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Architecture as an object of diary:

N o s t a l g i a e v o k e d t h r o u g h e m b o d i e d m e m o r y


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A r c h i t e c t u r e a s a n o b j e c t o f d i a r y : N o s t a l g i a e v o k e d t h r o u g h e m b o d i e d m e m o r y

Alexander Anthony Antoniou

W.S.A. yr. 5 2010 - 2011 a disser tation in par tial fulfillment of the degree of M.Arch at!Cardiff University


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Abstract For the fulfillment of its ar tistic potential, the constant forward-looking attitude of design requires an understanding of the past. By highlighting nostalgia in the context of personal and cultural memory, this piece aims to bring nostalgia to the forefront as a legitimate and impor tant judging tool for architectural spaces through the analysis of users’ individual memory links to the use and presence of a city square (in this example, that of Eleftheria Square in Nicosia, Cypr us). Can an architecturally uninspiring design still influence people and their link to a space shared, full of cultural experience?


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1 “(...)

Memory’s unreliable. (...) Facts, not memor ies; that’s how you investigate. (...) Look, memory can change the shape of a room, it can change the colour of a car, and memor ies can be distor ted. They’re just an interpretation, they’re not a record and ir relevant if you have the facts. (...) He took away my (...) memory. He destroyed my ability to live.” 2

1_ 'Memento', dir. by Christopher Nolan, (United States: Pathé, 2000), p. 113 minutes 2_ Nolan, 2000, Memento


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C o n t e n t s I.considering the attributes

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_Measurable and immeasurable_

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_Urbanistic anchors_

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_ M e m o r y, n o s t a l g i a a n d a r c h i t e c t u r e _

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II. memory and nostalgia

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_Rememory

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_Psychological understanding of memory_

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_Philosophical understanding of memory_

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_Nostalgia in the context of memory_

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_/time/memory/nostalgia/space/place/time/memory/ _nostalgia/space/place/_

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III.a site in conflict

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_The divided capital_

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_A guarded reaction from a traditional public_

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VI.the shared architectural hinge

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_From minor past to major present_

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_The essence of what is being remembered_

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_The architectural hinge space_

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_memory - nostalgia - culture - event_

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V.Appendixes

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_Appendix A - interviews_

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_Appendix B - scans and documents_

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_Appendix C - Public letters_

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_Appendix D - newspaper articles_

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_Appendix E - blogs_

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_ A p p e n d i x F - A u t h o r ’s p h o t o s _

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VI.Bibliography

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VII.Filmography

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VIII.Newsletters and Periodicals

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IX.Websites


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“Why does the mind cling to a par ticular memory, to a par ticular exper ience, hold on to a belief which has lost all meaning; why? (...) Either he is incapable of seeing the facts, or he likes to live in an illusion, in a make-believe, which has nothing whatsoever to do with actuality. The actuality being what is taking place now. Or, he separates the exper ience, the idea, the ideal, the belief, as being not accurate but holds onto them because intellectually he is incapable of investigating. (...) Have you any belief that you hold onto? And if you hold onto a belief, what is that belief? How is it coming to be?” 3

3_ 'Is There Security, Psychologically', in ‘Can Goodness, Love and Faith Be Born of Discipline’, dis. by Krishnamurti Foundation of America, (Switzerland: Krishnamurti Foundation of America, 1976), p. 58min 31sec


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Measurable and immeasurable “Architecture is something invisible, something you cannot separate into a number of elements.” 5 It has been a long-fought battle by theorists, ar tists, architects, poets and intellectuals as alike to attempt to define the ter m ‘architecture’. The ter m has taken on a myriad of definitions, with interpretation ranging from an ar tistic expression of emotional transmittance of space to explorations in fur niture-making or digital installations. Some might credit this to changes in fashion, technological advances or even an inability to look at architectural history in its totality, rather than isolated segments. With a history as old as man’s, growing as he does, it is only natural to focus on a par ticular segment of it, as its role has changed over time to something very special. S. Unwin tries to define ‘architecture’ as “(...) the practical, poetic and philosophical ar t by which we organise and give for m to space (...).”

Others consider architecture from a financial angle as a means to maximising economic benefit. It all depends on the rigidity of the definition of the word. Some, such as Bachelard, a philosopher by trade, take a very poetic approach. Others, such as Tschumi, take a mixed stance, stating that “(...) architecture is defined as the pleasurable and sometimes violent confrontation of spaces and activities.” 7 6

Perhaps what is intrinsic to each definition is the architect’s character and temperament. Some, as pragmatic as Rasmussen, tried to argue that architecture needs to be understood by everybody, and needs to be utilised as designed by the architect: planned and str uctured. Perhaps Tschumi would consider this attitude unchallenging and pusillanimous. It is not however to say that it is wrong. Even contrasting attitudes to architecture can have common grounds and appreciation towards each other.

4_ Author’s image, Berlin 2010 5_ Steen Eiler Rasmussen,‘Experiencing Architecture’ Paperback edn (Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press, 1959), p. 9 6_ Simon Unwin, ‘Analysing Architecture’, 3rd edn (Oxon: Routledge, 2009 ), p. 3 7_ Bernard Tschumi, ‘Architecture and Disjunction’ (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1994), p. 4


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8_ Burden 1995, p.33


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As a result, it is accurate to say that there is a ‘common language’ 9 of architectural features, which allows the understanding of what is ‘architecture’, albeit subjective. To disclose appropr iate alter natives to the ideological stagnation plaguing most architectural creation at the end of the second millennium, the first cr ucial step is to acknowledge that value-laden tools of representation underlie the conception and realization of architecture.10 Some of these features identified by Burden (see p. 13) are rightfully listed as elements of equal value and impor tance and their relative significance is consciously defined by the architect. This, however, is still not enough to advance the understanding of this ar t for m which, like any other, needs to remain current. Such is the nature of the subject that it is somewhat fr uitless to merely list these elements in a glossarial manner. Often, they take on layered connotations with overlapping features and characteristics transcending through multiple instances. What is being suggested here as an alter native is the classification of these ter ms into two open, yet simple, broad groups: MEASURABLE

IMMEASURABLE

In a way, this classification is in contrast to the dated attitude towards architecture, perceived as an attempt to acknowledge its presence, practically and palpably, as a mere quantifiable means of rationalisation. What some consider an unconvincing or non-measurable character istic needs to be elevated to equal status as the measurable, and not be dismissed or deferred as a secondary, feeble attempt at peer pleasing. Clearly, ‘immeasurable’ does not mean ‘void of presence’, only ‘void of definite quantity.’ Hence: 9_ Unwin 2009 10_ Alberto Pérez-Gómez and Louise Pelletier,‘Architectural Representation and the Perspective Hinge’ (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1997), p. 3


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MEASURABLE

IMMEASURABLE articulation balance blending character climax complexity composition contextual contrast counterpoint depth dominance emphasis focus form harmony hierarchy incident mass orchestration order point progression reflection simplicity site relationship space transformation translucency tropme l’œil unity vernacular organisation path - space relationship view / frames sequence / approach

OTHERS

hearth markers barrier enclosure doorway/ window/ opening platform ventilation sound smell movement features geometry anthropometry

OTHERS

aspect asymmetry axis chiaroscuro colour harmonic proportion line module orientation ornamentation pattern plane proportion repetition rhythm scale symmetry texture volume


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These groups help to differentiate architectural description into elements that are undeniably present from those of a subjective nature, thus reinforcing the notion that an attribute of design that is key to one may be unnecessary or dismissed by the opinion of another. Indeed, often these subjective elements, or immeasurables, are in fact some of the most impor tant, powerful and indeed beautiful characteristics that architecture can incorporate. (Un)for med, (dis)har mony, (dis)order, (non)translucent, (anti)climax etc. are all tools available to the architect which relate to site, brief appropriateness, client, concept, so as to present a totality that is perhaps an image of political power, the unconventional, innovative, characteristic, or namental, functional, sustainable, useful/used, enjoyed, playful (or serious), thoughtprovoking, simplistic, analysed, studied; architecture. Rasmussen talks of the ‘simple’

“(…) object of all good architecture (…)” as being that of

creating “(…) integrated wholes” 11 produced when the architect has been inspired by something in the problem, which will give the building a distinctive stamp “(…) created in a special spir it and they (the buildings) convey that spir it to others.”12 Through that description we can isolate the characteristics of good architecture to four necessities: the PROBLEM the ARCHITECT/ DESIGNER and their INSPIRATION its SPIRIT/ PROJECTED IMAGE the OTHERS

(i.e. the subjects benefiting from the design)

This is what architecture then becomes. What can begin as a rational result to a problem, develops to a complex, multi-coated responsible manipulation of space and people through the use of these factors. However, at the same time, “It is quite impossible to set up absolute rules and

11_ Rasmussen 1962, p. 33 12_ Rasmussen 1962, p. 32


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cr iter ia for evaluating architecture because every wor thwhile building -like all works of ar t- has its own standard.”13 Rather than set up these ‘absolute r ules’, we search for characteristics that will give us the ability to consider and ar ticulate our experience of the space. Therefore, architecture, and its interpretation, is not a static process. Rather, it is a dynamic process influenced by theoretical constr ucts, expectations, fashions, politics, economics and technological advancements, rendering some architectural designs outdated and out of favour. Past design ideas are not rejected, but are rather seen as par t of the development process. That is to say that the architectural merit of some spaces can ‘expire.’ Spaces that don’t, become monuments of sor t, as they are an image of the past, transcending through time. As Hollis says “For stor ies and for buildings alike, incremental change has been the paradoxical mechanism of their preservation.”14 In conclusion, spaces of ‘poor architectural merit’ are, either poorly designed with respect to the above factors or, have aged/expired and no longer fulfill their initial purpose and are at odds with their current surroundings. Urbanistic anchors In order to illustrate this analysis, we will limit the the scope of it, to a small selection of architectural design, namely: the public, open square. This can manifest itself either in the for m of an in-between space, a key city space, spaces for events or even the centre point for a city’s infrastr uctural development. For the purposes of assessing their architectural merit, these spaces house the same attributes and characteristics as well as depth of concept and design of a built, enclosed for m. What is impor tant to highlight is the role these spaces play and how they perfor m this role. Briefly selecting three such spaces as par t of a pilot, field research process will allow us to clarify a framework for the argument to follow, which focuses in a more detailed manner on a final four th space.

13_ Rasmussen 1962, p. 236 14_ Edward Hollis,The Secret Lives of Buildings (London: Portobello Books Ltd, 2009), p.14


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Oxford Circus, London

Found in the centre of London’s central shopping street, Oxford Circus has established itself as one of the biggest person and vehicle intersection points in the world. For ming a junction between Regents and Oxford Street in the City of Westminster, the junction has for the almost two hundred years been an intrinsic par t of the South England transpor t system traditionally for ming a connection to the city of Oxford, with a history dating back to Roman foundations. In 2009, the intersection under took a major redevelopment which transfor med it into a pedestrian diagonal scramble crossing, based on the model of Tokyo’s Shibuya crossing.15 Although a project of high cost, the result suited the junction well, which also houses three London underground lines, exits for which are found in each of the crossing’s inlets, removing street ‘clutter’ and pavement barriers and allowing the users to move through the junction more freely. What is impor tant to note about this junction is the massive infrastr uctural impor tance it still plays to the city of London. Within its relatively confined space, in relation to the number of people who maneuver through it on a daily basis, it was essential to achieve a design which also matched its high-profile nature while maintaining an efficient and easilyread layout, making it one of the most prime retail real-estate proper ties in Europe as well as the world.

15_ Mira Bar-Hillel,“How Oxford Circus shoppers will beat crosstown traffic”, London Evening Standard 2008


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Alexanderplatz, Berlin

“...designed as a collective symbol of the newly redeveloped centre of East Berlin”16 Alexanderplatz has had a varied and complex history. Initially being a region outside the main city boundaries of Berlin, it gained infrastr uctural impor tance in the 19 th Century and early in the 20 th when the square’s U-bahn (Metro) line was put in place. In this manner, the square functions in the same way as Oxford Circus does (see p. 20). Where the difference lies in however is that this square was not merely an intersection point of infrastr uctural management. Due to its position, it became the social hub for Berlin’s night life from the 1920’s through to present day. Possibly its most major influence was the trans-global effect of the Berlin division after the second World War. Taking centre-stage along the physical and ideological divide that was the Berlin wall, it quickly became a way for the Ger man Democratic Republic (GDR) of Easter n Berlin to project an image globally of the East’s ability to match the power of the West’s influences. Placing the landmark anchor-point of Kollmann’s TV Tower in its centre created one of the most powerful political tools in Europe, “as a new building type became symbolically charged places and urban landmarks.” 17 Perhaps one of the most memorable, powerful, emotional and influential events of Berlin’s history took par t at this square. The 4 th of November Alexanderplatz demonstration of 1989 gathered what is estimated at more than 500,000 protesters challenging the non-existence of their political and human freedoms. It is clear to see that there is an intrinsic characteristic in the design of a square as a setting and personification of political attitudes and arguments, while at the same time being an object of constant orientational reference to the centre of the city.

16_ Gerrit Engel and Detlef Jessen-Klingenberg, ‘Berlin : Photographs : 234 Berlin Buildings in Chronological Order from 1230 to 2008’ , english edn (Munich: Schirmer : Mosel, 2009), p. 191 17_ Marco De Michelis and others,‘Two German Architectures: 1949 - 1989’ . trans. Annette Wiethüchter, ed. by Christian Weller (Stuttgart: Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen e.V., 2004), p.66


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18_ 360ሖBerlin.net, (Berlin 1998), Stills from an interactive panorama, http://www.360berlin.net/en/mitte-3/alexanderplatz.


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St.Mark’s Square, Venice


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19_ Iain Fenlon,‘Piazza San Marco, Series:Wonders of theWorld’ (London: Profile, 2009), vii - ix 20_ Cesare Vecellio,‘Pigs being butchered in the Piazza during the Carnival’, 1586, cited in Fenlon 2009, p.90 21_ Giacomo Franco,‘Procession in Piazza San Marco’, cited in Fenlon 2009, p. 111


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Venice is a transfigured Constantinople; but Constantinople was a transfigured Rome once upon a time, and Rome was a transfigured Greece before that. The cycle of theft and the chain of bor rowed author ity goes back to a time of myth, from which, perhaps, all civilizations seek their ultimate source of author ity.22 With this quote, Hollis is capturing what it is that makes Venice, and specifically St Mark’s square, tr uly magical. It has developed and grown to an unquestionably stunning piece of architecture which transcends and displays the development of architectural styles, star ting from the Greek tradition through to the mixture of Baroque and Renaissance. The architectural merit of this square is unquestionably its most finest display of detailing and or namentation. It was designed as a Piazza “(…) with multiple dimensions (…), social and anthropological as well as histor ical and architectural(…).” 23 Talking about the roof for ms of St. Mark’s church, Ruskin describes: I enjoy these in St. Mark’s chiefly because they increase the fantastic and unreal character of St. Mark’s Place; and because they appear to sympathise with an expression, common, I think, to all the buildings of that group, of a natural buoyancy, as if they floated in the air or as the surface of the sea.24 The allowed oppor tunity to immerse one’s self in the stories, myths and legends which are embodied within the Venetian fabric provide the visitor with an experience which can be tailored and limited only by their own imagination. Enchanting stories present a narrative in which one can lose themselves, either completely or par tially (see p. 22). (…) When the sarcophagus was discovered, St. Mark extended his hand out of it, with a gold r ing on one of his fingers, which he per mitted noble of the Dolfin family to remove.25

22_ Hollis 2009, p. 46 23_ Fenlon 2009, p. xiii 24_ John Ruskin and J. G. Links, 'The Stones ofVenice', (London: Pallas Athene in conjunction with Ostara, 2001), p. 64 25_ Ruskin 2001, p.124


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Few will question whether this sarcophagus was found. Many won’t be convinced to believe that there is any tr uth in the image of a miracle reincar nation. However it is this personal descriptive license which tr uly makes the experience of historic spaces enjoyable, reminding us of that feeling of eager child-like discovery which fades with time and age. Memory, nostalgia and architecture Considering all of the above, there seems to be an unconsidered attribute to be studied within this framework. We have established that there are two possible ways of categorizing architectural definitions. Also, there are examples of architecturally well-defined and successful spaces and, ergo, ill-defined architectural spaces. Is there, however, the possibility that all spaces can have a substantial architectural merit that needs to be unear thed? Perhaps there is an attribute yet to be acknowledged, and hence used to find the tr ue metaphysical essence of a place. An attribute lost within underlying covers of human interaction with space, present as a link to something in the past, longing to be reminisced and brought to the future; a longing for a relived experience that might have been lost in the user’s memory. A type of place-nostalgia. Perhaps our ability to judge a space in its current state is due to an unmatched expectation for how a place was or could be. Could this nostalgia-factor be the way we tr uly analyse the value of what would conventionally be unconvincing design elements in architecture? In everyday ter ms, we tend to feel this emotion on a personal level with regards to memory, but a social level with regards to the effect the use if this space has on the collective. This group recollection will naturally be a multi-layered, knotted combination of memories. There would be the initial frame of a social memory derived from a general history or experience of a space but it is the personal memory that provides the stronger link to this space: that of the specific personal experience. This could also explain why people will share a strong emotion for, a place they do not necessarily have a direct link to, but have strong emotions for, as they know the impor tance this space holds in the history and attitude of their cultural background. The impor tant thing to take from that is that when measur ing or monitoring the memory of people, it is impor tant to think on all three levels of time: past, present and future, and see how these levels inter-relate.


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Having explained the impor tance and need for nostalgia, it is then impor tant to understand the space. One link between the two could be the need and expectation people have for, as expressed by Casey, “(...) the par ticular ity of place – for what is truly ‘local’ or ‘regional (...)” and how this is always ”(...) aroused by (...) increasingly common exper iences.” 26

It will also be impor tant to select and study a place which can be analysed in a way tr uly reflecting its collective impor tance. It is for this reason that this space is one which will be studied through the collection of primary data. It is vital is that it is a place of history, social impor tance and memory. Popular spaces, tourist hotspots, or monuments, which have been documented and studied extensively are ignored within this discourse. Essential rather is the full understanding of the local culture, history and use, as they need to be relatable. This is a ‘place’ not just a ‘space’, which will then require total immersion. In view of the above, par t of this process of discovery takes the for m of field research in Cypr us, and specifically it’s capital, Nicosia. Being a place of personal attachment, it is one of complex, rich history with influences from Greeks, Ottomans, Saxons and Persians, not to mention its vastly developing future. The site specifically is, at this stage, one of the city’s central squares, which finds itself at the point of connection between the old city of Nicosia and the new. Recently star ted redevelopment has caused much public reaction for both the present and future states, which is peculiar for what could be considered an architecturally bland situation. Through the inter view and study of specific case studies of people, findings will be related to these theories of memory, place and nostalgia. This will then provide a new character istic and method of highlighting a place’s role and potential to tr uly influence people’s lives, experiences and history on a social as well as a personal level. This is why to achieve a fuller understanding of the way people and memory are linked, it is impor tant to understand multiple strands of how memory functions in both a philosophical as well as psychological way.

26_ Edward S. Casey,‘The Fate of Place: A Philosophical History’ (California: University of California Press, 1997)


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27_ Author’s own 2010, BerlinWall Memorial, Berlin 28_ Joe Brainard, I Remember (NewYork: Granary Books, 2001) pp.44-45


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Rememory

Perhaps the most essential human characteristic, which defines our attitudes, culture, history, as a collective all the way down to the personal every day life patter ns and habits of individuals, to complex developments of traditions, heritage, customs and education, is the ability to create and retain memories. To, at least initially, have the ability to record and store moments in a specific period of time. A still, an instant, which can be something as simple as what one ate for breakfast, to how you walk to a specific destination or how to man a piece of complicated engineering. These memories are then stored in some fashion. The recording of these memories is as essential as the memories themselves. The medium, accuracy, time between experiencing and recording, as well as conditions in which you record are all paramount to setting and understanding the context of reliving a memory. Brainard’s “I Remember”, a collection of memories which is solely page after page of moment-memories, is an indication as to the amount of memories one has the capacity to store (see p. 28). They range in subject, seriousness and complexity, with underlying layers of joys, embarrassments, pragmatics, sorrows, confessions, fr ustrations, regrets and opinions. It is also a prime example of how the mere delivery of these snippets can provide a tr ue insight to the character of the author through attempting “(…) to recover elements that for m par t of the texture of everyday life and that it may well be you didn’t notice.” 29 This is the powerful allure of remembering: the recollection. There is tr uly something key about the context in which you recall an event, an image, a secret or a poem. Location, medium, mental health, temperature, hydration, stress levels, repetition of recall, as well as the time that has elapsed between the ‘remembered event’ and the process of recall are just some of the influences that will effect detail, emotional response and personal attachment. 29_ Georges Perec, ‘Species of Spaces and Other Pieces’ (London: Penguin Books Ltd, 2008), p. 127


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Psychological understanding of memory Of course we can measure one’s ability of memory recall through scientific experiments. These will show if one can recall objects, events and memories to a cer tain degree of accuracy. However, where these tests perhaps fail is taking into account the subjective memory, the personal scale one puts on cer tain types of events. Hence, there is a relation between context and memory. Something which is perhaps more engaging and interesting to a person will allow them to recall more clearly. There is an ‘impression’ or even ‘motivation’ factor of a subject knowledge which is what drives the user to remember more, something which varies from person to person. This is why memory is prone to forgetting as well as invention. Hayes uses the ter m “schema”, that of the mental frame works which we use to make sense of our everyday life. 30 One such group are the “anticipatory schemata” which influence our exper ience through our ability to expect and relate events according to a preset ‘bracket’ of acceptance of regular and irregular events and whether the experience falls within this bracket. (…) we always base our par ticular exper iences on a pr ior context in order to ensure that they are intelligible at all; that pr ior to any single exper ience, our mind is already predisposed with a framework of outlines, of typical shapes of exper ienced objects. To perceive an object or act upon it is to locate it within this system of expectations.31 The study of memory has been traditionally scientifically monitored through the analysis of models which attempt to either capture specific or cross-sectional samples of subjects. These studies have resulted in a number of, sometimes contrasting, sometimes suppor ting, conclusions about memory. One such example are the findings of Her man Ebbinghaus 32 , who highlights four ‘types’ of memory: RECALL

RECOGNITION

RECONSTRUCTION

RE - LEARNING / SAVING

30_ Hayes 1994, pp. 64 - 101 31_ Paul Connerton,‘How Societies Remember’ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), p.6 32_ Nicky Hayes, 'Memory', in ‘Foundations of Psychology - an Introductory Text’ (London: Routledge, 1994), pp. 64-100


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Accepting this will let us believe that there are multi-layered elements to the acquiring of memories, as well as how they are stored. The existence of a type of ‘filing system’ for the specific TYPE of memory is an impor tant one. This allows a classification of memories. There is then a settling period, which will allow a memory to perhaps transcend through various classifications, or from the shor t ter m to the long ter m. Hayes says that: “It seems that, if we allow our memor ies time to ‘settle’, then we recall things more effectively.”33 . This is however a moment effect. It is more likely to say that a memory will ‘tar nish’ or ‘fade’ if it is not recalled constantly, practiced if you will, even if it is allowed time to settle. This is where the identification of engrams occurs. These take the for m of a physiological ‘memory trace’ left by a remembered item. Unless this trace is strengthened by rehearsal, it will weaken and decay.34 Another way that memory has been classified, which is more relevant here is between the following: PROCEDURAL :

skills, abilities and schemata acquired during life

DECLARATIVE :

knowing ‘what’-events, episodes and things have happened

SEMANTIC : EPISODIC :

knowledge we posses regardless of personal knowledge

events, own experience, life

The section that we are most interested in with regards to this piece of writing is that of the episodic memory. We are most drawn architecturally, especially with reference to the design for users, in creating events, experiences, moments in life. Contrasting to that, Conner ton isolates 3 other types of memory definition35 , those of:

33_ Hayes 1994, p. 69 34_ Hayes 1994, pp. 64 - 101 35_ Connerton 1989, pp. 22 - 23


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P ERSONAL : refer to those acts of remember ing that take as their object one’s life history. C OGNITIVE : covers uses of ‘remember’ where we may be said to remember the meaning of words, or lines of verse, or jokes, or stor ies, or the lay-out of a city, or mathematical equations, or tr uths of logic, or facts about the future. H ABIT : consisting simply in our having the capacity to reproduce a cer tain perfor mance.

Essentially what is being concluded is that there seem to be r unning themes between the different classifications and definitions of memory, involving instinct, event recollection and lear nt facts. Memories can transcend through these classification groups and can change in status and hierarchy. Psychologically, recollecting and remembering bring these changes in categorization. But what of the method of recollection? It is fair to say that memories, depending on their type, can not only be recollected or reminded, a completely inter nal affair, but can also be relived on a physical level. There are then “(…)two contrasting ways of br inging the past into the present: acting out and remember ing.”36 ”Acting out becomes a compulsion to repeat, and repetition replaces capacity of remember ing”37 , also known as Freud’s introduction of transference. What is it that triggers this repetition, especially in an architectural capacity? Is it a mere lapse of brain signals, or a conscious attempt at recalling these events? Surely the whole definition of compulsion is that subconscious expression of a desire to do or say or act. Then is it perhaps a case of a conscious or even subconscious acknowledgement of a surrounding sensory trigger?

36_ Connerton 1989, p. 25 37_ Connerton 1989, as cited on p. 26


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Philosophical understanding of memory

“She sent out for one of these shor t, plump little cakes called ‘petites madeleines,’ (…) I raised to my lips a spoonful of the tea which I had soaked a morsel of cake. No sooner had the war m liquid, and the cr umbs with it, touched my palate than a shudder ran through my whole body, and I stopped, intent upon the extraordinary changes that were taking place. An exquisite pleasure had invaded my senses, but individual, detached, with no suggestions of its or igin. (…) Whence could it have come to me, this all powerful joy? I was conscious that it was connected with the taste of tea and cake, but that it infinitely transcended those savours, could not, indeed be of the same nature as theirs. Whence did it come? What did it signify? How could I seize upon and define it? I dr ink a second mouthful, in which I find nothing more that the first, a third, which gives me rather less than the second. It is time to stop; the potion is losing its magic. It is plain that the object of my quest, the tr uth, lies not in the cup, but in myself. (…) I put down the cup and examine my own mind. (…) And I begin again to ask myself what it could have been, this unremembered state which brought with it no logical proof of its existence, but only the sense that I was happy, that it was a real

state in whose presence other states of consciousness melted and vanished. I decide to attempt to make it reappear. I retrace my thoughts (…). I compel my mind to make one fur ther effor t (…). And then for the second time I clear an empty space in front of it, I place in position before my mind’s eye the still recent taste of that first mouthful, and I fe e l s o m e t h i n g s t a r t w i t h i n m e , something that leaves its resting-place and attempts to r ise, something that has been embedded like an anchor at a great depth, (…), I can hear the echo of great spaces traversed. Undoubtedly what is thus palpitating in the depths of my being must be the image, the visual memory which, being linked with taste, has tr ied to follow it into my conscious mind. But its str uggles are too far off, (…) and I cannot distinguish its for m, cannot invite it, as the one contemporary; its inseparable paramour, the taste of cake soaked in tea; cannot ask it to infor m me what special circumstance is in question, of what per iod in my past life. And suddenly the memory retur ns. The taste was that of the little cr umb of madeleine which on Sunday mor nings at Combray (…) when I went to say good day to her in her bedroom, my aunt Léonie used to give me, dipping it first in her own cup of real of lime-flower


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tea. The sight of the little madeleine had recalled nothing to my mind before I tasted it (…). And once again I had recognized the taste of the cr umb of the madeleine (…) immediately the old grey house upon the street, where her room was, rose up like the scenery of a theatre to attach itself to the little pavilion, opening up to the garden, which had been built out behind it for my parents (…); and with the house the town (…), the Square (…), the streets (…), the country roads (…). (…) so in that moment all the flowers in our garden and in M. Swann’s park, and the waterlilies on the Vivonne and the good folk of the village and their dwellings and the par ish church and the whole of Combray and of its sur roundings, taking their proper shapes and growing solid, sprang into being, town and gardens alike, from a cup of tea.” 38

38_ Marcel Proust,‘Swann'sWay’ (London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1957)

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39_ 'Gordian Knot', Flickr.com, (2009), http://www.flickr.com/photos/sokolin- maimon/3343224032/sizes/l/in/photostream/


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What this text shows is essential to the understanding of how people remember. Firstly, the narrative gives a complete ‘relation factor’ to the reader, while removing the element of time from the moment. This all happens instantly. The first drink’s reaction is immediate, shocking, unexpected. Secondly, there seems to be a translation between the moment and a physical reaction, an out-of-body experience almost. The realisation and attempt at rationalisation of the feeling is possibly more experienced through a momentary pondering. There is an uncer tainty of its origin. The amount of time spent actually pondering the reaction can however be extended to a degree propor tional in some way to the ‘magnitude’ of the ‘memory impact’ we witness. The recollection for a second time, and the almost flash-back-like nature of all the other memories is something we have all experienced at one time or another, an indication that all our memories are perhaps better represented as a group of interlocked elements rather than these stacked, grouped items which are separate of each other, as in a psychological sense. According to Freud: “To remember, then, is precisely not to recall events as isolated; it is to become capable of for ming meaningful nar rative sequences” as these nar ratives are used to generate a remember ing through the use of present tr iggers.40 Like the Gordian knot (see p. 35) which could not be untied, the str ucture of memory is so interdependent on its par ts that it is almost impossible to find where it star ts and how far you can link a single memory to others. Each of the strands of the ‘memory rope’ can even be a momentary recollection. This is par ticularly where memory tr uly thrives architecturally. Through a cer tain metaphysical level, where people have an experience that is individual, yet shared culturally amongst a group, each person is left with a long-lasting attachment to a space, in this case the square. The pragmatics of the psychology is not of equal impor tance as the resultant reaction of the individual and the per manent ‘mark’ the architect leaves on the sensual experience catalogue we all subconsciously store our memories within.

40_ Connerton 1989, as cited on p. 24


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Recounting the response from Proust, perhaps the difference between philosophical understanding of memory and the psychoanalytical, has to do with the point of view of perception. Where psychology is a study from a scientific, outsider’s point of view to achieve a greater topic understanding, philosophy is more a self-reflection, an acknowledgment that there is more to memory than just the process of recollection. Rather, there is a resultant emotional response through ones self. We get absorbed by the story, the narrative of recollection. The remember ing self is the story teller, and that really star ts with the basic response of our memory; it star ts immediately (…). We don't only tell stor ies when we set out to tell stor ies. Our memory tells us stor ies. That is what we get to keep from our exper iences: is a story.41 In a talk given by Kahneman, he highlights the separation between the “exper iencing self ” and the “remember ing self.” In this talk there is a brief mention of the factor that time plays on these two ‘selfs’. We are constantly experiencing as we go about our daily lives and these exper iences are very much momentary things; instant. The difference to the remember ing self is that when we tell the story, when we remember, we remove all elements of time. A story, a good story, is , according to Kahneman, reliant on three factors: CHANGES

SIGNIFICANT MOMENTS

ENDINGS

Perhaps this goes back to some childhood comfor t of having stories told to us, narratives that allowed us to be free of the present and get lost in a self-indulging removal from reality. Images excite us - afterwards - but they are not the phenomena of an excitement. (…) But the poetic act itself, the sudden image, the flare-up of the being in the imagination,are inaccessible to such (psyc hoanalytical) investigations.42

41_ Daniel Kahneman,‘The Riddle of ExperienceVs. Memory:TED2010’, 2010.Video Recorded Talk 42_ Gaston Bachelard and M. Jolas, ‘The Poetics of Space’ (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1994), pp. xvii - xviii


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Taking this, we can say that the act of remembering is an indication of having lived. We can remember, even if it is misconstr ued at times, hence we have experienced; we have lived. We can take an even momentary pause and be critical about our life, our quality of experiences, our stories. A kind of “dreaming consciousness” 43 which allows us a creative freedom to select, re-morph or even misrepresent a moment for our own personal satisfaction. (…) literal recall is very rare and unimpor tant, remember ing being not a matter of reproduction but of constr uction; it is the constr uction of a ‘schema’, a coding, which enables us to distinguish and, therefore, to recall.44 So why are we so free to remove factual elements from a memory, a story, a past experience? If we consider the experiential memory being recalled as one of general well-toned subject matter (and not that of a bad memory or unpleasantness) then it might be concluded that the memory was recalled through a longing or desire for events that have already been experienced: nostalgia.

43_ Bachelard 1994, p xx 44_ Connerton 1989, p.27


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Nostalgia in the context of memory Consider the following found images of memory:

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45_ Found objects, author unknown


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A trip to the Berlin flea market of Mauer Park is what is considered a regular Berliner Sunday after noon pass-time. Vendors and ar tists display their work and objects in the most casual of manners, allowing you to be drawn to any item that might catch your eye and entice you with its image. On one such stall, hidden behind a pile of leather clothing, some household appliances with missing wires and damp stains and a collection of 1940s rock vinyls, is a small basket, merely the size of a small loaf of bread. Tightly packed within it are image after image, postcard after postcard, envelopes, stamps, photos and film cells, tar nished, black and white, stained, bearing the marks of years long ago. The initial response of confusion as to the reason these items are being sold is slowly lost upon closer inspection. They are to be viewed in a very specific way: as objects in their own rite. The initial impor tance of subject recognition one would expect from a photo is slowly lost. Soon, these objects become intriguing. What does it say on the back of them? Who is in the photo? What are they smiling about? Why has this vendor got them? Where were they going and where did they come from? Question upon question intrigues you to lear n more about these objects. An element of fulfillment and excitement takes over. A new personal link has been for med with the object. It is now your own. In cinema, the actors were present when the spectators were absent (at the shooting) and the actors are absent when the spectators are present (at the projection). (…) in cinema, (the distance) is no longer the object itself, which is inaccessible from the outset, but, (…) a delegate it has sent me while itself withdrawing.46 It was slowly becoming clear that a personal attachment was for med with the objects through the creation of a new narrative. As illustrated by Conner ton’s quote, the absence of the subject is not absence of presence and absence from the perfor mance (in this case the taking of the photo or writing of the postcard) does not necessarily mean absence from the experience. A completely personal, fictional story was created based on merely a few characteristics of an object. But one must ask, where did this story come from, and tr uly what is its basis? 46_ Connerton 1989, p .78


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Exper ience of the present very largely depends on our knowledge of the past. We exper ience our present world in a context which is casually connected with past events and objects, and hence with reference to events and objects which we are not exper iencing when we are exper iencing the present. And we will exper ience our present differently in accordance with the different pasts to which we are able to connect that present. (…) present factors tend to influence - some might want to say distor t - our recollections of the past, but also because past factors tend to influence, or distor t, our exper ience of the present. (…) Thus even so seemingly simple an act as that which we descr ibe as ‘seeing someone we know’, Proust reminds us, is to some extent an intellectual process; for we pack the physical outline of the person we see with all the emotions we have already for med about them, and in the total picture of them which we compose in out minds those notions have a pr incipal place.47 So the interpretation one develops can be based on their experience and memories. It is also surely based on the presentation of the object. Tar nished paper, marks of travel through places and through time all add to the flavor of the creation, allowing one to recreate this naturally romantic fictional story which is based on their previous perceptions of pleasant memories. A kind of, as said by Perec, “ fictive memory, a memory that might have belonged to me.”48 This is the tr ue element of nostalgia. On a subconscious level it generally indicates a dissatisfaction with the present, a longing for times perhaps past, their traditions, habits, aesthetics and stories. Nostalg ia (…) is a longing for a home that no longer exists or has never existed. (It) is a sentiment of loss and displacement, but it is also a romance with its own fantasy.49 Note the word ROMANCE . That is essential to the understanding of nostalgia. It is a positive emotion, perhaps not in relation to the present, but cer tainly to the overall reaction. It is almost necessary to include an element of unachievable - a mystic overlay which places a slight 47_ Connerton 1989, p. 2 48_ Perec 1997, p. 129 49_ Boym 2001, p. xiii


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doubt in our heads about what we would do if we actually achieved that projected image. A fear of the loss of magic when that moment we strive for is achieved, and perhaps a hidden human condition of always striving to be somewhere better or different. Nostalgia is essentially a removal from the present and belongs anywhere but to the now. This is to say that nostalgia can also exist in regards to the future. Br uce McCall, an ar tist who worked with “The New Yorker” magasine, coined the ter m “faux nostalgia” which arose from his personal interest of how, as he says: “yesterday viewed tomor row” and the “(…) achingly sentimental year ning for times that never happened”

. In essence, what his pieces show is the optimistically, wrong projected image of the future existing in times of American economic depression, with notions covering the flying car to buying the household, personal, oversized robot (see p. 44). Although this is not to be taken in a tr uly literal manner as far as content is concer ned, McCain’s definition of his faux-nostalgia is one that tr uly fits with the nature of 50

the romantic mythical image. At first glance, nostalgia is a longing for a place, but actually it is a year ning for a different time - the time of our childhood, the slower rhythms of our dreams. In a broader sense, nostalgia is a rebellion against the moder n idea of time, the time of history and prog ress. The nostalgic desires to obliterate history and tur n it into a pr ivate or collective mythology, to revisit time like space, refusing to sur render to the ir reversibility of time that plagues the human condition.51 What is immediately then apparent is that there is an undeniable relation between the past, the present and the future with regards to nostalgia. A memory of the past is for med on the present and has an effect on the future. They are an indication of a life of experience. Children, for example, are not known for being nostalgic. Memories would either be waves of repeating experiences or pearls of crystalised experience in a specific space. This is where the exper ience takes place. It is then fair to say that a repositioning of oneself to a place where a

50_ Bruce McCall, 'Bruce McCall's Faux Nostalgia', in TED.com (TED.com, 2008), p. 12min 57sec 51_ Svetlana Boym, ‘The Future of Nostalgia’ (NewYork: Basic Books, 2001), p. xv


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past experience has happened will trigger a memory response. It has been romantically described as a “cor respondence between (…) inner landscape and the shape of the world.” 52 If then, this memory has been removed from the forefront of this ‘memory arrangement’ that psychologists suppor t, and is one of generally pleasant subject, the result will be a nostalgic recollection. It could be triggered by smell, taste, sensations, sound, from the minute to the grand. This is not to be confused with a negative memory recall, which is more associated with melancholia. Melancholia has an air of anxiety and is very much confined to “the planes of individual consciousness.” 53 There is however a very fine line between how the emotion is perceived on a personal level and what might be a “mour ning for the impossibility of mythical retur n” 54 becoming a false, forced reading of melancholia as nostalgia. Nostalgia is socially and culturally more special. Although based on individual biography, nostalgia can have a collective effect, an effect based on social memories, attitudes, history and culture. It often arises as a collective response to an event that will effect a community or nation, such as a city under occupation or effected by a disaster of some sor t. It then begins to feed into individual psyches, becoming institutionalised and intrinsic to a people collective, providing a cultural identity of shared landmarks between their everyday lives. It star ts to become a bridge between the individual and collective memory. This would be, for example, what adver tising targets: a commercial nostalgia appealing to people’s desire for things retro; a fetish possession which plays on people’s fear of not only losing what is already in the past, but also what might soon be in lost. To us, the past seen through nostalgic eyes is an ideal, a perfect snapshot. Undoubtably, there is a link between place, space, memory, nostalgia and time. Seeing nostalgia as a measure of distance and displacement from time, it is then tr ue to say that nostalgia occurs when there is a lack of intimate experience and availability of a desired object, space or experience of space.

52_ Boym 2001, p.12 53_ Boym 2001, p. xvi 54_ Boym 2001, p. 8 55_ McCall 2008,‘Bruce McCall’s faux nostalgia’

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In view of illustrating the impor tance of a remote link to another’s personal context, now reconsider the images from the star t of the chapter. Remove each one, touch it, look at it closely, tur n it, r un your finger over the edge, the scratches, the stains, the size. Really look at the photo. Star t posing the questions:

Who are they? Where could they be going? Who is taking the photo? When was it taken or written? Where is the photo being taken? Where has it come from? Where is it going? Where are they now? Create the story.


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/time/memory/nostalgia/space/place/time/memory/nostalgia/space/place/

The nar rative of one life is par t of an interconnecting set of nar ratives; it is embedded in the story of those groups from which individuals der ive their identity. 56

It might be best to describe place as a space with experience. This is not just in regards to extreme or out-of-the-ordinary experience, but anything that evokes an emotional attachment. A strong enough attachment will then generate a memory, which snowballs, gathering accumulative nostalgia over the period of time and distance between the present and the exper ience. But the present is just as much an experience within a space. And exper ience evokes an emotion attachment. Hence, nostalgia, or the ability to be nostalgic, needs to become an attribute in our architectural vocabulary as an added dimension to the existence of the link: person experience - history - culture. It allows us to understand a square in a perhaps, previously ignored manner, allowing the architect to draw some sor t of, the previously mentioned, “spirit� from the site. Architecture is, after all, a response to conditions, irrelevant of whether this is in a embracing or rejecting manner.

56_ Connerton 1989, p. 21


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One such square which is a prime example of this argument is that of Eleftheria Square in Nicosia, Cypr us. Being a site of great historical intricacy and cultural development, as well as one of personal attachment, the following study attempts to show that there is a nostalgic feature to the site and that attribute is one which gives this currently uneventful space a character and social historical impor tance, specifically through the medium of communication with people. By gathering these stories together, the site will develop a richness and layered connotation of emotional and experiential attachment. What is key here is to trigger and gauge (even forcefully at times) the reaction of nostalgic recall from different case studies of people of various backgrounds and emotional attachments, from ranging cultures, to backgrounds, ages and educations. These accounts need to be ‘diary’ in nature. They are not concer ned with consistency of facts from person to person, neither about the like-to-like comparison between story and historical fact, but rather to prove that a square is more than just a three-dimensional spatial existence or a visual interpretation, and dwells deeper into the romanticised nature that we all posses for stories and memories.


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old Nicosia: a site in conflict August 2010 author’s photos


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- I go sit there for a bit, and the old coffee house still makes coffee for two coins. Either that, or I go down to the market. But now, everything is for the youngsters. Where can I go? p. 119, ln. 16


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- We used to go a lot more when we were kids. On Sundays now, these Sr i Lankan’s and foreigners go up there by the Municipality, they lay their food out and they eat. p. 100, ln. 223

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- Its changed a lot. The impor tant thing is that the people here used to be local. p. 101, ln. 2

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- I still try and find the places I used to go to but they seem to have changed. They take the building and then put something else in it. p.120, ln. 47

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- Especially before the bank bought the little coffee club there it was really nice. p.101, ln. 300


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- I used to go to the pr imary school that was relatively close by, by bike. We all used to go by bike back then. p.122, ln 50


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- My brother was one of the last students there. p. 97, ln. 129


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- The coffee house, yes was then there. Thats where we used to go for our coffee. p. 96, ln. 89


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- All the people in Nicosia, used to br ing their children here to the park, long time ago. When I was 14-15, it was always full down there. Especially on a Sunday. Now its just a mess. p.112, ln. 30


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- It was nice. We used to go on the weekend. I always went on Saturday. Everyone had to go past Hadjisavvas’. p. 96, ln. 97


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- When we finished school, thats were we went. There were shops, patisser ies, we hung out, checked the scene out. (...) And this was all before the invasion. p. 124, ln 128

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- For me its towards the worst that its changed. You see I’m an old man so I remember it how it used to be, with the people that used to be here. p. 112, ln. 30


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- That used to be a cafe. And it used to be really nice with nice roofing tiles, stone pieces, traditionally pretty, big ... p.112, ln. 51

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Through its concrete labyr inth, a wilder ness more profound than any tract of the Troodos, I found myself stager, tr udging in boots so wor n that nobody any longer enquired after them. The fever of building and demolition, the sprouting of hotels and offices, the straggle of Cubist suburbs, looked at once new and shoddy. (...) Closed in Venetian rampar ts which were built unavailing against the Turk, it looks from the air like a many-pointed star, intr icate and hopeless. (...) But now the walls have been breached by viaducts, a br itish innovation, and this pr iceless town too has been shredded almost to nothing, barely distinguishable from a thousand others. 57

57_ Colin Thubron, 'Nicosia', in ‘Journey into Cyprus’ (Chatham:W&J Mackay Ltd., 1975), p. 155


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The divided capital

With regards to the general development of the ancient civilizations, Cypr us was always seen as a stepping stone through to the middle easter n regions for Europe and vice versa. It played the role of a base of commerce, strategic military position, history and culture, and continues to do so today. Being a city that developed through history with constant influences, Nicosia, the capital, has become one of limited rigour. The only major for m present in the city’s fabric is that of the central old city. It is marked out by the presence of a Venetian wall built in the 16th Century, circular in its general shape, with 11 bastions protr uding along its circumference. Within this was where the city (now old city) was contained, first as a mark of defense, but later on as a measure of constriction during times of occupation. Originally settled by the Ionian Greeks it became a place for offloading greek colonies’ population surplus. After Persian influences, and eventual capturing by the Romans, Byzantine dominance star ted on playing a big par t in the country’s culture and religious attitudes. It became an apparent feature in the Lusignan Dynasty’s Cr usades effor ts, Venetian r ule, Ottoman dictatorship to, up until recent history, being a bought colony of the British empire.58 As recently as the mid-70’s the country has been divided almost into half after an attempt at a Turkish invasion post-military coup in 1974, sharing the land with what is a generally unrecognised Turkish state to the Nor th. Through its hardships the island has had to fight hard to maintain its routes. The use of the word laikon (or ver nacular) is the idea of tradition and history which became the main driving force for the sur vival and endeavor of the nation. It has perhaps then r ubbed off on the local attitude of people. Though generally welcoming towards foreign cultures, the underlying tone of hesitance or apprehension towards the tr ue reasons behind ‘foreign’ actions becomes only apparent if you manage to ear n the tr ust of the locals, something usually only done through being of the same heritage. Tr ust is assumed between all citizens but hard to acquire if you are 58_ Philip Newman,‘A Short History of Cyprus’ (London: Longman's, Green and Co. Ltd, 1940)


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59_ Google.co.uk, 2010, http://maps.google.co.uk/maps?q=cyprus&um=1&ie=UTF- 8&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wl


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not one yourself. This is even translated into the buildings in Cypr us, maintaining a cer tain type of hellenism especially through the times of post-independence, in 1960, when the country has undergone political, economical and technological innovations. It somehow has resulted in the country taking the most out of its Byzantine influences, which seem to be mainly unchallenged by exter nal influences and foreign imposition. This is perhaps because the main power in the country, is still tradition, an ideal still largely impersonated by the image of the church, who were largely responsible for the development of the culture of the place, thorough education projects, tax collection, justice systems and, in an architectural context, public projects, including squares and buildings. The wall is still present, being the most obvious sign of the current Turkish occupation, with the border line being most visible from a pedestrian level. This is where we find the site for this study. Placed on one of these bastions, the Eleftheria square is one of moderately shor t history. Not a square per se, but rather a bridge over the moat of the Venetian wall, the originally named Metaxas Square, became the connection between the old and new city. Built when under the British empire, the square became the site of the Nicosia Municipality. As well as other general amenities in the area, the cite has developed and evolved its function, as one of the new cross-over points between the old city, which is mainly under occupation, to the new. It has also changed in its reputation, from one of a kind of glamour, to the gathering place of the immigrant population of the city. The old city has now become derelict and mistreated, lowering land value and hence the types of people it attracts, slowly becoming the site for sex workers and substance abuse. The way this effected the general local populous is one of great dissatisfaction. The expectation of the locals is to maintain that element of laikon and the response has been bordering on disgust.60 This is one of the reasons the current gover nment has decided to adopt this square once more and try and bring it back to a more reputable, rejuvenated present. Since 2006, the square has been par t of a redevelopment plan under taken by the

60_ Appendix A, Subject C, pp. 101-105


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inter nationally known office of Zaha Hadid, in what is labeled a very controversial response for many people, local or otherwise. A guarded reaction from a traditional public This work is less concer ned by the design approach or physical result of the new project. What is tr uly intriguing is the response the public have had. Through the inter viewing of what could be considered exemplar cases of public opinion 61, what is appearing to happen is that there is a mixed response, however, all with a generally negative and complacent under tone. Subject B talks of uncer tainty about the design idea, a male in his late-60‘s who was raised in the area.62 This is a general feeling when the subject seems to be brought up in the inter view process of a specific circle. Subject F seems to be bothered by economic factors but has under tones of a social problem. 63 Due to the size of the city and the intimacy that exists on location, it has become a big talking point with people feeling compelled to interact in public discussions, evident in the comments found in letters of complaint to the Municipality 64 , or on web discussion blogs, where people are free to voice their opinion. 65 Still the question remains: where does this strong response of apprehension and inability to adapt and accept come from? Nostalgia is the answer to this question. Combined with this idea of laikon, there is a definite cultural, if not personal attachment, for the inhabitants of this city. In one way or another, most of the Cypriot inhabitants of the city have some link to the square. It has generated and developed a type of reputation which has embedded itself in the historical make-up of the cities inhabitants. With a xenophobic under tone, which is more veiled than inhabitants would like to admit, perhaps the nostalgia is for a time of exclusivity and desire to match the

61_ Appendix A, pp. 93-126 62_ Appendix A, p. 99, ln. 235 63_ Appendix A, p. 113, ln. 106 64_ Appendix C, pp.172 - 182 65_ Appendix E, pp. 192 - 228


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function of the area to the social reputation it has with the inhabitants.66 This is not to say that there are any totalitarian attitudes by the people, but rather a reminiscent fear of past suppressions from invaders, a big par t of the country’s history. This square represents an image of the sur vival of past conquerers; an icon of hardships past. There also seems to be a real issue with the new design’s aesthetic. When given the oppor tunity to voice their opinion, many have commented on the finishing of the new square. 67 When questioned though what the alter native should be, people seem at a loss for an answer.68 This is also still an attachment to the old, the familiar, the comfor table. In a country set in its ways, it is always a difficulty to go against the flow of things nor m. This is generally a society r un by the older generation, a collective for whom the traditional attitudes seem to be moving ‘forward’ more quickly than they would like. The general love for things past is stronger and more prominent, also displayed through the general negative and sarcastic attitude by the press. 69 These are the people that have the stories to share about the times in history of newly acquired political freedom.70 This is the main driver behind the result of the square. With a great amount of attention given to this project, this has become a huge political tool for the current political establishment. With the European Union presidency being allocated to Cypr us for a ser vice in 2012, all eyes are on this small island to por tray the image of a developing, moder n Europe. But on the personal, human level, these people seem to be full of stories revolving around this space, from the the shop owner, to the user, inhabitant and passer by. 71

(for images of the submitted design, see Appendix B, pp. 159 - 168)

66_ Appendix A, p. 124, ln. 127 67_ Appendix A, p. 109, ln. 5 68_ Appendix A, p. 101, ln. 59 69_ Appendix D, pp. 186 - 192 70_ Appendix A, p.112, ln. 59 71_ Appendix A, pp. 93-126


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From minor past to major present

If we take a step back and tr uly try and relate this convoluted situation in Nicosia to the initial argument of nostalgia, we can highlight a few things that can be applied on a more general scale. It is tr ue to say that there is a definite vagueness and inconsistency appearing in the accounts that we are being dealt by the various inter viewees. However, what are consistent are the various recollections of small moments and events in their memory recalls. Many times, without the need for probing, these small experiences get shared freely and passingly, which are perhaps not given the full attention they require. Subject B speaks of the small stream r unning past below the square, or the cinema that used to be adjacent to the mayor’s office.73 On a scale of irregular or extreme experience, buying a packet of cigarettes from a local kiosk might not appear a par ticularly nostalgic or memorable event. But surely this is what nostalgia does to us. The same way a toddler will immediately want a forgotten toy once it has been taken away, this element of possession is apparent here and becomes a trigger of nostalgia; the step between owning and wanting an object, memory or experience. This is the power of nostalgia: it has the ability to elevate the insignificant experiences of the past to a present significance, allowing the experienced the choice to either act towards this memory, against it, or neither. There is the undoubtable link between past, present and future but also with the events that take place in them. An insignificant event of the present moves to the past

72_ Author’s image, Covent Garden, London 2010 73_ Appendix A, p. 97, ln. 219


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immediately during acting out and upon completion. If this experience is not one of sorrow or discomfor t, any plan to influence it, or the location it took place in, can, in the future, elevate these experiences from insignificant to one of great impor tance to the individual or the collective. Hence, and this is key, any future moves of removing or adapting these past ‘insignificants’ without responding to present conditions will create a disjointed relationship between these different stages of time and hence narrative. There is no longer a continuation of a site as well as experiential history, which has a sure and inescapable effect on culture and social memory. The maintenance of the link is imperative to the natural progression of a site and its need to develop and be relevant to the fabric of its surrounding urban condition.

The essence of what is being remembered Impressions emerge as a reaction to an atmosphere (…). Such impressions are recorded as par t of a process of associated thought and subsequently given value and meaning. They therefore seem inextr icably linked to things which already exist or are known, be they personal memor ies and exper iences or established cultural patter ns.74 The vagueness of the events being recounted is a consistent element in the recorded stories. Where Subjects D and E are confident about the past situation on the square, their account is driven by anger. 75 Their opinion is blurred and driven by cultural bias or a traditional upbringing. Their account though is still relevant and their memory of the ‘old‘ square is still present through cer tain triggers which are either on site, or even hinted to where they were on site. Subject F talks of walks through the section of the old wall76 , and stories of his brother. What this is all pointing to is the fact that there does not need to be an exact representation of the experienced space available to trigger a memory. Neither is there a reliability to the factual nature of the recount. What is being viewed and then remembered is 74_ Sergison Bates architects. and others, 'Feeling at Home,Working with Appearances, Making Impressions, the City of Things', in Papers 2 (Barcelona London: Editorial Gustavo Gili ;Sergison Bates architects, 2007) 75_ Appendix A, pp. 105 - 111 76_ Appendix A, p. 113, ln. 69


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the essence, be it the essence of the site that used to be or the essence of the experience that used to be. Though Hayes says that “ (…) if we are in the setting where our memor ies where first laid down, they are easier to recall” 77 , mentally recreating the context it was experienced in will allow for an easier recollection. The danger, however, is that cognitive warps allow you to create reference points with which events are perceived through the use of various mnemonic techniques (or memory aids) by creating memorable links between pieces of infor mation.78 But where there is a danger of this process failing is that people set their own reference points, and these links do exactly what the process states: they (i.e. the links) get warped so as to create a continuity of story. There is then an automatic oppor tunity for narrative manipulation, removing not only the credibility of the memory that is being shared, but also the reference points that are being used. This means, therfore that the reference points which are being ‘remembered’ are potentially not present, but rather hinted. It is the hint, again this essence, that is required in a square, which allows for that oppor tunity of continuation of narrative from past through to future. It is a labour in vain to attempt to recapture it (one’s past): all the effor ts of our intellect must prove futile. The past is hidden somewhere outside the realm, beyond the reach of intellect, in some mater ial object (in the sensation which that mater ial object will give us) which we do not suspect. And as for that object, it depends on chance whether we come upon it or not before we ourselves must die.79

The architectural hinge space All this however is not necessarily new. What is tr uly valuable to us is its connection to architecture in a way that is useful to us. Upon closer analysis of these facts, as well as going through the process of speaking to people and trying to gain a reaction from them, one thing 77_ Hayes 1994, p.83 78_ Hayes 1994 79_ Proust 1957, p55


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has tr uly become obvious with regards to this square. This square is actually not as impor tant to people in a day-to-day, routine manner. The fact that this ‘square’ is not tr uly a square can hence not have the functional attachment to people’s condition, as they think it does. All of the inter viewees have neglected the actual square from their accounts, with no or little nostalgic attachment to the square itself. Their general dissatisfaction, be it of cultural or political resentment, or an inability to adapt to change freely, must not be interpreted as nostalgia for the square itself. The way nostalgia manifests itself is in a different way. The impor tance this square holds is more implied, largely through its presence on a metaphysical level. It is representative, not of the actions that happen in it, but rather on the actions that happen around it. It is a hinge, a hub of sor ts, which ties and grounds the varying experiences of people to it. Like a hinge, all the nostalgic recounts which have taken par t in spaces around it are connected to it, and even ones from fur ther away can be subsequently traced back to it. This network is also adaptable, as other memories or spaces can be added to it continuously, expanding it indefinitely. One can almost then imagine a hinge space like this eventually linking to another, expanding from cities, to countries, to continents. The architectural world can be seen with a new kind of mapping, that of the nostalgic space, the space that shows us a history, a cultural stamp and a map of valued experiences. This spatial hinge is reliant on these nodes (or joints) to connect the system together. Any removal or adapting of them will have serious repercussions on the whole system. This is why changes need to take into consideration this system, and how it is to be changed.


the shared architectural hinge

_88 _88

80

80_ Author’s image 2010


89 _

memory - nostalgia - culture - event

(‌) memor ies which we recall or which are evoked for us in the course of a day by our direct or indirect relations with other people (‌) every recollection (‌)exists in a relationship with the whole ensemble of notions which many others possess: with persons, places, dates, words, for ms of language, that is to say with the whole mater ial and moral life of the societies of which we are par t or of which we have been par t of. It is not because thoughts are similar that we can evoke them; it is rather because the same group is interested in those memor ies, and is able to evoke them, that they are assembled together in our minds It is to our social spaces - those which we occupy, which we frequently retrace with our steps, where we always have access, which at each moment we are capable of mentally reconstr ucting - that we must tur n our attention, if our memor ies are to reappear.81 What this study has attempted to show is that there is perhaps a neglected element to architectural design and critique. Nostalgia, as an extension and attribute to memory, has a definite attachment to experience: experiencing through event. Where this event takes place is then just as vital. The space, or better, place, has not only the ability to accommodate events but also to develop attachments around it. This will happen through the availability of the space throughout history, to allow all the various narratives to slowly fuse around it. It is then relieved through the ability of people to relate to the space. The fabric, oppor tunity and amount of attention that a space has around it, are some of the characteristics that a square can draw from so as to become more relatable. The same way the photos shown before 81_ Connerton 1989, p.37


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delivered a story through their aesthetic and phenomenologically derived travel through history, so do squares work in the same manner. They need to HINT to a story through the elements available to our senses, be it sight, touch, sound or smell, so as to trigger that narrative process. In the case of redeveloping a square such as this one, it is not necessary then to leave it untouched and fading, but rather to provide a remnant of sor ts, maintaining and developing the squares topology. This does not have to be a literal, monumental feature, but rather attributes allowing the connective tissue of nostalgia to slowly for m and connect this space to others around it, as well as to people using it. This provides a full appreciation of experience and developed narratives across the age gaps of its users, from the generation past, to that of the present, through to those of the future, all of which will move inevitably through these three stages. This is how culture and social history is for med: through the maintenance of historical places, events and cultural memories of the past exists the potential of new events and experiences for the present, which will, in the cyclical process, become the historical places, events and cultural memories of the future.

E!!"#


91 _

V. A p p e n d i x e s


_92

Speak to me, O Muse, of the storyteller Dr iven to the ends of the ear th, both infant and ancient, and through him reveal Everyman. Those who once listened to me Over time became my readers instead, They no longer sit in a circle but apar t, Each oblivious to the other I’m an old man with a broken voice, but the story still r ises from the depths, and the mouth slightly open, repeats it, as powerful as it is effor tless. A liturgy in which no one needs to be initiated Into the meaning of the words and sentences

-Homer the Storyteller Wim Wenders, 'Wings of Desire',

stills opposite (USA, 1988)


93 _

Appendix A - inter views 82

I N T E RV I E W 1 - S u b j e c t A : T h a i w o r k e r 1

Hi, I wonder if you could help me. I study architecture, and I am looking at this square here, and I wanted to see how people use it, if they like it, if they don't like it. Because now there are changing it. They’re going to change all this.

5

I don't live here. So i don’t know the place that well. But do you come here for visits to find fr iends? Yes.

10

15

Every week or every month or more/ less? No, once a year. But some times we or other people we know come here with friends, to eat on the weekend next to the big building there (points at municipality) when weather is nice.

I N T E RV I E W 2 - S u b j e c t B : R e t i r e d a n t i q u e s h o p o w n e r ( a u t h o r ’s t r a n s l a t i o n )

(after br ief intro of task and aims) 1

But we don’t know what they want to do. What are they doing? Well thats why I’m here. I’ve come to have a see, to see what they have shown people...

5

But we don’t know what they want to do. So they haven’t done a presentation, shown you what they want to do?

10

No nothing.They take away and add and they’ ll tur n it into whatever they want. As long as it makes money. But they give it to their own contractors. 82_ Wenders 1988,“Wings of Desire”


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_94

You see I heard that it was the first time they presented their drawings publicly, and left it up to whoever wanted to go see them. Apparently they didn't make a huge effor t to let the shop owners know. What can I tell you? Well what I am looking at, specifically, is the relation between the people and the area. That is to say, if they remember how it was, how its changed. I mean, I can see a difference in the last 10 years. That people changed, the plans for the area changed....

15

20

But we don’t know what they want to do. Didn’t Ms Mavrou (Ms Eleni Mavrou, current mayor of Nicosia) tell you? Well she (Ms Mavrou) seems to put up the same images and hopes for someone to see them.

25

Did you see them? I did yes. Well didn’t you ask her?

30

Well I haven’t spoken to her. I haven’t yet tr ied to get into the process of making appointments etc. I want to know more about how you remember it. Well before there was the square. Which was stuck right up there on the wall. You can walk up there where the Council is and you can see how the walls used to be. That hole was not there. You couldn’t see the wall beneath. it was stuck right onto it. They’ve put glass there now. For what reason, I’m not sure. So that we can sit in the sun?

35

Yeah maybe they’re trying to catch the sun.

40

Yeah. Well thats the problem. I had heard something, some time ago, that they were cer tain the wall wasn’t there. That there was a big rock or something. Is this one the English threw into the hole? (hesitant) Yeah thats right the English. They came and covered up the wall. When they made that street which became the square?

45


95 _

50

Yes it was the square......the square....... That was called Metaxa square.

55

60

65

70

Yes it was called Metaxa. The one kiosk was there. And there was another down in the moat. This side there wasn’t one. The other one came later. So here and there, and every gover nment that came through, moved some stones around. They were the Mitsis. They were in the ar my, with the English. Thats how the English gave per mission. You had to be linked in with the ar my. So you had to have good connections. Yeah you had the connections and you just went to them and they’d say “Here have the Kiosk” for example. And in Greece it was the same thing. Especially to people injured in the fighting, since they couldn’t work, they’d give them other jobs, like cigarette stands or something like that. There was the one man I met, Cypriot, who had lost his legs in the Bulgarian war. Anyway, so down there in the moat, there was also a clock. If you go to where the Hellenic Bank is, across from there, in the cor ner as you go down there. There was a clock. Then the Masons put something there, but they’ve taken that away too. They took away the kiosk, the Masons took away the kiosk and....is there anything there now, do you know? Like a pole? No. There isn’t? Ah...

75

Is that where the cinema was then? No the cinema was across from there.

80

But thats also gone r ight? No no, the cinema belong to Solomo Mitsi. That proper ty, from the bank belonged to the Mitsi School.

85

Ah, yes I think I remember reading that they were around. So he built the Mitsi School. There, there used to be the British....the British something. The English had something that was from EOKA (Cypr iot freedom-fighting ar my most present


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_96

from 1955-1959). Then next to that was the cinema. And then the coffee house/ club? The coffee house, yes was then there. Thats where we used to go for our coffee.

90

I heard stor ies about that. My granddad used to go as well. We used to eat our mahalepi (smile). So there was company, chat, things happening.

95

It was nice. We used to go on the weekend. I always went on Saturday. Everyone had to go past Hadjisavvas’ (venue name). Of course.

100

That was made by Hadjisavvas. Those were made...they were funded by the church..r ight? They built it. That’s it. What, to make money? Well they built it for the people to use, and charged some rent. Well, then this side was the Mitsi school. He built it, and the owner i think was the head judge. he was a judge, from Limassol, and he was on the committee and from his village, he had 2-3 councilmen. He was on the council, and he was above all the others on the council’s committee. And then he had some people super vising him.

105

110

By the English? Yeah, so he used to give them money and they let him build schools.

115

So the English put up their own education system. Well the Mitsi school was paid by the rent the owner received from the St. Michael school that was english.

120

With a name like St. Michael it was going to be English r ight? So they were both English? This (Mitsi school) was not an English school. He built them and rented the one. he had a few people renting the school over time. Then, they were taken over by Archbishop

125


97 _

Makarios. He had the control. Why did he take them? Did he want them for his own? What was he going to do with them? 130

Im not too sure. My brother was one of the last students there. But everyone wanted to go to the Mitsi school. it was better than most of the secondary schools here. It was with the English system. So how did you get into this school?

135

You had to take exams. So it wasn't a matter of money. it was clearly academic.

140

145

No, no money had nothing to do with it. it was £4 that the people from Marathas. It was clearly an academic institution. And after that you even got a good job. In banks, where you had to take exams to work in. You had to pass the english Ordinary exams, the general exams, and then the Higher tier Mathematics, which showed you knew the system. The school was a Higher level education facility. It was £4 for the people from Marathas a year. Until recently. and the foreign people who stayed there paid £7. Like my brother who wasn’t from Marathas, he paid £7, and £29-30 for boarding. So you stayed there, you ate, you slept...

150

Yes i mean it was considered cheap. for Cypriot standards. not only locals went. also people from villages a bit fur ther away. So people came from that far. how did they get here? Bikes, buses?

155

On donkeys! (smile) So it took them a while then? (smile)

160

Well nearby villages that were 3-4 kilometers away had it a bit easier. But because it was a good school people came from Paphos, from Nicosia for example. That far away? (it is relevant to note that the tr ip to and from Paphos, up until the last 10 years, was one that would take, by car) almost 2 and a half hours, a long tr ip to anywhere by Cypr iot standards).


appendix A - interviews

Well it was a boarding school. It was cheap.

_98

165

They must have done that for some reason r ight? so that people join, so that they have their own people in there, why? Well I think he did it for Marathas. He wanted to help his village. There were a lot of them. It was cheaper for them as a gift. Who used the money or whatever is not ... I don’t know. I had heard, a while ago, that they had a plan, as it went towards the wall...

170

Sor ry, i don't get what it had to do with the walls.

175

Well when they were trying to find the old walls, they were looking for changes made by the .... before there were the...the.... Venetians? Yes. then before there were other people. Franks? Ger man? and every time they would move them or change them, then cover them up. Now they had a program to stay there and keep looking..They’re digging, they found some jugs that were used, probably to drink their water or something (smile). They found ar tifacts. But that wasn't anything. its new. they wanted to move the municipality from there. to move it.

180

185

What? They had such an idea? Well it was Lellos’ idea (Lellos Demetriades, a long r unning mayor of Nicosia).

190

How long, like 10 years ago? More. He was in charge for many years. He might have been mayor, maybe 20-30 years. He wanted to go to move the Municipality building. But when they dug there they found some things, ar tifacts or bodies.

195

I’m sure they did. I mean they even found some in Makedonitissa. Yes. Even up in the Acropolis and Agia Paraskevi region as well. Anyway so they decided to clear it up, and then close it off there, and build the Municipality there. The closed them off, so that people could go visit them. So now, here, you’re saying that they’re carrying on...

200


99 _

205

Well they’re doing work. They keep opening them up, work of some sor t, trying to search, to find something... Yup, trying to find the metals of the ear th. (smile) Ha ha, ok we’ll let them have it if they find it. Good on them.

210

But they haven't found anything special. It would be ok if they were looking for something specific.

215

Exactly that. They haven't found anything special, like a building or a statue. They seem to have nothing to show for all these digs.

220

Well exactly, if they wanted to show, all they have to do is put a cover over it so people can see it and then build on top of it. Keep the moat under neath. I mean theres the river there too. It used to come from the public park. Theres water there, like a stream. It comes here, goes past Er mou Street. It seems to have dr ied up a bit now.

225

There is still some flowing now. Go down and have a look. Down there, next to the public toilets. Mmm really nice down there (smile).

230

If you go down there. You’re see the wall, some trees here and there, and there the water is flowing also. What’s happening and what they’re going to do... Well I guess we will have to see. They keep adding, changing, changing again...

235

They put those glass banisters, I don’t know, looks like a weird kind of thing to me. Thats what I'm trying to understand. Must be one of these moder n type things.

240

A friend of mine told me. He said: “There’s some glass there. Some sor t of glass”. Ok. Well it was hidden when I went. I kind of saw it a bit slyly.


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_100

There used to be more space around there. Well it was all closed up. I mean how are you supposed to go see?!

245

I guess the only way is if you climb up to the Municipal office, and walk around there, have a little look. Theres things up there to read also. I think they put some writing on the glass there. Maybe they’re reflective I dunno. Its the Sri Lankan women that go and sit up there.

250

Yeah from what I understand, there aren't as many Cypr iots down here any more. Yeah not really that many. They come do some shopping, maybe have a coffee...We used to go a lot more when we were kids. On Sundays now, these Sri Lankan’s and foreigners go up there by the Municipality, they lay their food out and they eat.

255

Why do they all meet here? Is it because they live in the old city? No they come from everywhere, the villages and other places around for example and they eat here. So they can meet with people. Some go to the Public Park. They have a monopoly over the damn place. They lay their tables and sit there. Come by on a Sunday and you’ll see them. Where are you from? My one granddad is from Paphos, the other from here, I live in Makedonitissa. I’ve been away now at University and now I’ve come back to do my study.

260

265

Cypr us University? No no, in England.

270

See, some go to England, others go to Spain for this kind of thing, Yeah but I want to see my things first. Why go to Spain? Im just trying to understand now though how people see this.

275

But we cant under stand. See this is it. I remember it differently, and that was 10 years ago. Well since 1960 it star ted changing (note, this is the year Cypr us gained its independence from the British empire). Since then, every person does what he wants.

280


101 _

Any, person, with, money, does whatever he wants. 285

290

(Here we walk out the shop towards the site and stop to observe) See there is the old wall. These two shops are there since the last 40 years at least. If you go up there you can maybe see down into the work they are doing. I know the man from this shop here next door, he’s a very nice Bulgarian man. He speaks Greek and everything. There, you see these 3 guys? They sit there all day. The phar macy there is probably a good place to maybe talk to. Yes, yes, I’ve heard about that one. That’s been passed down from generation to generation r ight? Its very much a family business.

295

300

Yes, it was the father’a phar macy, but once he passed he gave it to the son and the wife and now the two of them own it. Also maybe the shop around there which has been here for a while is also good to maybe talk to. That bank there (pointing) is new. But I think someone has paid for all this to be fixed so they can get favors with the gover nment. All the offices up there (pointing) and the stores around there are owned by this fat man, this quite fat fat man (smile). But it used to be nice. Especially before the bank bought the little coffee club there it was really nice. But when you have money. Now there’s all this there. And I still don't really know whats happening.

305

Well from what I gather, they’re going to close off this road and open the whole space up, with this thing like a tongue extending past over the moat. I think its going to be like a white-ish concrete. But they found some things when they were digging and now there left standing there. Thats why they haven't done anything for like 2 years.

310

See I think that they can take what they found and show it off. But they found another wall. So now they don't know what to do. Its gone from 6 million, to 8, to 10. Well if you find out anything else, come tell me (smile) I N T E RV I E W 3 - S u b j e c t C : P h a r m a c y O w n e r ( a u t h o r ’s t r a n s l a t i o n )

1

(after br ief intro of task and aims)


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_102

Its changed a lot. The impor tant thing is that the people here used to be local. But look, I think people follow, whether its positive or negative, whether you show them the past situation or the future one.

5

Absolutely. Unless the repor ter does not write or display photos of how it was, the nostalgia of the past is non-existent. They wont do this. Their job is another. Hence, it more IF there is an interest. Whether its better or worse, the design has both its advantages and disadvantages. Definitely, the square is going to become a square is a positive thing. People will come, there will be some sor t of interest for both the tourist as well as the local, bringing them here. So, there is a drawing,so it will attract people, so they will come, so we will do better.

10

15

But this is a purely commercial point of view. There is surely an effect on the people that live and work here on a more personal level. A connection feeling pr ide, a connection with the space. Its the walls then. As a whole, and the connection to the people. There is nothing else here. It would perhaps be the case if it was the removal of something here that is so pretty and so useful. Look at that kiosk? Is it pretty? Now if this was a nicely designed piece, I would say yes. So that you can say that the location has any par ticular effect on the people of, say, you generation, I don't think so. Its a big mix of what all the different leaders did so that they can all make money, and look after their own (smile). There isn't anything, say except for those walls. I mean the improvement, if it is an improvement, will lead to a development maybe of the area. I mean that is it. If there is something that people will recognize as their own.

20

25

30

See if they were talking of knocking down the walls I’d be saying: “Yes, this is ridiculous...” or whatever. But there is nothing else around. What, because they cut a tree that was there for example... There is, by the way, people who even argue that. Some want the trees as they are and when asked why it cant be moved, the respond with: “Just because!”.

35

I only remember those pathetic christmas lights they placed on the square every year... You don't think those were nice (smile)

40


103 _

Yeah sure beautiful. (smile) But not too much else. 45

Not even as a shop owner? Going down to talk to the shop next door or across the street for a coffee...?

50

We did yes. But they all moved out so I wasn’t left with many people I knew. But I’m generally not convinced by what they’re trying to do here. I mean if they were talking of adding some sor t of wood or stone as a finish, I’d be more convinced, but this concrete... At least they’re replacing this ugly kiosk. Did you have a look at the proposed drawings?

55

Yeah they look ok. As long as they try and keep the people infor med, I’m not too concer ned with these drawings. But at least they made an effor t to infor m people

60

Tr ue. But the issue is that people just look at these drawings and attach themselves to a crowd, like they have no opinion. Maybe we’re afraid to think. This is what I thought: We Cypr iots like out comfor t. I know how things work and why should you try and change it?

65

I think that is tr ue. A lot of us are set in our ways. Maybe theres no point in designing for us. What are we going to gain? It should be design for the youngsters. I mean there’re not many of us here left also. Locals are abandoning their place. From what I understand there aren't as many locals coming as before.

70

75

No. Whats happened is that the locals have moved outwards where it is more “rich” and popular. There seems to be a reluctancy to make moves from the council’s point of view. Like, what if they put, for example, a McDonald’s here. Or allowed it. Then people would be drawn to that, the place would regenerate and move forwards. There isn't an interest here for people. All we have is the Laiki Neighborhood fur ther down and that is now so detached that it makes no difference. Like now, they decided to fix the road here and have just left it. Yeah, they keep putting things of it seems. They want to do it later.

80

But when later. They’ve got up and left and left all this mess here. But I think that the council don't seem to have an idea or bigger picture of what they want for the


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_104

place. But this is it. Why don't they for example build things that don't need maintenance and make a whole picture? They keep doing things badly so it needs fixing.

90

But buildings need work here like every 10 years. But exactly. There maybe needs to be a system of repair. Where people can complain or say something. But if there was would they listen? Come let me show you. (walk to doorway). Look that place has been like that for 2 years. In another couple its roof will fall. It r uined the image. You need to conser ve the square, the streets, the city. Does this place look organized?

95

100

But there is nothing here. There should be some repair you’re r ight. But its not difficult. They just need to care.

105

But they know that they are only in office on a shor t ter m basis. So they don't care for work that will take longer than their time in office. This what my repor t is. The conclusion needs to reflect the public attitude. 110

But no one will tell you about the square. They all have their own problems. Do you think they really care about what the tiles on the square is? Ha ha. I guess not. But there is still some sor t of people connection. I mean surely they deserve some credit for trying, for the first time, to show off the drawings.

115

Well they tried. But not very hard. Ok. Its a star t. Its a nice little drawing. But everyone is after their own benefit. Of course its a big deal. People will tell you about all the other problems apar t from the ones for the square. 120

I liked how the council showed me the repor ts that they gathered from the people. So many unrelated things. They don't like the trees, the concrete, this that. We’ll see where it goes. 125

I think so. I don't think that this will be a bad thing. But it will show I guess.


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I mean look here. All these people are hanging out on the cor ner with nothing to do. Before when this wasn't there there was a lot more movement and people. Now its just stagnant. They’re going to have to try hard I guess.

I N T E RV I E W 4 - S u b j e c t D & E K i o s k O w n e r s , c o u p l e ( a u t h o r ’s t r a n s l a t i o n )

(after br ief intro of task and aims) 1

D. My friend just go. I cant talk to you Really? What happened?

5

D. Go talk to someone else. (silence) Im getting sick and tired of complaining to people about it.

10

Are you not getting across to people? D. I’ve tried my friend. I have. But of course you know this.

15

Im afraid I don't. Why do you say this? I’ve literally just come here because I see people are unhappy and I'm trying to understand.

20

D. Let me tell you. This guy comes in, asking for some water. He looks like shit. We, as good people, decided to give him a bottle, FOR FREE. Because we are good people. He takes it, and while he’s in the store, takes a pack of chocolate and puts it IN HIS POCKET. I’ve had enough of being afraid of people in my own store. Are you ser ious? This happened in your own place? I cant believe that.

25

D. Theres the same people. The same 5 guys. Look theres one there (pointing) and the other one, him, is always dr unk and looking for a fight. Long gone are the time when we we felt safe to walk around here. Now its full of foreign people.


appendix A - interviews

_106

Where are you from? Im from here. From Makedonitissa. I lived here 20 years. I just went to study now at university and I’ve come back to see this new design they’re putting in, because I’m am sure people around here have their own perspective of things.

30

D. Should I tell you what they need to do? They need to fix this place up so they can bring back the Cypr iot people to the area and move the foreigner. E. See thats one option. Across there they can put a couple of tables. Some shade.

35

D. Design it, put some lights so that people can say “I want to go down there to the centre”. E. They need to make this place more attractive. Ah there he is! Anyway. They can star t small. Make the first flat here free, the second a really low rent. I mean all these people in there now, how much do they really pay? Give it to our students . . .

40

Who have some money also... E. Who have the money, and when they come, they will come and I’ll chat to them. And when they want to shop, they’ll buy from my kiosk and from the next...

45

You see. Where one goes, the others follow. D. Then the place will be better. Not for this guy to come into my country, MY COUNTRY, and to threaten me, and you haven't got one Cypriot around here for suppor t. But alone, what are you going to do? You need to be 20 of you, go to the mayor, tell her these things that you see and hear... E. Tell her so that she hears it from the youngster’s point of view. I can tell you so many ideas about how to make our Nicosia beautiful. We go to other capitals and why cant we compete... I don't get it. Why should we stay behind r ight?

50

55

60

E. We go there to Limassol, to Paphos and they have made something D. We’re getting sick and tired of telling people cause nothing is happening...Heres a prime example. They stole 2 bags from my missus here. I work 19 HOURS, and he took

65


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one from here and one from here. They can kill us if they want... E. ...and from my car. I left the car for 5 minutes and until I cam back it was gone... D. ...but where can we tell our pain. 70

Unbelievable things. D. Unbelievable? This is what I said. When the police were doing raids and were picking people up from the streets, people were saying: “ oh no they took these poor people away..” 75

So that we can feel sor ry for them... D. This is it. Then. 80

E. That guy there that came past stole from us, that guy. And when one lady came,and said she's hungry. If you’re hungry do you steal a lighter? If you’re hungry do you steal a pack of cards? If he came and stole some food...fine, sure, I’ll act the fool. But this is your kindness r ight? And its being taken advantage of.

85

90

E. But you take a lighter because you’re hungry? I know exactly what you mean. I live in an apar tment, and we have the same characters that live above us. We hear them, the different stor ies, they br ing their fr iends. And we sit there and wonder: “Can I leave my house, cant I, will they see me”. And not only do you have to live this, but you have to work it also? E. He takes this (deodorant stick), puts it here, and leaves. Are you serious? In front of me? Is it water, food? No. Im not an idiot. This woman was Cypriot, educated apparently.

95

D. “You’re racist” she says. Look racism is different.

E. Racist? Theres this little Chinese girl, who come here first time, couldn't speak english, and wanted cat food. She signed it, said “meow meow”, and I got it straight away. If the other 100 person comes, with a good attitude... D.This guy comes in, points at the lighter, I show him “"1”, his friend shows the same and then mumbles to me in Romanian “No No”? Get out! You come here and try and teach me Romanian and say I’m a racist?


appendix A - interviews

The issue is when they come and try and kick up a fuss then.

_108

110

D. Look, I am sorry to say, that they have us mixed up with the Cypriots from ’74 (with reference to the r ight wing coup in 1974 lead by Greek-Cypr iots) ... E. He's a customer, you’re a customer, everyone is a customer. Come and respect me. Don't come and and swear at me in your language. I can tell by their tone. D. If he comes in here and I go: “Piss off you bastard!” you think he won’t understand I’m swearing? But anyone can be in hardships. You want to come, have a drink and let loose, I get it. But don't go, have 20 beers then come here and cause havoc. Why is it my problem? I work 19 hours for my family, and he comes here and takes it out on me?

115

120

E. I’m working with my husband and he comes in and swear s at me. D. This is why I’ m telling you. You youngsters need to say something. For your own benefit. I’ve been here in Elefther ia’s my whole life. It was different.

125

They br ing all these people here to make money off them? D. Listen, France is at Europe’s forefront, why do you think they get rid of all these people? Do you think its random?

130

They know something I guess. D. I am racist! Racist!

135

I left for 4 years to go to University. I came back and I didn’t know where I was or where I was going. It all changed. This is all changed I think for me. D. Definitely. It was a lot friendlier here before. One minute. (serving customer)

140

My grand daughter went to england to study too. She did law. But this is what I’m saying. You should all gather. Write to the minister. 150

E. Come on a Friday, a Saturday. We are the ones in danger, who leave here at 2:00 am. D. Yeah, tell him to come have a look. To come on a Saturday night, walk around with


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155

his wife, his daughter, lets see what he says. He doesn't dare. Ask them if they dare send they’re kids. E. I see groups of girls who come here to go to the different clubs and cafes, and I tell them: “Watch out for them, for him, for whoever”. I tell them as a parent. Concer ned.

160

But this is it. This is the way we lear nt and now we have to change. I wasn't scared before. D. Anyway young man, we told you what we think. Do something about it. Be daring.

165

I heard all these stor ies as a kid, like my granddad coming here, having his coffee, meeting his fr iends, having a nice time. Does this exist anymore? E. They’re too scared my dear. Two years ago, when was it, this young girl sat there on that bench with her fiancee...

170

Just a nor mal thing r ight? E. Just a nor mal thing. And as she was sitting there, she reached forward to get her bag, and showed a bit of her, you know here (signs lower back area), as her t-shir t rode up. This guy next to her just stuck his hand in there! This police man was walking past...

175

Should have given him a slap!

180

E. ...grabbed him. If there was no policeman walking past though, and they called the police, there is no way they would have believed them or come! The Romanian guy there threw my Chino machine last year, and broke it. So I call the police and they ask me: “was it a Cypriot?” “Why?”, I asked. If it was a Cypriot, they would have come. But because he was Romanian, they wouldn't come. Exactly. They have to chase him, and where are they going to find him and ...

185

E. Come on. Leave us alone then! Let as die here in peace. All we want to do is work safely. No but hang on. We must try and fix this. I don’t understand why not.

190

E. We are not young anymore though. D. I challenge you to ask any Cypriots to come down here. See what they say.


appendix A - interviews

_110

But I have tr ied. People I guess don't want to come here. E. We’ve seen lots of changes here. Tr ust me we have been through a lot.

195

But now we can still save this. Because once we lose control of the situation here its hard to br ing back. E. But all these people have star ted clique-ing up now. The Pakistanis have a clique, the Poles have a clique, the Turks have, the... We’ve been fighting here for 3 years now, to deliver the message to people. Us. The workers. Shop owners. But they know they can come here. We opened the doors and they know they can come. Because they know that here (in Cypr us) they give them, firstly, money to settle. And then they claim benefits.

200

205

Whose fault is that? Ours? Is it anyone else's? No. E. The guy from the Social Security says that by 2012, there wont be any money left in the national fund. Well if you know its going to happen the why don't you do something about it? Im not an idiot to be working 16 hours to make enough money to eat. Maybe I’ll leave and come back with a different nationality and claim benefits. Just give me money because I’m a political refugee. I went round the old city to take photos the other day, and people were opening their door and looking at me like I was the foreign one. In my own country. It was so weird.

210

215

D. You’ve got into the spirit now... E. Its unfor tunate. The other guy came in and told me to lear n Turkish. Turkish! I told him: “I don't understand. Either speak Greek or English”. “NO”, he said. “You must lear n Turkish.” I should have punched him.

220

Its a political issue, its a social issue, its a cultural issue. Its not a quick fix. D. Why don't they have this problem in Limassol? We are the kind of place, I would say, that will take someone, help them, try and give them a pleasant atmosphere, and have no fear of people taking advantage of us. If someone comes and doesn't know or understand this system, they will take advantage. D. They’ve brought Polish, they’ve brought Romanians, they’ve brought Pakistanis. “But

225

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you’re racist!” they say. What else do they want from me? E. All it is is respect. you must respect a country, its people and its laws. 235

That’s exactly it.

240

D. Let me give you a characteristic example young man. This guy used to come in here to buy phone cards. Two phone cards every week, with all the politeness you could ask for. Never did I tur n around and say “But he’s black.” Do you see what I’m saying. A customer is a customer. Just show mutual respect. E. We have black customers, really good people. They speak politely, treat you nicely. Tr ust me, I’ve finish university twice over in here (smile). I N T E RV I E W 5 - S u b j e c t F : M a n a t c o f f e e h o u s e ( a u t h o r ’s t r a n s l a t i o n )

(after br ief intro of task and aims) 1

I saw the drawings one time. It was on show I think on a board near here I think? Yes it was. 5

10

It looked like it had nothing to do with the r uins there. I didn't like it at all. A bit disconnected. Just the way I saw it really quickly. I don’t know if they changed it since, if they put a new drawing or something. They keep changing stuff but I think its staying roughly the same. But its been getting quite a lot of attention. When I say it in the paper it was one...something with cement with... Yeah yeah with some sor t of curves or something...

15

Yeah some weird thing like that. I didn’t like it. In comparison with that old wall I’m not sure. You see what I’m looking at is with the drawing is that some like it, some don’t...what I need to look


appendix A - interviews

at is how it was compared to how it is now. Because the way I see it, from 15 years ago, its a different space. Now whether its changed towards better or worse, I’m not too sure because I’m not here. For me its towards the worst that its changed. You see I’m an old man so I remember it how it used to be, with the people that used to be here. All the people in Nicosia , used to bring their children here to the park, long time ago. When I was 14-15, it was always full down there. Especially on a Sunday. Now its just a mess. Some niggers down there drinking beers all the time. I mean the garden looks nicer now that they’ve fixed it. But if you go at night, you’re too scared to walk through there. Because theres these per ver ts that go and take stuff down there...

30

35

40

Wow.. Yep and they might mug what they want.

_112

you or something. If a woman dares walk past they will take

I mean its not funny. Even I would be scared to walk down there tonight.

45

Where in 2010 and its a place with no lighting, no people, no offices. So that people can walk past and can see some movement. But it wasn't a problem before. I mean what was going on here before that isn't now? Well like where the Hellenic Bank is now? That used to be a cafe. And it used to be really nice with nice roofing tiles, stone pieces, traditionally pretty, big, with 3-4 big rooms. The floor had like a “mash” coloured dir t and was full full of small tables and chairs, with cypress trees all over.

50

55

And was this just the local cafe? No people came from Troodos, the villages, from everywhere. This was the ‘cafe’ that people call now of those days. Across from that was the “Magic Palace” which was the good cinema that Nicosia had. It was called the “ Magic Palace” which had columns like the Par thenon. Outside it, these two columns, big nice ones, and there was the cinema. Thats where people went. That was the best one we had, we had two-three but that was the best one. And then they got rid of that. They got rid of the cafe. But this image they’re building now, I haven't really studied exactly what they’re doing. But how far back to you remember there being things here?

60

65


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70

75

Well I remember the garden in the moat. There used to be another kiosk-like cafe there too where we used to go and sit, which cold chocolates and ice creams and so on. Long ago they used to do exhibitions down by where the parking is now. The national exhibition used to happen there. Then they used to set up a circus there for example. It wasn't always a parking, and you couldn't get in there as easy as you can now . Recently that space tur ned into the Municipality’s parking. I think there was a request put in by the Municipality for an underground parking but it didn't go through in the end. I think they’re trying that with the new design.

80

If they were doing this properly, they should have use that old stone that is all around it, a restaurant, a Cypriot cafe. A coffee club like the old ones... Not like these new ones that charge you "4 a coffee.

85

90

95

100

105

You see. A patisserie with ice creams, a kiosk on both sides. They want to fix the top, so why not put things under neath? Even on the other side, by the Solomou statue, is another garden over there, there used to be a line along the street of stores, the stores that had the best grills. If you wanted a grill thats where you went. Food on the spot, a Cypriot restaurant. It was full. There wasn't that many elsewhere before. Then the municipality got rid of them or whatever they did and now its full of Sri Lankan who have a par ty there on Sundays by the Municipality, and its up to us to clean it up. When I spoke to this other gentleman he told me about the way people used to flock here for our food, and suddenly its changed. Why? Obviously something is missing, something has changed. If you go to the Municipality and you want to tur n your shop into a restaurant, they wont let you, they have all these restrictions, sizes, toilets, separate sex toilets. Then you need to match the Cypr us Board of Tourism to deal with, this and that, which makes it really difficult for the small time owner to star t a business. Maybe not necessarily hard, but expensive that puts people off. You see that shops that do that now, are still r unning on the old per mits and so get away with it. But you cant do that any more. But that is it. These things that I remember, that you remember as you say, do not exist any more to attract the Nicosia local to come down here. The older people. You see the youngsters of your age, come for a bit. They go to these apparently trendy places and cafes and spend all their money on overpriced coffees because their dad gives them money


appendix A - interviews

_114

to spend. They don't understand the value of money. You know (smiling) they’ll take money from their mums and come spend " 4-5 on a Nescafe so that people can see them...

110

Yup, put on the expensive sun glasses... Ha, you see, you know them. They wont go to a simple little Cypriot coffee house. You see next us, there is this bakery called “Marangos”, which sells cakes, ice creams, sandwiches, coffees for like " 0.90 -1. Go have a look who’s sitting there. Its people of my ages. Look across from that and you’ll see “Flo Cafe” and there are all these kids who pay "5 for a coffee and there will not be a single person over the age of 50 there. (walking to the entrance and then outside) Look there, “Marangos” is empty. Do you see what I’m saying? They don't care, whether its expensive or anything. But one family owner who wants to go there with two kids and his wife and wants to go eat lunch there will pay "50. I mean come on. Me and my wife went to one of these places where they had some ok food, which charged us " 40 just for the two of us. Its ridiculous. The drinks all together cost more than the food.

115

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125

Its stupid. They buy a Coke for like "0.20 and sell it for "2. And coffees are worse. I wont go. We wont go. But the kid will.

130

You see I went to the old coffee house while I was walking around. Really nice place, comfor table and quiet, had my coffee and I was charged "1. That was it. I was so happy. If you go to these places you get the care, the interest of the owner. 135

But they don't get how much money is wor th. No one teaches them. They’re opening these places everywhere. If you and your girlfriend would go there, it would cost you "60. There are people who work all week to make that money. 140

I worked at an office last year, an architectural office as an assistant, and I made "3 A DAY. "3 a day. That was hard. Thats how you understand how much money is ‘wor th’. This was a wage. Exactly. You see. Yeah you have to work for it, manage it, pay bills, save it. You have to lear n this. You see, you work, you lear n the value. They even came out on TV and said “Don’t let

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150

155

your kids go to the cafes, because they push up the price of a coffee.” and they still go. They’re all full. You see now in Greece, where no one goes any more, it has halved the price of a coffee from " 4. You see how it works. It used to be the case that you would go and get your shopping, two bags of shopping for a pound, and you would come back with change. Do you see what I’m saying? Money has lost its value. But we’ll see. What’re are these guys doing here? Have they star ted? Well they’ve star ted digging. They found an old wall that was there so they’re trying to fix it, so they’re star ting again. Well hopefully they’ll get done.

I N T E RV I E W 6 - S u b j e c t G : C o u n c i l a r c h i t e c t ( a u t h o r ’s t r a n s l a t i o n )

(Greeting and introduction to work)

1

I see. This is quite an interesting topic. I like the fact that you are studying the subject. We can see what you think of this project also. It sounds like you got quite a heavy resistance. You have no idea. People are getting quite involved in this project.

5

In a good way? Well...There is an interest. I think its shows that people care.

10

Yeah, but car ing maybe is not always in your benefit. Yes and no. It is my job to kind of compile a public response to the whole thing, but my role is obviously focused more on highlighting issues that the public might have.

15

It sounds like a tough job. Ha, yes. Tr ust me I’m getting sick and tired of it to be honest with you. Look we expected some negative response, but it seems as though at times people don’t know what they want.


appendix A - interviews

_116

What do you mean? Is this a case of the Cypr iot arguing for the sake of arguing? Im not sure. I think people care a lot about their place. And because we have such a close-knit community, people star t chatting and for ming groups. But when I gather all these emails and letters, they all seem to say the same thing. And, tr ust me, we have made an effor t to deal with their requests.

20

Requests? Like what?

25

Well here’s a file a keep with all the emails I received. Though I cant give you all of them, some examples are things like....um...ok this one says she wants us to keep the trees. I mean come on, there are 3 trees we are taking away and they are being replaced but 10 others. This one here, as well as so many other ones, complain about the concrete finish. But we need to be moder n. I think this is such a good design. I mean look. Don’t you think this is a beautiful design?

30

I am all with you. I think its nice to see something fresh in the area. And a square that is actually a square.

35

You see. Look this woman says its going to be dark and dingy. Its not. We have an info centre, these really well-well drawn out columns that make benches, a spot with shading which will be interactive - this is the first interactive outdoor space in the whole of Cypr us. Don't you think this is such a nice place? We have a cafe now under neath. Look.

40

No look I agree with you. I think its just that people here don't like change. We’re set in our ways, you know? That, and the fact that we’re like sheep. Mmm. I think you might be right. I don’t know why people are like that. I mean, we try our hardest to represent the people. The project, was the first were we gathered a public opinion on a presentation. We had such a good tur n out with people telling us their opinions.

45

Do you think maybe we’re too traditionalist?

50

This is how we do things here. Maybe we are a bit slow on change. And all the hiccups along the way don't help. Like the story with the old walls being found now, its stopped works so that we can resolve the issue. But we keep getting bad press. 55

But surely the press is not doing it to go against the design. I wouldn't imagine most of the


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tabloids being stuck in the past.

60

No, but there is a lot of drama surrounding the issue. The r unner up to the mayorship, Anna Maraggou, for example is President of the Nicosia Citizens Against The Transfor mation of Eleftheria Square. She is very much at the fore-front of the complaints, which I think is a bit unfair. So you think she is a bit bitter still?

65

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I..I don’t know.... There is, in any way, a political tool to this square r ight. Especially since Ms Mavrou has made this such a highlight in her redesigning of the city as a moder n destination. Perhaps also something to do with the change of the E.U. Chair coming to Cyprus in 2012? Um, look Ms. Mavrou is trying to make the place better. She has brought Hadid here to Cypr us. This is a big deal architecturally. And the new theatre and culture centre. I think we deser ve to be a moder n city.

75

Do you have any personal attachment to this square at all? Not specifically. I mean its nice that I can come here on a Saturday and do my shopping. But I live in Latsia so its not exactly next door to me.

80

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But I would be confident about this drawing. Its good to hear that architecturally we can appreciate this. Look, its not as if we have only negative responses. Look here, this guy is writing from America and loves the new design. And many people do. People just need time to adjust. Maybe they just need to be forced into it.

90

I think so. We need to take decisions you know. Look here, you see all these newspaper cutting and everything. They all say the same thing. But they don't talk about the design. Is this an expensive design? Well the budget has changed every so often. But we are looking at between "6 - 8 million.

95

How long has this been going on for?


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_118

We had the competition in 2005. We star ted building in 2006. We were projecting a completion of 2010 but because every time we dig we find ar tifacts, it seems to have stalled a bit. Now we’re looking at around the end of 2011 to 2012. I see. Do you interact much with the square now? Well my office is just by it, but I don’t really use it that much. I don't get much free time. This is why I might have to leave soon. But please feel free to have a look at the documents here, and then retur n them to Ms Litsa over there.

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Absolutely, thank you so much. Not a problem. Tell me, do you live here? Yes, my dad lives here and so do I. In Makedonitissa.

110

I see. Maybe you can send us a copy of this repor t also (smile). 115

I N T E RV I E W 7 - S u b j e c t H : M a n o n t h e s q u a r e a d j a c e n t t o s i t e ( a u t h o r ’s t r a n s l a t i o n )

My fr iend, can I bor row a lighter? No no. You don’t have fire?

1

Ah? Oh yes. Here. Are you not hot sitting here in the sun? 5

No. You see, you’re like me. I like it. So I can tan. Who are you, man?

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Me? I’m a tour ist. You? I’m no tourist. Come, go now. Leave me. 15

Sor ry, didn’t mean to disturb. You must go. I’m busy.

20

I N T E RV I E W 8 - S u b j e c t I : M a n a t b u s s t o p , a w a y f r o m s i t e ( a u t h o r ’s t r a n s l a t i o n )

Excuse me, is this the bus stop to go to town? Yes it is. Where’re you headed? 1

I’m just going down towards Solomou square. This is the r ight stop r ight? Yep. Thats actually where I’m going also, so I hope its this one (smile). If it gets here, r ight. How long does the bus take to come past?

5

10

You know, I have no idea. And its pretty hot out here too. At least they have the bus stop here. I don’t remember one before. No I don’t think there was one. But you know, they have put a lot of money into the bus network. Really? The look new anyway from the outside.

15

No they are new. They bought a whole lot from Dubai. Now I have a way of going down to the old city. Really, do you go down there often?

20

As much as I can. I go there, have my coffee every now and then. But where can I go? If I go, I go sit there for a bit, and the old coffee house still makes coffee for two coins (old expression for a cur rency denomination, now the equivalent of about "1). Either that, or I go down to the market. But now, everything is for the youngsters. Where can I go?


appendix A - interviews

_120

But surely you have the old hang-outs still there. The coffee houses and clubs? Yeah but the place is a bit on the down hill. Its full of tourists and Turks.

25

Mmmm, I know what you mean. I don’t think it is like it used to be for like my granddad. He used to go there a lot. Mainly to get out of the house and away from my grandmother (smile). Ha ha. Actually, where are you from?

30

Well my granddad was from Nisou. Ah. Well I’m from Lapithos. You should go. I think its the most beautiful village. It has a combination of the mountain, the sea and the fields. 35 I have never been. But I heard the same. I’m not sure I want to go now that they (the Turkish) have it. I’d get too depressed. But I guess they’re free to come in and out here too. A lot seem to be coming in around the Elefther ia square gate. Yeah there are quite a few there.

40

Really, I hear they have star ted work there now. Do you know this? Yeah. Now that they got money from the E.U. they’re changing everything. From these 45 buses, to the square to the old city. Are they doing a good job of it at least? I don’t know. I remember it one way. I still try and find the places I used to go to but they seem to have changed. They take the building and then put something else in it. But this new square seems to stick out a bit. I dunno, its like...ah there we go. Its here. I don’t like sitting in the sun like this. Should we get on? Please, after you.

50

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Thanks

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I N T E RV I E W 9 - S u b j e c t J : P a s t r e s i d e n t o f o l d c i t y, n e a r s i t e ( a u t h o r ’s t r a n s l a t i o n )

(after br ief intro of task and aims) 1

Well I was there, I was...I wasn’t the same age then that I am now... Really? So your age changes?

5

Yes yes. Well what I remember was when I was 12-13 to 15. Is that how long you lived there?

10

2-3 years. Yeah, I was there for 3 years. I left when I was 16 year old so I was there between the ages of 12 and 14-15. Really? So did you live with your whole family there then?

15

Well I lived with my mother, my grand mother, my sister and my brothers. Everyone except my father. Where was he living, if I may ask? Where he was in Africa.

20

Wow. But when did he go there? In ’26. Kind of like you have now, but then it was a really big deal. We were apar t for several years.

25

How often did you see him? I dunno. Once a year. For a couple of weeks.

30

Is this you visiting him or him you? No, when he came to Cypr us. Did he come to the area a lot then?


appendix A - interviews

No, after he retired. He used to come from Makedonitissa and played backgammon and cards at the cafes there at..

_122

35

Near the square? Exactly. The cafes near Elefther ia’s square.

40

But why did he travel so far and not just go to one of the places near his house? Because thats where he had company. It was a centre for socialising. He liked playing a bit of cards. He had his group of friends where he played together and just kept company.

45

So was it in that area that you went to school? Well there weren’t many Greek schools, primary schools, and there was only one secondary school. I used to go to the primary school that was relatively close by, by bike. 50 We all used to go by bike back then. It was there by the wall, at the Ellenio. It was one of the most famous schools. The Ellenio. So is that how you used to move around the old city? 55

Yes, by bike and... Where was the Ellenio? The school was right by the wall but on the Nor th..South side, past the city.

60

I guess I’m trying to get a flavour of what it was like back there. Were there all the buildings just past the wall that are there now or was the area outside the wall less developed? Well it wasn't. Makariou was only half developed. The Hilton had just been built, and thats about as far as it went. The are where Philip’s College is was completely underdeveloped.

65

Was there not a school within the walls? The only school within the walls was the old school, the most...it had two par ts: the Old Central College, which was the central large one, which was a very prestigious school, that was the most well known, and was near the Archbishopric and the other was the

70


123 _

Faneromeni school which was an all-girls school. “Virgin School”. 75

But where was the Mitsi school? Well Mitsi was a private school.

80

85

Where was that? It was near by, but was private. These were state-schools.But the best was the “Virgin School”. Ha ha. VIRGIN SCHOOL! What a wanker Stelios was...ha. My work colleague went to explain what a “par thenagogio” (“all-girls school” whose direct translation is “school for virgins”) is and he translated it as “virgin school”. And some por tuguese people were looking at him like: “What’d you mean virgin schools? Is this a school for virgins? What’d you mean?” Ha ha. As if they make them there.

90

Yeah. I told him: “What the hell are you doing? Such a nice school and you call it a “Virgin school”? That’s ridiculous.” Anyway, I used to go to the Ellenio primary school, em, and I had to go to the new par t of town to go to secondary school. There wasn’t anywhere else. And this was outside the city walls?

95

100

Yes this was. I imagine that there was the Cypr iot situation of all the children around there would go tot he same school and that you would all hang out together afterwords? I mean, this is how it was when I went to school in Nicosia. Well all the kids in area went to the same primary school and then we all went to the same secondary school. Within the walls. But they had limited space for new students so they opened a new school at here Kykkos. So we used to come to Kykkos which is outside town.

105

How did you get there? Its not exactly next door. By bike. At first Yianni “Piraris’” dad used to drive us and after that by bike, once we got older.

110

When you were more “responsible”. Yeah we were 13-14. 15...


appendix A - interviews

The paved are by Elefther ia square, between the phar macy and the Bank of Cyprus, was that there when you lived here?

_124

115

Coming off Regent’s Street? No. That was a result of pedestrianising of the two main shopping streets. One went in to the Nor th, and one out South. Ledras and Onasagorou streets. And the square became the endpoint. 120

When was this pedestr ianising? After the invasion (refer r ing to that of 1974).It used to be a very busy and very commercial road. Ledra Nor th and Onasagorou South. And did you spend a lot of time on those streets?

125

I used to go enough yes. It was the hear t of town. It was the commercial thing, the hear t of town. When we finished school, thats were we went. There were shops, patisseries, we hung out, checked the scene out. Thats where the so-called “bazar i” (bazar) would happen. 130 Makariou didn't really exist back then. And this was all before the invasion. And did this go all the way down to the Green Line (name given to the dividing border between the Greek-Cypr iot and Turkish Cypr iot halves.) 135

The Green line was not a result of the invasion. It was created in ’64. So there was a separation by then. It wasn’t for mal but still there. It was set up by the U.N. in Christmas 1963, they star ted inter-communal strife and they Turks withdrew into some different par ts of towns and in Nicosia they withdrew to the Nor th par t, which was predominantly Turkish, and then the U.N. came and just drew a line, called it the “Green 140 Line” and interposed themselves between the Turkish-Cypriots and the gover nment. I mean people were shooting each other. Were there always problems with Turkish people in Cyprus? 145

No, but in ’63 things became more serious. So do you think it might have had something to do with the Br itish withdrawal in 1959 that lead to this conflict? 150

I think it was a little more complicated than that. Many people blame the British for edging the Turkish people on to begin a rebellion. Either way, there was a Turkish


125 _

155

rebellion, the gover nment tried to repress the rebellion and thats when there became a factor for separation. But it had nothing to do with the invasion, which happened 10 years later, and made this split more for mal. But when I was there until 1964 you could go. After then is when the U.N. came and you couldn’t move freely. I mean, you could go, but you couldn’t move freely. Did you then stay or leave because of this?

160

No. It didn’t have anything to do with that. It was for military reasons and I had to leave. Before I tur ned 16. (inter ruption)

165

So what was it truly that drew people to the area?

170

It was the high street, it was the central par t of town, Makarios avenue in the South was developing. Just so you get an idea, the main attractive points, on the Greek side obviously, was the Archbishopric, which was the official residency of the archbishop, was there. The second was the two commercial high streets. And the 3rd was the point of communication between the two, which was Elefther ia square.

175

So there was nothing else that highlighted Elefther ia’s over any of the other crossings? I mean was it because it was best utilised by the Br itish? Why that one, and not, I dunno, Solomou square which was 2 streets down?

180

It was the commercial aspect. Just so you get an idea, even now, if you watch RIK (Cyprus Broadcasting Agency) and they want to see how the market is doing and you see the shots on TV on the news, showing the high street, like in London where they show Oxford Street, in Cypr us, the show Ledra Street. If they inter view consumers, or what the average person thinks, they go to Ledra Street. Thats the traditional high street. But seeing it now, that is not the case.

185

190

This is what I was going to say. Its nostalgia. Even though 90% of the people there now don’t even understand when you talk to them...purely financially the centre is now Makariou not there...but despite that still, they don’t go to Makariou, they go to the so called Eleftheria square! And there is nothing there. Its purely tradition. Thats where it all used to happen. They don't even understand what is happening. 9 shots out of 10 are at Ledra and on Ledra, 80% of the people there are randomers...whores...immigrants, that sor t of thing. Btu still


appendix A - interviews

_126

they show it because back then when I stayed there, it was the hear t of town. Everything happened there! But still this is not enough of a reason to excuse the limited development to the Nor th.

200

Well I don’t really know. The majority of the Turkish-Cypriots lived in the Nor th anyway, and the Greek-Cypriots to the south. But why Eleftheria’s square, I’m not sure. Maybe it has to do with the Mayor’s office. I don’t remember. The British made all the changes. It 205 was before my time. But emotionally it seems to be the centre of town. Kinda like Trafalgar square. Well not exactly (smile). Yeah, because Trafalgar has some sor t of focus and interest. This has nothing. But from a sentimental point of view, it plays exactly the same role. You see I have this theory, that as a nation, Cypr iots are very traditional. They follow the paths and habits that have been there before and proudly join in on the lineage of the place. Maybe this is why people come here. I think that there is also another reason. But you need to look at this from an urbanism angle. Nicosia does not have...they go there by default. As in, even Makariou does not have a focal point. Its only one street with no specific point of interest, like for example the statue of that wanker Nelson or I dunno, where there is a focal point. And as you know, people need a focal point. In Nicosia there isn’t a single building, or monument or something that is the focal point of the city which you can use as s symbol of the city. One where you can say “Ah! This is” I dunno “ the Champs Elise” or “Trafalgar Square” or whatever. So, by default, rather than anything else, I’m more and more convinced, that if there would be another focal point, it might be better. I think they’re trying to make it a tr ue focal point. Maybe they’ll do it. Perhaps the things that people remember where the focal points, which have not been kept up to date.

210

215

220

225

230

Exactly. I’m sure this is what it is. [All interviews were conducted in full knowledge of the subjects and were aware that they would remain anonymous throughout the use of their text. Interviews were recorded in plain site and destroyed upon scripting. Only written use was agreed with all subjects]


127 _

Appendix B - scans and documents


appendix B - scans and documents

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! " # $ $ % 1 9 9 7 , ! " ! # $ % - P. 1 6 - 2 7


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appendix B - scans and documents

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appendix B - scans and documents

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appendix B - scans and documents

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appendix B - scans and documents

&'()*+"# & ,(-))+./0 1980, 0$( 416$03)$" P. 1 0 - 1 3 , 1 6 - 1 9 , 2 2 , 2 3 , 2 8 , 2 9

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23-

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_136

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appendix B - scans and documents

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appendix B - scans and documents

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appendix B - scans and documents

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!-1-1%0 1994, !2!3"0 - 4(*"53-67890 -6/5%:'70 “&'()*+,-, 1989: 7-#0,4- 05893”


appendix B - scans and documents

_144


145 _

Zartarian 2007, Giorgios Zartarian Photographs 1935 - 1950


appendix B - scans and documents

General view of the walled city in 1935

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147 _

General view of Nicosia and the Kyrenia range in 1950


appendix B - scans and documents

General view of Nicosia - the square building in the “Beuyuk Khan” (Great Khan)

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149 _

The Venetian column in the Konak square in 1935

The cour thouse in 1935


appendix B - scans and documents

The Nor th side of Elefther ia square (Liber ty square in 1930)

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The South side of Elefther ia (Liber ty) square in 1950 - The building on the r ight is the Hadjisavvas coffee shop


appendix B - scans and documents

The Nor th side of Elefther ia (Liber ty) square in 1950

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The East side of Elefther ia (Liber ty) square and the Town hall in 1952


appendix B - scans and documents

The Nor th side of Elefther ia (Liber ty) square in 1935

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155 _

The West side of Elefther ia (Liber ty) square in 1935


appendix B - scans and documents

Elefther ia (Liber ty) square and Konstantinou Palaiologou Avenue in 1950

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157 _

The West side of Elefther ia (Liber ty) square in 1950


appendix B - scans and documents

The East side of Elefther ia (Liber ty) square in 1935

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appendix B - scans and documents

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Zaha Hadid competition submission boards 3-6-7 Nicosia Municipality h t t p : / / w w w. n i c o s i a . o r g. c y / e n g l i s h / g r e e k h o m e . s h t m


appendix B - scans and documents

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5

0

4

+94,65

+94,40

+97,90

bus stop

sculpture garden

+97,90

+97,27

+97,35

+94,40

RAMP 10%

+97,75

+97,35

bench

bench

bench +100,08

Eleftheria square

+100,32 +97,35

ground light

light pole

Venetian wall

+97,35

D窶連vila bastion +101,21

+97,35

+97,28

projection screen

+93,61

+97,35

+97,43

RAMP 6%

+97,25

RAMP 6%

+97,07

plan eleftheria square

0

5

10

+96,93

+97,76

+94.60

1

2

2a

3

4

5

6

7

architectural competition for redesigning and landscaping eleftheria square and the surrounding area

25

50

0

3


163 _

5 LIGHT POLE

0

4

0

340 cm

550 cm

elevation

perspective view

section

CONCRETE SITTING BENCHES

TRASH BIN stainless steel support

90 cm 280 cm

90 cm painted metal

elevation

perspective view

58 cm

BENCH a

perspective view

220 cm 180 cm

52 cm

SIDE BENCHES

BENCH b

perspective view

320 cm 60 cm 110 cm

45 cm

profile of the edge

BENCH c

perspective view

exposed reinforced concrete 2 cm rubber inlay recessed light 0.5 mm metal sheet reflector ditch

elevation

profile of the edge

varying lengths

2 cm rubber inlay integrated light 47 cm precast concrete

FLOOR LIGHTS

principal section [ foundation not shown ]

LED uplight at the intersection

finish pavement construction lines

general plan

plan detail

URBAN FURNITURE views from homer street

1

2

2a

3

4

5

6

7

architectural competition for redesigning and landscaping eleftheria square and the surrounding area

3


appendix B - scans and documents

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5

0

4

0

views of eleftheria square

1

2

2a

3

4

5

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7

architectural competition for redesigning and landscaping eleftheria square and the surrounding area

3


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Design submitted plans and sections Cyprus Municipality


appendix B - scans and documents

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Plan of square - photocopy of or iginal


appendix B - scans and documents

Paving plan of square - photocopy of or iginal

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Section of underpass - photocopy of or iginal


appendix B - scans and documents

Section of underpass 2 - photocopy of or iginal

Section of underpass 3 - photocopy of or iginal

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Appendix C - Public letters


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Letter 1 - Apostoliadis A. P. Architect Photo of or iginal


a p p e n d i x C - p u b l i c l e t t e r s _174

Letter 2 - Lordou Z. Architect Photo of or iginal


175 _

Letter 3 - Anna, Photo of or iginal


a p p e n d i x C - p u b l i c l e t t e r s _176

Letter 4 - Rita, Photo of or iginal


177 _

Letter 5 - Konnides N., Photo of or iginal


a p p e n d i x C - p u b l i c l e t t e r s _178

Letter 6 - Kenti P. , Photo of or iginal


179 _

Letter 7 - Association of Cypr iot Women in Tour ism, Photo of or iginal


appendix C - public letters

Letter 8 - Hadjichr istou G., Photos of or iginal

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Letter 9 - Ioannou S., Electr ical engineer, Photo of or iginal


appendix C - public letters

Letter 10 - Chr istodoulou T., Photo of or iginal

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Appendix D - newspaper ar ticles


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Headline 1: “End of August end of digging” - Fileleftheros


appendix D - newspaper articles

Headline 2: “Almost almost at Elefther ia’s Square” - Fileleftheros

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Headline 3: “New phase in Nicosia’s histor ic centre” - Cyprus Mail


appendix D - newspaper articles

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Headline 4: “ Answers to the people about the opening of Ledra’s” - Politis


appendix D - newspaper articles

Headline 5: “”Patience” suggests mayor” - Simer ini

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Headline 6: “The renovation begins” - Politis


appendix D - newspaper articles

Headline 7: “Ecologists’ Par ty against development of Elefther ia square - Mahi

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Appendix E - blogs


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Blog 1 - Cyprus Mail:

Cyprus Mail Wednesday, December 29th 2010 A D V E RT I S E M E N T

Breathing new life into the capital By Stefanos Evripidou Published on December 2, 2010 1

+

THE NICOSIA Municipality yesterday signed an agreement with the Council of Europe Development Bank (CEB) for a €40m loan to finance development projects in the capital. Nicosia Mayor Eleni Mavrou said the municipality, in collaboration with the finance ministry, applied for a loan to implement a comprehensive programme of 17 projects relating to urban infrastructure in the capital. The programme, which requires an aggregate investment of €155m, includes road network improvement, regeneration of traditional centres, sports facilities, reinforcing derelict buildings, construction of pavements, utilisation and redesign of public spaces, and showcasing the cityʼs architectural and cultural heritage. “These projects aim to enhance the natural and urban environment, to create public facilities for developing social infrastructure and encouraging private initiatives to boost and strengthen economic growth,” she said. “The loan accounts for about 29 per cent of the cost of the projects in a total development budget amounting to €155m. An additional 29 per cent has already been funded by the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the remainder is covered by municipality funds, government grants and funds from the structural funds and EU cohesion fund,” added Mavrou. The mayor noted that the lending terms of the bank were “by comparison the best of any other source of domestic or external financing, with a long grace period and low interest rates”. The ruling AKEL central committee member highlighted that “Europe today is a primarily urban society” where local and regional authorities play a significant role in its development. In a candid call for greater decentralisation, the mayor said the basic condition for this development was the better organisation of and stronger role for municipalities. “It must be understood that a countryʼs degree of development is directly related to the decentralised structure of its state,” said Mavrou, adding that the need to modernise the role of the municipality in Cyprus, protect its autonomy and social credibility was becoming “more and more evident”. If local authorities are to carry out their mission to the benefit of local society, this “requires a daring decentralisation policy, which must not be interpreted as a mere transfer of competencies and resources but as a broad redistribution of authority”. CEB governor Raphael Alomar, who received an honorary diploma of the city by the mayor, said the Bank had a “long and fruitful collaboration” with Cyprus beginning in 1962, just two years after independence. The Bankʼs new field of intervention is improving living conditions in rural and urban environments, he said, noting that in 2002, CEB gave a €100m loan for the Nicosia sewage system followed by a further €68m last year, again for the sewage system plus Mia Milia waste water treatment plant. Finance Minister Charilaos Stavrakis echoed the mayorʼs view that the loan was given on “very competitive terms”, probably the best in the loan market.


appendix E - blogs

“Itʼs another vote of confidence in the Cypriot economy,” he said, highlighting the need for agreement on an economic recovery plan so that Cyprus can be a credible borrower and have access to these better rates. What theyʼre doing THE LIST of 17 development schemes are: construction of the new municipality within the Walls; redesign of Synergasias Avenue in Kaimakli; redesign of Markos Drakou Avenue; maintenance of Paphos Gate; phase 2 of Kaimakli Sports Centre; redesign and improvement of road lighting within the Walls; phase 2 and 3 of the improvement of Kaimakli traditional centre; phase 3 of the improvement of Pallouriotissa traditional centre; improvement of Tachtakala area; improvement of the area around the old municipality within the Walls; redesign and construction of Eleftheria Square and its surrounding areas; improvement of Ayios Ioannis area within the Walls; redesign and construction of Solomou Square; parking lot between Solomou and Eleftheria Squares; design and construction of drains and pavements throughout the capital; reinforcing derelict buildings within the walls.   When will it be done? NICOSIA Mayor Eleni Mavrou said that the municipality set out a specific timeframe for all 17 projects when applying for loans both from the CEB and EIB. Regarding the new municipality to be built within the Walls, Mavrou said the first phase has already begun and will be completed in about a year. The second phase involving the construction of the main building is currently going through the tender process and will be ready in around two years from today. Regarding the revamping of Eleftheria Square, she said: “By December 15, weʼll have finalised the terms of the tender process, and early next year will launch the tender process. We expect the project to start in the spring, including the car park in Omirou Street and have it finished in approximately two years from then.” The planners hope to have the main part of the squareʼs bridge ready by mid-2012 in time for when Cyprus takes over the EU Presidency in the second half of 2012. On the construction of drains and pavements throughout the capital, Mavrou said the first phase for pavements on 100 roads in the city is currently underway with 50 out of the 100 being worked on now. The second phase is for pavements to be constructed on a further 80 roads. “One reason we canʼt do all at the same time is the traffic problems this would create. The aim is to have pavements everywhere eventually,” she said.

Fri, December 3rd 2010 at 12:04

Mike from London - Born and Bred LEMESIANOS! comments: Are you being serious now?? An underground Metro system on an island that has less people then London.... thats economically viable isnt it.... Idiots. 1 mark as inappropriate

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197 _

Fri, December 3rd 2010 at 04:00

Stan from Internet comments: Yes wonderful but a limited Metro would be a good addition. 1 mark as inappropriate

Fri, December 3rd 2010 at 03:18

Yiorgos from Larnaka comments: What about an underground metro system? 1 mark as inappropriate

Thu, December 2nd 2010 at 19:56

Loriot from Lapta comments: qwerty: Cyprus must not be ashamed of it, only the commie voters. In any case, the much heralded 'EU presidency' of the RoC, scheduled for six months in 2012, has nothing to do with the EU parliament that has its own president. The role is that of a glorified taker of minutes of meetings without any further authority, just like that of the 'permanent president' Mr Rompoy. Most people would not know which country currently takes the minutes. 1 mark as inappropriate

Thu, December 2nd 2010 at 16:21

Qwerty comments: DB, the general feel is that AKEL is more capitalist than those that advertise themselves as such. They aren't communists really, are they? If they were, would they have let state owned companies (eg Eurocypria) run aground? I can even remember Christofias comment after an EU summit: "We are supposedly the most left wing govt in the EU, yet we are the only ones not to nationalise any banks"! They are lefties, but they were democratically elected, so Cyprus should not be ashamed of that. 1 mark as inappropriate

Thu, December 2nd 2010 at 15:45

DB comments:


appendix E - blogs Qwerty. ........before we are EU presidents! Oh Dear, I am not going to tell anyone I live on Cyprus when that date comes, I will feel sympathy for all the GOOD Non-Communists Cypriots. A large majority of Europeans who experienced first-hand and others personally affected. because of the existence of the Soviet Union and it's Satelites, really HATE Communism and are averse to Communists. Now there is going to be a President of the EU Parliament for half a year, who is a Communists !! I would not be surprised if the people organise vast demos., in Brussels and Strassburgh, and "Boooo", him back to Cyprus. The people of the EU DO NOT want a communist boss of their Parliament !!! 1 mark as inappropriate

Thu, December 2nd 2010 at 15:19

Qwerty comments: We have to window dress the capital before we are EU presidents! 1 mark as inappropriate

Thu, December 2nd 2010 at 14:26

DB from Limassol comments: I am amazed !!!! Cyprus taking on MORE CREDIT and MORE money from the Fiscal's Koffers when the country is creeping into The Red ! Can't these improvements, although considered important, not wait for another couple of years until the economy becomes a bit healthier ? Looks like Cyprus will soon be heading on the same downward slope like Greece, Ireland and Portugal. We in a very large Municipallity of Limassol of well over 1,000 permnament residents, have been waiting since 1992 for our main sewage !!! Isn't that more important to the envirnoment and our health than "prettying up Nicosia" ? EU Law states: All towns and Municipallities of the RoC, having each, 1,000 or more Permnament Residents, MUST be connected to main sewage by the end of 2011 !!! I do believe Cyprus have already had Carte Blanche to receive an EU Grant to assist that. 1 mark as inappropriate

Thu, December 2nd 2010 at 13:57

joe from Nicosia comments: having pavements so that people can park their cars on??? 1 mark as inappropriate

Thu, December 2nd 2010 at 13:08

Val comments: Fantastic!

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SATU RDAY, 1 9 JU N E 2 0 1 0

Eleftheria Square by Zaha Hadid Architects at 18:32 As part of London's Festival of Architecture, Zaha Hadid's designs for Eleftheria Square

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in Nicosia, Cyprus, were exhibited at the Italian Cultural Institute. We went to have a look and were really impressed at the designs. There were a lot more images there on display and the details were phenomenal. I love the style of Zaha Hadid and their white crisp lines and the organic curves featured

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in many of their designs. The use of water and light is also stunning, lifting the square into a modern social hot spot. The integration of the white and the local material also works very well in balancing out the old vs. new element. I am sure it will look stunning complete!

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appendix E - blogs

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Agapitoi filoi TA VELTIOMENA SXEDIA TIS PLATIAS ELEFTHERIAS META TIN ANAKALYPSI TOU ENETIKOU PROMAXONA. Meta apo aitima tou Dimou Levkosias pros to grafio tis Zaha Hadid gia prosarmogi ton sxedion meta tin anakalypsi to grafio ekane "veltiomena" sxedia, apomakrine tin mbetonenia kataskevi apo to enetiko teixos kai oti exase apo eki to kerdise se ypsos tis platias. Gia osous den ixan tin eukairia na doun ta sxedia tis neas protasis pou ektithente sto Dimarxio mexri tis 15/12. Pate na ta dite, oloi i tafros tsimentonete me topous-topous grasidi kai topiotexnisi me dentra. To pranes xrisimopoiite gia ti dimiourgia kafeterion kai kentron, to oreotero ine "oi iptamenes glyptikes" pou tha skiazoun tin platia to kalokairi kai alla polla. Kata ta alla kryvete entexnos stin maketa oti yparxi dromos apo pano, eno to ypogio pou xrisimopiite kato apo tin mbetonenia kataskevi den fainete toulaxiston apo ta sxedia na stegazi kafeteries kai alles xrisis. Osoi exete fonoi enoste tin me ti diki mas, arthrografiste osoi thelete. Auto to ergo tha xrimatodotithi apo tin Europaiki Enosi kai ta lefta tha proelthoun apo to kondyli "gia tin aeiforo anaptyxi".

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! 2010 (31)

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appendix E - blogs prepi na gini amesos I emmesos apodexto. Ean den sas aresi I aisthitiki tou laou mas mporite na metakomisete se alli xwra me pio kalesthito lao. Mallon protimate tsimentoupolis, me erga fimismenwn arxitektonwn pou kerdizoun diagonismous…mporite tote na pate sto Dubai, sto Tokyo, New York…ime sigouri omos oti tha 3erete kalitera apo emena…kalo taxidi an pate! Na mas stelnete omos kana gramma pou ke pou na vlepoume ke mis kati swsta grammeno epitelous se afti ti xwra! Episis efxaristw gia tin pliroforia oti oi anorothrwgrafoi anthrwpoi den mporoun na exoun apopsi, gnomi ke katholou swsti krisi. Me pisate!

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Btw ur surname rocks!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Pio katw mporis na vris ta references sta opia exw proanaferthi Na se kala! D Hillel (2005) Civilization, role of soils, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Elsevier Markell, M.J. (2002). Sand, water, silence: The embodiment of spirit; explorations in matter and psyche. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. McNally, S. ( 2003) Sandplay: A sourcebook for play therapists. Writers Club Press. Mitchell, R., & Friedman, H. (1994). Sandplay: Past, present & future. New York: Routledge. Pearson, M. and Wilson, H. (2001). Sandplay & Symbol Work: Emotional healing and personal development with children, adolescents and adults. ACER Press: Melbourne Reece, S. (1995). The mound as healing image in sandplay. Journal of Sandplay Therapy, 4:2. 14-31 Ryce-Menuhin, J. (1992). Jungian Sandplay: The wonderful therapy. London: Routledge Shaia, A. (1991). The initial sand worlds of men molested as children. Signell, K. (1990). “The sandplay process in a manʼs development.” In K. Bradway, et al, (Eds.) Sandplay studies: Origins, theory and practice: 10121. Boston: Sigo. Steinhardt, L. (1998). Sand, water and universal form in sandplay and art therapy: Journal of American Art Therapy Association Vol. 15,4, pp. 252260 Steinhardt, L. (2000). Foundation and Form in Jungian Sandplay: An art therapy approach. London: Jessica Kingsly. Sternberg, A. (1995). Psychological assessment of the child patient using sandplay [CD-ROM]. Abstract from: Dissertation Abstracts International, Vol. 57-03B. Stewart, C. (1990). The developmental psychology of sandplay. In K. Bradway et al (Eds.), Sandplay studies: Origins theory & practice (pp.3992). Boston: Sigo Press.

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Thompson, C. (1990). Variations on a theme by Lowenfeld: Sandplay in focus. In K. Bradway et al (Eds.), Sandplay studies: Origins, theories & practice (pp.5-20). Boston: Sigo Press Weinrib, E. (1983). Images of the Sefl: The sandplay therapy process. Boston: Sigo Press. Weinrib, E. (1987). Sandplay: The shadow and the cross. In M.A. Mattoon (Ed.), The archetype of shadow in a split world, proceedings of the tenth international congress of analytical psychology, Berlin, 1986, (415-529). Einsiedeln: Daimon Verlag.

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appendix E - blogs neoploutwn ine 1 xali mavro gi'afto ke prosopika den mou aresi i SIGKEKRIMENI protasi gia tin anaplasi tis platias epidi to 1 mou thimizi to allo gia kapio logo...en 3erw giati, isws na ine i afelia twn dekatriwn xronwn... an sas aresi to sigkekrimeno sxedio dikaioma sas, en simeni omos oti prepi na aresi se olous. ke oute simeni oti se opio den aresi to sigkekrimeno sxedio, theli i platia na mini os exi ke na min gini kamia allagi. oute ke simeni oti se opion den aresi to sigkekrimeno sxedio den 3eri pou pan ta 5 tou, i den katexi apo aisthitiki ke to fisiko tou perivallon... prosopika tha protimousa mia platia apli, liti ke anthropini me oso to dinaton pio polli fisi, dentra, xwma, louloudia, ate as valume ke 1 spitaki tis xirokitias!:) mia platia pou na deni me ta stixia, me ta xaraktiristika tis palias lefkosias...to sxedio pou protinetai twra, mou thimizi diastimiko stathmo, poli psixro ke aprosopo. i lefkosia mpori na exi ta xalia tis ta mavra alla exi ke polla omorfa stixia ta opia anti na proothoume prospathoume na ta pni3oume sto mpeton! ELINA ANTONIOU

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appendix E - blogs !"#$µ%&'%( ()*+%, – !-&.)*/%( – "01203%)*/*+%, 4"µµ536 "!)78 /" µ!"039&32(2 3% µ#6µ25%.

LISTEN/ AKOU*

3. :36# 0(;+2+&*µ$#6 !2&5!3-06 3% 0+(&.<2µ" =&60*µ%!%*253"* µ2 $#"# "!")., >&2µ% 3&.!% <6µ*%(&;7#3"8 $#" +"3’ 2?%=># “/6)(+.” 0=>µ". 4. @ A2(+-05" $=2* "#9;+6 "!. 3$3%*" $&;". B*<*+9 "!. $&;" <*906µ-# "&=*32+3.#-#. C7&" 3% "# 25#"* > .=* $&;% !&%32&"*.363"8 25#"* 9))% /$µ". 5. C% $&;% 25#"* 6 «D#9!)"06 368 E)"325"8 B)2(/2&5"8 +"* 3%( E2&*19))%#3" =7&%(». @ !)"325" <2# 25#"* µ.#% 3% ;)(!3. 3% %!%5% /" 25#"* 036# /$06 368 06µ2&*#>8 !)"325"8, "))9 2+325#23"* µ$=&* 36# !)"325" :%)-µ%,. E2&*)"µ19#2* +"3"03>µ"3", 203*"3.&*%, +"'$ +"* (!.;2*% =7&% 039/µ2(068. F*" #" 36# +&5#2* +9!%*%8 /" !&$!2* #" 2?23902* 36# 0(#%)*+> "#9!3(?6.

NON STOP JAZZ 24/7....

MUSIC SELECTION/ +,-./01. 12/3,41.

6. G0% "'%&9 3% ;2;%#.8 .3* /" (!9&=2* !$&"0µ" ;*" "(3%+5#63" µ$0" "!. 36# !)"325" 25#"* /$µ" +(+)%'%&*"+%, 0=2<*"0µ%, +"* <2# !&$!2* #" +&5#23"* 3.0% "15"03". 7. @ A2(+-05" =&2*9H23"* "(3> 36# "))";> .!-8 =&2*9H23"* +"* 6 ;2#*9 µ"8 #" "'>02* !50- 3% <*+. 368 !%)*3*03*+. 035;µ" µ$0" "!. $&;" 3$3%*%( 25<%(8. G0% "'%&9 3" 0=.)*" 368 “+%(30%'3%,8”, #%µ5H- .3* !"&.)% !%( %* "!.42*8 3%( A2µ!$06 +"* 3%( I"&*3.!%()%( 3"*&*9H%(# ;9#3* 02 9))28 !2&*!3702*8, -03.0% 036# 0(;+2+&*µ$#6, 2'.0%# +9!%*%8 2!*)$;2* #" '*)%?2#25 3*8 "!.42*8 3%( %!%*%(<>!%32 µ$0" 02 $#" blog %'25)2* #" 3% +9#2* µ2 2(;$#2*" +"* +")> <*9/206. C% 5<*% 1$1"*" *0=,2* +"* ;*" "(3.# !%( 2+'&9H2* 36# 9!%4> 3%(. D)$?68 J")*"#3>8 E%)*3*+.8 K6="#*+.8 5 L2+2µ1&5%( 2009 8:22 µ.µ. powered by

koutso !"#!... @""#7#(µ%" D)$?6, I"5&%µ"* !%( 0(µ19))2*8 µ2 3%# <*+. 0%( 3&.!% 036# (!%03>&*?6 "(3%, 3%( $&;%(.M* 0(#"<$)'%* 0(#>/-8 "!$=%(# "!% 3$3%*%(8 =7&%(8 (µ!)%+8) $30* µ2 ="&9 <*91"0" 3% 0=.)*% 0%(.@ "#"'%&9 0%( 03*8 /6)(!&2!258 µ%&'$8 !%( !"5&#2* 3% µ!23.# +"* !%( =&60*µ%!%*253"* µ2 3&.!% !%( #" µ6# 0(#";-#5H23"* 3%# !-&.)*/% 25#"* 9+&-8 !"&"03"3*+$8 +"* 2?'9))%( '"5#23"* +"* 36# +93%46 03" 0=$<*".DNDKBNMOKB.

+- +EMORIES/OI $5$+56.1/. +,-...

6 L2+2µ1&5%( 2009 9:14 !.µ. emilios koutsoftides !"#!... I have just read all the comments, one by one and some twice to understand. I personally can not stop laughing! Some of the things people are saying it is a joke. I believe a lot of people in Cyprus are afraid of something "new" and this is why Cyprus has not changed. People you got to understand that yes comments and suggestion are accepted especially in the world of architecture. However comments like «!%), µ!23.#» come on! Developments that are happening around in Cyprus which is first horrible to see and second they destroy the landscape and does not fit in the surroundings, we let them do it. Zaha hadid project should go on and people should accept it. It is about time we let such a recognized architect do their "thing" without the influence of people that do not know what they are talking about. 6 L2+2µ1&5%( 2009 4:48 µ.µ. $%&%'µ() !"#!...

....:DAEDPMNCD: FQD :OPM DEM RBD

1789:7!)/search labels AESTHETICS (41) ANTIQUITIES (2) ARCHITECTS (16) ARCHITECTURE (93)

http://www.freshwap.net/ebooks/57242-architectural-record-december-2009.html

ART (6)

6 L2+2µ1&5%( 2009 5:54 µ.µ.

BLUES (1)

koutso !"#!...

BOOKS (1)

@"#7#(µ2, <28 "(3..... http://www.archdaily.com/16445/yellow-treehouse-restaurant-pacificenvironments/

BUILDINGS (12)

6 L2+2µ1&5%( 2009 8:36 µ.µ.

CEMETERY (1) CONCEPT (1)

_206


207 _ !"#"$µ%& '()'... ! "#$%&'()* +,# -./0 1'2 +,# "3µ4(', 4&2+#5-6$4+'2, "+*$ 7%"* +*0 Zaha, µ/"' '&8 +,$ '(µ,$218 1'2 2",((,&*µ/$, 9267,5, +*0 ::'$+;.4"*0::, 41<('=8µ4$,$ '&8 +' #7216, +*$ µ,(<3,+20 +4-$21/0, >0 1'2 +20 742+,#(521/0 '$65140 +>$ 9%, 4&,-?$. @;$'2 1'2(80 &7/,$ $' 9*µ2,#(53",#µ4 +*$ 9213 µ'0 &'(69,"* 52' +20 4&8µ4$40 54$2/0, A'"2=8µ4$,2 "+20 A'"21/0 '(-/0 9*µ2,#(5;'0 +*0 &'(69,"*0 &,# µ'0 17*(,98+*"'$ ,2 &(,*5,%µ4$40 54$2/0. B' 5;$,#µ4 ,2 "#$4-2"+/0 1'2 8-2 ,2 '$+25('<4;0 '#+30 +*0 &'(69,"*0. 6 C414µA(;,# 2009 10:14 µ.µ. koutso '()'... @'$?$#µ4, D;74 '$?$#µ4,94$ )/(> &,280 4;"'2 &6$+>0 +' 7852' ",# 4;$'2 ">"+6.@$' motto &,# µ4 '1,7,#.4; '&, +*$ *µ/(' &,# +/742>"' +20 "&,#9/0 µ,# 4;$'2 +, 4)30:"&'(69,"* 94$ "*µ';$42 +*$ 92'+3(*"* +*0 "+61+*0 '776 +*0 <785'0 '$'µµ/$*0"&,# 4;&4 , Jean Jaure0 '(-/0 +,# '2?$'. E#+8 4$$,4;0 1'2 4"% µ4 +' 9216 ",# 7852'. 7 C414µA(;,# 2009 8:25 &.µ. Okyalos '()'... F,7# ,µ,(<' ,7' '#+' &,# 5(6<,$+'2. G'$ 74#1>"26+*0, 45> ,&,+4 1'+4A'2$> "+* (*5'2$*0, 3 "+*$ C*9('0 A74&> '1(2A>0 +*$ 2"+,(2' µ'0. H74&> "+*$ 14$+(213 &7'+42' +*0 &(>+4#,#"'0 $' 42$'2 "+'#.4#µ4$' &'('$,µ' '#+,12$*+'(9,12µ'"4 $' +, 1'$420 ,-2 µ,$, '0 &,#µ4 "+*$ E5572', '77' '1,µ' 1'2 "+, "#$+'5µ' "+* E.*$') A74&> 4$' -'72 '&, &2$'12940 '&, $4,$ &,# 942-$,#$ 7,#1'$21' $' -'µ,547,#$ 1'2 92'<*µ2=,#$ 5#('921', A74&> 14$+(' 1'772+4-$21*0 41<('"*0 (+' ,&,2' C@B 41929,#$ 1,&47740 ,,&>0 1'&,2,2 1'14$+(4-420 @#(>&'2,2 4&2+(,&,2, 92'$,,#µ4$,,2 1.7.&. 92'929,#$). H74&> '#+,12$*+' µ,$2µ>0 &'(1'(2"µ4$' "+' *9* "+4$' ",1'12', '77' ,2 +(,-,$,µ,2 4-,#$ ,9*5240 $' µ*$ +,#0 5('<,#$, 52'+2 &'('&,$2,#$+'2 ,2 1'+'"+*µ'+'(-40 ,+2 &4<+42 * 12$*"*. ! I'213 542+,$2' 4-42 µ4+'+('&42 "4 4$' A7'-,12µ&'(21, A'"2742, ,&,# µ47'J' 51'(",$2', &(,"<4(,#$ +*$ &'"25$>"+* &'12"+'$213 <27,)4$2'. ! KELE LEMNBM MOPG @DMENQ@ MOP0 MOFFOPKORPFSENOPG ? O µ'('"µ,0 +*0 I*9('0 1'2 +*0 5#(> &4(2,-*0, * '$'(-2' &,# 4&21('+42, 42$'2 '&,1#*µ'+' +*0 <'$+'"2'0 µ,#?! '$,-* 41 µ4(,#0 +,# C*µ,# 1'2 +*0 '"+#$,µ2'0 94$ 42$'2 419*7*? M*$ 4&,µ4$* <,(' &,# .' µ'=4#+42+4 52' $' 17'J4+4 52' +*$ &7'+42', 1'$+4 1'2 µ2' A,7+' "+20 &(,'$'<4(.*"40 ,9,#0. 7 C414µA(;,# 2009 9:17 &.µ.

CRITICS (1) CULTURE (2) CYPRUS DEVELOPERS (5) ENERGY (4) ENGINEERING (3) ENVIRONMENT (25) ETHICS (1) GREEN (2) HISTORY (1) JAZZ (4) LANDSCAPE (3) LIFE (3) MUSIC (12) NATURE (4) OPINION (1) PARKING (3) PERSONNA (3) PHILOSOPHY (2) PHOTOGRAPHS (2) POLITICAL POLLUTION (4) POLITICS (42) POLLUTION (1) TOWN PLANNING (21) TRADITION (1) TRAVEL (2)

Kykkos '()'... E1,%4+'2 µ,# &,776 1#&(2'18 +, $' /"h420 4&2-42(3µ'+' +,# "+#7 "'4-42 &,7% µ&4+8$" 52' +*$ 9,#7426 +*0 L'$+;+. T' &,776 1#&(2'18 8µ>0. U">0 +=2'2 $'$ 52'#+8$ &,# /-,#$ 9;1'2,. @$ $' -'76"42 , 39* #&/(,-,0 -'('1+3('0 +*0 &4(2,-30. V' &(,"&'.3"> $' 16µ> +,$ 5#(8 µ,# $' 9? +' +=2'2$,%(1' "-/92' $' "-*µ'+;"> µ2'$ &(?+*$ 29;'$ 6&,J*$.

URBAN (1) URBAN CULTURE (4) URBAN FURNITURE (3) URBAN GASES (1) URBAN POLICIES (56)

7 C414µA(;,# 2009 11:07 &.µ.

URBAN POLLUTION (10) !"#"$µ%& '()'... E$ #&6(-42 16+2 &,# '#+3 +* "+25µ3 94$ "/A4+'2 +*$ &'726 &87* +*0 I4#1>";'0 '#+8 94$ 4;$'2 +' "-/92' 52' +*$ &7'+4;' @74#.4(;'0 '776 +' "-/92' 52' +*$ '$/54("* 1'.49(21,% $',% "+, -?(, +*0 '(-24&2"1,&30. ! "#5141(2µ/$* &(8+'"* 1'+' +*$ +'&42$3 µ,# 5$?µ* 94$ "/A4+'2 1'.87,# +' 5%(> 1+;(2' 1'2 +*$ '+µ8"<'2(' &,# 4&21('+42 "+*$ 5%(> &4(2,-3, '776 +' #&,A'.µ;=42. ! &'(69,"* 1'2 * '(-2+41+,$213 µ'0 17*(,$,µ26 &(/&42 $' 92'+*(,%$+'2 1'2 $' '$'921$%,#$+'2. E#+8 94$ .' 5;$42 µ4 +*$ '$+25('<3 &4('"µ/$>$ µ,(<?$ '776 +, 1'.4 +2 &(/&42 $' 41<('=42 +*$ 4&,-3 +,#.! "#5141(2µ/$* &(8+'"* 52' +,$ 1'.49(218 42$'2 6"+,-* 1'2 +, µ8$, &,# <'$4(?$42 4;$'2 +* µ45'742,µ'$;' +,# E(-24&2"18&,#. W&>0 87,2 5$>(;=,#µ4 /$'0 µ4567,0 '(2.µ80 1+2(;>$ "+*$ &'726 I4#1>";' (1'2 8-2 µ8$,) '$31,#$ "+*$ 4117*";'. F(,+2µ8+4(, .' 3+'$ $' 5;$42 '$'&'7';>"* '#+?$ +>$ 1+2(;>$ 1'2 $' <27,)4$*.,%$ µ/"' "4 '#+6 742+,#(5;40 ,2 ,&,;40 &('5µ'+216 .' A,*.3",#$

URBAN-RURAL HABITS (2) WATER (5)


appendix E - blogs !"#$ %$%&'(!# "#) *%+,-) *.+#). /*'!#) 0% 102+% $% %$%345( .", # 651!# "78) () 9,%µ25'!µ%"% :,% ;252') <%, () 6=57, 3,+7>2$'%) "VIP" *57!=*($ 3,+7>2$7?µ2$($ "78 @56,2*,!<.*78 2,+,<5,$- µ2 %*7:7#"2?2,. 7 A2<2µ&5'78 2009 11:40 *.µ. koutso !"#!... @Okyalos, B25' %8"7? *5.<2,"%,.C%' 462,) 9'<,7.D%+(!.5#!2) !"# D78+7837+-$9#. 7 A2<2µ&5'78 2009 11:51 *.µ. koutso !"#!... @Kykkos, @8"- 2'$%, "% 2*,62,51µ%"% .µ() *-$( !"% 7*7'% !8:<"57"7?$ "-*7E#" µ25,<7' E289757µ%$",<7' <%, %567$"76(5<-"2) <7?+7837, .@<.µ% -µ% "% %<7?2,) <%, %*7 "78) %$05=*78) "#2 *7+2797µ'%) $% 92') *.!7 0% !#<(02' # "5'6% "#) *7+,",!µ,%<1) µ%) %*.:$(!#).... 7 A2<2µ&5'78 2009 11:54 *.µ. Kykkos !"#!... @:%*#"4 <?5,2 D78"!73"'9#, A8!"86=) 25:-F7µ%, !"#$ '9,% &,7µ#6%$'% µ2 2!4$% 7*."2 *25'*78 &+4*78µ2 <%, %<7?µ2 "% '9,%, 35,<"-, *5-:µ%"%. @++- µ2$ µ2 *%"-) *-$( !"7$ <-++7 9,.", 43"%!% !"7 %µ1$ µ2 "78) "µ2+2"#"4)" !"#$ D?*57! GH. I'*7"2 "7 *57!(*,<. µ%F' !78 23.!7$ 92$ 4"862 $% !8$25:%!"7?µ2 µ465, "=5%! 7 A2<2µ&5'78 2009 12:20 µ.µ. koutso !"#!... @Kykkos, @$ 2'!%, !8$-92+37) *78 25:-F2!%, !"#$ *7+2797µ'% "."2 2>4"%!2 ",) !8µ*25,3754) µ25,<=$ %*7 "78) !8$%94+378) !78.@$ 2'!%, "78 2*%::4+µ%"7) "."2 7 *.$7) 2'$%, <7,$.). 7 A2<2µ&5'78 2009 2:55 µ.µ. emilios koutsoftides !"#!... The comment that i am about to write goes to the person that wrote this: "Ean den sas aresi I aisthitiki tou laou mas mporite na metakomisete se alli xwra me pio kalesthito lao. Mallon protimate tsimentoupolis, me erga fimismenwn arxitektonwn pou kerdizoun diagonismous…mporite tote na pate sto Dubai, sto Tokyo, New York…ime sigouri omos oti tha 3erete kalitera apo emena…kalo taxidi an pate!" Sorry but this comment has got me a bit frustrated. Firstly who said that architecture and the way they live in their countries like "Dubai, sto Tokyo, New York… " is better than ours?? Look around you in any country and their are things that you will like and things you will not, thats how life is! However now talking about Cyprus which is such a small island and has nearly little to show in architecture, it is about time we had architecture like Zaha Hadid's is proposing. Secondly, people that don't know about how much shit architects must go through in Cyprus,like my father, should be a shame of themselves telling them to leave their country. It is architects like my father who are trying to "change" this country from being a complete shithole. I have many examples to show and tell about Cyprus about how wrong they are in architecture and how they let things happen. So please don't come and comment about Zaha Hadid using to much concrete and telling architects of high standard to leave. 7 A2<2µ&5'78 2009 3:50 µ.µ. the Idiot Mouflon !"#!...

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209 _ !"##$ µ%&'() *%+,-&. /01, 23)'," '14 %(#14 &5)6.. 7##+ 85)&'6. 6)+9&:1 &)(4 3,;"*, %.-. 0,(µ"* :& µ.6 &'6.,&56 ;.6 20 &2. <=1µ&,506 >;65)&. µ& &501:1 ('. *%+,-&. +##1 %,":=",+ 50.?) %,"0.6;,6=@) 6##+ µ& 15 &2. A6)3)64 (µ?4 0&) B3,&. ('. " 0,(µ"4 96 µ%","$:& )6 ;5)&. µ& 10. C#0. 0&) &5µ6. :5;"*,"4 ('. ". 0.+=",&4 %,?'">"*#5&4 *%3, / &)6)'5") '"* 3,;"* 3-"*) ?4 25)1'," -6;69( -93µ6'6 6.91'.2/4. D/%?4 " 26*;+4 ;5)&'6. &%&.0/ "'6 #&='+ %6) 6##"$" / "'6 #&='+ %6) :& &µ+4"; E##" 93µ6. 8.6'5 µ()" 26=&'3,.&4 :'"*4 %6,62&5µ&)"*4 -@,"*4; 8.6'5 µ()" -@,". µ& &µ%",.2/ 6B56; 8.6'5 (-. %.-. µ.6 (06)&.:'.2/ / 0?,&+)) >.>#."9/21; F 3)64 -@,"4 ;.6 *%659,.&4 %6,6:'+:&.4 6%"2#&.:'.2+ -?,54 &.:1'/,."; 7%6;",&$")'6. :'"*4 :-&0.6:µ"$4 µ.64 %(#14 -@,". =.#(B&)". ;.6 0,6:'1,.('1'&4 µ& &#+-.:'1 &µ%",.2/ 6B56; 7 C&2&µ>,5"* 2009 3:55 µ.µ. !"#"$µ%& '()'... http://www.greekarchitects.gr/index.php? maincat=51&newid=2062&curpage=3#top 7 C&2&µ>,5"* 2009 4:58 µ.µ. !"#"$µ%& '()'... D& 6=",µ/ '6 ;,6=@µ&)6 '"* 6)@)*µ"* ;.6 '") A69&0,.2( G6( 0&5'& 6*'" http://www.greekarchitects.gr/index.php?maincat=13&newid=1080 7 C&2&µ>,5"* 2009 5:11 µ.µ. koutso '()'... @ 6)@)*µ&, H" %",'6# '" ;)?,5I? 26. :& &*-6,.:'@ ;.6 '"*4 :*)03:µ"*4.<#%5I? 6*'"5 %"* &)6)'.()")'6. )6 '6 0.6>+:"*).J 2691;1'/4 K'6:.)(%"*#"4 %"* *%";,+=&. '" 3)6 2+)&. %"#$ :">6,/ 0"*#&.+ 26. ". %,">#1µ6'.:µ"5 '"* 3-"*) 6%/-1:1 :& 6*'.+ (%?4 '6 0.2+ µ"*. H" 0&$'&," 0&) '" ;)?,5I? 6##+ 96 '" 0.6>+:? 26. 96 ;,+L? 6)6#(;?4.K'&*-6,.:'@. 7 C&2&µ>,5"* 2009 5:30 µ.µ. koutso '()'... @1#59." 6;,.)(, M 6)+;21 ;.6 <9).2/ N.>#."9/21 &5)6. %+;." 65'1µ6 2+9& %"#.'.:µ3)"* #6"$.7,6 &B'",.:µ"$ ,6%" '1) :'.;µ/ %"* 0&) 3-"*µ& <9).2/ N.>#."9/21 &5µ6:'& 26. 96 %6,6µ&5)"*µ& 6-%"#5'.:'"..J:" 6=",+ '1) -,/:1 %"* %,"'&5)&'6.,µ.+ '3'".6 -,/:1 96 =3,&. 25)1:1,:*)&%@4 2(:µ",:'&)6 -@," *%">69µ.:µ3)" %"* '1) )$2'6,'"*#+-.:'") B3,&'& %"#$ 26#+ '. ;5)&'6..M N.>#."9/21 %,3%&. %+,6*'6 )6 ;5)&. 6##+ 2+%"* 6##"$! 7 C&2&µ>,5"* 2009 6:35 µ.µ. the Idiot Mouflon '()'... M >.>#."9/21 &5)6. µ()" 3)6 %6,+0&.;µ6. D"* =65)&'6. %?4 %,":%&,)+4 '" "*:.6:'.2( &,@'1µ6 ";.6'5 %,3%&. :'"*4 %6,62&5µ&)"*4 -@,"*4 )6 *%+,-"*) µ()" 'µ6;6I.+' %"* %,":=3,")'6. ;.6 &µ%",.2( 23,0"4"; <#&$9&,1 6;",+ -;.6 µ3)6 -:1µ65)&. &#&*9&,56 )6 0.6:2&0+I? / %&,)@ '1) @,6 µ"* 26. -?,54 -26' '6)+;21 -)6 %#1,@)?. 8.6'5 )6 µ1) *%+,-"*) 26. '3'".". -@,".; 7 C&2&µ>,5"* 2009 6:58 µ.µ. emilios koutsoftides '()'... !"#$ % &'()#%*% &+&,)-.%/0 &12 #3 *"44)&+-&. *"44)&+-& 7 C&2&µ>,5"* 2009 9:54 µ.µ. emilios koutsoftides '()'...


appendix E - blogs @the idiot mouflon I understand what you are saying. However this when a good government places a role. How come in other countries despite the 'µ!"!#$%' they organize free events for the public? Who said it is only for 'µ!"!#$%'. All this space is called a &'()*+( which means different activities could be organized for free, for example a free concert. It happens here where i am studying, however the only difference is the council of my area pays for this free activities for the people, at this &'()*+(,. This is why the Cypriot government should start funding activities or something for free for the people to have fun with there families, which as much as I would like to see this happen, I cant. 7 -./.µ01234 2009 9:55 µ.µ. !"#"$µ%& '()'... (55.5 3 "$36 7!6 839836 5! 834 .4:;<= 5! >$%.$ 83 8!?@583 8;5 /!?!$7<;72! /!$ 8;5 8.?.$3µ!52! 834 >!>% 834 7 -./.µ01234 2009 10:17 µ.µ. koutso '()'... @!5=54µ., A!$ .25!$ 3 "4$B6 µ34 /!$ <! "25.$ /!?98.136 !>3 µ@5! "$!82 !>3 >3?9 >$B .5C126 835 .5D$!E@1345 >1%µ!8! >34 ."= 78; ;?$/2! 834 !D$!E31397!. 8 -./.µ01234 2009 8:29 >.µ. koutso '()'... @H?2<$3 !"1$5B, A3µ2#C 734 !>%58;7. 3 "4$B6 µ34. 8 -./.µ01234 2009 8:30 >.µ. Aceras Anthropophorum '()'... ($µF?$. 8#$!$ 5! µ.5 "$5.26 /!??988.136 >34 835 >!>% 734 @5 >.$1%#.$. G ?@H; /!?98.136 D.5 7;µ!25.$ !>3?98C6 82>38.. )3 !>38@?.7µ!5 8;6 8!H$5Bµ;7;6 .H!18%8!$ !>B 8! /1$8F1$!. )! /1$8F1$! µ.8!H9 D93 ".5!$=5 .25!$ D$!E31.8$/%. *79 <! .27!$ D$!E31.8$/B6 8#$!$ E8%55.$. *27!$ FD;. I1.H; 5! 7$.$6 5! µ!<!25.$6 5! D34?.9/.$6 8#$!$ 5! D;µ$341".26 8#$!$ .5 5! "$5.26 !/Bµ! >$3 D$!E31.8$/B6 :))) J$! 8;5 >?!8.2! 74µEC5= 8#$!$ µ. 835 >!8@1!5 8#$!$ µ. 835 "$3. 8 -./.µ01234 2009 2:57 µ.µ. the Idiot Mouflon '()'... I:$ K39873, 82>38! D.5 <! /%µ345 !5 D.5 .H4>;1.8.2 .µ>31$/% 74µE@1358!. L47$!78$/% <@?345 5! /%5345 8;5 >?!8.2! !??% /!$ 8;5 ".58B6 C5 8.$:=5" '.4/C72! 745@:.$! 8;6 /!8%78!7;6 >34 .>$/1!8.2 78; M!/!1234. M>31.2 /%>3$.6 D$!µ!18412.6 5! "25358!$ ./ 834 >35;139 !??% 83983 D.5 7;µ!25.$ B8$ !µ@7C6 D$/!$=5.8!$ ; "%??; >?.41%". (5 8346 .5D$@E.1. 5! !/397345 /!$ 5! .H4>;1.8F7345 8$6 >1!"µ!8$/@6 !5%"/.6 834 /B7µ34 <! 8$µ397!5 /!$ 8;5 4>3"1!EF 8346: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aarhus_Convention (?F<.$!, >@1!5 !>B 8;5 1C83034?2! 8;6 M!9134 5! 1C8F7.$ 835 /B7µ3 "$! 83 >!?$B J,&... >B8. .5D$!E@18;/!5 5! 1C8F7345 835 /B7µ3 "$! @1"! >34 835 .>;1.%#345 7;µ!58$/%; 9 -./.µ01234 2009 12:04 µ.µ. Sindrimin '()'... ....5 /12µ! >%5836 5! 781@E.8!$ /%>3$36 783 $783?3"$3 7!6 "$! 5! D$!0%7.$ 8;5 %>3N; /%>3$34 7:.8$/39 /!$ 83 >1=83 7:B?$3 >34 5! 0?@>.$ 5! !E31% 83 ...>?;/813?B"$3. K!$ /%8$ !/Bµ!. *5 8B735 /!/B D;?!DF >34 ."= >1!"µ!8$/% <.C1= %7:;µ3 83 8B73 >3??95 µ>.8B5 7. !582<.7; µ. 83 8B73 ?2"3 >1%7$53 7835 :=13;

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Category: Common Interest - History Description: Plateia Eleftherias (Eleftheria's Square) was never a square and can never be due to its physical size, location and structure. Any intervension will only destroy the historical entrance to the old city of Nicosia and its venetian wall. If the local authorities feel the need for a new big square for the town of Nicosia this should be done elswhere, and in anycase not to interfere by intruding and abusing historic locations. Privacy type: Open: All content is public. Admins Nora Dikaios (creator) Members 6 of 410 members

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Save Plateia Eleftherias from any kind of intrusion and abuse

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Common Interest - History

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Plateia Eleftherias (Eleftheria's Square) was never a square and can never be due to its physical size, location and structure. Any intervension will only destroy the historical entrance to the old city of Nicosia and its venetian wall. If the local authorities feel the need for a new big square for the town of Nicosia this should be done elswhere, and in anycase not to interfere by intruding and abusing historic locations.

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Ξεκαθαρίζουν οι αμφιβολίες κατά πόσο σώζεται ο καρδιόσχημος προμαχώνας Ντ' Aβίλα, με τα νέα ευρήματα των ανασκαφών στην Πλατεία Ελευθερίας που διεξήγαγε τις προηγούμενες μέρες το Τμήμα Αρχαιοτήτων. Οι συστηματικές ανασκαφές που άρχισαν την περασμένη Δευτέρα, έφεραν στο φως ολόκληρη την κουρτίνα του τείχους. Το πιο σημαντικό στοιχείο όμως είναι ότι εντοπίστηκε το σημείο, «το αυτί» (ορολογία που χρησιμοποιείται από τους αρχαιολόγους) όπου γίνεται η κλίση για να ανοίξει ο καρδιόσχημος προμαχώνας. Αυτή η πολύ σημαντική ανακάλυψη καταρρίπτει όλες τις υπόνοιες για την κατεδάφιση του προμαχώνα από τους Άγγλους. Φαίνεται ότι έκτισαν λίγο πιο πέρα από το ενετικό μνημείο τον προμαχώνα. Το εύρημα επιβεβαιώνει την εκτίμηση ότι ο προμαχώνας είχε μετακινηθεί αρχές του 20ού αιώνα, όταν κατασκευαζόταν ο δρόμος που ένωνε την οδό Λήδρας με την εκτός των τειχών πόλη, που ήταν τότε αναπτυσσόμενη. Για την ιστορία να αναφέρουμε ότι οι Άγγλοι όταν διοικούσαν την Κύπρο, προβληματίζονταν σχετικά με το μέλλον των τειχών της Λευκωσίας και κατά καιρούς διατυπώθηκαν απόψεις για την ολική κατεδάφισή τους. Στο τέλος φαίνεται ότι πρυτάνευσε η λογική που οφείλεται στο ρόλο του αρχιτέκτονα αλλά και Εφόρου των Αρχαίων μνημείων, George Jeffery και στη συνέχεια στον Arthur Megaw. Ο διευθυντής του Τμήματος Αρχαιοτήτων Παύλος Φλουρέντζος, δήλωσε παλαιότερα στον "Φ" ότι είναι πολύ σημαντικά τα όσα αναμένεται να φέρει στην επιφάνεια η αρχαιολογική σκαπάνη καθώς τα ευρήματα θα απαντήσουν σε πολλά ερωτήματα που υπάρχουν γύρω από το όλο θέμα: Ποια η σχέση του υφιστάμενου προμαχώνα που έκτισαν οι Άγγλοι με το Ενετικό, τι φθορές υπέστη όλα αυτά τα χρόνια και σε τι κατάσταση βρίσκεται σήμερα. Η ανασκαφή αναμένεται να ολοκληρωθεί, με τις πιο ευνοϊκές συνθήκες, τέλος του χρόνου. Τα ευρήματα θα μελετηθούν και θα κρίνουν την πορεία υλοποίησης των σχεδίων ανάπλασης της Πλατείας Ελευθερίας όπως σχεδιάστηκε από το αρχιτεκτονικό γραφείο της Ζάχα Χαντίντ. Μαρίνα Σχίζα, Από την εφημερίδα Φιλελεύθερος 6.10.2008

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Saturday, February 27, 2010

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appendix E - blogs !"#$ %!&'!()!(*"+$ µ,-'.(*"+$ !,$ /0"-1$. 2( 3.!/*' 0&"µ'-4./$, 5(' 0'&67/(5µ', %#µ8"9:;"#. !($ 3.!/*' 7("(*,!(*3$ 0/&(<3&/(/$ !,$ =+0&"# *'!6 !, 8/./!"*&'!:', !($ 9/5>µ/./$ contrade. ?!%( !' !/:-, /.%)µ'!4."#. '99,5"&(*6 %!". '&(@µ> !). 0&"µ'-4.). !"#$ !($ 3.!/*' 7("(*,!(*3$ 0/&(<3&/(/$ !"# .,%("+. 2( 8/./!(*3$ "-#&4%/($ /:.'( :%)$ , 0(" /.!#0)%('*1 µ'&!#&:' !,$ 8/./!"*&'!:'$ %!,. =+0&". A' "-#&)µ'!(*6 3&5' !,$ =+0&"# !"# 16"# '(4.' '0"*&#%!'994."#. !,. /0:7&'%, !,$ B/./!:'$ %!,. =+0&" !>%" %/ 0&'*!(*> >%" *'( %/ (7/"9"5(*> /0:0/7". C0(093"., "( 8/./!(*3$ "-#&4%/($ !,$ D/#*)%:'$ *'( !,$ Eµµ"-4%!"# '0"!/9"+. 3.' %,µ'.!(*> %!67(" %!,. /F39(F, !,$ /#&)0'G*1$ 'µ#.!(*1$ '&-(!/*!".(*1$ *'!6 !,. 0/&:"7" !,$ E.'53..,%,$. 2( 0&"!/(.>µ/./$ /0/µ86%/($ %!,. H9'!/:' C9/#@/&:'$ µ'$ '.,%#-"+. (7(':!/&' 7(>!( @' '99"(4%"#. "9"*9,&)!(*6 !,. /(*>.' *'( !" -'&'*!1&' !). !/(-4. '0> >9/$ !($ '0>I/($:

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215 _ !"# !$%&' !'() *+, !' -&+#.), -'( +-'!/0'1# +#+-23-+3!' µ.&') !") '41&53"), *"&14!"*+# 5) 6#"µ/7' 89 :7#+*+ *+!$ !"# -/&7';' !") +<<0'*&+!7+). =!,) 9 >+#'(+&7'( 1950 (-'<&$%"*/ 3(µ%5#7+ µ/!+?1 !") +-',*,'*&+!,*@) A(B.&#"3") *+, !'( !2!/ C"µ$&4'( D/(*537+) µ/ !"# '-'7+ /*µ,3EFE"*/ !' B/#/!,*2 !/74') µ/ 2&'() µ.4&, !' 2049. G, 2&', /7#+, ?/*$E+&', *+, *+E'&7H'(# !,) (-'4&/F3/,), !,) ;&+3!"&,2!"!/) *+, !,) +#+-!1?/,) -'( /-,!&.-'#!+, 3!"# !$%&' 2-5) -.4. #+ ;,+!"&/7!+, *+E+&@, #+ 4&"3,µ'-',/7!+,

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appendix E - blogs !""#$%&#&'!$ #$ !&!"#()*+ µ*'!,- '.& /(0.& 0!$ '.& 12.µ3'.&. 4'# 5262# 13 '#7 $8)#7 932': !&!;<2*'!$ *=)>:+ /'$ =2#>6?0*+ *=$'2<=#&'!$ /'!& !7'<+ 8*& !;!$2#-& !=/ '#

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Blog 5:

by pause at 27.2.10 Labels: Cyprus, Nicosia, old town Nicosia, Plateia Eleytherias

3 comments: !"#$%&#' said... ()* )+ µ+,-.+/ 0 123)+1µ04 5-65/0789:3, 577. 0 "123)+1µ04" ,:3 developers... ;5/ 0 30*3 30+<,:... February 27, 2010 7:10 AM Aceras Anthropophorum said... = 123)+1µ04 5-65/0789:3 >57. >.µ3+/ 35 ?.+/ +@+703,/>A3 +-951<53 35 BC1>03<1+/ 77<03 ,5 5-65<5 ,0D 5-65/0709/>02 µ0D1+<0D. E+3 BF-: 9/5,<, 577. 6:-<4 35 BF-: ,<?0,+, µD-<G0Dµ5/ ,C3 >D-<5 H5-59902 ?0?<1: ?0D ,02,C3 ,C3 535>0<3:1C. February 27, 2010 1:18 PM pause said... = 123)+1µ04 5-65/0789:3 F6+/ 5353+:@+< ,03 ,+7+D,5<0 >5/-8 8?:4 .>0D15 µ+ 3F5 >5/ 3+5-. .,0µ5 ?0D )+3 1Dµµ+,+<653 µF6-/ ,*-5 789: ,0D "+@3/>02" 65-5>,A-5 ,0D 1D3)F1µ0D. !0770< 5?8 5D,024 +<35/ 5-65/07890/ ?0D )0D7+20D3 ,*-5 µ+ ,0D4 593002µ+30D4. #?I8,/ BF-: C >. H5-59>02 )+3 +<6+ 16F1C µ+ 5D,8 ,0 535>0/3:@F3. '<90D-5 ?5<G+/ 0 "123)+1µ04 developers" ?<1: 5?8 ,C3 ?75,+<5 577. >5/ ,/ µ+ 5D,8? March 1, 2010 2:24 AM Post a Comment Links to this post Create a Link Newer Post

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appendix E - blogs

Blog 6 - SIGMA news channel

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Είσοδος | Δεν έχετε λογαριασμό; Εγγραφείτε! | Τετάρτη, 29/12/10 Sigma Live

Πλατεία Ελευθερίας: Καλό Πάσχα να φτάσουμε | Εκτύπωση | 03/12/2010 | Σ.Ι.

Αν και η έναρξη εργασιών για την ανάπλαση της Πλατείας Ελευθερίας στη Λευκωσία ήταν προγραμματισμένη να γίνει το Φεβρουάριο του 2011, εντούτοις κάποια προβλήματα που αντιμετωπίσε ο Δήμος Λευκωσίας για αλλαγές στο project έπειτα από υποδείξεις του Τμήματος Αρχαιοτήτων επέφερε νέα καθυστέρηση, Όπως δήλωσε στο InBusinessNews η Δήμαρχος Λευκωσίας Ελένη Μαύρου, το θέμα με το πρόβλημα που αντιμετώπισαν το οποίο αφορούσε την επιλογή των υλικών του έργου και τη σύνδεση του με τις οδούς Λήδρας και Ονασαγόρου θα επιλυθεί οριστικά στις 15 Δεκεμβρίου. Η κ. Μαύρου πρόσθεσε πως τα προβλήματα αυτά μεταθέτουν την έναρξη εργασιών του έργου το οποίο θα κοστίσει €12 εκ., από το Φεβρουάριο όπου υπολόγιζαν, για το Πάσχα του 2011,. «Στόχος είναι η γέφυρα που θα υπάρχει στην Πλατεία να είναι έτοιμη το 2012 τη χρονιά που θα αναλάβει η χώρα μας την Προεδρία της ΕΕ και το έργο να ολοκληρωθεί πλήρως το Πάσχα του 2013», σημείωσε η κ. Μαύρου. Το έργο περιλαμβάνει πλήρη ανάπλαση της τάφρου, από την Πλατεία Σολωμού μέχρι το χώρο στάθμευσης που λειτουργεί στην Νταβίλα, και ένα διώροφο χώρο στάθμευσης κάτω από την οδό Ομήρου.


219 _

Τέλος να αναφέρουμε η ανάπλαση της Πλατείας Ελευθερίας σχεδιάστηκε από το διεθνούς εμβέλειας οίκο Zaha Hadid Architects.

Εισέλθετε στο σύστημα ή εγγραφείτε για να υποβάλετε σχόλια Το ιστορικό της “Νέας Πλατείας Ελευθερίας” 13/01/2008: «Η Πλατεία Ελευθερίας βρίσκεται στο στάδιο του τελικού σχεδιασμού. Στα μέσα του καλοκαιριού θα υποβληθούν τα τελικά σχέδια και στη συνέχεια θα προκηρύξουμε προσφορές για την κατασκευή της Πλατείας» κατέληξε η κ. Μαύρου. 26/03/2009: «Στις επόμενες μέρες θα δώσουμε τελικές οδηγίες στους αρχιτέκτονες και ίσως στο τέλος του χρόνου να ξεκινήσουν οι εργασίες» κατέληξε η κ. Μαύρου. 31/12/2009: «Δεν έγινε δέκτης περαιτέρω παρατηρήσεων κατά ή μετά την έκθεση των σχεδίων και αναμένει το Σεπτέμβρη του 2010 να προκηρυχθούν οι προσφορές για το έργο.», είπε η κ. Μαύρου. 18/06/2010: «Θα προκηρυχθούν προσφορές τον Σεπτέμβρη και αναμένεται να αρχίσουν οι εργασίες τον Ιανουάριο του 2011. », εξήγησε η κ. Μαύρου. 01/11/2010: «Υπολογίζουμε ότι εντός Φεβρουαρίου 2011 θα αρχίσει η κατασκευή της Πλατείας Ελευθερίας», είπε η κ. Μαύρου. 02/12/2010: «Αναφορικά με την Πλατεία Ελευθερίας μέχρι τις 15 Δεκ. θα ετοιμαστούν τα έγγραφα και την επόμενη χρόνια να προκηρυχθούν οι προσφορές, η κατασκευή της Πλατείας Ελευθερίας θα αρχίσει την άνοιξη», εξήγησε η κ. Μαύρου. to be continued... @UrbanCyprus.org Σωστά τα λέτε. Αλλά ποιός φταίει για αυτή τη κατάσταση; Ο δήμος; το τμήμα αρχαιοτήτων; οι εργολάβοι; οι αρχιτέκτονες; Οι Αμερικάνοι; Το υπουργείο


appendix E - blogs εσωτερικών; ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος; Αυτό που θέλω να πω είναι ότι καλό θα ήταν να ακούσουμε έστω και μια φορά κάποιο να λαμβάνει την ευθύνη. Το έργο της Πλατείας Ελευθερίας παραμένει ακόμη σε εκκρεμότητα μετά από αλλεπάλληλες αναβολές και καθυστερήσεις και είναι πραγματικά κρίμα να πληροφορούμαστε ότι το τμήμα αρχαιοτήτων έστω και την υστάτη προσπαθεί ακόμα να επιβραδύνει το έργο απαιτώντας ακόμη αλλαγές στον σχεδιασμό. Είναι τελείως απαράδεκτο στην περίοδο που διανύουμε το τμήμα αρχαιοτήτων να κωλυσιεργεί για το έργο αυτό που είναι αναγκαίο για την πόλη, και κάποιοι να εξακολουθούν να πιστεύουν ότι έχουμε την πολυτέλεια το έργο να καθυστερεί και άλλο, αγνοώντας ότι το 2012 η πλατεία πρέπει να είναι έτοιμη για το κοινό σε μια πόλη η οποία χαρακτηρίζεται από πολλούς επισκέπτες ως άχρωμη και με χωρίς σημείο αναφοράς. Οι ευρωπαϊκές πόλεις συνεχώς αλλάζουν, δημιουργούν νέες χρήσεις, υλικά, στυλ, διαστάσεις, ύψη, και κοσμοπολίτικες όψεις. Σε αντίθεση, στη Λευκωσία για ένα έργο όπως την ανάπλαση της Πλατείας Ελευθερίας, συζητούμε από το 1972. Η Λευκωσία χρειάζεται αλλαγή, να τολμήσουμε να διοχετεύσουμε την ενέργειά μας παραγωγικά, όχι αποτρέποντας, αλλά δημιουργώντας έργα και πολιτισμό. Η ανάπλαση της πλατείας είναι ένα βήμα προς τη σωστή κατεύθυνση και πιστεύουμε ότι θα συμβάλει στην αναζωογόνηση της εντός των τειχών πόλης, αφού θα γίνει στο σημείο που ενώνει τη σύγχρονη πόλη με την παλιά. Θα καταστήσει ακόμα τη Λευκωσία γνωστή σε παγκόσμιο επίπεδο μέσω των έργων διάσημων αρχιτεκτόνων, να προωθήσουν μια νέα εικόνα. Καλούμε την πολιτεία να παρέμβει και να ξυπνήσει κάποιους εκεί στο τμήμα αρχαιοτήτων διότι από ότι φαίνεται από απεργίες τα καταφέρνουν μια χαρά. “Urban Cyprus Society” info@urbancyprus.org (mailto:info@urbancyprus.org) www.urbancyprus.org (http://www.urbancyprus.org) Do you what kinds of the match is the most interesting and exciting? You may be surely to say it is wholesale nfl jerseys (http://www.wholesalenflstore.com/) match. NFL, which is named National Football League, has 32 teams. As the most famous professional NFL American Football League, it has the most fans in America.

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cheap nfl jerseys (http://www.wholesalenflstore.com/) . From here, you can choose any kinds of the jerseys. We also provide different sizes and colors to satisfy you. Watching the match is wonderful but adding the NFL jerseys is more interesting. You can image you are play with the teams in the match. In all, it is hard to use the word to express our joy. Only you take part in it, you can know that feeling. Moreover, the high quality of the nfl throwback jerseys (http://www.wholesalenflstore.com/) we provide for you.Our main advantage: superior

quality and no Mini order. With rich experience in dealing with all kinds of NFL jerseys, most of our products have no minimum order requirements: both large and small orders are welcome, so you can retail products at wholesale prices!authentic nfl jerseys (http://www.wholesalenflstore.com/) We are the professional wholesale NFL Jerseys. However, if wholesalers purchase bigger, then can enjoy even larger discounts! Browse our websites, a huge range of products with cheap price but high quality are waiting for you! Do you what kinds of the match is the most interesting and exciting? You may be surely to say it is wholesale nfl jerseys (http://www.wholesalenflstore.com/) match. NFL, which is named National Football League, has 32 teams. As the most famous professional NFL American Football League, it has the most fans in America. Nowadays football has become the world famous sport item. There are a lot of football fans all over the world.wholesale authentic nfl jerseys (http://www.wholesalenflstore.com/) Whether the match or the fans are all crazy, they

are cheer for the excellent and splendid match. We can learn more from the team.In order to meet the fansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; demand,discount nfl jerseys (http://www.wholesalenflstore.com/) our shop provides different kinds of the authentic

cheap nfl jerseys (http://www.wholesalenflstore.com/) . From here, you can choose any kinds of the jerseys. We also provide different sizes and colors to satisfy you. Watching the match is wonderful but adding the NFL jerseys is more interesting. You can image you are play with the teams in the match. In all, it is hard to use the


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quality and no Mini order. With rich experience in dealing with all kinds of NFL jerseys, most of our products have no minimum order requirements: both large and small orders are welcome, so you can retail products at wholesale prices!authentic nfl jerseys (http://www.wholesalenflstore.com/) We are the professional wholesale NFL Jerseys. However, if wholesalers purchase bigger, then can enjoy even larger discounts! Browse our websites, a huge range of products with cheap price but high quality are waiting for you! © 2008-2009 InBusinessNews.com Προσωπικά Δεδομένα | Όροι Χρήσης | Ταυτότητα | IMH | Επικοινωνία | Site Credit

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November 27th, 2008, 08:52 AM

ACCLIM

#721

nice!

Registered User Join Date: Sep 2007 Posts: 806

November 27th, 2008, 09:29 AM

SouthernEuropean +

#722

Nick3dz,lovely photos! __________________ HELLAS

Join Date: Apr 2007 Posts: 2,339

November 27th, 2008, 09:42 PM

WhiteMagick Registered User

#723

poly kales oi fwtografies sou! epivaletai na fytepsoune dentra kata mhkos ths diagorou. h ekklhsia sto tseri pws einai?? __________________ !"#$%&'( )"* +& ,+-.'/$( $0".12$(.

Join Date: May 2006 Posts: 6,302

November 29th, 2008, 01:28 PM

#724

new-sk

Hadid defends controversial Eleftheria Square plans By Stefanos Evripidou in London

Join Date: Sep 2008 Location: 3'45"2($,Linköping Posts: 711

AWARD-WINNING architect Zaha Hadid has defended her controversial plans to remodel the heart of Nicosia.

Registered User

Nicosia Mayor Eleni Mavrou was in London on Thursday night to present plans for the redesign of the capital's historic focal point, Eleftheria Square, along with the project's architect Zaha Hadid. The event was held at the new premises of the Cyprus High Commission in the plush surroundings of St James Square. Mavrou noted that Eleftheria Square, having served for over a century as the heart of the capital, “continues to be the most important link between the historic centre and the contemporary city”. The digging currently under way at the site is the “first step towards its transformation into an area that is both functional and beautiful”. The mayor described Hadid as “an authority in the field of architecture” whose “groundbreaking remodelling of Eleftheria Square has created an uninterrupted flow” between the areas within and outside the old city.


appendix E - blogs Mavrou, conscious of vocal resentment towards the project from certain quarters back home, highlighted that the award for the project was “not given to a name but to an idea and an architecture”. The Iraqi-born architect noted that she has a strange association to Cyprus, given her many Cypriot students in the past and those now working in her office. Hadid said the new design would do more than just connect places, but also people. The opening up of the moat and its redesign will provide a room in the city for people to move freely, she said, adding that the evolution of a place didn't just depend on its design, but on the people too. Having lived in Beirut, the architect highlighted the importance of reflecting the “layers of history” in a place, rather than letting them disappear. She noted the “stunning light” of the Mediterranean would have a great impact on the project, even in the shaded area of the park under the new bridge. Asked why she did not visit Cyprus before designing the project, Hadid said there was no fixed rule on this and that it depended on the project. “Sometimes it's better when I don't see it first, and when I start the project quite abstract. If I go, I might change my mind and start again,” she quipped, noting that she was known in her circles as the “Option Girl”. “I want 20 options because I think there's always a better solution.” Hadid highlighted that she could respond well to the project because of her team's enhanced repertoire, and the years of research, observations and ideas on architectural designs, as well as her associates' continuous visits to the site and their local knowledge. Hadid praised the two Cypriots in her office who played an integral role in the new design, Christos Passas, the Project Architect, and Saffet Bekiroglu. Passas noted that the moat has been neglected, divided and unused to date. The new project will reunify all its parts and create access “for people to see where they want to go and just go”. The design's fluidity and the cool, shaded areas under the bridge will allow for 10-20 different types of users, as well as the traditional open public events, gatherings and concerts, he said. Former mayor Themistoclis Dervis had the original curve of the bastion knocked down and rebuilt a few metres further back to make space for the new part of town to be connected to Ledra and Onasagorou streets in the 1930s. This original part of the 16th century bastion has recently been discovered by the Antiquities Department, and will be incorporated into the new design, adding value to the space, said Passas. The Cypriot High Commissioner, Alexandros Zenon, described Hadid as a “great architect” who creates an edifice in every project she takes on. He acknowledged, however, that not all where in favour of the project, saying: “Many in Nicosia are excited about this project, most of them, enthusiastic.” Former Nicosia mayoral candidate and archaeologist Anna Marangou who leads a lobby group entitled ‘Nicosia Citizens against the Transformation of Eleftheria Square’ has sent letters to various European institutions and UNESCO objecting to the plans. Marangou has labelled the project an “imposing concrete monstrosity”. The project's supporters argue the material used will ensure that the country's hot weather will not be a problem, highlighting the large open yet shaded spaces created by the bridge over the park. The High Commission's Cultural Counsellor Dr Niki Katsaouni said finding the best urban design that catered to everybody's needs while integrating the old with the new was liking trying “to solve a riddle put by a sphinx”. One Cypriot who attended the presentation asked whether any colours could be added, to which Hadid suggested creating a “red square”. The mayor quickly intervened to add: “Colour is a sensitive issue in Cyprus.” John Outram, a British architect married to a Cypriot, used to have an office overlooking the square when it was called Metaxas Square in 1961. He argued the design was not dramatic enough. “I'm looking for a neutrality that's more powerful than race/religion/ethnicity. This fluidity and flatness is more of an erasure of identity,” he said. Another Cypriot noted that every intervention into a space always creates a trauma. Directing his gaze to Hadid, he said, “I think female intervention minimises trauma, except in love of course”. ELEFTHERIA Square was not part of the original construction of the Venetian walls and first took the form of a bridge constructed during the British colonial era, erected in 1882. Hadid's architectural concept to redesign the square beat another 46 designs in a Europe-wide competition in May 2005. The Antiquities Department has since excavated the site below the Nicosia Municipality where remains of the original bastion of the Venetian Walls were uncovered. These must now be incorporated into the Square's new design before the tender process for construction of the project can begin. The budget for the re-development project has been set at !8.5 million, most of which has been secured through EU funds. Zaha Hadid is the first female recipient of the Pritzker Prize, the highest award in architecture. Her more famous completed designs include the BMW Central Plant Building in Leipzig, the Tram Station and Car Park in Strasbourg, and the Zaragoza Bridge Pavillion in Spain. She is currently working on a master plan design for the One-North project in Singapore and has won the competition to design London's Olympic Aquatic Centre for 2012. Copyright © Cyprus Mail 2008 this is so funny!

November 29th, 2008, 01:36 PM

new-sk

Registered User Join Date: Sep 2008 Location: "#$%&'(),Linköping

#725

i have also updated the following thread http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showth...=524653&page=3

_224


225 _ Posts: 711

December 5th, 2008, 10:14 PM

new-sk

#726

here are the brand new pics of eleftheria square by zaha hadid!!!

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Last edited by new-sk; December 5th, 2008 at 10:41 PM.

December 6th, 2008, 08:58 PM

#727

)(*+,+ )+# "'µ+#- ()+ .+#/ )+'+ 0"*µ+#/ #)+&.1*'$."/ .1/ $(.(&$"#1/ .1/ ),(."'(/ µ" .'& -""/ 2%.+3*(2'"/ )+# 4,")%


appendix E - blogs ppieri

Registered User Join Date: Feb 2008 Posts: 72

!"# $%&'(')* !+,(%-µ')*. .% %/"($% -"!,(% !("%+ !+% %!/% 'µ'0'1')µ!+'* &'0) #/%(' -! %/"(.!$.'+($2 -)00232 $%( "%/%42 &') $%.% .2+ 1+#µ2 µ') ,!+ $%.%,)+%-.!)! .% .!("2. !("! %).2 .2+ #/%(% /'2 1)/# %&' %).% µ! !+% !&(.)"#* &0%-.($' ./'&'. .% $%.!5%-µ%.% -.2+ .%6/' 2.%+ $%.%&02$.($% µ! #/%(% ,(%1/%6'µ!+% .% -"(-µ%.% &%+# -.' %(#/')µ!+' ,(%").' !&(&!,'. .#/% µ! .(* +!!* 6#.'1/%6(!* ,(%$/(+# $%&'(% %00%12 -! '0' %).' .' -$2+($' '&') 2 &/'.!(+'µ!+2 $%.%-$!)2 !"!( &%/!( µ'+'0(72$2 )&'-.%-2 -.' !&(&!,' .2* &0%.!(%*, µ! "'+,/!* $%( 5%+%)-!* 1/%µµ!* -)+%1#+(8!.%( .% .!("2 '"( µ! #/%(' ./'&', .% %+'(1µ%.% !"')+ 1(+!( &'0) %-"2µ% %&' '-' ,(%$/(+# ( (-#* '6!(0!.%( -.% .'("(% 1)/# %&' %).%). -.' !&(&!,' .(* .%6/') 'µ'0'1# '.( ,!+ 50!&# ,(%6'/'&'(2-2 -.2 $%.%-$!)2, .' µ'+' &') µ&'/# +% "%/%$.2/(-# #* %.'&' !(+%( 2 .'&('.!"+2-2 .(* )&'0'(&2* .%6/') µ! ./'&' &') µ'(%8!( µ! 12&!,' 1$'06 "#/(- $%µ(% "/2-2( ').! $%+ 1(% &!/(&%.' ,!+ &/'-6!/!.!) 9(#7# %&'1'2.!)µ!+'* %&' .2+ &'/!(% .#+ -"!,(#+ !%+ !(+%( '+.#* .% .!0($%!

December 6th, 2008, 10:36 PM

new-sk

Registered User

#728

ta shedia tha allaxsoun gia na symperilifthoun ta arhaia pou vrethikan. gia to horo prasinou elpizo kai ego pos tha allaxsei,den mou aresei etsi

Join Date: Sep 2008 Location: :!)$#-(%,Linköping Posts: 711

December 8th, 2008, 10:33 PM

ros

Registered User Join Date: Apr 2006 Posts: 32

#729

;') </!-! &') =5%0! $%( .')* !&("!(/2µ%.>!* +% &!/&%.<+! $<.# %&? .2+ &0%.!>%... ;?+' %&? %).'@* 7% 50=&')µ! !$!>. A-'+ %6'/< .' &/<-(+'... No comment. B%( 2 %&<+.2-2 &') =,#-! 1(%.> ,!+ !&(-$!@72$! .2+ B@&/' ,!+ &!>7!(. C&'0'1'@µ%( 1(% .'+ -%/$%-µ? %00< 2 ?02 !4=0(42 µ!.< .'+ %/"($? !+7')-(%-µ? µ') &/'$%0!> µ!1<02 %&'1'D.!)-2.

December 9th, 2008, 09:21 AM

ACCLIM

Registered User

#730

sigoura i nea plateia tha ine kaliteri apo oti ine tora. tha mporouse omos na gini kaliteri doulia pistevo etsi oste na desi kalitera me ta arxea kai ta toixi. episis pistevo oti prepi na dothi ligo xroma stin platia kai na min ine ena grizo kataskevasma apo mpeton.

Join Date: Sep 2007 Posts: 806

December 10th, 2008, 04:30 PM

ppieri

Registered User Join Date: Feb 2008 Posts: 72

#731

.' "/#µ% !(+%( µ(% !4%(/!.($2 (,!% %00% ,!+ 7% .' !50!&% -.' &%+# !&(&!,' .2* &0%.!(%*. -.' !&(&!,' .2* .%6/') µ%00'+ .' 50!&#. ' 0'1'* !(+%( 1(%.( .' "/#µ% .') µ&!.'+ !(+%( '),!.!/' $%( ,!+ %4(#+!.%( µ&/'-.% -.% .!("2 µ+2µ!('. ,0, &/!&!( +% %&'6!)"7!( µ(% $(+2-2 '&') 2 +!% &0%.!(% +% $)/(%/"!( !+%+.( .#+ .!("#+. .#/% $%.# !(+%( µ(% $%02 %+.(µ!.#&(-2 #-.! +% ,#-!( 8#2 -.% 10)&.($% -.'("!(% .#+ )&'-.)0#µ%.#+ µ! µ(% ,(%µ'/6#-2 !,%6')* &') +% %/µ'8!( µ! .' "#/' $%( .2+ 0'1($2 '.( 2 .%6/'* !(+%( µ!/'* .2* &0%.!(%* $%( '.( $%( %).2 7% &/!&!( +% !(+%( 6(0($2 &/'* .#+ "/2-.2. '-'+ %6'/% .2+ %&'32 &') !$6/%-.2$! '.( 2 zaha ,!+ 2/7! -.2+ $)&/' $%7'0') ,!+ µ! 4!+(8!( 1(%.( %).2 !$%+! µ(% µ').8')/% -.' "%/.( $%( .2+ )0'&'(-2 .2+ %+!0%5%+ 2 project managers ' !+%* !002+'$)&/('* ( "/2-.'* &%-%*) $%( !+%* .')/$'$)&/('* ( sefet bakiroglou) %/% .!0($% &'('* !&/!&! +% !/7!( +% !&(-$!)7!( .'+ "#/'; µ%00'+ 2 zaha !$%+! $%.( 24!/! $%( ,!+ 2/7!!

December 11th, 2008, 01:54 AM

GODOFWAR1 GODOFWAR1

Join Date: Dec 2008 Posts: 5

#732

It's really a shame to see that Greece has progressed so much, but the youth don't seem to be up to date with the times! The government built huge malls to employ the youth who are amongst the highest figures of unemployment in the euro zone. Unfortunately, you can't blame the government for the irresponsibility of the youth during these past few days of violence. The police officer may have intentionally or accidently killed the 15 year old student, but we should just set the blame were it belongs either with the student or the police officer not the government nor policies nor anyone else who was not involved. We Greeks invented Democracy maybe it's time that we believe in it as the rest of the civilized world does! These riots have set us back 20 years and all we do is repeat our past mistakes. Now the same rioter who couldn't get a job but stared out of his or her window to a beautiful paradise, is still unemployed and looking out of the window at a dark cloud that he or she created.......

December 11th, 2008, 02:08 AM

EngineerGreece Registered User

Join Date: Oct 2008 Location: Chania, Greece Posts: 3,873

#733 Quote:

Originally Posted by GODOFWAR1 It's really a shame to see that Greece has progressed so much, but the youth don't seem to be up to date with the times! The government built huge malls to employ the youth who are amongst the highest figures of unemployment in the euro zone. Unfortunately, you can't blame the government for the irresponsibility of the youth during these past few days of violence. The police officer may have intentionally or accidently killed the 15 year old student, but we should just set the blame were it belongs either with the student or the police officer not the government nor policies nor anyone else who was not involved. We Greeks invented Democracy maybe it's time that we believe in it as the rest of the civilized world does! These riots have set us back 20 years and all we do is repeat our past mistakes. Now the same rioter who couldn't get a job but stared out of his or her window to a beautiful paradise, is still unemployed and looking out of the window at a dark cloud that he or she created.......

December 11th, 2008, 06:57 AM

WhiteMagick Registered User

#734 Quote:

Originally Posted by GODOFWAR1 It's really a shame to see that Greece has progressed so much, but the youth don't seem to be up to date with the

_226


227 _ times! The government built huge malls to employ the youth who are amongst the highest figures of unemployment in the euro zone. Unfortunately, you can't blame the government for the irresponsibility of the youth during these past few days of violence. The police officer may have intentionally or accidently killed the 15 year old student, but we should just set the blame were it belongs either with the student or the police officer not the government nor policies nor anyone else who was not involved. We Greeks invented Democracy maybe it's time that we believe in it as the rest of the civilized world does! These riots have set us back 20 years and all we do is repeat our past mistakes. Now the same rioter who couldn't get a job but stared out of his or her window to a beautiful paradise, is still unemployed and looking out of the window at a dark cloud that he or she created.......

Join Date: May 2006 Posts: 6,302

But this is neither Greece's forum nor Athens' thread. Focus please(!) and do not spam. __________________ !"#$%&'( )"* +& ,+-.'/$( $0".12$(.

December 11th, 2008, 09:13 AM

#735

new-sk

Quote:

Registered User

Originally Posted by GODOFWAR1 It's really a shame to see that Greece has progressed so much, but the youth don't seem to be up to date with the times! The government built huge malls to employ the youth who are amongst the highest figures of unemployment in the euro zone. Unfortunately, you can't blame the government for the irresponsibility of the youth during these past few days of violence. The police officer may have intentionally or accidently killed the 15 year old student, but we should just set the blame were it belongs either with the student or the police officer not the government nor policies nor anyone else who was not involved. We Greeks invented Democracy maybe it's time that we believe in it as the rest of the civilized world does! These riots have set us back 20 years and all we do is repeat our past mistakes. Now the same rioter who couldn't get a job but stared out of his or her window to a beautiful paradise, is still unemployed and looking out of the window at a dark cloud that he or she created.......

Join Date: Sep 2008 Location: 3'45"2($,Linkรถping Posts: 711

and its not even saturday night.......

December 11th, 2008, 07:01 PM

Nick3dz Registered User Join Date: Oct 2007 Posts: 118

Meta apo afto to dialeima piso sta dika mas:P. To thema tis plateias pige eksarxis lathos. Eixa tis epifilaksis mou alla perimena na do pou tha kataliksi ke meta, isos ekana lathos. Omos vlepontas tis antidrasis pleon mporoume na milame elefthera. Katarxin ginete me tis piesis tis Evropaikis enosis outos oste i Lefkosia san protevousa na apoktisi mia kentriki plateia, ena kentro pou me vasi afto mellontika na organothi kalitera i poli (px. dimosies sigkoinonies, ekdilosis, touristikes plirofories ktl). Epilektike i kiria Zaha Hadid i opoia eprepe na to kani afto se ena dromo....pente loridoun me 2 periptera! Poli eksipna kai me vasi to talento kai to styl tis paredose ta sigkekrimena sxedia ta opoia einai ekseretika! To provlima einai sto oti oi anthropoi pou kseroun tin plateia kai pou kivernoun tin poli ta perimenoun ola apo tin idia ke ana pasa stigmi tha tin stisoun ke sto tixo. Diki mas einai i poli kai emis xrisimopoioume tin plateia. As eixame to mialo toulaxiston na tis ipodiksoume i na tis dosoume ena montelo giafti tin Plateia. Fantastikate an ginotan olokliri i plateia sto rithmo ton tixon me epktasi tis me skalia sto parko kato (px. opos to Syntagma )kai me diakosmisi me istorika prosopa i erga kallitexnon. Kai ne eki provlepo den tha einai oreo to skyroderma me ta toixoi. Den kollaei. Einai omos mia ekseritiki idea pou tha mporouse na gini sto round about tou OXI, aneksartita apo ta toixoi pou kapoios tha mpori na apolafsi to ,...mellontiko skyline tis Lefkosias. Telos ta logia na doume...erketes photos!: To theatro tou THOK peradoksos ( image hosted on flickr

) ktizete me gorgous rithmous (re patera de ginosoun proedros na mouktizes kanena olympiako stadio??


appendix E - blogs

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-Spiegelman 2003, The Complete Maus

V

V I . B i b l i o g r a p h y


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_ Alansuutari, Pertti, Researching Culture: Qualitative Method and Cultural Studies (London: SAGE Publications Ltd, 1995) _ Alsayyad, Nezar, 'Consuming Heritage or the End of Tradition: The New Challenges of Globalisation', in New Heritage : New Media and Cultural Heritage, ed. by E.Yehuda Kalay and others (London: Routledge, 2008), pp. 155 69 _ Bachelard, Gaston and Jolas, M., The Poetics of Space (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1994), pp. xxxix, 241 p. _ Boym, Svetlana, The Future of Nostalgia (New York: Basic Books, 2001) _ Brainard, Joe, I Remember (New York: Granary Books, 2001), p. 176 p. _ Burden, Ernest, Elements of Architectural Design: AVisual Resource (London: International Thompson Publishing Europe, 1995) _ Casey, Edward S., The Fate of Place: A Philosophical History (California: University of California Press, 1997) _ Connerton, Paul, How Societies Remember (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992) _ D.K. Ching, Francis, Architecture: Form, Space and Order. 2nd edn (London: Chapman and Hall, 1996) _ De Michelis, Marco and others, Two German Architectures: 1949 - 1989. trans. Annette Wieth端chter. ed. by Christian Weller (Stuttgart: Institut f端r Auslandsbeziehungen e.V., 2004) _ Debord, Guy, 'Unity and Division within Appearances', in The Society of the Spectacle (Eastbourne: Soul Bay Press, 2009), p. 141 p. _ Ebert, Carola, 'Post-Mortem: Architectural Postmodernism and the Death of the Author', in Architecture and Authorship, ed. by Tim Anstey and others (London: Black Dog Publishing Limited and the authors, 2007) _ Engel, Gerrit and Jessen-Klingenberg, Detlef, Berlin : Photographs : 234 Berlin Buildings in Chronological Order from 1230 to 2008. English edition edn (Munich: Schirmer : Mosel, 2009), p. 277 p. _ Fenlon, Iain, Piazza San Marco, Series: Wonders of the World (London: Profile, 2009), pp. xxi, 233 p. _ Hayes, Nicky, 'Memory', in Foundations of Psychology - an Introductory Text (London: Routledge, 1994), pp. 64-100 _ Hollis, Edward, The Secret Lives of Buildings (London: Portobello Books Ltd, 2009)


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_ Huyssen, Andreas, Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia (New York: Routledge, 1995) _ Letters: Historic and Entertaining on the Past and Present Conditions of the Island of Cyprus Written by Namindú. trans. Sylvain Béraud. ed. by Severis C. Rita (Athens AdVenture S.A., 2007 ) _ Newman, Philip, A Short History of Cyprus (London: Longman's, Green and Co. Ltd, 1940) _ Perec, Georges, Species of Spaces and Other Pieces (London: Penguin Books Ltd, 2008) _ Proust, Marcel, Swann'sWay (London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1957) _ Pérez Gómez, Alberto and Pelletier, Louise, Architectural Representation and the Perspective Hinge (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1997), p. 505 p _ Rasmussen, Steen Eiler, Experiencing Architecture. Paperback edn (Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press, 1959), p. 245p. _ Ruskin, John and Links, J. G., 'The Stones of Venice', (London: Pallas Athene in conjunction with Ostara, 2001), pp. 123 - 37 _ Sergison Bates architects. and others, 'Feeling at Home, Working with Appearances, Making Impressions, the City of Things', in Papers 2 (Barcelona London: Editorial Gustavo Gili ;Sergison Bates architects, 2007), pp. 39-47, 59-64, 106-11, 40-47 _ Spiegelman, Art, The Complete Maus (London: Penguin Books Ltd, 2003) _ Thubron, Colin, 'Nicosia', in Journey into Cyprus (Chatham: W&J Mackay Ltd., 1975), pp. 155 - 61 _ Tschumi, Bernard, Architecture and Disjunction (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1994), p. 268p _ Unwin, Simon, Analysing Architecture. 3rd edn (Oxon: Routledge, 2009 ) _ van Schaik, Leon, 'Poetics in Architecture', in Architectural Design (London: John Wiley & Sons Limited, 2002) _ Zartarian, Giorgos, Giorgos Zartarian Photographs 1935-1950. ed. by Stavros G. Lazarides (Nicosia, 2007) _ Zukin, Sharon, 'A Shared Public Culture', in The Cultures of Cities (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Inc., 1995), pp. 59-61 _ !"##$%. ed. $#%&' (")**' (+,-./!01: 2&0#%." +%3, 1997)


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_ (1454'6, 78%'6, !"##$% - &'($)#*+,-.% /+0)123,% (/415*: Opsis, 1994) _ 637-'28*: 95:(0(* ;,* <* =*,>,? <$7 @0A$(,-$". ed. by 9. +,/#%0"- and 2.7. :/1##03'6 (+,-./!01: ;.38!,<6 =/# >?.1, 1980) _ @1!&1A."), $##1 B. and (")%16, C#3&?16 B., 637-'28*: B C2($#8* <0% =:D0% (+,-./!01: :. B. (1!"-*03'6 .1< D<E6 +%3., 2009) _ F0#"-, F%?G1#"6, /5*>#$A1 E(0 6*F-1 /#G,(3-($5,-1 <0% !"##$7 (CHI#1: @1.&I6 C.;. B&1G<.10 =?J#1<, 1976)


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Rebecca Horn,1991, still from Busterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Bedroom

V I I .

F i l m o g r a p h y


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_ America, Krishnamurti Foundation of, 'Is There Security, Psychologically', in Can Goodness, Love and Faith Be Born of Discipline (Switzerland: Krishnamurti Foundation of America, 1976), p. 58min 31sec _ Burns, Ken, 'The Cause', in The CivilWar, ed. by Ken Burns (U.S.A.: PBS, 1990), p. 99min 16sec _ Horn, Rebecca, 'Buster's Bedroom', (Germany, 1991), p. 104 min _ Hustwit, Gary, 'Helvetica', (USA: Swiss DotsVeer 2007), p. 80 min _ Kahneman, Daniel, 'The Riddle of Experience Vs. Memory', in TED.com, TED.com, 2010) _ McCall, Bruce, 'Bruce McCall's Faux Nostalgia', in TED.comTED.com, 2008), p. 12min 57sec _ Nolan, Christopher, 'Memento', (United States: PathĂŠ, 2000), p. 113 minutes _ Wenders, Wim, 'Wings of Desire', (USA, 1988), p. 128 min


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Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s image, Neues Museum, Berlin 2010

V I I I . N e w s l e t t e r s ! ! P e r i o d i c a l s

a n d !!

!


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_ Bar-Hillel, Mira, 'How Oxford Circus Shoppers Will Beat Crosstown Traffic', London Evening Standard 2008 _ Stylianou, Nassos, 'New Phase Starts in Nicosia's Historic Centre', Cyprus Mail, 10/07/08 2008, p. 3 _ C#%/#<53'6, 21#0."6, ‘C!5#%'!' F%"-6 2"*0%,6 B<1 =" $#"<AK1 ='6 +I3&16’, =$D8(0% 2008, p.14 _ ‘C&J04,< L C#5!*1!'’, =$D8(0%, 10/07/08 2008, p. 42 _ ‘B<1M56-B<1M56 2*1%,01 ;*,-H,&016’, &,D3D3"43#$% 12/08/08 2008, p. 1 _ ‘N< N<."*EA"< ;#1#%0"# ='6 C#1KE&G/!'6 ='6 2*1%,016’ H?G0 2008, p. 6 _ ‘=?*"6 C-A")!%"- =?*"6 C#1!.1GI’, &,D3D3"43#$% 2008, p. 18 _ ‘D!"K"#I F-!%I#,< L >IK1&J"6’, E0A3#,51 2008, p. 17


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Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s image, Soviet Memorial, Berlin 2010

I X .

W e b s i t e s


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_ 360␣Berlin.net, 'Alexanderplatz (Berlin 1998) <http://www.360berlin.net/en/mitte-3/alexanderplatz> _ anthropofagos, '‘2*1%,01 ;*,-H,&016 - C#1."<#/H?# F-#3?!K"- C&J1<"*EA/#’, 2010) <http://anthropofagos.blogspot.com/2010/02/blog-post.html> _ 'Back to the Drawing Board for Eleftheria Square', Cyprus Mail, (2008) <http://www.cyprusedirectory.com/articleview.aspx?ID=11772> _ Google.co.uk, 2010) <http://maps.google.co.uk/maps?q=cyprus&um=1&ie=UTF- 8&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wl> [Accessed December 2010] _ 'Gordian Knot', Flickr.com, (2009) <http://www.flickr.com/photos/sokolin- maimon/3343224032/sizes/l/in/photostream/> _ Heller, Sebastian, 'Adapted Plans Accepted for Eleftheria Square', Cyprus Mail, (2009) <http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Adapted+plans+accepted+for+Eleftheria+Square- a0210939007> _ new-sk, ‘+,-./!01 - Nicosia', in SkyscraperCity, 2008) <http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=434172&page=37> _ News, BBC, 'Oxford Circus 'X-Crossing' Opens'2009) <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/8337341.stm> [Accessed 7 November 2010] _ 'Nicosia Municipality', 2010) <http://www.nicosia.org.cy/english/greekhome.shtm> _ ombion, 'B<1 ='# 2*1%,01 ;*,-H,&016', in blogspot.com, 2007) <http://ombion.blogspot.com/2007/04/blog-post.html> _ Urban Ledras (2010) <http://urbanledras.wordpress.com/> _ Yip, Matthew, 'Eleftheria Square by Zaha Hadid Architects', in EDGE OF THE PLANK, 2010) <http://edgeoftheplank.blogspot.com/2010/06/eleftheria-square-by-zaha-hadid.html> _ ("-%!"-G03'6, (8!%16, ‘2*1%,01 ;*,-H,&016’ , in an-archi-a (Nicosia, 2009) <http://an-archi-a.blogspot.com/2009/12/blog-post.html> _ F.:., '2*1%,01 ;*,-H,&016: (1*E 25!J1 91 7%5!"-K,’, InBusinessNews.com, (2010) <http://www.sigmalive.com/inbusiness/news/property/332236>


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Architecture as an object of diary: Nostalgia evoked through embodied memory  

By highlighting nostalgia in the contect of personal and cultural memory, the aim is to bring nostalgia to the forefront as a legitimate and...

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