;w,f/ wESpfavmufvkyf+yD; jyefcsifw,fqdk&ifvnf; e,fpyftxd vHkvHk +cKH +cKH jyefy@kd ay;w,f? jyefvmcsiw f ,f qd&k ifvnf; t&ifqufxm;wJh vlypJG m;uwqifh e,fpyftxd jyefvm ac:wJt h a=umif; wa,mufwayguef @J 0dik ;f +y;D tm;ay;w,f? *¶kpu kd w f ,f? tm;vk;H vdv k kd t0wftpm;aumif; awG 0wfEikd +f y;D / 'Dtvkyt f ay:rSm ajyajyvnfvnf ¶Syd yHk gb?J wm0efcv H @dk qdw k hJ ,d;k ',m; trsKd ;orD;wa,muf a&mufvmcJ+h y;D vkyif ef;&J@babmudk ¶Si;f jyw,f/ reuf9em&Dqkd xrif;au|;/ zD;vdr;f jyifqif+y;D / 11em&DrmS qdik pf zGiw hf ,f? tm;vH;k yxrtxyfrmS ¶Sw d hJ tcef; xJrmS oGm;xdik &f w,f? vl25.30avmuf aeEdik w f hJ tcef;}u;D wck/ eD!akd &mifarG;yGaumfaZmudk cef;vH;k jynfh cif;xm;w,f/ tdpufaewhJ =uufaoGa&mifqzkd mawG tcef;ywfywfvnf csxm;w,f? r*~Zif;/ pmtky/f o wif;pmawG tjynfh¶SdwJh pmtkyfpifwck/ TVt}uD;}uD;wckeJ@ VCDpufpifwck/ tcef;&J@axmifhawGrSm vl w&yfavmuf¶w dS hJ yef;td;k }u;D awG¶w dS ,f? tcef;xJu tjyifu=kd unf&h if rSet f eufawGumxm;vd@k bmrSr jrif&ayr,fh tjyifuae=unf&h ifawmh tm;vH;k udk rSecf ef;t=unfav;xJrmS xnfx h m;ovdk jrif&vdrrhf ,f? udk,fh&J@cg;rSm 'grSr[kwf&if &ifbwf&J@b,fzufrSm eHygwfjym;udk csdwfxm;&w,f? vmwJh{nfhonfu rSef tjyifuae=unf+h y;D ESpo f ufwt hJ rsKd ;orD;&J@ eHygwu f kd ajymr,fq&kd if/ tem;rSm toifah pmifah ewJh {nf}h uKd 0efxrf;u tac:cH&wJh trsdK;orD;udk txyfwxyfrSm¶SdwJh tcef;xJtxd ac:oGm;ay;r,f? 1em&Dvm;/rd epf90vm;/ 2em&Dvm;/ 3em&Dvm; pojzifhaygh? tm;vHk;udk tdyfaqmifpmtkyfav; wtkyfeJ@abmyif ay; xm;w,f? ae@pGeJ @J tcsed ef @J {nfo h nf&@J ta&twGuu f kd rSw&f w,f? 'D{nfo h nf&@J udp+P y;D &if atmufxyfu rSecf ef;xJjyefvm+y;D {nfo h nfukd xyfapmif&h w,f? reuf2em&DrmS qdik yf w d w f ,f? pm&if;pmtkyaf wGukd wm 0efcu H jyefppf/ olrw S x f m;wJh pm&if;eJ@udu k +f y;D qd/k olvufrw S x f ;kd +y;D jyefay;w,f? 'Dqikd t f jyif aemufxyf Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

82


83

qdkifcGJ 5qdkifawmif ¶Sdao;w,f ajym=uw,f? tjyifuae reufvmnaejyefwJh ,dk;',m;trsdK;orD;awG ¶Sdovdk/ e,fta0;uaevm+yD; 'DrSmae/pm;/ tdyf/ qdkifydwfwJh tcg}uD;&uf}uD; a&mufawmrS olwdk@&J@e,f udk jyef=uwm¶Sw d ,f? tm;vH;k uawmh wufwufºuºuygb?J vpmudk wvwcg ¶Si;f ay;w,f? b%fppk m tkyf rudkifEdkifwJh crf;wdk@tkyfpkuawmh 6vwcg 1ESpfwcg pm&if;csKyf+yD; jrefrmjynfu ydk@csifwJholqDudk ydk@ ay;w,f? udk,fh&J@ tao;oHk;p&dwfudkvnf; xkwfoHk;cGifhjyKw,f? tae=umvdk@ ,Hk=unf+yDqdk&if ta&;ta=umif; aiGvv kd @kd yd@k csi&f if }uKd wifaiGawmif xkwaf y;ao;w,f? ud, k yf @kd csiw f hJ jrefrmjynfxu J vl &J@ vdypf meJ@emrnfuakd jym/ wm0efceH @J qufxm;wJh e,fpyfuvlypJG m;awGuwqifh qufo, G af y;w,f? aiG vufcrH ,fo h u l r,fqikd x f v d m&w,f? aiGvm,lwahJ e@rSm r,fqikd u f wqifzh ek ;f eJ@ qufvu kd &f if 'DuaiG yd@k wJo h el @J vufc, H &l wJo h l zke;f ajymcGi¶hf w dS ,f? pmra&;wwf rzwfwwfwo hJ u l rsm;awmh oufaotjzpf wzufu aiGvufc, H al ewJt h csed rf mS "gwyf ¶Hk u kd +f y;D befaumufukd yd@k ay;w,f? ud, k v f ufcx H m;wJh {nfo h nf ta&twGuef @J /tcsed ef m&Dvu kd f ay;acs&wJEh e_ ;f xJu 50%udk cHpm;&w,f? {nfo h nfrsm;&if rsm;oavmuf 0ifaiGuvnf; rsm;w,fqdkygawmh? {nfhonfrsm;rsm;&zdk@ }udK;pm;=uw,f? oDwif;u|wef J@ o=uFefqdk&if qdik &f uf¶n S yf w d af wmh tdrjf yefv@kd &w,f? xdik ;f &JawG vufzsm;aiGo;D wJh tcsed af yg?h qdik &f @J tpDpOfe@J jyef&w,f p&dwfu udk,fcH/ ¶Smxm;wJhaiGxJu 3vpmavmufudk ay;&w,f? jrefrmjynfjyefcsif&if qdkifudkaiGay;/ 'D udjk yefvmcsi&f if r,fqikd u f vlypJG m;udk aiGay;/ 'Dvekd @J bJ oGm;vdu k v f mvdu k f vky=f uw,f? 3vavmufvyk f &ifbJ crf;vdkcsifcJhwJh odk;arG;xdk;pufwvHk;xufruwJh aiGudk&vmcJhw,f? w&m;r0if aiGvJE_ef;eJ@bwfaiG udv k &J if jrefrmaiGu yGg;vmw,f? crf;5ESpaf vmuf }uw d rf w dS +f y;D vkycf w hJ ,f? p&dwEf aS rsmvd@k jrefrmEdik if u H kd vH;k 0 rjyefc&hJ bl;? taruawmh r,fqikd +f rKd @uvlypJG m;tdrrf mS wESp2f }urd f aiGreS rf eS v f mxkww f ,f? ol@o rD; aumif;aumif;rGerf eG f tvkyv f yk af ew,fv@kd bJ ,lqaew,f? tarwd@k acsmifvnfa=umif;eJ@ use;f rm a&;*¶kpu kd zf @kd / aeaumif;atmifaezd@k zke;f ajym&wdik ;f wzGzrG mS ¶Smygw,f? aemufxyf2ESpaf vmuf=umawmh crf; tarwd@k eJ@awG@csiw f hJ pdwaf wGe@J usKd i;f wku H jkd yefvmcJw h ,f? 'Dvv kd yk if ef;vkyw f m vlrodb;l omqdw k ,f/ jrefrmEdik if jH yefa&mufawmh tom;ta&/qyH ifta&mif eJ@ ykpH aH wGu olrsm;xufukd xifxifay:ay: ¶Sad ew,f? ¶kww f &uf aiGvufzsm;oD;wJh tvky[ f m 'Dtvkyf uvG+J y;D bmtvkyrf rS ¶Sb d ;l qdw k mudv k nf; od=uykyH gb?J wd;k wd;k wdww f w d ef @J ‘jynfawmfjyef’vd@k emrnfay; =uw,f? crf;qDu &wJah iGe@J tar jcw H ck0,f+y;D wxyfwu kd w f ck aqmufxm;w,f? armifav;uawmh ausmif;qufrwufawmhbJ [dik ;f vwfum;wpD;0,f+y;D usKd i;f wk-H rdik ;f vm; ajy;qGw J hJ um;orm;b0udk cH ,lvu kd w f ,f? armifav;u um;0yfa¶Smah xmifcsiv f @kd +rKd @jyifrmS jc0H ,fcsiw f t hJ a=umif;eJ@/ taru aps;xJ rSm w¶kwu f ek pf nfa&mif;zd@k qdik cf ef;0,fcsiw f t hJ a=umif;/ crf;'DrmS jyefvmae&if vkyif ef;av;tqifoifjh zpf aeatmif vkyaf y;csiw f t hJ a=umif; aqG;aEG;jzpf=uw,f? crf;udk tdraf xmifusapcsiaf =umif;awG ajymjzpf =uw,f? crf;uawmh &Daevdu k w f mygb?J befaumufjyefa&mufawmh t&ifuxufydk}udK;pm;+yD; tvkyfvkyfw,f? aemufxyf7ESpfqdkwJh t csed [ f m c%av;eJ@ukeq f ;kH oGm;w,f? 'Dvyk if ef;u toufi,fygr/S 30ausmo f mG ;&if odyt f qifrajyawmh bl;? use;f rma&;twGuf qdik u f 6vwcg aq;ppfay;w,f? crf;tyg0if rde;f uav;2a,muf HIVawG@w,f ajymw,f? rauseyfvdk@ tjyifaq;cef;rSm 2cgavmufxyfppfawmhvnf; 'DtajzygbJ? wjcm;ul;pufa&m *gawGq&kd if aysmufwt hJ xdqikd u f ukay;ayr,fh HIVqd&k ifawmh csucf si;f tvkyu f ae t+y;D em;cdik ;f ygw,f/ ¶kww f &uf jrefrmjynfjyefvmwJh crf;ud=k unf+h y;D tara&marmifav;yg tH=h ooGm;w,f?+y;D cJw h hJ wacguaf wG@ wkef;ueJ@wjcm;pD/ acsmifusvmwJh crf;udk vdkavao;r¶Sd *¶kpdkuf=uw,f? 'Dydk;&vmwJhta=umif;udk ao 83

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


84

b0ud&k if; aorif;eJ@ppfcif;+yD;/ ¶_;H cJ&h wJh t¶G,af umif;av;awG? vluek u f ;l wdu k f zsufa&;awmh vkyfaeyg&J@? ausmif;pdrf;av;awG&J@b0 tem*gwfvSzdk@ tmrcHcsuaf y;Edik w f hJ tajccHtw k f jrpfawmif rwnfaqmufEikd af o;yg? wJt h xd armifav;eJ@tarudk todray;zd@k qH;k jzwfvu kd w f ,f? crf;xufi,fw‘hJ jynfawmfjyef’awG[m a[m wa,muf/a[mwa,muf aorif;aemufukd vdu k o f mG ;=uw,f? wzufuvnf; vluek u f ;l wJh yGpJ m;awG tzrf;cH&ovdk wzufEdkifiHt0iftxGuf =uyf&wJh=um;xJ/ ,dk;',m;EdkifiH oGm;csifvdk@ enf;rsdK;pHkeJ@ }udK;pm; aewJh vli,fawG trsm;}uD;? t"du uawmh ppfwyfuajrodrf;/,modrf;cH&wJh rdom;pk/ ¶GmvHk;u|wf rD; ¶_@d cH&vd@k +rKd @ueD;pyf&m todqrD mS cdv k aH_ e&wJrh o d m;pk&@J vli,fawG/ ausmif;ae&rJh t¶G,af wG[m ausmif; xGu&f +y;D enf;rsKd ;pkeH @J wzufEikd if u H kd a&mufatmifomG ;=uw,f? tJ'v D il ,fawGukd a'ocHawGu‘ausmif; pdr;f ’vd@k ac:=uw,f? ausmif;eJ@pdr;f +y;D aemuf i,f¶, G w f b hJ 0udk &&mtvky=f urf;rsKd ;pkH vky=f u&wJh olw@kd awG &J@b0[m ynma&;qdw k m rpOf;pm;tm;awmhyg? jrefrmjynfwiG ;f u wuUov kd b f @JG &awGtwGuf tvkyu f r¶Sd? ¶SdwJhtvkyfvkyfawmhvnf; &wmeJ@ukefaps;E_ef;eJ@ rumrdjyef? 'DvdkeJ@bJ jrefrmjynftESH@‘ausmif;pdrf;’ awG rsm;vm&ygawmhw,f? aq;aumif;awGe@J b,fvb kd u J u k k crf;tajctaeu wae@xufwae@qd;k vmw,f? tareJ@armif av;a¶S@rSm aeaumif;vmovdk [efaqmifae&ayr,f/h crf; odyrf =umawmhb;l qdw k m ud, k u hf , kd u f o kd w d ,f/ 'D=um;xJ tarhtod crf;wdk@eJ@w¶GmxJaecJhbl;wJh ta':}uD;u ol@orD;‘ausmif;pdrf;’av;udk ,dk;',m;ydk@ ay;zd@k tylvmuyfjyefw,f? crf;u ruln&D if ol@enf;ol@[efe@J yd@k r,fqb kd ?J ‘ausmif;pdr;f ’awGp+k y;D aewJh wyg; wdkif;jynfrSm atmufajcodrf; tvkyfuvGJ+yD; wjcm;tvkyfr¶dSyg? wESpfvkH; tvum;cdkif;+yD; &Jvuf tyfvdkufwm/ rk'def;usifh cH&wm/ towfcH&wm/ crf;wdk@vdk atmufqHk;tv$muolawG vkyfcJh&wJhtvkyf/ ay;qyfvu kd &f wJh vl@usi0hf wf/ odumQ / t¶Sut f a=umufw&m;/ pdw'f %f&mawG? &vmwJah iGe@J twl ul;puf a&*ga=umifh i,fi,f¶, G ¶f , G ef @J om;tdrx f w k v f u kd &f wm/ 'Dvyk if ef;udk pGe@f +y;D tdraf xmifjyKjyefawmhvnf; uav;r&Edkifawmhwm? b0udk&if; aorif;eJ@ppfcif;+yD;/ ¶_H;cJh&wJh t¶G,faumif;av;awG? vlukeful;wdkuf zsuaf &;awmh vkyaf eyg&@J ? ‘ausmif;pdr;f ’av;awG&@J b0 tem*gwv f zS @kd tmrcHcsuaf y;Edik w f hJ tajccHtw k f jrpfawmif rwnfaqmufEdkifao;yg? todw&m;xuf vuf¶Sd/t¶Sdw&m;u ta':}uD;&J@orD;udk ydk@ay;zdk@ qHk;jzwfvdkufw,f? reufjzef reufapmapm usKd i;f wHu k ae wmcsv D w d u f kd xGurf ,fu h m;eJ@twl aumifrav;vdu k o f mG ;&awmhr,f? aus; Zl;wifpum; ajymzd@k ta':}u;D u ae@vnfcif;uwnf;u tdru f akd &mufvmw,f? ol@orD;uawmh vdv k kd r,fr,f ausmif;xGuv f ufrw S f oGm;xkwzf @kd twGuf ausmif;oGm;aew,f? ausmif;utjyef crf;qD0ifvm r,fajymw,f? crf;rodvu kd &f wJh ¶Gmav;&J@ta=umif;awGukd ta':}u;D uajymjyaecsed rf mS bJ ol@orD;av; a&mufvmcJw h ,f? cyfErG ;f EGr;f 16ESpt f ¶G,f uav;rav;/ acgi;f pGyo f ;kd arG;tusF D eufjyma&mife@J ausmif; pdr;f xrDav; 0wfxm;w,f? ykZpf';l wky+f y;D crf;udk xdik u f awmh awmh crf;&ifxJ eifu h eJjzpfomG ;w,f? ud, k hf wkef;uvnf; ol@t¶G,f? uav;rav;rSmvnf; ajymp&mpum; odyfr¶SdwJh ykHygbJ? ol0wfxm;wJh ausmif;pdr;f xrDav;udk =unf+h y;D ‘ausmif;pdr;f ‘av; &ifqikd &f awmhr,fh b0udpk Of;pm;aerdw,f? aeraumif; wJhcrf;udk E_wfquf+yD;ta':}uD;wdk@ om;trd jyefoGm;w,f? jyefcgeD; uav;rav;u pum;wcGef; ajymoGm;cJw h ,f? ‘tpuawmh ausmif;wufz@kd ygb’J wJ?h ?

tvif;puf

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

84


85

tvif;tdrf 5 ESpfjynfh txdrf;trSwf 0w¬Kwdk jydKifyGJ

0wˆKtrnf trnf&if; uavmiftrnf

yg;pyf&mZ0ifxu J Zmwfvu kd rf sm; odef;aZmfnGef h vlcg; (rav;&Sm;) “ajymr,fom ajym&wmygav? olu, kd w f ikd af wmif ig;tykyw f pfaumif rjzpfz@kd tEdik Ef ikd f }uKd ;pm; ae&wm r[kwv f m;”

vlwcsdK@u ajym=uw,f? tvum; rav;¶Sm;wJh? pifumylu a¶S@uvkyf/ rav;¶Sm;u aemufu ae tuket f wkvu kd cf ;kd ...wJ.h .? ajym&ifvnf; ajymcsifp&myJav? [dkbufeJ@'Dbuf jrpfusOf;usOf;av; wpfckomjcm;wJh pifumyleJ@ rav;¶Sm;u vufa0S@tausmt f armf ESpaf ,muf vufcarmif;acwf+y;D pdeaf c:ae=uovdrk sKd ;? pifumylu a}umfjimbkwf}uD;axmifawmh rav;¶Sm;uvnf; [D;vdk@...? pifumylu wdu k af wG rd;k ay:tumtuG,rf hJ ,drf;xdk;+yD; wufoGm;wmjrifawmh rav;¶Sm;u wdkufawGu rdk;ysHylazgif;awGvdk wvGifhvGifheJ@ pDvdk@&Dvdk@? pifumylu tdrfaxmifhwm0ef ausyGefwJh tdrfaxmifOD;pD;aumif; wpfa,mufqdk&if rav;¶Sm;udk awmh r,m;0wW&m;ig;yg; ausyeG w f hJ tdr¶f iS rf aumif; wpfa,mufvkd oluawmhjrifw,f? cGv J @kd r&bl;ayg/h a¶S@oGm;aemufvu kd n f w D ,f? =unf&h if; =unf&h if; wd;k wufajymif;vJ vmvdu k =f uwmrsm; olw@kd =um;xJu jrpfuav;awmif tH=h o0rf;ompdwef @J wzswzf sww f ek v f @kd ? oluvm;...? oluawmh...[dk; jrefrmjynfu vmwJh tvkyform; wpfa,mufaygh? ol@emrnfu udkomaumif;? rav;¶Sm;a&mufwm =umaygh? =umqdk q,fhajcmufESpf¶Sd+yD? ol'Dudk vmcJhwJh ta=umif; pOf;pm;rdwdkif; 0ufyGJpm; !Gef@aqmifudk owd&w,f? !Gef@aqmifu ‘udkomaumif; @@@@ rav;¶Sm;oGm;&if b,favmufukefrSmvJ’ ‘q,fhig;odef;avmufawmh ukefrSmaygh’ 85

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


86

‘wpfv b,favmuf&r,fvdk@ rSef;xm;vJ’ ‘wpfv ESpfodef;avmuf ayghuG’ ‘'gqdk @@ usKyfudk q,fhig;odef;ay; @@ wpfvESpfodef; usKyfay;r,f @@ usKyfqDrSm tvkyfvkyf’wJh ? axmif;ueJ xGufoGm;wJh a'goudk jyefxdef;vdkuf+yD; &,fusJusJ vkyfjyvdkufw,f? pdwfxJuawmh ‘rif;vdk 0ufypJG m;qD igu tvkyv f yk &f tH;k rSmvm;uG @@ at; @@ig rav;¶Sm;u jyefvmrS rif;eJ@ awG@=uao;wmayg���h vd@k }urd ;f xm;vdu k w f ,f? a[m...ckq=kd unf?h at;*siq hf ufo, G af y;wJh olaX;qDrmS ESpEf pS af usm?f tckoal X;qDrmS u q,fah v; ESp/f q,fah jcmufEpS af wmif ausmaf yg?h bmrS rbmao;bl;? tdrrf mS xm;cJw h hJ bkpck ¶kawGu q,fwef;atmif vd@k wuUov kd af wGawmif wufae=u+y?D olu ckxd wpfv ESpo f ed ;f avmufawmif rSerf eS f yd@k ray;Edik af o; bl;? olaX;uawmh ol@udk plygAdkufqmwJh? uav;awGu aemufovdkvdk ajymifovkdvdkeJ@ plygzdkufwm vd@k r=um;w=um; p=uw,f? [kww f ,fav ol@b0uvnf; bmxl;vd@k vJ? vuke&f uf vpmxkww f meJ@ a&zd;k / rD;zd;k / tdro f mjyifc bmnmqd+k y;D olaX;ay;wJh pm&if;pm¶Guf wpf¶u G ef @J / [dt k aqmifu;l 'Dtaqmif ul; rdu k af =u;cG&J wJh b0? 'D=um;xJ EGm;(eDayg)awG/ b(b*Fvm;)awGuvnf; ygao;? ud, k u hf u kd , kd af wmif rowDawmhbl;? tqHacsmifaewJh c¶kwpfaumifvdk cHpm;&w,f? tJ'Dawmh ol xGufayguf¶Smw,f? ol@b0udk 'Drav;ajrxJu qGJxkwfcsifaewm =um+yD? ckrSyJ qENjynfh0awmhr,f? [kwfw,fav/ jrefrmjynfuae rav;¶Sm;/ rav;¶Sm;u r[efawmh pifumylayg?h [kwb f ;l vm;? ol pifumylukd ul;awmh r,f? rav;¶Sm;udk a&muf+y;D yxrolaX;qDu xGuaf jy;vmwmqdak wmh tck tdAk mpaw;ayg?h tdAk mpaw; wpfa,muf taeeJ@ pifumyludk ul;r,fqdkawmh ola¶G;cs,fvdkuf&wJh vrf;u atmufvrf;? pifumyleJ@ rav;¶Sm;udk jcm;xm;wJh jrpfuav;&J@ oHk;ykHwpfykHavmuftxd yGJpm;u pufavSeJ@ ydk@ay;r,f? [dkbuf a&mufatmifawmh udk,fht&nftcsif;eJ@udk,f vufypful;ayawmh? [dkbufurf; a&mufonftxd acsmacsmarG@arG@qdk&if [dkbufu yGJpm;u vmac:/ tvkyf0ifaygh? racsmarG@vdk@vm;/ aemifcgvm aemifcgaps;aygh? a,musFm;yJ aowpfae@ arG;wpfae@aygh? ‘uJ@@ [dkwpfa,muf pufavSay:wufav@@ bmvJckrS a=umufae+yDvm;’ bmvdk@a=umuf&rSmvJ/ a=umuf&if rav;aiGESpfaxmif qHk;rSmayghvdk@ awG;+yD; olpufavSay: wufvdkufw,f? oleJ@ygqdk&if pkpkaygif; av;a,muf? tm;vHk;u vl¶G,fvlvwfawGcsOf;yJ? olwpf a,mufwnf; av;q,fausmf ig;q,feD;? tif;...touf}uD;av avmb}uD;avqdkwm [kwfrsm; [kwf aeovm;yJv@kd awG;rdvu kd w f ,f? [kww f ef aumif;ygb;l av? vlwikd ;f avmbeJ@yJ r[kwv f m;? ‘cifAsm;wdk@udk aemufqHk;rSmr,f/ tck q,fhwpfcGJ avSpxGufr,f? q,fhESpfxdk;wmeJ@ [dkbufurf; a&m 'Dbufurf;a&m ESpful;txdrf;trSwf rD;¶ª;rD;yef;awG qlnHaeatmif azmufvdrfhr,f? tJ'gudk tcGifh aumif;,l+yD; [dkbufurf; a&mufatmif ul;=u? a&muf&if c%apmifh yGJpm; vmac:vdrfhr,f’[kwfom; yJ? olckrS owd&w,f? 'Dn ESpfopful;nyJ/ jrefrmjynfudk owd&vdkufwm? vGifhoGm;wJh ol@pdwfudk yGJpm; qD jyefy@kd vdu k w f ,f? ‘at; @@ a&mufatmif rul;Edkifvdk@uawmh udk,fhxdkufeJ@udk,fhuHyJ? usKyfpufavSu cifAsm;wdk@ ckef cs+y;D wmeJ@ wef;jyefvn S rhf mS yJ/ vSnrhf =unfah wmhb;l ’ yGJpm;u aemufqHk;pum;udk cyfus,fus,f cyfjywfjywf ajym+yD; pufavSudk urf;uae cGmw,f? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

86


87

bk&m;...bk&m;? ol bk&m;wrdw,f? ol rjzpfrae ckefcs&awmh rSmygvm;? prdrSawmh jzpfor#ta=umif; taumif;=unfhaygh? pufavSuav;u avwjzL;jzL;eJ@ vd_if;uav;awGudk jzmueJ jzmueJ uGJxGufoGm; atmif w&dyf&dyf ajy;aew,f? pufoHav;u rwdk;rus,f 'kwf 'kwf...'kwf'kwfeJ@? jrpfuav; wpf0ufausmfawmh pifumylwpfbufurf;vHk; tHk;tHk; 'dkif;'dkif;eJ@ rD;¶ª;rD;yef;awG ypf azguw f mudk jrifvu kd &f w,f? aemufjyef vSn=hf unfv h u kd af wmh rav;¶Sm;bufuvnf; tm;usrcH wtk;H tHk; w'dkif;'dkif;eJ@ rD;yGifhrD;ygG;awGu jzm+yD; rdk;ay:udk wufwufvmwm jrif&w,f? ‘uJ@@ bmvkyfaewmvJ/ ckefcsawmhav’ yGJpm;u t!Smtwm uif;rJhpGm avoHeJ@ atmfw,f? ‘AGr;f ...AGrf; ...AGr;f ’ol@a¶S@u vloHk;a,muf ckefcsoGm;w,f? ‘a[hvl @@ ckefcsawmhav’olvnf; bk&m;udk tm¶HkHjyK+yD; ckefcsvdkufw,f? ol@wpfudk,fvHk; a&xJ epfoGm;w,f qdk&ifyJ bmrSef;rodwJh taumif}uD;wpfaumifu ol@ud.k .. ‘atmifrav; @@ As @@’ ‘bmjzpfwmvJ udk}uD;aumif;& @@ vef@vdkufwmAsm’ oleJ@wpfcef;xJaewJh oef;vif;u xdkif&muae orifvnfjyefvSnfh+yD; ar;w,f? olu *a,mif acsmufcsm; jzpfaewJhyHkeJ@ jyef=unfh+yD; +idrfaevdkufw,f? tdyfruf ...tdyfrufrS tdrfrufqdk;? ol@tem;eD;wJh a&bl;udk vSr;f ,l+y;D w*Gw*f w G f aomufypfvu kd w f ,f? ‘{uefe rufaeus tdyfruf}uD; rufaejyef+yDxifw,f@@@ [kwfw,f r[kwfvm; udk}uD;aumif;’ olacgi;f udk wpfcsun f w d jf yvdu k w f ,f? ‘tJ'ga=umifh ajymwmaygh @@@ woGm;wnf; oGm;csifaewJh pifumyl/ tdrfrufeJ@wif cifAsm;[mu rpm;omygbl;? a&mh @@ 'gav;wpfcGufcsvdkuf’ ol@qD vSr;f ay;wJh cGux f u J eDusiu f sif t&ufawGu ‘ud}k u;D aumif; usKyw f @kd udk aomuf=unfph rf; ygAs @@@cifAsm;cHpm;ae&wmawG aysmufoGm;vdrfhr,fAs’vdk@ ajymaeovdkvdk? acgif;tHk;atmufu zkef;udk xkw+f y;D =unfv h u kd af wmh oH;k em&Dawmif xd;k ae+y/D 'DaumifawG rtdyaf o;bl;yJv@kd awG;vdu k rf w d ,f? ‘raomufcsifvJ aeAsm@@@ uJ a[haumif csdK;’qdk+yD;awmh oef;vif;u zJ0dkif;buf jyefvSnfhoGm; w,f? &,fvu kd /f armvdu k /f aomufvu kd /f ¶du k v f u kd ef @J olw@kd uawmh [efuu kd sv@kd ? rcs+d yKH ; wpfcsu+f yKH ;&if; olvnf; tdy, f mxJ tomjyefvJS aevdu k w f ,f? ‘udk}uD;aumif; @@@ udk}uD;aumif; xygOD;As/ 'kuQawmh a&mufawmhr,f’tvef@w=um; atmfvdkuf wJh toHa=umifh olvef@Ed;k vmw,f? tcef;xJ 0ifvmwJh pd;k jrifu h ‘ud}k u;D aumif; @@@ oef;vif;wd@k tzG@J rl;+y;D aumifrav;awG taqmifukd cJawGe@J 0dik ;f ypfaew,f’? pd;k jrifah jymrS owd&w,f? ck% zJ¶u kd af ewJh oef; vif;wd@k tzG@J b,fa&mufomG ;=u+yv D ?J ol tdy, f mxJuae ysmysmovJ xvdu k w f ,f? ‘tJ'Daumifudk xkwfay;/ ray;&if eifwdk@ tukefvHk;;owfypfr,f’ oef;vif;u toHuGJ}uD;eJ@ atmfaew,f? olvnf; pdww f w kd ekd @J ‘a[haumif@@ oef;vif; rif;rl;&iftdyfygvm;uGm olrsm;taqmifa¶S@ bmvdk@ vmatmfaewmvJ’ ‘usKyfrrl;bl; udk}uD;aumif;& @@ 'DaumifrawGaygh tdrfxJrSmEGm;wpfaumif a&mufaewmudk xkwfray; bl;/ ath @@ a[h @@@ xkwfay;av tJ'Daumifudk owfr,f’ ‘awmfprf; oef;vif; @@ rif;oGm;awmh 'DudpPig=unfh¶Sif;r,f/ uJ @@pdk;jrifh rif;wdk@ oef;vif;udkac: oGm;’ ‘eifwdk@ta=umif;udk odvkd@ apmifh=unfhaewm =um+yDa[h @@@ trsdK;zsufrawG’ 87

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


88

rl;+yD;atmfaewJh oef;vif;udk pdk;jrifheJ@ wjcm;vlawGu twif; qGJac:oGm;=uw,f? ol oufjyif; wpfcsuf csvdkuf+yD; aumifrav;awGbuf rsufESmrlvdkufw,f? a=omf...'gawGa=umifh oltdyfrufqdk;awG rufrufaejzpfcw hJ myJav? ‘uJ@@@nDrwdk@ oef;vif;ajymwm [kwfvm;’aumifrav;awGtm;vHk; +idrfvdk@? ‘[kwfvm;vdk@ar; aew,fav’aumifrav;awGu wkyw f yk rf S rv_y?f ola'go xGux f u G ef @J wpfcef;0if wpfcef;xGuef @J vdu k f ¶Smawmh EGm;wpfaumif xGufvmw,f? ‘'Daumifhudk b,folac:oGif;wmvJ @@@ar;aew,fav@@@'Daumifhudk b,folac:oGif;wmvJvkd@’w qwfqwf wkefaewJh ol@cEQmudk,fu a'gorD;cdk; rD;vsHawG t¶SdefeJ@ ylyifaomu a&mufv#uf? jrefrmrdef; uav;awGaewJh taqmifrSm tcsdefrawmf}uD; EGm;wpfaumif a&mufaewm bmoabmvJ? ‘tJ'g @@@ orD;&nf;pm;yg@@@@ udk}uD;aumif; @@@’ ‘bm@@@ 'Dtaumifu eifh&nf;pm; [kwfvm;’aumifrav;u acgif;ndrfhjyvdkufw,f? ‘xm;p&m ¶Sm;vd@k [m@@@@ awmuf’qd+k y;D ajrmufwufomG ;wJh ol@vufukd tcsed rf DS jyefxed ;f vdu k &f w,f? ol EGm;aumif buf vSnfh+yD; ‘vdkif;cg vDwmarmif; @@@@’(aemufwcg 'grsdK;rvdkcsifbl;)vkd@ vuf!_d;eJ@ aigufaigufxdk;+yD; ajymvdkufw,f? EGm;aumifu rxDw&D yHkpHrsdK;eJ@ xGufoGm;w,f? ‘eifhudkig olaX;ajym+yD; jyefydk@r,f’? aumifrav;u vnfwdkifudk ausmh+yD; acgif;udk armhxm;w,f/ a'gopdwfawGudk rsdKcs+yD; ol taqmifxJu xGufvmcJhw,f? ‘udk}uD;aumif; @@@cifAsm;bmvkyfcJh’oef;vif;u*rl;¶ª;xdk;eJ@ qD;ar;onf? ‘ol@udk jyefydk@vdkufr,f’ ‘jyefydk@¶HkeJ@ r&bl;? owfypf&rSm/olvdkaumifra=umifh usKyfwdk@awG acgif;razmfEdkifatmif oduQmus&wm As? b,fae&moGm;oGm; a¶$rawG a¶$rawGeJ@[dk;av;udk a}umfvdk@’? ‘rif;awmfawmh oef;vif; @@@'Dpuf¶HkrSm igt}uD;qHk; @@@ ig=unfhpDpOfr,’f olcyfjywfjywf ajym+yD; t aqmifa¶S@xGuf xkid af evdu k w f ,f? vluom xdik af ewm pdwu f twdwq f u D kd w&dy&f yd ef @J ? oltrd af xmif uspu =unfhjrifwdkif urf;em;aps;uae pufprf;bufudk ulwdk@orm;vkyfawmh t+rJpD;aeus &D;av;ykr ajymwJh pum;udk owd&w,f? &D;av;ykru Aef;xJu ig;awGudk a&xJv$ifhypfaewm jrifawmh olu‘&D; av;ykr @@@bmvdk@ ig;awG v$ifhypfaewmvJAs’ ‘tykwfawGa[h @@@ tykwfaw’G ‘ tykyfawGvnf; bmjzpfvJAs @@@ a&mif;ayghAsm trsm;}uD;yJ b,folodwmrSwfvdk@’ ‘atmifrav; @@ iaumif;&,f a&mif;zd@k aeaeomom wpfaumifwavygwmawmif tukev f ;kH udk 0dkif;+yD; ykyfygw,f ajymae=uwm @@@ eifr=um;zl;bl;vm; @@@ iaumif;&J@/ ig;cHk;rwpfaumifa=umifh wpfavS vH;k ykyw f ,fqw kd mav’wJ?h tJ'Dwkef;uawmh ol+yHK;¶Hkom +yHK;aevdkufrdw,f? tckawmh olr+yHK;Edkifawmhbl;av? aoaocsm csm pOf;pm;rdav &ifxJrSmydk+yD;awmh rcsdwifuJ jzpf&avyJ? ol@rSmom pGrf;aqmifay;EdkifwJh tiftm;¶Sdr,f qdk&if &D;av;ykr}uD; ig;tykyfawG v$ifhypfovdkrsdK; v$ifhypfoifhwJh t&mtm;vHk;udk v$ifhypfay;vdkufcsifyg w,f? ajymr,fom ajym&wmygav? oludk,fwdkifawmif ig;tykyfwpfaumif rjzpfzdk@ tEdkifEdkif }udK;pm; vlcg; ae&wm r[kwfvm; ...? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

88


89

(u) rufhcf0g'Drsm;u obm0avmuESifh vl htzGJ htpnf;jzpfpOfrsm; wkd;wufajymif;vJr_rsm;ukd tEkyËdavmr ('kid , f mvufwpf)enf;t& cGjJ crf;pdwjf zmcJ=h uonf? ,if;uJo h dk h qef;ppfrt _ & jzpfay:wk;d wufr_ Oya'orsm;ukd awG &h cdS =hJ uonf? wenf;tm;jzifh obm0tjzpftysurf sm;/ obm0jzpfpOfrsm;/ vlrb _ 0ESihf orkdif;jzpfpOfrsm;. }uD; xGm;zGH hjzKd;r_rsm;tm;vkH;onf rufhcf0g'Drsm; obm0ody`Hynm&Sifrsm;tm;vkH;ukd vrf;n$ejf yoaecJo h nf? obm0jzpfpOfEiS hf orkid ;f jzpfpOfrsm;onf omrefajymif;vJ =u&ko H mruay? omref}u;D xGm; =u&kH wifruay? jzpfay:wk;d wufvmjcif; jzpfayonf? okd jh zpfv#if jzpfay:wk;d wufr. _ Oya'orsm;ukd csrw S jf yEkid f ygrnfavm? jzpfay:wk;d wufr+. Oya'orsm;onf tb,fenf;[laom jy\emrsm;ay:ayguv f monf? tEkyËdavmrenf;onf ,if;jy\emrsm;udk ajz&Sif;ayonf? (c) Ttcef;wGif t&nftwGuf ajymif;vJrr_ S t&nftcsi;f ajymif;vJro _ @dk toGiu f ;l ajymif;&mwGif rnfodk t h oGif ul; ajymif; aeonfukd azmfxkwfvkd ygonf? (t&nftwGurf S t&nftcsi;f ajymif;vJ r_ukd a&S htcef; 5ESifh 7wGif tusOf;r# azmfjycJjh y;D jzpfonf?) tm;vk;H aom ajymif;vJr_ rsm; Y t&nftwGufajymif;vJr_ &Sdayonf? t&nftwGuaf jymif;vJrt _ wk;d tav#mh jzpfr_onf tpOftjrJ &SdraeEkdifay? wpkH wckaom trSwo f dk ah &mufonft h cgwiG f t&nftwGufajymif;vJr_ onf t&nf tcsif ; ajymif ; vJ r _ o k d h ck e f u l ; ajymif ; vJ o G m ;onf ? trsm;tenf ; / twk d ; tav#mh omruawmhyJ yifu, dk f obm 0 yg ajymif;vJoGm;ayonf? Oyrm 1? ? a&ukrd ;D jzif-h uKdcsuf pOf a&onf at;&mrS wjznf;jznf; aEG;vmonf? aemufyv l monf? ,if;onf ta&twGuf ajymif;vJrj+ zpfonf? okd &h mwGif ,if;okd ah om ta&twGuaf jymif;vJro + nf tqk;H rowf yJ aeonfr[kw?f wpkw H ckaom tyl&edS t f rSwo f dk ah &mufvmaomtcgY a&onftck;d taiG t h jzpfodk h ajymif;vJ oGm;onf? ,if;onf t&nftcsi;f ajymif;vJrj+ zpfayonf? Oyrm 2? ? bGKdifvmtkd; (*gvHaygif; &maxmifcsDI qef haom oHxnftkd;wvkH;onf a&aEG;aiG h. ueftm;ukd wpxufwp cHEkdifonf? okd h &mwGif wpkHwckaomtrSwfokd h a&mufaomtcg rcHEkdifawmhyJ aygufuGJ vm&ayonf? ,if;onf t&nftcsif;ajymif;vJr+ jzpfonf? Oyrm 3? ? tat;a'owGif aygufaomtyifwyifonf wjznf;jznf;ESihf ykId ykId at;aom at;aom a'ookd h a&G hpkdufwkdif; opfyifrsKd;&dk;rajymif;bJ &SifoefEkdifonf? okd h&mwGif rcHEkdifonfh twkdif;twmukefqkH;aom tat;qkH;tykdif;okd h a&mufaomtcg xkdtyif. rsKd;&kd;onf ajymif;vJoGm;avonf? ,if;enf;twkdif; aEG&moD oD;ESHrsm;onf aqmif;&moD oD;ESHrsm;tjzpfokd h ul;ajymif;oGm;-ujcif;jzpfonf? ,if;onf t&nftcsif; ajymif;vJ

p-um0VmxJu 'kid , f mvufwpf (26) rdk;ajropf

89

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


90

r+ jzpfonf? Oyrm 4? ? vl htzGJ htpnf;twGif;wGifvnf; t&nftwGufrS t&nftcsif;ajymif;vJr+rsm;ukd awG h Ekdifonf? pufr+t&if;&Sifpepfonf Tenf;twdkif; ay:aygufvmjcif;jzpfonf? pufr+t&if;&Sifpepf ray:aygufrSD u vlenf;pkwpk.vufwiG f "eaiGa-u;pkpnf;r+onf wjznf;jznf;-uD;xGm;vmonf? "erJ/h ypPn;f rJw h dk . h ta&twGuf wkd honfvnf; ykdrkdrsm;jym;vmonf? xkdtcsdefxd t&nftwGufajymif;vJr+om &Sdao;onf? okd h&mwGif wpkHwck aom trSwfokd h a&mufvmonf? "epkpnf; pkaqmif;r+onf pufr+vkyfief;xlaxmifa&;twGuf vkHavmufaom t&if;tESD; jzpfvmonf? vkdtyfaom tvkyftwGuf jynfolvlxlrsm;tm; vkHavmufaom ypPnf;rJhOD;a& ta&t wGufukd &Ivmonf? vkHavmufaom twkdif;twmokd h a&mufonfESifh pufr+t&if;&Sifpepfonf ay:aygufvm ayonf? t&nftcsif; ajymif;vJr+ jzpfayonf? Oyrm 5? ? ppftm%m&Sifpepfukd xlaxmifcsKyfukdifonfh ppftkyfpkwck ay:aygufvmpOf tkH-uGr+wck ay:xGufvmcJhonf? xkdtkH-uGr+/ qef husifr+onf wckwnf;ESifh &yfqkdif;roGm;yJ xyfzefwvJvJ ay:xGufvmcJhonf? zdESdyfjc,fvS,folu ykdIzdESdyfowfjzwfavav tkH-uGawmfvSefr+uvnf;/ ykdIjyif;jy tm;oefvmavyifjzpfonf? tkH-uGawmfvSefr+ rD;yGifhuav;rsm;onf t&Sdeft[kef -uD;rm;us,fjyef hvmaomtcg awmfvSefa&;wck ay:xGuf vmcJhawmhonf? zdESdyfaoG;pkwfaom ppftkyfpkonfvnf; E+wfxGuf&awmhonf? okd hr[kwf tkyfpkd;r+,EW,m; eef; yv†ifay:rS qif;oufcJh&awmhonf? Oyrm 6? ? tEkjrLrsm;onf wpkHwckaom ta&twGuf&Sdonfh y&kdwGefrsm;ESifh tDvufx&Gefrsm;ukd aygif;pyfxm;aom "gwfjzpfonf? yg&Sdonfh y&kdwGefta&twGufESifh tDvufx&Gef ta&twGufukdvkdufI tEkjrL "gwftrsKd;tpm;vnf; jcm;em;-uayonf? xkd ha-umifh y&kdwGefwck tDvufx&Gefwckygaom tEkjrL"gwfukd [kduf '&kd*siftEkjrL[kac:I aemufxyfy&kdwGefwckESifh tDvufx&Gefwck xyfxJhvkdufygu [,fvD,HtEkjrL"gwfjzpfvm ayonf? xkd ha-umifh [kduf'&kd*siftEkjrLESifh [,fvD,HtEkjrLonf t&nftwGufvnf; jcm;em;-uI t&nftcsif; vnf; jcm;em;ay-uayonf? a,bl,stm;jzifh t&nftcsif;jcm;em;r+onf t&nftwGuf jcm;em;r+wGif tajccH onf? Oyrm 7? ? ,la&eD,H AkH;wvkH;vkyf&eftwGuf ,la&eD,H 235tkdufqkdwkyf&Sdzkd h vkdonf? omrefokH;pGJ aeusjzpfaom ,la&eD,H 238tkdufqkdwkyfESifh rvkHavmufay? xkdtdkufqkdwkyfESpfrsKd;onf tav;csdefwGifom uGmjcm; &kHomru ta&twGufvnf; uGmjcm;r+a-umifh AkH;.trsKd;tpm; t&nftcsif;vnf; uGmjcm;ayonf? xkd ha-umifh tawG;tac:ynm&Sif tdef*s,fvfpfu “ t&nftcsif;jcm;em;r+ [lor#wkd honf "gwfzGJ h pnf;r+. t&nftwGufjcm;em;r+/ &kyfrsm;. ta&twGuf jcm;em;r+ay:wGif wnf&Sdavonf? xdk ha-umifh &kyfcE<m wck. t&nftcsif;ukd ajymif;vJvkdv#if xkdtxJwGif yg0ifzGJ hpnf;aeaom &kyfokd hr[kwf ajymif;vJv+yf&Sm;r+ ta& twGufukd wkd;v#if wkd;&ayrnf? okd hr[kwfv#ifvnf; av#mh&ayvdrfhrnf? &kyfcE<m. ta&twGufukd ajymif;vJjcif; r&SdbJ t&nftcsif; ajymif;vJr+ukd &Ekdifrnfr[kwfay?” [kqkdcJhjcif;jzpfonf? t&nftcsif;ajymif;vJr+onf wpkHwckaomtrSwfokd h a&mufonfhtcgwGif t&nftcsif;ajymif;vJr+ukd jzpfay:aponf? xkd hjyif ta&twGufjcm;em;r+onf t&nftcsif;jcm;em;r+ukd jzpfay:vmaponf? ,if;tcsuf jzpfay:wkd;wufr+. toGifjzpfayonf? ,if;jzpfay: wkd;wufr+ukd bmu ay:aygufapoenf;? jzpfay:wkd;wufr+onf qef husifbuft&mrsm;. wkdufyGJESifhaygif;pnf; nDnGwfr+rS ay:xGufvmonf? xkdtcsufukd rmhufcf0g'Drsm;. tEkyËdavmr (0g) 'kdif,mvufwpfenf;t& vufcHxm;onf? yuwdt&Sdw&m; &kyb f 0uvnf; enf;enf;uav;r#yif twdr;f tacsmrf &Syd J xkt d wkid ;f yif qef u h sib f uft&mrsm;. wku d yf EJG iS ahf ygif;pnf; nDnGwfr+rS jzpfay:wkd;wufvmcJhjcif; jzpfonf? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

90


91

(*) a,bl,sqkd&v#if ta&twGufrS t&nftcsif;ajymif;vJr+. ta-umif;&if;onf tESpfom&tm;jzifh oD;jcm;jzpfpOfrsm;xJwGif wnf&Sdonf? xkd h a-umihf jy\emwkdif;rSmvkdyif t&nftcsif;ajymif;vJr+onf rvGJra&Smifom jzpfay:vm&rnf[k ajymEkdifjcif;jzpfonf? qkdcJhjyD;jzpfonfh OyrmtoD;oD;wGif tajctaewckrS aemuftajctaewckokd h ajymif;vJoGm;cJhonfukd awG h&SdcJh-u&jyD;jzpfonf? xkdajymif;vJr+wkdif;wGif qef husifbuft&m tcsif;csif;. twkduftcHjzpfr+a-umifh ay: aygufvm&jcif;jzpfonf? wenf;tm;jzifh &kyftcsif;csif;-um;wGif qGJiiftm;jyKdifjcif; tiftm;pkwkd h. twkduftcH jzpfr+omjzpfayonf? okd hjzpf&m Oya'oESpfckukd awG h&Sd&a-umif; twnfjyKI&jyD jzpfonf? (1) ta&twGufrS t&nftcsif;okd h ajymif;vJr+ Oya'o (2) t&nftcsif; jcm;em;csufonf ta&twGufjcm;em;csufY tajccHonf[laom Oya'o (3) Oya'o 1ESifh 2ukd-unfhjcif;tm;jzifh qef husifbuft&m0wˆKrsm;. twkduftcHjzpf r+ESifh aygif;pnf;nDnGwfr+ Oya'o ===== [lI/ xkdOya'orsm;ukd tEkyËdavmr (okd h) 'kdif,mvufwpf enf;emjzifh &SmazGEkdifcJhonf? &k&Sm;acgif;aqmif pwmvifu “ jzpfay:wkd;wufr+jzpfpOf. twGif;tESpfom&/ ta&twGufrS t&nftcsif;ajymif;vJr+okd h ul;ajymif;jcif;. twGif;tESpfom&rSm xkdjzpfpOf xkdt&m0wˆKrsm;xJY qef husifbuft&mtcsif;csif;. twkduftcHjzpfr+yif jzpfonf? ”[lI aumufcsufcscJhbl;onf? oluyif xkdOya'orsm;ukd aygif;&kH;jyD; t"dy`g,fzGifhqkdcJhonf? “ wuUaA'ESifh rwljcm;em;aom tEkyËdavmr. ,lqcsufum;/ t&m0wˆKrsm;tm;vkH;/ obm0. toGif¾efrsm;tm;vkH;. ADZtajcY twGif;yËdyuQrsm; wnf&Sdaeonf[laom tcsufjzpfonf? tjyKoabmESifh tzsufoabm/ twdwfESifhtem*gwf/ wkd;wufjzpfay:jcif;ESifh ysufpD;csKyfjidrf;jcif;wkd h wnf&Sdaeonf[laomtcsuf jzpfayonf? Tqef husifbuft&m tcsif;csif;.wkdufyGJ/ ta[mif;ESifhtopfwkd h. wkdufyGJ arG;zGm;jzpfay:jcif;ESifh ,k, d iG ;f ysuo f Ok ;f jcif;wku d yf JG ay:aygufjzpfxeG ;f jcif;ESihf ysupf ;D csKyfjidr;f jcif;wkd . h wku d yf w JG dk o h nf jzpfay:wk;d wufrj+ zpfpOf . twGif;tESpfom& jzpfayonf? ta&twGufrS t&nftcsif;okd h ajymif;vJr+. twGif;tESpfom&jzpfayonf?” [lI zGifhqkdcJhonf? (C) tEkyËdavmr okd hr[kwf 'kdif,mvufwpfenf;aA'tm;jzifh &&SdcJhaom xkdOya'orsm;onf vlr_b0 twGif;rS wkdufyGJrsm;ukd xif[yfv#uf&Sdonf? ,ae hArmjynf ppftm%m&Sifpepf zsufodrf;a&;/ ppftkyfpkqef husif a&;wkdufyGJESifh,SOfwGJ qef;ppfv#if qef husifbuft&mrsm;. twkduftcHjzpfr_ESifh aygif;pnf;nDnGwfr_ukd awG h&ay vdrhfrnf? tEkyËdavmrt& qef husifbufrsm;um; tb,fenf;/ twkduftcHjzpfr_(wkdufyGJ)onfum; b,fokd h enf;/ rnfokd h qGJiifwGef;xkd; tm;jyKdifae=uoenf;/ tb,ftiftm;pk&J h wkdufyGJonf t"duvJ h h h h ponfjzifh pdwful;xJwGif4if;/ pm&Gufay:wGif4if; ykH=urf;a&;qGJ=unfh&kHr#ESifh tvm;tvm (jzpfEdkifzG,f&m)onf ay:xGufvm rSm jzpfonf? qufvufazmfjyygOD;rnf? rkd;ajropf ( ZGef 6/ 2011) 91

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


92

bmomjyef tcef;quf Tpmtkyfonf pma&;q&mr karen connelly . rl&if;pmtkyw f tkyjf zpf+yD; pmzwfolrsm; tm; tvGeftrif; zwfapcsifaom qENa=umifh }uKd;pm; wifjyvkdufygonf? Tpmtkyftm; zwfapjcif;jzifh jref rmEkdifiHtwGif; tkyfcsKyfrif;rlaeaom ppftpkd;&. vuf xufwGif jrefrmEkdifiHom;wkd@ rnfa&G@ rnfr#xdvl@tcGifh ta&; qkH;&_H;ae+yD; jrefrmEkdifiHwGif;&Sd tusOf;axmif rsm;twGif; rnfuJhokd hzdpD;ESdyfpuf rnfuJhokd qif;&J'kuQcH&I ppftpkd;&. vlrqefr_rsm;ukd uGufuGufuGif;uGif; odjrif&rnf jzpfygonf? tcef;quftjzpf azmfjyoGm;ygrnf?

tvif ; td r f r **~~ Z if ; dy(c)armifarmifvwf bmomjyefqdkol R oland Har Hardy

,cifvrStquf

tdraf jrSmifavSmiftrd f tcef; ( 44)

aw;qkid u S f pdwaf wG twdwq f jD yefa&mufomG ;w,f? wcgwek ;f u atmifrif;ESihf awmfveS af &;t a=umif; tjiif;tckefvkyfwJhtcsdefxd jyefa&mufoGm;w,f? uav;b0wkH;u azaz[m vdarRmfoD;awGukd tdwf}uD;ESifhxJhxm;jyD; q&mawmfausmif;okd h oGm;cJhw,f? ausmif;xkdifq&mawmf}uD;ukd vuftkyfcsD uefawmhvu dk yf gw,f? q&mawmf }u;D [m tjrw J rf; +yK;H aewwfvdk h q&mawmf}u;D ukd awZ odycf spw f ,f? q&mawmf}uD;ukd vdarRmfoD; qGrf; uyfjyD; azaz&J haemufuyf+yD; vkdufoGm;w,f? azaz[m q&mawmf}u;D &J h ausmif;atmufrmS apwemaq;cef; zGichf iG &hf xm;w,f? a'guw f m ausmf0if; ol[m zsm;aewJhaumifav;ukd em;usyfESifh aoaocsmcsm prf;oyfw,f? aumifav;[m rsufvkH;rSm temjzpfaevkd htzsm;vnf; wufaew,f? aemufwcku tJ'Daumifav;[m tqkyfvnf; raumif;bl;? aemufxyf vlemawGukd =unfhay;jyD; azazESifh q&mawmf}uD;[m anmifyif}uD;atmufrSm xkdifjyD; aq;ayghvdyfaomuf=u&if; awZ em;rvnfao;wJh ta=umif;awGukd &,f&,farmarm ajymqkad e=uygw,f? q&mawmfausmif;atmufrmS rdbrJh uav;awGpjk y;D pmusu=f uygw,f? awZ[m aumifav; wa,mufukd ocsmFjyay;bl;w,f? tJ'Daumifav; emrnfukd rrSwfrdawmhyg? 'gayrJh tJ'D aumifav; ae&mrSm FREE EL SALVADOR av;ukd c%xm;vkdufjyD; qufpOf;pm;w,f? ar;cGef;awG wykH}uD; Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

92


93

awZacgi;f xJrmS &Sad ew,f? bmvkd h rjzpfEidk &f rSmvnf;? vlawGaxmifEiS chf sjD y;D tusO;f xJxnfx h m;Ekid w f mbJ? txJrmS &Sw d hJ aumifav; wa,mufudk tjyifrv$wEf idk w f mvJ? tjyifuvl axmifEiS cf sjD y;D txJxnfx h m;&if txJu wa,mufavmufawmh olwkd hv$wfay;Ekdif&rSmaygh? aemufjyD; aumifav;[m bmtjypfrS usK;vGefxm;wm r[kwfbl;? tjypfr&SdbJ axmifxJrSm tr+xrf;ae&wmbJ? FREE EL SALVADOR aumifav;ukd olwkd h v$wfay;vkduf&ifawmif b,folurS tjypfwifrSmvnf; r[kwfbl;? axmifrLS ;ukcd spEf idk v f nf; tultnDay;Ekid rf mS bJ? aemufjy;D olvnf; aumifav;v$waf jrmufz@dk tpGrf; ukefulnDzkd h qkH;jzwfxm;w,f? b,fvkd ta=umif;jycsufrSr&Sd&ifvnf; aumifav;ukd 'Daxmif}uD;xJrSm qufrjrifcsif awmhyg? tpwkef;uawmh axmifrSL;ukdcspfEkdifu pmoifwkdufzGihfxm;wJh q&mawmf}u;D qDomG ;jy;D aumifav; wa,mufudk ulnaD pmifah &Smuf/ pmoifay;zkd h oem;cHjy;D av#mufxm; r,f? aemufwck[m q&mawmf&J h pmoifwkdufu rdbrJhuav;awGukd awZazaz a'gufwm ausmf0if;olu tcrJh aq;ukoay;w,f? tar a':pENm[mvnf; c%c% tvSLvkyfw,f? ouFef; awGvnf; r=umc% vSLw,f? 1988ckESpftxd ararvkyfwJhtvSLawGtwGuf q&mawmfausmif;ukd c%c%a&mufzl;w,f? aumifav; [m b,fuvmw,fqdkwmukd q&mawmfukd rvdrfrnm av#muf&r,f? wu,fvkd h q&mawmfausmif;pmoifwkduf rSm vufcHxm;wJh rdbrJhuav;awG odyfrsm;aew,f qkd&ifawmifrS tcrJhaq;ukay;aewJh a'gufwmausmf0if;ol/ 'grSr[kwf ouFef;awG c%c%vSLwJh a':pENm&J h rsufESmaxmufjyD; awZykd hvkdufwJhaumifav;ukdawmh olwkd h vufcHvdrfhr,f xifxm;w,f? wckb&J w dS ,f? awZwkd rh o d m;pk t&rf;cifrif&if;ES;D wJh ausmif;xkid b f ek ;f awmf}u;D a&m &Sad o;&J@qkw d m awZ rodEidk yf g? awZ pawG w h ek ;f u oufawmf 65ESpaf wmifausmaf ejy/D q&mawmf}u;D tay:aqmifudk =uw G t hJ cg taemufuae awZvku d zf ;l w,f? q&mawmf}u;D [m armyef;aeyk&H jy;D awmfawmf}uK;d pm;jy;D wufaecJ&h w,f? awZ pOf;pm;&if; orHwvif;ukd vufn;d‡ ESiahf cguaf ew,f? q&mawmf}u;D &J @ rsuEf mS awmfudk jyefjrif a,mifaerdw,f? trsm;}uD; pOf;pm;&w,f? rsufvkH;tpkHukd rdSwfxm;jyD; vkyfp&mawGukd aoao csmcsm tjyeftvSef pOf;pm;aew,f? avmavmq,fq,f taumif;qkH;tvkyfuawmh w&m;rSwf(&SK)/ w&m;xkdifzkd hbJ? orHwvif;&J h tv,fwnfhwnfhrSmxkdif&if; bk&m;ukdtm&kHjyKjyD; OD;okH;}udrfcsvkdufjyD; oHwkdifawGqDukd rsufESmrlvkdufw,f? arwWm/ *&k%m/ rk'dwm/ OyuQmpojzifh w&m;rSwfaew,f? 0ifouf (av)[m cE<mukd,fxJ 0ifvmjyD; =uGufom;awG/ eH&kd;awG=um;xJu ESvkH;om; txda&mufvm w,f? pdwu f w dk nfjird af tmif vky&f wm odyrf vG,u f v l yS g? bmbJjzpfjzpf t&SK;H r&Sb d ;l ? ppfwu dk af e&wmrS r[kwf wmbJ? pdwx f rJ mS OyuQmqkw d t hJ &m}u;D qkw d m bmrSr&Sad wmhovkd cHpm;&wJt h xd touf&KS rw S af ew,f? 'gEiS t hf wl pum;vk;H awG[m ESv;Hk &J ch ek o f EH iS t f wl cE<muk, d x f u J xGucf mG oGm;ygw,f? cE<muk, d }f u;D ukd xrf;xm;&wmrvG,f yg? awZpdwx f rJ mS ol[mwjznf;jznf;ESihf avxJu }uK;d wr#iv f dk jzpfvmw,f? wnfjird jf cif;/ at;csr;f jcif;awGu&dk cJv h dk h auseyfEpS o f ufrw d m wu,fbjJ zpfygw,f? tckq&dk if awZ w&m;usiahf ewm ESpaf wGawmif awmfawmf=umvmcJyh gjy?D ol eh mrnf&J h t"dyg` ,u f “rD;”jzpfygw,f? rD;qkdayrJh ylavmifu|rf;apwJh[mukd qkdvkdwmr[kwfygbl;? bkef;uHt[kef}uD;rm;wJh oabmukdaqmifwJh emrnfjzpfygw,f? jrefrmh&mZ0ifawGxrJ mS awZqkw d ehJ mrnf[m b,ftcsed u f wnf;u &Sad eovJ rodyg? 93

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


94

tJ'eD mrnfa=umifb h J ppfa=uma&;/ ppfaq;a&;pcef;awGu awmfawmfrek ;f wD;=uw,f? txl;ojzifh 'Dval wG odyfav;pm; a=umuf&GH h&kdao&wJh “AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;”[m awZjzpfaevkd h bJjzpfw,f? Ak'b < &k m; bk&m;jzpfwahJ erSmvnf; tjzpftysuaf wG&cdS yhJ gw,fvdk h pmaytrSwt f om; wcsK@d rSm &nf n$ef;xm;wm &Sdygw,f? vlwpk[m (yOP0*~Dig;yg;) bk&m;ukd,fawmfjrwf&J h rdef h=um;/ a[m=um;cJhwJh w&m;awG a=umifh w&m;rSef/ tjrifrSefawG &&SdoGm;cJh=uw,f? 'gawGu odyf=umcJhygjyD? awZpdwfxJrSm pOf;pm;aewm wck&dS w,f? Ak'j< rwfpmG bk&m; &Spd Ofw;Hk u rdef =h um;cJw h phJ um;awG[m vlawG vG,v f , G u f u l l oabmayguf=uyghrvm;vkd@ wu,fvkd h awZ[m ol hukd,fol bk&m;avmif;vkd pOf;pm;aewm araromodr,fqkd&if t&rf;a'goxGufrSm trSefyJ? bmbJjzpfjzpf wae&mrSmawmh tqkH;owfoGm; =uw,f? 'gu aojcif;w&m;bJ? 'Davmuf pum;vkH; wkdwkdav;ukd vlawG tvGefa=umuf&GH h=uw,f? ta0;}u;D u vlom;awG&J h toHawG=um;ae&w,f? wjznf;jznf;ESihf eD;vmygjy?D touf&KS oaH wG =um;vm&jyD? awZ tJ'Dom,mr_u rxGufcsifyg? 'gayrJh vlawG&J htoH[m ol hukdqGJac:aew,f? aemufqkH;awmh awZ rsufvkH;tpkH[m wjznfjznf;yGifhvmygw,f? wjznf;jznf;ESifhvufawG v_yf&Sm; vmygw,f? r=umcifrSm axmif rSL;ukdcspfEkdifESifh axmifq&m0efwkd h[m awZ&SdwJhae&mukd a&mufvm ygonf? awZ ukdcspfEkdifukd pum;ajym=unfh zkd h }uKd;pm;ygw,f? ck avmavmq,fq,f[m axmifrSL; ukcd spEf ikd [ f m tvGet f vkyrf sm;aew,f? awZ[m pum;vk;H awGudk owd&aew,f? tyif[m wjznf;jznf; }u;D vmovkd todOm%f&w dS hJ opf &GufawG[mvnf; }uD;rm;vmw,f? opf&GufawG[m tvif;a&mifawG xGef;vif;vmovkd pdwx f x J ifrw d ,f? • FREE EL SALVDOR aumifav;/ • opfcGyef;awG}uKdufwJh arara':pENm/ • aemufjyD; 0ef;jcH}uD;xJrSm tus,fcsKyfESifh aeae&wJh av;pm;jrwfEkd; tm;ukd;&wJh a':atmifqef;pk=unf/ • wuf=uaG e=uwJh wuUov dk af usmif;om;wpk[m awZbufudk vSn;f =unf&h if; jyK;H &,fumESihf • “ ukdawZ b,fa&mufoGm;jyDvnf;/ usaemfwkd hukd oDcsif;qkdjyygOD;” • ESpfxyfausmif;ay:u q&mawmf}uD;u toHwdwfESifh rdef h=um;aeovkdbJ “ awZ rif ; uk d ih g &J h o m;vk d igcspf y gw,f ? rif ; &J h azaz[mvnf ; igh o m;vk d y gyJ ? vlawmfval umif;awG trsm;}u;D arG;ay;Ekid cf hJ vkd h ig[m olord sm;vmjy?D ” q&mawmf}u;D ukd uefawmhjy;D ausmif;0if;xJu xGuv f mcJyh gw,f? aomhziG o hf aH =umifh awZpdwu f ;l xJu Ek;d vmygw,f? 0ifoufudk wjznf;jznf;csi;f &SKoiG ;f vku d &f if; wcg;ayguu f dk armh=unfv h u dk yf gw,f? axmifrLS ; ukcd spEf idk u f ol u h jdk yK;H jyK;H }u;D ESihf =unhaf ewmjrifvu dk &f ygw,f? pum;ajymoHESifhtwl ukdcspfEkdif&J h rsufrSef[m wcsufwcsuf 0if;vufoGm;ygw,f? “ b,fvv dk J ukad wZ aeaumif;oGm;jyv D m;?” awZ acgi;f wcsujf ird jhf yvku d yf gw,f? wHcg;zGi&hf if; awZtcef;xJokd h axmifrSL;ukdcspfEkdifESifhtwl axmifq&m0efvnf; 0ifvmygw,f? rsufESm0kdif;0kdif;ESifh oabmaumif;wJh axmifq&m0ef[m ol h&J h aq;tdwfxJu em;usyfukdxkwfjyD; awZukd aESmufajymif vku d w f ,f? “ cifAsm;ukd ESvkH;ckefoH em;axmif&r,f? 'grS cifAsm; touf&Sifr&Sif odEkdifrSm?” q&m0efu tay:tusD tjzL=u,fo;D awGudk jzKwv f u dk &f if; awZab;rSm 0ifxidk v f u dk yf gw,f? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

94


95

“ 'Dnae aw;qkid u S f bmvkyaf evJ prf;&r,f? tckxufxd oDcsi;f rqkEd idk af o;bl; r[kwv f m;?” “'gayrJh ukdcspfEkdif ajympum;t& cifAsm;pum;awG enf;enf;ajymvkd h &jyDqkdbJ? aumif;ygw,f? ” ajymajymqkdqkdESifh q&m0ef[m awZvufukd aumufukdif&if; aoG;ckefE+ef;wkdif; aeygonf? awZ[m aemufusefwJhvufwzufukd &ifbwfay: wifxm;vkdufw,f? ol hukd q&m0efukdifwG,fwmukd awZoabmrusyg? “usaemf tckxd ESv;Hk ckeaf eygao;w,f?” “ [kwfygw,f/ 'gayrJh enf;enf;aES;aew,f?” “ usaemftckwifbJ w&m;xkdifwm jyD;oGm;wm?” ukdcspfEkdifu “ awG hvm;q&m/ 'Daumif 'ga=umifh toHrxGufbJ jidrfaewm?” ukdcspfEkdifu acsmif;wcsuf [ef hvkduf&if; • “q&m ol hukd aq;wvkH;avmuf xkd;ay;vkdufygvm;? olvnf; em;&wmaygh?”q&m0efu “ tckavmavmq,fq,fawmh rvkt d yfao;ygb;l ? ckeu usaemfajymovkb d J ol Eh v S ;Hk ckeo f u H dk odyf r}uKdufbl;? tJ'gukd aoaocsmcsm xyfppfcsifao;w,f?” axmifrSL;ukdcspfEkdifu “ q&m ckeubJajymw,f? odyaf emufusaejy/D tvkyjf refjreford ;f jy;D em;csijf yq D ?dk ”q&m0efu x&yf vkdufw,f? ukdcspfEkdifxuf rsm;pGmykaewm awG h&w,f? “ axmifrSL;ukdcspfEkdif vlwa,muf&J h ESvkH;ckefoHwkdif;&wm em&D0ufawmhr=umygbl;Asm?” “ usaemf oabmaygufygw,fq&m? 'gayrJh 'DrSm usaemfwkd h odyf=umaeawmh tusOf;om; ukad wZ ukd taESmuft,Suaf y;ovkd jzpfaejyx D ifw,f?” “ taESmuft,Suf ay;w,f[w k v f m; axmifrLS ;” q&m0efu &,fvu dk &f if; “ wu,fq&dk if cifAsm; ukd jyefowday;&r,f? usaemfwkd h tcka[mfw,fxJrSm aeaewmr[kwfbl;? usaemf[m cifAsm;rdwaf qGjzpfaevkd h 'Davmuf ulnv D yk u f idk af y;aewm/ wu,fq&dk if tusO;f om; awZu usaemfw@dk ukd taESmuft,Sufay;aewm As? ol ha=umifh usaemfwkd h rdom;pkawGukd tdrfrSmxm;cJhjyD; ol@ ukdjyKpk apmifha&Smufae&wm” ajym&if; ESpfa,muf om;&,f=uw,f? awZ[m olwkd hpum;a=umifh pdwfnpfoGm;w,f? axmifrLS ; ukcd spEf idk u f “ 'ga=umifh ajymwmaygq h &m? ol u h jdk ird af q;wvk;H avmuf xk;d ay;vku d &f if tqifajyr,fqw dk mav?” “ usaemfuawmh awZukd armfzdef;qufrxkd;ay;csifbl;? awZu usaemfwkd hpum;ukd em;raxmifbl;? tck ol hukd =unfhygOD;? rw&m; ydefusaew,f? t&kd;jyKdif;jyKdif;eJ h ar;&kd;usKd;aewJhol[m 'Davmufydefatmif rvkyf oifhbl;? tm;b,fvkd &SdEkdifawmhrSmvJ´” q&m0efu awZukd “ cifAsm;[m wae hukd 3-udrf tpmpm;yg? b,fjzpfvkd h cifAsm;ukdcifAsm; 'Davmufydefatmif bmvkdh vkyfaewmvJ´” ajym&if;qkd&if; ukdcspfEkdifbuf vSnfh=unfh&if;ESifh “ usaemf ckeuajymcJhovkdbJ awZ ESvkH;ckefoH jyefem;axmif&r,f? jyD;awmhrS usaemfwkd h ESpfa,mufwkdifyifjyD; awZtwGuf axmifyidk }f u;D qDrmS oGm;ajym=u wmayg?h 'grS axmifyidk }f u;D u bmqufvyk q f jdk y;D ajymrSm? tck usaemfw@kd wwfEidk w f m 'gb&J w dS ,f?” axmifrSL; udkcspfEkdif[m awZ&J hrsufESmem; wkd;vmjyD; “ ukdawZ q&m0efajymwJhpum;awG =um;ygw,f aemf? 'g[m cifAsm;twGu?f cifAsm; usr;f rma&;twGuf t"duxm;jy;D vkyaf ewm? aemufwcg ESvkH;ckefoHwkdif;wm ukd vufcHvkdufyg? jyD;&if cifAsm; armfzdef;xdk;cH&r,faygh?” 95

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


96

awZ ukdcspfEkdif&J hrsufvkH;ukd =unfhvkduf&if; “ usaemf armfzdef;rxkd;csifawmhbl;?” ukdcspfEkdif acgif;cgoGm;w,f? “ ukdawZ usaemfarmfzdef; xkd;ay;r,fajymwmu cifAsm; emwmoufomr,f/ ykd;owfaq; xkd;wm r[kwfbl;?” awZ q&m0efbufukd =unfhvkduf&if; “ usaemf em;vnfygw,f? usaemf wu,f rvkdcsifawmh vkd hyg? aemfxyf rxkd;csifawmhbl;? bmukdrS rvkdcsifawmhvkd hyg?” “b,fvkd tcGifhta&;rS rvkdawmhbl;[kwfvm;” q&m0efu ykckH;wGef h&if; ajymvkdufw,f? axmifrSL; ukdcspfEkdif pdwfqkd;oGm;w,f? q&m0efu “awZ cifAsm; tmZmenf yDoatmif vkyfjy aew,fqw dk m =um;&ygw,f? bma=umifh cifAsm; xrif;rpm;bJ qENjyaewmvnf;? usaemf em;rvnfb;l ? cifAsm; tck'Dvkd pum;ajymaeEkdif wm=umjyDbJ? qefjyKwfawmh aomufEkdifjyDbJ? aomufyg? uJ h h h hcifAsm;twGuf axmifykdif}uD;ukd usaemfbm ajymay;&rvJ´” awZ bmrSjyefrajymyg? axmifq&m0ef[m axmifrSL;ukdcspfEkdifbuf vSnfh=unfh&if; “ awG hvm;/ us aemfcifAsm;ukd ajymbl;om;bJ? 'Daumif aomuf&l;bJ/ ae hcif;bufawmif qefjyKwf awmifrpm;bJaewm ukd,fhukdukd,f wjznf;jznf;csif; owfaoaewmbJ? awZ cifAsm; tckvkd tajctaersKd;rSm tpmrpm;&if r=umcif cifAsm; aorSmbJ? 'gukdawmh cifAsm;odxm;atmif usaemfajymjywm?” awZ acgif;ikdufpkduf csvkdufw,f? awZ avmavmq,f xrif;pm;wmxuf ta&;}uD;wJh aumifav; &J h udpu P dk tckcsucf si;f ajymvku d cf siaf yrJ/h axmifq&m0efuadk wmh odyrf ,k=H unfao;yg? 'ga=umifh axmifrSL;ukdcspf EkdifukdbJ tjrefqkH; ajymcsifw,f? jidrfaewJh awZukd =unfhae&if; axmifq&m0ef pdwfqkd;vmw,f? “ 'DtusOf;om;[m axmifxrJ mS *vef*qefvyk af ewm axmifpnf;urf;azmufaewmeJ h twlwb l ?J 'Dawmh axmifrLS ;ukcd spEf idk f ol[m '%f&m& xm;wmbJjzpfjzpf r&wmbJjzpfjzpf avmavmq,fq,f tjypfray;csifbl;?” axmifrSL; udkcspfEkdif “ aus;Zl;ygyJq&m/ wu,faus;Zl;wifygw,f?” q&m0ef[m aq;aowWmukdydwf&if; awZESifhrsufvkH;csif; qkHvkdufw,f? “ cifAsm; tpmrpm;bJ tiwfcHqENjywm usaemfeJh rqkdifbl;? pdwfvnf; r0if pm;bl;? q&m0ef[m aq;uk&rJhwm0ef &SdwmbJodw,f? 'gayrJh axmifykdif-uD;eJ hawG h&if cifAsm; odyfvG,frSm r[kwfbl;? rpm;pm;atmif vkyfrSm? cifAsm; odygw,f? olu xrif;ukd pm;ygqkd&if pm;wmaumif;w,f?” awZ “ q&m&J h pum;awGu usaemfhukd ESdyfpufaeovkdbJ xrif;pm;csifwJhpdwfukd aysmufoGm;ap w,f?” q&m0ef “ awmfavmufjyDAsm/ usaemfvnf; AkdufodyfqmaejyDAsm? tdrfjyefjyD npmxrif; jyefpm;vkduf OD;r,f? udkcspfEkdif reufjzefusrS xyfawG h=uwmayghAsm?” “axmif r S L ;uk d c spf E k d i f [ m tusF D t d w f u yf x J u vuf u k d i f y k 0 guk d xk w f v k d u f & if ; rsufrSefukdyGwfvkdufw,f? rSefukd ajymifatmif yGwfowfvkdufw,f? pdwfxJrSm enf;enf;&_yfaxG; aewm&Sw d ,f? &Spyf g;oDvukd apmifah ew,fqdk wm awZbmvkd w h cgrS ajymrjywmvJqw dk m ar;csiw f ,f? awZpm;vkd h&atmif tm&k%frwufcif wckck vkyfay;&&if aumif;r,fqkdjyD; awG;rdw,f? awZ rsufESmukd aoaocsmcsm =unhfvkdufw,f? atmf h h h [kwo f m;bJ? awZ rsuv f ;Hk wzuf[m tnKt d rJ qGaJ ewke;f bJ? E_wcf rf;pyfawGvnf; Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

96


97

a,mifuidk ;f aewke;f bJ? pdwx f rJ mS raumif;yg? 'gayrJh 'Dtif;pdeaf xmifxrJ mS 'Dvydk pHk [ H m tjrw J rf;wrf;vkv d dk jrifae&wJh udpjP zpfygw,f? tckxufxd aw;qkdiSuf[m b,fta=umif;t&mrqkd rauseyfbl;qkdwm wcgrS rajymbl;? ukdcspfEkdif [m awZukd awmfawmf tHh=ordw,f? tdrjf zLawmf wku d t f rd af v;ukd ajymif;vmjy;D uwnf;u awZ[m oleJ yh &dk if;ES;D vmwm trSeb f jJ zpf w,f? ol hbufuvnf; awZ oufomygapqkdjyD; enf;vrf;trsKd;rsKd;ESifh armfzdef;xkd;ay;atmif }uKd;pm;aqmif&Guf ay;cJhw,f? 'g[mvnf; awZtay:xm;wJh apwemtrSef jzpfygw,f? tckawmhvnf; =unfhygOD;? armfzdef; rxkd;ygeJ h / rvkdawmhbl;qkdbJ? axmifrSL;ukdcspfEkdif “ cifAsm;ukd usaemfem;rvnfEkdifawmhbl;? b,fvkdjzpfwmvJ´ bmtcGit hf a&;rS rvkcd siaf wmhb;l qk”d awZ pum;ajymzkd h }uK;d pm;vku d w f ,f/ pum;wvk;H xGuv f mwkid ;f ryDocJhyg? temuvnf; rusufao;yg? 5ywfausmfausmfwkH;u tokH;ruswJhq&m0efu awZt&kd;usKd; wJhae&mu aumif;oGm;jyDvkd h ajym xm;w,f? 'gayrJh t&kd;u odyfemaewkef;bJ? ukdcspfEkdif reufjzef olESifh vmawG hcsifw,f? reufapmapm qefjyKwfaomufjyD;&if olvnf; tm;enf; enf; &SdvmEkdifw,f? tckavmavmq,fq,fawmh rsufvkH;rSdwfjyD; vSJtdyfvkdufcsifw,f? axmifrSL;ukdcspfEkdifu awZab;rSm apmifha=umifhxkdifcsvkduf&if; “ ukdawZ b,fvkdaeao;vJ´ oufom&J hvm;´” tJ'DtoH[m ta0;}uD;u vmaeovkd / [kdeH&H}uD;tjyifbufu vSrf;ajymvkdufovkd xl;qef;aew,f? awZ pOf;pm;rdwm ol hem;u wckckcsKd h,Gif;aejyDvm;qkdwmbJ? acgif;ukd }uKd;pm;xl&if; “ OD;cspfEkdif usaemfr=um cifrSm tpmiwfcH qENjyawmhr,fvkd h qkH;jzwfxm;w,f?” xGufouft&Snf}uD;ukd }uKd;pm;r+wfxkwfvkduf&if; “ “tJ'gukd rvkyfcifrSm cifAsm;qDu ta&;}uD;wJh tultnDwck vkad ew,f? cifAsm; ulnED idk rf ,fxifygw,f?” qufvufazmfjy oGm;ygrnf? dy(c)armifarmifvwf bmomjyefqdkol R oland Har Hardy

0efxrf;qdkwm aejynfawmf&dS tpk;d & 0efxrf;tdr&f m wpfcw k iG f arG;ae@yGw J pfck usi;f yaeaom tcsed jf zpfonf? trsdK;orD;i,fwpfOD; qGJvmaom qGJjudk;ukd=unfhjyD; {nfhonftm;vkH;u “vSvkdufwm/ vSvkdufwm” [k tm;vkH; 0kdif;0ef; csD;rGrf;ae=uonf? csD;rGrf;cH&ojzifh yDwdjzpfrdaom trsdK;orD; i,fonf tm;yg;w& =unfyh gap[laom &nf&, G cf sujf zihf qGjJ u;kd ukcd |waf y;vku d . f ?qGjJ u;kd onf wpfvufrw S pfvufo@dk ul;oGm;jy;D aemufq;Hk wGif aysmufomG ;awmhonf? trsdK;orD;juD;wpfOD;u pdwfraumif; jzpfrdpGmjzifhajym.? “tcsif;csif; 'Dvkdvkyfwmawmh raumif;ygbl;? 'ga=umifh ,lxm;wm ukdvJ b,folrSrodatmif tckpm;yGJay:ukd aiGzvm;wpfvkH; wifvkdufr,f?jyD;&ifrD;cvkwfukd ydwfjyD; wpf&mtxda&r,f? rD;jyefzGifh vkdufwJhtcsdefrSm qGJjudk;ukd aiGzvm;xJrmS jyefawG@&vdrrhf ,fv@dk ar#mv f ifch siyf gw,f” vk@d ajymvku d yf gw,f? rD;ukd ydwv f u dk jf y;D wpfuae wpf&txda&w,f? jy;D awmhr;D ukjd yefziG v hf u dk w f ,f? pm;yGJay:rSm aiGzvm;r&Sdawmh²²² from burma strange news (a&;om;ay;ykd@ol - =unf0if;) 97

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


98

Edik if aH &; tawG;tjrif bmomjyef tcef;quf

'Da&jrifoh pf jroef;wif h

jrefrmhq&kd , S v f pf vrf;pOfygwD vufxuf/jrefrmhwyfrawmftrnfcH ppftm%m&Sirf sm;rS h pf xkwaf 0cGijhf yK+y;D aemuf ydwyf if wm;jrpfjcif;cH&aom q&mjroef;wifh . 'Da&jrifo (armfpw D ek ;f ESihf w&kwaf wmfveS af &;) pmtkyt f m;/ tvif;tdrrf *~Zif; &Jabmfrsm; taejzifh vufawG b h 0 w&kwjf ynfawmfveS af &;ESihf cH,jl zwfoef;r_rsm;udk pmzwfow l kd h avhvm od&EdS ikd af p&ef tcef;quftjzpf azmfjyvku d yf gonf// (pma&;ol. rdom;pkEiS hf qufo, G af &; cufco J jzifh today;jcif; r&So d nfukd cGiv hf w $ af y;yg&ef awmif;yeftyfygon)f

vkyf[efjyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_ 1941 - 1944 ygwDvkyf[efjyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_. &nf&G,fcsufudk armfu Todk@xkwfajymcJhonf? “trsdK;om; twdkif;twm&Sd+yD; vlxk vuQ%maqmifwJh ygwD}uD;w&yf jzpfvm atmif ygwu D kd u|eaf wmfw@kd b,fvkd wnfaqmuf=urvJ? awmfveS af &; v_y&f mS ;r_}u;D w&yfukd !$e=f um;aewJh EdkifiHa&;ygwD[m awmfvSefa&; oabmw&m;r&Sd&i/f ordkif; A[kokw r&Sd&if/ vufawG@ vkyfudkifaewJh v_yf&Sm;r_udk eufeufeJeJ em;rvnf&if/ atmifyGJ&vdrfhr,f r[kwf” ( “trsdK;om; ppfyGJtwGif; w&kwfuGefjrLepfygwD. tqifhae&m” vufa&G;pifusrf;/ twGJ 2) ordkif;a=umif;udk ajymwdkif;/ w&kwfjynf. ordkif;wckwnf;udk armf qdkvdkjcif;r[kwf? xdktxJwGif w&kwfuGefjrLepfygwD. ordkif;vnf;ygaeonf? w&kwfjynfuGefjrLepfygwD. ordkif;udk em;vnfa&;on/f qGe, f u D eG zf &ifu h wnf;u ay:aygucf ahJ om/ t+y;D rowfao;o!fh t,l 0g'a&;&m wdu k yf jJG y\em jzpfonf? armfu jy\emw&yfudk udk,fwG,f+yDqdkv#if b,fawmhrS tay:,H udkifwG,fjcif;rjyK? Zpfjrpfxad tmif vku d o f nf? twlvyk zf uf ausmif;q&m wa,muf jy\em w&yfEiS hf &ifqikd af ev#i/f xdkausmif;q&mudk ausmif;tkyfq&m}uD;&Hk;cef;wGif;odk@ twif;qGJac:um/ jy\emudk yGifhyGihfvif;vif; &ifqikd af pyHrk sKd ; jzpfonf? ,ckygwx D w J iG f t,ltq &_waf xG;ae+y?D r&d;k ajzmifrh a_ wG ay:ae+y?D xdt k cgY armfonf ygw. D twdwo f rdik ;f udk jyefI wl;az:onf? xd@k aemuf ordik ;f . w&m;cGio f @kd wifjyonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh tem*gwf atmifyGJtwGuf twdwfudk toHk;csonf? ygwDvkyf[ef jyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_onf ygwD0ifwdkif;ESifh qdkifonf? ygwD tzGJ@tpnf; tm;vHk;ESihfvnf; qdkifonf? xdk@a=umifh ygwDordkif;/ ygwD0ifwdk@. ordkif;rsm;udk/ =unfvifyDo atmif cGjJ crf;pdwjf zm =u!fzh @kd vdo k nf[k armf ,lqonf? w&kwu f eG jf rLepfygw. D ygw0D ifz@JG pnf; r_ukd =u!fv h #i/f ygwD 0 if trsm;pk (70-&mE_ e f ; ) onf / v,f o rm; vl w ef ; pm;rS vmol r sm; jzpf = uonf ? usefygwD0ifrsm;rSm/ a'ojzLrSvmaom "e&Sif aygufprsm;ESifh ynmwwfrsm; jzpf=uonf? ygwDESifh tpd;k & ,EW&m;rsm;wGi/f ynmwwfrsm;u wm0ef}u;D }u;D ae&mrsm;wGif a&mufae=uonf? tcsKd @aom a'orsm;wGif 0g&ifhawmfvSefa&; wyfom;}uD;rsm;onf/ 0gEk ygwD au'grsm;. trdef@udk emcHae=u&onf? Todk@jzihf ygwDxJwGif v,form;vlwef;pm;u vmo!fh au'gESifh ynmwwf au'g/ 0g&ifh au'gESifh 0gEk au'gwdk@ yËdyuQ jzpfvm=uonf? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

98


99

au'g ESpfrsdK;pvHk;udk *syefckcHa&; wuUodkvfodk@ wufapI/ ygwD0ifrsm;=um;u/ uGm[r_udk acszsuf&ef armfu }udK;pm;onf? ,cifuuJhodk@/ ynmwwfrsm;udk &k&Sm;odk@ oifwef; wuf&ef apv$wfo!fh pepfudk/ armfu qef@usifonf? w&kwf- *syef ppfyGJ jzpfvm o!fhtwGuf/ &k&Sm;odk@ rv$wfEdkifawmhaomfvnf; ynmwwfrsm;ESifh &k&Sm;jyefrsm; ygwDxJwGif ae&mwum}uD;pdk;ae=uonf? AsK&u kd a&pDpepf/ t&m&Spd epf v$r;f rd;k vmonf? tkycf sKyaf &;wGif vlyakd wG rsm;aeonf? ukex f w k v f yk jf cif; rjyKo!fh tpd;k & Xmersm;u/ vlyrkd sm;a=umihf vlxw k iG f 0efwufvmonf? jcpm;r_/ tusiphf m&dwyW surf /_ tacsmiform; 0g' usio fh ;kH r_w@kd ay:ayguv f m onf? ygwu D kd oef@&Si;f atmif vkyzf @kd vkad e+y?D Tjy\emudk pwifvmolrsm;rSm &dk;om;I tvkyfvkyfo!fh tvkyform;/ v,form; vlwef;pm;uvmo!fh au'grsm;r[kwf? rwf0g' pum;vHk;rsm;rsm;udk &Gwfzwfo&ZÇ,f=uo!fh ynmwwfrsm; jzpf=uonf? todnmOf jzpfvm onf? ynmwwfvlwef;pm;. jy\em jzpfonf? ,iftef;odk@ a&mufvmo!fh ynmwwftrsm;pkonf &dk;om;=uonf? xufoef =uonf? vkyf[efjyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_a=umihf tcsdK@onf awmfvSefa&; wyfom;aumif;rsm; jzpfvmcJ=h uonf? od@k &mwGif ygwx D YJ rajymif;vJo!fh ynmwwftcsKd @ useaf eao;onf? tcsKd @onf awmfveS af &;udk oHo,&Sad e=uonf? pdwyf suaf e=uonf? tqd;k jrif 0g' 0ifae =uonf? TonfrmS tcuftcJrsm;/ ulrifwefydwfqdk@r_rsm;/ taetxdkif qif;&Jr_rsm;/ pnf;urf;ESifh ae&jcif;rsm;a=umihf jzpfonf? ygwDvrf;pOfudk rav;eufjcif;a=umifhvnf; jzpfonf? ,iftef;odk@ a&mufvmo!fh ynmwwfrsm;udk omrefvlxkxuf tcGifhta&; ay;xm;o!fhwdki/f aexdkifr_ tqifhjrihfonfwdkif/ Tr#ESihf rauseyf=u? ydkI tcGifhta&; vdkcsif=uonf? ydkI Zdrfusus aevdk=uonf? TonfrSm ynmwwfvlwef;pm; nOfa=umihf jzpfonf? ynmwwfvlwef;pm;onf yifyifyef;yef; vkyf&rnfudk a=umufonf? vufeufuikd f wdu k yf . JG tcuftcJrsm;udk a=umufonf? pnf;urf;udk a=umufonf? =urf;wrf;cJah om w&kwf v,form;rsm;. b0udk a=umufonf? vpfb&,f 0g' tavsmuf/ twif;ajym wwfonf? a&&Snfoabmudk rjrifojzifh pdwf"gwfuswwfonf? tjrif&_wfaxG;ojzihf *dk%f; *% 0g'ESifh taumuf}uHr_rsm; 0ifwwfonf? TonfrSm oabmxm; jy\em jzpfonf? EdkifiHa&; jy\em jzpfonf? ygwD0iftopfESifh ta[mif;=um;u uGm[csufuvnf; }uD;onf? wHwm;cif;&ef rvG,f? wOD;udk wOD; oHo, 0ifae=uonf? ynmwwf vli,f au'gopfrsm;u/ 0g&ifh ynmrJh au'ga[mif;}uD;rsm;udk txifao;onf? vlxkESihf cyfuif;uif; aeonf? a'ocH vlxk. bmompum;udk em;rvnf? em;vnfatmifvnf; oif=um;jcif; rjyK? +rdK@}uD; rsm;uvmo!fh/ xif&Sm;o!fh vuf0J pma&;q&m wpkqdkv#if/ ,iftef;wGif rxifr&Sm; tnw&rsm; tjzpf ae&onf? TwGif yk*~dKvfa&; cHpm;csufrsm;/ rauseyfcsufrsm; ay:vm onf? Tyk*~dKvfa&; rauseyfcsufrsm;onf xkxnf }uD;vmum/ awmfvSefa&; tusdK;pD;yGm;udk zHk;tkyfypfvdkufonf? xdkr#ru +rdK@rsm;rS a&mufvmo!fh ynmwwf au'gopfrsm;onf/ ygwDta=umif;udk aumif;aumif; rod=u? usefpDjynfe,f uGefz&ifh/ qGef,D uGefz&ifh ponfwdk@wGif bmjzpfcJh=u onfudk rod=u? Tynmwwfrsm;udk 0rfrif;*dk%f;uvnf; tm;ay;tm;ajrSmufjyKae=uonf? vkyf[efjyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_udk tpysdK;o!fhtaejzifh 1941 ckESpf rwfvwGif/ armfu “aus;vuf ta=umif; pl;prf;avhvmcsuf. ed'gef;ESifh ed*Hk;” [laom pmwrf;wapmifudk a&;onf? Tpmwrf;udk ygwDvkyf[ef jyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_ pmwrf; tjzpf avhvm&ef ausnmvdkufonf? 99

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


100

“atmufvuf tajctaersm;udk vHk;0em;rvnfyJ/ acgif;aqmifvkyfae=ujcif;onf/ tvGeftEW&m,f}uD;aom tcsif;t&m w&yfjzpfonf? vl@tzGJ@tpnf;/ vlwef;pm; toD;oD; . tajctaerSefudk wu,fwrf; tcdkiftrmusus em;vnf;jcif;r&Sdygu/ wu,hfacgif;aqmif aumif; jzpfEdkifvdrhfrnf r[kwf?” “vl@tzGJ@tpnf;tm; pl;prf;avhvmjcif;/ vl@tzGJ@tpnf;/ vlwef;pm; toD;oD;. v_yf&Sm;aeaom tajctaeudk pl;prf;avhvmjcif;on/f tajctaeudk od&Sdem;vnfzdk@twGuf wckwnf;aom enf;vrf;jzpfonf?--TudpPudk vkyfrnfqdkv#if yxrtm;jzifh atmufajcodk@ rsufESmrl&rnf? acgif;armhaeI rjzpf?” (“aus;vuf ta=umif; pHkprf;avhvmcsuf? ed'gef;ESifh ed*Hk;” vufa&G;pifusrf; twGJ 3) “vufawG@ vkyfief;vkyfolrSefor#[m atmufajcta=umif;udk pHkprf;&r,f? oabm w&m;udkom em;vnf+yD;/ vufawG@ tajctaeudk em;rvnfolrsm;[m pHkprf;a&; vkyfief; vkyfzdk@ txl;vdt k yfw,f? 'Dvrkd vky&f if olw@kd [m oabmw&m;eJ@ vufawG@udk aygi;f pyfay; Edik rf mS r[kwb f ;l ? ‘pHkprf;r_r&Sd&if pum;ajymcGifhr&Sd’ qdkwmudk wcsdK@u ‘usOf;ajrmif;wJh tawG@ t}uHK 0g'’ [k oa&mf=uayr,hf usKyfuawmh rSm;w,fvdk@ ckxdrxifbl;? rSm;w,fvdk@ rxif&Hk ru pHkprf;r_ r&Sd&if pum;ajymcGifh r&Sdbl;vdk@ pGJpGJ+rJ+rJ ,Hk=unfw,f” ( 4if;usrf;)? armfu vkyf[ef jyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_twGuf pmwrf; (18) apmif jyXmef;o!fhtxJwGif “yÉdyuQusr;f ”vnf; ygonf? vky[ f efjyK jyifa&; v_y&f mS ;r_wiG f xdu k sr;f udk avhvm&ef jyXmef;cJo h nf? armfu-“u|efawmfwdk@. w&m;ao0g'Drsm; rSm;,Gif;=uonfrSm-- eufeJpGm ravhvm&ao;aom od@k r[kwf topfay:xGuv f maom vufawG@t&m udprP sm;udk rkcs qufvufavhvm&OD;rnfjzpfa=umif; em;rvnfjcif;yif jzpfonf? u|eaf wmfw@kd . w&m;ao0g'rD sm;onf vlzsi;f rsm; jzpf=uonf? olw@kd onf vufawG@t&m udpPrsm;ESifh ywfoufI/ rnfo!fh cufcJ yifyef;aom avhvma&; vkyfief;rsdK;udkrqdk vkyf&ef jiif;qef=uonf? a,bk,s trSefw&m;udk rdk;ay:u usvmo!fh t&m[k ,lq=uonf? 4if;udk vlorl sm; rvkyu f ikd Ef ikd o f !fh taumiftxnfrhJ yHak oenf;oufouf jzpfatmif vkyw f wf=uonf?” (“yÉdyuQusrf;” vufa&G;pifusrf;/ twGJ 1) armfu ygwDvkyfief; jyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_udk ta,mifjyum ygwDtqifh toD;oD;wGif udk,fESifh rw!fhol/ udk,fht,ltqudk qef@usifol rSefor#udk/ tjyKwf jzKwfypf&ef jzpfonf? pifppf vkyf[ef jyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_udk vkyf&mwGif/ armhf &nf&G,fcsufrSm ygwD xdyfweff; acgif;aqmifrsm;udk &nf&G,fjcif; jzpfonf? odk@&mwGif xkdolwdk@u wygwDvHk;udk pdwfwdkif;us yHkoGif;&ef &nf&G,fonf? xdkolrsm;rSm “vuf0JtvGeftu|H” orm;rsm; jzpfonf? tjcm; t,ltq wckrSm vkyf[ef jyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_udk wHk@aES;atmif uysuf ,ysuf jzpfatmif vkyfcsifolrsm; jzpfonf? xdkolrsm;rSm vufsm tacsmif 0g'orm;rsm; jzpf=uonf? 1941 ck arvwGif ygwaD u'grsm;udk ajymo!f/h “u|eaf wmfw@kd . avhvmr_ukd jyK jyifa&;” [lo!fh rde@f cGe;f wGif armfu “u|eaf wmfw@kd wygwv D ;kH taeeJ@ avhvmwJeh nf;eJ@ avhvmwJph epfukd jyK jyif=uzd@k wdu k w f eG ;f w,f” [k ajymcJo h nf/ armfu ygwx D w J iG f avhvmr_EiS hf pl;prf;r_ tm;enf;ao;a=umif;/ pum;}u;D pum;us,f ajymo!fh vky[ f efukd jyifoifah =umif;jzifh tus,w f 0ifh axmufjyonf? vky[ f ef jyK jyifa&;wGif avhvmenf;/ tvkyfvkyf[efESihf pma&;[efwdk@ jyif&ef armfu t"duxm;onf? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

100


101

au'grsm;onf “ud, k Ohf ;D aESmuf ud, k o f ;kH um” jywfjywf&iS ;f &Si;f pOf;pm;wwf&rnf? pdwyf g vufyg aphaphpyfpyf tvkyf vkyf&rnf? yGifhyGifhvif;vif; ajym&rnf[k awmif;qkdonf? pma&;&mwGif ud, k rf S vG+J y;D wjcm;vl em;rvnfo!fh Edik if aH &; pum;vH;k }u;D awG/ 0gus&n S }f u;D awG a&;jcif;udk a&Smif& rnf? tESpfrygo!fh Avmpum;vHk;rsm;/ vlem;rvnfo!fh EdkifiHa&; a0g[m&rsm;udk/ wwfEdkifor# a&Smif&rnf[k wdkufwGef;onf? armfonf pum;}uD; pum;us,foHk;jcif;udk enf;enf;r# r}udKuf? “u|eaf wmfw@kd . avhvmr_ukd jyK jyifa&;/” “ygwv D yk [ f ef jyK jyifa&;” ESihf “wefygu h u l kd qef@usi=f u” po!fh pmwrf;rsm;Y Tudpu P kd tus,w f 0ifh aqG;aEG;onf? rvdt k yfyJ aqmif;yg;&Sn}f u;D rsm;a&;jcif;/ 0gus&Snf}uD;rsm; oHk;jcif;onf vlxkudk em;&_wfaponf? 4if;wdk@onf “tysif;xlaom ajcao; w&kwrf . ajcywfvkd eHvnf;eH &Snv f nf; &Sno f nf ”[k armfu a0zefonf? armf. Tpmwrf;rsm; onf tawG;&Si;f ol ta&;&Si;f ol/ ud, k v hf yk if ef;ud, k f em;vnfow l OD;. aqmif;yg;aumif;rsm; jzpfonf[k qdkxdkufonf? *EW0ifajrmuf pmwrf;rsm;[k qdkxdkufonf? armfonf jiif;ckejf cif;jzifh t,ltqudk wdu k o f nf? jiif;ckejf cif;jzifh ud, k t hf ,ltqudk xlaxmif onf? a0zefa&;ESifh udk,fhudk,fudk a0zefa&;udk usihfoHk;jcif;jzifh (8) odef;r# &Sdaom ygwDau'grsm;udk udk,fhbufodk@ygatmif odrf;oGif;onf? au'grsm;tm; tvkyfvkyf&if;jzifh w&kwfjynf ta=umif; odem;vnfaponf? Tvkyfief;rsmtwGuf yxrqHk; wm0ef&Sdolrsm;rSm ygwDoifwef;ausmif;u q&mrsm; jzpfonf? “ausmif;wGif ynmay;&mrSma&m/ wm0efvuf&dS au'gawGukd ynmay;&rSmyg tbd"rRmoif ay;wJh q&mu w&kwjf ynf awmfveS af &;eJ@ ywfoufwhJ avm*spu f kd pl;prf;avhvmzd@k ausmif;om;awGukd a&S@aqmif!e$ jf y ray;bl;? abm*aA' oifwq hJ &mu w&kwjf ynfp;D yGm;a&; xl;jcm;csurf sm;udk pl;prf;avh vmzdk@ ausmif;om;awGudk a&S@aqmif !$efjyray;bl;? EdkifiHa&;ynmoifay;wJh q&mu/ w&kwfjynf awmfveS af &; enf;y&d,m,frsm;udk pl;prf;avhvmzd@k ausmif;om;awGukd !$ejf yray;bl;? ppfynmoifay; wJh q&mu w&kwjf ynf&@J xl;jcm;csuef @J udu k n f w D hJ aoe*FAsL[menf;eJ@ enf;y&d,m,fawGukd pl;prf; avhvmzd@k ausmif;om;awGukd !$ejf yray;bl;?--'gawGukd aygah ygw h efwef vufyu kd =f u!fah evd@k rjzpfawmh bl;?” ( “u|efawmfwdk@. avhvmr_udk jyK jyifa&;” vufa&G;pifusrf;/ twGJ 3) 1941 ckEpS f Zlvikd v f (1) &ufae@wGif A[dak umfrwDu “ygwD pdw"f mwf }ucH ikd af &;” qdo k !fh qH;k jzwfcsuf w&yf csonf? xkq d ;kH jzwfcsuu f kd armfa&;jcif; jzpfonf? ygww D iG ;f wGif “woD;yk*v ~ 0g'”ESihf “ol&Jaumif; 0g'” ay:ayguf xGef;um;aeyHk/ udk,fhqEN tavsmuf xif&mpdkif;ae=uyHk/ vdrfaumufr_rsm; ay:aygufaeyHk/ *dk%f;rsm; tpkrsm; ay:aygufaeyHkwdk@udk axmufjyonf? armf. ygwDvkyf[ef jy Kjyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_onf/ 1941 ckrS 1944 ck txd oHk;ESpf=umonf? Tv_yf&Sm;r_ESifh wygwnf;/ ukefxkwfvkyfa&; v_yf&Sm;r_ESihf vlxkynma&; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udkvnf; vkyf onf? tusKd ;quftm;jzifh vufawG@ESihf oabmw&m;/ cGet f m;pdu k f tvkyEf iS fh Om%ftm;pdu k f tvkyw f @kd udk aygif;pyfay;EdkifcJhonf? ynmwwfrsm;udk vlxkESifh aygif;pnf;atmif vkyfEdkifcJhonf? w+yd KifeufxJwGif tajccHa'ou tpd;k &tzG@J udv k nf; jyifz@JG onf? “oH;k š oH;k ” tcsKd ; Edik if aH &;tm%mudk xlaxmifonf? xdkpepft& tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@rsm;wGif ygwD0ifOD;a& oHk;csdK; wcsdK;om ygonf? ygwD tjyifbufu vlxrk sm;xH t}uH Om%fawmif;&ef/ 4if;wd@k . t}uaH y;csuu f kd em;axmif&ef armfu wdu k w f eG ;f onf? ppfwyfudk ydkI aumif;&efESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@rsm;udk eJeJESifh }uJ }uJ 0dkif;&ef t}uHudk ygwD0if r[kwfo!fh/ vDwifrif;u t}uHay;cJhonf? 1941 ckESpf Zefe0g&DvwGif csefau&Sdwfu 101

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


102

pwkwˆ wyfrawmfopfukd wdu k o f !ft h cgY vDwifrif;onf cseaf u&Sw d . f vky&f yfukd rauseyfjzpfum uGejf rLepfw@kd e,fo@kd ajymif;vmcJo h nf? armfu vDwifrif;. t}uaH y;csuu f kd vufco H nf? ppfwyfEiS hf tpdk;&&Hk;rsm;rS (70) &mE_ef;udk ukefxkwfvkyfa&; vkyfief;rsm;wGif yg0ifaponf? 1942 ck 'DZifbmvwGif armfu ,iftef;tajccHa'o pD;yGm;a&;/ b¾ma&;wd@k ESifh ywfoufI tpD&ifccH suw f apmifwif&mY/ ukex f w k v f yk af &;udk wGe;f wif&ef aqmf=oonf? w&kwjf ynf. pD;yGm;a&; ay:vpDonf tjrwfxw k &f efr[kw?f ukex f w k v f yk af &; wd;k wuf&ef jzpfonf[k axmufjyonf? “oD;pm;c avsmhaygha&;/ ukefxkwfvkyfa&;/ tpdk;&udk axmufcHa&;ESifh vlxkrsm;. aysmf&$ifa&;” wdk@twGuf v_yf &Sm;r_rsm; vkyfonf? xdkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;onf/ atmifjrifcJh=uonf? vlxkudk &$ifvef;wuf=uGaeatmif vkyfa&;onf/ awmfvSefa&;wcktwGuf ta&;}uD;a=umif; armf oabmaygufonf? xdt k csed w f iG f ppfa&;Yvnf; w&kww f yfeaD wmfonf atmifyrJG sm;&aeonf? 1942-43 ckEpS f rsm;Y *syefonf ta&S@tm&Sawmifyikd ;f ppfyu JG kd tm&Hpk u kd af e&o!ft h wGuf w&kwjf ynfwiG f xk;d ppfrsm; rqifEdkif? Ttcsdefudk tcGifhaumif;,lum/ armfu *syefwyfrsm;udk xdk;ppfqifonf? *syefwdk@u w&kyf &kyfao;wyfrsm;udk oHk;aomfvnf;/ r,SOfEdkif? csefau&Sdwf. ulrifwefwyf ppfrsufESmrsm;wGif ppftDvsuf &Sdaomfvnf;/ wyfeDawmf ppfrsufESmwGif wyfeDawmfonf *syefwdk@udk tEdkif&vsuf&Sdonf? 1944 ckESpf tukefwGif uGefjrLepfwdk@u e,fajropfrsm; tajccHa'oopfrsm; awmfawmf odrf;rdae+yD? pwk&ef;rdkif woef;/ vlOD;a& oef; (100) &Sdo!fh/ tajccHa'o (19) ckudk odrf;rdae+yD? pmay tEkynm e,fy,fEiS fh ygwo D rdik ;f a&;&mwGif vky[ f ef jyK jyifa&; v_y&f mS ;r_ jyKvyk o f nf? armf. “,iftef; pmay tEkynm rdef@cGef;” onf txyfxyf taqmufttHku jy\emrsm;udk ajz&Sif;a&;wGif aomhwacsmif; jzpfonf? armfu 1942 ck arvwGif pma&;q&mrsm;/ tEkynmonfrsm; ESifh tEkynme,fyg,u f tvkyo f rm;rsm;. uGezf &ifw h &yfukd usi;f yonf? arv (2) &ufae@u usi;f yo!fh uGezf &iho f @kd ynmwwfaygi;f &S,q f ,f wufonf? armfonf uGezf &ifw h iG f oludk,fwdkif yg0ifaqG;aEG;onf? tEkynmonfrsm;. xifjrifcsufudk wav;wpm; em;axmifonf? rSwfpkrsm; rSwfonf? “wcsdK@ pma&;q&mawGu olwdk@tcsuftvufudk udk;um;jyzdk@ pmtkyfawGudk ,lvm=uw,f? pmay ‘tEkynm’ qdkwJh pum;awGudk teufzGifhzdk@ tbd"mef pmtkyfawGawmif ,lvm=uw,f?” [k xdk uGefz&ifhudk wufcJho!fh wyfom;a[mif;}uD; wOD;u ajymjyonf? xdkpum;vHk;rsm. teufudk pma&;q&m tcsif;csif; jiif;ckef=uonf? aqG;aEG;=uonf? "e&Sif &yfwnfr_jzifh teufzGifh=uonf? olwdk. teuf t"dy`g,frsm;onf w&kwf,Ofaus;r_/ w&kwfjynfol/ w&kwaf wmfveS af &;ESifh enfenf;r# pyf[yf jcif; r&S?d armfu +yKH ;I em;axmifum/ vlxx k J qif;avhvmzd@k t}uaH y;onf? “arv (10) &ufae@ aqG;aEG;yGJuawmh wae@vHk;yJ? nrdk;csKyfwJhtxd r+yD;ao;bl;? ‘b,fol@udk tusdK;jyKrvJ’ qdkwJh jy\emrSm u|efawmfwdk@ awmfawmf jiif;vdkuf=uw,f? arv 23 &uf uGefz&ifh aemufqHk;ae@usawmhvJ waeukefwmyJ? aemufqHk;ae@rSm pma&;q&mawG/ tEkynmonfawG awmfawmfrsm;rsm; wuf=uw,f? OuUX armfuawmh olwum ajymor# pm&Gufw&GufeJ@ vdkufrSwfae wmyJ? tJ'Dwkef;u u|efawmfwdk@rSm puULodyf&Sm;aew,f? wzufvGwf puULawGudk toHk;jyK&w,f? *syefav,mOfysHawG vm+yD; pm&GufawG usJ&if odyf0rf;omwmyJ? u|efawmfwdk@ vdkufaumuf+yD; oHk;& wmaygh? aemufqHk;ae@rSm OuUXarmfu ed*Hk;csKyf rdef@cGef;ajymw,f? Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

102


103

pma&;q&mawG tEkynmonfawGvJ trsm;}uD; tm;wufoGm;w,f? vlxkxJ qif;+yD;/ vlxktwGuf pmayawGudk jyKpk=uw,f? ‘ta&S@ wcGifvHk;eD’ qdkwJh oDcsif;[m tJ'Dwkef;u a&;wmaygh?” [k wyfom;a[mif;}uD; wOD;u ajymonf? armf. “,iftef;pmayESihf tEkynmrde@f cGe;f ” onf pma&;q&m trsm;pkukd ajymif;vJomG ;ap onfrmS rSeo f nf? od@k &mwGif tm;vH;k r[kw?f tcsKd @aom pma&;q&mrsm;onf rdrw d @kd . urBmt h jrifukd rajymif;cJh=u? Ttcsufudk ypPnf;rJh ,Ofaus;r_ awmfvSefa&;}uD;u oufaojycJh+yD? ,iftef;aqG;aEG;yGw J iG f ajymo!fh armf. rde@f cGe;f onf pdw0f ifpm;zG,af umif;onf? xdrk ed @f cGe;f xJwGif wifjycJho!fh pmay tEkynm jy\emrsm;onf rsufarSmufacwfpmay tEkynmqdkif&m jy\emrsm;yif jzpfaeao;onf? xdkrdef@cGef;wGif armfu arv (4) &uf ta&;awmfyHk +yD;o!fhaemuf ay:ayguv f mo!fh “,Ofaus;r_ wyfrawmfopf ” ta=umif;udk &Si;f jyonf? pma&;q&mrsm; vlxEk iS fh wom;wnf;jzpfatmif aygi;f pyfz@kd aqmf=oonf? vlwef;pm; &yfwnfr_ jy\em/ oabmxm; jy\em/ y&d\wf jy\em/ vky[ f ef jy\emESihf avhvma&; jy\em po!fh tEkynmonf. jy\em ig;&yf udk wifjyoGm;onf? y&d\wfonf tvkyo f rm;/ v,form;/ ppfom;ESihf tajccHa'owGif awmfveS f aom au'grsm; jzpfonf? od@k &mwGif pma&;q&mrsm;onf +rd K@jy y&d\wf usO;f usO;f uav;twGuo f m a&;=uonf? "e&Sif pmzwf y&d\wftwGufom a&;=uonf[k armfu a0zefonf? xdkr#ru pma&; q&mrsm;onf jynforl sm; ta=umif;udk aumif;pGm rod=u? vlx. k &Sio f ef=u, G 0f aom a0g[m&rsm;udk toHk;rjyK=u / xdk@a=umifh olwdk@. ayghysufaom pmayrsm;udk jynfolrsm;u r}ud Kuf? udk,hfpmudk vlxku em;vnfapvdkv#if/ }ud Kufapvdkv#if pma&;q&monf emusif &Snf=umo!fh jzpfpOfw&yfudk jzwfoef; &vdrfhrnf[k armfu axmufjyonf? tcuftcJwGif oHcJwifcHEkdif&rnf[k qdkonf? “cifAsm; ta=umif;udk vlxkodapcsif&if vlxkeJ@ wom;wnf; jzpfcsif&if xkom;/ awom; &atmif a&&Snaf vhusizhf @kd omru tqif;&J tyifyef;cH+y;D / avhusizhf @kd pdwyf ikd ;f jzwf&r,f? pum;pyfrv d @kd u|eaf wmh pdwo f abmajymif;vmyHu k kd ajym&tH;k r,f? u|eaf wmf[m ausmif;om;b0uae+y;D / awmfveS af &; xJ0ifco hJ l jzpfw,f? ausmif;aewke;f u ausmif;om;tusiahf wG &cJw h ,f? bmudrk S rxrf;Edik f ro,fEikd f wJh ausmif;om;awGa&S@rSm udk,fh0efpnf pv,f udk,fydk;wJh[mudk/ um,tvkyf vkyf&wmudk tawmf *k%fi,fwJh tvkyfrsdK;vdk@ xifcJhw,f? urBmay:rSm ynmwwfawG[m oef@&Sif;w,f? tvkyform; v,form;awGuawmh roef@&Si;f bl;vd@k tJ'w D ek ;f u u|eaf wmf xifcw hJ ,f? ynmwwfawG&@J t0wftpm; qd&k if olrsm;[m jzpfayrJ/h u|eaf wmf 0wf&w J ,f? oef@&Si;f w,fv@kd yJ xifw,f? tvkyo f rm;/ v,form; awG&@J t0wftpm;qd&k ifawmh npfywfw,f xifv@kd r0wfcsib f ;l ? awmfveS af &;xJ 0if+y;D / tvkyo f rm;/ v,form;awG/ awmfveS af &; wyfrawmfom;awGe@J twlaevmwJt h cgrmS olw@kd ta=umif;udk wajz;ajz; odvmw,f? tJ'DawmhrS tJ'DtcsdefusawmhrS u|efawmf[m "e&Sifaygufp vlwef;pm;awG&J@ pdwfae pdwfxm;rsdK;udk t&if;tjrpfuae+yD; jyK jyifajymif;vJvmEdkifcJhawmhw,f? tJ'DtcgrSm rjyK jyif&ao;wJh ynmwwfawGudk tvkyform;/ v,form;eJ@ ,SOf=u !fhvdkuf&if/ ynmwwfawGudk oef@&Sif;w,fvdk@ rxifawmhb;l ?--'g[m pdwaf epdwx f m; ajymif;vmwmyJ? vlwef;pm;wckuae tjcm;vlwef;pm;wckukd ajymif;oGm;wmyJ? ynmwwf b0u ajymif;vmwJh u|eaf wmhw f @kd &J@ pmay tEkynm&Siaf wG[m/ ud, k v hf uf &mawGudk vlxu k ESpo f ufvv kd m;vmapcsi&f if ud, k t hf awG;tac:eJ@ pdwaf epdwx f m;awGukd ajymif;ypf& r,f?” ( “,iftef;pmay tEkynm aqG;aEG;yGJwGif ajym=um;aom rdefcGef;” vufa&G;pifusrf;/ twGJ 3) armfu ynmwwf vlwef;pm;rsm;/ tawG;tac: ajymif;vJa&;/ urBm@ tjrifajymif;vJa&;udk 103

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


104

ta&;w}uD;xm;I wdkufwGef;onf? odk@&mwGif ynmwwfrsm; tawG;ac: ajymif;vJa&; jy\emudk w&kwjf ynfwiG f ,ckxd t+y;D wdik f rajz&Si;f Edik af o;? awmfveS af &; +y;D aomfvnf; w&kwf atmfy&monf 1964 ck ,Ofaus;r_ awmfvSefa&;umvtxd e*dktwdkif;&Sdao;onf? armf. ZeD; csefcsif;onf/ w&kwf atmfy&m jyK jyif ajymif;vJa&;udk xdkaemufusrSom twm;tqD;r&Sd vkyfEdkifcJhonf? pmayESihf tEk ynme,fy,fYvnf; w&kwfjynfu pma&;q&mrsm;onf/ armf. =o0g'udk aumif;pGm vufrcH=u? armfu pma&;q&mrsm;onf/ emusifcufcJI &Snf=umo!fh jzpfpOfudk jzwfoef;&rnf[k ajymcJhonf? tvkyform;/ v,form;rsm;ESifh wom;wnf; jzpfatmif aygif;pnf;&rnf[k ajymcJhonf? odk@&mwGif w&kwfjynfu pma&;q&mrsm;onf/ armf. =o0g'udk yg;pyfuom vkdufemaomfvnf; vufu vkdufrvkyf=u? tvHeDudk udkif+yD; tvHeDudk qef@usif=uonf? olwdk@onf armf qef@usifa&; pmay t&m&Sdrsm; jzpf=uonf? yg;pyfu rwf0g' pum;rsm;udk ajym+yD;/ vufawG@u uGefjzL;&Syf ref'&if; ynmwwf vlwef;pm;opfukd zefw;D ae=uonf? w&kwt f vkyo f rm;/ v,form;rsm;. pmay tEkynm opfukd vnfrsKd !Spo f wfae=uonf? vl&e$ ;f u qef@usicf o hJ !f/h xdpk ma&;q&mrsm;onf w&kwjf ynfopf pmayavmuwGif xdyfwef;ae&mudk wuf,lxm;=uonf? urBm@tjrifudk ajymif;&ef pdwfrul;? }udK; pm;jcif; r&SdwJh tcGifhta&;udk tvGJoHk;pm; vkyf=uonf? “ppfajr jyifxu G +f y;D a'oeDawGrmS ESpaf ygi;f rsm;pGm tvkyv f yk af e=uwJh &JabmfawGtzd@k awmif b,fo@l twGuf pma&;rvJqw kd hJ jy\emawGukd ajz&Si;f zd@k twGuf teJq;kH ud;k ESp/f q,fEpS f =umvdrrhf ,f? b,fol@twGufvJqdkwJh jy\em[m/ t&if;cH jy\emjzpfw,f? rljy\emjzpfw,f? jynfolawG&J@ b0xJrmS pmaytEkynm vuf&mawG zefw;D zd@k twGuf o,HZmw ypPn;f awG rlvuwnf;u ude;f atmif; aew,f? tacsmrudik &f ao;wJh t&mawG jzpfw,f? 'gayr,hf touftygq;kH tajccHtusq;kH t&mawG jzpfw,f? --pmay tEkynm tm;vH;k twGu/f oH;k vd@k ruke/f ,lv@kd rcef;wJh wckwnf;aom a&aomuf jrpf jzpfw,f?--tvm;tvm&SdwJh pmay tEkynm&SifawG[m vlxkxJudk oGm;=u&r,f? jyif;xefwJh wdkufyGJrSm yg0if=u&r,f?--tJ'DvdkoGm;+yD;/ vltm;vHk;/ vlwef;pm;tm;vHk;/ vlxktm;vHk;eJ@ &Sd&Sdor# touf0if v_yf&Sm;aewJh b0o¾efeJ@ wdkufyGJo¾efawG/ &Sd&Sdor# pmay tEkynm ukef=urf;awGudk tuJcwf&r,f? udk,fwdkif cHpm;=u!fh&r,f? avhvm qef;ppf&r,f? cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm&r,f? tJ'Dvdk vkyf+yD;rSom/ pmay tEkynmvuf&mawGudk zefwD;Edkifvdrfhr,f? ” ( “,iftef; pmaytEkynm aqG;aEG;yGJwGif ajym=um; aom rdef@cGef;” vufa&G;pifusrf;/ twGJ 3) armf ajymo!fh tcsurf sm;udk &d;k om;o!fh pma&;q&mwdik ;f / tEkynm&Siw f ikd ;f jiif;zG,rf &S?D jiif;p&m ta=umif;r&Sd? armf ajymo!fhtcsufrsm;udk &dk;om;o!fh rnfo!fh pma&;q&m/ rnfo!fh tEkynmonfur# jiif;p&m ta=umif;r&Sd? odk@&mwGif tvkyform;/ v,form;wdk@. ol&Jaumif; vuQ%mcsurf sm;udk tom;ay;I/ a&;cs,&f rnfqo kd !ft h csuu f rkd /l tcsKd @u pOf;pm;=uvdrrhf nf? ryDjyif aom/ =um;usaom/ r_e0f g;aom [if;rvuf p&du k f ZmwfaqmifrsKd ;/ tm;usz, G /f jrwfE;kd zG,/f oem;zG,/f twk,zl , G f jzpfatmif ra&;oifh [lo!fh tqdu k rkd /l tcsKd @u pOf;pm;=uvdrrhf nf? armfonf armfueG ;f (acwf) }uD;wGif yg0ifol jzpfonf? tvkyform;ESifh v,form;rsm;onf/ TarmfuGef; (acwf) }uD;udk zefw;D cJ=h uonf? armfueG ;f (acwf) }u;D rsm;onf/ t[kww f u,f&o dS !fh b0xuf/ }u;D us,cf rf;em;aom ol&Jaumif;rsm;vdkonf? xdk@a=umifh armfu ol&Jaumif;opfrsm;udk a&;cs,fjyzdk@ pmaytEkynmopfudk wnfaxmifzdk@ awmfvSefa&;. pGrf;yum;udk zGJ@qdkzdk@ aqmf=oonf? odk@&mwGif Todk@a&;Edkif zGJ@Edkifzdk@ twGuf pma&;q&monf/ urBm@tjrifudk ajymif;&vdrfhrnf? "e&Sifvlwef;pm;udk ZwfcHkay:wifI ol&J Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

104


105

aumif; vkyfcdkif;I rjzpf? ulrifwefwa,mufudk tvkyform; wa,mufvdk csD;usL;p&mjzpfaeatmif/ ESpfoufzG,f jzpfaeatmif Zmwfvdkufxm;a&;I rjzpf? tEkynmonf r#wpGm azmfjy&rnf[kqdkum/ vlq;kd ESifh vlaumif;udk wef;wlxm;a&;I rjzpf? tEkynmopfukd zefw;D Edik zf @kd twGuf pma&;q&monf vlwef;pm;tjrif ajymif;&vdrfhrnf? Todk@ rajymif;Edkifao;oa&G@ jy\emonf ajyvnfOD;rnfr[kwf? ygwDvkyf[ef jyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_onf/ 1943 ckESpfwGif txGwftxdyfodk@ a&mufonf? armfu w&kwjf ynf. pD;yGm;a&;/ Edik if aH &;/ ppfa&;ESifh ordik ;f ponfw@kd udk okawoevky&f ef/ ygw0D ifxu k kd aqmf=oonf? w&kwf "e&Sifvlwef;pm;u/ Ttvkyfrsm;udk rvkyfcJh? ,ckrdrdwdk@u rdrdwdk@tjrifjzifh vky&f rnf[k wdu k w f eG ;f onf? w&kwjf ynf. ordik ;f a=umif;udk okawoevky&f ef/ w&kwf tvkyo f rm; vlwef;pm; tay: wm0efusvm+y[ D k qdo k nf? xd@k a=umifh 1942 ckEpS w f iG f ygwo D ak woetpku ygwD wGif;u rSm;,Gif;aom vrf;pOfrsm;/ ygwD qXruGefu&uf 1931 ckESpfwGif &k&Sm;jyefwdk@. ygwDwGif; tm%modrf;yGJ ponfwdk@ESihf ywfoufI/ tcsuftvufrsm; &SmazG pkaqmif;onf? 1931 rS 1941 ckESpf 0rfrif;vrf;pOf }uD;pdk;cJho!fh umvtwGif; ygwDorkdif;udk tus,fw0ifh aqG;aEG;onf? xdkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;Y csLtifvdkif;onf/ ta&;}uD;aom tcef;rSygonf? ygwD tpOftvm/ ygwD0ifxk. ,Hk=unfr_/ ol. udk,fusdK;riJhr_wdk@a=umifh csLtifvdkif;onf ygwDwGif;wGif ta&;ygol jzpfonf? xkdpOfu csLtifvdkif;onf ulrifwefESifh qufoG,f&eftwGuf/ wm0efcHtjzpf csHKuif;+rd k@odk@ a&mufaeonf? csKH uif;wGif ulrifwef olv#Krd sm;/ tcsKyt f cs,rf sm;ESifh cufcpJ mG ae&o!fw h ikd /f csLtif vdkif;onf ESpfygwD qufoG,fa&; rysufatmif xdef;cJhonf? 1942 ck aEG&moDwGif csLtifvdkif; ,iftef;odk@ jyefa&mufvmum vkyf[ef jyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_wGif yg0ifonf? ygwDordkif;ESifh ywfoufo!fh jy\emrsm;wGif csLtifvdkif;onf ta&;}uD;aom tcef;rSygonf? xdkpOfu csLtifvdkif;u armfhudk axmufcHonf? “&Jabmf armfpDwkef;&J@ tjrifrsm;[m ordkif;a&; tajrmftjrif&Sdw,f? w&kwfjynf awmfveS af &; udk OD;wnfw,fqw kd m ygw&D @J (22) ESpf ordik ;f u oufaojycJw h ,f? &Jabmf armfpw D ek ;f &J@ vrf;pOf[m rSefuefwJh wckwnf;aom vrf;pOfjzpfw,f? &Jabmf armfpDwkef;[m uGefjrLepf0g'ESifh w&kwftrsdK;om; vGwfajrmufa&; v_yf&Sm;r_udk aygif;pyfay;EdkifcJhw,f? ol@acgif;aqmifr_a=umifh u|eaf wmfwykd gw[ D m r}uKH b;l atmif wd;k wuf}u;D xGm;vmcJw h ,f ” [k csLtifvikd ;f u ajymcJo h nf? vky[ f ef jy K jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_ wGif ygwDordkif;ESifh ywfoufI tusdwfte,f aqG;aEG;cJh=uw,f? vrf;pOftrSm;rsm;udk pDppfcJh=uonf? a0zefa&;ESihf udk,fhudkudk,f a0zefa&; vkyf=uonf? odk@jzihf 1944 ckESpf tukefwGif ygwDwGif;u vrf;pOf ESpf&yfwdkufyGJY armf. vrf;pOf tEdkif&cJhonf? armfu ol@vrf;pOfudk vlxkvrf;pOf jzpfatmif vkyfonf? vlxkvrf;pOfwGif 'Drdkua&pD uso!fh vrf;pOf/ vltrsm; em;vnfo!fh vrf;pOfjzpfatmif }udK;yrf;onf? 1943 ckESpfwGif a&;o!fh “acgi;f aqmifr_ enf;emrsm;ESiyhf wfoufo!fh jy\emtcsKd @ ”[laom pmwrf;wGif armfu vlxv k rf;pOfukd tEkyÉdavmrusus t"dy`g,fzGihfonf? “u|eaf wmfw@kd ygw. D vufawG@vkyif ef;tm;vH;k wGif rSeu f efaom acgi;f aqmifr_ [lor#onf vlxx k rH v S mI vlxx k o H @kd jyefomG ;jcif; jzpf&rnf? qdv k o kd nfrmS vlx. k xifjrifcsurf sm;--(jyef@usI J pepfwusr&Sdaom xifjrifcsufrsm;) udk pkpnf;um (avhvmqef;ppf+yD;/ pkpnf;I pepfwus jzpfaom xifjrifcsurf sm; jzpfvmatmif vkyu f m) vlxx k o H @kd wzef 0g'jzef@jcif;/ &Si;f jyjcif; jyKvyk &f rnf? od@k jzifh xkdxifjrifcsufrsm;udk/ vlxk xifjrifcsufjzpfatmif vkyfum/ vlxktm; pGJ+rJpGm qkyfudkifI/ vufawG@ 105

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


106

vkyfudkifap&r!fh tjyif/ odk@vkyfudkif&if; xdkxifjrifcsufrsm;udk xyfrHpkpnf;um/ wzefvlxkxH odk@ oGm;a&muf+y;D pG+J rpJ mG qkyu f ikd &f rnf? ,if;od@k tuef@towfr&S/d xyfwvJvJ vkyjf cif;tm;jzifh w}urd x f uf w}urd f ydI k rSeu f ef/ ydI k touf0if/ ydI k =u, G 0f vmayvdrrhf nf?” (“acgi;f aqmifenf;ESifh ywfoufo!fh jy\emtcsdK@ ” vufa&G;pifusrf;/ twGJ 3) ygwDvkyf[ef jyK jyifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_. &nf&G,fcsufonf ygwDwGif;rStrSm;usL;vGefolrsm;udk tjywf&Sif;ypf&ef/ tjypfay;&ef r[kwf/ ynmay;&ef jzpfonf? “a&m*gudk aysmufatmifuk vlrrmudk u,fwif” qdko!fhrludk usifhoHk;onf? udk,fhudkukd,f a0zefa&;udk usihfoHk;&ef aqmf=oonf? 1944 ckEpS w f iG f ygw0D ifO;D a& (853420) &Sv d monf? 1945 ckEpS f {+yv D wGif ygw0D ifO;D a& (1211128) &Sv d monf? ygw0D ifopfrsm;rSm vky[ f ef jyK jyifa&;v_y&f mS ;r_wiG f wuf=uo G rl sm; jzpfonf? or0g,rrsm;wGif wuf=uG pGmaqmif&GufcJh=uo!fh/ tvkyform;rsm;/ v,form;rsm; jzpf=uonf? ukex f w k v f yk af &; v_y&f mS ;r_wiG f xl;c|ecf o hJ !fh wyfrawmfom;rsm; jzpf=uonf? *syefcck aH &; wuUov kd w f iG f vnf; ynmwwfrsm;xuf/ tvkyform;/ v,form;rsm;/ atmufajcau'grsm;udk 0ifcGifhjyKcJhonf? armfonf ygwDwGif;wGif ol@vrf;pOf atmifjrifcJho!fhtwGuf/ ol@vrf;pOf qef@usifolrsm;/ trSm;usL;vGeo f rl sm;udk vufpm;acs jcif;rjyK / ud, k t hf rSm;udk jyif&ef/ urBm@tjrif ajymif;vJ&ef tcsed af y; onf? “trSm;awGukd usKyw f @kd azmfxw k w f m c|w, f iG ;f csuu f kd a0zefqef;ppfwm&J@ &nf&, G cf su[ f m q&m0efu a&m*guw k meJ@ twltwly?J vlrrmudk taoowfz@kd r[kw?f u,fwifz@kd twGuo f m jzpf w,f?--trSm;jyKro d w l ikd ;f tukc&H rSm ra=umuf&if/ trSm;udk wG,u f yfrae&if/ u,fv@kd r&awmhwt hJ xd acgif;rmraeyJ/ &dk;&dk;om;om; wu,fyJ tukcHcsif&if/ trSm;udk jyifcsif&if/ ol@udk usKyfwdk@ }udKqdk vufc&H r,f? ol@a&m*gaysmufatmif ukay;&r,f? &Jabmfaumif; wa,mufjzpfvmatmif vkyaf y;&r,f 'Dvkyfief;[m c%avmuf tm;&yg;& vkyf&&if +yD;a&m qdk+yD;/ t&rf;uma&m xdk;ESuf&HkeJ@ +yD;wJhudpP r[kwfbl;? ‘tawG;tac:t&/ EdkifiHa&;t& a0'em pGJuyfvm&if b,fawmhrS t=urf;rudkif& ’ a&m*g aysmufatmif uk+yD;/ vlrrmudk u,fwifwJh oabmeJ@ vkyf&r,f” ( “ygwDvkyf[ef jyKjyif=u ” vufa&G; pifusrf;/ twGJ 3) armfpDwkef; tawG;tac: qdko!fh pum;vHk;udk 1934 ckESpfwGif pwifoHk;cJhjcif; jzpfonf? 1945 ckwGif usif;yo!fh ygwD owWr uGefu&ufwGif ygwD. tawG;tac: jzpfvmonf? armfonf vlxk }ud Kuf acgif;aqmif wa,mufjzpfae+yD? armf. vrf;pOfrsm;udk tvkyform;/ v,form;/ wyfr awmfom;ESihf atmufajcau'grsm;u axmufc=H uonf? armf. ay:vpDrsm;onf/ 4if;wd@k . vdt k yfcsuf rsm;ESifh udkufnDonf? “vlx}k u;D u vufct H wnfjy K+y;D rSom ygw[ D m vkyif ef;awGukd taumiftxnf az:w,f? vlx&k @J tiftm;eJ@ t&if!w dS ,f? 'Dtcsu[ f m u|eaf wmfw@kd udk vlxek @J qufqw H ahJ e&mrSm u|eaf wmfw@kd &J@ tajccHrl jzpfw,f” [k armfu tar&duef owif;pmq&m *efompwdef;udk ajymbl;onf? armf. =oZm vlxkxJwGif }uD;vmo!fhtcgY armf qef@usifolrsm;u “yk*~dKvfudk;uG,fr_” wrsdK;[k wHqdyfwyfcJh=uonf? txl;ojzifh ypPnf;rJh ,Ofaus;r_ awmfvSefa&; umvtwGif; armf qef@usifa&;orm;rsm;u “yk*~dKvfudk;uG,fqnf;uyfr_” jzpfatmif/ tvGeftu|H vkyfcJh=uonf? pifppf yk*Kd~ vu f ;kd uG,q f nf;uyfro _ nf/ ya'o&mZf tpOftvm w&yfjzpfonf? xdt k pOftvmonf w&kwjf ynf olrsm;=um;wGif =uGif;usefaeqJ jzpfonf? jroef;wifh qufygOD;rnf/ Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

106


107

tvif;tdrf

rSwfpk

tvif;tdrf &Jabmfrsm;

2011 ckepS f ZGev f 19 &ufaehwiG f usa&mufaom trs;kd om;acgi;f aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unf . (66) eSpfajrmuf arG;aeh txdrf;trSwftjzpf apwemtv_eSifh vkyftm;ay; c&D;pOf tjzpf *syefa&mufjrefrmedkifiHom;rsm; pkaygif;I *syefiv#ifeSifh qlemrDab;'%foifh a'o Miyagi KanË&#x153; Ishinomaki odo hk mG ;a&mufI iv#iaf b;c%foifh 'kuo Q nf 600 cefu h kd tpm;taomufrsm;jzifh csujf yKwf v_'ge;f cJjh ujy;D vkyt f m;ay;tzGw hJ rhkd v S nf; shinomaki-shi Kitakami-Machi Aikawa-chiku a'owGif waehwm vkyt f m;'ge ay;v_cjhJ uygonf? xdck &D;pOfwiG f *syefa&mufjrefrmedik if o H m;rsm; tiftm; 159 OD;vdu k yf gcjhJ uygonf? owif;? ? tvif;tdrf "gwfyHk? ? Aye Thike 107

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


108

tvif;tdrf&Jabmfrsm; 19/ 6 / 2011 aehusa&mufwJh vlxkacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pkjunf. (66)eSpfajrmuf arG;aehyGJudk jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDtzGJ hcsKyfLDB (*syef) rS }uD;r_;jyD; edkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm; vGwfajrmufa&; twGuf bmomaygi;f pHk qkawmif;yGu J kd *dw k ef;b t&yf&dS OD;ekb&k m; (zl*sD jird ;f csr;f a&;apwD) odhk oGm;a&mufjy;D tv_'gejyKqkawmif;yGJusif;y&mwGif *syefedkifiH&Sd jrefrm edkifiHom;rsm; tiftm;(66) a,muf wufa&muf cJyh gw,f? a':atmifqef;pkjunf&Jh arG;aehyGJudk jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDtzGJ hcsKyL f DB (*syef)rS a':atmifqef; pkjunf touf (60) jynfharG;aeh rS pwif;usif;ycJh&m ,ck (66) eSpfjynfhtxd pkpkaygif; (7) judrf &Sjd yjD zpfygw,f? owif; / "gwfyHk / AD'D,dk ? ?av;av;tdk (O\majr) Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

108


109

19/ 6 / 2011 ae h nae 6 em&DwGif jrefrm trsdK;orD;rsm; or*~(*syef) XmecGJrS aeI vlxkacgif;aqmifa':atmifqef;pk=unf . 66 ESpfjynfharG;ae hyGJESifh 15 }udrfajrmufjrefrm EdkifiH trsdK;orD;rsm;ae hudk *syefEdkifiH wdkusdK+rdK h tdkpkum cef;rwGif usif;yjyKvkyfcJhygonf/ *syefXmecGJ OuUX a':csdKcsdKat; rS tzGifhtrSmpum;ajym=um;cJhjyD; / wufa&mufvmonfh *syef{nfonfrsm; / tzGJ h tpnf; toD;oD;rS ,ae hyGJtwGuf *k%fjyKpum;rsm; ajy=um;=uygonf/ xdkaemuf vlxkacgif;aqmif. arG;ae t h xdr;f trSwaf w;oDcsi;f rsm;jzif*h % k jf yK=u+y;D tau|;tarG;jzif{h nfch u H m tcrf;tem;udk &kwo f rd ;f cJhygonf/ owif;/ tvif;tdrf 109

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


110

csucf si;f v$wf

rw&m; zrf;qD; cHae&aom udkrif;udkedkifeSifh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;/ OD;cGefxGef;OD; wdkif;&if;om; acgif;aqmifrsm; tygt0if edlifiHa&; tusOf;om;rsm; tm;vkH; vGwfajrmufa&; twGuf qeNjy awmif;qdkonfh tcrf;tem;udk wdkusdK+rdK@ &SDem*g0gt&yf&Sd ppftcGef&kH;(jrefrmoH&kH;)a&ShY ,ae@nae 3;00 em&DrS 4;00 txd usif;y cJhjuygonf? jrefrmedkifiH tusOf;axmifrsm; twGif;rSm ekdifiHa&;tusOf;om; 2200 eD;yg; &Sdaejcif;[m/ jrefrmjynfol jynfom;rsm; u|efb0rS rvGwfajrmufedkifao;bJ/ vGwfvyfa&; qdwfokOf;aea=umif; rD;armif;xd;k jyv#u&f adS ejy;D trsKd ;om; jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&; vkyif ef;pOf&hJ ta&;ju;D wJh yxr tqifh taeeJh edik if aH &; tusO;f om;(2000)ausmt f m; c|i;f csurf &Sd jyefvw $ f ay;&eftwGuf *syefa&muf jrefrmh 'Dru kd a&pD tiftm;pkrsm;wdk@rS vpOf 21 &ufae husa&mufwdkif; tjrefqkH; vGwfajrmufap&ef twGuf qeNjy awmif;qdrk a_ wG jyKvyk cf jhJ uygonf? rwfv 11 &ufae hivsifeJh qlemrd'%fcHcJhju&aom *syefjynfolrsm;udk pmem axmufxm; aomtm;jzpf edkifiHa&; tusOf;om;rsm; vGwfajrmufa&; qeNjy awmif;qdk v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk acwĹ&#x201C; &yfqdkif;cJhjujyD;aemuf ,ckwzef qeNjy awmif;qdk v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk jyefvnf pwifcJh=uygonf? ,ae h qeNjyyGJwGif tiftm; 100 ausmfcefh wufa&muf cJh=ua=umif; od&Sd&ygonf? owif; / Mai Kyaw Oo "gwyf kH Lian Khan Sum yavmiftrsKd ;om;tzGJ t h pnf; bavmufrS Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

110


111

tvif;tdrf r*~Zif; tm;

ulnaD xmufyahH y;aom (1) bdkbdkouf (2) &Jrif;0if; (3) ausmfxeG ;f Edik f (4) cdik Of ;D i,f (5) 0if;bdb k kd (6) pdik ;f yef;armif (7) aevif;atmif / cifcifav; (8) wifarmifukd (9) oJ;vGiOf ;D (10) ELEJAH

wdk htm; tvif;tdrfr*~Zif; &Jabmfrsm;rS rSww f rf;wif *k%jf yKtyfygonf//

111

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


112

tvif;tdrf wm0efcH

yef;cso D &kyaf zmf

&J+idrf;

xDvm ausmfvif;xGÉfatmifcif

ta0;&muf t,f'w D m

&Hk;tzGJ h

aZmfaZmfatmif (t*Fvef) ABFSU (88)rsKd;quf

=unfw;dk / aeatmifausmf tm;opfreG f / [efaZmf0if; jrihfudk / r0if;oE Wmatmif

t,f'w D m

b¾ma&;

aZmfaZmfEkdif / rif;rif;odef; rsKd;jrifhatmif

atmifaZ,smndK / xGe;f xGe;f 0if; rEkEak 0 / atmifrsKd ;rif; jrwfausmfol

tr_aqmift,f'Dwm cifarmifaZmf /Anm;b&kdif,efuif; xGe;f +idr;f / tHah rmf / ausmfrkd;Ekdif / rcdkif=unf0if;

Web Site

at;oku d f / &Jjrifah tmif rsKd ;apm / cdik v f if; rsdK;ausmfodef; / ausmfrsdK;xGef; rvJhvJh0if;udk

pmpDpm&du k f ausmfxGÉf0if; / pnfoljrifh aZmfrsK;d / [de;f rif; jynf+zdK;&J / L-NOORA

tvi tviff;tdrf odk hqufoG,f&ef POST 169-0075 TOKYO TO, SHINJUKU-KU TAKADANOBABA,3-7-10 303,HIGARI BLD TEL - FAX 03 - 6313 - 4178 Japan.

jynfwGif;jynfy jzef hcsda&; jr0if;pd;k / atmif=unf ausmjf rifx h eG ;f / ausmo f &l ausmfcdkif0if; / wifEikd f / jrihOf ;D / wifrif;Edik f

TEL 080-5070-0080 080-3574-9700 090-9954-5070 090-6528-9292 090-7198-4763

pmtkyfcsKyfvkyfa&; aX;0if; / at;aZmfjrifh 0if;Edkif(vifydk&if)(Ibaraki) 0if;Edkif (yef;yJwef;) Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4

/ owif; ESihf rD', D m

e-mail vdyfpm - aalinneain@yahoo.com web vdyfpm - http://alineain.net/ http://luminarymagazine.wordpress.com/ http://alinneain.blogspot.com/

112


113

113

Luminary MagazineVolume 5,No.4


alineain 5 of 4