Page 1

Senseware: The Future of Sensory Experiences in the Digtial Age

Alice Gunn


Synopsis! ! This!dissertation!explores!the!future!of!sensory!experiences!in!the!digital!age.!Through!the!analysis! and! comparison! of! futurology! examples! and! key! dystopian! texts,! the! availability! and! possibility! for! sensory! experiences! in! the! projected! future! is! assessed.! The! extrapolation! of! our! modern! day! technology! creates! a! dystopian! forecast! of! the! future,! and! the! fears! identified! within! are! proven! justified!through!the!study!of!three!key!themes:!the!adherence!to!the!sense!of!sight,!the!removal!of! the! physical! and! the! mutability! of! the! past.! This! warning! flag! waved! by! forecasters! suggests! our! relationship!with!technology!requires!reframing.!Perceived!as!the!tools!that!provide!the!feedback!of! our! relationship! with! the! world,! the! sensory! receptors! are! explored! in! depth! within! Kenya! Hara’s! ‘Designing(Design’.(Within!this!book,!the!Japanese!graphic!designer!and!curator!introduces!his!coined! theory! of! senseware.! This! design! approach! prioritizes! the! human! sensory! receptors! and! augments! everyday!hapticity!with!technology.!Drawing!case!studies!from!Hara’s!2004!‘Haptic!–Awakening!the! Senses’!exhibition,!the!successes!of!combining!the!new!with!the!old!demonstrates!the!huge!potential! for!sensory!experiences!in!the!digital!age.!Hara!removes!technology!from!the!bracket!of!dystopia!and! leaves!nostalgia!behind!to!reveal!a!previously!undiscovered!continent!of!senses.!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !


Contents! ! P.!01!

List!of!Illustrations!

P.!03!!

Senseware:!An!Introduction!

P.!05!

Chapter!one!>!Forecasting!the!Future!of!Sensory!Experiences!

P.!20!

Chapter!two!>!A!Continent!of!Undiscovered!Senses!!

P.!29!

Conclusion!

!

!

!

!

!

P.!31!

Bibliography!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

! !

!


List!of!Illustrations! ! Fig!1!–!P.2! Kenya!Hara,!‘The!mind!exists!everywhere!in!the!body’,!Designing'Design,!P.157! Scan!! ! Fig!2!–!P.4! Geoffrey!Hoyle,!‘The!vision!phone!and!vision!desk’,''2011,'P.30! Scan' ! Fig!3!–!P.6! Charlie!Brooker,!‘Bing!wakes!in!his!technological!bedroom’,!Black'Mirror:!15'Million'Merits,!Series!1,! Episode!2,!Channel!Four,!hosted!online!by!4od.! ScreenQshot!of!video! Retrieved!17!October!2013,!http://www.channel4.com/programmes/blackQmirror/4od#3327867! ! Fig!4!–!P.7! Charlie!Brooker,!‘Bing!gestures!at!a!digital!representation!of!archetypical!door!handle’,!Black'Mirror:! 15'Million'Merits,!Series!1,!Episode!2,!Channel!Four,!hosted!online!by!4od.! ScreenQshot!of!video! Retrieved!17!October!2013,!http://www.channel4.com/programmes/blackQmirror/4od#3327867! ! Fig!5!–!P.8! !Charlie!Brooker,!‘Resume!viewing’,!Black'Mirror:!15'Million'Merits,!Series!1,!Episode!2,!Channel! Four,!hosted!online!by!4od.! ScreenQshot!of!video! Retrieved!17!October!2013,!http://www.channel4.com/programmes/blackQmirror/4od#3327867! ! Fig!6!–!P.10! Charlie!Brooker,!‘A!physical!gift’,!Black'Mirror:!15'Million'Merits,!Series!1,!Episode!2,!Channel!Four,! hosted!online!by!4od.! ScreenQshot!of!video! Retrieved!17!October!2013,!http://www.channel4.com/programmes/blackQmirror/4od#3327867! ! ! ! !

!

1!


Fig!7!–!P.10!! Charlie!Brooker,!‘Contraband’,!Black'Mirror:!15'Million'Merits,!Series!1,!Episode!2,!Channel!Four,! hosted!online!by!4od.! ScreenQshot!of!video! Retrieved!17!October!2013,!http://www.channel4.com/programmes/blackQmirror/4od#3327867! ! Fig!8!–!P.11! Robbie!Cooper,!‘Jason!Rowe!and!Ruroini!Kenshin’,'Alter'Ego,'P.19! Scan' ! Fig!9!–!P.13!! Steven!Spielberg,!‘The!technology!of!Minority!Report,’!Minority'Report' DVD!ScreenQshot!! ! Fig!10!–!P.13'' Steven!Spielberg,!‘Wooden!ball,’!Minority'Report' DVD!ScreenQshot!! ! Fig!11!–!P.20! Kenya!Hara,!‘Hasado’s!Geta’,!Designing'Design,'P.97! Scan! ! Fig!12!–!P.22'' Naoto!Fukasawa,!‘Fukasawa’s!juice!cartons’,!Next'Nature,'P.289! Photographed!from!book! ! Fig!13!–!P.23! HendrikQJan!Grievink,!‘Moonshine!car!freshener’,!Next'Nature,'P.118! Scan! ! Fig!14!–!P.25! Kenya!Hara,!‘The!Panasonic!Gel!Remote!Control’,!Designing'Design,'P.145! Scan! ! Fig!15!–!P.26! Alice!Gunn,!‘Cymatic!tableware’,!Ceramic'Futures,'P.29! Personal!photograph!

!

2!


Senseware:!An!Introduction! ! With! the! preconceived! notion! that! with! technology! comes! progress,! this! dissertation! explores! the! relationship! between! the! digital! age! and! human! sensory! experiences,! presently! and! as! forecast! in! the! future.! Credited! as! the! powerful! tools! that! provide! the! feedback! of! our! relationship! with! the! world,! the! human! body’s! sensory! receptors! are! explored! within! ‘Designing! Design’,! a! book! by! Japanese! graphic! designer! and! curator,! Kenya! Hara.! Rooted! within! Hara’s! 2004! ‘HAPTIC! –! Awakening!the!Senses’!exhibition,!lies!my!specific!interest!in!the!future!of!our!sensory!experiences! over! the! next! five! to! ten! years.! This! source! will! be! the! backbone! of! my! exploration,! and! as! I! investigate!the!possibilities!for!sensory!design!in!a!technological!future,!there!will!be!two!key!terms! of!constant!reference:! ! The!word!haptic,!from!the!Greek!‘haptikos’,!simply!means!pertaining!to!the!sense!of!touch1;!relating! to!all!things!physical,!tangible!and!textural.!This!description!is!important!when!the!analysis!of!our! touchscreenQpopulated! society! is! in! question.! In! union! with! this! terminology,! I! will! be! referencing! ‘senseware’,!a!word!coined!by!Kenya!Hara!himself.!With!‘ware’!in!use!here!as!it!is!in!‘hardware’!and! ‘software’,!this!key!term!defines!familiar!objects!that!engage!with!our!senses!and!their!receptors.'' ! It! is! my! belief! that! our! sensory! experiences! are! diminishing! with! the! rise! of! technological! devices! that! demand! only! a! visual! interaction.! Chapter! one! discusses! the! immense! impact! technology! has! already! had! an! on! our! 21st! century! lives,! before! we! have! had! time! to! stop! and! question! it.! The! extrapolation! of! our! modern! day! technology! creates! a! dystopian! forecast! of! the! future.! In! hope! of! providing! a! clear! means! of! deflecting! this! society! characterised! by! human! misery! (dystopia),! I! intend! to! identify! the! reasoning! and! validity! of! these! fears! through! the! examination! of! futurology! and!various!fictional!depictions.!The!novels!‘Brave!New!World’!and!‘NineteenQEighty!Four’!are!used! in!conjunction!with!the!modern!day!dystopian!landscapes!depicted!in!the!film,!‘Minority!Report’!and! Charlie! Brooker’s! television! programme,! ‘Black! Mirror’,! to! identify! three! key! themes! of! our! future! fear!in!relation!to!the!senses.!With!the!overwhelming!adherence!to!the!sense!of!sight,!the!removal!of! the!physical!and!the!mutability!of!the!past!in!discussion,!I!will!explore!whether!hapticity!has!a!part! to! play! in! the! projections! of! the! digital! age,! and! if! technology! can! be! held! responsible! for! our! attachment!to!objects!belonging!to!the!immediate!past.!! ! “New'stuff'that'doesn’t'work'very'well'or'that'works'in'mysterious,'unknown'ways”'2!is!the!definition! of!technology!provided!by!Donald!A.!Norman,!author!of!‘The!Design!of!Everyday!Things’,!prompting!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1!Paul!Procter!(ed.),!Longman'New'Universal'Dictionary,!(California:!Longman,!1982),!P.452! 2!Donald!A.!Norman,!Living'With'Complexity,!(Massachusetts:!The!MIT!Press,!2011),!P.4!

!

3!


my! investigation! of! our! relationship! with! the! growing! science! in! the! present! day! and! raises! the! question;! can! technology! be! seen! as! a! promising! rather! than! perilous! notion! in! relation! to! awakening!the!sensory!receptors?!With!reference!to!Nicholas!Carr’s!‘The!Shallows’,!I!examine!if!we! are!even!capable!of!experiencing!sensory!feedback!as!we!did!in!the!past!and!if!it!is!possible!to!reQ awaken!dormant!sensory!receptors!that!have!been!suppressed!by!21st!century!living.!! ! This! dissertation! concludes! with! the! concept! of! an! undiscovered! continent! of! haptic! possibilities.! Hara! posits;! “Let’s' consider' the' brain' as' existing' everywhere' in' the' body.' [This' is' a' vision,' not' a' theory]”3!(Fig.! 1).! This! imagery! outlines! the! brief! for! the! ‘Haptic! –! Awakening! the! Senses’! exhibition.! With!the!challenge!of!designing!an!object!motivated!primarily! by! haptic! considerations,! the! multidisciplinary! practitioners! participating! in! the! exhibition! are! “searching' for' unexplored' design' fields' in' ‘feeling' rather' than' form.”4!With! case! studies! drawn! straight! from! the! chapter! dedicated! to! the! exhibition5! within!Hara’s!book,!‘Designing!Design’,!and!a!discussion!of!my! own! endeavor! of! prioritising! human! senses! in! the! design! process,! the! prospect! of! maintaining! the! familiar! whilst! combining! with! the! technologically! driven! future! will! be! assessed.! Always! in! relation! to! product! experiences,! I! will! explore! how! senseware! ties! us! to! our! primal! past,! Mother!

Fig!1:!Hara!illustrates!his! understanding!of!our!human! sensory!receptors!existing!all! over!the!body.'

!

Nature!and!archetypical!objects,!providing!a!platform!to!find!the!equilibrium!of!the!human!senses! and!technology.!Does!this!coming!together!of!the!new!science!and!the!prioritisation!of!the!sensory! receptors! have! the! potential! to! revive! human! intuition,! awaken! dormant! senses! and! create! brand! new!haptic!experiences!now!and!in!our!technological!future?!! !

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

3!Kenya!Hara,!Designing'Design,!(Japan:!Lars!Muller!Publishers,!2007),!P.157! 4!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.71! 5!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.68!Q!143!

!

4!


!

Chapter!1! !

Forecasting!the!Future!of!Sensory!Experiences! ! “One'of'the'best'ways'to'get'people'thinking'about'the'future'is'to'show'them'what'it'could'look' like…'to'spark'discussion'about'future'scenarios'by'trying'to'portray'the'evolution'of'key'trends.”6' ! Within! this! chapter,! I! am! addressing! futurology! Q! the! activity! of! forecasting! scientific! and! technological!developments!in!the!near!future!and!assessing!their!likely!social!effects.!With!the! preconceived!notion!that!with!technology!comes!progress,!I!am!critiquing!this!mentality!against! the!availability!and!possibility!for!sensory!experiences!in!the!projected!digital!age.!Senseware!is! characterised!by!the!collaboration!of!tradition!and!innovation,!but!we!hold!a!fear!of!the!future!in! regards!to!technological!advancement,!and!I!feel!it!crucial!to!discover!the!root!of!this.!Through! future! forecasting! I! aim! to! identify! and! explore! the! validity! of! our! fears! with! the! analysis! of! advancing!technologies!and!their!predicted!influence!on!our!human!sensory!experiences!in!the! future.! By! evaluating! key! trends! and! with! a! thematic! structure,! I! will! be! examining! the! prioritization! of! the! sense! of! sight! in! varying! dystopian! landscapes! to! establish! an! understanding!of!the!roles!played!by!all!of!the!sensory!receptors.!In!conjunction,!I!will!analyse! the!position!of!all!things!physical!and!the!haptic!potential!(if!at!all!apparent)!held!by!the!digital! age!within!these!forecasts.!Finally,!the!mutability!of!the!past!is!put!into!question;!is!the!desire! for!the!past!directly!related!to!our!fear!of!the!future?!My!sources!communicating!theories!of!our! future! vary! from! pure! futurists! (some! with! a! utopian! outlook),! to! the! mediums! of! dystopian! literature!and!film.! ! !‘Next!Nature’!is!a!book!of!collated!magazines!with!a!critical!and!pictorial!take!on!humankind’s! relationship! with! our! everQchanging! world.! “We' are' the' only' animal' capable' of' consuming' images”7!is!the!sweeping!statement!passed!by!the!publications’!editors!and!designers,!Dutch!duo! Mensvoort! and! Grievink,! as! they! discuss! our! relationship! with! images! in! the! world! of! rising! consumerism,!predicting!the!continual!escalation!of!sight!as!the!prioritised!sense.!Pursuing!this! principle,!I!examined!Geoffrey!Hoyle’s!children’s!book,!‘2011’.!Written!in!1972,!Hoyle!illustrates! how! he! himself! imagined! the! 21st! century! would! take! shape.! “The'vision'phone'and'vision'desk' are'electronic'marvels'of'the'21st'century”8'–!this!is!the!key!prediction!passed!by!Hoyle!and!is!an!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 6!RodrigoQFreese!Gonzatto,!Frederick!M.!C.!Van!Amstel,!Luiz!Ernesto!Merkel!and!Timo!Hartmann,!‘The!

ideology!of!the!future!in!design!fictions’,!in!Digital'Creativity,'2013,!Vol.24,!Issue!1,!P.37! 7!Koert!Van!Mensvoort!and!HendrikQJan!Grievink!(eds.),!Next'Nature:'Nature'Changes'Along'With'Us,'

(Barcelona:!Actar,!2011),!P.287! 8!Geoffrey!Hoyle!and!Alasdair!Anderson!(ill.),!2011;'Living'in'the'Future,'(Seattle,!Green!Tiger!Press,!2011),!

P.30! !


introduction!to!the!theme!that!structures!the!short!story.!His!emphasis! on! the! word! ‘vision’! concretes! the! presence! of! interface! design! and! touchscreens! that! we! now! interact! with! in! our! daily! lives,! and! the! objects! we! imagine! will! heavily! influence! our! future! experiences! for! the! senses.! Concepts! such! as! Skype,! Tesco! Delivery! and! Amazon! are! amusingly! outlined! with! the! use! of! ‘vision! desks’,! ‘vision! phones’! and! ‘vision! screens’! (Fig.! 2).! Every! page! details! the! use! of! one! or! more! of! these! devices! in! a! colourful! depiction! of! the! digital! age,! and! each! of! these!descriptions!has!a!utopian!air.!For!my!exploration!of!the!future,! the! relevance! of! ‘2011’! lies! in! the! prediction! hits! it! achieves! and! the! bright! predictions! for! his! future! come! very! close! to! the! depictions! of!

Fig!2:!A!‘vision!phone’!and! ‘vision!desk’!are!both!in! use!in!this!early!forecast! of!online!shopping.!

dystopian! societies! in! examples! of! modern! fiction.! Is! the! screenQ

'

relatable! nature! of! its! content! in! today’s! society.! However,! Hoyle’s!

orientated!environment!the!characterisation!of!the!perfect!future!or!of!its!polar!opposite?!This! question! prompted! my! exploration! into! the! emphasis! of! the! sense! of! sight! within! two! specific! pieces!of!dystopian!literature.! !! There'is'both'and'art'and'a'science'to'examining'what'lies'ahead.'Such'an'exploration'of' future' possibilities' is' integral' to' our' modern' consciousness.' Any' critical' look' at' future' predictions,'however,'demands'that'one'knows'who'is'making'predictions'and'what'their' motives'are.9' ' 'Yorick! Blumenfield,! in! his! book,! ‘Scanning! the! Future’,! explains! that! if! to! be! treated! as! fellow! examples! of! future! forecasting,! dystopian! fiction! literature! requires! assessing! to! ensure! the! validity! of! content! for! comparison.! Deriving! neither! from! science! nor! technological! analysis,! fiction! literature! cannot! be! bracketed! as! futurology;! however,! the! potential! it! holds! for! prognosis! of! the! years! ahead! make! them! worthy! sources! for! my! exploration.! Used! to! draw! attention! to! realQworld! concerns! about! themes! such! as! technology,! these! dystopian! societies,! characterised!by!dehumanization!and!misery,!will!play!a!great!role!in!identifying!the!aspects!of! technology!that!epitomise!our!fears.!In!the!20th!century,!two!visionary!books!cast!their!shadows! over! our! futures;' Aldous! Huxley’s! ‘Brave! New! World’! and! George! Orwell’s! ‘Nineteen! EightyQ Four’.! “The' theme' of' Brave' New' World' is' not' the' advancement' of' science' as' such;' it' is' the' advancement' of' science' as' it' affects' human' individuals” 10 'postulates! Aldous! Huxley,! in! the! foreword! of! his! book.! This! novel’s! premise! is! appropriate! for! my! assessment! of! human! sensibilities! affected! by! growing! technologies.! The! author! makes! comment! on! the! reasoning! behind!the!success!of!certain!pieces!of!dystopian!fiction,!including!his!own!Q!“A'book'about'the'

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

9!Yorick!Blumenfield,!Scanning'the'Future:'20'Eminent'Thinkers'on'the'World'of'Tomorrow,'(London:!

Thames!and!Hudson!Ltd.,!1999),!P.11! 10!Aldous!Huxley,!foreword!to!Brave'New'World,!by!Aldous!Huxley,!(London:!Vintage,!2007),!xli.!


future' can' interest' us' only' if' it’s' prophecies' look' as' though' they' might' conceivably' come' true.”11! And! yet! the! impact! of! this! particular! dystopian! novel! has! only! escalated! with! time.! Written! in! 1931,! ‘Brave! New! World’! went! from! the! classification! of! utopia! Q! a! perfect! place,! somewhere! unworldly,! to! the! dystopian! outlook! it! provides! the! 21st! century! reader.! In! parallel! to! Hoyle’s! more!whimsical!paradigm,!‘Brave!New!World’!was!written!in!a!time!of!physical!hardship,!where! a!life!made!easier!and!more!convenient!would!be!nothing!but!alluring.!“Some'of'the'predictions' are' pretty' impressive…' And' Hoyle’s' dead\on' about' one' thing.' By' adding' the' word' ‘vision’' to' everyday'words'and'sounds,'you'can'make'them'cooler'and'more'futuristic,'more'desirable'even”12! says! one! reviewer.! As! we! advance! into! a! physically! desensitized! society,! we! begin! to! relate! to! the! ‘vision’! oriented! projections! of! dystopian! landscapes! directly,! and! our! less! than! optimistic! response!cements!our!apprehensions!for!the!advancement!of!this!portion!of!technology.!! ! The! power! of! dystopia! lies! in! this! ability! to! grey! the! area! where! reality! and! fiction! meet.! Geostationary! communications! satellites,! nuclear! weapons,! world! wars,! and! the! monitoring! of! population! are! all! apparent! in! dystopian! literature! prior! to! their! manifestation! within! our! civilization13,!and!George!Orwell!is!no!stranger!to!prediction!hits.!Orwell!creates!several!brand! new! concepts,! characters! and! rules! to! depict! his! dystopian! Ingsoc! (English! socialist)! society! within! ‘Nineteen! EightyQFour’.! Big! Brother,! the! enigmatic! dictator! of! Oceania! and! the! novels’! predominant!image,!is!a!concept!that!has!escaped!fiction!and!has!been!realized,!sixtyQsix!years! later,! in! the! form! of! a! hit! television! programme14,! influencing! the! 21st! century! directly.! Orwell! foresaw! “the'potential'twisting'power'of'the'television”15,! while! Huxley! “was'able'to'see'beyond' cinema,' the' most' visual' medium' of' his' age,' envisaging' the' consequences' of' the' invention' of' the' small' screen.” 16 !The! ability! to! lift! from! these! ‘fictions’! and! drop! into! reality! ensures! the! effectiveness!of!these!novels!for!use!in!my!exploration!of!the!fears!we!hold!of!the!imminent!ten! or!so!years,!in!the!discussion!of!sensory!experiences!and!their!role!in!this!social!environment.!! ! To! reinforce! these! historical! examples! of! future! forecasting,! I! feel! it! is! necessary! to! include! a! more! recent! depiction! of! a! dystopian! landscape! fuelled! by! technology.! This!next! source! lies! in! the!television!series!produced!by!Channel!FourQ!‘Black!Mirror’.!This!painted!picture!of!dystopia!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 11!Huxley,!foreword,!xliv.! 12!Jenna!Krajeski,!“Living!in!the!Future,”!The'New'Yorker,!January!26,!2010,!accessed!December!18,!2013,!!

http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/books/2010/01/livingQinQtheQfuture.html! 13!Finlo!Rohrer,!“Futurology:!The!tricky!art!of!knowing!what!will!happen!next,”!BBC'News'Magazine,!

December!23,!2010,!accessed!October!19,!2013,!http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazineQ12058575! 14!‘Big'Brother’'is'a'reality'game'show'that'follows'a'number'of'contestants,'known'as'housemates,'who'are'

isolated'from'the'outside'world'for'an'extended'period'of'time'in'a'custom'built'House.'The'series'features'a' twenty\four'hour'live'feed,'in'which'fans'can'view'inside'the'house'at'any'time.! 15!Mario!Varricchio,!‘Power!of!Images/Images!of!Power!in!Brave'New'World!and!Nineteen'Eighty\Four’,!in!

Utopian'Studies,'1999,!Vol.!10.!No.1,!P.98!! 16!Varicchio,!Power'of'Images,!P.98!


provided! through! the! medium! of! television! and! film! differs! from! that! of! my! chosen! literary! examples.!With!the!visual!arts,!the!ideology!of!the!creator!is!well!communicated!with!little!room!for! alteration.! This! prediction! portrays! a! more! digestible! evolution! of! technology,! in! contrast! to! the! quantum!leaps!found!within!the!20th!century!novels.!Although!vulnerable!to!becoming!outdated,!the! influence! on! our! premonition! of! the! future! hits! home! hard.! Charlie!Brooker’s!series!‘Black!Mirror’! creates! a! dystopia! through! the! exaggeration! of! modernQday! technology,! making! the! society! it! portrays!relatable!and!the!viewer!empathetic!towards!each!protagonist;!with!the!characters’!fears! mirroring!our!own.!The!theme!of!the!one!hour!short!films!revolve!around!this!idea:!“in'every'home;' on'every'desk;'in'every'palm'\'a'plasma'screen;'a'monitor;'a'smartphone'\'a'black'mirror'of'our'21st' Century' existence.”17'Under! this! umbrella! ideology,! the! ‘Black! Mirror’! episode! I! have! selected,! ’15! Million!Merits’!will!be!examined!in!conjunction!with!‘2011’,!‘Nineteen!EightyQFour’!and!‘Brave!New! World’,! as! I! continue! the! study! of! the! projected! future! in! relation! to! sensory! experiences,! and! in! particular,!the!adherence!to!the!sense!of!sight.! ! The!adherence!to!the!sense!of!sight! “A'situation'in'which'we'wake'one'day'to'find'that'what'is'active'is'not'our'senses'but'only'software,'is' not'some'kind'of'science'fiction'tale;'it’s'already'here,'and'it'is'prevalent.”18'This! dystopian! ideology,! notioned!by!Hara,!is!the!encompassing!theme!of!the!‘Black!Mirror’!series.!‘15!Million!Merits’!poses!a! dystopian!society!powered!by!exercise!bikes,!in!an!environment!where!every!wall!is!a!screen.!In!a! bid! to! escape! this! mundane! life,! an! individual! can! use! their! merits! earned! cycling,! to! purchase! a! virtual!golden!ticket!for!entry!to!an!XQfactor!style!talent!audition;!the!crowd!populated!by!avatars!of! fellow!citizens.!If!successful,!the!participant!will!make!it!out!into!the!world!of!performing;!otherwise,! the!individual!will!bike!or!clean!until!the!end!of!their!life.!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Fig!3:!Bing!wakes!in!his!technological!bedroom.!The! overwhelming!visual!stimulus!is!controlled!by!hand!gestures! –!the!predicted!evolution!of!the!touchscreen.!!!

' !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 17!Charlie!Brooker,!Black'Mirror'series'synopsis,!Channel!4,!www.channel4.com/programmes/blackQmirror/4od! 18!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.147!

!

8!


The!insatiable!thirst!for!distraction!displayed!by!the!protagonists!is!intended!to!propose!reflection! of!our!own!present!day!relationship!with!technological!entertainment!devices.!Fundamentally,!there! is!very!little!in!this!future!society!that!is!tangibleQ!it!is!a!world!of!“sinister'technologies'and'dreams' that' money' can' buy.” 19 'With! fake! money! buying! virtual! accessories! for! an! online! avatar,! this! programme! encapsulates! our! present! frustration! with! technology.! When! things! are! no! longer! ‘things’;! when! they! become! a! visual! representation! of! the! physical;! our! sensory! experiences! diminish!to!addressing!only!one,!sight,!and!we!lose!the!values!tied!to!the!physical!artefact!that!the! technological!representation!has!left!by!the!side!of!the!road.!In!(Fig.!3),!this!idea!is!contextualized.! The!protagonist,!Bing,!is!waking!up!in!his!room.!Awoken!by!a!simulation!of!nature,!a!digital!sun!is! rising!and!a!cartoon!cockerel!is!calling.!He!dismisses!the!natural!imitation!with!a!gestural!swing!of! his!arm;!a!common!means!of!controlling!the!environments!within!this!particular!dystopian!world,! and!already!indicating!the!removal!of!everyday!hapticity,!as!we!know!it!in!the!present!day!(Fig.!4).! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Fig!4:!When!transitioning!from!room!to!room,! Bing!gestures!at!a!visual!representation!of!an! archetypical!door!handle.!!!

' !

The!core!integration!of!visual!interfaces!parallels!that!of!the!technological!assimilation!in!the!much! older! dystopian! example! of! ‘Nineteen! EightyQFour’.! “The'instrument'(telescreen'it'was'called)'could' be' dimmed,' but' there' was' no' way' of' shutting' it' off' completely.”20'The! telescreen! is! said! to! be! “the' principle' instrument' of' totalitarian' control' and' invasion' of' privacy”21'and! this! description! is! also! visualized!in!the!Black!Mirror!episode!(Fig.!5).!This!idea!of!technology!controlling!us!is!something! that!has!originated!through!the!visual!stimuli!provided!by!technology;!specifically!television.!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

19!Brooker,!Black'Mirror'series'synopsis,!www.channel4.com/programmes/blackQmirror/4od! 20!George!Orwell,!Nineteen'Eighty\Four,!(London:!Penguin!Group,!2013),!P.4! 21!Varricchio,!Power'of'Images,!P.112!!!

!

9!


' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

Fig!5:!Bing!is!demanded!to!‘resume!viewing’!by!the! controlling!screens!and!voice!that!dictates!his!visual!intake.! Advertisements!for!pornography!and!the!‘Hot!Shot’!talent! contest!are!compulsory!viewings,!unless!an!individual!wants! to!incur!a!penalty!of!merits,!earned!on!the!bike.!

' “As' you' might' expect' from' an' author' with' impaired' eyesight,' the' visual' sense' predominates.”22!This! extract! from! the! introduction! of! ‘Brave! New! World’! prompted! my! exploration! of! the! adherence! to! the!sense!of!sight!within!Aldous!Huxley’s!novel.!! ! Brave' New' World' and' Nineteen' Eighty\Four,' make' use' of' cinema' and' television' to' draw' an' extremely'pessimistic'picture'of'humanity’s'future,'emphasizing'their'role'as'essential'means' for' distorting' reality' and,' in' the' case' of' the' Fordian' society,' also' for' providing' artificial' pleasures'which'dim'the'mind.23' ' 'Huxley!is!the!King!of!simulation:!with!genetic!manipulation,!pleasureQgiving!drugs24,!television!and! the! feelies25,! the! Fordian! society! does! not! require! repression;! the! technology! in! this! dystopian! landscape! controls! the! people.! In! consequence,! there! is! a! scarcity! of! genuine! sensory! experience.! “The'drug'produces'such'pleasant'sensations'as'to'make'TV'images'similar'to'those'of'a'feely.”26!The! drug! is! aiding! the! reproduction! of! a! simulation! of! the! real! event,! and! this! theory! of! inception! is! frightening.! Demonstrating! the! distance! between! the! protagonists! and! the! authentic! sensory! experience,!this!realization!frames!human!sensibilities!as!further!away,!therefore!harder!to!reclaim.! Within!‘Brave!New!World’,!it!is!explained;!“We’ve'sacrificed'the'high'art.'We'have'the'feelies'and'the' scent'organ'instead.'(…)'They'mean'a'lot'of'agreeable'sensations'to'the'audience.”27'

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

22!Aldous!Huxley,!introduction!to!Brave'New'World,!by!Margaret!Atwood,!(London:!Vintage,!2007),!p.!13! 23!Varricchio,!Power'of'Images,!P.98!!! 24!Soma'is'an'‘ideal'pleasure'drug’,'a'concept'invented'by'Aldous'Huxley'within'Brave'New'World! 25!Aldous'Huxley’s'response'to'the'‘talkie’'motion'pictures,'the'‘feelies’'are'artificially'stimulating'experiences,'

engaging'sensory'receptors.!!! 26!Varricchio,!Power'of'Images,!P.106!!! 27!Aldous!Huxley,!Brave'New'World,!(London:!Vintage,!2007),!P.194!!

!

10!


However,!Hara!enforces!that!the!sense!of!sight!is!not!for!dismissal.!Described!as!“an'acupuncturist'to' cure'visual'excess,”28'Hara!describes!the!power!of!this!stimuli!in!his!book,!‘White’.!' ' The' glossy' freshness' of' a' deep' yellow' yolk' spilling' out' of' a' broken' egg' shell,' or' the' russet' colour'of'tea'in'a'cup'are'not'only'colours,'but'also'textures,'with'materiality,'in'which'taste' and'smell'are'also'deeply'enmeshed.'(…)'So'colour'is'not'just'visual,'but'something'relating'to' all'of'our'perceptions.29' ' 'The!regulation!of!sensory!adherence!is!key!to!the!future!of!sensory!experiences!in!the!digital!age.!If! only!one!sense!is!addressed,!the!information!passed!onto!the!recipient!is!limited!to!what!they!can! consume! with! that! one! receptor! and! recall! as! a! memory.! A! multisensory! experience! provides! a! much!larger!world!of!information;!“the'oxygen'of'the'modern'age”.30!An!overwork!and!imbalance!of! individual! senses! is! apparent! in! the! two! examples! of! dystopian! literature.! Within! the! Orwellian! society,!“day'and'night'the'telescreen'bruised'your'ears”31!with!the!inhabitants!“shouting'at'the'tops'of' their' voices' in' an' effort' to' drown' the' maddening' bleating.”32!The! people! of! the! Fordian! society! are! bombarded! with! the! olfactory! and! auditory! experience! produced! by! the! scent! and! colour! organ,! incessantly! playing! the! latest! synthetic! music.! “In'a'world'in'which'everything'is'available,'nothing' has'any'meaning.”33!This!theory!applies!well!to!the!senses!of!smell,!hearing,!taste!and!sight!but!is!not! true! when! considering! the! physical! (or! lack! of)! experiences! that! these! dystopian! writers! have! predicted!in!our!future!technological!landscape.!The!sense!of!touch!differs!from!those!of!sight,!smell,! taste!and!sound.!In!these!portrayals!of!controlling!societies,!most!senses!can!be!imparted!upon!you,! passively.!They!are!effectively!employed!to!create! oppressive!settings;!augmenting!one!another!to! assault! the! sensory! receptors.! The! sense! of! touch! is! proactive;! an! individual! must! use! their! physicality! to! connect! with! their! environment! at! their! own! choice.! While! the! habitants! search! for! this! hapticity,! the! power! parties! suppress! this! autonomous! experience.! This! confiscation! of! the! physical! is! apparent! within! both! ‘15! Million! Merits’! and! ‘Nineteen! EightyQFour’,! thus! providing! a! rationalization!of!at!least!one!of!our!future!fears!spurred!by!technology.!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

28!Kenya!Hara,!introduction!to!Designing'Design;!Dissecting'Kenya'Hara,!by!Li!Endelkoort,!(Japan:!Lars!Muller!

Publishers,!2007),!P.8! 29!Kenya!Hara,!White,!(Japan:!Lars!Muller!Publishers,!2010),!P.214! 30!Mensvoort!and!Grievink,!Next'Nature,'P.248! 31!Orwell,!Nineteen'Eighty\Four,!P.220! 32!Orwell,!Nineteen'Eighty\Four,!P.168! 33!Huxley,!introduction!to!Brave'New'World,!by!Margaret!Atwood,!p.14!

!

11!


The!removal!of!the!physical! “I'made'you'this;'you'never'get'to'keep'it'more'than'a'day'but'there'it'is'anyway.'It'folds'flat,'so'you'can' keep'it'in'your'waistband.'It’s,'y’know…'something”34(Fig.!6).!In!a!bid!to!keep!something!that!is!real,! Abi,!the!female!character!from!Black!Mirror,!folds!origami!birds!out!of!paper!apple!wrappers,!and! each!day,!sits!one!on!the!handlebars!of!her!exercise!bike.!Within!a!minute,!the!cleaning!squad!has! disposed!of!it,!declaring!it!“detritus”35'(Fig.!7).!

Fig!6:!Abi!gifts!Bing!a!paper!bird.!The!delicacy!and! awe!that!the!protagonist!interacts!with!the! origami!penguin!highlights!his!love!for!the! physical.!

Fig!7:!The!cleaner!sweeps!away!the!contraband! that!perches!on!Abi’s!exercise!bike.!! !

! Bing,! the! protagonist! of! ’15! Million! Merits’! summarizes! the! frustration! that! comes! with! the! deprivation!of!the!physical!in!his!climatic!rant:! We'are'so'out'of'our'minds'in'desperation...'all'we'know'is'fake'fodder'and'buying'shit.'It’s'how' we'speak'to'each'other,'how'we'express'ourselves'is'buying'shit.'I'have'a'dream?'The'peak'of' our'dreams'is'the'new'hat'for'our'doppel\'a'hat'that'doesn’t'exist!'It’s'not'even'there;'we'buy' shit,' that’s' not' even' there.' Show' us' something' real' and' free' and' beautiful;' you' couldn’t.' It’d' break'us.'We’re'too'numb'for'it;'our'minds'would'choke.'There’s'only'so'much'wonder'we'can' bear,'that’s'why'when'you'find'any'wonder'whatsoever,'you'dole'it'out'in'meager'portions'and' only'then'until'it’s'augmented'and'packaged'and'pumped'through'ten\thousand'pre\assigned' filters'til'it’s'nothing'more'than'meaningless'series'of'lights.36! Bings’! aggravation! with! the! thwarted! society! refers! not! only! to! the! removal! of! haptic! objects,! but! also!to!the!digitization!of!humans;!when!even!the!tangibility!of!people!is!nullified.!Within!his!book,! ‘Alter!Ego;!Avatars!and!their!Creators’,!Robbie!Cooper!details!specific!examples!of!gamers!and!their! online!representatives.!He!states!that!sometimes!these!realms!of!existence!overtake!‘real!life’!in!the! hours! they! are! devoted;! and! this! is! a! perilous! thought! cast! upon! the! future! potential! for!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

34!Charlie!Brooker,!Black'Mirror:'Fifteen'Million'Merits,!Series'1'episode'2,'4od,!

www.channel4.com/programmes/blackQmirror/4od/#3327867,!26th!minute!! 35!Brooker,!Fifteen'Million'Merits,!16th!minute! 36!Brooker,!Fifteen'Million'Merits,!53rd!minute!

!

12!


humanistic! sensory! experiences.! “When' your' second' skin' becomes' your' first' skin”37'is! a! concept! of! which!we!are!growing!increasingly!aware.!However,!in!this!despondent!depiction,!we!have!already! discovered! some! use! for! this! new! technology! that! creates! sensory! experiences,! as! opposed! to! removing!them.! Jason!Rowe,!born!in!1975,!suffers!from!severe!physical!disabilities,!with!only!slight!movement!in!his! hands.! Jason! spends! up! to! eighty! hours! a! week! playing! Star! Wars! Galaxies! as! his! avatar! Rurouni! Kenshin! (Fig.! 8),! where! he! “can'ride'an'Imperial'speeder'bike,'fight'monsters,'or'just'hang'out'with' friends'at'a'bar.”38!His!alter!ego!in!the!virtual!world!allows!him!to!have!interactions!with!people!and! environments!that!he!is!not!capable!of!within!his!own!body.!This!specific!case!study!demonstrates!a! niche! example! of! the! wonders! that! new! technology! can! provide! for! an! individual.! “The' computer' screen'is'my'window'to'the'world,”39!states!Rowe,!but!for!the!majority,!computers!epitomise!the!sight! orientated!and!sensory!numbing!characteristics!of!technological!examples!that!structure!our!digital! age.! ' ' ' ' ' ' '

Fig!8:!On!the!left:!Jason!Rowe!uses!an!onscreen!keyboard! called! ‘softQtype’! to! converse! with! other! online! gamers.! On!the!right:!Ruroini!Kenshin,!the!human!marksman!that! Rowe!plays!online.!! !

“You’ve'got'this'stupid'little'mouse'that'requires'one'hand,'and'your'eyes.'That’s'it.'What'about'the'rest' of'you?'No'African'would'stand'for'a'computer'like'that.'It’s'imprisoning.”40'Within!their!‘Back!to!the! Tribe’! magazine,! Next! Nature! feature! an! interview! executed! by! Kevin! Kelly! titled! ‘Gossip! is!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

37!Mensvoort!and!Grievink,!Next'Nature,'P.16! 38!Robbie!Cooper,!Alter'Ego;!Avatars'and'their'creators,!(New!York:!Chris!Boot!Ltd.!2007),!P.19!

!

39!Cooper,!Alter'Ego,!P.19! 40!Mensvoort!and!Grievink,!Next'Nature,'P.421!

!

13!


Philosophy’.! Originally! produced! for! Wired! magazine,! this! 1993! interview! with! Brian! Eno,! the! English! musician,! composer! and! innovator! of! ambient! music,! expresses! an! early! verdict! on! this! revolutionary!product!that!is!the!computer.!Eno!uses!the!reference!to!Africans!as!a!tie!to!our!human! primal! instincts,! something! Western! Culture! has! effectively! weeded! out.! Acknowledging! the! insufficiency!of!present!day!product!experiences!when!compared!to!those!that!structured!the!daily! lives!of!our!ancestors!only!strengthens!our!resistance!to!advance!any!further!into!the!digital!age.!We! are!slowly!realizing!that!the!characteristics!of!the!computer!and!the!television!are!not!sufficient!to! structure! our! society! presently,! let! alone! acting! as! the! blueprint! for! the! future.'“We'used'to'fill'our' imaginations'with'the'glamour'of'achieving'happiness'by'sending'a'virtual'self'to'live'in'cyberspace,' but'we’ve'realized'that'virtual'happiness'cannot'become'real'happiness.”41!This! is! only! a! realization! we! can! reach! when! immersed! in! the! technologyQ! Hoyle’s! utopian! understanding! is! from! the! perspective!of!the!analogue!man,!and!even!he!identified!a!potential!flaw!in!what!technology!affords! us;!“You'could'spend'all'day'watching'comics,'but'it'wouldn’t'be'a'good'idea.”!42' In! juxtoposition,! there! are! examples! of! fictional! forecasts! that! clarify! the! need! for! the! physical! as! well!as!the!desire.!The!central!plot!of!the!film,!‘Minority!Report’,!demonstrates!the!importance!of!the! tangible!in!the!highQtech!world.!Set!in!2054,!a!unique!police!department!titled!‘PreCrime’!prevents! murders!by!reading!the!psychic!visions!of!three,!barely!human,!Precogs!and!then!intervening!with! the!events!of!the!future!(Fig.!9).!In!play!are!wooden!balls,!delivered!down!a!chute,!with!inscriptions! of! the! victims! name! on! one! and! that! of! the! perpetrator! on! the! other! (Fig.! 10).! In! respect! to! the! subject! matter,! the! inability! to! alter! or! ‘hack’! the! physical! makes! the! wooden! balls! of! upmost! importance! in! the! highly! technological! environment.! The! text! on! the! balls! is! the! information! on! which!the!entire!mission!is!based.! Made!from!something!natural,!the!grain!of!the!ball!can!be!read! like!that!of!a!fingerprint,!and!stands!as!a!better!alternative!to!any!form!of!digital!notification.!This! example!of!hapticity!incorporated!in!a!futuristic!setting!assures!us!that!there!will!always!be!a!haptic! element!to!our!world.!The!materiality!poses!significance!in!both!basic!function!and!in!the!ritualistic,! tangible!experience!it!provides.!But!why!for!the!most!part,!is!the!future!a!place!where!hapticity!is! redundant?! Does! this! explain! the! undeniable! attraction! we! have! to! the! objects! and! product! experiences!of!our!past?! ! !

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 41!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.144!! 42!Hoyle,!2011,'P.30!

!

14!


! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Fig!9:!John!Anderson,!the!main!character!of!‘Minority! Report’!scans!the!Precogs!visions!with!grand!gestural! motions.!! Right:!The!perpetrator!wooden!ball,!with!the!name!ingrained.!

Fig!10:!The!wooden!ball,!with!the! perpetrators’!name!ingrained.!

!

!

! The!mutability!of!the!past! We' haven’t' any' use' for' old' things' here.' “Even' when' they' are' beautiful?”' Particularly' when' they’re'beautiful.'Beauty’s'attractive,'and'we'don’t'want'people'to'be'attracted'by'old'things.' We'want'them'to'like'the'new'ones.43'' This!discussion!from!Brave!New!World!between!the!Controller!and!the!Savage!displays!the!driving! force! of! the! fictional! political! powers! within! the! dystopian! creationsQ! the! desire! to! mute! the! past.! Similarly!to!their!shared!desire!to!own!physical!objects;!the!protagonist!of!each!story!has!issue!with! the! central! tenet! of! the! societal! structure,! and! has! found! means! of! accessing! elements! of! bygone! time.! “Both' societies' have' been' emptied' of' a' sense' of' history' and' of' memory' of' the' past”44,! yet! both! Winston!(Nineteen!EightyQFour)!and!Bing!(15!Million!Merits)!have!physically!held!onto!connections! with! older! times.! Ironically,! Winston’s! job! within! Oceania! is! to! edit! the! past;! by! reQwriting! newspaper!articles!from!the!archives,!the!department!he!works!for!ensures!the!historical!record!of! the!state!is!always!in!support!of!the!current!party!line.!Developing!an!everQgrowing!curiosity!of!the! years! gone! by,! Winston! purchases! a! paperweight! from! an! antique! shop.! The! glass! hemisphere! contains!a!piece!of!coral!that!has!been!protected!from!the!passage!of!time,!fixed!in!eternity.!This!idea! of!the!past!protected!from!the!threat!of!the!Ingsoc!society!is!the!epitome!of!Winston’s!romanticized! view!of!the!prior!years.!The!paperweight!is!a!microcosm!of!Mr.!Charrington’s!antique!shop,!a!space! providing! Winston! with! not! only! a! feeling! of! protection! from! the! Thought! Police,! but! a! literal! window!into!Oceania’s!past.!From!this!room,!Winston!has!a!view!of!a!prole45!woman!in!her!family! garden,!pegging!out!washing!as!she!sings!a!song!that!is!generations!old.!She!has!escaped!the!control!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 43!Huxley,!Brave'New'Word,!P.193!

44!Varricchio,!Power'of'Images,!P.98! 45!Oceania'is'divided'into'three'classes:'the'Inner'Party'(upper\class),'the'Outer'Party'(middle\class),'and'the'

proles'(lower\class).!

!

15!


of!the!party,!the!brainwashing,!the!telescreen!and!Big!Brother!by!belonging!to!a!class!that!is!deemed! unnecessary!to!format.!The!Party!affirms!that!proles!and!animals!are!free!and!Winston!Smith!states! with!conviction!that!it!is!the!proles!that!remain!human.! This!power!of!song!is!also!apparent!within!’15!Million!Merits’,!strengthening!the!understanding!that! within! these! dystopian! future! forecasts,! “nothing' was' your' own' except' the' few' cubic' centimeters' inside'your'skull.”46!The!secondary!character!in!the!Black!Mirror!episode,!Abi,!is!a!twentyQone!year! old!girl!who!has!just!reached!the!age!to!join!the!system.!Not!yet!altered!by!the!environment,!Abi!has! a!strong,!untainted!connection!with!the!‘real’!present,!the!undisclosed!world!outside!this!oppressive! and!controlled!space.!With!her,!Abi!carries!the!memory!of!a!song,!taught!to!her!by!her!mother.!“It’s' good,'it’s'old”47'are!the!words!she!exchanges!with!Bing!when!he!expresses!that!she!“has'something' real”48.!Each!literal!and!metaphorical!window!allows!for!ephemeral!immersion!into!the!past,!while! placing! the! present! in! perspective;! a! perspective! intended! for! suppression.! As! described! by! Mario! Varricchio,! author! of! ‘Power! of! Images/Images! of! power’;! “windows'help'advance'awareness'of'the' true' reality' of' things' and' show' a' different,' better' perspective' which' gives' hope' and' supplies' people' with'at'least'a'mental'way'out.”49'Contrasting! the! past! and! the! present! is! something! demonstrated! by! us! in! the! 21st! century,! and! the! attachment! to! the! past! revealed! by! the! protagonists! is! also! something! identifiable! within! society! currently.! Our! fear! of! a! future! full! of! overwhelming! visual! stimuli! and! redundancy! of! the! tangible! has! spurred! an! intense! affection! towards! our! preceding! years.! We! as! consumers! are! guilty! of! searching! for! qualities! in! ideas,! artefacts,! and! product! experiences!that!have!been!lost!in!time,!as!we!tightly!cling!to!those!in!the!process!of!being!forgotten.! The!speed!that!the!new!wave!of!technology!arrived!in!our!world!shocked!the!system!and!as!a!result,! Simon!Reynolds,!the!author!of!‘Retromania’,!spells!out!that!“There'has'never'been'a'society'in'human' history'so'obsessed'with'the'cultural'artefacts'of'its'own'immediate'past”.50! ! ‘How'we'are'seduced'by'the'objects'around'us’\!this!is!the!subtitle!of!‘The'Language'of'Things’,!written! by! Sudjic,! director! of! London’s! Design! Museum.! Although! written! in! 2008,! a! significant! amount! of! the! product! design! content! can! be! collected! under! the! umbrella! term;! ‘traditional/retro’.! The! few! examples! that! fall! into! the! category! of! ‘modern/contemporary’! are! designs! with! semantics! closely! tethered!to!the!original,!archetypical!artefacts.!Sudjic!begins!to!explore!why!we!as!a!generation!are! so!attached!to!the!objects!that!our!most!recent!predecessors!owned!and!used.!In!conjunction!with!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 46!Orwell,!Nineteen'Eighty\Four,!P.32!

47!Brooker,!15'Million'Merits,'54th!minute! 48!Brooker,!15'Million'Merits,'22nd!minute!! 49!Varricchio,!Power'of'Images,!P.111! 50!Simon!Reynolds,!Retromania;'Pop'Culture’s'addiction'to'it’s'own'past,'(London:!Faber!and!Faber!Ltd,!2011),!

P.7!!

!

16!


interpreting! our! addiction! to! the! past! as! a! fear! of! the! future,! the! reality! could! be! that! we! utilize! objects!of!the!analogue!age!to!achieve!a!balance!of!tradition!and!contemporary!in!our!current!living! environment.! Dejan! Sudjic! posits,! “The' machine' has' replaced' the' hand' and' the' business' man' has' taken' the' craftsman’s' place.” 51 'This! substantiated! movement! from! human! to! machine! feels! irreversible,! and! we! fear! the! loss! of! objects! that! play! a! part! in! our! daily! routines,! rituals! and! sensibilities.! ! To'switch'on'an'Angle\poise'and'to'move'it'into'position'is'both'literally'and'metaphorically,' to' suggest' that' you' have' started' work.' It' is' like' opening' the' shutters' of' a' shop,' or' raising' a' curtain'at'a'theatre.'All'the'senses'are'involved,'sound'as'well'as'touch.'The'click'of'the'switch' is'like'putting'up'a'‘Do'not'disturb’'sign.52' ' 'Sudjic! supports! the! understanding! that! the! sense! of! touch! and! the! concept! of! hapticity! are! experienced!through!the!physical;!things!you!handle,!grasp!and!hold.!This!is!something!that!comes! part!and!parcel!with!product!design!in!the!traditional!sense.!However,!the!digital!age!has!diluted!the! power! of! these! archetypical! experiences.! ‘How! strangeQ! I’m! talking! to! someone! who’s! actually! far! away.’!This!depth!to!the!experience!came!with!the!invention!of!the!telephone!and!is!being!constantly! adapted! for! enjoyment! and! dressed! for! convenience;! purposes! with! significantly! less! weight! than! the! raw! proposal! of! communication.! The! exaggeration! of! this! usage! of! technology! within! ‘Black! Mirror’! inaugurates! our! building! apprehension! of! the! upcoming! years,! and! so! to! mute! the! pessimistic!voice!that!stigmatizes!the!future,!we!must!absorb!whatever!these!dystopian!sources!can! teach!us;!a!selection!of!do’s!and!don’ts!for!the!upcoming!years.!! ! Charlie!Brooker!states;'“Over'the'last'ten'years,'technology'has'transformed'almost'every'aspect'of'our' lives'before'we've'had'time'to'stop'and'question'it.”53!This! is! what! differentiates! this! period! of! time! from! other! decades,! and! even! “Huxley' argued' that' the' world' he' had' projected' was' coming' much' faster' than' he' expected.”54!However,! the! intentions! of! many! futurologists,! even! if! bracketed! as! dystopia,!are!not!purely!to!install!fear!in!the!consumers!mind.!“I'don’t'try'to'predict'the'future,'I'try'to' prevent' it”55Q! This! is! Ray! Bradbury’s! comment! on! his! intentions! for! his! novel! ‘Fahrenheit! 451’.! Potentially,! our! exposure! to! future! projections! may! have! concentrated! our! fear! of! the! future;! an! exposure!that!is!afforded!by!the!exact!products!that!defines!these!dystopian!societies.!However,!in!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

51!Dejan!Sudjic,!The'Language'of'Things;!how'we'are'seduced'by'the'objects'around'us,!(London:!Penguin!Group,!

2008),'P.14! 52!Sudjic,!The'Language'of'Things,'P.56! 53!Brooker,!Black'Mirror'series'synopsis,!www.channel4.com/programmes/blackQmirror/4od! 54!Gregory!Claeys!and!Lyman!Tower!Sargent,!The'Utopian'Reader,!(New!York:!New!York!University!Press,!

1999),!P.347!! 55!Blumenfield,!Scanning'the'Future,!P.18!

!

17!


the!same!way!that!the!protagonists!within!the!dystopian!depictions!were!aware!they!were!missing! something,!we!as!the!people!of!the!digital!age!can!begin!to!see!the!gap;!and!it!is!in!this!gap!where!the! future! of! sensory! design,! senseware,! should! be! positioned.! This! consciousness! is! thanks! to! the! warning! flag! that! futurologists! have! waved.! Blumenfield! states;! “The'future'is'not'predictable,'it'is' not'predetermined,'and'it'can'be'affected'by'individual'choices'and'decisions.”56'The!future!is!not!set! in! stone! and! we! have! time! to! intervene! and! dictate! the! direction! we! will! travel! in! as! we! advance! further!into!the!digital!age.!It!needs!to!be!understood!that!“the'individual'can'make'a'difference'and' that'the'future'can'be'faced'directly.”57!A! dystopia! is! intended! as! an! entirely! pessimistic! forecast! of! our! future,! providing! ‘what! if?’! scenarios.! By! catching! our! attention! through! the! creation! of! fear,! these! fictional! sources! can! teach! us! something:! the! amplification! of! existing! technologies! does! not! bode! well! for! the! future! of! our! sensory! experiences! and! the! desire! for! the! physical! will! always! be! apparent.! Blumenfield! tells! us;! “the' goal' of' forecasts' and' predictions' should' not' be' to' form' an' accurate' picture' of' tomorrow,' but' to' help' us' make' better' decisions' now.”58'But! have! we! already! concreted!our!relationship!with!technology?!! ! Hara!suggests;! ' Basically,'consumers'unknowingly'move'in'whatever'direction'allows'them'to'lead'an'idle'life.' We'can’t'always'claim'that'everything'that’s'convenient'is'no'good,'but'certainly'the'human' tendency'to'slack'off'has'intensified'remarkably,'due'to'marketing'backed'by'technology.59' ' Our! materialistic! culture! and! elected! relationship! with! a! small! window! of! modern! technology! has! provided!us!with!a!means!of!tapping!our!inner!sloth.!The!nightmare!marriage!between!laziness!and! technology! has! embedded! itself! in! our! mentality! towards! the! objects! of! the! digital! age.! Hoyle’s! characters!can!remain!seated!for!the!whole!day,!carrying!out!tasks!from!their!‘vision!desks’.!Black! Mirror’s! technological! landscape! provides! endless! ways! to! make! life! easier,! with! meals! produced! from!touchscreen!vending!machines,!toothpaste!dispensed!at!the!gestural!swipe!of!the!hand!and!a! tracksuit! uniform! worn! by! all.! George! Orwell! gives! society! a! strict! structure,! a! Big! Brother! and! Ingsoc! to! do! your! thinking! for! you,! while! Huxley! provides! a! drug! that! allows! you! to! escape! inside! your!own!head.!With!no!genuine!sensory!experience!apparent!in!any!of!this,!can!we!hold!technology! solely!responsible!for!this!dumbing!and!numbing?!‘The!Shallows’!author!Nicholas!Carr,!comments,!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

56!Blumenfield,!Scanning'the'Future,!P.17! 57!Blumenfield,!Scanning'the'Future,!P.10! 58!Blumenfield,!Scanning'the'future,!P.23! 59!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.145!

!

18!


We' are' too' prone' to' making' technological' instruments' the' scapegoats' for' the' sins' of' those' who'wield'them.'The'products'of'modern'science'are'not'in'themselves'good'or'bad;'it'is'the' way'that'they'are'used'that'determines'their'value.60!! Clive!Thompson,!a!current!science!writer!and!advocate!for!technology,!agrees!with!this!notion!and! comments! that! we! need! to! move! past! the! “cheap' techno\dystopia”61!and! stop! holding! technology! responsible!for!the!repercussions!of!our!chosen!relationship!with!it.!We!as!a!society!need!reminded,! “Our'human'destiny'remains'firmly'in'our'hands'and'not'in'those'of'robots,'machinery'or'computers.”62'' With! our! existing! relationship! with! modern! technology! in! mind,! my! next! intention! was! to! assess! whether!or!not!we!are!even!capable!of!experiencing!sensory!feedback!as!we!used!to.!Carr!informs!us! that! our! minds! are! ‘plastic’,! malleable! in! nature! and! capable! of! learning! continuously.! However,! if! something!is!practiced!over!and!over!again,!it!becomes!second!nature!and!the!neurons!in!the!brain! pick!this!path!over!all!others,!explaining!our!tendency!to!‘slack!off’.!“There'is'evidence'that'the'cells'of' or'brains'literally'develop'and'grow'bigger'with'use,'and'atrophy'or'waste'away'with'disuse.”63!So! it! can!be!said,!just!as!inactive!muscles!lose!strength,!human!senses!degenerate!when!not!in!practice.! This! can! be! considered! the! current! situation! we! find! ourselves! in.! Hara! himself! explains,! “The' necessary'sensory'perceptions'and'receptivity'have'begun'to'fade'away.”64'Revealing!a!similar!notion,' Brave! New! World’s! John! the! Savage! inquires! as! to! why! the! people! of! London! cannot! be! shown! Shakespeare’s!‘Othello’,!as!opposed!to!the!feelies.!The!response;!“I’ve'told'you;'it’s'old.'Besides,'they' couldn’t' understand' it.”65'The! removal! of! the! old! within! this! dystopian! society! has! limited! the! capability!of!the!mind.!Our!interpretations!of!the!world!are!not!based!on!new!information!alone,!but! on!the!combination!of!the!new!with!our!old,!stored!memories.!Next!Nature!explains;! Our' most' basic' biology' and' instincts' should' not' be' twisted' to' fit' our' machines.' Rather,' our' technologies' should' serve' us' by' becoming' more' intuitive,' more' social,' and' more' sensitive' to' the' strengths' and' limitations' of' the' human' body.' Technology' has' been' a' mere' machine' for' long'enough.'It’s'about'time'it'graduates'to'full'humanity.66' '

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

60!Nicholas!Carr,!The'Shallows;'how'the'internet'is'changing'the'way'we'think,'read'and'remember,'(New!York:!

W.W!Norton!and!Company!Inc.,!2010),!P.3! 61!Maria!Popova,!Tip\of\the\tongue'syndrome;!transactive'memory,'and'how'the'Internet'is'making'us'smarter,!

Brain!Pickings,!http://www.brainpickings.org! 62!Blumenfield,!Scanning'the'Future,!P.13! 63!Carr,!The'Shallows,!P.21! 64!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.145! 65!Huxley,!Brave'New'World,!P.193! 66!Mesvoort!and!Grievink,!Next'Nature,!P.213!

!

19!


Chapter!2! !

A!Continent!of!Undiscovered!Senses! ! “And'so'I'wonder'[…]'if'there'may'be'something'yet'dormant'in'our'sensory'perceptions,'an' undiscovered'continent'on'the'world'atlas'of'the'senses?”67' ' When! Galileo! Galilei! pointed! his! telescope! at! the! sky,! “no' one' wanted' to' look' through' to' see' the' inevitable.”68!The!word!he!had!to!spread!was!brandQnew,!something!to!explore.!The!moon!was!not! smooth;!it!was!dotted!with!gaping!craters.!The!sun!was!tarnished!with!dark!spots!and!Jupiter!had! two!moons.!But!his!audience!opted!for!ignorance!and!oblivion.!It!is!in!our!nature!to!be!intimidated! by!the!unknown,!because!it!is!exactly!that.!We!are!unaware!of!the!ramifications!of!the!discovery!and! this!removes!our!feeling!of!control.!But!if!you!are!unaware!of!potential!then!you!miss!the!window!of! opportunity.!My!exploration!into!the!future!of!our!sensory!experiences!as!predicted!by!key!futurists! and! dystopian! sources! helped! me! to! disclose! a! fear! –! justified! I! believe! Q! of! a! future! dictated! by! technology.!But!technology!should!not!be!the!protagonist!of!any!story;!it!should!be!understood!as!a! tool,!and!if!used!as!a!tool!correctly,!has!the!aptitude!to!unlock!a!wealth!of!opportunities!for!the!new! array!of!sensory!experiences;!opening!our!eyes!to!senseware.!“We'are'not'clear'where'we'want'our' new' technology' to' lead' us”69,' but! with! thanks! to! a! prognosis! of! the! future,! we! have! a! growing! conviction! as! a! society! of! the! direction! we! want! to! avoid.! To! move! forward! in! the! right! direction,! Kenya! Hara! stresses! the! requirement! of! drawing! a! line! through! our! melancholic! attitude! towards! the!new!and!the!glorification!of!the!old,!apparent!in!our!current!society!and!those!depicted!in!the! dystopian! outlooks.! He! declares,! “This' [haptic]' exhibition' does' not' stand' for' nostalgia.' It’s' creation' headed'straight'for'the'future.”70!This! statement! is! backed! by! Dejan! Sudjic,! who! adds,! “it'would'be' madness'to'swim'against'the'current.”71'Senseware!revolves!around!the!hypothesis!that!if!we!revert! back!to!a!time!where!senses!where!numbered!at!five!as!stated!by!Aristotle,!the!scope!for!the!new! wave!of!sensory!design!is!effectively!nonQexistent.!“But'what'if'we'left'nostalgia'behind?'If'we'opened' up' our' sensors' to' physical' objects,' wouldn’t' that' allow' us' to' sense' another' reality?”72!This! vision! of! maintaining! the! tangible! makes! Hara’s! proposal! attractive! –! senseware! aims! to! deter! us! from! the! future! proposed! by! Huxley,! Orwell! and! Brooker,! all! by! approaching! technology! as! a! promising! notion!rather!than!perilous.!“The'essence'of'design'lies'in'the'process'of'discovering'a'problem'shared'

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 67!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.147!

68!Mensvoort!and!Grievink,!Next'Nature,!P.130! 69!Blumenfield,!Scanning'the'Future,!P.12! 70!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.70! 71!Sudjic,!The'Language'of'Things,!P.14! 72!Hara,!Designing'Design,'P.87!

!

20!


by' many' people' and' trying' to' solve' it”73'states! Hara.! Our! established! issue! with! technology! as! it! continually! unfolds! before! us! can! be! solved! with! the! practice! of! senseware,! encouraging! the! augmentation! of! our! treasured! sensory! experiences! with! the! affordances! of! new! technologies.! We! have!a!control!over!the!progression!into!the!future!but!this!“corresponds'to'the'capability'of'society' to' recreate' itself' today,' not' tomorrow.”74'Our! technology! is! not! an! orthodox! cookery! book! that! nobody!is!allowed!to!question;!as!posed!by!‘Brave!New!World’.!Senseware!provides!a!new!approach! to! science;! one! that! has! new! guidelines! to! suit! the! new! world.! Providing! this! sensory! rich! future! would!detach!us!from!our!nostalgic!mindset.! ! 'History'lies'in'the'past'as'a'given,'reality'is'restricted'to'the'experiences'of'the'present,'and' the' future' is' left' to' fictional' speculations.' When' past' determines' the' present,' changes' in' the' status'quo'can'only'happen'in'the'future,'as'a'hope,'but'never'as'a'fact.75'' ! Shuffling!the!chronological!order!of!past,!present!and!future!disturbs!progress.!The!position!we!find! ourselves! in! currently! is! unique;! with! an! extensive! breadth! of! access! to! tradition! and! technology,! there!is!surely!a!plethora!of!sensory!experiences!we!can!revive,!and!a!wealth!we!can!newly!discover.! This! is! my! interpretation! of! Kenya! Hara’s! senseware,! and! I! endorse! the! idea! that! “both' past' and' future'are'shaped'by'the'present,'a'present'open'and'creative'due'to'constant'change.”76!This!chapter! continues! with! the! exploration! of! case! studies,! each! demonstrating! an! individual! designers’! interpretation!of!senseware!and!revealing!the!potential!of!sensory!experiences!in!the!digital!age.!! ! A!‘back!to!nature’!future! The!digital!age!can!aid!the!revival!of!human!intuition,!an!intuition!that!we!have!forgotten!about!over! generations,!propelling!'“us'not'so'much'back'to,'but'rather'forward'to'nature.”77!My!first!case!study! from! Kenya! Hara’s! ‘HAPTIC! –! Awakening! the! Senses’! exhibition! demonstrates! the! ease! in! which! senses!can!be!awoken!in!today’s!society!when!we!take!prompts!from!mother!nature.!! ! “Rather'than'alienating'an'audience'unfamiliar'with'design,'it'seems'to'invite'us'all'to'see'how'easy' and'natural'design'can'be'when'it’s'done'right.”78'This!is!a!comment!on!senseware!made!by!product! designer,! Jasper! Morrison! in! the! foreword! of! ‘Designing! Design’.! Familiarity! is! a! key! aspect! of!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 73!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.24!

74!Rodrigo!Freese!Gonzatto,!Frederick!M.!C.!Van!Amstel,!Luiz!Ernesto!Merkel,!and!Timo!Hartmann,!‘The!

ideology!of!the!future!in!design!fictions’,!in!Digital!Creativity,!Vol.!24,!No.1!P.44!! 75!Gonzatto,!Van!Amstel,!Merkel,!and!Hartmann,!‘The!ideology!of!the!future!in!design!fictions’,!P.38!! 76!Gonzatto,!Van!Amstel,!Merkel,!and!Hartmann,!‘The!ideology!of!the!future!in!design!fictions’,!P.38!! 77!Mensvoort!and!Grievink,!Next'Nature,!P.421! 78!Kenya!Hara,!introduction!to!Designing'Design;!Message'Recieved,!by!Jasper!Morrison,!(Japan:!Lars!Muller!

Publishers,!2007),!P.14!

!

21!


senseware,!and!there!is!a!wealth!of!sensory!experiences!in!our!past!that!have!a!part!to!play!in!the! creation!of!new!senseware!designs;!but!they!are!not!found!in!the!last!twenty!years.!There!is!a!world! of! sensory! experiences! that! the! generations! living! in! the! digital! age! have! never! experienced! –! not! retro,! not! vintage,! but! historic! and! primal.! After! all,! nature! is! at! the! heart! of! humanity.! A! demonstration!of!this!is!found!in!the!work!of!Plasterer!Shuhei!Hasado!and!his!contribution!to!the! HAPTIC!exhibition.79!The!craftsman!expresses!a!reference!to!history!rather!than!nostalgia,!tackling! the! sensory! receptors! that! 21st! century! living! has! cloaked! in! clothes.! Through! his! textural! application! of! both! moss! and! pine! forest! to! the! Geta! (Japanese! raised! sandals),! the! ‘nature’! of! the! experience! created! by! his! objects! takes! us! on! a! journey! to! a! time! way! before! our! immediate! past,! unfolding! history.! The! haptic! recreation! of! what! humans! would! once! have! felt! beneath! their! feet,! fabricated! as! footwear,! illustrates! the! effects! our! modern! lives! have! had! on! the! small! overlooked! sensory!experiences!at!our!disposal.!This!attitude!is!fitting!to!the!exhibition!and!to!my!exploration! into! the! sensory! design! approach;! Shuhei! Hasado! is! not! reminiscent! for! reminiscence! sake! Q! he! brings!an!awareness!of!what!we!have!lost!but!also!what!we!can!still!achieve!today.!The!simple!act!of! putting!on!socks,!binding!our!feet!in!cloth,!preventing!such!a!basic!and!natural!haptic!experience!is!a! paradigm!of!just!how!simple!it!could!be!to!reQawaken!the!senses;!even!ones!that!we!of!the!digital!age! have!never!experienced!in!full!ever!before.!This!case!study!is!not!a!haptic!design!intended!for!our! everyday! environment;! its! purpose! as! a! source! lies! with! the! demonstration! of! successfully! reQ awakening!and!activating!our!dormant!sensory!receptors.!“It'was'a'wonderful'feeling'of'familiarity'–' like'cuddling'my'old'cat'–'that'came'to'me'through'the'soles'of'my'feet.”!80!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Fig!11:!It!is!so!easy!to!imagine!wearing!Hasado’s!moss!Geta,!as!it!is!an!experience!we! have!all!had.!

' !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! 79!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.96Q99! 80!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.10!

!

!

22!


Walking! on! stones! smoothed! by! generations! of! treading! bare! feet,! Hara! remarks;'“Intuitively,'I'felt' that' the' stones' held' a' great' amount' of' information.' If' I' were' able' to' input' into' my' computer' all' the' information' coming' from' those' stones,' I’m' sure' it' would' freeze.” 81 'This! allegory! explains! that! technology! is! not! capable! of! processing! the! necessary! human! feelings! to! deal! with! what! our! receptors! receive! as! messages! from! our! natural! environment,! suggesting! this! is! not! the! correct! application! of! technology.! So! how! do! we! create! a! world! of! new! human! sensory! experiences! augmented! by! this! advancing! science?! The! investigation! into! the! relationship! between! technology! and!nature!opens!the!discussion.! ! Nature! is! understood! as! “the' embodiment' of' all' that' is' good' and' pure,”82!yet! its! eradication! is! apparent!in!the!future!forecast!of!‘Brave!New!World’!Q!“A'love'of'nature'keeps'no'factory'busy.'It'was' decided'to'abolish'the'love'of'nature.”83'Living! in! an! increasingly! urbanized! world,! we! relate! to! the! physical!distance!between!nature!and!people.!However,!contrasting!with!this,!technology!of!modern! day!has!in!itself!effectively!augmented!natural!and!primal!experiences!in!a!particular!instance.!‘New! technology!triggers!ancient!impulses’!is!the!title!of!an!essay!within!‘Next!Nature’,!and!discusses!the! revisiting! of! deeply! rooted! human! sensibilities.! Secondary! orality! is! the! tendency! of! electronic! media!to!echo!the!cadences!of!earlier!cultures,!and!the!birth!of!social!networking!has!evoked!a!tribal! lifestyle!for!the!Internet!users!of!the!21st!century.!However,!sociologist!Clifford!Nass!argues!that!the! internet!makes!us!less!sociable,!less!efficient!and!less!clever.84!Charlie!Brooker!points!out!the!flaw!of! this!virtual!technology!in!his!introduction!to!Black!Mirror,!explaining!that!this!relationship!we!have! harboured!with!the!Internet!will!leave!us!“no'brain'space'left'to'absorb'anything'longer'than'a'140\ character'tweet.”85'Hara!comments!in!support;! ! I' realized' something' then;' although' today’s' society' is' said' to' be' in' a' state' of' information' overload,' in' fact' it' may' not' be' an' excess.' It’s' just' an' overflow' of' odd' and' fragmented' information'in'the'media.'The'amount'of'information'in'each'fragment'is'in'fact'quite'small.' In'this'slew'of'half\baked'information,'isn’t'the'brain'oppressed?'The'stress'on'the'brain'isn’t' because'of'quantity,'but'because'of'limited'quality.86!! ! It!is!my!belief!that!our!futuristic!view!of!technology!needs!to!breach!the!virtual!world!and!fabricate! itself!physically,!to!be!appreciated!by!the!consumers!of!this!nostalgic!society.!John!the!Savage,!the! character!representing!old!manQkind!in!‘Brave!New!World’,!“portrays'the'world'in'absolute'terms:'on'

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 81!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.109!

82!Mensvoort!and!Grievink,!Next'Nature,!P.79! 83!Huxley,!Brave'New'World,!P.18! 84!Author!unknown,!The'Daily'Telegraph;'Obituaries,!8!November!2013! 85!Brooker,!Black'Mirror'series'synopsis,!www.channel4.com/programmes/blackQmirror/4od! 86!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.109!!

!

23!


one'side'programmed'integration,'with'all'its'negative'consequences,'on'the'other'naturalness'which,' even' though' repressed,' can' be' summoned' up' by' reason.”87!A! ‘back! to! nature’! future! tends! to! the! dystopian! protagonists! reverential! attitude! towards! tradition,! whilst! holding! the! potential! to! encompass! technology! and! its! progression.! I! searched! for! successful! examples! of! design! demonstrating!how!hapticity,!nature!and!technology!can!intertwine!in!the!digital!age!to!produce!a! brand!new!input!for!the!human!sensory!receptors.!! ! Industrial! designer! Naoto! Fukasawa! takes! a! literal! translation! of! the! phrase! ‘the! medium! is! the! message’,!producing!a!range!of!juice!boxes!with!the!look!and!feel!of!the!fruit!that!they!contain.!For! instance,!the!kiwi!drink!is!packaged!within!a!green!and!fuzzy!exterior!while!the!strawberry!juice!has! a!rosyQred!and!bobbled!surface.!The!production!of!these!realistic!textures!is!something!afforded!by! new! materials! and! flocking! technology! (the! application! of! fibers! to! paper),! and! by! supplementing! this! primarily! taste! orientated! experience! with! hapticity,! “these' boxes' bridge' the' sensory' divide' erected' by' cellophane' and' foil.”88!This! case! study! proves! that! our! wellQloved! archetypes! can! be! bettered! with! a! design! process! that! prioritises! the! human! senses! and! explores! the! realms! of! technology.! Continuing! his! concept,! Fukasawa! proposes! a! silken! tofu! designed! carton! for! soymilk! drinkers.!!A!food!not!often!gripped,!a!fleeting!glance!at!the!carton!stirs!the!sensory!receptors.!“In'this' case,'the'materials'are'not'only'external'stimulation'but'also'massive'amounts'of'memories'awakened' by'stimulation.”89'One!cannot!help!but!imagine!squeezing!a!block!of!tofu!as!the!taste!of!soymilk!sits! on!the!tongue.'Using!the!familiar!Tetra!Prisma!Aseptic!packaging,!the!banana!boxes!have!made!their! way! to! supermarket! shelves.! Naoto! Fukasawa’s! redesign! of! this! everyday! experience! displays! his! application! of! technology! as! the! tool! that! it! is,! aiding! his! endeavour! to! augment! a! particular! experience!for!the!senses!and!adding!a!new!dimension!of!hapticity.!

! Fig! 12:! By! adding! the! straw,! there! can! be! no! confusion! as! to! what! these! objects! are.! With! only! the! key! aspects!of!the!natural!fruit!and!tofu,!Fukasawa!communicates!the!language!of!the!object!even!in!box!form.! '

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 87!Varicchio,!Power'of'Images,!P.101!

88!Mensvoort!and!Grievink,!Next'Nature,!P.289! 89!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.94!

!

24!


Replacing!what!is!real!with!what!is!only!digital!is!the!central!frustration!identified!within!dystopian! outlooks,!however,!as!Naoto!Fukasawa!expresses,!recreation!as!opposed!to!simulation!may!indeed! be!a!window!of!opportunity!for!sensory!design.!!“We'must'no'longer'see'ourselves'as'the'anti\natural' species' that' merely' threatens' and' eliminates' nature,' but' rather' as' catalysts' of' evolution.”90'‘Nature' changes'along'with'us’'is! the! subtitle! of! Next! Nature,! and! the! book! reveals! a! story! of! a! young! girl,! who! uses! artificially! pine! scented! hair! product.! On! a! walk! with! her! father,! she! said,! “Daddy,' the' woods' smells' of' shampoo.”91!This! backwards! association! is! afforded! by! the! order! in! which! the! individual! was! exposed! to! the! olfactory! experience,! put! down! to! her! environment.! But! does! it! matter! how! and! in! which! order! our! connections! with! sensory! experiences! are! created?! With! time! comes!change,!and!as!we!progress!further!into!the!digital!age,!the!means!in!which!we!are!presented! sensory!experiences!may!alter.!We!should!not!be!in!fear!of!this;!innovation!creates!a!new!breed!of! sensory!experience!and!provides!additional!means!of!accessing!stimuli!for!the!senses.! ! Next! Nature! explains! ‘authentic! artificial! smell’,! discussing! technology’s! influence! on! the! archetypical!car!freshener.!Traditionally!with!scents!mimicking!nature!such!as!lavender,!pine!forest! and!wood,!the!makers!of!these!artificial!fresheners!have!expanded!their!product!range!with!scents! that!we!have!not!previously!connected!with!olfaction.!! ! New' scents' like' ‘moonshine’,' ‘Mondrian’,' ‘Karma’' or' ‘Nihilism’' are' artificial,' yet' at' the' same' time,'authentic.'They'provide'us'with'an'olfactory'experience'of'phenomena'that'formerly'only' existed'in'the'visual'or'conceptual'realm.92! ! Not!imitations!of!‘the!real!deal’,!these!simple!products!attach!a!smell! to! a! sight,! a! Dutch! painter;! even! a! state! of! mind! –! creating! a! brand! new!and!multisensory!interaction!with!an!everyday!object;!all!thanks! to! advancement! in! technologies! and! a! mindset! to! embrace! it! (Fig.! 13).“Almost'Everything'Artificial'is'Technology”!93!is!the!heading!of!the! leading! chapter! within! Donald! A.! Norman’s! Living! With! Complexity! and!this!can!indeed!be!considered!the!case.!The!opposite!of!artificial! is!natural!and!the!only!thing!that!is!natural!is!nature!itself.!There!is!no! new! nature,! but! there! is! a! next! nature,! created! through! the! combination!of!tradition!and!innovation.!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

90!Mensvoort!and!Grievink,!Next'Nature,!blurb! 91!Mensvoort!and!Grievink,!Next'Nature,!P.129! 92!Mensvoort!and!Grievink,!Next'Nature,!P.118! 93!Norman,!Living'With'Complexity,!P.5!

Fig!13:!The!‘Moonshine’!car! freshener!illustrated!by! Hendrik!Van!Grievnik!of! Next!Nature.! '

!

!

25!


Finding!the!equilibrium!! This!marriage!between!old!and!new!frames!the!principle!of!senseware.!When!sensory!driven!design! is!applied!to!technological!projects!concerning!archetypical!products,!the!new!can!appear!familiar,! demonstrating! the! “marriage' between' old' and' new,' between' ancient' and' alien.” 94 'The! previous! connotations! of! trust! and! reliability! can! be! tethered! to! the! new! generation! of! haptic! objects,! ensuring! their! acceptance! into! society,! with! their! intuitive! nature! of! use! remaining.! Altering! the! relationship!society!has!developed!with!21st!century!technology!may!not!be!achievable!over!night,! but! subtle! changes! in! existing! rituals! and! habitual! behaviour! may! provoke! thought! enough! to! highlight! the! better! and! brighter! world! of! the! technology! and! hapticity! equilibrium,! removing! technology!from!the!bracket!of!dystopia.!Hara!states;! ! Technology' has' no' point' unless' it' subtly' awakens' and' activates' the' senses' of' its' recipients.' Looking'around,'I'notice'on'the'contrary,'people'today'have'been'gradually'developing'thick' skins'because'of'technology.'They'wear'elasticized'or'fleece'clothing,'sit'on'comfortable'sofas' and'eat'potato'chips'while'watching'large'screen'TV’s.95'' ' Watching! television! has! become! a! habit! in! almost! all! modernQday! homes.! It! feeds! us! information,! entertainment! and! provides! a! form! of! company.! However,! the! lifestyle! that! descends! from! this! is! one! that! only! muffles! our! sensory! receptors,! an! idea! exaggerated! within! the! dystopian! societies.! Panasonic’s! contribution! to! the! HAPTIC! exhibition! is! the! Gel! Remote! Control! (fig.! 14).! With! little! focus!on!the!button!placement,!branding!or!form,!this!is!a!unique!example!of!sensory!considerations! in! product! design! for! digital! media.! Although! not! ready! for! commercial! production,! this! object! enhances! the! haptic! experience! of! T.V! watching.! The! anthropomorphic! channel! changer! breathes! softly!when!not!in!use,!its!state!changing!when!a!users!hand!is!sensed;!stiffening!and!glowing.!This! object!gives!a!varying!tactile!experience,!appealing!to!the!senses!even!when!not!in!use.!Next!Nature! comments;! “A'remote'is'the'ideal'metaphor'for'the'disturbance'electronic'distraction'poses'to'life.'If' we'had'to'interrupt'its'life'before'it'could'interrupt'ours,'we'may'think'twice'before'picking'it'up.”96! With!ambition!to!reframe!our!relationship!with!technology,!I!believe!that!the!Panasonic!Gel!Remote! Control! is! the! most! effective! case! study! drawn! from! Hara’s! ‘Awakening! the! Senses’! exhibition.! An! object! not! foreign! to! any! living! room,! the! remote! control! is! a! perfect! example! of! how! easily! senseware! can! be! slipped! into! ‘real! life’! and! a! digitally! influenced! everyday! experience! can! be! enriched! with! hapticity.! Characteristically,! alternative! and! experimental! approaches! to! design! originate! speculatively,! executed! by! independent! designers.! If! brands! and! companies! as! large! as! Panasonic! can! begin! incorporating! senseware! in! their! design! process,! then! the! presence! of! Hara’s! ideology!will!have!a!platform!in!the!design!industry.!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

94!Mensvoort!and!Grievink,!Next'Nature,!P.421! 95!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.145! 96!Mensvoort!and!Grievink,!Next!Nature!website,!http://www.nextnature.net/2008/12/gelQremote!

!

26!


Fig!14:!The!Panasonic!Gel!Remote!Control!seems!like!it!is!alive.! Would!this!make!you!think!twice!about!disturbing!its!sleep?' !

! As! a! product! design! student,! this! exploration! has! prompted! a! selfQreflection! on! my! own! practice.! Personally,! I! haven’t! much! of! a! relationship! with! technology! within! my! studies;! as! a! lover! for! the! ‘handmade’!and!craft,!I!rarely!come!in!contact!with!technological!tools!such!as!computer!modeling,! 3D! printers! or! CNC! machines.! However,! this! year! I! took! part! in! ‘Ceramic! Futures’,! a! project! and! exhibition! hosted! in! Bologna,! Italy. 97 !Supplied! with! the! prompt! of! ‘new! nature’! and! an! encouragement!to!look!into!the!future,!this!project!allowed!me!the!opportunity!to!apply!the!theory! of!prioritizing!human!senses!to!a!design!process.!Provided!with!a!time!frame!projection!of!five!to!ten! years,! the! consideration! of! technology! seemed! crucial.! With! the! aim! to! deepen! the! effects! that! common! objects! have! on! users’! sensory! receptors,! I! used! a! sound! visualizing! programme! and! 3D! computer! modeling! software! to! investigate! the! cymatics! of! several! artifacts! found! on! the! dining! table.! In! the! existing! eating! ritual,! the! eyes,! hands,! mouth,! and! nose! are! all! in! use,! and! the! cutlery! plays! a! main! role! in! the! textural,! haptic! element! of! dining.! With! ceramics! as! my! material! and! the! visualisation!of!sound!(cymatics)!as!my!variable,!I!took!the!senseware!ideology!and!experimented! with!the!archetypes!of!the!knife,!fork,!spoon!and!wine!glass,!with!the!intention!of!highlighting!the! auditory!and!tactile!side!of!dining.!The!application!of!cymatics!varies!from!object!to!object.!For!the! knife,! its! serrations! are! a! direct! representation! of! the! sound! wave! created! when! cutting! food,! intervening!with!the!function!of!the!everyday!item,!whereas!the!spoons’!sound!is!incorporated!as!a! soundscape!sitting!in!the!bowl!Q!to!be!experienced!by!the!lips!of!the!user!as!a!texture,!in!conjunction! with!whatever!food!is!being!consumed.!The!wine!glasses!clinking!together!define!the!entirety!of!the! form! and! produces! two! objects,! as! is! fitting! to! the! nature! of! noise! creation! Q! resulting! in! unique!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 97!Ceramic!Futures;!from'poetry'to'science'fiction,!Cersaie,!Bologna,!Italy.!!

!

!

27!


contours!with!unique!feel.!As!well!as!being!a!durable,!hygienic,!and!beautiful!material,!ceramic!lies! comfortably!within!the!boundaries!of!3D!printing.!The!future!of!this!concept!is!the!ability!to!print!in! ceramic,! allowing! the! cymatics! of! the! objects! to! be! accurately! produced! to! create! this! new! tactile! and! visual! dining! experience.! Without! this! new! technology! of! 3D! printing,! or! access! to! various! technological! software! and! hardware,! I! would! not! have! been! able! to! reach! this! design! outcome! intended! to! awaken! the! senses.! For! me,! this! was! a! big! step! in! appreciation! of! technology! and! this! design!process!extrapolated!a!sound!understanding!of!senseware,!as!I!interpret!it.!Bridging!the!gap! between! ancient! and! alien! is! an! important! role! for! senseware! to! play,! however! I! believe! that! the! redesign! of! existing! products! is! not! the! only! way! forward! for! sensory! design! in! the! digital! age.! Attempting! to! reframe! our! relationship! with! technology,! senseware! can! demonstrate! the! brighter! world!of!the!sensory!and!technology!equilibrium.!Hopefully!when!and!if!this!message!is!successfully! delivered,!the!senses!will!be!at!the!heart!of!all!brand!new!product!designs,!revealing!a!sensory!rich! future!for!the!digital!age.!! !

! Fig!15:!A!product!shot!of!the!cymatic!knife!and!fork!set!from!my! contribution!to!the!‘Ceramic!Futures’!project!and!exhibition.' !

' '

!

28!


Conclusion! As! prognosticated! by! futurologists! and! dystopian! societies,! the! future! defines! technology! as! a! malevolent! notion,! highlighting! our! inactive! and! disengaged! relationship! with! the! sight! orientated! digital!landscape!that!it!dictates.!This!fear!of!a!society!devoid!of!the!physical!has!spurred!an!intense! attachment! to! the! objects! of! our! immediate! past,! and! demonstrates! our! unwavering! love! for! hapticity.! However,! ‘Minority! Report’! concludes! that! there! will! always! be! a! requirement! for! the! physical,! even! in! the! most! technological! of! the! future! projections,! and! it! seems! we! cannot! hold! technology! solely! accountable! for! the! redundancy! of! sensory! experiences.! Hara! and! Thompson! encourage!us!as!society!to!reframe!the!impression!we!hold!of!the!new!science,!and!utilize!it!as!a!tool! to!enhance!the!objects!that!the!projections!hold!it!responsible!for!omitting.!When!technology!lends! itself! to! augmenting! hapticity,! perhaps! we! will! be! more! embracing! of! what! the! digital! age! has! to! offer.!! ! Previously! holding! a! rather! cynical! attitude! towards! technology,! my! own! endeavor! of! senseware! revealed! to! me! the! important! role! that! the! technology! from! the! digital! age! will! play! in! the! era’s! sensory!future.!It!can!be!understood!that!our!relationship!with!technology!has!not!had!a!permanent! affect!on!the!capabilities!of!our!sensory!receptors!Q!Carr!concludes!that!with!a!little!nurturing,!our! senses! can! be! as! active! today! as! ever! before,! and! Hara’s! proposal! is! to! add! to! this! repertoire.! Providing!a!platform!of!focus!for!us!in!the!present!day,!senseware!deters!the!recall!of!the!past,!and! reveals!itself!as!the!window!of!opportunity!to!respond!to!our!fears!of!the!future.!Yesterday!cannot! be! altered,! but! tomorrow! is! ours! to! influence! today.! Shifting! our! definition! of! technology! as! the! power!that!dictates!dystopian!landscapes,!to!the!instrument!that!can!resonate!with!the!senses,!we! can!perceive!the!developing!science!as!an!exciting!addition!to!the!designers’!toolbox.!Amalgamating! the!familiar!with!technology!in!a!design!process!that!prioritises!the!senses,!each!case!study!explored! within! this! dissertation! demonstrates! varying! approaches! taken! by! designers! in! response! to! the! guidelines!of!senseware.!As!a!constantly!developing!entity,!it!can!be!understood!that!technology!can! continue!to!provide!new!possibilities!for!sensory!design!as!we!progress!further!into!the!digital!age,! revealing! the! previously! undiscovered! continent! of! sensory! experiences! described! by! Hara,! and! allowing!us!to!sense!another!reality.!It!has!become!clear;!by!removing!technology!from!the!realms!of! dystopia!and!leaving!nostalgia!behind,!we!can!see!just'“how'broad'the'conceptual'field'becomes'when' the'haptic'aspect'is'in'focus.”98'' ! The! limitations! of! this! study! can! be! identified! in! the! specific! designers! referenced.! Kenya! Hara,! Naoto!Fukasawa!and!Shuhei!Hasado!are!all!Japanese!practitioners,!and!their!design!approaches!do! not!reflect!those!of!western!culture.!This!is!the!reason!why!I!elected!not!to!include!Hara’s!responses!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 98!Hara,!Designing'Design,!P.77!

!

29!


to!the!exhibition!within!this!exploration.!His!aspiration!to!reinstate!the!Japanese!tea!ceremony!into! everyday!life!is!impractical!in!an!age!where!time!is!money!Q!our!lifestyles!have!changed,!and!so!have! the!objects!that!populate!them.!However,!I!do!believe!that!Fukasawa!and!Hasado’s!outcomes!for!the! HAPTIC! exhibition! are! excellent! examples! of! senseware! for! the! digital! age,! demonstrating! an! approach! embraceable! by! designers! worldwide.! This! strong! response! to! Hara’s! ideology! of! senseware!demonstrates!the!effectiveness!of!his!guidelines.!! ! As! a! solely! textual!exploration!of!physical!objects!and!sensory!feedback,!this!dissertation!requires! the! reader! to! imagine! the! senseware! examples! with! only! the! use! of! their! eyes.! This! is! an! obvious! limitation!for!a!study!communicating!multiQsensory!concepts.' ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

!

30!


Bibliography! ! Books! Blumenfeld,!Yorick.!Scanning'the'Future;'20'Eminent'Thinkers'on'the'World'of'Tomorrow.'London:! Thames!and!Hudson!Ltd.,!1999.! ! Bradbury,!Ray.!Fahrenheit'451.'1954.!Reprint,!London:!Harper!Collins!Publishers,!2008.! ! Carr,!Nicholas.!The'Shallows:'how'the'internet'is'changing'the'way'we'think,'read'and'remember.'' New!York:!W.W!Norton!and!Company,!Inc.,!2010.' ! Claeys,!Gregory,!and!Lyman!Tower!Sargent.!The'Utopia'Reader.'New!York:!New!York!University! Press,!1999.! ! Elton,!Ben.!Blind'Faith.!London:!Transworld!Publishers,!2008.! ' Graham,!Gordon.!The'internet;'a'philosophical'inquiry.' London:!Routledge,!1999.! ! Hara,!Kenya.!Designing'Design.'Japan:!Lars!Muller!Publishers,!2007.!! ! Hara,!Kenya.!White.'Japan,!Lars:!Muller!Publishers,!2010.! ! Hayles,!Katherine!N.!How'We'Became'Posthuman:'Virtual'bodies'in'cybernetics,'literature,'and' informatics.'Chicago:!The!University!of!Chicago!Press,!1999.! ! Haverkamp,!Michael.!Synthetic'Design;'A'Handbook'for'a'Multisensory'Approach.!Germany:! Birkhauser!Verlag!GmbH,!2013.! ! Hayles,!Katherine!N.!nanoculture;'implications'of'the'new'technoscience.'Bristol:!Intellect!Books,! 2004.! ! Hoyle,!Geoffrey.!2011:'living'in'the'future.'1972.!Reprint,!Seattle:!Green!Tiger!Press,!2011.! ! Huxley,!Aldous.!Brave'New'World.'1932.!Reprint,!London:!Vintage,!2007.! ! Morton,!A.L.!The'English'Utopia.'London:!Lawrence!and!Wishart!Ltd.,!1978.!

!

31!


! Norman,!Donald!A.!.!Living'with'Complexity.!USA:!The!MIT!Press,!2011.! ! Orwell,!George.!Nineteen'Eighty\Four.!1949.!Reprint,!London:!Penguin!Group,!2013.! !

Procter,!Paul!(ed.),!Longman'New'Universal'Dictionary,!California:!Longman,!1982.! ! Reynolds,!Simon.!Retromania;'pop'culture’s'addiction'to'its'own'past.'London:!Faber!and!Faber!Ltd,! 2011.! ! Rodgers,!Richard.!Technological'Landscapes.' London:!The!Royal!College!of!Art,!1999.! ! Sudjic,!Deyan.!The'Language'of'Things;'how'we'are'seduced'by'the'objects'around'us.'London:! Penguin!Group,!2008.! ' Thompson,!Clive.'Smarter'Than'You'Think;'How'technology'is'changing'our'minds'for'the'better.' London:!Penguin!Press,!2013.! ! Van!Mensvoort,!Koert!and!HendrikQJan!Grievink.!Next'Nature:'Nature'changes'along'with'us.! Barcelona:Actar,!2011.! ! Articles! Author!Unknown,!Clifford'Nass;'Sociologist'who'argued'that'digital'multitasking'makes'us'less' sociable,'less'efficient'and'less'clever.' The!Daily!Telegraph;!Obituaries.! 8!November!2013! ! Fairs,!Marcus,!UK'to'drop'crafts'from'list'of'creative'industries.! Dezeen!magazine,!http://www.dezeen.com/2013/04/30/ukQtoQdropQcraftsQfromQlistQofQcreativeQ industries/! 30!April!2013! ! Gonzatto,!RodrigoQFreese,!and!Van!Amstel,!Frederik!M.!C.,!and!Merkel,!Luiz!Ernesto,!Hartmann,! Timo,!‘The!ideology!of!the!future!in!design!fictions’,!Digital!Creativity,'2013,!Vol.24,!Issue!1,!pp.36Q45! ! !

!

32!


! Krajeski,!Jenna,!Living'in'the'Future.! The!New!Yorker,!http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/books/2010/01/livingQinQtheQ future.html! January!26,!2010! ! Popova,!Maria,!Tip\of\the\Tongue'Syndrome;'Transactive'Memory,'and'How'the'Internet'is'Making'Us' Smarter.! Brain!Pickings,!http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2013/09/13/cliveQthompsonQsmarterQ thanQyouQthink/! Date!unknown! ! Rohrer,!Finlo,!Futurology:'The'tricky'art'of'knowing'what'will'happen'next.! BBC!News!Magazine!http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazineQ12058575! 23!December!2010! ! Varricchio,!Mario,!‘Power!of!Images/Images!of!Power!in!Brave'New'World!and!Nineteen'Eighty\ Four’,!Utopian!Studies,'1999,!Vol.!10,!No.1,!pp.98Q114! ! Journals! Ananthaswamy,!Anil,!Like!Clockwork,!p.33.! 31!August!2013! NewScientist!;!The!Clockwork!Brain;!what!really!makes!your!thoughts!go!round?! No.2932! ! Hodgin,!Robert,!Higher!State!of!Mind,!p.33.! 10!August!2013! NewScientist!;!Not!like!Us,!We!are!creating!minds!that!no!human!can!understand! No.2929! ! Websites! deGuzman,!Charlene!and!Miles!Crawford,!‘I!Forgot!My!Phone’,!video!hosted!on!YouTube! Published!22!August!2013! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OINa46HeWg8! Viewed!01!December!2013! ! !

!

33!


! Microsoft,!‘Microsoft!2020!technology!future!vision’,!video!hosted!on!YouTube! Published!on!2!May!2013!! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2wto6SFl13A! Viewed!5!November!2013! ! MIT!Media!Lab,!‘Tangible!Media!Group.’!Tangible.media.mit.edu! http://tangible.media.mit.edu!(accessed!December!1,!2013)! Viewed!14!October!2013! ! Next!Nature,!‘Nature!Changes!Along!With!Us’,!www.NextNature.net! http://www.nextnature.net/2008/12/gelQremote! Viewed!1!October!2013! ! Exhibitions! Da!Vinci,!Leonardo,!The'Mechanics'of'Man.' Edinburgh,!Palace!of!Holyroodhouse,!the!Queen’s!Gallery.! AugustQNovember!2013! ! Exhibition!Catalogue! Ponzo,!Enrica!and!Aurora!Rapalino!(eds.).!Ceramic'Futures:'From'Poetry'to'Science'Fiction.! Bologna:!Cantelli!Rotoweb!srl,!2013)!! ! Television!Programmes! Brooker,!Charlie.!Black'Mirror:!Season'1,'Episode'2:'Fifteen'Million'Merits! video!hosted!by!4od! 2011!(Channel!4,!11/12/11)! http://www.channel4.com/programmes/blackQmirror/4od#3327867! ! Films! Amenabar,!Alejandro.!Vanilla!Sky.!DVD.!Directed!by!Cameron!Crowe.!! California:!Paramount!Pictures,!2001.! ! Collins,!Suzanne.!The!Hunger!Games.!DVD.!Directed!by!Gary!Ross.!! California:!Lionsgate,!2012.! ! Dick,!Phillip!K.!.!Minority!Report.!DVD.!Directed!by!Steven!Spielberg.!!

!

34!

Senseware: The Future of Sensory Experiences in the Digital Age  

My BDes(hons) dissertation completed in 2014

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you