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eco landscaping for water quality Fall 2011

“A Penn State associated, student project, in conjunction with the Conewago Creek Initiative, designed to identify green infrastructure solutions to manage storm water and to work with interested land owners in the Conewago Creek watershed to develop such solutions for their properties.�

University Park

Department of Landscape Architecture

Harrisburg

Department of Environmental Engineering


table of contents problem identification

1

susquehanna river basin

2

soil considerations 1

31

lower susquehanna sub-basin

3

soil considerations 2

32

conewago creek watershed

4

soil considerations 3

33

technique introduction

5

existing conditions

34

rain garden

6

proposed strategies

35

bioswale

8

4225 Roush Road Elizabethtown, PA

337 Witmer Road Hershey, PA

30

36

check dam

10

soil considerations 1

37

recontouring slopes

12

soil considerations 2

38

vegetated berm

14

soil considerations 3

39

rain barrels + roof gutters

16

existing conditions

40

dense vegetation

18

proposed strategies

41

reduce impervious

20

green roof

22

soil considerations 1

43

vegetation considerations

24

soil considerations 2

44

rain garden plant list

25

soil considerations 3

45

bioswale plant list

26

existing conditions

46

vegetated berm plant list

27

proposed strategies

47

dense vegetation plant list

28

green roof plant list

29

2405 Mill Road Elizabethtown, PA

42


Vision Statement of the Conewago Creek Initiative: “The Conewago Watershed Community has envisioned a future that establishes the restored Conewago and its tributaries as a centerpiece of pride and a treasured asset in a rural landscape. This vision includes a strong agricultural community and productive farmland, community recreation areas and vibrant, well planned communities. Pristine landscapes will be protected while providing sustainable uses of natural resources, clean water and streams, and educational opportunities for generations to come.�


overall problems for the Conewago Creek Watershed

problem identification Community Pride

1

Overall Goals of the Conewago Creek Initiative:

No matter where you are from, there is always this sense of attachment to your roots—this sense of pride in all that made you who you are. It is often difficult to pick out the reasons for this feeling, but you know so strongly that they exist, you are adamant to make sure others have the same opportunity to experience what you did. When moving to a new neighborhood, your mind is searching for “the perfect match.” Whether you know it or not, your heart is doing just the same. You are looking to become part of a community that has that vibe, that has that sense of pride in where they are from.

Strengthening Community Preserving Rural Landscapes and Agriculture Establishing Sustainable Land Use Practices and Principles Enhancing Recreational Opportunities Restoring and Protecting the Natural Resources of the Watershed

There is no question this feeling exists in the Conewago Creek region. It is an area connected to, and by, its surroundings. The natural environment the communities are nestled in is the catalyst in providing that sense of pride. Preserving this asset is an essential goal that everyone in the watershed shares.

Watershed Initiative

• The idea that what you do as an individual can and will affect a much larger system is important to keep in mind.

Resultant Problems

Flooding

Erosion

• Everything and everyone within the watershed boundary are connected.

Water Quality Degradation

• The Conewago Creek watershed alone contains over 52 sq miles of interdependant land. This means 52 sq miles has a direct influence on the Conewago Creek. • Further, whatever happens “upstream” will have impacts along the entire journey to the Atlantic Ocean, not just the neighboring town or the adjacent county. • Effects are seen everywhere between small and large scales--from minor flooding to the loss of aquatic population in the Chesapeake Bay. Watershed scale initiatives are often complex and even daunting, but when a group of people with a common intersest work together, the benefits to the community can be great. The first step is to understand. Realize the impact you have and make an effort to change.

http://www.flickr.com/photos

http://streamfix.com/exampleprojects.php

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/characteristics.html

Resulting from our ever-growing society are overwhelming amounts of impervious surfaces and threatened natural systems essential for balance. • Rain water has less room to infiltrate into the ground. • Runoff begins, picking up speed and pollutants along the way. • More impervious means more runoff, more speed, and more pollutants. • Water starts flooding and/or continues downhill, either towards a storm drain or at someone else. • More debris is gathered during the increasingly fast journey. • Streams and many crucial natural systems get “blown out.”


2

Legend from Cooperstown, NY to Havre de Grace, MD

Susquehanna River Basin S42NHPNdissolveuse

PaStateRoads2011_01_dissolveUSE

ERRISmallWatersheds2009_conewagodissolve subbasin wshedmjr PaState2011_01

6

81

6 6

322 322

Scranton Williamsport

80 80

Interstate highways

322

PA state roads

80 476

76

State College 322

small watersheds

22

Pittsburgh

Conewago Creek watershed

Allentown

Harrisburg 76

70 15

scale 1:1,500,000 25

50

70

75

100 miles

Bethlehem

22

22

99

PA state outline

81 22

Altoona

70

0

Wilkes-Barre

322

Susquehanna River Watershed sub-basins

NORTH

6

15

81

Hershey

Reading Mount Gretna

Elizabethtown Lancaster York 83

76 322

Philadelphia


Legend !

! south-east central PA + small watersheds adjacent to Conewago Creek Watershed !

CitiesUse S42NHPNdissolveuse_clip PaStateRoads2011_01_clip_dissolve

0

Lower Susquehanna Sub-basin 30

60

3

120 Miles

sub_lowr STORMWATER167_1 STORMWATER167_1_clipped2 STORMWATER167_1_clipped PaState2011_01

State College !

Bethlehem

11

Allentown !

! Altoona

80

Interstate highways

322

PA state roads

39

! Hershey 743 !

Harrisburg ! 230

! Elizabethtown

81

small watersheds immediately adjacent to Conewago Creek Watershed

283

15

! Lancaster York !

Conewago Creek watershed

83

PA state outline scale 1:750,000

NORTH 0

15

30

45 miles

76 322

76

Lower Susquehanna Sub-basin

! Reading

422

!


4

headwater draining directly into the Susquehanna River Watershed

Conewago Creek Watershed ! Hershey

Hershey 117

! Mt. Gretna

241

76

743

80

Interstate highways

322

PA state roads

230

Conewago Creek watershed with 50 ft. contours PA state outline

NORTH 0 0

0.5 2 1

scale 1:75,000 4 miles 2 Miles

! Elizabethtown


south-east central PA + small watersheds adjacent to Conewago Creek Watershed

technique introduction

The following series of pages identify and develop nine eco-friendly, green infrastructure storm water solutions that are all viable options for properties within the Conewago Creek watershed. These techniques are options for both residential homes and larger infrastructure corporations. Although not every technique can be used on every location, the idea was to create a wide range of options that community members could chose based off of certain criteria such as soils, costs or problem. These solutions can be used individually or together creating an entire storm water strategy, thus creating almost endless possibilities for stormwater solutions. Each technique described has a center fold with a short description, annotated sketches of the design idea as well as several precedents of completed technique strategies. It is the hope that with this series of techniques that residents may find the right solution for their specific issue, budget and property.

rain garden 6-7

green roof

bioswale

22-23

8-9

reduction of impervious surfaces

check dam

20-21

10-11

dense vegetation as runoff control

recontouring slopes

18-19

12-13

rain barrels + roof gutter system 16-17

vegetated berm 14-15

5


see vegetation list on page

25

6

10% slope maximum

rain garden

infiltration + biorention + education + habitat creation + aesthetic benefits

Rain gardens can play a major role in tackling our societies’ stormwater issues. They are designed to collect runoff from a variety of sources: roads, driveways, roofs, rain gutters, and more. Along the way, the water picks up sediments, debris, and pollutants, all of which can be harming to wildlife on the other end of the storm pipe. Studies show “as much as 70 percent of the pollution in streams, rivers, and lakes has been carried there by stormwater” (asla.org). To help mitigate this issue, as well as collecting large amounts storm water, rain gardens also perform as excellent water purifiers. Soils and plant roots soak up water like sponges, releasing it slowly into the ground as all of the sediments and pollutants are filtered along the way. Microorganisms take care of the leftover materials, converting most of them to harmless wastes which can often be used by the plants. The idea is to allow nature to take care of its own resource, rather than sending it to a storm drain, causing even more problems elsewhere. Sources: “Create a Rain Garden or Swale”: ASLA “Rain Garden”: WI Dept. of Natural Resources “How to Manage Stormwater” City of Portland “What is a Rain Garden”: Rain Garden Network Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007)

-Locating a rain garden at the corner of a road and a driveway collects water from both sources. -This also allows the space to double as a entrance planting, and not just another traditional design. -Placing gardens around trees lends to a cleaner edge. -Incorporating seemlessly into a yard also means less lawn to take care.

-Plant a variety of species that will excel at different times throughout the year. Rain gardens must be placed where water drains. Locations that are often wet or even flooded are good considerations. If done with care and creative thought, a rain garden can double as an attractive space with an overlooking chair or bench.

Vegetation (preferably native plants better suited for the conditions) Ponding Area Mulch Layer (optional)

Growing Medium (local soils and sand)

Geotextile Filter (optional) Gravel Filter (optional) `)

benefits

negatives

cost estimate

maintenance

aesthetic appeal

-manage stormwater -filter pollutants -provide food and shelter for wildlife -little maintenance -looks beautiful -educational tool

-plants need time to establish (up to 2-3 years). -takes adequate maintenance in first couple of years.

Costs $3-$5/sq. foot (excluding labor)

-low maintenance once plants are established. -some weeding and watering will be needed in the first two years. -perhaps some thinning in later years when plants mature.

Can range from medium to high level of aesthetic appeal. It will not look bad, especially with less flooding happening on site. Native plants and other natural features will add to creating a pleasing space.

This is not especially costly. With native plants found locally, it can be even cheaper. You may even qualify for a discount on utility bills.


technique precedents /

rain garden

7

rain garden replaces storm drain Minneapolis

usda.gov

rain garden cleans water before reaching stream

rain garden manages water from road and driveway Maplewood, Minnesota

apwa.net

constructing a rain garden Onondaga County, NY

commonweeder.com

syracuse.com

rain garden adjacent to road Onondaga County, NY

syracuse.com


see vegetation list on page

26

8

existing grass swales, impervious surfaces, downspouts

bioswale

infiltration + bioretention + conveyance + education + walking trail + habitat creation

Bioswales utilize vegetation within gentlysloping channels to mimic ecological riparian channels and convey stormwater. Through the use of native and deep rooted grasses, forbs, and occasionally small trees, bioswales mitigate runoff volumes and rates. Consequently, bioswales reduce the necessity for conventional detention basins, conveyance systems, and stormwater infrastructure. Bioswales are an especially effective stormwater management technique for absorbing pollutants, removing silt, and directing rainwater. Essentially, bioswales filter stormwater and slow its rate before being released into the larger watershed.

design potential

design considerations -An overflow system ensures that the bioswale effectively controls extreme stormwater events without significant damage and flooding -Vegetation should be native, dense, and water tolerant with a strong ability for nutrient uptake. -In poorly-draining soils, subgrade drains may be necessary.

-Placed downhill from vehicles, bioswales collect stormwater to cool the immediate microclimate, provide shade, filter pollutants, and create naturalistic environments. In this way, bioswales also create a visual barrier, hiding parked vehicles.

Before implementing a bioswale, several site variables must be considered: -The soil type (ideally uncompacted) must enable infiltration (preferably greater than 1/2” per half hour); -Slopes should range between 2-6%. -The surface area of the swale should equal approximately 1% of the total area from which it is receiving water. Sources: “Bioswales”: USDA “Bioswales/Vegetated Swales”: Univ. of Florida “Design Manual: Biological Filtration Canal (Bioswale)”: Univ. of California Santa Barbara Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007)

-Utilize existing natural swale patterns -The effectiveness of a bioswale can be enhanced by a check dam (perpendicular to the flow of water), which serves as a physical blockade that slows stormwater rate while also trapping pollutants and suspended solids. (See page 9-10 for more information on check dams). benefits

negatives

cost estimate

maintenance

aesthetic appeal

Bioswales increase on-site groundwater recharge and mimic natural processes. In doing so, they also improve water quality, control erosion/ sediment, provide habitat, and enhance biodiversity.

Unfortunately, bioswales are not effective on slopes that exceed 6%. Additionally, bioswales are physically strenuous and demanding to implement.

A 2004 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers study estimates bioswales at $0.50 per square foot. This cost estimate is highly relative; however, compared to conventional underground piping, bioswales are considerably less expensive.

To avoid a damaged, ineffective, and/or failing bioswale, owners must regularly monitor and maintain erosion, debris accumulation, excessive sedimentation, seasonal plant trimming, and soil infiltration capacity.

Dense vegetation that mimics a riparian corridor ensures that bioswales are far more aesthetically pleasing than conventional stormwater conveyance systems.


technique precedents /

bioswale

bioswale implementation Chagrin Falls, Ohio

bioswales mimic natural riparian buffers

bioswale receiving runoff from roadways and grass lawn Lake County, Illinois

lakecountyil.gov

road-side bioswale St. Paul, Minnesota

9

neighborhoodnotes.com

newgarden. org

capitolregionwd.org


10

most effective within a slope range of 5% - 25%

check dam

promotes erosion reduction/bioretention/infiltration/conveyance/education/planting/reuse Check dams are an effective solution to many stormwater issues. One of those issues is erosion caused by high rates of runoff. Check dams work by ‘catching’ stormwater on its path downhill and holding it temporarily, slowing down the rate. During this holding time, sediments that have been churned up along the fast-paced journey now have a chance to settle, helping to mitigate the issue of sedimentation in our streams. Other large debris will be sifted out of the water by any combination of structures and/or plants during this time as well. Further, depending on the intended purpose, check dams may also be constructed to promote infiltration, reducing the quantity of water continuing past the site. Check dams allow the opportunity to personalize a design that fits the intentions perfectly. They can be built to look very attractive as well as perform any number of duties. No matter what they look like, they will always reduce the rate of runoff and filter sediment. This would make for a wellrounded stormwater technique that is easy to build and is extremely beneficial. Sources: “Check Dams”: MI Dept. of Transportation Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007)

-Design with natural features to make this technique spatially pleasing as well as functional. -Utilize existing natural swale patterns. -The effectiveness of a bioswale can be enhanced by check dams (perpendicular to the flow of water), which serves as a physical blockade that slows stormwater rate while also trapping pollutants and suspended solids.

Grass Filter Strip

-Most check dams work by collecting water as it runs through a swale or on a path of least resistance. This allows the feature to regulate the flow of water by promoting much of it to infiltrate and releasing the rest slowly. Other check dams act more as simple filters.

Stone Filter Strip

Stream

-Features like this perform similar tasks without allowing water to pool.

benefits -reduce rate of runoff -filter pollutants/sediment -reduce flooding -small footprint -cost effective -little maintenance -educational tool

negatives -may collect leaves, flower petals, etc. -can only be used in a draining area of 10 acres or less -cannot be used in streams

cost estimate The only cost is labor. This is not especially costly. You can use recycled/found materials (and plants, if desired).

maintenance

aesthetic appeal

-low maintenance once plants are established (if any). -clean out clogs by leaves and other debris if it occurs.

Can range from medium to high level of aesthetic appeal. It will NOT look bad, especially with less erosion happening on site. Natural-looking walls and plants will create a pleasing space.


technique precedents /

check dam

stone wall with weir allowing steady flow Albemarle County, Virginia

planted swale with check dams to allow water to infiltrate Seattle, Washington

artfulstormwaterdesign.net

John Burroughs School Bioretention System Ladue, Missouri

11

nbwla.com

sustainablesite.com


12

steep slopes + eroded slopes + roadways + non-vegetated slopes

recontouring slopes

stabilization + erosion control + stormwater dispersion Recontouring slopes or “grading” of specific areas can help control and manage stormwater. Recontouring slopes can be defined as adding or removing land/ pavement to lessen the slope/grade of hillsides, stream banks or roadways with the intention of dispersing, slowing, or redirecting water flow. Recontouring also entails fixing or “crowning” roadways which pool and collect water. Recontouring slopes are a viable option to consider when focusing on these listed problems: _erosion of stream banks/hillsides _poor “crowning” on roadways _non-vegetated hillsides _ponding or pooling of water _sheet flow and channeling of water Ignoring these issues can create sediment buildup for streams and rivers, create unwanted ponding of water in low points on properties and allow stormwater to sheet flow eroding soils and damaging land. Recontouring slopes can be a costly investment initially, but can have positive returns for home owners and companies that have erosion or pooling problems. Additionally, townships and boroughs are responsible for maintaining roadways which are not sloped to help prevent stormwater sheet flow.

-Recontouring slopes help prevent erosion along hillsides and stream banks, the diagrams below represent how a erodible slope will continuously see problems if not addressed. The to right, a recontoured slope depicts how stormwater will reduce the water’s impact and help alleviate such issues.

-In addition to hillsides and stream banks, one must also consider built works such as streets and sidewalks. Recontouring slopes of roadways can also help alleviate stormwater issues such as pooling or intense sheet flow. Redirecting water with a crowning effect can direct water towards drains and thus diminish ponding.

-Erosion problems will create sediment or creating ponding issues along streams and creeks.

-Recontouring the slopes will allow for normalized sheet flow, adding vegetation to these newly contoured slopes should also be considered.

benefits -redirects water towards desired locations -disperses stormwater to prevent ponding -slows water flow -helps prevent erosion in areas of high water flow

negatives -cost -need for cut/fill

crowning the road directs water towards drains or off site.

cost estimate

maintenance

aesthetic appeal

-depending on the size of the recontouring area, the cut or fill costs as well as equipment could be pricey -the cost to have a contractor

-after reseeding or replanting maintenance costs will be very low -it will save costs of maintenance in the long run if erosion issues are addressed

-vegetation could be added to recontoured area adding textures and colors -recontouring of roadways will increase curb appeal as

$$$-$$$$


technique precedents /

recontouring slopes

13

before

after

Weedman Park, stream bank recontouring. Little Rock, Arkansas

residential stream bank recontouring. Wind Gap, Pennsylvania

dam removal stream bank recontouring.

Hood River, Oregon

hoodriverswcd.org

school property recontouring. Louisville, Kentucky

delawareandlehigh.org

brokensidewalk.com


see vegetation list on page

27

14

fast moving runoff flow + channelized stormwater flow

vegetated berm

protects high impact sheet flow areas + diverts + redirects + channels + slows down stormwater

A berm is a slightly raised land formation, which can be used to slow down or disperse stormwater. The berm can be planted with grasses or other plants and directs water towards a designated area or rain garden. Vegetated berms can reduce the impact and speed of runoff flow and can diminish erosion of properties and stream banks. Additionally, a berm can redirect water to avoid pooling and collection of stormwater. Vegetation planted on the berm will strengthen the land mound and can also contribute to other stormwater techniques such as infiltration. Vegetation will also add textures and can be utilized as a visual screen and noise reducer.

-Vegetated berms can help distribute water, dispersing and reducing pooling and ponding. Larger vegetated berms can additionally reduce the impact of runoff flow and directing it to a designated area.

Berms are a cost effective way to redirect and slow down stormwater runoff, but should be used in addition to other techniques. This system will not remove water, just displace and redirect. The vegetated berm is easily constructed and requires little maintenance. Sources: “Water and Sediment Control Basins”: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. “How to Reduce Stormwater Runoff at Your Home”: WikiHow. Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007)

-Vegetated berms can provide screening with larger plants or can set up new views, highlighting various portions of one’s property. Berms introduce very little new soil and are easily maintained after installation. benefits

negatives

cost estimate

maintenance

aesthetic appeal

-runoff flows are now buffered ,reducing erosiveness downstream -sediment settles out of runoff flow, decreasing pollution -slows down sheet flow, lessens water’s impact -redirects water flow

-does not infiltrate/retain water just displaces it -costs of cut/fill/vegetation -erosion (if high impact) -berms are vulnerable to rodent damage

-the cost of a vegetated berm depends on the size and number of plants -viable and cost effective solution if the impact area is small

-after installation, little maintenance is needed for continual upkeep of the vegetated berm -if a planting bed is installed seasonal maintenance will be required

-adding vegetation as well as a diverting barrier will bring new textures, colors, and elements to a property -the subtle mounding of a berm can also highlight and create new views and screen areas of a residence

$-$$$


technique precedents /

vegetated berm

commercial/educational vegetated berm systems. Beaver Creek, Oregon

15

wildgingerfarm.com

residential vegetated berm. Little Canada, Minnesota

residential vegetated berm.

Louisville, Kentucky

garden-share.com

agro-field separation vegetated berm. Gilroy, California

agwaterquality.org


16

abundant roof area + irrigation needs + grey water use

rain barrels + roof gutter system harvesting + reuse + education + conveyance

Stormwater harvesting is comprised of the collection (usually via rooftops) and storage (usually within catchment tanks) of rain water. One harvesting method is rain barrels, which are typically 55-gallon drums that are connected directly to a gutter/downspout system and used for small-scale non-drinking uses. The collection and storage of rainwater has two primary benefits: conserves potable water and thus reduces cost. This means that users need not waste water on activities (i.e., car washing) that do not require treated water. Harvested rainwater is especially advantageous regarding irrigation, as captured rainwater consists of no chlorides, zero hardness, and very few salts. Rain barrels even slow down the conveyance of water when it leaves the downspout--this ensures that stormwater does not pick up as many pollutants before entering waterways and the downstream watershed. Sources: “How to Manage Stormwater: Rain Barrels,” Portland, Oregon Environmental Services “Rain Barrel Guide” “Rainwater Harvesting,” City of Portland Oregon Bureau of Planning and Sustainability

Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007)

design considerations -Rain barrels should be installed under a downspout nearest to where the harvested water will use the water within the property (i.e., garden) -The overflow should drain towards existing discharge swales--make certain that the overflow does not drain to existing structures and buildings. -Rain barrels are typically implemented on the ground level and immediately adjacent to buildings

estimating annual water supply via rain barrels...

sq. feet collection area

X

rainfall (in./yr.)

÷

=

cubic feet

12 (in./ft.)

of water per year

...

cubic feet of water per year

X

7.43 (gallons per cubic foot)

=

gallons per year!

...

1000

X

for example

41

... ÷

=

3417

X

7.43

12

=

25,386

gallons per year!

benefits

negatives

cost estimate

maintenance

aesthetic appeal

Harvested stormwater conserves non-potable water, resulting in significant savings regarding well/municipal water usage.

Rain barrels do not handle severe storms well. If not constructed properly, stored water may attract mosquitoes (although this can be mitigated by a screen/filter that also prevents organic matter and shingle residue)

Constructing a rain barrel is a DIY project with an especially low startup cost. Postconstruction, users experience financial savings from their reduced use of treated municipal/well water

The screen/filter must be cleaned regularly. The barrel must be emptied before winter months. During severe storms, the homeowner must monitor water level to avoid overflow. Lastly, gutters must be cleaned at least twice annually

While rain barrels are not especially visually appealing, they may be screened relatively easily behind walls.


technique precedents /

rain barrels + roof gutter system

multi-rain barrel overflow system Portland, Oregon

harvested rooftop rainwater directed into planter box Portland, Oregon

wooden rail barrel Portland, Oregon

portlandguttercleaning.net

residential rain barrel hidden behind vegetation Crow Wing, Minnesota

17

neighborhoodnotes.com

communitecture.net

dropstopabsorb.org


see vegetation list on page

28

18

turf lawns + impervious surfaces + stream banks + erosion prone areas

dense vegetation as runoff control protects areas of erosion + turf areas + open lawns and fields + non-vegetated slopes

Reintroducing vegetation and native plants to a landscape can help remediate and control stormwater runoff. Adding dense vegetation can help remove sheet flow, reduce erosion and help infiltration. Planting not only adds beauty and value to your property, but also helps by reducing the amount and speed of runoff. Ground covers are one of the best erosion controls and include any plant material that covers the ground surface so the soil cannot be seen from above and rain does not strike directly upon it.

-Adding new vegetation will take time, but once naturalized, the successional growth will assist stormwater problem zones. -Leaf coverage, deep root systems and denser vegetation will help prevent stormwater issues by slowing the water down and dispersing it. -The diagram below visualizes how dense vegetation reduces stormwater in several ways. The percentages show how much stormwater is removed via evapotranspiration, surface runoff and shallow infiltration. The diagram also compares the numbers of largely vegetated to a more urban setting.

Naturalizing areas of turf fields and lawns with native vegetation can add new animal habitat, provide new colors and textures and has the potential to cut down on maintenance costs for home owners. The process of adding vegetation includes reintroducing native grasses, shrubs and trees which allow the area to revert back to a more naturalized state. This regrowth process will then slow down stormwater (with new root systems and denser vegetation clusters), and remove and cleanse sheet flow (infiltrating and evapotranspiration). Sources: “Reducing Erosion and Runoff�: Virginia Tech. Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007)

benefits -allows for infiltration and evapotranspiration -requires little maintenance -vegetation adds more surface area (leafs, bark, roots) thus slows down and makes areas less erodible

negatives -cost of new vegetation -time for regrowth to occur

cost estimate

maintenance

aesthetic appeal

-cost estimate depends on the amount and type of regrowth vegetation a resident is seeking. -costs will be high, but maintenance of turf will no longer be necessary, saving long term

-low maintenance costs in the long term, initial planting and upkeep will be required

-adding new vegetation will add new habitat, colors, and textures to a property -this technique will enhance any turf grass field or lawn


technique precedents /

dense vegetation as runoff control

early successional forest regrowth. Quabbin Reservoir, Massachusetts

dense vegetation in residential backyard. Duffy Hill, Vermont

dense vegetation added to urban detention basin.

Baton Rouge, Louisiana

abbey-associates.com

dense vegetation in residential front yard. Glen Ellyn, Illinois

19

farmfieldforest.org

homestead.org

artandlindaswildflowers.com


20

all impervious slopes increase the rate of runoff

reduction of impervious surfaces

promotes infiltration/retention/detention/conveyance/biorention/education/walking trail/planting/harvesting+reuse The amount of impervious surfaces in our communities is the biggest problem creator related to stormwater. This includes roads, parking lots, building infrastructure, driveways, sidewalks, patios, and more. Water cannot permeate through these surfaces. So, when it rains, all the stormwater that hits one of those impervious surfaces runs off somewhere else. When large quantities of water are not permitted to soak into the ground, they begin to collect and flow at higher rates of speed. This causes unnaturally large amounts of water to enter our streams, resulting in erosion that destroys ecosystems and displaces wildlife. Also, the water reaching the streams is contaminated with debris, sediments, and pollutants like car oil and engine fluids. This contributes to even further damage of our streams- damage that cannot be fixed immediately. By reducing the amount of impervious surfaces, we can promote the infiltration of water back into the ground, rather than relying so heavily on storm drains. This will effectively recharge groundwater supplies as well as minimize the impacts on our streams. Sources: “Reduce Impervious Surfaces”: San Mateo County “Playful and Permeable Paving Patterns”: LA Times Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007)

-Much of our communities are now impervious, leaving stormwater little room to infiltrate back into the ground. -Building roofs, roads, and driveways make up a large portion of the overall percentage of impervious surfaces. -By implementing pervious paving projects where feasible, such as a driveway, stormwater runoff quantities could drop by nearly 30% from the impervious paved conditions. -Water hitting the new pervious surface will no longer contribute to runoff, soaking into the ground on site. This will help to mitigate the problems of erosion, flooding, and pollution to name a few.

Overspill through kerb into planted area Pavers (gaps filled with gravel or sand) Sand Base Open Graded Base Material (course aggregate) Existing Sub Base

benefits

negatives

cost estimate

maintenance

aesthetic appeal

-reduce quantity and rate of runoff -reduce flooding -reduce pollution and sedimentation of waterways -reduce erosion -recharge groundwater

-against what many are “used to seeing”

The only cost is labor, unless completed yourself.

-low maintenance-the vegetation between pavers may need to be trimmed/ pruned -non-vegetative cracks between pavement may need to be cleaned to ensure drainage

Most people would agree it adds high aesthetic appeal. If done properly, it will not look any worse than the existing condition.


technique precedents /

reduction of impervious surfaces

21

permeable flagstone and grass driveway

permeable rock, brick, and stone pathway

latimes.com

permeable concrete

freshdirt.sunset.net

debraprinzing.com

on-street bioretention Portland, Oregon

artfulrainwaterdesign.net


see vegetation list on page

29

22

extensive roof coverage

green roof education + planting

Green roofs consist of soil, compost, and vegetation that at least partially cover a building’s roof. Two green roof types are available. Intensive green roofs create a rooftop oasis for human use. Trees, shrubs, and vegetation with deeper root depth requirements are present; soil is at least 6” deep. They require a relatively high degree of engineering and structural support; weighing between 80-150 pounds per square foot, slopes are not to exceed 3%. Contrastingly, extensive green roofs consist of mosses, sedums, grasses, and meadow flowers atop 2-3” of soil. Extensive roofs are designed to be self-sustaining, free of humans, and relatively easy to implement (minimal additional structural support, if any, is required). Extensive green roofs can be constructed on slopes no greater than 33% and weigh approximately 15/50 pounds per square foot. Because of their lower initial cost and relative ease of installation, extensive green roofs are more common in residential/private settings. Green roofs last at least 2-3x longer than conventional roofs, increase property values, and provide abundant ecological benefits. Sources: “ASLA Green Roof,” American Society of Landscape Architects “Roof meadow” “What is a Green Roof?” How Stuff Works Sketches: Clayden, Andy and Nigel Dunnett, Rain Gardens, (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2007)

design notes -Green roofs replace impervious roofs with plants that absorb rainwater and reduce runoff rates. In this way, vegetation and soil serves as a sponge that minimizes water entering stormwater infrastructure. Additionally, green roofs can retain 75% of a one-inch rainfall. -Green roofs provide outstanding ecological benefits because they replace traditional building footprints with landscape systems that mimic natural habitats. Additionally, they create oxygen, remove air pollutants, and encourage evapotranspiration. -Because of thick organic matter atop structural support, green roofs can reduce heating and cooling energy costs by at least 10-15%. -Especially in dense urban environments, green roofs reduce temperatures by as much as 32°.

growing medium filter mat drainage layer root barrier waterproof layer roof benefits

negatives

cost estimate

maintenance

aesthetic appeal

Green roofs provide sustainable stormwater management, amenity spaces for human use, increased energy efficiency, and ecologically-sensitive design.

Depending on roof type, building structure, and plants, green roofs are initially expensive. Initial costs are mitigated by significant returns on investment (~10% heating/ cooling savings) and increased property values.

Green roofs cost approximately $10-20 per square foot; comparatively, conventional roofs cost approximately $510 per square foot.

Extensive roofs require maintenance perhaps once a year; intensive roofs require fairly regular maintenance for pruning, irrigation, weeding, and applying fertilizer.

Replacing shingles, aluminum, and/or asphalt, green roofs are an especially significant upgrade regarding visual quality. Additionally, intensive green roofs provide spaces for human use and peaceful retreats.


technique precedents /

residential green roof Tacoma, Washington

residential green roof Norway

American Society of Landscape Architects Headquarters Washington, D.C.

ASLA.org

residential green roof Mount Baker, Washington

green roof

23

greenroofs.com

architecturehomedesigns.com

ecofriends.com


24

vegetation considerations

introduction to vegetation uses/why native and conservation planting?

Integrated as a part of numerous techniques, the addition and usage of native vegetation is a key component towards solving and remediating stormwater conflict zones. Vegetation can be used to address areas with problems such as erosion, poor soils, steep slopes, or poor drainage and has the potential to disperse, cleanse, and slow down stormwater. In addition to aiding, vegetation can also teach, reduce various home owner’s costs, and create native wildlife habitat. Several plant lists have been created for each specific technique which activate vegetation. These lists highlight specific Chesapeake Bay Watershed native plants. The techniques which utilize vegetation are as follows:

6

rain garden

8

bioswale

14

vegetated berm

18

dense vegetation as runoff control

22

green roof

Why Native + Conservation Planting? Using native vegetation (plants which naturally occur in the region in which they evolved) are beneficial for stormwater control as well as several other factors such as wildlife and maintenance issues. The plant lists provided only include native plants. Native plants have stronger root systems, are less susceptible to diseases and provide natural habitat for local animals. Vegetation List Break Down Each plant list will be categorized into several plant variations: -Ferns -Grasses and Grasslike Plants -Herbaceous Plants -Shrubs -Trees -Vines Each plant will have useful information: -Characteristics -Conditions -Habitat benefits -erosion control -remediation -channel/bioswale stabilizer -evapotranspiration -stormwater collection -habitat renewal -lawn maintenance

technique type: plant type:

characteristics:

habitat

grasses and grasslike plants herbaceous plants shrubs trees vines

Citation

negatives -costs -maintenance -labor (seasonally)

conditions:

ferns

cost estimate

maintenance

aesthetic appeal

-depending on the size of the planting area and the amount of vegetation to be installed costs could range from:

-depending on the size of the planting area and the amount of vegetation to be installed maintenance could be a factor. Planting vegetation will reduce other maintenance costs such as mowing the lawn.

-adding natural areas of vegetation will provide new textures and colors to a property. Additionally, plants will welcome new animals and provide aesthetic seasonal aspects.

$ to $$$$


vegetation list /

rain garden

25

technique type: rain garden plant type:

characteristics:

conditions:

habitat

ferns Athyrium filix‐femina (northern lady fern) Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern) Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern) Thelypteris noveboracensis  (New York fern) Woodwardia areolata (netted chain fern)

Height/Fruit 1'‐3' / no fruit 1'‐3.5' / june to oct. 2'‐5' / apr. to may 1'‐2.5' / june to sept. .5'‐2' / july to oct.

Sun+Shade/Moisture/Soil Types/Soil pH partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 4.5‐7 full sun to full shade / moist to wet / C,L,S  full sun to full shade / moist to wet / C,L / 4.5‐7 partial sun+shade to full shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 4‐7 partial sun+shade to full shade / moist to wet

banks, open woods, thickets, slopes, rocky, ledges, swamps fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, meadows, swamps, woods woods, marshes, bogs, streamsides forested wetlands, dry to damp woods, thickets bogs, swamps, woods

grasses and grasslike plants Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint reedgrass) Carex stricta (tussock sedge) Leersia oryzoides (rice cutgrass)

1.5'‐5' / june to aug. 1'‐3.5' / may to aug.  5' / june to oct. 

full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L / 4.5‐8 full sun / moist to wet / C,L,S / 3.5‐7 full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 5.1‐8.8

meadows, bogs, thickets fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, shrub swamps, forested wetlands, swales, fields fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, meadows, ditches

herbaceous plants Arisaema triphyllum (Jack‐in‐the‐pulpit) Chelone glabra (turtlehead) Gentiana clausa (closed gentian) Saxifraga pensylvanica (eastern swamp saxifrage) Spiranthes cernua (nodding ladies’ tresses)

1'‐3' / mar. to june (p,g) 1.5'‐6.5' / july to oct. (w) 1'‐3.5' / aug. to oct. (b) 1'‐3' / apr. to june (w,g) .5'‐2' / july to nov. (w)

partial sun+shade to full shade / moist to wet / L,S / 4.8‐7 full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S partial sun+shade / moist to wet / L / 5.8‐7.2 full sun to partial sun+shade / wet / C,L,S full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 4.5‐6.5

woods, bogs, swamps woods, streambanks, swamps, thickets moist open woods, streambanks, meadows wet woods, swamps meadows, open woods, roadsides, bogs

shrubs Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush) Hypericum densiflorum (St. John’s wort) Kalmia angustifolia (sheep laurel) Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea) Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush)

6'‐12' / july to aug. (w,p) 1.5'‐6' / july to sept. (y) 2'‐3' / may to july (w,p,r) 6.5'‐10' / may to aug. (w,p) 3'‐6' / july to sept. (p)

partial sun+shade to full shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 4.5‐6.5 full sun / dry to wet / C,L,S / 5.5‐7 full sun to full shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 4.5‐6 full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 4‐6 full sun / moist to wet / C,L,S / 5.1‐6

forested wetlands, shrub swamps, bogs, woods, floodplains, lakeshores seepage slopes, pond edges, wet meadows, streambanks, ditches pastures, barrens, wooded streams, borders, bogs, thickets wet floodplain woods, streambanks, hillside, ditch banks, clearings meadows, fields, bogs, swamps, pond edges, marshes, swales

trees Acer rubrum (red maple) Chamaecyparis thyoides (atlantic white cedar) Nyssa sylvatica (black gum)

40'‐100' / mar. to apr. 75' / mar. to apr. (g) 30'‐75' / apr. to june (g,w)

full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 5.4‐7.1 partial sun+shade to full shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 4.5‐5.5 full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to wet / L / 4.5‐6

swamps, uplands, rocky hillsides, dunes freshwater swamps, woods forested seasonal wetlands, swamp borders, upland woods, seasonally flooded

vines Bignonia capreolata (crossvine)

20'‐35' / may to june (o,r)

full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to wet / C,L,S / 6.1‐8.5

swampy forests, calcareous river banks, cliffs, dry open woods, bogs

Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed . U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Plants for Wet Meadows, Bogs or Bog Gardens


26

bioswale / vegetation list

technique type: bioswale plant type:

characteristics:

conditions:

habitat

ferns Athyrium filix‐femina (northern lady fern) Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern) Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern) Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York fern) Woodwardia areolata (netted chain fern)

Height/Fruit 1'‐3' / no fruit 1'‐3.5' / june to oct. .5'‐2' / june to oct. 1'‐2.5' / june to sept. .5'‐2' / july to oct.

Sun+Shade/Moisture/Soil Types/Soil pH partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 4.5‐7 full sun to full shade / moist to wet / C,L,S partial sun+shade to full shade / moist / L,S / 4.5‐7 partial sun+shade to full shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 4‐7 partial sun+shade to full shade / moist to wet /

banks, open woods, thickets, slopes, rocky, ledges, swamps fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, meadows, swamps, woods woods, thickets, rocky slopes forested wetlands, dry to damp woods, thickets bogs, swamps, woods

grasses and grasslike plants Andropogon geradii (big bluestem) Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint reedgrass) Dichanthelium clandestinum (deer‐tounge) Leersia oryzoides (rice cutgrass) Tripsacum dactyloides (gama grass)

2'‐6.5' / june to sept.  1.5'‐5' / june to aug. 2'‐5' / may to oct.  5' / june to oct.  6'‐10' / june to oct. 

full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to wet / C,L,S / 6‐7.5 full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L / 4.5‐8 full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to wet / C,L,S / 4‐7.5 full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 5.1‐8.8 full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L / 5.7‐7.5

dry or wet open woods, prairies, swales, shores, dry open areas meadows, bogs, thickets moist woods, roadsides fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, meadows, ditches swales, fields, forest, edges, shores

herbaceous plants Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) Gentiana clausa (closed gentian, bottle gentian) Mertensia virginica (Virginia bluebells) Mimulus ringens (monkeyflower) Sisyrinchium atlanticum (eastern blue‐eyed grass)

4'‐6' / may to june (p,r) 1'‐3.5' / aug.‐oct. (b) 1'‐2.5' / mar. to june (p,b) 1'‐3' / june to oct. (b) .5'‐2.5' / may to july (b,v)

full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L / 5‐8 partial sun+shade / moist to wet / L / 5.8‐7.2 partial sun+shade to full shade / moist to wet / C,L / 4.5‐8 full sun to partial sun+shade / wet / L full sun / moist to wet

fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, meadows, shrub swamps, woods, ditches moist open woods, streambanks, meadows rich wooded slopes, flood plains open swamps, meadows marshes, meadows, low woods

shrubs Cornus amomum (silky dogwood) Ilex verticillata (winterberry) Lyonia ligustrina (male‐berry) Rosa palustris (swamp rose) Viburnum dentatum (southern arrowwood)

6'‐12' / may to june (w) 6'‐12' / june to july (w) 6'‐12' / may to july (w) 8' / june to aug. (p) 10'‐15' / may to june (b)

full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 6.1‐7.5 full sun to full shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 4.5‐6.5 partial sun+shade to full shade / moist to wet / L,S / 4.5‐6.5 full sun to full shade / moist to wet / C,L / 4‐7 full sun to full shade / dry to wet / L,S / 5.1‐6.5

forested wetlands, floodplains, shrub wetlands, stream and pond banks fresh tidal swamps, shrub swamps, forested wetlands woods, wooded slopes, floodplain, forests fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, forested wetlands, shrub swamps, streambanks swamps, wet woods, bogs, floodplain, forests, streambanks

trees Acer negundo (box elder) Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam) Fraxinus pennsylvanica (swamp ash) Magnolia virginiana (sweetbay magnolia) Salix nigra (black willow)

30'‐60' / apr. to may (y) 13'‐40' / apr. to may (r,y) 50'‐75' / apr. to may (p) 12'‐30' / may to july (w) 25'‐50' / mar. to apr. (y,g)

full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 5.2‐7 partial sun+shade to full shade / moist / L,S / 4‐7.4 full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to wet / C,L,S / 5‐8 full sun to full shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 5‐6.5 full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 6‐8

along rivers, streams, ponds, seasonally flooded areas river margins, bottomlands, swamps tidal and non tidal freshwater forested wetlands, seasonally to regularly flooded forested wetlands, seeps, stream and pond edges marshes, and swamps, forested wetlands, floodplains, seasonally flooded 

vines Mikania scandens (climbing hempvine) Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper) Wisteria frutescens (Atlantic wisteria)

june to oct. (p,w) 25'‐35' / june to aug. (g,w) apr. to aug. (p)

partial to sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L / 5.7‐7.5 full sun to full shade / dry to wet / C,L,S full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 4‐7

swamps, thickets fence rows, forest edges, open woods, ravines, bluffs, cliffs forest and forested swamp edges, streambanks, thickets

Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed . U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Plants for Freshwater Wetlands and Other Wet Sites


vegetation list /

vegetated berm

27

technique type: vegetated berm plant type:

characteristics:

conditions:

habitat

grasses and grasslike plants Ammophila breviligulata (dunegrass) Dichanthelium clandestinum (deer‐tongue) Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye) Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)

Height/Fruit 1.5'‐3.5' / july to sept. 2'‐5' / may to oct.  2'‐6.5' / june to oct.  3'‐6' / july to oct.  1.5'‐4' / aug. to oct. 

Sun+Shade/Moisture/Soil Types/Soil pH full sun / dry / L,S / 5.8‐7.8 full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to wet / C,L,S / 4‐7.5 full sun / dry to moist / C,L,S / 5‐7.9 full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to wet / C,L,S / 4.5‐8 full sun / dry / L,S 

grasslands, shrub lands moist woods, roadsides roadsides fresh brackish tidal and nontidal marshes, wet meadows, open woods, prairies open woods, pinelands, clearings

herbaceous plants Baptisia tinctoria (yellow wild indigo) Lespedeza capitata (round‐head bush clover) Chamaecrista (Cassia) fasciculata (partridge pea)

1'‐3' / may to sept. (y) 2'‐6' / july to sept. (y,w) .5'‐3' / july to sept. (y)

full sun to partial sun+shade / dry / L,S / 5.8‐7 full sun / dry / L,S full sun / dry / S 

open woods, clearings fields, thin woods upland meadows, fields, streambanks

shrubs Comptonia peregrina (sweetfern) Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood) Hypericum densiflorum (St. John’s wort) Rhus aromatica (fragrant sumac) Viburnum acerifolium (maple‐leaved arrowwood)

3' / apr. to may (y,g) 6'‐12' may to june (w) 1.5'‐6' / july to sept. (y) 6' / mar. to may (g,y) 3'‐6' / jun (w,p)

full sun to partial sun+shade / dry / L,S / 4‐7 full sun to full shade / dry to moist / C,L / 6.1‐8.5 full sun / dry to wet / C,L,S / 5.5‐7 full sun to partial sun+shade / dry / L,S / 6.1‐8.5 full sun to full shade / dry to moist / C,L / 5.1‐6

hillsides, cliffs, fields open wooded floodplains, forested wetlands, shrub swamps, rocky woods bogs, seepage slopes, pond edges, wet meadows, streambanks upland woods, oak barrens, fields floodplains, forests, dry wooded slopes, outcrops, wooded ravines

trees Amelanchier arborea (shadbush) Celtis occidentalis (common hackberry) Nyssa sylvatica (black gum) Juglans nigra (black walnut) Quercus coccinea (red oak)

15'‐25' / mar. to may (w) 40'‐100' / apr. to may (y) 30'‐75' / apr. to june (g,w) 70'‐90' / may to june (y,g) 40'‐75' / may to june (y,g)

partial sun+shade to full shade / dry to moist / L,S / 5.5‐7.5 full sun to full shade / dry to wet / C,L,S / 6‐7.8 full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to wet / L,S / 4.5‐6 full sun / moist / L / 5.5‐8 full sun / dry to moist / L,S / 4.5‐6.9

wooded river banks, swamps, slopes drainage basins, floodplains, wooded slopes, bordering streams, windbreaks forested seasonal wetlands, swamp borders, upland woods, seasonally flooded wood, slopes, streamsides dry uplands, slopes

vines Campsis radicans (trumpet vine) Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet) Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)

20'‐35' / july to sept. (o) 6'‐20' / may to june (g) june to sept. (p,w) 25'‐35' / june to aug. (g,w)

full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to moist / C,L,S / 6.1‐7.5 full sun to full shade / dry to moist / C,L,S / 6.1‐7.5 full sun / dry to moist / C,L,S full sun to full shade / dry to wet / C,L,S

moist woods, fence rows, roadside, thickets, floodplain, streambanks, fields roadsides, forest edges, fence rows, pastures, hedges fields, rocky slopes, thin woods, roadsides, fencerows, thickets fence rows, forest edges, open woods, ravines, bluffs, cliffs

Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed . U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Plants That Provide Stabilization on Dry, Sunny Slopes or Hillsides


28

dense vegetation as runoff control / vegetation list

technique type: dense vegetation as runoff control plant type:

characteristics:

conditions:

habitat

ferns Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern) Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern) Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern)

Height/Fruit 1'‐3.5' / june to oct. 2'‐5' / apr. to may 2'‐3' / june to oct. 

Sun+Shade/Moisture/Soil Types/Soil pH full sun to full shade / moist to wet / C,L,S  full sun to full shade / moist to wet / C,L / 4.5‐7 full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S

fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, meadows, swamps, woods woods, marshes, bogs, streamsides swamps, bogs, fields, thickets, fresh marshes, wooded streambank

grasses and grasslike plants Andropogon geradii (big bluestem) Carex glaucodea (blue wood sedge) Leersia oryzoides (rice cutgrass) Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) Tripsacum dactyloides (gama grass)

2'‐6.5' / june to sept.  .5'‐2' / may to july (b,r) 5' / june to oct.  3'‐6' / july to oct.  6'‐10' / june to oct. 

full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to wet / C,L,S / 6‐7.5 partial sun+shade to full shade / dry to moist full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 5.1‐8.8 full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to wet / C,L,S / 4.5‐8 full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L / 5.6‐7.5

dry or wet open woods, prairies, swales, shores, dry open areas moist to dry woods and fields fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, meadows, ditches, muddy shores fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, wet meadows, open woods, prairies swales, fields, forest edges, shores

herbaceous plants Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) Doellingeria umbellata var. umbellata (flat‐top white aster) Packera aurea (Senecio aureus) (golden ragwort) Scutellaria integrifolia (helmet flower) Verbena hastata (blue vervain)

4'‐6' / may to june (p,r) 1'‐7.5' / aug. to oct. (w) .5'‐2.5' / apr. to aug. (y) 1'‐2.5' / may to july (b, p, w) 1.5'‐5' / june to oct. (b,p)

full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L / 5‐8 full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / L,S  full sun to full shade / moist to wet / L full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to wet full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L 

fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, meadows, shrub swamps, woods, ditches open areas, woods moist fields, woods, floodplains, roadsides swamps, bogs, moist woods, fields meadows, swamps, floodplains, ditches, roadsides

shrubs Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush) Ilex verticillata (winterberry) Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea) Rosa palustris (swamp rose) Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush)

6'‐12' / july to aug. (w) 6'‐12' / june to july (w) 6.5'‐10' / may to aug. (w,p) 8' / june to aug. (p) 3'‐6' / july‐sept. (p,v)

full sun to full shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 6.1‐8.5 full sun to full shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 4.5‐6.5 full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 4‐6 full sun to full shade / moist to wet / C,L / 4‐7 full sun / moist to wet / C,L,S / 5.1‐6

fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, shrub swamps, forested wetlands, water edges fresh tidal swamps, shrub swamps, forested wetlands wet floodplain, woods, streambanks, swamp edges, hillside bogs, ditches fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, forested wetlands, shrub swamp, streams meadows, fields, bogs, swamps, lake edges, marshes, swales

trees Acer rubrum (red maple) Cercis canadensis (eastern redbud) Ilex opaca (American holly) Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree) Magnolia virginiana (sweetbay magnolia)

40'‐100' / mar. to apr. 20'‐35' / apr. to may (p,v) 15'‐50' / may to june (w) 70'‐100' / june (g,y) 12'‐30' / may to july (w)

full sun to partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 5.4‐7.1 partial sun+shade to full shade / dry to moist / L,S / 4.5‐7.5 full sun to full shade / moist / C,L / 4‐7.5 full sun to partial sun+shade / moist / L,S / 4.5‐6.5 full sun to full shade / moist to wet / C,L,S / 5‐6.5

swamps, uplands, rocky hillsides, dunes streambanks woods woods, mountain coves, lower slopes forested wetlands, stream and pond edges, sandy woods

vines Campsis radicans (trumpet vine) Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet) Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)

20'‐35' / july to sept. (o) 6'‐20' / may to june (g) june to sept. (p,w) 25'‐35' / june to aug. (g,w)

full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to moist / C,L,S / 6.1‐7.5 full sun to full shade / dry to moist / C,L,S / 6.1‐7.5 full sun / dry to moist / C,L,S full sun to full shade / dry to wet / C,L,S

moist woods, fence rows, roadside, thickets, floodplain, streambanks, fields roadsides, forest edges, fence rows, pastures, hedges fields, rocky slopes, thin woods, roadsides, fencerows, thickets fence rows, forest edges, open woods, ravines, bluffs, cliffs

Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping: Chesapeake Bay Watershed . U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Plants for Wet Meadows and Moist Forests


vegetation list / technique type: green roof plant type: dry to moist green roofs graminoids Andropogon virginicus (broom sedge) Dichanthelium clandestinum (deer‐tongue) Juncus tenuis (slender yard rush) Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) Tridens flavus (tall redtop) herbs Eupatorium serotinum (late flowering thoroughwort) Euthamia graminifolia (flat top goldenrod) Geum canadense (white avens) Penstemon digitalis (tall white beard tongue) Rudbeckia hirta (black–eyed susan) Uvularia sessilifolia (bellwort) Verbena urticifolia (white vervain) shrubs Rubus flagellaris (northern dewberry)

green roof

29

characteristics:

conditions:

Height/Fruit

Sun+Shade/Moisture/Soil Types/Soil pH

2'‐6.5' / june to sept.  2'‐5' / may to oct.  .5'‐2' / june to aug.  3'‐6' / july to oct.  3'‐6' / aug. to nov. 

full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to wet / C,L,S / 4.9‐7 full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to wet / C,L,S / 4‐7.5 full sun to full shade / dry to wet / 4.5‐7 full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to wet / C,L,S / 4.5‐8 partial sun+shade / dry / C,L,S

dry or wet open woods, prairies, swales, shores, dry open areas moist woods, roadsides dry or wet open woods, fields fresh tidal and nontidal marshes, wet meadows, open woods, prairies roadsides, open woodlands

1'‐3' / sept. to nov.  1'‐4' / july to sept. (y) 1'‐3' / apr. to june (w) 3'‐6' / may to july (w) 1'‐3' / june to oct. (y) .5'‐1' / apr. to may (w,y) 1'‐5' / june to oct. (w)

partial sun+shade / moist to wet / C,L,S full sun / moist to wet / L,S partial sun+shade to full shade / dry to moist / C,L,S full sun to partial sun+shade / dry to wet / C,L,S / 4.5‐6.8 full sun to full shade / dry to moist / C,L,S / 4‐6.8 full sun to full shade / moist / C,L / 5.5‐6.8 partial sun+shade / dry to moist / L,S / 6‐7.5

prairie, plains, meadows, pastures, woodland edges, pond edges damp thickets, open pastures, woodland edges woodland edges, openings, thickets, open woodlands low swales, moist ditches, prairies, open woodlands prairie, plains, meadows, pastures, woodland edges, openings woods, thickets, clearings clearings, woodland edges, thickets

3'‐6' / apr. to july (w)

full sun to full shade / dry to moist / C,L 

woodland, openings

"Green Roof Species." New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Plants for Dry to Moist Green Roofs

habitat


30

4225 Roush Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022


technique considerations

4225 Roush Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

vegetated berm

soil consideration 1

embankments, dikes, levees

359440

359460

359480

359500

76° 39' 0''

76° 39' 7''

Custom Soil Resource Report Map—Embankments, Dikes, and Levees

359420

359520

359540

359560

40° 12' 18'' 4451820 4451800 4451780

Legend: -not limited- green -somewhat limited- yellow -very limited- red

Embankments, Dikes, and Levees— Summary by Map Unit — Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043) Map unit symbol Cr

4451700 4451680

Meters 60

40 80

160

Feet 240

Percent of AOI

2.1

70.1%

Somewhat limited Penn (90%)

Thin layer (0.74)

0.9

29.9%

3.0

100.0%

Acres in AOI

Percent of AOI

Very limited

2.1

70.1%

Somewhat limited

0.9

29.9%

Totals for Area of Interest

3.0

100.0%

Embankments, Dikes, and Levees:

4451660

40

20

Penn shaly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded

Rating

Rating Options—Embankments, Dikes, and Levees

4451640

0

10

359540

Depth to saturated zone (1.00)

Acres in AOI

Embankments, Dikes, and Levees— Summary by Rating Value

4451620

Map Scale: 1:1,050 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

0

359520

Aggregation Method: Dominant Condition “Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, constructed impound or to protect land against overflow. Embankments that have zoned Componentto Percent Cutoff: water None Specified construction (core andHigher shell) are not considered. The soils are rated as a source of material for emTie-break Rule: bankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed and compacted during construction.”

359560 76° 39' 0''

76° 39' 7''

359500

Croton (90%)

Rating reasons (numeric values)

Totals for Area of Interest

40° 12' 11'' 359480

Very limited

Component name (percent)

Piping (0.89)

4451720

4451720 4451700 4451620

4451640

4451660

4451680

B2

40° 12' 11'' 359460

Croton silt loam

Rating

4451740

d sh R

Pe

Cr

359440

Map unit name

Ponding (1.00)

PeB2

359420

Custom Soil Resource Report

Tables—Embankments, Dikes, and Levees

4451760

4451820 4451800

R ou

4451740

4451760

4451780

40° 12' 18''

PeB2

31

Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.


32

technique considerations

4225 Roush Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

reduce impervious

soil consideration 2

rain garden

bioswale

check dam

pond reservoir areas

359420

359440

359460

359480

359500

76° 39' 0''

76° 39' 7''

Custom Soil Resource Report Map—Pond Reservoir Areas

359520

359540

359560

40° 12' 18'' 4451820 4451800 4451780

Legend: -not limited- green -somewhat limited- yellow -very limited- red

Custom Soil Resource Report

Tables—Pond Reservoir Areas Pond Reservoir Areas— Summary by Map Unit — Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043) Map unit symbol

4451760

4451820 4451800

Map unit name

Rating

Cr

Croton silt loam

PeB2

Penn shaly silt loam, 3 to Very limited 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded

4451740

d sh R

PeB2

R ou

4451740

4451760

4451780

40° 12' 18''

Not limited

Component name (percent)

Rating reasons (numeric values)

Croton (90%) Penn (90%)

Seepage (1.00)

Acres in AOI

Percent of AOI

2.1

70.1%

0.9

29.9%

3.0

100.0%

Depth to bedrock (0.74)

Totals for Area of Interest

4451720

4451720

Slope (0.68)

Pond Reservoir Areas— Summary by Rating Value 4451700

Rating

4451680

4451680

B2

4451700

Pe

Cr

Acres in AOI

Percent of AOI

Not limited

2.1

70.1%

Very limited

0.9

29.9%

Totals for Area of Interest

3.0

100.0%

Rating Options—Pond Reservoir Areas

4451640 4451620

4451660

4451640 4451620

4451660

Pond Reservoir Areas:

40° 12' 11''

“Pond reservoir areas hold waterCondition behind a dam or embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low Aggregation Method: Dominant seepage Component potentialPercent in theCutoff: upper 60Specified inches. The seepage potential is determined by the saturated hyNone draulic conductivity Tie-break Rule:(Ksat) Higher of the soil and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity of the reservoir area.” Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011. 40° 12' 11''

359440

359460

359480

359500

Map Scale: 1:1,050 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

0 0

10 40

20

Meters 60

40 80

160

359520

359540

359560 76° 39' 0''

76° 39' 7''

359420

Feet 240


technique considerations vegetated berm

4225 Roush Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

rain garden

bioswale

soil consideration 3

359420

359440

359460

359480

359500

76° 39' 0''

359520

359540

359560

40° 12' 18'' 4451820 4451800 4451780

Legend: Custom Soil Resource Report -Well suited- green -Moderately suited- yellow -poorly suited- red -unsuitednot possible for Hand Planting Tables—Suitability Suitability for Hand Planting— Summary by Map Unit — Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043) Map unit symbol

4451760

4451800

4451740

Croton silt loam

PeB2

Penn shaly silt loam, 3 to Well suited 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded

4451700

359480

359500

Map Scale: 1:1,050 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

0 0

10 40

20

Meters 60

40 80

160

359520

359540

359560 76° 39' 0''

76° 39' 7''

359460

Feet 240

Rating reasons (numeric values)

Acres in AOI

Percent of AOI

Croton (90%)

2.1

70.1%

Penn (90%)

0.9

29.9%

3.0

100.0%

Croton (5%)

Rating

Acres in AOI

Percent of AOI

Well suited

3.0

100.0%

Totals for Area of Interest

3.0

100.0%

Suitability for Hand Planting:

Rating Options—Suitability for Hand Planting

“Ratings Aggregation for this interpretation Method: Dominantindicate Condition the expected difficulty of hand planting of forestland plants. The ratings are based on slope, depth to a restrictive layer, content of sand, plasticity index, rock fragComponent Percent Cutoff: None Specified ments onTie-break or below the surface, depth to a water table, and ponding. It is assumed that necessary site Rule: Higher preparation is completed before seedlings are planted.” Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.

40° 12' 11'' 359440

Well suited

Component name (percent)

Suitability for Hand Planting— Summary by Rating Value

4451680 4451660 4451640

40° 12' 11''

Rating

Totals for Area of Interest

4451620

4451660 4451620

4451640

4451680

B2

4451700

Pe

Cr

Map unit name

Cr

4451720

4451720

d sh R

PeB2

R ou

4451740

4451760

4451780

4451820

40° 12' 18''

359420

33

suitability for hand planting

Custom Soil Resource Report Map—Suitability for Hand Planting

76° 39' 7''

dense vegetation


34

4225 Roush Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

existing conditions Harrisburg

Hershey Roush Road

Water runs off the adjacent hill side of the neighbor’s farm. After crop clearings, sediment infused water also sheet flows off the property, over the road and into the front yard of the site. Ponding in several locations along the northeastern part of the site occurs when large amounts of water enter the site from the adjacent roadway. During larger storms, the on site creek overflows allowing water to run down hill towards the residents home, pool and pond. Several “water made channels” are created during larger storms creating maintenance problems throughout the active portions of the yard. Ponding occurs relatively close to the built structures of the residence. These areas are high activity zones, which should be addressed. After intense storms, the active pond’s spill way releases excess water creating addition maintenance damages and allowing for additional sheet flow to reach the creek. The proposed stormwater plan must also address the over flow of the creek itself.

2’ contours

scale: 1 : 750 37.5’

75’

150’


4225 Roush Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

potential solutions

Adding vegetated berms along the eastern portion of the site could block the impact of storm water and direct it towards other systems such as rain gardens.

14

Adding native vegetation along the creek bed will help stabilize erosion and protect other portions of the property when it over flows.

20

Using the vegetated berms to direct water flow into rain gardens will then allow for infiltration and diminish the water’s impact throughout the rest of the property.

6

Using the existing gutter system of the residence, rain barrels can be added to help store water and can be used in several on site planting beds.

16

Redirecting water into bioswales will allow for concentrated water flow along the eastern portion of the site.

8

35


36

337 Witmer Road Hershey, PA 17033


technique considerations

337 Witmer Road Hershey, PA 17033

reduce impervious

soil consideration 1

drainage class

Custom Soil Resource Report Map—Drainage Class

363480

363520

363560

363600

363640

363680

363720

40° 13' 41'' 4454320 4454280

4454280

4454320

40° 13' 42''

4454240 4454200

Map unit symbol

4454120

4454120

PeB2

Legend: Custom Soil Resource Report -well drained- yellow -somewhat poorly drainedgreen -poorly drainedblue Class Table—Drainage Drainage Class— Summary by Map Unit — Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043)

4454160

4454160

4454200

4454240

BrB2

Map unit name

At

Atkins silt loam

BrB2

Rating Poorly drained

4454080

4454080

5.5%

Brecknock channery silt loam, 3 to Well drained 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded

0.3

4.4%

Cr

Croton silt loam

0.5

6.9%

PeB2

Penn shaly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent Well drained slopes, moderately eroded

3.5

53.1%

RdB2

Readington silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded

2.0

30.1%

6.7

100.0%

Poorly drained

Moderately well drained

4454040

Method: Dominant “DrainageAggregation class (natural)” refers Condition to the frequency and duration of wet periods under conditions simiComponent Noneformed. Specified Alterations of the water regime by human activities, either lar to those underPercent whichCutoff: the soil Tie-break Rule: Higher through drainage or irrigation, are not a consideration unless they have significantly changed the morphology of the soil. Seven classes of natural soil drainage are recognized-excessively drained, somewhat excessively drained, well drained, moderately well drained, somewhat poorly drained, poorly drained, and very poorly drained. These classes are defined in the “Soil Survey Manual.”

4454000

4454040 4454000

PeB2

4453960

4453960

At

40° 13' 28''

Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011. 40° 13' 29''

363560

363600

Map Scale: 1:1,920 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

0

15

30

60

0

50

100

200

Meters 90 Feet 300

363640

363680

363720 76° 36' 5''

76° 36' 17''

363520

Percent of AOI

DrainageRating Class: Options—Drainage Class

RdB2 Cr

Acres in AOI 0.4

Totals for Area of Interest

363480

37

76° 36' 5''

bioswale

76° 36' 18''

rain garden


38

technique considerations

337 Witmer Road Hershey, PA 17033

reduce impervious

soil consideration 2

rain garden

bioswale

check dam

ponding frequency class

363480

363520

363560

363600

76° 36' 5''

76° 36' 18''

Custom Soil Resource Report Map—Ponding Frequency Class

363640

363680

363720

40° 13' 41'' 4454320

Legend: -none- red -occasional- blue

4454280

4454280

4454320

40° 13' 42''

Table—Ponding Frequency Class

4454240

Ponding Frequency Class— Summary by Map Unit — Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043)

4454200

Map unit symbol

4454160

4454160

4454200

4454240

BrB2

4454120

4454120

PeB2

Custom Soil Resource Report

Map unit name

Rating

Atkins silt loam

None

0.4

5.5%

BrB2

Brecknock channery silt loam, 3 to None 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded

0.3

4.4%

Cr

Croton silt loam

0.5

6.9%

PeB2

Penn shaly silt loam, 3 to 8 percent None slopes, moderately eroded

3.5

53.1%

RdB2

Readington silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded

2.0

30.1%

6.7

100.0%

Occasional

None

4454080

4454080

Ponding Frequency Class:

Rating Options—Ponding Frequency Class

“PondingAggregation is standing water in a closed depression. The water is removed only by deep percolation, Method: Dominant Condition transpiration, or evaporation or by a combination of these processes. Ponding frequency classes are Component Percent Cutoff: None Specified based on the number of times that ponding occurs over a given period. Frequency is expressed as Tie-break Rule: More Frequent none, rare, occasional, and frequent.”

RdB2 4454040

Beginning Month: January

4454000

4454040 4454000

PeB2 At

Ending Month: December

4453960

4453960

Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.

40° 13' 28''

40° 13' 29'' 363520

363560

363600

Map Scale: 1:1,920 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

0

15

30

60

0

50

100

200

Meters 90 Feet 300

363640

363680

363720 76° 36' 5''

76° 36' 17''

363480

Percent of AOI

At

Totals for Area of Interest

Cr

Acres in AOI


technique considerations bioswale

337 Witmer Road Hershey, PA 17033

rain garden

soil consideration 3

suitability for hand planting

Custom Soil Resource Report Map—Suitability for Hand Planting

363480

363520

363560

363600

363640

363680

363720

40° 13' 41'' 4454320 4454280

4454280

4454320

40° 13' 42''

4454240

Legend: Custom Soil Resource Report -Well suited- green -Moderately suited- yellow -poorly suited- red -unsuitednot possible for Hand Planting Tables—Suitability Suitability for Hand Planting— Summary by Map Unit — Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043)

4454200

Map unit symbol

4454160

4454160

4454200

4454240

BrB2

4454120

Map unit name

At

Atkins silt loam

BrB2

4454040

40° 13' 28''

Brecknock (90%)

0.3

4.4%

Cr

Croton silt loam

Croton (90%)

0.5

6.9%

PeB2

Penn shaly silt loam, 3 to Well suited 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded

Penn (90%)

3.5

53.1%

Readington silt loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded

Readington (90%)

2.0

30.1%

6.7

100.0%

30

60

0

50

100

200

Meters 90 Feet 300

363640

363680

363720 76° 36' 5''

76° 36' 17''

15

Well suited

Well suited

Croton (5%)

Croton (4%)

Acres in AOI

Percent of AOI

Well suited

6.7

100.0%

Totals for Area of Interest

6.7

100.0%

Suitability for Hand Planting:

Rating Options—Suitability for Hand Planting

40° 13' 29''

0

Percent of AOI

Brecknock channery silt Well suited loam, 3 to 8 percent slopes, moderately eroded

Rating

4453960

4453960

At

Map Scale: 1:1,920 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

Acres in AOI

5.5%

Totals for Area of Interest

4454000

4454040 4454000

PeB2

363600

Rating reasons (numeric values)

Suitability for Hand Planting— Summary by Rating Value Cr

363560

Well suited

Component name (percent)

0.4

RdB2

363520

Rating

Atkins (85%)

RdB2

4454080

4454080

4454120

PeB2

363480

39

76° 36' 5''

vegetated berm

76° 36' 18''

dense vegetation

“Ratings for this interpretation indicate the expected difficulty of hand planting of forestland plants. Aggregation Method: Dominant Condition The ratings are based on slope, depth to a restrictive layer, content of sand, plasticity index, rock fragComponent Percent Cutoff: None Specified ments on or below the surface, depth to a water table, and ponding. It is assumed that necessary site Tie-break Rule: Higher preparation is completed before seedlings are planted.” Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.


40

337 Witmer Road Hershey, PA 17033

existing conditions Harrisburg

Hershey Witmer Road

Water drains downhill from the northern end of the chicken house to the southern end. Stormwater settles before slowing draining towards the small nearby tributary. Vast quantities of stormwater drain off the roof of the chicken house and quickly drain into the low lying natural swale, which is currently free of vegetation. Consequently, stormwater freely runs downhill; no vegetation is present to reduce erosion, encourage infiltration, and slow runoff rates. This low lying depression holds water, enabling it to infiltrate before draining into the nearby tributary. Collecting water from the pond, a small tributary drains southwest/south in between the chicken house and the residential buildings. This small tributary is easily overwhelmed when collecting rainwater from adjacent buildings and from rainfalls. This low-lying area ponds during moderate rainfalls and is especially vulnerable to flooding during severe rainfalls. Runoff from residential building roofs causes this forested depression to collect standing rainwater. The small tributary drains southward, off the property. Any sediments and pollutants currently on-site are transported throughout the watershed, the Susquehanna River, and ultimately into the Chesapeake Bay. 2’ contours

scale: 1 : 1500 75’

150’


337 Witmer Road Hershey, PA 17033

potential solutions

A swale currently exists here, but does not possess the potential to slow runoff, induce infiltration, and control erosion because it is free of vegetation. Implementing a bioswale east of the chicken barn collects and conveys stormwater off the roof and from uphill in the forest. The bioswale encourages groundwater recharge and enables stormwater to slowly drain into the small tributary downhill. Check dams further control runoff within the bioswale. This naturally low-lying depression is an ideal spot for a rain garden. The bioswale reduces runoff rates before enabling rainwater to drain into the rain garden. The combination of the bioswale and rain garden ensures that stormwater is filtered and slowed before entering the tributary. No longer is the tributary overwhelmed by moderate storm events. A vegetated berm and rain garden reduce stormwater sheet flow that previously entered the creek and channelled across the road. Rain barrels are placed at downspouts at corners of buildings. This reduces runoff into the nearby low lying areas.

8 10

6

14 6 16

41


42

2405 Mill Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022


technique considerations

2405 Mill Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

reduce impervious

bioswale

soil consideration 1 361640

361660

361680

76° 37' 26''

361700

361720

361740

4448960

40° 10' 47''

Legend: Custom Soil Resource Report -well drained- yellow -somewhat poorly drainedgreen -poorly drainedblue Class Table—Drainage

4448940

4448940

Mill Rd

4448960

4448980

361620

4448980

361600 40° 10' 47''

Drainage Class— Summary by Map Unit — Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043)

NsD

4448920

4448920

Map unit symbol

Map unit name

4448900

Aggregation Method: Dominant Condition

Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.

4448860 4448800 4448780

4448780

4448800

Conewago Creek

361620

361640

361660

361680

Map Scale: 1:996 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

0 0

5

10 35

20 70

Meters 30 140

Feet 210

361700

361720

361740 76° 37' 25''

361600 76° 37' 32''

40° 10' 40''

Percent of AOI

2.5

100.0%

2.5

100.0%

“Drainage class (natural)” refers to the frequency and duration of wet periods under conditions simiComponent Percent Cutoff: None Specified lar to those under which the soil formed. Alterations of the water regime by human activities, either Tie-break Rule: Higher through drainage or irrigation, are not a consideration unless they have significantly changed the morphology of the soil. Seven classes of natural soil drainage are recognized-excessively drained, somewhat excessively drained, well drained, moderately well drained, somewhat poorly drained, poorly drained, and very poorly drained. These classes are defined in the “Soil Survey Manual.”

4448820

4448820

4448840

d

4448860

rR

4448840

e rt zl

Acres in AOI

Options—Drainage Class DrainageRating Class:

4448880

4448900 4448880

NsD

Rating

Neshaminy very stony silt loam, 8 Well drained to 25 percent slopes

Totals for Area of Interest

He

43

drainage class

Custom Soil Resource Report Map—Ponding Frequency Class

76° 37' 32''

rain garden

40° 10' 40''


44

technique considerations

2405 Mill Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

reduce impervious

soil consideration 2

rain garden

bioswale

check dam

ponding frequency class

361680

361700

361720

361740 4448980

361660

4448960

361640

4448980

361620

4448960

361600

40° 10' 47''

Legend: -none- red -occasional- blue

Custom Soil Resource Report

Table—Ponding Frequency Class 4448940

Mill Rd

4448940

40° 10' 47''

76° 37' 26''

76° 37' 32''

Custom Soil Resource Report Map—Ponding Frequency Class

Ponding Frequency Class— Summary by Map Unit — Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043)

NsD

4448920

4448920

Map unit symbol

Map unit name

Rating

Neshaminy very stony silt loam, 8 to None 25 percent slopes

4448900

NsD rR

d

Aggregation Method: Dominant Condition

4448840

Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.

4448820

4448820

4448840

Ending Month: December

4448800 4448780

4448780

4448800

Conewago Creek

361620

361640

361660

361680

Map Scale: 1:996 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

0 0

5

10 35

20 70

Meters 30 140

Feet 210

361700

361720

361740 76° 37' 25''

361600 76° 37' 32''

40° 10' 40''

2.5

100.0%

2.5

100.0%

“Ponding is standing water in a closed depression. The water is removed only by deep percolation, Component Percent Cutoff: None Specified transpiration, or evaporation or by a combination of these processes. Ponding frequency classes are Rule: More Frequent based onTie-break the number of times that ponding occurs over a given period. Frequency is expressed as Beginning Month: January none, rare, occasional, and frequent.”

4448860

e rt zl

4448860

He

Percent of AOI

Options—Ponding Frequency Class Ponding Rating Frequency Class:

4448880

4448880

4448900

Totals for Area of Interest

Acres in AOI

40° 10' 40''


technique considerations vegetated berm

soil consideration 3 361660

361680

76° 37' 26''

361700

361720

361740

4448960

40° 10' 47''

4448940

Legend: Custom Soil Resource Report -Well suited- green -Moderately suited- yellow -poorly suited- red -unsuitednot possible for Hand Planting Tables—Suitability Suitability for Hand Planting— Summary by Map Unit — Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (PA043)

4448920

Map unit symbol NsD

Map unit name

Rating

Neshaminy very stony Well suited silt loam, 8 to 25 percent slopes

Component name (percent)

Rating reasons (numeric values)

Neshaminy (100%)

Totals for Area of Interest

4448900

4448900

4448920

4448940

Mill Rd

4448960

4448980

361640

4448980

361620

45

suitability for hand planting

Custom Soil Resource Report Map—Suitability for Hand Planting

361600 40° 10' 47''

2405 Mill Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

rain garden

bioswale

76° 37' 32''

dense vegetation

Acres in AOI

Percent of AOI

2.5

100.0%

2.5

100.0%

NsD d

4448840

361640

361660

361680

Map Scale: 1:996 if printed on A size (8.5" x 11") sheet.

0 0

5

10 35

20 70

Meters 30 140

Feet 210

361700

361720

361740 76° 37' 25''

361620

Well suited

2.5

100.0%

Totals for Area of Interest

2.5

100.0%

“Ratings Aggregation for this interpretation Method: Dominantindicate Condition the expected difficulty of hand planting of forestland plants. The ratings are based onCutoff: slope, depth to a restrictive layer, content of sand, plasticity index, rock fragComponent Percent None Specified ments onTie-break or below theHigher surface, depth to a water table, and ponding. It is assumed that necessary site Rule: preparation is completed before seedlings are planted.” Web Soil Survey: Completed Oct. 2011.

4448800 4448780

4448800 4448780 76° 37' 32''

361600

Percent of AOI

Rating Options—Suitability for Hand Planting

Conewago Creek

40° 10' 40''

Acres in AOI

Suitability for Hand Planting:

4448820

4448820

4448840

4448860

rR

4448860

H

le ert z

Rating

4448880

4448880

Suitability for Hand Planting— Summary by Rating Value

40° 10' 40''


46

2405 Mill Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

existing conditions Harrisburg

Hershey Mill Road

Water runs off the hill toward the adjacent road, driveway, and buildings. The historic Mill Race channels water downhill. Runoff may concentrate in the driveway from various sources, continuing downhill with collected pollutants and sediments from vehicle traffic.

Water uses the road as the “path of least resistance,” again, collecting pollutants along the way.

Ponding most definitely will occur from various sources. Located between a road and a structure, it has become the relative low point aside from the creek. Ponding may also occur here, with the historic Mill Race leading water from uphill toward this location. Conewago Creek is the draining vein of the watershed. The site’s stormwater eventually travels to this point. What it has picked up along the route and the issues it can create are the problems at hand. scale: 1 : 600

2’ contours 37.5’

75’

150’


2405 Mill Road Elizabethtown, PA 17022

potential solutions Clearly, many of the suggested solutions are located near the road. Taking action here will not only tackle the major issues head on, it will allow the techniques to be demonstrated to the public. Dense vegetation could play a big role in preventing stormwater from entering the driveway. It can also double as a sustainable entrance planting.

18

A permeable driveway designed to allow water to infiltrate will reduce runoff and problems downhill. This too will present well near the public eye.

20

Dense vegetation here may prevent a large portion of water from entering the lawn area in front of the Aberdeen Mills building.

18

A permeable driveway opportunity.

20

A rain garden will almost eliminate the water problem here. It will mean less lawn and even a nice space to relax around birds and butterflies. A rain garden will solve the water issues here. It will also provide a little demonstration area on how stormwater can be cleaned before reentering our streams, especially one of such value. An overflow system resembling a bioswale has potential to collect runoff from the road as well. (The feasibility of this depends on the gas line location).

6 6 8

47


University Park

Department of Landscape Architecture

Harrisburg

Department of Environmental Engineering

ALEX MICHAEL SMITH MATTHEW WEIR DAN BAREFOOT



Eco-landscaping for Water Quality (2011)